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Sample records for 90-day feeding study

  1. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO. PMID:19576260

  2. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements. PMID:23583492

  3. Toxicological evaluation of L-proline in a 90-day feeding study with Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tada, Y; Yano, N; Takahashi, H; Yuzawa, K; Ando, H; Kubo, Y; Nagasawa, A; Ohashi, N; Ogata, A; Nakae, D

    2010-10-01

    L-proline (L-Pro) is a non-essential amino acid, and has become widely used as supplements and health foods, recently. A subchronic oral toxicity study of L-Pro was conducted with groups of 10 male and 10 female Fischer 344 rats fed a powder diet containing 0%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% of L-Pro for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs and mortality were noted. We observed no clear treatment-related effects with regard to body weight, food intake or urinalysis data. The average daily water intakes of the treated female groups were significantly increased compared to the controls. The hematology (red blood cell parameter) and serum biochemistry (glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine or uric acid) of the treated male and/or female groups were lower than those of the control groups. However, these changes were lacked dose-dependence, and no abnormalities were found in corresponding pathological findings. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for L-Pro was determined to be a dietary dose of 5.0% (2772.9 mg/kg body weight/day for males and 3009.3mg/kg body weight/day for females) under the present experimental conditions. PMID:20447433

  4. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice. PMID:25367203

  5. Toxicological evaluation of an Allium-based commercial product in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Jos, A; Cameán, A M

    2016-04-01

    Proallium AP(®) is a commercial Allium extract intended to be used in active food packaging as the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of some organosulfur compounds are well known. However, there is little information on its toxicity and the Scientific Committee on Food (UE) requires the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct for the first time a subchronic oral toxicity study of Proallium AP(®) with groups of 10 males and 10 females Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 0, 25, 100, 400 mg/kg/d for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs or mortality were noted. Besides, no treatment-related effects with regard to any of the toxicological biomarkers considered were observed, including biochemical, haematological and histopathology parameters. In conclusion, the non-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Proallium AP(®) in rats was determined to be a dietary dose of 400 mg/kg/d under the present experimental conditions, a value 500-fold higher than the exposure derived from its potential use in active packaging. PMID:26827789

  6. Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye

    2008-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in the diet reduce risk of cardiac mortality. Fish oils are a dietary source of LC-PUFAs (EPA, DHA) but intake is low in Western diets. Adding beneficial amounts of LC-PUFAs to foods is limited by their instability and potential to impart off-flavors. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA in man, is more stable than EPA/DHA in food matrices. SDA is present in fish oils (0.5-4%) and in nutraceuticals (echium, borage oil). Genes for Delta6, Delta15 desaturases were introduced into soybeans that convert linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to SDA (15-30% fatty acids). Since addition of SDA soybean oil into human foods increases SDA intake, toxicology studies were undertaken to assess its safety. In a 28-day pilot study, rats were gavaged with SDA soybean oil at dosages up to 3g/kg body weight/day; no treatment-related adverse effects were observed. A 90-day/one generation rat reproduction study was subsequently conducted where SDA soybean oil was added to diets to provide daily doses of 1.5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development. PMID:18804141

  7. 90-Day toxicity study of dichloroacetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cicmanec, J L; Condie, L W; Olson, G R; Wang, S R

    1991-08-01

    Male and female juvenile beagle dogs were dosed daily for 90 days with dichloroacetate (DCA). The compound was administered orally via gelatin capsules at doses of 0, 12.5, 39.5, and 72 mg/kg/day. Each dose group consisted of five males and five females. The dogs were observed clinically and blood samples were taken at 15-day intervals for hematologic and serum chemistry values. Decreased total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels were observed in mid- and high-dose dogs beginning at Day 30. Serum concentrations of LDH were elevated at Days 30 and 45 in females and at Day 75 in males treated with DCA at 72 mg/kg/day. One female of the high-dose group died at Day 50 and two high-dose males died at Days 51 and 74. Hindlimb partial paralysis was observed in many high-dose dogs. Vacuolization of myelinated white tracts of cerebrum, cerebellum, and/or spinal cord was observed in many high-dose dogs as well as some mid- and low-dose subjects. Degeneration of testicular germinal epithelium and syncytial giant cell formation was noted in males of all dose groups. Hepatic vacuolar change and chronic hepatitis appeared only in DCA-treated dogs. In addition, suppurative bronchopneumonia and chronic pancreatitis were noted in many high-dose and some middose subjects. A "no-adverse-effect level" was not determined in this study. PMID:1765225

  8. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  9. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  10. ACUTE, 14-DAY REPEATED DOSING, AND 90-DAY SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY STUDIES OF POTASSIUM PICLORAM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potassium picloram was administered either by gavage (acute studies) or in drinking water to male and female Sprague-Dawley derived rats (14-day and 90-day studies). The acute oral LD50 was 950 mg/kg (812-1120) for males and 686 mg/kg (599-786) for females. Depression, prostratio...

  11. Subchronic 90-day oral (Gavage) toxicity study of a Luo Han Guo mogroside extract in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Xiaojian, S; Ronggan, L; Yuxian, W; Zhunian, T; Shouji, G; Heimbach, J

    2006-12-01

    A combined 28-day and 90-day oral (Gavage) study was conducted in male and female dogs to investigate the safety of PureLo, a non-caloric sweetener derived from the Chinese fruit Luo Han Guo, which achieves its sweetness from the presence of triterpene glycosides known as mogrosides. Three dogs of each sex were administered 10 mL/kg bw/day of either an aqueous solution providing 3000 mg/kg bw/day of PureLo or distilled water for either 28 days or 90 days. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. There were no significant adverse effects on any of these measures. Based on the lack of toxicological effects in the study, the NOAEL for PureLo is 3000 mg/kg bw/day when administered to dogs by Gavage for 90 consecutive days. PMID:17011100

  12. Safety assessment of essential oil from Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (peperina): 90-days oral subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Mañas, Fernando; Cristofolini, Andrea; Bagnis, Guillermo; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolas; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée

    2015-02-01

    Minthostachys verticillata (Lamiaceae), popularly known as peperina is largely used in popular medicine for its digestive, carminative, antispasmodic and antirheumatic properties. There are no reports of repeated exposure toxicity to guarantee their safety. The present study investigated the chemical composition, analyzed by GC-FID, and the 90-day toxicity and genotoxicity effect of M. verticillata essential oil (Mv-EO), using Wistar rats as test animals. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats/sex/group) and Mv-EO was administered on diet at doses of 0, 1, 4 and 7 g/kg feed. The main components of Mv-EO were pulegone (64.65%) and menthone (23.92%). There was no mortality, adverse effects on general conditions or changes in body weight, food consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the study in male and female rats. Subchronic administration of Mv-EO did not alter the weights, morphological and histopathological analyses of liver, kidney and intestine. Genotoxicity was tested by micronucleus and comet assays. Mv-EO up to a concentration of 7 g/kg feed for 90 days did not exert a cyto-genotoxic effect on the bone marrow and cells blood of Wistar rats. These results suggest that Mv-EO appears to be safe and could be devoid of any toxic risk. PMID:25445298

  13. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study and reproductive toxicity studies on ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptide.

    PubMed

    Dent, M P; O'Hagan, S; Braun, W H; Schaetti, P; Marburger, A; Vogel, O

    2007-08-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing body of literature describing the antihypertensive effects of peptides produced from milk protein. The tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP), isolated from hydrolysed casein have been shown to lower blood pressure by inhibiting angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). This has led to the use of these tripeptides, collectively referred to as lactotripeptide (LTP) as ingredients of functional foods intended to help control blood pressure. A programme of studies including a 90-day repeat-dose oral gavage toxicity study in the rat and an embryo-fetal (pre-natal) development study in the rabbit was conducted to ensure the safety of this ACE-inhibiting ingredient. In addition, a non-standard pre- and post-natal development study in the rat was performed. This study included direct dosing of the neonates, and was designed specifically to investigate renal development and to ensure that the bioactive peptides were not associated with the same type of fetopathy exhibited by ACE inhibiting drugs. These studies showed that there were no adverse effects of treatment at the highest doses tested. PMID:17383063

  14. A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Submerged Mycelial Culture of Cordyceps cicadae (Ascomycetes) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lien; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a parasitic fungus that hibernates inside a host (Cicada flammata Dist.) and then grows its fruiting body on the surface of the insect. The complete insect/fungus combination of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the medicinal benefits of cultured mycelia are as effective as those found in the wild. However, toxicological information regarding the chronic consumption of C. cicadae mycelia culture is not available. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxicity arising from repeated exposure to freeze-dried submerged mycelial culture of C. cicadae for 90 days. A total of eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). C. cicadae was administered daily to animals by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. No animal deaths occurred and no treatment-related clinical signs were observed during the study period. No statistical differences in body weight gain, relative organ weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were observed. Gross necropsy and histopathological findings indicated that there was no treatment-related abnormality. Based on the results, the no observed adverse effect level of C. cicadae whole broth is determined to be > 2000 mg/kg for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of this study provides support for the use of C. cicadae fermentation product as a safe agent in functional food. PMID:26559863

  15. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  16. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity study of rebaudioside A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Andrey I; Eapen, Alex K

    2008-01-01

    Rebaudioside A is one of several glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Compositae) stevia that has been identified as a potential sweetener. The present study (initiated in April 2006 and completed in October 2006) evaluated the safety of this sweetener when administered as a dietary admix at target exposure levels of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. There were no treatment-related effects on the general condition and behavior of the animals as determined by clinical observations, functional observational battery, and locomotor activity assessments. Evaluation of clinical pathology parameters revealed no toxicologically relevant, treatment-related effects on hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Macroscopic and microscopic findings revealed no treatment-related effects on any organ evaluated. Lower mean body weight gains were noted in males in the 2000 mg/kg/day group throughout the study, which was considered to be test article related; however, given the small magnitude of the difference as compared to controls, this effect was not considered to be adverse. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that dietary administration of high concentrations of rebaudioside A for 90 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley rats was not associated with any signs of toxicity. PMID:18293214

  17. 90-Day subchronic toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Murray, F Jay; Sullivan, Frank M; Tiwary, Asheesh K; Carey, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the subchronic toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) in Sprague-Dawley rats given sodium molybdate dihydrate in the diet for 90days at dose levels of 0, 5, 17 or 60mgMo/kgbw/day. The study complied with OECD Test Guideline (TG) 408, with additional examination of estrus cycles and sperm count, motility, and morphology from OECD TG 416. The overall no-observed-adverse-effect level was 17mgMo/kgbw/day, based on effects on body weight, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency and renal histopathology (females only) at 60mgMo/kgbw/day. No treatment-related adverse effects on reproductive organ weights or histopathology, estrus cycles or sperm parameters were observed at any dose level. No adverse effects were observed in the high dose animals after the 60-day recovery period, with the exception that male rats did not fully recover from reduced body weight. Serum blood, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for molybdenum, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt and selenium; high levels of molybdenum and copper were found in the serum, blood, liver and kidneys of rats treated with 60mgMo/kgbw/day. In conclusion, the LOAEL and NOAEL for molybdenum were determined to be 60 and 17mgMo/kgbw/day, respectively. PMID:24041747

  18. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

  19. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  20. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  1. A 90-Day Toxicology Study of Meat from Genetically Modified Sheep Overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566

  2. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Griffis, L C; Twerdok, L E; Francke-Carroll, S; Biles, R W; Schroeder, R E; Bolte, H; Faust, H; Hall, W C; Rojko, J

    2010-01-01

    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat. In contrast, only minimal MLN changes are seen in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat with no changes in the liver. In this study, the response of female F-344 and S-D rats was compared after 90days dietary treatment with 0%, 0.2% or 2% LMPW. Effects in the F-344 rats were significantly greater than in the S-D rats: increased liver and splenic weights and inflammatory changes (hepatic microgranulomas) in these tissues were observed only in the F-344 rats. Microgranulomas in the MLNs were observed in both strains but the effects were substantially greater in the F-344 rats. Cellular markers of inflammation were examined in a subset of rats from each group using immunohistochemical staining. An increase in staining for CD3 (T-cells), CD8a (suppresser/cytotoxic T-cells) and CD4 (helper T-cells) correlated with an increase in lymphoid cells in the livers of treated F-344 rats. The majority of macrophages in the hepatic microgranulomas of treated F-344 rats were negative for the ED2 marker, indicating a likely origin from non-resident macrophages. Electron microscopy showed Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in treated F-344 rats. However, lysozyme staining (indicating activation of epithelioid macrophages) decreased with increasing granuloma size. Non-ED2 expressing cells may have been recruited but not sufficiently activated to be lysozyme positive. Inflammatory changes in the cardiac mitral valve noted in previous studies of LMPW were also seen in the F-344 rats in this study but not in the S-D rats. Chemical analysis showed that MHC accumulated in livers from treated F-344 but not S-D rats and the concentration was more than 2-fold greater in MLNs from the F-344 than from the S-D rats. The F-344 appears to be more immunologically sensitive to

  3. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  4. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  5. Report of the 90-day study on human exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The basic mission sequence to achieve the President's goal is clear: begin with Space Station Freedom in the 1990's, return to the Moon to stay early in the Next century, and then journey to Mars. Five reference approaches are modeled building on past programs and recent studies to reflect wide-ranging strategies that incorporate varied program objectives, schedules, technologies, and resource availabilities. The reference approaches are (1) balance and speed; (2) the earliest possible landing on Mars; (3) reduce logistics from Earth; (4) schedule adapted to Space Station Freedom; and (5) reduced scales. The study and programmatic assessment have shown that the Human Exploration Initiative is indeed a feasible approach to achieving the President's goals. Several reasonable alternatives exist, but a long-range commitment and significant resources will be required. However, the value of the program and the benefits to the Nation are immeasurable.

  6. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werley, Michael S.; Kirkpatrick, Dan J.; Oldham, Michael J.; Jerome, Ann M.; Langston, Timothy B.; Lilly, Patrick D.; Smith, Donna C.; Mckinney, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1–4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  7. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Kirkpatrick, Dan J; Oldham, Michael J; Jerome, Ann M; Langston, Timothy B; Lilly, Patrick D; Smith, Donna C; Mckinney, Willie J

    2016-01-01

    A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1-4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  8. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs. PMID:26924788

  9. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean. PMID:25533792

  10. APPLYING EXPERIENCE SAMPLING METHODS TO PARTNER VIOLENCE RESEARCH: SAFETY AND FEASIBILITY IN A 90-DAY STUDY OF COMMUNITY WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Khondkaryan, Enna; Dos Santos, Nancy P.; Peters, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) rarely has been applied in studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) despite the benefits to be gained. Because ESM approaches and women who experience IPV present unique challenges for data collection an empirical question exists: is it safe and feasible to apply ESM to community women who currently are experiencing IPV? A 90-day, design-driven feasibility study examined daily telephone data collection, daily paper diaries, and monthly retrospective semi-structured interview methods among a community sample of 123 women currently experiencing IPV to study within-person relationships between IPV and substance use. Findings suggest that ESM is a promising method for collecting data among this population and can elucidate daily dynamics of victimization as well as associated behaviors and experiences. Lessons learned from the application of ESM to this population are also discussed. PMID:21307033

  11. A 90-day toxicology study of high-amylose transgenic rice grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing Hua; Dong, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Yun; Xu, Yong; Xu, Bin; Shi, Wei Dong; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Li Jia; Liu, Qiao Quan

    2011-12-01

    A transgenic rice line (TRS) with high amylose level has been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. Compositional analysis of TRS demonstrated that the content of resistant starch (RS) was significantly higher compared to conventional non-transgenic rice. High level of RS is an important raw material in food industry and has various physiological effects for human health. In order to provide the reliable theory basis for field release of TRS rice, we evaluated the potential health effects of long-term consumption of the TRS. The 90-day toxicology feeding experiment was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with diets containing 70% of either TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the control diet. The clinical performance variables (body weight, body weight gain and food consumption) were measured and pathological responses (hematological parameters and serum chemistry at the midterm and the completion of the experiment, urinalysis profile and serum sex hormone response at the completion of the experiment) were performed. Besides, clinical signs, relative organ weights and microscopic observations were also compared between TRS group and its near-isogenic rice group. The combined data indicates that high-amylose TRS grain is as safe as the conventional non-transgenic rice for rat consumption. PMID:21967780

  12. Two-hour methyl isocyanate inhalation and 90-day recovery study in B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Boorman, G.A.; Uraih, L.C.; Gupta, B.N.; Bucher, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3, 10, and 30 ppm methyl isocyanate for 2 hr followed by a 90-day recovery period. Sixteen of eight (20%) male mice in the 30 ppm group died following exposure. There were no other unscheduled deaths in the mice. Five mice/sex/group were examined at 2 hr or at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 49, or 91 days following exposure. Chemical-related changes were restricted to the respiratory system. At 30 ppm there were extensive necrosis and erosion of the respiratory and olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. Severe necrosis and epithelial erosion were also found in the trachea and main bronchi. Regeneration of the mucosal epithelium occurred rapidly in the nasal cavity and airways. In the turbinates, mild incomplete olfactory epithelial regeneration persisted to day 91 in the male mice. Intraluminal fibrotic projections covered by respiratory epithelium and bronchial fibrosis were found in the major airways of the 30 ppm male and female mice by day 7. The intraluminal fibrosis persisted to day 91. In males with severe bronchial fibrosis, chronic alveolitis and atelectasis were found. In mice exposed to 3 or 10 ppm, persistent pulmonary changes were not found. These studies indicate that methyl isocyanate inhalation at or near lethal concentrations can cause persistent fibrosis of the major bronchi in mice.

  13. Fluid overload is associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with renal replacement therapy: data from the prospective FINNAKI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Positive fluid balance has been associated with an increased risk for mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury with or without renal replacement therapy (RRT). Data on fluid accumulation prior to RRT initiation and mortality are limited. We aimed to study the association between fluid accumulation at RRT initiation and 90-day mortality. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in 17 Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during a five-month period. We collected data on patient characteristics, RRT timing, and parameters at RRT initiation. We studied the association of parameters at RRT initiation, including fluid overload (defined as cumulative fluid accumulation > 10% of baseline weight) with 90-day mortality. Results We included 296 RRT-treated critically ill patients. Of 283 patients with complete data on fluid balance, 76 (26.9%) patients had fluid overload. The median (interquartile range) time from ICU admission to RRT initiation was 14 (3.3 to 41.5) hours. The 90-day mortality rate of the whole cohort was 116 of 296 (39.2%; 95% confidence interval 38.6 to 39.8%). The crude 90-day mortality of patients with or without fluid overload was 45 of 76 (59.2%) vs. 65 of 207 (31.4%), P < 0.001. In logistic regression, fluid overload was associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality (odds ratio 2.6) after adjusting for disease severity, time of RRT initiation, initial RRT modality, and sepsis. Of the 168 survivors with data on RRT use at 90 days, 34 (18.9%, 95% CI 13.2 to 24.6%) were still dependent on RRT. Conclusions Patients with fluid overload at RRT initiation had twice as high crude 90-day mortality compared to those without. Fluid overload was associated with increased risk for 90-day mortality even after adjustments. PMID:23075459

  14. A 90-day study of subchronic oral toxicity of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Shin, Sung-Sup; Meang, Eun Ho; Hong, Jeong-sup; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Jong-Yun; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The widespread use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications has prompted growing concern regarding their potential toxicity and impact on human health. This study therefore investigated the subchronic, systemic oral toxicity and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(−)) NPs in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods The high-dose NP level was set at 500 mg/kg of bodyweight, and the mid- and low-dose levels were set at 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were observed during a 14-day recovery period after the last NP administration for the persistence or reduction of any adverse effects. Toxicokinetic and distribution studies were also conducted to determine the systemic distribution of the NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. However, ZnOSM20(−) NPs (500 mg/kg) induced changes in the levels of anemia-related factors, prompted acinar cell apoptosis and ductular hyperplasia, stimulated periductular lymphoid cell infiltration and excessive salivation, and increased the numbers of regenerative acinar cells in the pancreas. In addition, stomach lesions were seen at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, and retinal atrophy was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg. The Zn concentration was dose-dependently increased in the liver, kidney, intestines, and plasma, but not in other organs investigated. Conclusion A ZnOSM20(−) NP NOAEL could not be established from the current results, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was 125 mg/kg. Furthermore, the NPs were associated with a number of undesirable systemic actions. Thus, their use in humans must be approached with caution. PMID:25565828

  15. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury. PMID:26800186

  17. A 90-day toxicity study of the effects of petroleum middle distillates on the skin of C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; McKee, R H; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T; Scala, R A; Ackerman, L J

    1990-01-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs) elicit skin tumors in mouse epidermal carcinogenesis studies. The response is characterized by a long latency with only a small percentage of animals developing tumors. Although the carcinogenic activity of certain other petroleum hydrocarbons largely depends upon the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many PMDs contain relatively low concentrations of PAHs. PMDs are also irritating to mouse skin, and chronic irritation may be involved in the development of skin tumors. This study was conducted to investigate the patterns of cutaneous irritation elicited by topical application of PMDs having compositional differences. The three PMDs selected for study were a steam cracked gas oil (SCGO), a lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), and a jet fuel (JF). Male C3H/HeNCr1BR mice (25/group) were treated topically (37.5 microliters 2x/week for 13 weeks) with 10%, 50% or 100% (undiluted) concentrations of each PMD. Catalytically cracked clarified oil (CCCO, 10%), a potent carcinogen to mouse skin, was also tested. The vehicle was a noncarcinogenic mineral oil with a viscosity of 90 SUS. Cutaneous changes were evaluated by gross observations and light microscopy. Cutaneous irritation was the only significant toxic response in this study. Neither the vehicle nor any of the 10% PMD concentrations produced significant cutaneous irritation. The 10% CCCO and 50% PMD treatments all elicited slight to moderate proliferative and inflammatory changes in mouse skin. Ulcers were also observed microscopically in mice treated with 10% CCCO and 50% SCGO. The 100% SCGO treatment produced evidence of necrosis on Days 1-7 but not later in the study despite continued treatment. In contrast, the irritating effects of 100% LRPO were not evident until 2-3 weeks of study, and at study completion were characterized by moderately severe inflammatory and proliferative changes. The effects of 100% JF were qualitatively similar to 100% LRPO but less

  18. A 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xueming; Han, Fangting; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Yan; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Jiang, Lingxi; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study. PMID:23300690

  19. Induction of multiple granulomas in the liver with severe hepatocyte damage by montan wax, a natural food additive, in a 90-day toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Mico; Yamakawa, Keiko; Saoo, Kousuke; Matsuda, Yoko; Hosokawa, Kyoko; Takeuchi, Hijiri; Li, Jia-Qing; Zeng, Yu; Yokohira, Masanao; Imaida, Katsumi

    2008-02-01

    Montan wax is a mineral wax extracted from lignite type coal. It has been registered as a food additive in Japan though there have been no reports of toxicological evaluation, mainly due to the fact that it is considered a natural product. As part of a general safety assessment of montan wax, we have performed a 90-day toxicity study in Fisher 344 (F344) rats. Groups of 10 males and 10 females were given the material at dose levels of 0 (Group 1), 0.56 (Group 2), 1.67 (Group 3), or 5% (Group 4) in the diet for 90 days. During the experiment, there were no remarkable changes in general conditions and no deaths occurred in any group. On hematological examination, Hb, Ht, MCV and MCH were significantly decreased and WBC was significantly increased in all treated rats. On serum biochemical examination, AST and ALT were found to be elevated more than four fold in all treated groups as compared to the respective control group values in both sexes. Furthermore, relative organ weights for the liver, spleen, lung and kidneys were increased in all treated groups of both sexes. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse multiple granulomas in the livers with severe hepatocyte damage and lymphocytic infiltration. Granulomatous lesions were also apparent in the mesenteric lymph nodes in all treated males and females. These findings clearly demonstrate that montan wax, at doses of more than 0.56% in the diet, induces multiple granulomas with severe inflammation in the liver. Because pathological, hematological and serum biochemical changes were observed in the lowest dose group, a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) could not be determined in the present study. PMID:17950973

  20. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ju; Lee, Taek-Jin; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, EunHo; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Hong, Seung-Guk; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(+)) nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM20(+) NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with control in both 500 mg/kg groups. Total protein and albumin levels were decreased significantly in both sexes in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. Histopathological studies revealed acinar cell apoptosis in the pancreas, inflammation and edema in stomach mucosa, and retinal atrophy of the eye in the 500 mg/kg group. Conclusion There were significant parameter changes in terms of anemia in the hematological and blood chemical analyses in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. The significant toxic change was observed to be below 125 mg/kg, so the no-observed-adverse-effect level was not determined, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 125 mg/kg in both sexes and the target organs were found to be the pancreas, eye, and stomach. PMID:25565829

  1. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, 90-day Study of Emixustat HCL in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U.; Novack, Roger L.; Csaky, Karl G.; Richmond, Preston P.; Birch, David G.; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of emixustat hydrochloride (ACU-4429), a novel visual cycle modulator, in subjects with geographic atrophy (GA) associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to oral emixustat (2, 5, 7, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 90 days. Recovery of rod photoreceptor sensitivity following a photobleach was measured by electroretinography. Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and ophthalmic examinations. Results Seventy-two subjects (54 emixustat, 18 placebo) were evaluated. Emixustat suppressed rod photoreceptor sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression plateaued by Day 14, and was reversible within 7-14 days after drug cessation. No systemic AEs of concern were noted. Dose-related ocular AEs (chromatopsia, 57% emixustat vs. 17% placebo; and delayed dark adaptation, 48% emixustat vs. 6% placebo) were mild to moderate, and the majority resolved on study or within 7-14 days after study drug cessation. Conclusions In this phase II study, emixustat produced a dose-dependent, reversible effect on rod function, and an ocular AE profile that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. These results support further testing of emixustat for the treatment of GA associated with dry AMD. PMID:25932553

  2. ADATSA Follow-Up Study of Extended Outpatient Care: A Comparison of 90 Days versus 180 Days of Outpatient Treatment for Clients of Washington State's Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Hyde, Vincent A.; And Others

    This study was designed to compare outcomes for two groups of alcohol and substance abuse clients (N=230): a control group assigned to regular 90 days of outpatient treatment, and an experimental group assigned to 180 days of extended outpatient care. Outcomes were compared in the following nine categories: (1) relapse, measured as reported…

  3. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  4. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  5. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  6. Safety evaluation of AB-LIFE(®) (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529): Antibiotic resistance and 90-day repeated-dose study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Stahl, Buffy; Smith, Amy B; Burns, Frank; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Yeung, Nicolas; Lyra, Anna; Svärd, Laura; Saarinen, Markku T; Alhoniemi, Esa; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-06-01

    AB-LIFE(®) is a probiotic product consisting of equal parts of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, 7528, and 7529) blended with inert excipients. Whole genome sequencing was performed on each of the three strains. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by genomic mining for resistance genes, and assessment for transferability. No risk of transfer potential was identified for any antibiotic resistance genes in the three strains. AB-LIFE(®) was evaluated for potential subchronic oral toxicity in rats, with dosages of 300 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day (equivalent to 5.55 × 10(10) and 1.85 × 10(11) CFU/kg BW/day). Survival of the three test strains through the gastrointestinal tract was supported by fecal analysis. No adverse effects were identified with respect to in-life parameters, clinical or anatomic pathology, translocation, or fecal chemical analyses. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AB-LIFE(®) in male and female rats was 1000 mg/kg BW/day (1.85 × 10(11) CFU of AB-LIFE(®)/kg BW/day), the highest dose level evaluated. These results, in conjunction with a previous acute toxicity study in rats, support the conclusion that AB-LIFE(®) is safe for human consumption. PMID:27016492

  7. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. PMID:26363208

  8. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days. PMID:22448098

  9. Baroreflex Sensitivity Decreases During 90-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Arzeno, N. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases during spaceflight and simulated spaceflight (head down bed rest [BR]). However, previous studies have only examined BRS in response to a limited blood pressure (BP) range or to a single sudden change in BP. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine BRS during 90 days of 6deg head-down tilt BR over a broad range of BP perturbations. METHODS: Nineteen normal volunteers (12M, 7F) were tested one day before BR, and then near BR days 30, 60 and 90. BP was pharmacologically altered by continuous infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Electrocardiogram and continuous BP were collected during 10 min of normal saline (NS), followed by increasing concentrations of PE (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 micro-g/kg/min). After a 20 min break, NS was infused again for 10 min, followed by increasing concentrations of SNP (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 micro-g/kg/min). Baroreceptor sensitivity was measured as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) and mean RR were analyzed using data from only the NS infusions. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of BR and gender. RESULTS: RR decreased (p<0.001) from pre- BR across BR days. High frequency in normalized units, a measure of parasympathetic activity, decreased with BR (p=0.027) and was lower (p=0.046) in men (0.39+/-0.02, mean+/-SEM) than women (0.48+/-0.02). The spontaneous baroreflex slope, our measure of BRS, increased with PE and decreased with SNP across BR (p<0.001). The percentage decrease in BRS from pre- to post-BR appeared to be larger in women (43.6+/-7.0%) than in men (31.3+/-3.9%, p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decrease during 90 days of BR, and BRS tends to diminish more in women than in men.

  10. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity. 799.9346 Section 799.9346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines...

  11. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine

    PubMed Central

    Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A.; Endres, John R.; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals.

  12. A 90-Day Tenofovir Reservoir Intravaginal Ring for Mucosal HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd J.; Clark, Meredith R.; Albright, Theodore H.; Nebeker, Joel S.; Tuitupou, Anthony L.; Clark, Justin T.; Fabian, Judit; McCabe, R. Tyler; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir (TFV) recently demonstrated 39% protection against HIV infection in women. We designed and evaluated a novel reservoir TFV intravaginal ring (IVR) to potentially improve product effectiveness by providing a more controlled and sustained vaginal dose to maintain cervicovaginal concentrations. Polyurethane tubing of various hydrophilicities was filled with a high-density TFV/glycerol/water semisolid paste and then end-sealed to create IVRs. In vitro, TFV release increased with polyurethane hydrophilicity, with 35 weight percent water-swelling polyurethane IVRs achieving an approximately 10-mg/day release for 90 days with mechanical stiffness similar to that of the commercially available NuvaRing. This design was evaluated in two 90-day in vivo sheep studies for TFV pharmacokinetics and safety. Overall, TFV vaginal tissue, vaginal fluid, and plasma levels were relatively time independent over the 90-day duration at approximately 104 ng/g, 106 ng/g, and 101 ng/ml, respectively, near or exceeding the highest observed concentrations in a TFV 1% gel control group. TFV vaginal fluid concentrations were approximately 1,000-fold greater than levels shown to provide significant protection in women using the TFV 1% gel. There were no toxicological findings following placebo and TFV IVR treatment for 28 or 90 days, although slight to moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates in the vaginal epithelia were observed in these animals compared to naïve animals. In summary, the controlled release of TFV from this reservoir IVR provided elevated sheep vaginal concentrations for 90 days to merit its further evaluation as an HIV prophylactic. PMID:23006751

  13. The impact of 90-day prescriptions on adherence at workplace pharmacies compared to traditional mail order.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Davis, Jeffery; Murphy, Patricia; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Sherman, Bruce; Manfred, James

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated adherence to medications used to treat chronic conditions for patients with 90-day prescriptions, comparing patients with access to workplace pharmacy services versus patients using mail order services. De-identified pharmacy claims data were used to compute medication possession ratio and gaps in therapy. Results were compared for patients who filled 90-day prescriptions at workplace pharmacies versus patients who filled 90-day prescriptions using mail order pharmacy services in a 1-year period. Statistical tests to assess between group differences were performed controlling for differences because of age, sex, number of select chronic conditions, number of unique medication therapeutic classes, and patient out-of-pocket cost per therapy day. Statistically significant differences were found between patients who filled their maintenance medications at the worksite compared to those who used mail-order pharmacy services. Patients filling prescriptions at a workplace pharmacy were 22% less likely to have a gap in therapy of over 30 days compared to similar patients using mail order services. Workplace pharmacy utilizers also had overall adherence rates 3.68% higher than patients who utilized mail order pharmacy services. Our analysis suggests that it may not be just the quantity of medication dispensed that impacts patients' adherence to their prescription medication, but a variety of other factors including pharmacist-patient interaction. Having a pharmacist on-site and available to patients with chronic considerations could provide added value. These results can aid employers and other stakeholders to decide which prescription benefits to offer their employees and members. PMID:22092153

  14. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... to the initiation of the study and periodically during the study. Statistically randomized samples...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... to the initiation of the study and periodically during the study. Statistically randomized samples...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... to the initiation of the study and periodically during the study. Statistically randomized samples...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration, white blood cell count, differential leukocyte count, platelet count, and a measure of clotting... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentration, white blood cell count, differential leukocyte count, platelet count, and a measure of clotting... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  19. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  20. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  1. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  2. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  3. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  4. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  5. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. 24.503 Section 24.503 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  6. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. 24.503 Section 24.503 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  7. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. 24.503 Section 24.503 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  8. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Seung-Young; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Seo, Heung-Sik; Shin, Sung-Sup; Kim, Seon-Ju; Meang, Eun-Ho; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Beom-Jun; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity and establish the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and target organ(s) of negatively charged colloidal silica particles of different sizes, ie, SiO2EN20(−) (20 nm) or SiO2EN100(−) 2(100 nm), administered by gavage in Sprague-Dawley rats. After verification of the physicochemical properties of the SiO2 particles to be tested, a preliminary dose range-finding study and 90-day repeated dose study were conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline. Based on the results of the 14-day dose range-finding study, a high dose was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg, and middle and low doses were set at 1,000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the 90-day toxicity study, there were no animal deaths in relation to administration of SiO2 particles of either size. In addition, no treatment-related clinical changes or histopathological findings were observed in any of the experimental groups. Moreover, no difference in toxic effects from chronic exposure to SiO2EN20(−)(20 nm) or SiO2EN100(−) (100 nm) was observed. The results of this study indicate that the NOAEL for SiO2EN20(−) and SiO2 EN100(−) would most likely be 2,000 mg/kg, and no target organ was identified in rats of either sex. PMID:25565827

  9. Co-morbidities and 90-day outcomes in hospitalized COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christopher M; Stone, Robert A; Lowe, Derek; Pursey, Nancy A; Buckingham, Rhona J

    2011-10-01

    COPD exacerbations resulting in hospitalization are accompanied by high mortality and morbidity. The contribution of specific co-morbidities to acute outcomes is not known in detail: existing studies have used either administrative data or small clinical cohorts and have provided conflicting results. Identification of co-existent diseases that affect outcomes provides opportunities to address these conditions proactively and improve overall COPD care. Cases were identified prospectively on admission then underwent retrospective case note audit to collect data including co-morbidities on up to 60 unselected consecutive acute COPD admissions between March and May in each hospital participating in the 2008 UK National COPD audit. Outcomes recorded were death in hospital, length of stay, and death and readmission at 90 days after index admission. 232 hospitals collected data on 9716 patients, mean age 73, 50% male, mean FEV1 42% predicted. Prevalence of co-morbidities were associated with increased age but better FEV1 and ex-smoker status and with worse outcomes for all four measures. Hospital mortality risk was increased with cor pulmonale, left ventricular failure, neurological conditions and non-respiratory malignancies whilst 90 day death was also increased by lung cancer and arrhythmias. Ischaemic and other heart diseases were important factors in readmission. This study demonstrates that co-morbidities adversely affect a range of short-term patient outcomes related to acute admission to hospital with exacerbations of COPD. Recognition of relevant accompanying diseases at admission provides an opportunity for specific interventions that may improve short-term prognosis. PMID:21864116

  10. Preliminary assessment of the relative toxicity of 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane 90-day dermal application male and female rabbits study number 75-51-y809-90, May 1990 - June 1992. Phase 2. Final report, May 1990-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, E.A.; Harvey, J.G.; Beall, P.

    1992-06-01

    A 90-day application of DANPE has the potential to cause testicular hypospermatogenesis in male rabbits and an apparent inhibition of mature ovarian follicles formation in female rabbits. A no-observed-adverse-effect-level was not achieved in the male rabbits but was achieved in female rabbits at 27.3 mg/kg dose level.... 1,5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane, Dermal, Approximate Lethal Dose (ALD), Testicular hypospermatogenesis, Ovarian follicle No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL).

  11. Herd-level risk factors for infectious diseases in Swedish dairy calves aged 0-90 days.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G K; Svensson, E C; Oltenacu, P A

    2005-05-10

    The effect of environmental factors and management routines on the risk of diarrhoea, respiratory disease and other infectious diseases was investigated in 3081 heifer calves 0-90 days old in 122 Swedish dairy herds. The farmers kept records on cases of diseases in their heifer calves and in addition, project veterinarians clinically examined all calves every 2-3 months. At each visit, the veterinarians also measured the ammonia concentration and relative air humidity in the housing facilities for the calves. The cleanliness of the animals and their environment was recorded as a measure of the hygienic status of the farm. The presence or absence of draught (i.e. wind velocity>0.5 m/s) was recorded twice during the study period. The effect of these factors, as well as the placing of the calf pens, the nature of the pen walls, air volume per animal, management factors (such as the status of the caretaker and feeding routines) and presence or absence of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in the herd, was evaluated by means of a two-level variance component logistic model. The placing of calf pens along an outer wall was significantly associated with the risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR): 1.92, P<0.01). The risk for respiratory disease was significantly associated with an ammonia concentration below 6 ppm (OR: 0.42, P<0.05) while the odds ratio for moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds was significantly associated with a BVDV infection in the herd (OR: 2.39, P<0.05) and draught (OR: 3.7, P<0.02). Absence of draught was significantly associated with the risk for infectious diseases other than diarrhoea and respiratory disease (OR: 0.42, P<0.01). PMID:15820112

  12. Readmission After Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy: Outcomes and Predictors at 90-Day Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghmin, Ali; Aboumohamed, Ahmed; Din, Rakeeba; Khan, Aabroo; Raza, Syed Johar; Sztorc, Jenna; Mehedint, Diana; Sharif, Mohammad; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the outcomes and predictors of readmission after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) during early (30-day) and late (31–90–day) postoperative periods. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated our prospectively maintained RARC quality assurance database of 272 consecutive patients operated between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated the relationship of readmission with perioperative outcomes and examined possible predictors during the postoperative period. RESULTS Overall 30- and 90-day mortality was 0.7% and 4.8%, respectively, with 25.5% patients readmitted within 90 days after RARC (61% of them were readmitted within 30 days and 39% were readmitted between 31–90 days postoperatively). Infection-related problems were the most common cause of readmission during early and late periods. Overall operative time and obesity were significantly associated with readmission (P = .034 and .033, respectively). Body mass index and female gender were independent predictors of 90-day readmission (P = .004 and .014, respectively). Having any type of complication correlated with 90-day readmission (P = .0045); meanwhile, when complications were graded on the basis of Clavien grading system, only grade 1–2 complications statistically correlated with readmission (P = .046). Four patients needed reoperation (2 patients in early “for appendicitis and adhesive small bowel obstruction” and 2 in late “for ureteroenteric stricture” readmission); meanwhile, 6 patients needed percutaneous procedures (4 patients in early “1 for anastomotic leak and 3 for pelvic collections” and 2 “for pelvic collections and ureterocutaneous fistula” in late readmission). CONCLUSION The rate of readmission within 90 days after RARC is significant. Female gender and body mass index are independent predictors of readmission. Outcomes at 90 days provide more thorough results, essential to proper patient counseling. PMID:24468509

  13. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  14. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  15. Influences of northward propagating 25-90-day and quasi-biweekly oscillations on eastern China summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Zesheng; Zhao, Ping

    2015-07-01

    The present study reveals that rainfall anomalies associated with the 25-90-day (quasi-biweekly) tropical convective activity propagates northward (northwestward) into northern China (the Yangtze River). Enhanced rainfall over southern China results directly from enhanced convection propagating northward from the South China Sea (SCS)-western north Pacific (WNP), strengthened northward water vapor transport and intensified upper-level divergence. The anomalous anticyclone over SCS-WNP, which is induced by local lower sea surface temperature, provides a favorable condition for transporting more moisture to southern China. Stronger subtropical westerly jet and South Asia high strengthen upper-level divergence. The northward propagating 25-90-day oscillation over eastern China reaches farther north than the quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO). The intensity of QBWO in summer rainfall has significantly strengthened over southern China after 1993 but not for the 25-90-day oscillation. This is mainly contributed by an interdecadal increase in rainfall over southern China and the Yangtze River Basin in the wet phases of QBWO. The interdecadal enhancement of rainfall associated with the QBWO is attributed to three factors. One is lower tropospheric convergence caused by anomalous anticyclone over the WNP and anomalous cyclone over Korean Peninsula and Japan. The second is upper tropospheric divergence resulting from strengthening of subtropical westerly jet and the South Asia high. The last is enhanced ascent over South China through meridional vertical circulation.

  16. SUBCHRONIC 90-DAY TOXICITY OF DICHLOROACETIC AND TRICHLORACETIC ACID IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either dichloroacetic acid (DCA) or trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the drinking water at levels of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm for a period of 90 days to determine the toxicities associated with subchronic exposure. ll animals were sacrificed...

  17. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. 24.402 Section 24.402 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... classified as “low income” by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Annual Survey of...

  18. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. 24.402 Section 24.402 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement...

  19. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations... or she moves from the displacement dwelling; or (ii) For an owner-occupant, the later of: (A) The date he or she receives final payment for the displacement dwelling, or in the case of...

  20. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations... or she moves from the displacement dwelling; or (ii) For an owner-occupant, the later of: (A) The date he or she receives final payment for the displacement dwelling, or in the case of...

  1. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations... or she moves from the displacement dwelling; or (ii) For an owner-occupant, the later of: (A) The date he or she receives final payment for the displacement dwelling, or in the case of...

  2. Intra- and Inter-Patient Symptom Variability in Fibromyalgia: Results of a 90-Day Assessment.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Vincent, Ann; McAllister, Samantha J; Whipple, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM)--chronic widespread pain, fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, dyscognition etcetera--present with varying degrees of severity in different individuals; however, studies reporting daily estimates of variability of symptoms are sparse. Given the limited literature on the stability and variability of FM symptoms, the purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of daily visual analogue, self-report measures to assess daily variability and time trends in core FM symptoms. Ten female patients completed daily assessments of common FM symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, stress, cognitive dysfunction, unrefreshing sleep and lightheadedness) for approximately 90 days. The completion rate was excellent (89.6%). The results demonstrated that average symptom intensity differs markedly across the different symptoms that were measured. Unrefreshing sleep, fatigue and pain are clearly higher in intensity than other symptoms and are followed by memory problems, stress, anxiety and depression. There is also notable average intra-individual change across time (10-15 points on a 100-point scale). Average symptom intensity does not appear to be related to the amount of symptom change within individuals. The results of the present study confirm that intensive longitudinal study, using comprehensive symptom assessment in patients with FM, is both possible and informative, in the sense that a rich description of the daily experience of living with FM can be obtained. Future work, utilizing larger samples, will offer the opportunity to investigate better the causes, consequences and correlates of the daily ups and downs of key symptoms that compromise quality of life in patients with FM. PMID:25408116

  3. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the language and intent of the above-quoted exception in § 220.4(c)(8), until it has been honored by... substantially the same as language found in section 4(f) of Regulation T as originally promulgated in 1934. The language of the subject exception to the 90-day rule of § 220.4(c)(8), i.e., the exception based...

  4. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  5. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  6. The development and succession of microbial communities in 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Bojie; Su, Qiang; Xie, Beizhen; Qin, Youcai; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for permanent astrobase life-support artificial closed ecosystem, is an artificial ecosystem which consists of plant cultivation, animal breeding and waste treatment units. It has been used to carry out a 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three crew members. Apparently, it’s hard to prevent the growth of microorganisms in such closed ecosystem for their strong adaptive capacity. Original microorganisms in the cabin, microbes in the course of loads delivery and the autologous microorganism by crew members and animals themselves are all the main source of the interior microorganisms, which may grow and regenerate in air, water and plants. Therefore, if these microorganisms could not be effectively monitored and controlled, it may cause microbial contamination and even lead to the unsteadiness of the whole closed ecosystem. In this study, the development and succession of the microbial communities of air, water system, plant system, and key facilities surfaces in Lunar Palace 1 were continuously monitored and analyzed by using plate counting method and molecular biological method during the 90-day experiment. The results were quite useful for the controlling of internal microorganisms and the safe operation of the whole system, and could also reveal the succession rules of microorganisms in an artificial closed ecosystem.

  7. 76 FR 12683 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas Kangaroo Rat as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the...

  8. 75 FR 19925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... 90-day finding (56 FR 1159) indicating that the fisher in the Pacific States is a distinct population... habitat needs, population size and trends, and demographic parameters (56 FR 1159). On December 29,...

  9. 76 FR 23256 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Arapahoe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... published two 90-day findings, on January 6, 2009 (74 FR 419), and February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6122). The February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6122), 90-day finding concluded that the petition did not present substantial..., as critical habitat for the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) (68 FR 37275)....

  10. 77 FR 9618 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Thermophilic Ostracod as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  11. 78 FR 72622 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 11 Tarantula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of petition finding and initiation of status review. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on...

  12. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  13. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  14. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  15. Training plan for the 1164 {lt}90-day non-radioactive hazardous waste storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Demarest, J.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    In accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173- 303, `Dangerous Waste Regulations,` a written training plan is required for a {lt}90-day accumulation area. WAC 173-303-200, `Accumulating Dangerous Waste On-site,` requires compliance with WAC- 173-303-330, Personnel Training. This training plan complies with WAC 173-303-330. This training plan, including the names of personnel in Table 1, may be given to a regulatory agency inspector upon request provided that this plan is cleared for public release. Training records associated with personnel identified in this plan are not be given to an outside regulatory agency inspector unless prior approval by the specific individual is obtained. Training records requests by regulatory agency inspectors without the individual`s approval are to be processed via a Freedom of Information Act request through the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office.

  16. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    O(3) and MSS coexposure appeared to be more than additive. Results for the TiO(2) and quartz controls were consistent with the known pulmonary toxicity of these compounds. The overall severity of lung injury was TiO(2) < LSS < MSS < O(3) + MSS < quartz. Except for TiO(2), the increased duration of dust presence in the lung from 7 to 90 days transformed the acute inflammatory response to a chronic inflammatory lesion. This study showed that LSS and MSS are more hazardous in the lungs than nuisance dusts.

  17. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  18. Toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles: a report of 90-day repeated oral administration in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Park, Jong-Il; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, Eun-Ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Yun, Hyo-In; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used commercially in health and fitness fields, but information about the toxicity and mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of NPs is still very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect(s) of 100 nm negatively (ZnOAE100[−]) or positively (ZnOAE100[+]) charged zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs administered by gavage in Sprague Dawley rats, to establish a no observed adverse effect level, and to identify target organ(s). After verification of the primary particle size, morphology, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential of each test article, we performed a 90-day study according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 408. For the 90-day study, the high dose was set at 500 mg/kg and the middle and low doses were set at 125 mg/kg and 31.25 mg/kg, respectively. Both ZnO NPs had significant changes in hematological and blood biochemical analysis, which could correlate with anemia-related parameters, in the 500 mg/kg groups of both sexes. Histopathological examination showed significant adverse effects (by both test articles) in the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland tissues, but the particle charge did not affect the tendency or the degree of the lesions. We speculate that this inflammatory damage might result from continuous irritation caused by both test articles. Therefore, the target organs for both ZnOAE100(−) and ZnOAE100(+) are considered to be the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland. Also, the no observed adverse effect level for both test articles was identified as 31.25 mg/kg for both sexes, because the adverse effects were observed at all doses greater than 125 mg/kg. PMID:25565830

  19. Toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles: a report of 90-day repeated oral administration in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Park, Jong-Il; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, Eun-Ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Yun, Hyo-In; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used commercially in health and fitness fields, but information about the toxicity and mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of NPs is still very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect(s) of 100 nm negatively (ZnO(AE100[-])) or positively (ZnO(AE100[+])) charged zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs administered by gavage in Sprague Dawley rats, to establish a no observed adverse effect level, and to identify target organ(s). After verification of the primary particle size, morphology, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential of each test article, we performed a 90-day study according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 408. For the 90-day study, the high dose was set at 500 mg/kg and the middle and low doses were set at 125 mg/kg and 31.25 mg/kg, respectively. Both ZnO NPs had significant changes in hematological and blood biochemical analysis, which could correlate with anemia-related parameters, in the 500 mg/kg groups of both sexes. Histopathological examination showed significant adverse effects (by both test articles) in the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland tissues, but the particle charge did not affect the tendency or the degree of the lesions. We speculate that this inflammatory damage might result from continuous irritation caused by both test articles. Therefore, the target organs for both ZnO(AE100(-)) and ZnO(AE100(+)) are considered to be the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland. Also, the no observed adverse effect level for both test articles was identified as 31.25 mg/kg for both sexes, because the adverse effects were observed at all doses greater than 125 mg/kg. PMID:25565830

  20. Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A Novel Prognostic Factor for Prediction of 90-day Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Shi-Gang; Wang, Li-Ren; Fang, Chen-Chen; Lin, Yi-Qian; Braddock, Martin; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Zhongheng; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shen, Fei-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus and the novel systemic inflammation marker platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be associated with clinical outcome in patients with DKA. This study aimed to investigate the utility of PLR in predicting 90-day clinical outcomes in patients with DKA. Patient data exacted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database was analyzed. A cutoff value for PLR of 267.67 was determined using Youden index (P < 0.05) and used to categorize subjects into a high PLR group and a low PLR group. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for DKA were calculated across PLR. Clinical outcomes in our study were defined as intensive care unit (ICU) 90-day readmission and all-cause mortality. A total of 278 ICU admissions were enrolled and stratified by cutoff value of PLR. The incidence of readmission and mortality was 17.8% in the high PLR group, significantly higher than 7.4% in the low PLR group. In the multivariable model, after adjusting for known confounding variables including clinical parameters, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, the HRs for DKA were 2.573 (95% CI 1.239-5.345; P = 0.011), 2.648 (95% CI 1.269-5.527; P = 0.009), and 2.650 (95% CI 1.114-6.306; P = 0.028), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that a high PLR level was associated with a higher risk for 90-day outcomes in patients with DKA. The authors report that higher PLR presents a higher risk for 90-day incidence of readmission and mortality in patients with DKA. It appears to be a novel independent predictor of 90-day outcomes in critically ill DKA patients in ICU units. PMID:26825908

  1. The Model for End-stage Liver Disease accurately predicts 90-day liver transplant wait-list mortality in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Paul Douglas; Quan, Hude; Doig, Christopher James; Dixon, Elijah; Molinari, Michele

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the generalizability of the predictions for 90-day mortality generated by Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the serum sodium augmented MELD (MELDNa) to Atlantic Canadian adults with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: The predictive accuracy of the MELD and the MELDNa was evaluated by measurement of the discrimination and calibration of the respective models’ estimates for the occurrence of 90-day mortality in a consecutive cohort of LT candidates accrued over a five-year period. Accuracy of discrimination was measured by the area under the ROC curves. Calibration accuracy was evaluated by comparing the observed and model-estimated incidences of 90-day wait-list failure for the total cohort and within quantiles of risk. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve for the MELD was 0.887 (95% CI 0.705 to 0.978) – consistent with very good accuracy of discrimination. The area under the ROC curve for the MELDNa was 0.848 (95% CI 0.681 to 0.965). The observed incidence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the validation cohort was 7.9%, which was not significantly different from the MELD estimate of 6.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 8.4%; P=0.177) or the MELDNa estimate of 5.8% (95% CI 3.5% to 8.0%; P=0.065). Global goodness-of-fit testing found no evidence of significant lack of fit for either model (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 [df=3] for MELD 2.941, P=0.401; for MELDNa 2.895, P=0.414). CONCLUSION: Both the MELD and the MELDNa accurately predicted the occurrence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the study cohort and, therefore, are generalizable to Atlantic Canadians with end-stage liver disease awaiting LT. PMID:21876856

  2. 78 FR 10601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 44 Species of Corals as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC209 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day... Species Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... temperature, availability of hard substrate, currents and sediment load, and seawater chemistry...

  3. 77 FR 43799 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Gila...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Regional Office. On December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866), we published a partial 90-day finding on the petition... and, therefore, less habitat available. Increased siltation may be due to historical overgrazing...

  4. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. PMID:24183682

  5. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  6. Recent Trends in the Dispensing of 90-Day-Supply Prescriptions at Retail Pharmacies: Implications for Improved Convenience and Access

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Joshua N.; Girdish, Charmaine

    2011-01-01

    Background Mail-service pharmacies offer consumers the convenience of prescriptions filled with a 90-day supply of medication. Unlike mail-service pharmacies, retail pharmacies traditionally dispensed maintenance medication prescriptions with a 30-day supply. However, the retail landscape changed in May 2008 with Walmart's announcement of an extension of its $4 Prescription Program to include 90-day-supply prescriptions. Objective To evaluate recent changes in access to and use of 90-day-supply maintenance medications dispensed via retail pharmacy. Summary As of the first quarter of 2007, the proportion of retail-dispensed maintenance medications with a 90-day supply (compared with all maintenance prescriptions dispensed) among Medicare Part D plans, self-insured employers, and private health plans was 5.1%, 5.1%, and 5.0%, respectively. As of December 2009, this ratio had risen to 8.0% for Medicare plans and 8.1% for commercial health plans; the ratio among employers had risen more modestly to 6.1%. Of particular interest and importance, the proportion increased similarly for brand and for generic medications. Conclusion There has been substantial growth in 90-day prescriptions dispensed via retail pharmacy, a trend that is likely to continue as more insurance providers adopt compatible benefit designs. It is important to continue monitoring these trends and to identify opportunities to rigorously evaluate their impact on medication adherence and healthcare costs. PMID:25126341

  7. Effects of furan on male rat reproduction parameters in a 90-day gavage study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M; Taylor, Marnie; Bourque, Christine; Curran, Ivan; Gurofsky, Susan; Gill, Santokh

    2014-07-01

    Furan is produced in foods during processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Previously, we reported that furan-exposed rats exhibited dose-dependent gross and histological changes in liver which correlated with changes in liver serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. Here we report the effects of furan on the male reproductive system. There were no histological or weight changes in the reproductive organs. Serum testosterone levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner whereas serum LH was decreased. There were no changes in 17-OHase, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities or serum FSH. Furan did not alter mRNA expression levels for the LH receptor or Tspo but in contrast, mRNA levels of StAR were increased in all doses of furan. The mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1) was increased by furan at the high dose, as was the level of intratesticular testosterone. We conclude that subchronic furan exposure affects testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:24632374

  8. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF THE SEALING ABILITY OF TWO ENDODONTIC SEALERS IN ROOT CANALS EXPOSED TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT FOR 45 AND 90 DAYS

    PubMed Central

    Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Vanni, José Roberto; Della Bona, Álvaro; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Porto, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill) in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12). After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm) was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification). The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05). Group E90 (2.03±0.94) showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (p<0.001). None of the sealers, in both study conditions, were able to prevent dye leakage. PMID:19089029

  9. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  10. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  11. 76 FR 10299 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... completed a 90-day finding on August 15, 2007 (72 FR 45717). Based upon the information available at that... FR 54707), for the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and a 12-month finding published on September 22, 2010, for the plant Agave eggersiana (75 FR 57720), we have focused on wild populations in...

  12. 77 FR 59582 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Northeastern Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...We, NMFS, announce a 90-day finding on two petitions received to list the northeastern Pacific Ocean population of great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) as a threatened or endangered distinct population segment (DPS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to designate critical habitat concurrently with the listing. We find that the petitions and information in our files present......

  13. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...We (NMFS) announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list 19 species and 3 subpopulations of sharks as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted for 9 species: Centrophorus harrissoni, Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus, Mustelus fasciatus,......

  14. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal...

  15. 78 FR 23533 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Wood Bison

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... February 8, 2011 (76 FR ] 6734). Please refer to that document for the complete listing history. Here we... Wildlife, which was published in the Federal Register on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491). In 1974, the first list... of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). In a 90-day finding published on November 25, 1998 (63 FR 65164),...

  16. 77 FR 47583 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Desert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list desert massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii), a rattlesnake found in the southwestern United States, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial......

  17. 77 FR 55458 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petition To Delist the Southern Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... these petitions was published on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62375) and a second negative 90-day finding for the fourth petition was published on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1668). The new petition largely..., changes in salmon landings over the past 1-2 decades, and increases in Pacific Ocean water temperature....

  18. 75 FR 42059 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Giant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... that listing the GPE may be warranted (72 FR 57273). On January 24, 2008, the petitioners filed a... presented a threat (72 FR 57273). The 2009 petition includes a letter of support from Samuel W. James... educational purposes as a potential threat to the GPE. In our October 9, 2007, 90-day finding (72 FR 57273)...

  19. 77 FR 1900 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Humboldt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Humboldt marten (Martes americana humboldtensis) as endangered or threatened and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that......

  20. 78 FR 66675 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Multiple Species of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction... extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to list a...

  1. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... In 1997, we added Alabama shad to our Candidate Species List (62 FR 37562; July 14, 1997). At that... (49 FR 38900; October 1, 1984). In 2004, we created the Species of Concern list (69 FR 19975; April 15... published a negative 90-day finding in the Federal Register (76 FR 9320) stating that the petition did...

  2. 78 FR 29098 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Iliamna Lake Seals as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Vertebrate Population Segments under the ESA (DPS Policy, 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). This policy... species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The policy established two criteria that must be met... Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Iliamna Lake Seals as a Threatened or...

  3. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service..., announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Bay Springs salamander (Plethodon ainsworthi) as... Springs salamander or its habitat at any time. DATES: The finding announced in this document was made...

  4. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... a notice of a 90-day finding for the petition in the Federal Register on July 22, 1994 (59 FR 37439... warranted but precluded by other higher priority actions (60 FR 15281). At that time, a listing priority..., 2005 (70 FR 24870). On October 7, 2002, as part of an agreement regarding multiple species, the...

  5. 75 FR 13068 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Berry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Berry Cave salamander (Gyrinophilus gulolineatus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing this species may be warranted. Therefore, with the......

  6. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (sphinx date palm) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that the petition does not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. We find that......

  7. 75 FR 51969 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Calopogon oklahomensis (Oklahoma grass pink orchid) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the plant species, C.......

  8. 75 FR 13720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Striped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the striped newt (Notophthalmus perstriatus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the striped newt may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of......

  9. 77 FR 4973 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the San Bernardino flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus californicus) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information......

  10. 77 FR 27403 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the......

  11. 76 FR 60431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ..., 2005, the Service issued a 90-day finding (70 FR 38849), which found that the petition presented... threatened or ] endangered was not warranted (72 FR 4967). Species Information This section is a summary of the species information presented in the Service's 2007 12-month finding (72 FR 4967),...

  12. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  13. 76 FR 9309 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the sand verbena moth, Copablepharon fuscum, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Based on our review, we find the petition presents substantial information indicating that listing the sand verbena moth may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this......

  14. 76 FR 36049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Utah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Utah population of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) as an endangered or a threatened distinct population segment (DPS) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition does not present......

  15. 77 FR 39666 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Maytenus cymosa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Maytenus cymosa (Caribbean mayten), a tree, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition does not present substantial information indicating that listing M. cymosa may......

  16. MELD-Na as a prognostic indicator of 30- and 90-day mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease after creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation. PMID:26111072

  17. Dam-related effects on heart girth at birth, morbidity and growth rate from birth to 90 days of age in Swedish dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G K; Oltenacu, P A; Maizon, D O; Svensson, E C; Liberg, P G A

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dam-related factors (such as calving performance, milk leakage, diseases, milk production, and somatic-cell count (SCC)) on heart girth at birth and the incidence risk of diarrhoea and respiratory disease during the first 90 days in Swedish dairy calves. The effects of these dam-related factors and environmental and management-related (but not dietary) factors on the calves' growth rate during the first 90 days of life also were analysed. The study used nearly 3,000 heifer calves born in 1998 on 122 farms in the south-west of Sweden. Individual health records were kept by the farmers and visiting project veterinarians. The calf's heart girth was measured at birth and weaning. We used generalised linear mixed models for the size of the calf at birth and growth rate. Variables associated with the heart girth at birth were breed, calving performance, mastitis in the dam in the last 49 days before calving, milk production and parity. Variables associated with the growth rate were breed, calving performance, disease in the calf during its first 90 days of life, heart girth at birth, and housing of calves. The effect of the dam on the relative risk of diarrhoea and/or respiratory disease in the calf was evaluated by a generalised linear mixed model with a logit link. Morbidity in the dam during late pregnancy, retained placenta and SCC were associated with the relative risk of respiratory disease in the calf. None of the explanatory variables (other then breed) was associated with the relative risk of diarrhoea. PMID:12900157

  18. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  19. Evaluation of the teratological and dominant lethal potential of N,N-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulphate in a 6-month feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Burnett, C M; Re, T A; Loehr, R F; Rodriguez, S C; Corbett, J F

    1986-08-01

    N,N-Bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-p-phenylenediamine sulphate (N,N-Bis) was administered to 40 male and 45 female Sprague-Dawley rats per group by admixture with their diets at levels of 0.03, 0.1 and 0.3% for periods up to 6 months. Methaemoglobin levels were determined at wk 6. After 90 days ten animals/sex/group were killed for studies of possible target organs, haematology and blood chemistry. After 90 days, 25 females in each group were mated to untreated males in a teratology study. At wk 20, 20 males in each group were transferred from the test diets containing N,N-Bis to the control diet and were mated to untreated females in a dominant lethal study. The remaining animals were killed after 6 months for terminal studies (gross examination of organs, haematology and blood chemistry). The males used in the dominant lethal study were also killed at month 6, to serve as a comparison recovery group (gross examination of organs). Feeding of N,N-Bis at levels up to 0.3% in the diet caused a significant reduction in the body weight of male rats. The only signs of gross pathology after either 3 or 6 months of N,N-Bis feeding were darkened thyroids. This effect was noted in the high-dose group at both time intervals and, to a lesser extent, in the mid-dose group at month 6, and it was also seen in most of the high-dose recovery males and in a small number of mid-dose recovery males. No pathological effects were detected microscopically after the feeding of N,N-Bis for 90 days. N,N-Bis was not teratogenic, nor did it induce a dominant lethal effect in this study when administered to rats at levels including those causing borderline toxicity. PMID:3781436

  20. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part...

  1. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part...

  2. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 792—Good.... Statistically randomized samples of the mixture should be analyzed to ensure that proper mixing,...

  3. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 792—Good.... Statistically randomized samples of the mixture should be analyzed to ensure that proper mixing,...

  4. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 792—Good.... Statistically randomized samples of the mixture should be analyzed to ensure that proper mixing,...

  5. Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes in the Lungs of Mice 7 and 90 Days After Intratracheal Instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have many potential applications in the electronic, computer, and aerospace industries. Because unprocessed nanotubes could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods, and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were each intratracheally instilled once with 0,0.1 or 0.5 mg of nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control, and killed for histopathological study 7 d or 90 d after the treatment. All nanotube products induced epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7 -d groups. These lesions persisted and were worse in the 90-d groups. We found that, if nanotubes reach the lung, they can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  6. Permissive underfeeding versus target enteral feeding in adult critically ill patients (PermiT Trial): a study protocol of a multicenter randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Nutritional support is an essential part of the management of critically ill patients. However, optimal caloric intake has not been systematically evaluated. We aim to compare two strategies of enteral feeding: permissive underfeeding versus target feeding. Method/Design This is an international multi-center randomized controlled trial in critically ill medical- surgical adult patients. Using a centralized allocation, 862 patients will be randomized to permissive underfeeding or target feeding. Patients in the permissive group receive 50% (acceptable range is 40% to 60%) of the calculated caloric requirement, while those in the targeted group receive 100% (acceptable range 70% to 100%) of the calculated caloric requirement. The primary outcome is 90-day all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes include ICU and hospital mortality, 28-day, and 180-day mortality as well as health care-associated infections, organ failure, and length of stay in the ICU and hospital. The trial has 80% power to detect an 8% absolute reduction in 90-day mortality assuming a baseline risk of death of 25% at an alpha level of 0.05. Discussion Patient recruitment started in November 2009 and is currently active in five centers. The Data Monitoring Committee advised continuation of the trial after the first interim analysis. The study is expected to finish by November 2013. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN68144998 PMID:23057605

  7. Recent Studies on Feeding Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  8. The Bedouin Infant Feeding Study: study design and factors influencing the duration of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Naggan, L; Forman, M R; Sarov, B; Lewando-Hundt, G; Zangwill, L; Chang, D; Berendes, H W

    1991-10-01

    A longitudinal study of infant feeding practices, growth and morbidity among Bedouin Arab infants residing in the Negev, Israel, was conducted during a 3-year period (1981-1983). Follow-up samples were restricted to healthy newborns. The majority of newborns are breast fed at birth but, by 2 months, 50% are also introduced to a milk supplement. Based on the bivariate analysis using the logrank test to examine the factors associated with exclusive versus partial breast feeding during the first 6 months, those born during the wet cool months are exclusively breast fed longer than those born during the dry season. More traditional women, living in tents rather than houses or huts, exclusively breast feed for at least 6 months. In a multiple logistic regression model, parity, house type and birth season are independently associated with the odds of exclusively breast feeding for the first 6 months of life. Factors influencing the duration of any breast feeding for the first 18 months include: house type, place of residence, birthweight, and whether the infant was stunted at 6 months. PMID:1754502

  9. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  10. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  11. [Ophthalmoscopic observations of ocular fundus in colony-born cynomolgus monkeys aged from 0 day to 90 days].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M T; Narita, H; Tanaka, Y; Cho, F; Fukui, M

    1984-04-01

    Apparently healthy 242 colony-born cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) aged from 0 day to 90 days were examined for the findings of ocular fundus by using ophthalmoscope. One drop of mixed solution of 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride was instilled into each eye of the monkey. Then, those monkeys were anesthetized with ketamine-HC1 at the dose level of 10mg/kg B. W. Regular and fluorescein photographs were taken with Kowa RC-II ophthalmoscope-camera by using daylight typed color film. Following findings were obtained in each age class: Retinal color was salmon pink with 0 to 3-days-old neonates, salmon pink and blue to green with 7 days to 14-days-old animals and blue to green with 60-days to 90-days-old monkeys. As regards optic disc, 0- to 14-days-old animals were observed to be light orange in color, and the infant aged more than 28-days showed orange color. Retinal arteries and veins were lightly reddish in color with every age class. Macular color was salmon pink in 0-day-old cases, slightly dark in 3-days-old neonates and very dark after 14-days of age. Lightly retinal reflex was noted in 0- and 7-days-old animals. The reflex was observable in 14-days-old animals without any case of exception. Retinal hemorrhages were recorded in 22 (67%) of 36 neonates born in natural condition and 10 (33%) of 30 neonates born by cesarean section. These findings will be useful as the criteria for ophthalmoscopic observations of the cynomolgus monkeys as laboratory use. PMID:6468512

  12. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Au, Tu C; MacPhail, Robert; Hardas, Sarita S; Butterfield, D Allan; Sultana, Rukhsana; Goodman, Michael; Tseng, Michael T; Dan, Mo; Haghnazar, Hamed; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Nanoceria is used as a catalyst in diesel fuel, as an abrasive in printed circuit manufacture, and is being pursued as an antioxidant therapeutic. Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria administration. An ~5% aqueous dispersion of citrate-stabilized 30 nm ceria, synthesized and characterized in-house, or vehicle, was iv infused into rats terminated 1, 7, 30, or 90 days later. Cageside observations were obtained daily, body weight weekly. Daily urinary and fecal cerium outputs were quantified for 2 weeks. Nine organs were weighed and samples collected from 14 tissues/organs/systems, blood and cerebrospinal fluid for cerium determination. Histology and oxidative stress were assessed. Less than 1% of the nanoceria was excreted in the first 2 weeks, 98% in feces. Body weight gain was initially impaired. Spleen weight was significantly increased in some ceria-treated groups, associated with abnormalities. Ceria was primarily retained in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. There was little decrease of ceria in any tissue over the 90 days. Granulomas were observed in the liver. Time-dependent oxidative stress changes were seen in the liver and spleen. Nanoscale ceria was persistently retained by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, associated with adverse changes. The results support concern about the long-term fate and adverse effects of inert nanoscale metal oxides that distribute throughout the body, are persistently retained, and produce adverse changes. PMID:22367688

  13. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Catarina; Lundborg, Karin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Olsson, Sven-Ove

    2003-05-15

    The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in individual pens (n=2167), in group pens, with 3-8 calves to a pen and manual feeding of milk (n=440), in group pens with 6-30 calves per pen and an automatic milk-feeding system (n=431), or with their dams (n=43). Disease incidence was recorded by farmers and project veterinarians, who clinically examined the calves and auscultated their lungs every 2-3 months. A disease was graded as 'severe' if the general loss of condition or of appetite in the calf continued for >2 days or if the animal suffered severe weight loss due to the disease. The effects of season, breed, housing, and type of colostrum feeding, and time, place and supervision of calving on the incidences of diarrhea, severe diarrhea, respiratory disease, other infectious disease and moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds, were analyzed by logistic-regression models (with herd as a random effect). The total morbidity rate was 0.081 cases per calf-month at risk. Incidence rates of arthritis, diarrhea, omphalophlebitis, respiratory disease and ringworm were 0.002, 0.035, 0.005, 0.025 and 0.009 cases per calf-months at risk, respectively. The odds ratios for diarrhea and severe diarrhea were increased in Swedish Red and Whites (OR: 1.6, 2.3) and in calves that received colostrum from first-lactation cows (OR: 1.3-1.8), and for severe diarrhea in calves born in summer or that received colostrum through suckling (OR: 1.7, 1.8). The odds ratios for respiratory disease and increased respiratory sounds were increased in calves housed in large-group pens with an automatic milk-feeding system (OR: 2.2, 2.8). Supervision of calving was associated with a decreased odds ratio for respiratory disease (OR: 0.7) and birth in individual maternity pen or tie stalls with a decreased odds ratio for increased

  14. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  15. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  16. Subchronic feeding study of four white mineral oils in dogs and rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, J H; Bird, M G; Lewis, S C; Freeman, J J; Hogan, G K; Scala, R A

    1995-02-01

    Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted on four highly refined white mineral oils to determine any potential for toxicity in Long-Evans rats (20 per sex per dose level) and beagle dogs (4 per sex per dose level). Each oil was fed at dietary dose levels of 300 ppm and 1500 ppm (w/w). No treatment-related effects of toxicological importance were detected in daily observations of general health or in periodic assessments of food consumption and body weight, hematology, serum clinical chemistry, and urinalysis. Observations in dogs suggested that the white oils produced mild laxative effects. Gross and histopathologic examinations, as well as measurements of organ weights, did not reveal any macroscopic or microscopic changes which could be due to treatment. In addition, special staining by Oil Red O of liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, gastrointestinal tract, stomach, and kidneys indicated no evidence of oil or lipid deposition. A special re-examination of tissues from female and male rats, in response to more recent conflicting data from the Fischer 344 strain, found no histopathologic signs of macrophage accumulation and/or microgranuloma formation in liver, spleen, or mesenteric lymph nodes. These data indicate that repeated exposure to relatively high levels of white mineral oils in the diets does not produce significant subchronic toxicity in Long-Evans rats or beagle dogs. PMID:7768201

  17. Assessment of the reporting of quality and outcome measures in hepatic resections: a call for 90-day reporting in all hepatectomy series

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E; Ohlendorf, Joanna M; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the current state of quality and outcomes measures being reported for hepatic resections in the recent literature. Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for English language articles published between 1 January 2002 and 30 April 2013. Two examiners reviewed each article and relevant citations for appropriateness of inclusion, which excluded papers of liver donor hepatic resections, repeat hepatectomies or meta-analyses. Data were extracted and summarized by two examiners for analysis. Results Fifty-five studies were identified with suitable reporting to assess peri-operative mortality in hepatic resections. In only 35% (19/55) of the studies was the follow-up time explicitly stated, and in 47% (26/55) of studies peri-operative mortality was limited to in-hospital or 30 days. The time period in which complications were captured was not explicitly stated in 19 out of 28 studies. The remaining studies only captured complications within 30 days of the index operation (8/28). There was a paucity of quality literature addressing truly patient-centred outcomes. Conclusion Quality outcomes after a hepatic resection are inconsistently reported in the literature. Quality outcome studies for a hepatectomy should report mortality and morbidity at a minimum of 90 days after surgery. PMID:26228262

  18. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption. PMID:25900579

  19. Less incidence of coronary artery disease in general anesthesia compared to spinal-epidural anesthesia after total knee replacement: 90-day follow-up period by a population-based dataset.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Yang; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective and safe procedure. However, large-scale study to compare the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) after spinal or epidural anesthesia (SA-EA) or general anesthesia (GA) for TKR has not ever been conducted. To do so, we studied a population-based dataset from the Taiwan National Health Research Institute and hypothesized that the incidence of CAD might be different with regional than with general anesthesia. The risk of CAD-related events during a 90-day follow-up period among patients who received TKR under SA-EA or GA was evaluated in the present study. A total of 1500 patients from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database who underwent TKR from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2006, were allocated into two groups. Group 1 included 1012 patients who received SA-EA during TKR procedure. Group 2 included 488 patients who received GA during this procedure. The number of patients who developed CAD during the 90-day follow-up period was 31 (3.1 %) in group 1 and 6 (1.2 %) in group 2. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of IHD-free cumulative survival rate during the 90-day follow-up period for patients who underwent TKR was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. The hazard ratio for the occurrence of CAD was 2.80 (95 % CI 1.16-6.78), and the hazard was higher for patients who received SA-EA than for patients who received GA after adjusted potential confounding factors. After the performance of TKR, patients had a potentially increased risk for CAD in SA-EA compared to GA during the 90-day follow-up period. PMID:25761988

  20. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  1. Fathers and breast feeding: a pilot observational study.

    PubMed

    Voss, S; Finnis, L; Manners, J

    1993-08-01

    A small pilot survey (n = 113) by questionnaire of the fathers of a sample of children under one year of age was undertaken in order to investigate the involvement of fathers with infant feeding and their attitudes to the method of feeding adopted. The response rate was 72% overall and 79% when the partners of 'single parent' mothers were excluded. Nearly 30% of respondents had not discussed the method of feeding with anyone, but over 60% had discussed it with their partner. 64% of fathers sometimes helped with feeding their child and 17% said that they always helped. The majority of fathers did not mind their partner breast feeding in front of friends or relatives but 42% did not like them feeding in front of strangers and over half did not like them breast feeding in a public place. From this study, based on relatively small numbers, we conclude that fathers may feel left out of infant feeding. They should be given more opportunity to become involved from an early stage and take part in the decision about the method of infant feeding to be adopted. PMID:8410907

  2. Evaluation of the 90-day inhalation toxicity of petroleum and oil shale JP-5 jet fuel. Technical report, July 1977-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gaworski, C.L.; MacEwen, J.D.; Vernot, E.H.; Haun, C.C.; Leahy, H.F.

    1985-04-01

    Subchronic 90-day inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale derived JP-5 jet fuel. Beagle dogs, Fischer 344 rats, and C57BL/6 mice were continuously exposed to JP-5 at concentrations of 150 mg/m cum and 750 mg/cum 3. Unexposed control groups were also maintained. All dogs and a portion of each rodent group were sacrificed and examined at exposure termination. Remaining rodents were held for observation up to 21 months postexposure. The most significant exposure related effect occurred in male rats, where JP-5 produced nephropathy characterized by hyaline droplets, necrosis, and intratubular casts. Accentuated tubular degeneration and medullary mineralization were noted in exposed rats held for long-term postexposure observation. Female rats were free of significant JP-5 related renal damage. Consistent with the pathologic changes in male rats exposed to 750 mg/cu m 3 were increased kidney weight and increased serum creatinine and BUN levels. Reduced body weight gains also occurred in male rats exposed to JP-5. No pathologic lesions were observed in dogs exposed to JP-5. Hepatocellular vacuolization and fatty change occurred in mice exposed to JP-5 from either source and in rats exposed to Shale JP-5. The results of this study suggest that there are no substantial differences between Petroleum and Shale JP-5.

  3. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:26993751

  4. Feed process studies: Research-Scale Melter

    SciTech Connect

    Whittington, K.F.; Seiler, D.K.; Luey, J.; Vienna, J.D.; Sliger, W.A.

    1996-09-01

    In support of a two-phase approach to privatizing the processing of hazardous and radioactive waste at Hanford, research-scale melter (RSM) experiments were conducted to determine feed processing characteristics of two potential privatization Phase 1 high-level waste glass formulations and to determine if increased Ag, Te, and noble metal amounts would have bad effects. Effects of feed compositions and process conditions were examined for processing rate, cold cap behavior, off-gas, and glass properties. The 2 glass formulations used were: NOM-2 with adjusted waste loading (all components except silica and soda) of 25 wt%, and NOM-3 (max waste loaded glass) with adjusted waste loading of 30 wt%. The 25 wt% figure is the minimum required in the privatization Request for Proposal. RSM operated for 19 days (5 runs). 1010 kg feed was processed, producing 362 kg glass. Parts of runs 2 and 3 were run at 10 to 30 degrees above the nominal temperature 1150 C, with the most significant processing rate increase in run 3. Processing observations led to the choice of NOM-3 for noble metal testing in runs 4 and 5. During noble metal testing, processing rates fell 50% from baseline. Destructive analysis showed that a layer of noble metals and noble metal oxides settled on the floor of the melter, leading to current ``channeling`` which allowed the top section to cool, reducing production rates.

  5. Ninety-day feeding study in Fischer-344 rats of highly refined petroleum-derived food-grade white oils and waxes.

    PubMed

    Smith, J H; Mallett, A K; Priston, R A; Brantom, P G; Worrell, N R; Sexsmith, C; Simpson, B J

    1996-01-01

    Subchronic 90-day feeding studies were conducted in male and female Fischer-344 (F-344) rats on highly refined white mineral oils and waxes representative of those used for food applications. The goal was to help clarify the mixed results found in other toxicity studies with laboratory animals. Seven white oils and 5 waxes were fed at dietary doses of 20,000, 2,000, 200, and 20 ppm and compared with control groups on untreated diet; toxicity was assessed at 90 days and also after a reversal period of 28 days and/or 85 days. Higher molecular-sized hydrocarbons (microcrystalline waxes and the higher viscosity oils) were without biological effects. Paraffin waxes and low- to midviscosity oils produced biological effects that were inversely related to molecular weight, viscosity, and melting point; oil type and processing did not appear to be determinants. Biological effects were more pronounced in females than in males. Effects occurred mainly in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes and included increased organ weights, microscopic inflammatory changes, and evidence for the presence of saturated mineral hydrocarbons in affected tissues. Inflammation of the cardiac mitral valve was also observed at high doses in rats treated with paraffin waxes. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism for the responses observed and the relevance of these inflammatory responses in the F-344 rat to other species, including humans. PMID:8992612

  6. A subchronic feeding study of dicamba-tolerant soybean with the dmo gene in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiyin; Xu, Wentao; Jia, Xin; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Changhui; Huang, Kunlun; Liang, Zhihong

    2016-06-01

    The dicamba-tolerant soybean MON87708 expresses the dicamba mono-oxygenase (DMO) enzyme that is encoded by the dmo gene. In order to evaluate the safety of this soybean, a 90-day subchronic feeding toxicity study (13 weeks) was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 140 rats were divided into 7 groups (10/sex/group), including a standard commercial diet control group. The genetically modified (GM) soybean MON87708 and the near isogenic non-GM soybean A3525 were respectively processed to unhulled, full-fat, and heat-treated powder, then mixed into the diet at levels of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (wt/wt) with the main nutrients of the various diets balanced and then fed to 6 groups. The remaining group of rats fed with a commercial rat diet served as blank control. Some isolated parameters indicated statistically significant differences in body weight, feed consumption/utilization, hematology, serum biochemistry, and relative organ weights. These differences were not consistent across gender or test-diet dose, which were attributed to incidental and biological variability. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the transgenic soybean MON87708 containing DMO was as safe as non-transgenic isogenic counterpart with historical safe use. PMID:26850684

  7. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  8. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  9. Assay of florfenicol in swine feed: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John M; Gilewicz, Rosalia; Freehauf, Keith; Fetter, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Nuflor (florfenicol) Premix for Swine was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for control of swine respiratory disease (SRD). A simple method for the assay of florfenicol in Type C medicated swine feeds was recently evaluated as part of a 4-laboratory study. Florfenicol is extracted from ground feed with acetonitrile-water by shaking and sonication. An Envi-Carb solid-phase extraction cartridge is used to clean up the extract, retaining matrix interferences while allowing florfenicol to elute. The collected eluent is diluted and injected into a reversed-phase liquid chromatographic system. Samples are quantitated by external standard analysis versus multilevel calibration solutions. The procedure is suitable for the quantification of swine feeds in mash or pellet form medicated with 100-300 mg/kg florfenicol. The interlaboratory study was conducted according to Guidance 136 issued by the FDA Center for Veterinary Medicine. The feeds used to evaluate method performance represented different feed compositions (starter and finisher) and manufacturers. The sponsor and 3 independent laboratories obtained mean recoveries (+/-SD) from fortified swine feeds of 100.7% (+/-2.0%), 99.6% (+/-2.8%), 98.8% (+/-1.4%), and 99.3% (+/-1.7%), respectively. Excellent agreement of the results of the assay of blind samples of commercial swine mash and pelleted feeds between laboratories demonstrates that the method is rugged and reproducible. PMID:19382592

  10. Modifications of azoxymethane-induced carcinogenesis and 90-day oral toxicities of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone as a radiolytic product of stearic acid in F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Todoriki, Setsuko; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Hafez, Ezar; Takasu, Chie; Uehara, Hisanori; Yamakage, Kohji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kozo; Furuta, Masakazu; Izumi, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity test in rats was performed to evaluate the toxicity of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB), a unique radiolytic product of stearic acid. Six-week-old male and female F344 rats (n=15/group) were given 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 12, 60 and 300 ppm in a powder diet for 13 weeks. Slight dose-dependent increases in serum total protein and albumin in male rats were found, but these changes were not considered to be a toxic effect. The fasting, but not non-fasting, blood glucose levels of the male rats in the 300 ppm group and female rats in the 60 and 300 ppm groups were lower than those of the controls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed dose-dependent accumulation of 2-tDCB in adipose tissue, notably in males. Next, we performed an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced two-stage carcinogenesis study. After injection of 6-week-old male F344 rats (n=30/group) once a week for 3 weeks, the animals received 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 250 ppm in a powder diet for 25 weeks. The incidences of colon tumors for the 2-tDCB dosages were 34%, 45%, 40% and 37%, respectively, and were not statistically significant. These data suggest that 2-tDCB shows no toxic or tumor-modifying effects under the present conditions, and that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for 2-tDCB is 300 ppm in both sexes, equivalent to 15.5 mg/kg b.w./day in males and 16.5 mg/kg b.w./day in females. PMID:26028819

  11. Modifications of azoxymethane-induced carcinogenesis and 90-day oral toxicities of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone as a radiolytic product of stearic acid in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Todoriki, Setsuko; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Hafez, Ezar; Takasu, Chie; Uehara, Hisanori; Yamakage, Kohji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kozo; Furuta, Masakazu; Izumi, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity test in rats was performed to evaluate the toxicity of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB), a unique radiolytic product of stearic acid. Six-week-old male and female F344 rats (n=15/group) were given 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 12, 60 and 300 ppm in a powder diet for 13 weeks. Slight dose-dependent increases in serum total protein and albumin in male rats were found, but these changes were not considered to be a toxic effect. The fasting, but not non-fasting, blood glucose levels of the male rats in the 300 ppm group and female rats in the 60 and 300 ppm groups were lower than those of the controls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed dose-dependent accumulation of 2-tDCB in adipose tissue, notably in males. Next, we performed an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced two-stage carcinogenesis study. After injection of 6-week-old male F344 rats (n=30/group) once a week for 3 weeks, the animals received 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 250 ppm in a powder diet for 25 weeks. The incidences of colon tumors for the 2-tDCB dosages were 34%, 45%, 40% and 37%, respectively, and were not statistically significant. These data suggest that 2-tDCB shows no toxic or tumor-modifying effects under the present conditions, and that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for 2-tDCB is 300 ppm in both sexes, equivalent to 15.5 mg/kg b.w./day in males and 16.5 mg/kg b.w./day in females. PMID:26028819

  12. 29 CFR 37.80 - What happens if a recipient fails to issue a Notice of Final Action within 90 days of the date on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What happens if a recipient fails to issue a Notice of Final Action within 90 days of the date on which a complaint was filed? 37.80 Section 37.80 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROVISIONS OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998...

  13. 29 CFR 37.79 - If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which the complainant is dissatisfied, how long does the complainant have to file a complaint with the Director? 37.79 Section 37.79 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION...

  14. Interfacing anthropology and epidemiology: the Bedouin Arab Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hundt, G A; Forman, M R

    1993-04-01

    This paper encapsulates a 10 year effort of multi-disciplinary research on the relationship between infant feeding, growth, and morbidity among the Negev Bedouin Arabs of Israel as they underwent a transition from semi-nomadism to urban settlement. The research team was multi-disciplinary including a nutritional epidemiologist and an anthropologist who both came to the study with previous experience in interdisciplinary work. The specific study objectives were (1) a description of infant feeding practices among Negev Bedouin Arab women at various stages of settlement, (2) an examination of the trend in these infant feeding practices, (3) a comparison of the extent to which different infant feeding practices are related to infant morbidity and growth after adjustment for exposure to social change and other covariates. The data collection took place in 1981-83 and the analysis from 1984-88. In this paper, two areas of the study are discussed in depth: the duration of exclusive breast feeding during the practice of the traditional postpartum 40 day rest period, and the development of a culture-specific scale of socioeconomic status. Through these examples, we highlight the use of ethnographic data and the merging of epidemiology and anthropology from hypothesis generation through data collection, data analysis and interpretation. PMID:8480241

  15. Microbiological method for assaying lincomycin in animal feed: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Neff, A W; Thomas, R W

    1978-09-01

    A microbiological assay for determining lincomycin in swine feed, supplement, and a vitamin-mineral premix was studied collaboratively in 16 laboratories. The design of the study involved a complete feed, feed supplement, and a vitamin-mineral premix covering a range of fortification from 20 to 80 g/ton and 80 to 2600 g/ton. Two methods of sample preparation were used depending on the concentration of lincomycin in the sample. Statistical evaluation of the results from the 2 methods indicated that 10 and 11 collaborators, respectively, had mean recoveries which were not significantly different from one another. Ten laboratories obtained a mean recovery of 112.2% (range 102.3--123.5%) for the lower level, and 11 laboratories obtained a mean recovery of 104.4% (range 100.0--107.7%) for the higher level. The method has been adopted as official first action. PMID:363677

  16. Breast feeding and the weekend effect: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Fitzsimons, Emla; Vera-Hernández, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the incidence of breast feeding by day of week of birth. Design Retrospective database study using 16 508 records from the 2005 and 2010 Infant Feeding Surveys. Setting England and Wales, UK. Participants Mothers of a sample of births from among all registered births in the periods August–September 2005 and August–October 2010. Main outcome measure Incidence of breast feeding after birth. Results Among babies of mothers who left full-time education aged 16 or under, the incidence of breast feeding was 6.7 percentage points lower (95% CI 1.4 to 12.1 percentage points) for those born on Saturdays than for those born on Mondays–Thursdays. No such differences by day of week of birth were observed among babies of mothers who left school aged 17 or over. Conclusions Breastfeeding policy should take into account differences in breast feeding by day of week of birth, which are apparent among low-educated mothers. Further research is needed to ascertain the reason for this finding. PMID:27401354

  17. Modified method for carbadox in feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Goras, J T

    1979-09-01

    The official first action method for carbadox in swine feed, 42.C01-42.C04, was modified in 2 respects. First, the samples were leached overnight at room temperature instead of boiled for 1 hr. This change avoided problems with overheating and excessive evaporation. Second, the dilution scheme for samples spiked with carbadox standard solution was changed to give absorbance values that were within the optimum working range of all types of spectrophotometers. The modified procedure was collaboratively studied by 21 laboratories. The repeatability standard deviation (sigma0) and reproducibility standard deviation (sigmax) were sigma0 = 0.00029% and sigmax = 0.00056% (8.9% of grand mean) for feeds containing 0.00617% carbadox; and sigma = 0.0012% and sigmax = 0.0019% (9.3% of grand mean) for feeds containing 0.0198% carbadox. The between-laboratory variance ratio was significant for feeds containing 0.0198% carbadox. The mean per cent of intent values for feeds containing 0.00617% carbadox and 0.0198% carbadox were 102% and 104%, respectively. In general, the statistical results were comparable to those previously obtained for the official first action method. Consequently, the modified procedure is not recommended as a replacement for the official first action method. PMID:528473

  18. Microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Stahl, G L; Kratzer, D D; Kasson, C W

    1989-01-01

    A modification of the AOAC microbiological determination of neomycin in feeds was collaboratively studied by 12 laboratories. The official method was modified by substituting a constant salt concentration diluent for the feed extract diluent, preparing the agar medium in tris buffer, and performing the test with a monolayer plating system. Each laboratory performed single assays on 8 samples in a randomized sequence. The samples included duplicates of a cattle and swine feed at 2 different marketed concentrations. The mean recovery across all laboratories was 110.7% of theory with a range of means of 69.4-128.6 across the 12 laboratories. The results of one laboratory and 2 additional values from different laboratories were deemed outliers and excluded from statistical analysis. The statistical analysis gave a confidence interval of +/- 26% for individual assays. PMID:2651392

  19. 75 FR 23654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Hermes Copper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Hermes copper (71 FR 44966) or Thorne's hairstreak butterflies (71 FR 44980) was warranted. (For a... (75 FR 17062) concluding that listing Thorne's hairstreak butterfly may be warranted. This notice... finding (71 FR 44966, August 8, 2006) is limited to Marschalek and Deutschman's (2008) study of the...

  20. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product. PMID:17356802

  1. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  2. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  3. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  4. Feeding studies in rats with mineral hydrocarbon food grade white oils.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M K; Berry, P H; Esdaile, D J; Linnett, S L; Martin, J G; Peristianis, G C; Priston, R A; Simpson, B J; Smith, J D

    1992-01-01

    This investigation compared the effects of feeding rats diets containing food grade white oil processed by either conventional oleum treatment or the more modern method of catalytic hydrogenation. In two separate experiments, male or female Fischer-344 rats were given free access for 90 days to diets containing 0, 10, 100, 500, 5,000, 10,000, or 20,000 ppm of either oleum-treated white oil (OTWO) or hydrotreated white oil (HTWO). There were no mortalities and no adverse clinical signs associated with feeding either white oil. Treatment-related effects evidenced by hematological, clinical chemical, and pathological changes were generally dose-related and more marked in female than in male rats, and the OTWO caused a greater pathological response than the HTWO. Tissue residues of saturated hydrocarbons were up to 5.2 times higher in female rats than in males. Rats fed 5,000 ppm or more of either white oil showed dose-related alterations in several hematological and clinical chemistry variates associated mainly with hepatic damage or functional alteration. At necropsy, mesenteric lymph nodes were enlarged, and increases in weight of liver, kidney, and spleen were significant. Microscopic changes were characterized by multifocal lipogranulomata in mesenteric lymph node and liver. No changes were observed in rats fed OTWO or HTWO for 90 days at dietary concentrations of 10 or 100 ppm, equivalent to a minimum intake of 0.65 and 6.4 mg/kg/day, respectively. Differences in degree of pathological response associated with each oil may have been due to their differences in specification rather than processing method. PMID:1295071

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and several microns long, but they often pack tightly together to form rods or ropes of microscopic sizes. Carbon nanotubes possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and have many potential applications in the electronics, computer, and aerospace industries. Unprocessed nanotubes are very light and could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs. Because the toxicity of nanotubes in the lung is not known, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 0, 0.1, or 0.5 mg of carbon nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control and euthanized 7 d or 90 d after the single treatment for histopathological study of the lungs. All nanotube products induced dose-dependent epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7-d groups. These lesions persisted and were more pronounced in the 90-d groups; the lungs of some animals also revealed peribronchial inflammation and necrosis that had extended into the alveolar septa. The lungs of mice treated with carbon black were normal, whereas those treated with high-dose quartz revealed mild to moderate inflammation. These results show that, for the test conditions described here and on an equal-weight basis, if carbon nanotubes reach the lungs, they are much more toxic than carbon black and can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  6. Growth of Holstein calves from birth to 90 days: the influence of dietary zinc and BLAD status.

    PubMed

    Arrayet, J L; Oberbauer, A M; Famula, T R; Garnett, I; Oltjen, J W; Imhoof, J; Kehrli, M E; Graham, T W

    2002-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to describe Holstein neonatal growth and development as influenced by dietary zinc supplementation and the CD18 genotype, both of which may affect immune competence. Holstein calves (n = 421), after being fed colostrum, were brought to a calf facility, randomly assigned to one of four zinc supplementation groups (control at 40 mg Zn/kg DM or the control diet supplemented with an additional 60 mg Zn/kg DM provided as either zinc sulfate, zinc lysine, or zinc methionine), weighed, and measured for morphometric growth parameters. Measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 d. Calves were also genotyped for the presence of the mutant D128G CD18 allele, which, if present in two copies, causes bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Zinc supplementation above 40 mg Zn/kg DM, regardless of the chemical form, did not accelerate growth (P > 0.25). Further, overall calf growth performance was not suppressed or improved (P > 0.4) in calves heterozygous at the CD18 locus relative to calves homozygous for the normal CD18 allele, although genotype negatively affected some morphometric measurements (P < 0.05). Using these data, quadratic models of early growth were generated as a preliminary step to develop growth criteria that will allow producers, veterinarians, and animal scientists to identify poor growth performance early in neonatal life. Such criteria provide the basis for tools to improve economic performance. PMID:11890391

  7. Bioaccumulation and locomotor effects of manganese sulfate in Sprague-Dawley rats following subchronic (90 days) inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tapin, Danielle; Kennedy, Greg; Lambert, Jean; Zayed, Joseph . E-mail: joseph.zayed@umontreal.ca

    2006-03-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic compound that was introduced as an antiknock additive to replace lead in unleaded fuel. The combustion of MMT results in the emission of fine Mn particulates mainly in the form of manganese sulfate and manganese phosphate. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of subchronic exposure to Mn sulfate in different tissues, on locomotor activity, on neuropathology, and on blood serum biochemical parameters. A control group and three groups of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 6-h/day, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive weeks at 30, 300, or 3000 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Mn sulfate. Locomotor activity was measured during 36 h using an Auto-Track System. Blood and the following tissues were collected and analyzed for manganese content by neutron activation analysis: olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, caudate/putamen, cerebellum, frontal cortex, liver, lung, testis, and kidney. Neuronal cell counts were obtained for the caudate/putamen and the globus pallidus and clinical biochemistry was assessed. Manganese concentrations were increased in blood, kidney, lung, and testis and in all brain regions in the 3000 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group. Significant differences were also noted in the 300 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group. Neuronal cell counts for the globus pallidus were significantly different between the two highest exposed groups and the controls. Locomotor activity for all exposure concentrations and resting time for the middle and highest concentrations for the two night resting periods were significantly increased. Total ambulatory count was decreased significantly for all exposure concentrations. Biochemical profiles also presented significant differences. No body weight loss was observed between all groups. These results suggest that neurotoxicity could occur at low exposure levels of Mn sulfate, one of the main combustion products of MMT.

  8. Breast feeding and bottle feeding controversies in the developing world: evidence from a study in four countries.

    PubMed

    Winikoff, B; Laukaran, V H

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes some of the findings from a comparative study to investigate infant feeding practices and their determinants in four Third World urban areas: Bangkok, Thailand; Bogota, Colombia; Nairobi, Kenya; and Semarang, Indonesia. The information about developing country urban woman provided by these data allows examination of the interaction of feeding practices with socio-economic and biomedical variables. Through the use of descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analytic techniques, it is possible to explore some of the questions which have been debated regarding infant feeding practices. Data addressing five major questions are described in this paper: (1) Is breast feeding declining? (2) Is bottle feeding making women breast feed less? (3) Why do women use bottles? (4) How do mothers get the idea of using bottles? (5) How does paid employment affect infant feeding practices and the use of baby bottles? The study documents changes in infant feeding that can be expected to have detrimental effects for child health and for child spacing. Bottle use appears to interfere with breast feeding in all cultures, but more dramatically in more 'modernized' societies. Mothers resort to bottle use for a variety of reasons, but not usually as an attempt to wean. The health care system often provides the first contact between mothers and bottle use, and health care providers frequently encourage the use of artificial feeding. Women who work away from home early in their infants' lives must often use bottle feeding, but the percent of women affected is very small. Many more women use bottles and wean early than work away from home, and most artificially-fed babies do not have working mothers. PMID:2799428

  9. STS-90 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk once again take part in an experiment aimed at exploring the influence of gravity on blood pressure. The lower body negative pressure test places a stress on the cardiovascular system similar to that experienced when standing in Earth's gravity. Pawelczyk also takes part in the Valsalva test, which stimulates the pressure receptors in the neck and chest and measures those responses. Both Buckey and Pawelzyk participate as subjects and as operators in tests of the autonomic nervous system. All four science crew members conduct tests of their pulmonary systems as well as additional runs in a rotating chair to measure the response of their eyes and inner ears in maintaining balance in a weightless environment.

  10. STS-90 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk are back on the job full-time as they begin the day six of on-orbit research on the human nervous system. Additional work with the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) equipment which is collecting data on the crew's breathing patterns and blood concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide also takes place.

  11. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  12. STS-90 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue to conduct both human and animal research experiments in the Spacelab module. During the morning, the payload crew members Linnehan, Williams, Buckey and Pawelczyk performs transfer activities with the Animal Enclosure Module, setting up the General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and operations with the ball catch experiment. In the afternoon, their attention will be on injections and dissections of some of the research animals and an objects recognition test.

  13. Off-gas chemistry study of melter feed by Springborn Laboratories. [Sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples

    SciTech Connect

    Crow, K.R.

    1985-06-05

    The purpose of the off-gas chemistry study of melter feed samples was to support and help substantiate glass melter thermochemistry models developed for the DWPF. Both sludge-only and sludge-precipitate feed samples were analyzed. Each slurry sample was pyrolyzed at temperatures from 150 to 1000/sup 0/C in air and inert atmospheres, and the head space products were analyzed by chromatographic and mass spectrometric methods. Thermogravimetric, differential scanning calorimetric and Fourier transform infrared analyses were also performed on each sample. There were no unusually high exothermic reactions that would be cause for concern in the DWPF melter. Results for two types of sludge-precipitate feed were compared. One type contained simulated precipitate hydrolysis aqueous (PHA) product as fed to the SCM-2 melter. The second type contained PHA from the lab-scale acid hydrolysis reactor in 677-T. A major difference between the two types was a small, but distinct, presence of higher aromatics in gas from feed with reactor-produced PHA. This feed also evolved more CO and CO/sub 2/ than feed with simulated PHA at high pyrolytic temperatures (>750/sup 0/C). Recent analyses have identified the higher boiling aromatics in reactor-produced PHA as primarily diphenylamine and p-terphenyl. These compounds will be included in future PHA simulations that are fed to research melters. Under an inert atmosphere, benzene and phenol were the two most abundant organics evolved during pyrolysis of sludge-precipitate feed.

  14. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Harris, Mark A.; Haws, Laurie C.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC{sub 50} values < 10 mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation. Highlights: ► Mouse small intestine gene expression is highly responsive to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. ► Cr(VI) elicits more differential gene expression after 7 days of exposure than 90 days of exposure. ► Oral exposure to Cr(VI) leads to

  15. Infant feeding study: knowledge and attitudes of selected pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Kandiah, M; Ooi Guat San

    1984-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate attitudes toward infant feeding among women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. A total of 74 primiparous and multiparous mothers ranging in age from 18-45 who were attending antenatal clinics near Kuala Lumpur were interviewed, 78.3% of which were Malay, 12.2% Chinese, and 9.5% Indian. Most were from middle class families, and only 6.5% had never attended school. Although 91.9% considered breastmilk as being the best food for babies, only 63.5% preferred to breastfeed; 8.1% chose powdered milk and 28.4% chose mixed feeding. Most of those who chose not to breastfeed were Chinese, working women, and/or women from higher income groups. Information on the intended duration of breastfeeding showed that multiparous women and working women did not intend to breastfeed for more than 6 months. Most women did not believe that either breast milk or powdered milk alone was sufficient for infants up to 5 months of age, and intended to supplement with solid food before that age. Since 93.2% of the respondents had already decided on feeding methods by their last trimester, it is important that nutritional information be given during this time. PMID:12280344

  16. Effects of feeding Ascochyta-infected and normal lentils to rats (short-term study).

    PubMed Central

    Tarwid, J N; Morrall, R A; Mills, J H

    1985-01-01

    Weanling, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either rat chow with no lentils, 80% normal lentils or 80% diseased lentils heavily infected with the fungus Ascochyta lentis. Body weight, feed consumption and clinical appearance were monitored over 90 days and blood samples were collected at the termination of the experiment. Weight gain and feed consumption were similar in the control group and the group fed diseased lentils. Weight gain was slightly depressed in the group fed normal lentils. These effects were attributed to the lentils being a poorer source of protein than the wheat, barley and soybean meal used in the control diet, but the protein content of the diseased lentils was higher than the normal lentils. Total white blood cell counts and lymphocyte counts were significantly depressed (P = 0.05) in the group fed the diseased lentil diet. Significant differences (P = 0.05) were found among groups in the ratios of liver, kidney and spleen weights to body weight. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4075241

  17. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana; Acevedo, Pelayo; Marques, João Carlos; Martinez-Haro, Mónica

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  18. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, < 0.0001; EQ-5D: 0.17 ± 0.25 vs 0.23 ± 0.23, p = 0.04; SF-12 PCS: 8.6 ± 13.3 vs 13.0 ± 11.9, 0.001; and satisfaction: 76% vs 90%, p = 0.002). At 12 months after surgery, the patients with major complications had higher ODI scores than those without complications (29.1

  19. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sik; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung Gil; Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Song, Kyung Seuk; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Jeon, Kisoo; Ahn, Kang Ho; Yu, Il Je

    2014-03-01

    Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group = 25 animals), a fresh air control (0 mg/m(3)), low (0.17 mg/m(3)), middle (0.49 mg/m(3)), and high (0.96 mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72 nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15 nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the male and female rats from all the exposed groups when compared with the fresh air control. In addition, the high-dose exposed male and middle and high-dose exposed female rats retained DNA damage, even 90 days post-exposure (p < 0.05). To investigate the mode of genotoxicity, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, TGF- β, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ) were also measured. For the male rats, the H2O2 levels were significantly higher in the middle (0 days post-exposure) and high- (0 days and 28 days post-exposure) dose groups (p < 0.05). Conversely, the female rats showed no changes in the H2O2 levels. The inflammatory cytokine levels in the

  20. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill...

  1. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill...

  2. Determination of zearalenone in cereal grains, animal feed, and feed ingredients using immunoaffinity column chromatography and liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Harold M; Armstrong, J Fred

    2007-01-01

    A method using immunoaffinity column chromatography (IAC) and liquid chromatography (LC) for determination of zearalenone in cereal grains, animal feed, and feed ingredients was collaboratively studied. The test portion is extracted by shaking with acetonitrile-water (90 + 10, v/v) and sodium chloride. The extract is diluted and applied to an immunoaffinity column, the column is washed with water or phosphate-buffered saline or methanol-water (30 + 70, v/v), and zearalenone is eluted with methanol. The eluate is evaporated, the residue is dissolved in mobile phase and analyzed by reversed-phase LC with fluorescence detection. The presence of zearalenone can be confirmed using an alternate excitation wavelength or diode array detection. Twenty samples were sent to 13 collaborators (8 in Europe, 2 in the United States, one in Japan, one in Uruguay, and one in Canada). Eighteen samples of naturally contaminated corn, barley, wheat, dried distillers grains, swine feed, and dairy feed were analyzed as blind duplicates, along with blank corn and wheat samples. The analyses were done in 2 sample sets with inclusion of a spiked wheat control sample (0.1 mg/kg) in each set. Spiked samples recoveries were 89-116%, and for the 18 naturally contaminated samples, RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 6.67 to 12.1%, RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 12.5 to 19.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.61 to 0.90. PMID:18193738

  3. CONTAMINANT LEVELS IN ANIMAL FEEDS USED FOR TOXICITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Samples of commercial feeds for laboratory rats, guinea pigs, cats, monkeys rabbits, and hamsters were collected and analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively for selected antibiotics, trace metals, pesticides (organophosphates and chlorinated hydrocarbons), natural agents, and p...

  4. Thirteen week feeding study with transgenic maize grain containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Susan A; Lamb, Ian; Schmidt, Jean; Deege, Lora; Morrisey, Michael J; Harper, Marc; Layton, Raymond J; Prochaska, Lee M; Sanders, Craig; Locke, Mary; Mattsson, Joel L; Fuentes, Angel; Delaney, Bryan

    2007-04-01

    Maize line 1507, containing event DAS-Ø15Ø7-1 (1507), is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the cry1F gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) sbsp. aizawai and the phosphinothricin-N-acetyltransferase (pat) gene from Streptomyces viridochromogenes throughout the plant including in the grain expression of the Cry1F protein confers in planta resistance to the European corn borer (ECB; Ostrinia nubilalis Hübner: Crambidae) and other lepidopteran pests. Expression of the PAT protein confers tolerance to the herbicidal active ingredient glufosinate-ammonium. The current study evaluated the nutritional performance of rats fed diets containing 1507 maize grain in a subchronic rodent feeding study. The grains in this study, 1507, its near-isogenic control (33P66), and a non-GM commercial hybrid (33J56) contained similar amounts of proximates, amino acids, minerals, anti-nutrients, and secondary metabolites. The subchronic feeding study compared standard toxicology response variables in rats fed diets containing 1507 maize grain with those in rats fed diets containing non-GM maize grains. All diets were prepared according to the specifications of PMI Nutrition International, LLC Certified Rodent LabDiet 5002 (PMI) 5002). Diets were fed ad libitum to Sprague-Dawley rats for approximately 90 days. In-life response variables included indicators of dietary performance and weekly evaluations for clinical signs of toxicity. No toxicologically significant differences were observed in the nutritional performance variables, clinical and neurobehavioral signs, ophthalmology, clinical pathology (hematology, clinical chemistry, coagulation, and urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology between any pair of treatment groups. These results demonstrate that 1507 maize grain is as safe and as nutritious as non-GM maize grain. PMID:17097206

  5. A study of the pattern of breast feeding in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Osinusi, K

    1987-12-01

    The patterns of breast feeding and the effect of health education on the practice among three groups of women, namely a rural poor group, an urban poor group and an urban elite group were studied. Although the rural poor had the least knowledge about the advantages of breast feeding, the median duration of breast feeding was longest in this group and only 32% of them had introduced supplementary feeds by the end of the first month. Health education did not appear to be a critical factor in motivating these mothers to feed their children the right way. Rather, socio-economic factors particularly poverty appeared to be the compelling factor with regards to duration of breast feeding and time of introduction of supplementary feeds. PMID:3430664

  6. Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study

    PubMed Central

    Pietsch, Constanze; Kersten, Susanne; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia; Valenta, Hana; Dänicke, Sven

    2013-01-01

    The control of mycotoxins is a global challenge not only in human consumption but also in nutrition of farm animals including aquatic species. Fusarium toxins, such as deoxynivalenol (DON) and zearalenone (ZEN), are common contaminants of animal feed but no study reported the occurrence of both mycotoxins in fish feed so far. Here, we report for the first time the occurrence of DON and ZEN in samples of commercial fish feed designed for nutrition of cyprinids collected from central Europe. A maximal DON concentration of 825 μg kg−1 feed was found in one feed whereas average values of 289 μg kg−1 feed were noted. ZEN was the more prevalent mycotoxin but the concentrations were lower showing an average level of 67.9 μg kg−1 feed. PMID:23325300

  7. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions. PMID:27352882

  8. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    , broilers, lactating dairy cows, and fish, comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients from a range of GM plants with their near isogenic counterpart and commercial varieties, showed that they were comparable with those for near isogenic non-GM lines and commercial varieties. In Section 3 toxicological in vivo, in silico, and in vitro test methods are discussed which may be applied for the safety and nutritional assessment of specific compounds present in food and feed or of whole food and feed derived from GM plants. Moreover the purpose, potential and limitations of the 90-day rodent feeding trial for the safety and nutritional testing of whole food and feed have been examined. Methods for single and repeated dose toxicity testing, reproductive and developmental toxicity testing and immunotoxicity testing, as described in OECD guideline tests for single well-defined chemicals are discussed and considered to be adequate for the safety testing of single substances including new products in GM food and feed. Various in silico and in vitro methods may contribute to the safety assessment of GM plant derived food and feed and components thereof, like (i) in silico searches for sequence homology and/or structural similarity of novel proteins or their degradation products to known toxic or allergenic proteins, (ii) simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in order to study the digestive stability of newly expressed proteins and in vitro systems for analysis of the stability of the novel protein under heat or other processing conditions, and (iii) in vitro genotoxicity test methods that screen for point mutations, chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage/repair. The current performance of the safety assessment of whole foods is mainly based on the protocols for low-molecular-weight chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, pesticides, food additives and contaminants. However without adaptation, these protocols have limitations for testing of whole food and feed

  9. SETI low-frequency feed design study for DSS 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.; Lee, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Sky Survey project requires operation from 1 to 10 GHz on the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna DSS 24. The BWG reflectors are undersized in the 1- to 3.02-GHz range, resulting in poor performance. Horn designs and a method for implementing 1- to 3.02-GHz operation on DSS 24 are presented. A combination of a horn and a shaped feed reflector placed above the main reflector is suggested. The horn and feed reflector could be hidden in the RF shadow of the subreflector and struts. Results from computer analysis of this design indicate that adequate performance could be achieved.

  10. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  11. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  12. Metabolomic study of plasma from female mink (Neovison vison) with low and high residual feed intake during restrictive and ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Hedemann, Mette Skou; Damgaard, Birthe Marie

    2012-12-01

    Metabolite profiling may elucidate changes in metabolic pathways under various physiological or nutritional conditions. In the present study two groups of female mink characterised as having a high (16 mink) or low (14 mink) residual feed intake were investigated during restrictive and ad libitum feeding. Blood samples were collected three times during the experimental period; during restrictive feeding, and four days and three weeks after the change to ad libitum feeding. Plasma samples were subjected to liquid chromatography mass spectrometry non-targeted metabolomics. Subjecting data to principal component analysis showed that there was no grouping of the data according to the residual feed intake. In contrast, data were clearly grouped according to feeding level. Identification of the metabolites responsible for this grouping showed that the plasma level of metabolites related to mobilisation of energy was high during restrictive feeding, e.g. betaine, carnitine, and creatine. During ad libitum feeding the plasma level of metabolites that can be characterised as biomarkers of meat intake (creatinine, carnosine, 1- and 3 methylhistidine) was high. The plasma level of lysophosphatidylcholine species was highest after four days of ad libitum feeding suggesting a short term imbalance in the transport or metabolism of these metabolites when changing the feeding level. PMID:23123310

  13. Postexposure feeding depression: a new toxicity endpoint for use in laboratory studies with Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    McWilliam, Ruth A; Baird, Donald J

    2002-06-01

    In situ bioassays with daphnids currently employ lethality as an endpoint, and although sublethal responses (reproduction and feeding rate) can be measured in the field, such endpoints pose major practical challenges. Previous studies have indicated that Daphnia magna exposed to toxic substances can exhibit delayed recovery in feeding behavior (postexposure feeding depression). This simple, robust response has the potential to be an ecologically relevant and potentially diagnostic endpoint. This study developed and tested the use of postexposure feeding depression as a toxicity endpoint in the laboratory environment. First, replicate numbers were manipulated to produce statistically reliable results. Second, postexposure feeding depression in D. magna was studied under laboratory conditions, by employing toxic substances with differing modes of action. Although most substances caused feeding inhibition during direct exposure, not all substances produced postexposure feeding depression. However, the use of lethality as a supplementary endpoint provided an alternative measure when no feeding depression was apparent after exposure. In combination, these endpoints offer a potentially more sensitive, ecologically relevant alternative to the use of lethality alone for in situ bioassay studies. PMID:12069303

  14. A retrospective study of factors affecting breast feeding practices in a rural community of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    al-Nasser, A N; Bamgboye, E A; Alburno, M K

    1991-03-01

    This study was conducted during 1987-1988 academic year in the rural areas of Tihama Saudi Arabia to assess the average duration of breast feeding and the effect of some factors. A multi-way analysis of variance approach was used to examine the effect of mother's age, parity and education on the duration of breast feeding. The mean duration of breast feeding was 11.2 months +/- and the results of the regression analysis shows all the three maternal variables, age, parity and education to have statistically significant independent effect on the duration of breast feeding. The results showed that 98.3% support breast feeding and 78.9% of the sample were illiterates. These findings are discussed in relation to previous work. PMID:2070752

  15. Enteral feeding as sole treatment for Crohn's disease: controlled trial of whole protein v amino acid based feed and a case study of dietary challenge.

    PubMed Central

    Raouf, A H; Hildrey, V; Daniel, J; Walker, R J; Krasner, N; Elias, E; Rhodes, J M

    1991-01-01

    A controlled trial was performed to compare enteral feeding with either an amino acid based feed or a whole protein feed as sole treatment for active Crohn's disease. Twenty four patients were studied (nine with ileal, 11 with ileocolonic, and four with colonic disease). Both feeds proved effective; nine of 13 patients randomised to receive the amino acid based feed were in clinical remission within three weeks as defined by a simple activity index compared with eight of 11 treated with the whole protein feed. Patients in clinical remission were then crossed over onto the other feed. None of the six patients who were changed to the whole protein feed relapsed over the subsequent three week period compared with three of seven patients who were changed to the amino acid based feed. In responders the median serum C reactive protein concentration fell from 21 mg/l (range 9-82) on entry to 6 mg/l (range 3-19) at six weeks. Seven patients relapsed within eight months of starting solid food (mean 3.7 months), while nine were still in remission (follow up period 3-9 months, median six months). Detailed studies of staged reintroduction of food and permitted food additives were carried out over a four year period in a patient with extensive stricturing small bowel Crohn's disease who had been brought into remission by open treatment with enteral feeding. Carrageenan, other permitted emulsifiers, bread, meat, potatoes, oranges, refined sugar, dairy produce, flour, and rice were all reintroduced without any objective ill effect, but green vegetables provoked a clinical and biochemical relapse within one week of introduction. Remission was rapidly achieved by switching back to the enteral feed but reintroduction of the low residue diet that had been previously tolerated produced a brisk relapse. Clinical and biochemical remission was again achieved by a return to the enteral feed but relapse again occurred with reintroduction of the low residue diet. These studies confirm the

  16. Parental feeding behaviours and motivations. A qualitative study in mothers of UK pre-schoolers.

    PubMed

    Carnell, S; Cooke, L; Cheng, R; Robbins, A; Wardle, J

    2011-12-01

    Parental feeding behaviours are considered major influences on children's eating behaviour. However, many questionnaire studies of feeding neglect subtle distinctions between specific feeding strategies and practices in favour of eliciting general feeding goals, and do not take account of the context provided by parents' motivations. These factors may be critical to understanding child outcomes and engaging parents in child obesity prevention. The present study obtained interview and diary data on specific feeding behaviours and underlying motivations from 22 mothers of predominantly healthy weight 3-5 y olds in the UK. Parents described a wide range of efforts to promote or restrict intake that were largely motivated by practical and health considerations and only rarely by concern about weight. There was also evidence for instrumental feeding, rules surrounding meal-time, child involvement, and parental flexibility in relation to feeding. Almost all parents described responding to children's appetitive traits, consistent with growing evidence for genetically influenced individual differences in children's appetite. These findings suggest that in order to engage parents of currently healthy weight children, obesity prevention advice should aim to satisfy their primary motivations (practicality, health), and be framed as helping parents to respond sensitively and appropriately to different children's characteristics. PMID:21884741

  17. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Auad, Sheyla M.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. PMID:25785498

  18. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear. PMID:25969585

  19. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-05-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear. PMID:25969585

  20. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    PubMed Central

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2015-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers’ pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type on mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infant intake. Formula-feeding dyads (N=25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Both bottles were glass with latex, low-flow nipples; the opaque bottle was fitted with a silicone sleeve containing a 60-g metal plate in its base. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS). Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p=.04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers’ pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants’ cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01

  1. A Cultural Understanding of Chinese Immigrant Mothers’ Feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A.; Jones, Shelby S.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/ cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. PMID:25555536

  2. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. PMID:25555536

  3. Repeated exposure toxicity of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol by cutaneous applications to the rat for 9 and 90 days.

    PubMed

    Van Miller, J P; Losco, P E; Neptun, D A; Ballantyne, B

    1995-02-01

    2-Ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (EHD; CASRN 94-96-2), an industrial chemical and insect repellent, has a high potential for recurrent skin contact. Short-term (9 d) and subchronic (13 w) repeated epicutaneous contact studies were conducted to determine the potential for cumulative local skin irritation and systemic toxicity in Fischer 344 rats. Doses were 0.5, 2.0 or 4.0 ml/kg/d of undiluted EHD. There were no clinical signs and no treatment-related effects on hematology, clinical chemistry or histology of a large number of organs and tissues including the treated skin. The only effects where slight decreases in body weight gain for the high-dose males in the 9-d study and males and females of the high-dose group in the subchronic study; slight decreases in food consumption for females of all treatment groups in the subchronic study; and slight increases in relative liver weight for high-dose females in the 9-d study and high-dose males in the subchronic study, which is probably a compensatory hypertrophy for the metabolism of EHD. Thus, recurrent epicutaneous applications of undiluted EHD to the rat did not cause any local skin irritation or cumulative or organ-specific toxicity. PMID:7709587

  4. Infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis: a study of feeding practices and other possible causes.

    PubMed Central

    Habbick, B F; Khanna, C; To, T

    1989-01-01

    We carried out a case-control study of the hospital charts of 91 infants with infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis (IHPS) to determine the feeding practices at the time of discharge from the neonatal nursery. We excluded infants whose feeding might have been influenced by confounding factors. The infants were matched with controls for gestational age. The mean birth weight of the IHPS group was 3501 g and of the control group 3543 g. The male:female ratio for the IHPS group was 5.5. The odds ratio of male predominance was 4. We found that bottle-feeding was 2.9 times more prevalent among the infants with IHPS than among the control subjects. We speculate that the recently observed decrease in the incidence of IHPS is due to the decline in bottle-feeding. PMID:2914261

  5. Infection dynamics and clinical manifestations following experimental inoculation of gilts at 90 days of gestation with a low dose of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jean Paul; Dee, Scott A.; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Rovira, Albert; Morrison, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vertical transmission is important to enhance the accuracy of monitoring protocols for endemically infected breeding herds. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PRRSV within infected litters, to quantify viremia, and to identify specific attributes of infected individuals. Eight gilts were intramuscularly inoculated with 101 TCID50 of a mildly virulent PRRSV strain (MN-30100) at 90 d of gestation. All inoculated gilts transmitted the virus in utero. The proportion of PRRSV PCR-positive piglets and the level of viremia in the piglets were higher at 4 d of age than at birth or at weaning. No specific attributes were associated with PRRSV infection in the piglets. This is the first report, that we are aware of, documenting the efficient in utero transmission of an extremely low dose of a mildly virulent strain of PRRSV. The results support the sampling of piglets late during lactation as a tool to monitor PRRSV shedding from sow-herds. PMID:20046633

  6. Methods appropriate for studying the relationship of breast-feeding to obesity.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2009-02-01

    A vast literature examines the association of breast-feeding with body composition and risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood. Several recent systematic reviews, including one by the World Health Organization, concluded that there is a small protective effect of breast-feeding against overweight in later life. Nearly all studies covered by these reviews used observational study designs that limit causal inferences. Methodological strengths, weaknesses, and main results of the epidemiologic studies that have drawn conclusions about the relation between infant feeding and overweight in childhood and adulthood are briefly reviewed to provide a methodological perspective for the subsequent presentations in this symposium. The focus is on the role of recall and selection bias, appropriate representation of exposures, inadequate control for confounding, and the utility of alternative study designs that may circumvent some of the problems. PMID:19106309

  7. Trade study for the feed tank fill status issue for low-activity waste feed issue 19D

    SciTech Connect

    Slaathaug, E.J.

    1998-05-18

    This document identifies and evaluates alternatives that will provide DOE-RL sufficient information from which a decision can be negotiated regarding the Project Hanford Management Contractor team`s use of tanks 241-AP-106 and -108 versus the private contractors need to upgrade them for their purposes. The desired alternatives to be evaluated and the measures for comparison were selected in a separate meeting with the customer (RL). These are defined in the sections that follow. The following summarizes the results of this study. More detailed explanations of the results can be found later in Section 6.0 of the document. Relinquishing the use of tanks early increases the programmatic risk when compared to the baseline via the following areas: (1) Tank Space -- The amount of usable tank space decreases. This also impacts the amount of spare and contingency space available. (2) Waste Transfer Complexity -- The complexity of tankfarm transfers increases. As double-shell tank (DST) space becomes limited, the number and interdependency of waste transfers increases. (3) Float -- Float time for low-activity waste (LAW) feed staging operations decreases. (4) Waste Segregation -- The segregation of tank wastes may be violated.

  8. A genomewide association study of feed efficiency and feeding behaviors at two fattening stages in a White Duroc × Erhualian F population.

    PubMed

    Guo, Y M; Zhang, Z Y; Ma, J W; Ai, H S; Ren, J; Huang, L S

    2015-04-01

    Feeding efficiency is a multifactorial and economically important trait in pigs. Genetic improvement of feeding efficiency will greatly benefit the pig industry. In the past decades, the hog market weight has increased worldwide. However, whether the genetic architecture of feeding efficiency is same or not at early and late fattening periods is unclear. To map genomic regions for feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits at early (n ≥ 384) and late (n ≥ 334) growth stages in pigs, we performed genomewide association studies for feed to gain ratio (FCR), residual feed intake (RFI), daily feed intake, daily visit times, daily feeding time (DFT), feed intake per second (FIPS), and feed intake per visit during 3 periods (2 stages and overall) in a White Duroc × Erhualian F2 intercross population. Six chromosomal regions showed significant association with these traits, of which 4 loci were reported for the first time. Our results confirmed the QTL of FCR around 34 Mb on SSC7 and RFI around 134 Mb on SSC12. Of note, 2 regions were associated with more than 1 trait. One was around 36 Mb on SSC7, and there were 47 and 67 SNP associated with FCR from 120 to 210 and from 120 to 240 d, respectively. The top SNP is located in a 2.88-Mb linkage disequilibrium (LD) block that harbors 44 genes. We propose the high mobility group AT-hook 1 gene as a plausible candidate gene in this region. The other was evidenced around 53 Mb on SSC12, which had multiple association signals for DFT and FIPS. The top SNP is located in a 211-kb LD block that harbors only 1 annotated gene, WSCD1, which encodes a protein with sulfotransferase activity and involves the glucose metabolism and, therefore, appears to be a plausible candidate gene. Except the region on SSC12 associated with DFT at both stages, the rest of the regions associated with the traits at only 1 stage, so the genetic architectures of the 2 stages are not same. PMID:26020169

  9. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    JayaShankar Tumuluru

    2013-04-01

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  10. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study.

    PubMed

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana; Acevedo, Pelayo; Marques, João Carlos; Martinez-Haro, Mónica

    2015-02-01

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48h and 96h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. PMID:25576796

  11. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented. PMID:26699944

  12. Liquid chromatographic determination of tilmicosin in swine feed at 200-400 mg/kg level: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Readnour, R S; Coleman, M R; Leadbetter, M G

    1997-01-01

    An analytical method for the determination of tilmicosin at 200-400 mg/kg, the intended use concentration range, was evaluated in an interlaboratory study involving 5 laboratories, including the sponsor. The interlaboratory study evaluated the intra- and interlaboratory precision and accuracy of a tilmicosin feed method. The method procedure involved extracting tilmicosin from feed by adding 200 mL extractant to 20 g feed and shaking for 1 h. The extract is filtered and analyzed by gradient liquid chromatography which separates tilmicosin from feed matrix in 30 min. Each laboratory assayed 5 replicates of fortified feed at concentrations of 0, 100, 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg. The mean recovery among fortified samples ranged from 81.4 to 98.8%, with a percent coefficient of variation (%CV) ranging from 0.3 to 4.0%. For all blank control feed samples no significant interferences were observed. In addition, each laboratory assayed 5 replicates of medicated feed samples prepared at 2 levels (200 and 400 mg/kg) with either a horizontal or vertical mixer. Along with the medicated feed samples were included 5 replicates of a blank control feed. The identities of the medicated and blank control feed samples were blinded to the analysts. The results for the medicated feed samples ranged from 95.8 to 106% of label claim, with a %CV ranging from 2.1 to 6.7%. PMID:9419853

  13. Microbiological plate and turbidimetric assays of chlortetracycline in feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Ragheb, H S

    1977-09-01

    The manual and automated turbidimetric assays and a modified official plate assay for chlortetracycline (CTC-HCl) in feed were collaboratively studied. Three feed samples (swine feed, 100 g CTC-HCl/ton; premix I, 20 g each of CTC-HCl and sulfamethazine/lb, and 10 g penicillin/lb; and premix II, 50 g CTC-HCl/lb) were analyzed at 2 dilutions. Twelve laboratories conducted the plate assay; 8 laboratories the manual turbidimetric method; and 7 laboratories, the Autoturb analysis. Within a method, there was no significant difference between dilutions. Between methods, there was a significant difference between the manual turbidimetric plate assays only for swine feed. However, the same sample dilutions or the average values of the 2 dilutions for both methods showed no statistical difference. Among the collaborators, the slope of CTC-HCl standard curve varied between about 2.0 and 3.0 for the plate method. The turbidimetric assay has been adopted as official first action for feeds containing larger than or equal to 20 g CTC-HCl/lb. PMID:330490

  14. Efficacy of two elemental diets: a pair feeding study.

    PubMed

    Muggia-Sullam, M; Matarese, L E; Edwards, L L; Fischer, J E

    1986-01-01

    The efficacy and side effects of two elemental diets were studied. Twenty young Sprague-Dawley rats were fed one of three different diets. Group I (n = 7) was fed Vivonex-HN (VIV) ad lib; group II (n = 7) was given Criticare-HN (CRI), pair-fed to group I (the two elemental diets were given in glass bottles); group III was fed regular rat chow and served as control (CON). Body weight (WT), food intake, and nitrogen balance (NB) were measured daily. After 21 days, change in body weight was similar in the three groups (VIV = 64.9 +/- 3.2%; CRI = 59.6 +/- 3.3%; CON = 63.9 +/- 4.8%). Cumulative nitrogen balance was also similar in the two groups fed elemental diets (VIV = 4788 +/- 277 mg N; CRI = 4690 +/- 118 mg N), but in both these groups it was less than the control group fed chow (8060 +/- 85 mg N). Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) on the last day was higher in the VIV group (12.9 +/- 1.22 mg/dl) than in the CRI group (9.43 +/- 0.43 mg/dl), but in both study groups it was lower than in the CON group (17.2 +/- 1.08 mg/dl), although nitrogen intake was higher in the control (ad lib) group. SGPT was similar in the two elemental diets but higher than in CON. Liver weights were higher in the CRI group, probably abnormally so and likely due to increased fat content. Both diets had similar efficacy in nutritional support. PMID:3753732

  15. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  16. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  17. Dietary Protein and Calcium Interact to Influence Calcium Retention: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To test the effect of dietary protein on Ca (Ca) retention at low and high Ca intakes. Methods: In a randomized, controlled feeding study with a 2x2 factorial crossover design, healthy post-menopausal women (n=27), consumed either ~675 or ~1510 mg Ca/d, with both low and high protein (pro...

  18. A study of marketing and its effect on infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, A

    2001-09-01

    A baby milk market was created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was conceived through the mutual attraction of the manufacturers and doctors. This has partly attributed to the change from breast to artificial feeding. This study was conducted to determine whether marketing had any effect on infant feeding practices. Fifty Malay mothers whose last child was aged less than five years were asked, by questionnaire and by interview, to identify whether several marketing methods influenced their decision on the selection of infant feeding practice. It was found that these mothers felt milk advertisements on television were attractive (72%), were influenced by others to buy a particular brand of formula (38.4%), were influenced by free milk samples to buy a particular brand of milk formula (65.2%) and were not influenced by their doctors on the chosen method of feeding (68%). More studies should be conducted on a bigger sample in other settings and targeting other methods of marketing to substantiate the above results. Further, similar studies among Chinese and Indian mothers are also required. PMID:11732077

  19. Infant-feeding practices and American Indian infants' gut microbiome: Rationale of the pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zamor-Kapoor, Anna; Sinclair, Ka'imi

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between infant-feeding practices and American Indian infants' gut microbiome--laying the foundation of a research program aimed at identifying potential aetiologies of childhood obesity in this population. Previous studies have emphasised the high prevalence of obesity in American Indian infants, but its underlying causes remain unclear. We received funding from the University of Washington to examine attitudes towards breastfeeding and formula feeding in American Indian mothers, their dietary and physical activity habits and the yield, quality and diversity of their infants' gut microbiome. Our study combines the strengths of qualitative and quantitative data with DNA sequencing. Results will be used to propose a larger study aimed at clarifying aetiologies of childhood obesity in this population and to identify prevention strategies. This protocol describes the theoretical basis of the study, rationale for the target population, study design, participant recruitment and data analysis plan. PMID:27188076

  20. Liquid chromatographic method for nicarbazin in broiler feeds and premixtures: development, validation, and interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Jacob; Tomassen, Marinka; Driessen, Jaap; Keukens, Henk; Hans-Artur, Putzka; Brambilla, Glanfranco

    2004-01-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatography method for nicarbazin in broiler feeds and premixtures was developed, validated, and interlaboratory studied. The extraction solvent was an acetonitrile-methanol (1 + 1) mixture. For feedingstuffs, water was also added. The 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide moiety of nicarbazin was detected at a wavelength of 350 nm. Recovery was > or =87%. At 20 mg/kg, the repeatability was 0.7% and the within-laboratory reproducibility was 2.7%. The limit of determination was <20 mg/kg. Other feed additives did not interfere in the assay that proved to be applicable to broiler feeds from different European Union countries. In an interlaboratory study, 4 positive broiler feeds, 1 blank pig feed, and 1 broiler premixture were analyzed by 19 laboratories using the method developed in this study. The relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) of the feedingstuffs (20-240 mg/kg) varied between 2.6 and 10.2%. The HORRAT ranged between 0.70 and 1.22. Recoveries were 91-108%. Three laboratories detected small signals in the blind blank samples, ranging from 0.4 to 2 mg/kg. For the premixture, acceptable results for reproducibility could only be obtained after the sample weight and volume of extraction had been doubled. To avoid excessive dilution of the extracts, the range of the calibration curve had also been doubled. With this modified method, the RSDr was 5.7% and the HORRAT was 1.95 (10 laboratories). PMID:15675436

  1. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  2. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  3. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    PubMed

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  4. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  5. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    PubMed

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite. PMID:22124826

  6. Whole Genome Association Studies of Residual Feed Intake and Related Traits in the Pig

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jennifer M.; Garrick, Dorian J.; Dekkers, Jack C. M.; Rothschild, Max F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, is the difference between observed feed intake and the expected feed requirement predicted from growth and maintenance. Pigs with low RFI have reduced feed costs without compromising their growth. Identification of genes or genetic markers associated with RFI will be useful for marker-assisted selection at an early age of animals with improved feed efficiency. Methodology/Principal findings Whole genome association studies (WGAS) for RFI, average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), back fat (BF) and loin muscle area (LMA) were performed on 1,400 pigs from the divergently selected ISU-RFI lines, using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 BeadChip. Various statistical methods were applied to find SNPs and genomic regions associated with the traits, including a Bayesian approach using GenSel software, and frequentist approaches such as allele frequency differences between lines, single SNP and haplotype analyses using PLINK software. Single SNP and haplotype analyses showed no significant associations (except for LMA) after genomic control and FDR. Bayesian analyses found at least 2 associations for each trait at a false positive probability of 0.5. At generation 8, the RFI selection lines mainly differed in allele frequencies for SNPs near (<0.05 Mb) genes that regulate insulin release and leptin functions. The Bayesian approach identified associations of genomic regions containing insulin release genes (e.g., GLP1R, CDKAL, SGMS1) with RFI and ADFI, of regions with energy homeostasis (e.g., MC4R, PGM1, GPR81) and muscle growth related genes (e.g., TGFB1) with ADG, and of fat metabolism genes (e.g., ACOXL, AEBP1) with BF. Specifically, a very highly significantly associated QTL for LMA on SSC7 with skeletal myogenesis genes (e.g., KLHL31) was identified for subsequent fine mapping. Conclusions/significance Important genomic regions associated with RFI related traits were identified for future

  7. Maternal anthropometry and infant feeding practices in Israel in relation to growth in infancy: the North African Infant Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Fawzi, W W; Forman, M R; Levy, A; Graubard, B I; Naggan, L; Berendes, H W

    1997-06-01

    Relations between maternal anthropometric status during pregnancy and infant feeding practices and growth from birth through the first 6 mo of life were examined in a cohort of 351 Israeli mother-infant pairs of North African descent. Maternal weight, height, and triceps skinfold thicknesses were determined at 6 and 9 mo of pregnancy, while infants' weights and lengths were measured at birth and at 1, 2, 3, and 6 mo of age with concurrent collection of age-specific maternal-reported infant feeding data. On the basis of multiple-linear-regression analysis that adjusted for potential covariates, mean maternal weight at the first prenatal visit and at 6 and 9 mo of pregnancy were positively associated with birth length (P for trend in all cases < 0.0001) and with linear growth between birth and 1, 3, and 6 mo of age. Maternal skinfold thickness at 9 mo of pregnancy and maternal height were also significantly associated with birth length. Moreover, maternal height, weight, and skinfold thickness at 6 and 9 mo of pregnancy were positively associated with mean birth weight. After adjustment for morbidity in the past month and other covariates, infants breast-fed exclusively had greater attained weight and weight gain in the first 3 mo compared with infants who were bottle-fed exclusively, breast-fed and bottle-fed, or solid-fed exclusively. These findings underscore the need for programs that improve the nutritional status of women before, during, and after pregnancy, and encourage exclusive breast-feeding of infants for at least the first 3 mo of life. PMID:9174468

  8. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study).

    PubMed

    Kim, Y I; Park, J M; Lee, Y H; Lee, M; Choi, D Y; Kwak, W S

    2015-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1(+) and 1(++)) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  9. Effect of By-product Feed-based Silage Feeding on the Performance, Blood Metabolites, and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers (a Field Study)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y. I.; Park, J. M.; Lee, Y. H.; Lee, M.; Choi, D. Y.; Kwak, W. S.

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding by-product feed (BF)-based silage on the performance, blood metabolite parameters, and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo steers. The BF-based silage was composed of 50% spent mushroom substrate, 21% recycled poultry bedding, 15% cut ryegrass straw, 10.8% rice bran, 2% molasses, 0.6% bentonite, and 0.6% microbial additive (on a wet basis), and ensiled for over 5 d. Fifteen steers were allocated to three diets during the growing and fattening periods (3.1 and 9.8 months, respectively): a control diet (concentrate mix and free access to rice straw), a 50% BF-based silage diet (control diet+50% of maximum BF-based silage intake), and a 100% BF-based silage diet (the same amount of concentrate mix and ad libitum BF-based silage). The BF-based silage was fed during the growing and fattening periods, and was replaced with larger particles of rice straw during the finishing period. After 19.6 months of the whole period all the steers were slaughtered. Compared with feeding rice straw, feeding BF-based silage tended (p = 0.10) to increase the average daily gain (27%) and feed efficiency (18%) of the growing steers, caused by increased voluntary feed intake. Feeding BF-based silage had little effect on serum constituents, electrolytes, enzymes, or the blood cell profiles of fattening steers, except for low serum Ca and high blood urea concentrations (p<0.05). Feeding BF-based silage did not affect cold carcass weight, yield traits such as back fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, yield index or yield grade, or quality traits such as meat color, fat color, texture, maturity, marbling score, or quality grade. However, it improved good quality grade (1+ and 1++) appearance rates (60% for the control group vs 100% for the BF-based silage-fed groups). In conclusion, cheap BF-based silage could be successfully used as a good quality roughage source for beef cattle. PMID:25557813

  10. An improved approach to identify irradiated dog feed by electron paramagnetic resonance study and thermoluminescence measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanyal, Bhaskar; Chawla, S. P.; Sharma, Arun

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, probably for the first time, a detailed analysis of the radiation induced radical species and thermoluminescence measurements of irradiated dog feed are reported. The EPR spectrum of non-irradiated ready-to-eat dog feed was characterized by singlet g=2.0047±0.0003. Irradiated samples exhibited a complex EPR spectrum. During high power (50.0 mW) EPR spectroscopy, a visible change in the shape of the EPR spectrum was observed and characterized by EPR spectrum simulation technique. An axially symmetric anisotropic signal with g║=2.0028 and g┴=1.9976 was identified. However, a negligible change in the matrix of irradiated edible dog chew was observed using EPR spectroscopy. Therefore, thermoluminescence study of the isolated minerals from dog chew was carried out. The composition of the poly-minerals was studied using SEM and EDX analysis and a complete verdict on identification of irradiation is proposed.

  11. A call-to-action from the feedM.E. Middle East study group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zeer, Osama; Ozcagli, Tahsin G.; Uyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of hospitalized patients worldwide are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Guidelines recommend nutritional screening of all patients on hospital admission. Results from studies of hospitalized patients show that screening, with follow-up nutritional assessment and care when indicated, can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Despite compelling evidence, attention to nutritional care remains suboptimal in clinical settings worldwide. The feedM.E. Global Study Group developed a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway to facilitate best-practice nutrition care. This pathway guides clinicians to screen patients’ nutritional status on hospital admission or at initiation of care; intervene promptly with nutrition care when needed; and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans. The feedM.E. Middle East Study Group seeks to extend this program to our region. We advise clinicians to adopt and adapt the Nutrition Care Pathway, bringing quality nutrition care to everyday practice. PMID:26219439

  12. A qualitative study exploring factors associated with mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Breastfeeding has numerous health benefits. In 2010, the province of Newfoundland and Labrador had the lowest breastfeeding initiation rate (64.0%) in Canada. Formula feeding is associated with well-known health risks. Exclusive formula feeding is the “cultural norm” in some regions of the province. Women appear resistant to changing their infant feeding behaviors and remain committed to their decision to formula-feed. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to examine individual factors that shaped mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Nineteen mothers who were currently formula feeding their children participated in the study. Methods Qualitative research in the form of focus groups was conducted in three communities in the province in 2010. A thematic content analysis identified the main themes that influenced mothers’ decisions to formula-feed their infants. Results The main themes included issues concerning the support needed to breastfeed, the convenience associated with formula feeding, and the embarrassment surrounding breastfeeding in public. Conclusions These findings help to better understand why mothers choose formula feeding over breastfeeding and may help to inform the development of public health interventions targeted at this population of mothers. PMID:23844590

  13. Perceptions of caregivers about health and nutritional problems and feeding practices of infants: a qualitative study on exclusive breast-feeding in Kwale, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the significant positive effect of exclusive breast-feeding on child health, only 32% of children under 6 months old were exclusively breast-fed in Kenya in 2008. The aim of this study was to explore perceptions and feeding practices of caregivers of children under 6 months old with special attention to the caregivers’ indigenous knowledge, perceptions about the health and nutritional problems of their infants, and care-seeking behaviors that affect feeding practices. Methods The study was exploratory and used an inductive approach. In all, 32 key informants, including mothers, mothers-in-law, and traditional healers, were interviewed in-depth. The number of participants in free-listing of perceived health problems of babies, in ranking of the perceived severity of these health problems, and in free-listing of food and drink given to children under 6 months old were 29, 28, and 32, respectively. Additionally, 28 babies under 6 months old were observed at home with regard to feeding practices. Data obtained using these methods were triangulated to formulate an ethnomedical explanatory model for mothers who do not practice exclusive breast-feeding. Results The informants stated that various types of food, drink, and medicine were given to infants under 6 months old. Direct observation also confirmed that 2- to 3-month-old babies were given porridge, water, juice, herbal medicine, and over-the-counter medicine. Mothers’ perceptions of insufficient breast milk production and a lack of proper knowledge about the value of breast milk were identified in key informant interviews, free-listing, and ranking as important factors associating with the use of food and drink other than breast milk; in addition, perceived ill health of babies appears to be associated with suboptimal practice of exclusive breast-feeding. Caregivers used various folk and popular medicines from the drugstore, their own backyard or garden, and traditional healers so that the

  14. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  15. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.; Shen, B.

    1992-01-01

    Virginia Tech has several articles which support the NASA Langley effort in the area of large aperture radiometric antenna systems. This semi-annual report reports on the following activities: a feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas and the design of array feeds for large reflector antennas.

  16. Feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Correia, Bráulio Rocha; de Carvalho, Gleidson Giordano Pinto; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Pires, Aureliano José Viera; Ribeiro, Ossival Lolato; Silva, Robério Rodrigues; Leão, André Gustavo; Rodrigues, Carlindo Santos

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the feeding behavior of feedlot-finished young bulls fed diets containing peanut cake instead of soybean meal. A total of 32 Nellore young bulls with an initial body weight of 390 ± 43.5 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design. The animals were individually housed in stalls and fed Tifton 85 hay with four concentrate mixtures containing 0, 33, 66, or 100% peanut cake substituting for soybean meal. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (with 15% crude protein) and isocaloric (with 65% total digestible nutrients), with a 40:60 forage:concentrate ratio, in the form of total mixed diet. The experimental period was 90 days, and data were collected every 28 days. Feeding behavior was assessed by means of observation and recording of the daily time spent feeding, ruminating, and idling, quantification of the periods and calculation of variables related to mastication characteristics as well as feeding and rumination efficiencies. Substitution of soybean meal for peanut cake in the diets caused a linear decrease in the intake of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber but did not affect the behavioral activities of the young bulls. Peanut cake may therefore replace up to 100% of soybean meal in the diet of feedlot-finished young Nellore bulls because it does not affect the feeding behavior of these animals. PMID:25982443

  17. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H.; Embers, Monica E.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.; Doyle, Lara A.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  18. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H; Embers, Monica E; Langohr, Ingeborg M; Doyle, Lara A; Hasenkampf, Nicole R; Macaluso, Kevin R

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  19. Preventing mother-to-child transmission: factors affecting mothers' choice of feeding--a case study from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Muko, K N; Tchangwe, G K; Ngwa, V C; Njoya, L

    2004-11-01

    This paper reports on factors influencing the decision of mothers regarding the type of feeding method for their babies in a rural setting in Cameroon. The aim of the study was to ascertain the proportion of mothers choosing the different methods of feeding, to determine the various factors influencing their choices, and to ascertain the relationships of these factors to their respective choices. Questionnaires were used on 108 HIV-positive mothers who had delivered babies and who were administered nevirapine at least 3 months prior to the study. A focus group discussion with mothers also took place. Findings were that more mothers (84%) chose breastfeeding than artificial feeding (16%), while a minority (4%) selected mixed feeding. Factors found to militate against artificial feeding were cost (69%), stigma (64%), family pressure (44%), inconvenience in preparation/administration (38%), prior education from health workers (23%), and loss of special attention from family (8%). On the other hand, advice of health worker (44%), ill health (19.5%), free milk (12.5%),job pressure (12.5%) and loss of beauty (12.5%) were found to militate against breastfeeding. A direct relationship was also found between age, educational level, income size, marital status and choice of feeding. Policies targeting stigma reduction and socio-cultural factors affecting the choice of feeding are needed to optimise uptake of the less risky methods of feeding which could in turn contribute to a reduction in transmission. PMID:17601001

  20. Micro ecosystems from feed industry surfaces: a survival and biofilm study of Salmonella versus host resident flora strains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The presence of Salmonella enterica serovars in feed ingredients, products and processing facilities is a well recognized problem worldwide. In Norwegian feed factories, strict control measures are implemented to avoid establishment and spreading of Salmonella throughout the processing chain. There is limited knowledge on the presence and survival of the resident microflora in feed production plants. Information on interactions between Salmonella and other bacteria in feed production plants and how they affect survival and biofilm formation of Salmonella is also limited. The aim of this study was to identify resident microbiota found in feed production environments, and to compare the survival of resident flora strains and Salmonella to stress factors typically found in feed processing environments. Moreover, the role of dominant resident flora strains in the biofilm development of Salmonella was determined. Results Surface microflora characterization from two feed productions plants, by means of 16 S rDNA sequencing, revealed a wide diversity of bacteria. Survival, disinfection and biofilm formation experiments were conducted on selected dominant resident flora strains and Salmonella. Results showed higher survival properties by resident flora isolates for desiccation, and disinfection compared to Salmonella isolates. Dual-species biofilms favored Salmonella growth compared to Salmonella in mono-species biofilms, with biovolume increases of 2.8-fold and 3.2-fold in the presence of Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas, respectively. Conclusions These results offer an overview of the microflora composition found in feed industry processing environments, their survival under relevant stresses and their potential effect on biofilm formation in the presence of Salmonella. Eliminating the establishment of resident flora isolates in feed industry surfaces is therefore of interest for impeding conditions for Salmonella colonization and growth on feed industry

  1. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  2. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  3. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk. PMID:24508949

  4. [A study on the mother-infant interaction in teaching and feeding situations].

    PubMed

    Cho, K J

    1990-12-31

    This study was conducted to provide the basic information for nursing intervention in infant teaching and feeding situation. The subjects were 30 pairs of mother and her infant (9 month) who were normally delivered at 3 university hospital in Seoul area. The data collection was conducted by observation using videotaperecord from September 27, 1989 to February 26, 1990 in their home. The measurement tools used by this researcher were Nursing child Assessment Teaching scale (NCATS) and Nursing child Assessment Feeding Scale (NCAFS) which was developed by Barnard. The higher sum of "yes" score means the higher mother-infant interaction level. Mother-Infant interaction behaviors in both situations were based on 6 subcategories;sensitivity to cue, response to distress, social-emotional growth fostering, cognitive growth fostering, clarity of + cues, and responsiveness to parent. The data collected through above method were analyzed by mean and t-test and the results were as follows. 1. The sum of maternal behavior score was 40.2 out of 50.0 in teaching situation and 37.9 out of 50.0 in feeding situation. Out of the 4 subcategories on maternal behavior in both situation, the highest subcategory was shown by response to infant's distress and the lowest subcategory by cognitive growth fostering. 2. The sum of infant behavior score was 14.7 out of 23 in teaching situation and 17.9 out of 26 in feeding situation. Out of the 2 categories on infant behavior in both situation, the highest sub category was shown by the clarity of infant's cue in both situation. 3. There was a statistical significance between father's educational level and mother-infant interaction in teaching situation; college group was higher than high school group, particularly in category of sensitivity to infant's cue and cognitive growth fostering. 4. There was a statistical significance in teaching situation between mother's educational level and mother-infant interaction; college group was higher than

  5. Do whole-food animal feeding studies have any value in the safety assessment of GM crops?

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Ekmay, Ricardo

    2014-02-01

    The use of whole-food (grain meal contained in feed) animal-feeding studies to support the safety assessment of genetically modified crops has been contentious. This may be, in part, a consequence of poorly agreed upon study objectives. Whole-food animal-feeding studies have been postulated to be useful in detecting both expected and unexpected effects on the composition of genetically modified crops. While the justification of animal feeding studies to detect unexpected effects may be inadequately supported, there may be better justification to conduct such studies in specific cases to investigate the consequences of expected compositional effects including expression of transgenic proteins. Such studies may be justified when (1) safety cannot reasonably be predicted from other evidence, (2) reasonable hypothesis for adverse effects are postulated, (3) the compositional component in question cannot be isolated or enriched in an active form for inclusion in animal feeding studies, and (4) reasonable multiples of exposure can be accomplished relative to human diets. The study design for whole-food animal-feeding studies should be hypotheses-driven, and the types of data collected should be consistent with adverse effects that are known to occur from dietary components of biological origin. PMID:23851038

  6. An integrated study of toxicant-induced inhibition of feeding and digestion activity in Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Coen, W.M. De; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G.

    1995-12-31

    Previous studies on D. magna exposed to xenobiotics have demonstrated that feeding inhibition can be used as a general indicator of toxic stress. In order to evaluate the consequences of the reduced food absorption on the energy balance of the organism, the effects of short-term exposure to sublethal toxicant concentrations of 8 chemicals on physiological (ingestion rate) and biochemical aspects (digestive enzyme activity) of the feeding process were investigated. The ingestion activity was assessed using a simple and sensitive method based on the use of fluorescent latex microbeads. The biochemical aspects of feeding were studied by analyzing the activity of 5 digestive enzymes, each responsible for the breakdown of one of the three major macromolecular constituents of the food (3 carbohydrases: amylase, cellulose and {beta}-galactosidase; trypsin and esterase). Using ingestion as an effect criterium, correlation analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) and positive (r{sup 2} = 0.89) correlation between the 1.5h EC50 value and the conventional acute toxicity endpoint (24hEC50). For 3 out of 5 enzymes studied a clear concentration-response relationship was observed. The 2h EC 10 value (inhibition) of {beta}-galactosidase activity and 2h EC5 value of trypsin and esterase activity showed a significant linear correlation (r{sup 2} respectively 0.98, 0.96 and 0.95) with the 24hEC50 value. The relationships between the physiological and biochemical effects will be discussed in the context of toxicant-induced homeostatic adjustments in the organism`s metabolism. Finally the potential use of both types of effect criteria as rapid screening tools in aquatic toxicity testing will be reviewed.

  7. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-01-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting. PMID:26825334

  8. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  9. How protective is breast feeding against diarrhoeal disease in infants in 1990s England? A case‐control study

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, M A; Cumberland, P; Cowden, J M; Rodrigues, L C

    2006-01-01

    Aims To assess the effect of several measures of infant feeding on diarrhoeal disease, and whether these effects vary according to markers of social deprivation. Methods Case‐control study of diarrhoeal disease cases presenting to 34 general practices in England. Controls were stratified on age group, area deprivation index for the practice, and whether or not the practice was in London. Data were available on 304 infants (167 cases and 137 controls). Results After adjustment for confounders, breast feeding was associated with significantly less diarrhoeal disease. Associations were striking even in infants aged ⩾ 6 months. They did not vary by social class, but were greater in those living in rented council accommodation and in more crowded households. The effect of receiving no breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. The effect of not receiving exclusive breast milk was stronger in more deprived areas than in less deprived areas. In formula fed infants, there was significantly more diarrhoeal disease in those not sterilising bottles/teats with steam or chemicals. The protective effect of breast feeding did not persist beyond two months after breast feeding had stopped. Conclusions Breast feeding protects against diarrhoeal disease in infants in England although the degree of protection may vary across infants and wear off after breast feeding cessation. Education about the benefits of breast feeding and the risks of inadequate sterilisation should be targeted at carers in deprived areas or households. PMID:16308409

  10. Early Oral Feeding After Surgery for Upper Gastrointestinal Malignancies: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Shoar, Saeed; Naderan, Mohammad; Mahmoodzadeh, Habibollah; Hosseini-Araghi, Negin; Mahboobi, Nastaran; Sirati, Freydoon; Khorgami, Zhamak

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Poor nutritional status following abdominal surgeries for esophageal and gastric cancers remains a major challenge in postoperative care. Our study aimed to investigate the efficacy of starting early oral feeding (EOF) in patients undergoing surgical resection of upper gastrointestinal malignancies. Methods A total of 180 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of esophageal or gastric malignancies undergoing elective surgical resection between January 2008 and February 2011 were enrolled in this prospective cohort study. Seventy-two patients were assigned to the EOF group, and 108 patients received late oral feeding (LOF). Postoperative endpoints were compared between the two groups. Results Nasogastric tubes were removed from patients on average 3.3±1.6 days after the surgery in the EOF group and 5.2±2.5 days in the LOF group (p < 0.001). The soft diet regimen was started and tolerated significantly sooner in the EOF group (5.8±1.2 days) than the LOF group (9.5±5.5 days). Hospital stay was significantly shorter in the EOF group compared to the LOF group (6.7±3.1 days vs. 9.1±5.8 days, p < 0.001). Surgical complications and rehospitalization occurred less in EOF group compared with the LOF group. However, the differences were not significant (p > 0.050). Conclusions EOF is safe following esophageal and gastric cancer surgery and results in faster recovery and hospital discharge. PMID:27162588

  11. Initial studies of array feeds for the 70-meter antenna at 32 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the feasibility of using array feed techniques to improve the performance of the 70 m antenna at 32 GHz are presented. Changing from 8.4 to 32 GHz has the potential of increasing the gain by 11.6 dB, but recent measurements indicate that additional losses of from 3 to 7 dB occur at 32 GHz, depending on the elevation angle. Array feeds were proposed to recover some of the losses by compensating for surface distortions that contribute to these losses. Results for both surface distortion compensation and pointing error correction are discussed. These initial studies, however, had one significant restriction: The mechanical finite element model was used to characterize the surface distortions, not the measured distortions from three angle holography data, which would be more representative of the actual antenna. Further work is required to provide for a more accurate estimate of performance that utilizes holography data and, in particular, one that evaluates the performance in the focal plane region of the antenna.

  12. Qualitative study of decisions about infant feeding among women in east end of London

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, Pat; Pill, Roisin

    1999-01-01

    Objective To improve understanding of how first time mothers who belong to a socioeconomic group with particularly low rates of breast feeding decide whether or not to initiate breast feeding. Design Qualitative semistructured interviews early in pregnancy and 6-10 weeks after birth. Setting Women’s homes in east end of London. Subjects 21 white, low income women expecting their first baby were interviewed mostly at home, often with their partner or a relative. Two focus groups were conducted. Results Women who had regularly seen a relative or friend successfully breast feed and described this experience positively were more confident about and committed to breast feeding. They were also more likely to succeed. Exposure to breast feeding, however, could be either a positive or a negative influence on the decision to breast feed, depending on the context. Women who had seen breast feeding only by a stranger often described this as a negative influence, particularly if other people were present. All women knew that breast feeding has health benefits. Ownership of this knowledge, however, varied according to the woman’s experience of seeing breast feeding. Conclusions The decision to initiate breast feeding is influenced more by embodied knowledge gained from seeing breast feeding than by theoretical knowledge about its benefits. Breast feeding involves performing a practical skill, often with others present. The knowledge, confidence, and commitment necessary to breast feed may be more effectively gained through antenatal apprenticeship to a breastfeeding mother than from advice given in consultations or from books. Key messagesWomen who have seen successful breast feeding as part of their daily lives and perceive this as a positive experience are more likely to initiate breast feedingEmbodied knowledge gained through seeing breast feeding may be more influential than theoretical knowledge about the health benefits for women of lower social classListening to

  13. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (<3-4 colony forming units) on 15th day of ensiling. Nutritive value in terms of energy and minerals was superior to maize green fodder. Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding

  14. Infant Feeding Practices, Dietary Adequacy, and Micronutrient Status Measures in the MAL-ED Study

    PubMed Central

    Caulfield, Laura E.; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-01-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time. PMID:25305294

  15. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  16. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  17. Comparative study of two systems of delivering supplemental protein with standardized tube feedings.

    PubMed

    Luther, Heidi; Barco, Kathy; Chima, Cinda; Yowler, Charles J

    2003-01-01

    Burn patients often require protein supplementation for their nutritional support. Although these are often added to a commercial formula, published standards recommend a 4-hr hang time for manipulated open-system formulas in comparison with 24 hr for unopened closed systems. We hypothesized that use of standard closed-system formulas with the addition of protein flushes via the feeding tube twice daily would reduce nursing time and increase satisfaction. A pilot study included a time study comparing the two methods and a nursing satisfaction questionnaire. Management of an open system consistent with national standards took almost twice as much nursing time daily as the closed system with supplemental protein flushes (36.6 +/- 17.1 min vs 18.6 +/- 3.6 min; P =.051). Sixteen of 17 nurses preferred the closed system with protein flush. The results of this study were used to support expansion of the protocol change throughout the hospital. PMID:12792240

  18. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  19. Recombinant Bile Salt-Stimulated Lipase in Preterm Infant Feeding: A Randomized Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Charlotte; Hascoet, Jean-Michel; Ertl, Tibor; Gadzinowski, Janusz S.; Carnielli, Virgilio; Rigo, Jacques; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Couce, María L.; Vågerö, Mårten; Palmgren, Ingrid; Timdahl, Kristina; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Feeding strategies are critical for healthy growth in preterm infants. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL), present in human milk, is important for fat digestion and absorption but is inactivated during pasteurization and absent in formula. This study evaluated if recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) improves growth in preterm infants when added to formula or pasteurized breast milk. Patients and Methods LAIF (Lipase Added to Infant Feeding) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. The primary efficacy variable was growth velocity (g/kg/day) during 4 weeks intervention. Follow-up visits were at 3 and 12 months. The study was performed at 54 centers in 10 European countries. Results In total 415 patients were randomized (rhBSSL n = 207, placebo n = 208), 410 patients were analyzed (rhBSSL n = 206, placebo n = 204) and 365 patients were followed until 12 months. Overall, there was no significantly improved growth velocity during rhBSSL treatment compared to placebo (16.77 vs. 16.56 g/kg/day, estimated difference 0.21 g/kg/day, 95% CI [-0.40; 0.83]), nor were secondary endpoints met. However, in a predefined subgroup, small for gestational age infants, there was a significant effect on growth in favor of rhBSSL during treatment. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the rhBSSL group during treatment. Conclusions Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, except in a subgroup of infants small for gestational age, and there was an imbalance in short-term safety, these data provide insights in nutrition, growth and development in preterm infants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01413581 PMID:27244221

  20. Feeding infants and toddlers study 2008: progress, continuing concerns, and implications

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Feeding Infants and Toddlers Survey (FITS) 2008 reveals both progress and some continuing concerns about feeding American infants and toddlers in the 21st century. This summary integrates these findings and suggests possible implications for re-evaluating or clarifying dietary recommendations....

  1. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic. PMID:7462912

  2. The relation between child feeding problems as measured by parental report and mealtime behavior observation: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Marijn; Bruinsma, Eke; Hauser, M Paulina

    2016-04-01

    Because feeding problems have clear negative consequences for both child and caretakers, early diagnosis and intervention are important. Parent-report questionnaires can contribute to early identification, because they are efficient and typically offer a 'holistic' perspective of the child's eating in different contexts. In this pilot study, we aim to explore the concurrent validity of a short screening instrument (the SEP, which is the Dutch MCH-FS) in one of its target populations (a group of premature children) by comparing the total score with the observed behavior of the child and caretaker during a regular home meal. 28 toddlers (aged 9-18 months) and their caretakers participated in the study. Video-observations of the meals were coded for categories of eating behavior and parent-child interaction. The results show that the total SEP-score correlates with food refusal, feeding efficiency, and self-feeding, but not with negative affect and parental instructions. This confirms that the SEP has a certain degree of concurrent validity in the sense that its total score is associated with specific 'benchmark' feeding behaviors: food refusal, feeding efficiency and autonomy. Future studies with larger samples are needed to generalize the findings from this pilot to a broader context. PMID:26804043

  3. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles. PMID:12597493

  4. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    PubMed

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  5. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  6. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  7. Chemical surveillance and quality assurance for preparation of dosed (2-AAF) animal feed (ED01 study).

    PubMed

    Oller, W L; Gough, B; Littlefield, N A

    1980-01-01

    Protocol development of the ED01 experiment included assurances that only minimal levels of contaminants were present and correct concentrations of 2-AAF were present in animal feed. Laboratory and administrative controls were developed to assure proper feed packaging and delivery, and to conduct a personnel surveillance as well as a chemical surveillance of work environs to ensure safe work areas. Animal feed and ancillary animal supplies were monitored prior to use to provide assurances that acceptable levels of nutrients were present and to prohibit the entrance of unacceptable levels of contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals. PMID:7365382

  8. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders. PMID:24511180

  9. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R.; Hodges, Eric A.; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L.; Zipkin, Elana C.; Bentley, Margaret E.; Ward, Dianne S.; Hamer, Robert M.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6–36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders. PMID:24511180

  10. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of crocidolite asbestos (CAS No. 12001-28-4) in F344/N rats (feed studies). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of crocidolite asbestos were conducted by administering the chemical to male and female F344/N rats at a concentration of 1% in feed for the lifetime of the animals. Under the conditions of these feed studies, crocidolite asbestos was not overtly toxic and did not cause a carcinogenic response when ingested at a concentration of 1% in the diet by male and female F344/N rats for their lifetime.

  11. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Gloria D; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna W; Neuhouser, Marian L

    2012-07-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18-45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18<24.9 or BMI>28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (<100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006-March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P<0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  12. Recruiting underrepresented groups into the Carbohydrates and Related Biomarkers (CARB) cancer prevention feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Ondelacy, Stephanie; Schwarz, Yvonne; Duggan, Catherine; Lampe, Johanna; Neuhouser, Marian L.

    2012-01-01

    Using data from a randomized, controlled feeding study, which aimed to recruit 88 participants (including 22 Hispanics and 22 African Americans), we examined strategies for recruiting individuals from underrepresented groups into research trials. Study eligibility criteria included participants who 1) were 18–45 years old; 2) had a body mass index (BMI) >18 < 24.9 or BMI > 28.0 <40.0; 3); had no preexisting health conditions; 4) were non-smoking; 5) had normal fasting blood glucose level (< 100 mg/dL); and 6) spoke English. Participants were recruited using two overarching methods: media-based strategies (flyers and posters, email announcements, announcements in local and campus newspapers, and the Internet) and in-person strategies (presentations in university classes and community events). Participants were enrolled March 2006–March 2009. We present the numbers of individuals requesting study information, completing pre-enrollment screening questionnaires, and enrolling in the study. A total of 1036 individuals requested study information, and 396 completed a pre-enrollment screening questionnaire; 90 enrolled in the study (22 Hispanics and 18 African Americans). Among enrolled participants, in-person recruitment strategies were reported by 39% of African Americans, 73% of Hispanics, and 30% of non-Hispanic Whites (P <0.001). In-person recruitment strategies were successful among Hispanics. Mass media recruitment strategies were successful among non-Hispanic Whites but enlisted relatively few Hispanic participants. Both strategies recruited nearly equal percentages of African Americans. These data suggest that different strategies are needed to effectively recruit racial/ethnic population subgroups into intervention studies. PMID:22504222

  13. Occupation-based family-centered therapy approach for young children with feeding problems in South Korea; a case study.

    PubMed

    An, Sun-Joung L

    2014-03-01

    Documenting the effectiveness of an occupation-based family-centered therapy approach, when providing therapy for a young child with feeding problems, is needed in a culture such as Korea, which has a strong medical model of service. A case study was conducted involving a 16-month-old boy with feeding problems. An occupation-based family-centered therapy approach was carried out for 10 weeks. The results indicated that this approach addressed the physical components of the child's feeding problems and also the parent-child bonding, which together improved the overall family dynamics. Although these results may stimulate clinicians to consider an alternative approach to a medical model, further research with a larger sample is needed to provide sufficient evidence for therapists to shift to a new service delivery model. PMID:23934934

  14. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 10(4) to 10(9) provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°. PMID:24289393

  15. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeff; Hoddy, Kristin K; Jambazian, Pera; Varady, Krista A

    2014-05-01

    Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a key component of intermittent fasting regimens, has gained considerable attention in recent years. TRF allows ad libitum energy intake within controlled time frames, generally a 3-12 hour range each day. The impact of various TRF regimens on indicators of metabolic disease risk has yet to be investigated. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to summarize the current literature on the effects of TRF on body weight and markers of metabolic disease risk (i.e., lipid, glucoregulatory, and inflammatory factors) in animals and humans. Results from animal studies show TRF to be associated with reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, and concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Human data support the findings of animal studies and demonstrate decreased body weight (though not consistently), lower concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These preliminary findings show promise for the use of TRF in modulating a variety of metabolic disease risk factors. PMID:24739093

  16. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachlorophenol (CAS NO. 87-86-5) in F344/N Rats (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol has been used as an herbicide, algicide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. Pentachlorophenol was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity testing based on its widespread use as a wood preservative, potential for entering the environment (pentachlorophenol residues have been found worldwide in soil, water, and air samples; in food products; and in human and animal tissues and body fluids), and likelihood of bioaccumulation in the environment (pentachlorophenol is persistent in soil, having a half-life of up to 5 years). Technical Report No. 349 contains the results of the 2-year studies of pentachlorophenol performed by the NTP with B6C3F1 mice. Male and female F344/N rats were exposed to pentachlorophenol (approximately 99% pure) in feed for 28 days or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in vitro in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo in rat and mouse bone marrow cells. 28-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 3,200 ppm pentachlorophenol, equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 20, 40, 75, 150, or 270 mg pentachlorophenol/kg body weight to males and females in feed for 28 days. With the exception of one male and two females exposed to 3,200 ppm, all rats survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of male rats exposed to 1,600 or 3,200 ppm and female rats exposed to 400, 800, 1,600, or 3,200 ppm were significantly less than those of the controls; rats exposed to 3,200 ppm lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by 3,200 ppm males was less than that by the control group throughout the study. The absolute and relative liver weights of 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm males and all exposed groups of females were significantly greater than those of the controls. Compared to the control groups, the incidences of minimal to mild

  17. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE LEVELS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY FEEDS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on t...

  18. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.; Shen, B.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Tech is involved in a number of activities with NASA Langley related to large aperture radiometric antenna systems. These efforts are summarized and the focus of this report is on the feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas; however, some results for all activities are reported.

  19. A multi-year field olfactometry study near a concentrated animal feeding operation.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Pamela; Caraway, Edward A; Gibb, Herman; Fulcher, Keri

    2011-12-01

    This study developed and tested a protocol for monitoring odors near a Concentrated Animal Feeding Operation (CAFO). The Nasal Ranger, a portable field olfactometry instrument, was used by a panel of trained individuals to conduct the monitoring near a swine CAFO. Monitors were selected based on olfactory sensitivity, scheduling availability, and lack of association with the CAFO or residential neighbors of the CAFO. Monitors were trained to use the Nasal Ranger, collect and record weather data, and characterize any odors detected. Data were collected over a 3-year period (2007-2009) for approximately 9 months each year. The data recorded included odor intensity, a description of the odor, date and time of the reading, and weather conditions. Of more than 50,000 readings, forty-one (0.1%) odor readings had a dilution to threshold ratio (D/T) of +/- 7:1 and were attributed to hog manure. The frequency of odor readings attributed to hog manure with D/T +/-7:1 was found to negatively correlate with log wind speed and positively correlate with wind from the direction of the farm. Other meteorological variables (temperature, precipitation, cloud cover) and time of day did not influence the frequency. PMID:22263428

  20. Design and operation of a batch-feed fluidizing bed aerosol generator for inhalation toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shiotsuka, R.N.; Peck, R.W. Jr.; Drew, R.T.

    1985-02-01

    A fluidizing bed aerosol generator (FBG), designed for inhalation toxicity studies, was constructed and tested. A key design feature contributing to its operational stability was the partial masking of the screen supporting the bronze beads. This caused 20-80% of the bed to fluidize under normal operating conditions. The non-fluidizing areas functioned as reservoirs to feed the fluidizing areas. Using a bed volume of 1000 cc of bronze beads and 20 g of MnO/sub 2/ dust, the mass output rate ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/min when operated at plenum pressures of 1.04 x 10/sup 2/ to 2.42 x 10/sup 2/ kPa (minimum fluidization pressure was approximately 82.8 kPa). During daily operation at three different output rates, the FBG produced aerosols with little change in particle size distributions or concentration when operated six hours/day for five days. Furthermore, when the FBG was operated at a fixed output rate for 15 days with two recharges of MnO/sub 2/ dust, the particle size distribution did not show any cumulative increase. Thus, long-term operation of this FBG should result in a reproducible range of concentration and particle size distribution.

  1. Effect of breast feeding on intelligence in children: prospective study, sibling pairs analysis, and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Der, Geoff; Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J

    2006-01-01

    Objective To assess the importance of maternal intelligence, and the effect of controlling for it and other important confounders, in the link between breast feeding and children's intelligence. Design Examination of the effect of breast feeding on cognitive ability and the impact of a range of potential confounders, in particular maternal IQ, within a national database. Additional analyses compared pairs of siblings from the sample who were and were not breast fed. The results are considered in the context of other studies that have also controlled for parental intelligence via meta-analysis. Setting 1979 US national longitudinal survey of youth. Subjects Data on 5475 children, the offspring of 3161 mothers in the longitudinal survey. Main outcome measure IQ in children measured by Peabody individual achievement test. Results The mother's IQ was more highly predictive of breastfeeding status than were her race, education, age, poverty status, smoking, the home environment, or the child's birth weight or birth order. One standard deviation advantage in maternal IQ more than doubled the odds of breast feeding. Before adjustment, breast feeding was associated with an increase of around 4 points in mental ability. Adjustment for maternal intelligence accounted for most of this effect. When fully adjusted for a range of relevant confounders, the effect was small (0.52) and non-significant (95% confidence interval -0.19 to 1.23). The results of the sibling comparisons and meta-analysis corroborated these findings. Conclusions Breast feeding has little or no effect on intelligence in children. While breast feeding has many advantages for the child and mother, enhancement of the child's intelligence is unlikely to be among them. PMID:17020911

  2. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  3. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  4. Studies on the energy content of pigeon feeds I. Determination of digestibility and metabolizable energy content.

    PubMed

    Hullar, I; Meleg, I; Fekete, S; Romvari, R

    1999-12-01

    The digestibility coefficient and metabolizable energy (ME) content of the most important pigeon feeds (corn, wheat, barley, red and white millet, sorghum, canary seed, peas, lentils, sunflower, and hemp) were determined. The experiment was carried out using 10 adult male homing pigeons. All feeds were fed alone, in a whole-grain form, ad libitum. Drinking water and grit were offered to the birds on a continuous basis. Each feedstuff was fed to five pigeons in 1-wk cycles. There was no significant difference between the values determined in pigeons and those reported in the literature for chickens among the digestibilities of the CP of the various feeds. For pigeons, the digestibility of carbohydrates (N-free extracts, NFE) was lower (e.g., 62.37 vs 83.00% for barley and 63.45 vs 77.00% for peas), whereas the ether extract (EE) was higher (e.g., 75.58 vs 61.00% for barley and 82.59 vs 80.00% for peas) in pigeons compared with chickens. As a result, the AMEn values determined in pigeons did not differ significantly from those reported for chickens but tended to be slightly higher. For feeds of high-oil content, that difference may be somewhat larger. The correlation between the CP, EE, crude fiber (CF), and NFE contents of the feeds and the ME values determined in this experiment were calculated by multivariate linear regression. It was concluded that it was more accurate to determine and tabulate the ME contents of other potential pigeon feeds directly by experimental methods rather than using an equation. PMID:10626652

  5. The effects of auricular acupuncture on weight reduction and feeding-related cytokines: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Hisayuki; Yamada, Osamu; Kira, Yuji; Tanaka, Takeshi; Matsuoka, Rumiko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Auricular acupuncture is a common therapy used to control appetite; however, the underlying mechanism(s) of action is unclear. The present study examined changes in feeding behaviour and in the levels of several appetite-related hormones in response to auricular acupuncture, and attempted to identify the mechanism(s) by which this traditional medical treatment exerts its effects. Methods Ten healthy adult volunteers (nine female and one male) were recruited by the KOSAI Oriental Healthcare Center. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n=5 per group): an acupuncture group and a placebo group. Each received detention needle stimulus on a weekly basis for 1 month. Changes in diet, body weight, blood pressure and blood biochemistry were evaluated before treatment and at 1 week after the start of treatment. Results The difference in weight before treatment and after 1 week of treatment was significant for all participants in the acupuncture group (p=0.02). The percentage changes in active ghrelin in the acupuncture group were no significant changes observed in active ghrelin levels at 1 week after acupuncture in any individual participant (p=0.89). By contrast, the percentage changes in active ghrelin levels in the placebo group at 1 week after the start of acupuncture were significant (p=0.04). The insulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, leptin and adiponectin levels did not change significantly in either group. Conclusions There was a statistically significant difference in the percentage change in body weight and active ghrelin levels in each individual participant in auricular acupuncture groups. This is a pilot study and the sample number is small; however, auricular acupuncture may reduce appetite by suppressing ghrelin production. PMID:26462269

  6. Effects of feeding rumen-protected choline on incidence of diseases and reproduction of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Lima, F S; Sá Filho, M F; Greco, L F; Santos, J E P

    2012-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding rumen-protected choline (RPC) to dairy cows on the incidence of disease in early lactation, and on their fertility as measured by return to ovarian cyclicity and pregnancies per insemination (P/AI). In the first experiment, 369 cows were fed 15 g/day of RPC between 25 days pre-calving and 80 days post calving. In the second experiment, 578 primigravid cows were fed 15 g/day of RPC for the last 21 days of gestation only. In both experiments, P/AI were evaluated for the first and second inseminations, and health disorders were monitored daily until 90 days after calving. Return to cyclicity was evaluated in experiment 1 only, on days 51 and 61 post calving. In the first experiment, feeding RPC reduced the incidence of clinical ketosis, mastitis, and morbidity, and the number of cases of mastitis per cow. Feeding RPC did not influence cyclicity and P/AI. In the second experiment, cows fed RPC tended to have greater morbidity than controls because of an increased incidence of metritis and fever, although the incidence of retained fetal membranes was lower. The P/AI for first and second inseminations were similar between treatments. Supplementing the diets of dairy cattle with RPC from before until after calving improved the health of early lactation cows. However, in primigravid cows feeding RPC before calving only had mixed effects on health. Feeding RPC had no beneficial effects on reproduction in either experiment. PMID:22178357

  7. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients. PMID:27432261

  8. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine ...

  9. Studies on the effect of feeding cupric sulfate pentahydrate to laying hens on egg cholesterol content.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1998-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that pharmacological levels of dietary Cu could reduce egg cholesterol content. White Leghorn hens 30 to 39 wk of age were fed corn and soybean meal diets with 0, 125, or 250 mg supplemental Cu/kg diet from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (basal diet = 6.74 mg Cu/kg). Body weight, feed consumption, egg weights, egg specific gravity, and Haugh Units were not consistently affected during the 8-wk feeding trials. Egg production was significantly increased (P < 0.05) in the second 4-wk period by supplemental Cu in both experiments. Egg yolk cholesterol concentrations were decreased by feeding 125 mg Cu/kg diet (11.7 vs 8.6 mg/g, average of two experiments); feeding 250 mg Cu/kg resulted in further declines in egg cholesterol but the differences were not significant (7.9 mg/g). Changes in plasma cholesterol concentrations were similar to those of yolk cholesterol. Small but significant amounts of Cu accumulated in the yolks and shells of eggs from Cu-supplemented hens; however, most of the Cu fed was found in the excreta. PMID:9776063

  10. Text Messaging Data Collection for Monitoring an Infant Feeding Intervention Program in Rural China: Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    van Velthoven, Michelle Helena; Chen, Li; Car, Josip; Rudan, Igor; Wu, Qiong; Du, Xiaozhen; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2013-01-01

    Background An effective data collection method is crucial for high quality monitoring of health interventions. The traditional face-to-face data collection method is labor intensive, expensive, and time consuming. With the rapid increase of mobile phone subscribers, text messaging has the potential to be used for evaluation of population health interventions in rural China. Objective The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program. Methods Participants were caregivers of children aged 0 to 23 months in rural China who participated in an infant feeding health education program. We used the test-retest method. First, we collected data with a text messaging survey and then with a face-to-face survey for 2 periods of 3 days. We compared the response rate, data agreement, costs, and participants’ acceptability of the two methods. Also, we interviewed participants to explore their reasons for not responding to the text messages and the reasons for disagreement in the two methods. In addition, we evaluated the most appropriate time during the day for sending text messages. Results We included 258 participants; 99 (38.4%) participated in the text messaging survey and 177 (68.6%) in the face-to-face survey. Compared with the face-to-face survey, the text messaging survey had much lower response rates to at least one question (38.4% vs 68.6%) and to all 7 questions (27.9% vs 67.4%) with moderate data agreement (most kappa values between .5 and .75, the intraclass correlation coefficients between .53 to .72). Participants who took part in both surveys gave the same acceptability rating for both methods (median 4.0 for both on a 5-point scale, 1=disliked very much and 5=liked very much). The costs per questionnaire for the text messaging method were much lower than the costs for the face-to-face method: ¥19.7 (US $3.13) versus ¥33.9 (US $5.39) for all

  11. Intimate partner violence and infant feeding practices in India: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Zureick-Brown, Sarah; Lavilla, Kayla; Yount, Kathryn M

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is widespread; yet research is thin and equivocal regarding its potential adverse effects on infant feeding practices. With a national sample of 3552 mothers and infants aged 180 days or younger from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey for India, we used logistic regression to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted associations of maternal reported lifetime exposure to any IPV and to physical or sexual IPV with feeding practices at birth and in the prior 24 h. Compared with their unexposed counterparts, mothers exposed to any IPV and to any physical or sexual IPV had higher adjusted odds of giving their infant liquids [aOR 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.66; aOR 1.37, 95% CI 1.08-1.75, respectively], and thus lower adjusted odds of exclusively breastfeeding their infant in the prior 24 h (aOR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62-0.98; aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.58-0.95). Mothers exposed to physical or sexual IPV also had higher adjusted odds of feeding their infant solids in the prior 24 h (aOR 1.50, 95% CI 1.01-2.23). Exposure to IPV was not significantly associated with breastfeeding immediately after birth or with bottle feeding in the prior 24 h. Perinatal screening for IPV, and addressing IPV and feeding practices in exposed mothers, may improve maternal health and infant nutrition in similar settings. PMID:23795715

  12. SAR studies directed toward the pyridine moiety of the sap-feeding insecticide sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active).

    PubMed

    Loso, Michael R; Benko, Zoltan; Buysse, Ann; Johnson, Timothy C; Nugent, Benjamin M; Rogers, Richard B; Sparks, Thomas C; Wang, Nick X; Watson, Gerald B; Zhu, Yuanming

    2016-02-01

    Sap-feeding insect pests constitute a major insect pest complex that includes a range of aphids, whiteflies, planthoppers and other insect species. Sulfoxaflor (Isoclast™ active), a new sulfoximine class insecticide, targets sap-feeding insect pests including those resistant to many other classes of insecticides. A structure activity relationship (SAR) investigation of the sulfoximine insecticides revealed the importance of a 3-pyridyl ring and a methyl substituent on the methylene bridge linking the pyridine and the sulfoximine moiety to achieving strong Myzus persicae activity. A more in depth QSAR investigation of pyridine ring substituents revealed a strong correlation with the calculated logoctanol/water partition coefficient (SlogP). Model development resulted in a highly predictive model for a set of 18 sulfoximines including sulfoxaflor. The model is consistent with and helps explain the highly optimized pyridine substitution pattern for sulfoxaflor. PMID:26706115

  13. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... administer the TPN. Tubes Used for Enteral Feeds NG (Nasogastric Tube) A flexible tube is placed via ... down through the esophagus into the stomach. The NG tube can be used to empty the stomach ...

  14. A comparative study of feed impedances of a circular and three different spiral antenna arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandra, V.; Dey, K. K.; Khastgir, P.

    1982-08-01

    Mathematical derivation of feed impedances of the dipole radiators of a circular and three different spiral arrays has been made for both constant and progressive phase distributions. A set of graphs, which show the variations of these impedances and their components from radiator to radiator, has been obtained. Spiral distributions of impedances can be observed on the Argand diagram in the cases of the three spiral arrays.

  15. Significant others, situations and infant feeding behaviour change processes: a serial qualitative interview study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding until six months followed by the introduction of solids and continued breastfeeding is recommended by the World Health Organisation. The dominant approach to achieving this has been to educate and support women to start and continue breastfeeding rather than understanding behaviour change processes from a broader perspective. Method Serial qualitative interviews examined the influences of significant others on women’s feeding behaviour. Thirty-six women and 37 nominated significant others participated in 220 interviews, conducted approximately four weekly from late pregnancy to six months after birth. Responses to summative structured questions at the end of each interview asking about significant influences on feeding decisions were compared and contrasted with formative semi-structured data within and between cases. Analysis focused on pivotal points where behaviour changed from exclusive breastfeeding to introducing formula, stopping breastfeeding or introducing solids. This enabled us to identify processes that decelerate or accelerate behaviour change and understand resolution processes afterwards. Results The dominant goal motivating behaviour change was family wellbeing, rather than exclusive breastfeeding. Rather than one type of significant other emerging as the key influence, there was a complex interplay between the self-baby dyad, significant others, situations and personal or vicarious feeding history. Following behaviour change women turned to those most likely to confirm or resolve their decisions and maintain their confidence as mothers. Conclusions Applying ecological models of behaviour would enable health service organisation, practice, policy and research to focus on enhancing family efficacy and wellbeing, improving family-centred communication and increasing opportunities for health professionals to be a constructive influence around pivotal points when feeding behaviour changes. A paradigm shift is

  16. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823)

    PubMed Central

    Kasiri, Milad; Farahi, Amin; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g) were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW), dried Tubifex (DT), dried Gammarus (DG) and prepared granulated feed (PGF), twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested. PMID:25610565

  17. Growth and reproductive performance by different feed types in fresh water angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823).

    PubMed

    Kasiri, Milad; Farahi, Amin; Sudagar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that reproduction is sensitive to the state of energy reserves, and that there is a balance between energy homeostasis and fertility. In this view, this study examined the effects of different diets on growth and reproductive performance of fresh water angelfish. Twenty four pairs of angelfish (weighing 3.58 ± 0.24 g) were fed with four types of diets including live earth worm (LEW), dried Tubifex (DT), dried Gammarus (DG) and prepared granulated feed (PGF), twice a day for 90 days. Reproductive parameters were measured between days 60 and 90. The significant increase in the gonadosomatic index (GSI), fecundity and hatchability brought about by the LEW were demonstrated by the higher number of spawned eggs and hatched larvae. The best growth observed significantly in PGF, and length of larvae was enhanced in this group, consequently. The numbers of dead and deformed fry were lower in the fish fed with PGF and LEW, but there was no significant difference among experimental groups. This study showed that breeders benefit from inclusion of prepared granulated feed and living earth worm during their growth and reproductive stages, and simultaneous using of them for achieving better results is suggested. PMID:25610565

  18. QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies a...

  19. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  20. Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Quercetin (CAS No. 117-39-5) in F344 Rats (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1992-09-01

    Quercetin is a member of a group of naturally occurring compounds, the flavonoids, which have a common flavone nucleus composed of two benzene rings linked through a heterocyclicpyrone ring. Quercetin is found in various plants, food products, and dyes of natural origin. The estimated average daily intake of quercetin by an individual in the United States is 25 mg. The Food and Drug Administration nominated quercetin for toxicity and carcinogenicity studies in the rat because it is a chemical that is widely distributed in foods. Quercetin was administered to rats by dosed feed since human exposure is by dietary consumption. Information in the literature showed that quercetin administered in the diet to rats at levels up to approximately 4% caused a minor body weight effect, whereas higher dose levels produced greater than 10% reduction in body weight gains relative to controls. Based on this information, the NTP 2-year studies were conducted by administering 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 40,000 ppm quercetin (>95% pure) in feed to groups of 50 male and female rats for 104 weeks. Ten additional animals per dose group were evaluated at 6 and 15 months. Body Weight, Survival, and Clinical Findings in the 2-Year Studies: Body weights of exposed male and female rats given 1,000 and 10,000 ppm were within 5% of controls throughout the studies. Reduced body weight gain in male and female rats receiving 40,000 ppm was observed by week 15 and the final mean body weights were 87% of controls at week 104. Survival and feed consumption were similar among exposed and control groups throughout the studies. The average amounts of quercetin consumed per day by the 1,000, 10,000 and 40,000 ppm dose groups after week 52 were 40, 400, and 1,900 mg/kg of body weight. Nonneoplastic and Neoplastic Effects in the 2-Year Studies: In male rats, the principal toxic effects associated with the dietary administration of quercetin for 2 years were observed in the kidney. There were dose

  1. Studies on the Role of Nitrogen in the Feed for Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Under Fixed-Bed Reactor System.

    PubMed

    Hong, Gi Hoon; Jung, Jae-Sun; Kim, Na-Young; Lee, Sang Yong; Moon, Dong Ju

    2016-02-01

    In this study, Co/Al203 catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared via slurry impregnation method and the catalyst was characterized by various techniques such as TPR, XRD, TGA and N2 physisorption. To dissolve the wax, after-reaction catalyst was dewaxed using n-Hexane at 60 *C. The experiments were performed in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor, under the reaction condition of 230 degrees C, 20 bar and feed volume ratio of H2:CO:N2 = 2:1:0.5-1.5. The methane selectivity and the ratio of olefin to paraffin among C2-C4 hydrocarbons were increased with higher contents of nitrogen in feed gas which result in higher partial pressure ratio of H2 to CO, and also affect methane selectivity which has a significant role in increased CO conversion. PMID:27433695

  2. Nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology: lysine maize as a case study.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, the area of biotech crops modified for agronomic input traits (e.g., herbicide tolerance and insect protection) has increased to 90 million halyear, grown by over 8 million farmers in a total of 17 countries. As adoption of these improved agronomic trait biotech crops has grown, so has interest in biotech crops that have improved nutritional characteristics for use as feed and food. A previous publication by the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) reported on the principles and concepts proposed for the nutritional and safety assessments of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology. In this paper, the guidelines and principles recommended in the earlier publication are discussed relative to a specific case study, Lysine maize. Lysine maize is a feed ingredient with enhanced nutritional characteristics for poultry and swine and provides an alternative to the need for addition of supplemental lysine to some diets for these animals. The 2004 Task Force of the ILSI has also applied the concepts from that report to 4 other case studies: sweet potato enriched in provitamin A (2 examples, one using biotechnology and one using conventional breeding); Golden Rice 2; double-embryo maize; and ASP-1 enhanced protein sweet potato. PMID:17955996

  3. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids. PMID:26785574

  4. Residual feed intake studies in Angus-sired cattle reveal a potential role for hypothalamic gene expression in regulating feed efficiency.

    PubMed

    Perkins, S D; Key, C N; Garrett, C F; Foradori, C D; Bratcher, C L; Kriese-Anderson, L A; Brandebourg, T D

    2014-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying variation in residual feed intake (RFI), a heritable feed efficiency measure, are poorly understood while the relationship between RFI and meat quality is uncertain. To address these issues, 2 divergent cohorts consisting of High (HRFI) and Low (LRFI) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in 48 Angus-sired steers during a 70 d feeding trial to identify steers with divergent RFI. The association of RFI with indices of meat quality and expression of genes within hypothalamic and adipose tissue was then determined in LRFI and HRFI steers. While on test, feed intake was recorded daily with BW and hip heights recorded at 14 d intervals. Ultrasound measurements of rib eye area (REA) and backfat (BF) were recorded initially and before harvest. Carcass and growth data were analyzed using a mixed model with RFI level (LRFI, HRFI) as the independent variable. The least-square means (lsmeans) for RFI were -1.25 and 1.51 for the LRFI and HRFI cohorts (P < .0001). Dry matter intake was higher for the HRFI individuals versus the LRFI steers (P < .0001) while on test BW gain was not different between the 2 groups (P < 0.73). There were no differences detected in marbling score (P < 0.93), BF (P < 0.61), REA (P < 0.15), yield grade (P < 0.85) or objective Hunter color measures between LRFI and HRFI steers indicating that there was no relationship between RFI and meat quality. Neuropeptide-Y (NPY), relaxin-3 (RLN3), melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R), and GnRH mRNA expression was 64%, 59%, 58%, 86% lower (P < 0.05), respectively, while gonadotropin inhibiting hormone (GnIH) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) mRNA expression was 198% and 350% higher (P < 0.01) in the arcuate nucleus of LRFI steers. Expression of agouti-related protein (AGRP), relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1), and melanocortin 3 receptor mRNA was similar between LRFI and HRFI animals. Pituitary expression of FSHβ (P < 0.03) and LHβ (P < 0.01) was correlated to

  5. Chronic toxicity, reproductive, and teratogenic studies of hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L; Kaplan, A M

    1984-12-01

    Hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine 2,4(1H,3H)-dione; CAS 51235-04-2] was tested for oral toxicity in rats (both 90-day and 2-year feeding studies), mice (8-week and 2-year feeding studies), and dogs (90-day feeding study). The teratogenic potential was evaluated in rabbits and rats and functional reproductive capacity was studied in rats. Ninety-day feeding of up to 1000 ppm produced no signs of a toxic response in rats. Rats fed 5000 ppm had growth curves slightly inferior to those of the controls as the only detectable difference. Extending the feeding period to 2 years produced decreased body weights in males fed 2500 ppm (top level tested) and in females fed either 1000 or 2500 ppm. All other indices of response, including the type and distribution of tumors, were similar in the test and control rats with the no-effect level being 200 ppm. Eight-week feeding of up to 10,000 ppm in mice produced increased liver weight only at the highest level without any other changes. Two-year feeding of either 200, 2500, or 10,000 ppm resulted in sloughing of the distal tip of the tail and increased liver weights among mice fed 10,000 ppm. Hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes and hyperplasic nodules were increased in mice fed either 2500 or 10,000 ppm. No evidence of a tumorigenic response was evident. The no-effect level was 200 ppm. Dogs fed 5000 ppm for 90 days had decreased rate of body weight gain with clinical enzyme changes suggestive of liver damage. Microscopic examination of the liver failed to reveal any alterations and dogs fed either 200 or 1000 ppm were indistinguishable from controls. The no-effect level in the dog was 1000 ppm. No evidence of a teratogenic response was seen in either rats or rabbits and reproduction capacity in rats fed up to 2500 ppm for three generations was unaffected. PMID:6519376

  6. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora. PMID:24329503

  7. Maternal feeding practices predict fruit and vegetable consumption in young children. Results of a 12-month longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Jane E; Paxton, Susan J; Brozovic, Anna M

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the prospective relationship between maternal feeding practices and young children's frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables and sweets, and also child weight-for-height z-scores. Participants were 60 mothers who completed questionnaires when their children were 1 year old and again when their children were 2 years old. Regression analyses were performed. After controlling for availability and prior child consumption of the target food, maternal use of pressure to eat at 1 year predicted lower child frequency of fruit consumption at 2 years and approached significance for lower vegetable consumption. Maternal modelling of healthy eating at 1 year predicted higher child frequency of vegetable consumption at 2 years. Restriction did not significantly predict child frequency of consumption of fruits, vegetables or sweets over time. Child weight-for-height scores at 2 years were predicted by weight-for-height at 1 year but not by feeding practices. The findings suggest that maternal feeding practices can influence child eating at a very young age. Interventions should focus on encouraging parents to model healthy eating to promote healthy eating in children. PMID:21569809

  8. Barriers to Infant and Child-feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study of Primary Caregivers in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nankumbi, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices by primary caregivers living in a rural Ugandan district. A community-based qualitative design and focus group discussions were used for collecting data from primary caregivers of children aged 0 to 24 month(s). On an average, each of the four focus group discussions had 11 participants. The focus group discussions were conducted using a structured interview guide and were tape-recorded. The recorded data were later transcribed and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis techniques. All the participants were females, and the majority had low levels of education and at least one child in the age-group of 0-24 month(s) in their household. The findings show that the main barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices fall under four themes: caregiver's knowledge about breastfeeding, caregiver's knowledge about complimentary feeding, influence of culture custodians on the caregivers, and patterns and burden of other responsibilities the caregivers have in the household. The four categories of barriers imply that there are various missed opportunities to implement hospital and community-based interventions to improve infant and young child-feeding practices, which is one way of preventing malnutrition. Therefore, in rural areas of Uganda, the major factors responsible for the high prevalence of malnutrition among infants and children are still those related to knowledge, culture, and social status of the primary caregivers. PMID:25995727

  9. Barriers to infant and child-feeding practices: a qualitative study of primary caregivers in Rural Uganda.

    PubMed

    Nankumbi, Joyce; Muliira, Joshua K

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices by primary caregivers living in a rural Ugandan district. A community-based qualitative design and focus group discussions were used for collecting data from primary caregivers of children aged 0 to 24 month(s). On an average, each of the four focus group discussions had 11 participants. The focus group discussions were conducted using a structured interview guide and were tape-recorded. The recorded data were later transcribed and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis techniques. All the participants were females, and the majority had low levels of education and at least one child in the age-group of 0-24 month(s) in their household. The findings show that the main barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices fall under four themes: caregiver's knowledge about breastfeeding, caregiver's knowledge about complimentary feeding, influence of culture custodians on the caregivers, and patterns and burden of other responsibilities the caregivers have in the household. The four categories of barriers imply that there are various missed opportunities to implement hospital and community-based interventions to improve infant and young child-feeding practices, which is one way of preventing malnutrition. Therefore, in rural areas of Uganda, the major factors responsible for the high prevalence of malnutrition among infants and children are still those related to knowledge, culture, and social status of the primary caregivers. PMID:25995727

  10. Attitudes towards exclusive breastfeeding and other infant feeding options--a study from Abidjan, Cote d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Emmanuela A; Béquet, Laurence; Ekouévi, Didier K; Krawinkel, Michael

    2005-08-01

    The HIV/AIDS-pandemic causes many problems for the most affected societies and their health care systems. One of these is the 'parent to child transmission' (PTCT) through breastmilk and its prevention (PPTCT). As economic and hygienic conditions do not always assure safe replacement feeding in developing countries, a WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-expert panel proposed methods to reduce the risk of PTCT but to use breastmilk for infant feeding. The study presented here aimed at identifying the expected acceptance of such a concept by addressing the attitudes of women in Abidjan, Ivory Coast. Interviews were performed with 150 mothers and 60 pregnant women. The vast majority regarded breastfeeding as the appropriate method of infant feeding, although the idea of exclusive breastfeeding was not well accepted. Water, especially, was felt to be a necessary supplement. In case of a suggested HIV-infection of the mother, 74 per cent of the women voted for weaning after 3 months. Eighty-three per cent accepted the exclusive use of breastmilk substitutes from birth. Seventy-six per cent were ready to boil their milk for pasteurization. Only 37 per cent considered a wet-nurse to breastfeed their child. As mixed breastfeeding implies a highest risk of PTCT of HIV, the most favoured option-exclusive breastfeeding and early weaning-requires some effort to convince women that breastmilk is a sufficient source of nutrients, fluid and energy for their child and that this feeding should preferably be practised up to 6 months of age. For affluent women, breastmilk substitutes can also be considered as a means of PPTCT in overall resource-poor countries. For the majority of women, there is no real alternative to breastfeeding and to the use of breastmilk for which appropriate technologies of PPTCT are to be developed with respect to national, local and household specifications. PMID:15890725

  11. Feeding gastrostomy. Assistant or assassin?

    PubMed

    Burtch, G D; Shatney, C H

    1985-04-01

    Following several deaths from pulmonary aspiration in severely ill or chronically debilitated patients receiving nasogastric tube feedings, a study was undertaken to determine the incidence of aspiration pneumonitis in patients with feeding gastrostomies. During a 15-month interval, 22 feeding gastrostomies and nine feeding jejunostomies were performed. In the former group, eight patients experienced aspiration pneumonitis, with two deaths. Six patients with Stamm gastrostomies and two patients with permanent mucosal-lined gastrostomies experienced pulmonary aspiration. In contrast, aspiration pneumonia did not occur in our small series of patients with feeding jejunostomies. The high incidence of pulmonary aspiration in patients with feeding gastrostomies strongly suggests that, for chronic enteral nutrition in patients who are unable to protect their airway, a feeding jejunostomy is preferable to a feeding gastrostomy. PMID:3920939

  12. Study of cholesterol and vitamin E levels in broiler meat from different feeding regimens by TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Magdalena E; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Połtowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Joanna; Pedrys, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The quality of chicken meat, which is one of the most widely consumed meats in the world, has been the subject of research and studies for many years. There are several ways to improve the quality of this type of meat, including changing the concentrations of individual molecular components. Such important components of meat are inter alia, cholesterol, vitamin E, and some fatty acids such as ω-3 and ω-6. Manipulation of ingredient levels may be achieved by enriching chicken feed with elements of different types such as vegetable oils, garlic, or selenium. Thus far, various biochemical and biophysical methods have been used to study quality of different meat types, especially broiler meat. Here, the authors demonstrate the use of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) mass spectrometry to assess how variations in animal nutrition affect concentrations of specific lipids in the meat, such as cholesterol and vitamin E. In the presented experiment, there were four different dietary treatments. Feed for animals in the first group was supplemented with soy oil in 50%, the second group's feed was supplemented with linseed oil in 50%, a combination of these two oils in the proportion of 44%:56% was used for the third group, and in the reference group, animals were fed with beef tallow. From each group, four individuals were selected for further analysis. Positive and negative ion mass spectra were generated from the pectoralis superficialis muscle tissue of the left carcass side of each one animal. Using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source (Bi3 (+)), and based on characteristic peaks for cholesterol in the positive mode and vitamin E in the negative mode, the authors have illustrated the relationship of these lipids levels to the various feeding regimens. Simultaneously, the authors characterized the varying dependences on the concentrations of measured lipids in fat and muscle fibers. The cholesterol concentration in muscle

  13. Role of feeding jejunostomy in major anastomotic disruptions in esophageal atresia: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bawa, Monika; Menon, Prema; Mahajan, Jai K.; Peters, Nitin J.; Garge, Saurabh; Rao, K. L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the role of feeding jejunostomy (FJ) in patients of esophageal atresia with anastomotic leak (AL) to decrease the degree of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and its effect on anastomotic healing. Materials and Methods: Twenty neonates, with major AL and severe GER after primary repair were managed with decompressing gastrostomy and transgastric FJ and analyzed prospectively. Results: Male to female ratio was 1.7:1. Mean birth weight was 2.2 kg. Anastomotic gap ranged from 0 to 4 cm. The amount of leak was more than 20% of nasogastric feeds. Gastrostomy and FJ was done on an average of the 12th postoperative day, after observing the general condition, chest tube output, lung expansion, and ventilatory requirement. There was a drastic reduction in chest tube output and lung expanded in all patients. Average hospital stay was 36 days (8-80 days). Sixty percentage patients were discharged successfully on FJ. Esophagogram demonstrated healing and leak free patency after an average of 1.5 months. GER was noted in seven patients, four developed stricture, and one had pseudodiverticulum in follow-up. Conclusion: Decompressing gastrostomy and FJ can be an alternative to managing major ALs. It helps in healing of anastomotic dehiscence and in preserving the native esophagus. PMID:26862291

  14. Feeding guilt.

    PubMed

    Byrom, Anna

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is increasingly equated to ideologies of the 'good mother' in our society in response to a growing body of evidence identifying its benefits. Women who choose not to or are unable to breastfeed can experience a sense of guilt in response to cultural expectations that 'breast is best'. These negative feelings can impact upon their adaptation to and enjoyment of motherhood. This discussion paper examines the experience of maternal guilt with specific reference to infant feeding. An exploration of the reasons mothers may feel guilty about their feeding experiences is offered. Finally some suggestions are made about how midwives and breastfeeding advocates might improve care for mothers' emotional wellbeing. PMID:23590082

  15. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-01-01

    into account the interaction effects of intervention area and increasing social support over time, we found a significant association in the grandmother intervention area on dietary diversity (OR, 1.19; CI, 1.01 to 1.40; P=.04). No significant effects were found on minimum acceptable diet. Conclusion: Engaging fathers and grandmothers of infants to improve their knowledge of optimal infant feeding practices and to encourage provision of social support to mothers could help improve some feeding practices. Future studies should engage all key household influencers in a family-centered approach to practice and support infant feeding recommendations. PMID:27016544

  16. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  17. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  18. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  19. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement.

    PubMed

    Reznar, Melissa M; Carlson, John S; Hughes, Sheryl O; Pavangadkar, Amol S; Scott, Marci K; Hoerr, Sharon L

    2014-05-01

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine the parent feeding guide Eat Healthy, Your Children are Watching, A Parent's Guide to Raising a Healthy Eater. An interdisciplinary planning team developed a five-topic, multimedia, interactive guide addressing the strategies most associated with improved diet quality and weight status of children aged 3 to 5 years. Research staff conducted iterative phases of field testing, reformatting, in-depth interviews, and materials testing with Head Start or Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program-Education caregivers (N=38) of children aged 3 to 5 years during 2011 and 2012. Convergence of feedback from caregivers' interviews and each booklet's attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction subscale scores were used to determine and affirm areas for improvement. Lower than desired attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction scores (optimal score=5) in 2011 and too much text resulted in revisions and reformatting that improved scores from 3.8 to 4.9 in 2012. The revision of materials to reflect less text, additional white space, checklists of mealtime behaviors, and learning activities for preschool-aged children resulted in dramatically improved materials and greater acceptance by parents, as shown by both quantitative and qualitative evaluations. Formative evaluation procedures involving the use of data-based decision making allowed for the development of intervention materials that met the unique needs of the population served. PMID:24512951

  20. Effects of feeding ponderosa pine needles during pregnancy: comparative studies with bison, cattle, goats, and sheep.

    PubMed

    Short, R E; James, L F; Panter, K E; Staigmiller, R B; Bellows, R A; Malcolm, J; Ford, S P

    1992-11-01

    Four experiments were conducted to determine the effect of feeding dried pine needles (Pinus ponderosa; PN) on the abortion rate of ruminants. In Exp. 1, cattle were fed 5.4 kg of PN daily for 21 d starting at 116, 167, 215, or 254 d of pregnancy. The PN did not cause abortions when started at 116 d; thereafter, the percentage of cows that aborted increased linearly, and the interval to abortion decreased linearly (both P < .01); all cows fed PN beginning at 254 d aborted. In Exp. 2, cattle were fed .7, 1.4, or 2.7 kg of PN for 21 d or 2.7 kg for 1 or 3 d. Sheep and goats were fed .8 and .5 kg of PN, respectively, starting at 121 d of pregnancy. The PN induced some abortions in cattle when fed for 1 (11%) or 3 (30%) d, but the abortion rate was greater (P < .01) when the PN were fed for longer periods of time (80, 90, and 100% aborted in 19, 17, and 10 d for .7-, 1.4-, and 2.7-kg doses, respectively). No goats or sheep aborted in response to PN feeding. Pregnancy rates during the next breeding season for cows that aborted in response to the PN were slightly higher than rates for control cows (94 vs 87%). In Exp. 3, buffalo (Bison bison) and cattle were fed 2.25 kg of PN from the same collection. Abortions were induced in all buffalo and cattle that were fed PN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1459912

  1. A longitudinal study of feed contamination by European starling excreta in Ohio dairy farms (2007-2008).

    PubMed

    Medhanie, G A; Pearl, D L; McEwen, S A; Guerin, M T; Jardine, C M; Schrock, J; LeJeune, J T

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to understand the temporal pattern of contamination of cattle feed by starling excrement on dairy farms and to evaluate the temporal pattern in recovering Escherichia coli O157:H7 or Salmonella in relation to the absolute mass of excrement recovered. A longitudinal study was conducted on 15 dairy farms in Ohio from July 2007 to October 2008. One open-topped tray filled with bird feed was placed near a cattle feeding site; bird excrement from the tray was weighed monthly for 12 consecutive months. Linear regression models with a random intercept for farm were computed to examine the association between the absolute weight of excrement recovered each month or the farm-specific standard score for weight of excrement, and month or season. Exact logistic regression was used to determine whether an association between recovering E. coli O157:H7 or Salmonella was present and the amount of excrement recovered and season. A spatial scan statistic was used to test for evidence of space-time clustering of excrement, based on the standard score for the weight of the excrement, among our study farms. A total of 5 of 179 excrement samples (2.79%) were positive for E. coli O157:H7 and 2 (1.12%) were positive for Salmonella. A significantly higher level of contamination with excrement was observed during the winter. The odds of recovering a pathogen increased with the amount of excrement recovered and decreased if the excrement was collected in the winter. A spatio-temporal cluster of contamination with excrement was detected. These findings provide basic information for future quantitative microbial risk assessments concerning the role of starlings in spreading enteric pathogens on dairy farms. PMID:24881798

  2. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  3. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  4. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J,...

  5. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J,...

  6. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  7. [Promotion program for breast feeding in Poland. II. Analysis of the breast feeding situation in Poland].

    PubMed

    Mikiel-Kostyra, K

    1993-01-01

    Assessment of breast-feeding situation in Poland was based on three kinds of nation-wide surveys conducted in 1988: newborn feeding and breast feeding routines in maternity wards epidemiology of breast-feeding and other feeding methods in first six months of infant life KAP study among MCH professionals The major findings of the surveys were: conflicting with lactation maternity wards routines especially: very initiation of breast-feeding, administration of liquids and formulas, rigid feeding schedule, separation of newborns from the mothers too early supplantation of breast-feeding lack of current breast-feeding knowledge among MCH professionals. PMID:8359714

  8. A qualitative study of the aspirations and challenges of low-income mothers in feeding their preschool-aged children

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of obesity among preschool-aged children has increased, especially among those in low-income households. Two promising behavioral targets for preventing obesity include limiting children’s portion sizes and their intake of foods high in solid fats and/or added sugars, but these approaches have not been studied in low-income preschoolers in the home setting. The purpose of this study was to understand the contextual factors that might influence how low-income mothers felt about addressing these behavioral targets and mothers’ aspirations in feeding their children. Methods We recruited 32 English-speaking women in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania who were eligible for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program and who were the biologic mothers of children 36 to 66 months of age. Each mother participated in 1 of 7 focus groups and completed a brief socio-demographic questionnaire. Focus group questions centered on eating occasions, foods and drinks consumed in the home, and portion sizes. Each focus group lasted 90 minutes and was digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Three authors independently identified key themes and supporting quotations. Themes were condensed and modified through discussion among all authors. Results Thirty-one mothers identified themselves as black, 15 had a high school education or less, and 22 lived with another adult. Six themes emerged, with three about aspirations mothers held in feeding their children and three about challenges to achieving these aspirations. Mothers’ aspirations were to: 1) prevent hyperactivity and tooth decay by limiting children’s sugar intake, 2) use feeding to teach their children life lessons about limit setting and structure, and 3) be responsive to children during mealtimes to guide decisions about portions. Especially around setting limits with sweets and snacks, mothers faced the challenges of: 1) being nagged by children’s food requests, 2) being undermined by other

  9. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  10. Determination of sulfamethazine in swine and cattle feed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with post-column derivatization: pre-collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Albert, K; Smallidge, R L

    2000-01-01

    In-house validation of a liquid chromatographic method for determination of sulfamethazine in swine and cattle feed was performed to verify that the method was ready for collaborative study under AOAC INTERNATIONAL guidelines. In this method, sulfamerazine is added during the extraction procedure and is used as an internal standard to correct for variable recovery of sulfamethazine from a variety of swine and cattle feed matrixes. The determinative step involves the use of post-column derivatization with dimethylaminobenzaldehyde which reacts with the primary amine group on the sulfonamides. Detection is at 450 nm, a wavelength at which most co-extracted matrix materials and other feed additives do not absorb light. The results indicate that the method recovery, precision, and ruggedness meet normal criteria to be ready for a collaborative study. Fortification experiments over a range of sulfamethazine concentrations from 0.006 to 0.26% showed an overall recovery relative to the internal standard of 100 +/- 2%. These studies include both swine and cattle feed matrixes. The mean recovery in the analysis of 3 beef cattle experimental feeds was 98.9%. The method results agreed with the AOAC INTERNATIONAL Official Method for colorimetric analysis of swine feed. Method precision was excellent during in-house validation studies, with coefficients of variation (CVs) ranging from about 0.5 to 3%. The method ruggedness was verified with an overall CV of 3.5%. PMID:10772161

  11. Exploring the infant feeding practices of immigrant women in the North West of England: a case study of asylum seekers and refugees in Liverpool and Manchester.

    PubMed

    Hufton, Emily; Raven, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the infant feeding experiences of refugees residing in the UK. To enable successful health promotion for this population, such experiences must be understood. The study aimed to gain an understanding of infant feeding practices among a group of UK-based refugee mothers. Objectives were to explore mothers' perceptions and influences of infant feeding practices, to explore challenges faced by mothers in feeding their infants and to identify concerns and experiences of health care professionals with regard to caring for them. Fifteen semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions with refugee mothers and five semi-structured interviews with health care providers were conducted in 2012. A framework approach was used to identify main themes. Overall mothers were dissatisfied with their infant feeding outcomes. A preference to exclusively breastfeed was often not achieved. Most resorted to using formula feed, perceiving that this was primarily due to a lack of support. Mothers who were positive to human immunodeficiency virus followed the UK guidelines of exclusively formula feeding for 6 months, but struggled with guilt of not being able to breastfeed. All mothers unable to exclusively breastfeed experienced a sense of loss. Lack of wider support services coupled with complex lifestyles appeared to create challenges in providing infant feeding support. The results highlight a need for an intensified response to facilitate these mothers to maintain their preferred infant feeding choices, or when required, to support them in the adoption of a new method. Using experienced refugee mothers to guide newer mothers, and integrating health and social care, would be positive starting points. PMID:25243979

  12. Current trends in infant feeding.

    PubMed

    van der Elst, C W; Pick, W; Isaacs, S; Malan, A F

    1989-10-21

    This study examined aspects of newborn feeding in a maternity hospital and also investigated feeding practices during the first 6 months of life. Four hundred and fifty mothers were interviewed while in the maternity hospital. The majority (93%) had booked for their confinement and had attended antenatal clinics regularly. Most had had early contact with the baby at birth and stated that they thought breast-milk was best for the baby. Despite this only 54.6% had given breast-milk as the first feed and only 10% had done so within the first hour. Most mothers (54%) stated that they preferred a timed feeding routine to demand-feeding, while 86% planned to give water between feeds. The majority indicated they would change to formula feeds should they experience problems with breast-feeding. A follow-up visit of 78 mothers 6 months later showed that 50% breast-fed exclusively for 3 - 4 months and 23% for 6 - 7 months. When feeding problems occurred only 27% of the mothers utilised the local authority baby clinic for help. The main reasons given for stopping breast-feeds were insufficient milk, the need for employment and feeding problems. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:2799597

  13. Preliminary assessment of the oral toxicity of 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-week feeding study, male and female rats. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, E.A.; Harvey, J.G.; Bell, P.A.

    1993-02-01

    A 2 and 6 week gavage feeding of DANPE caused testicular hypospermatogenesis in male rats and pneumonitis in female rats. A NOAEL was not achieved in male rats but was achieved in female rats at the 56.00 mg/kg/day dose level.... 1,5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane (DANPE), Gavage, Testicular hypospermatogenesis, Insterstitual Inflammation No-observed-Adverse-Effect-Level(NOAEL), Feeding study.

  14. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01) as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization. PMID:27047176

  15. Ninety-day oral toxicity studies on two genetically modified maize MON810 varieties in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE).

    PubMed

    Zeljenková, Dagmar; Ambrušová, Katarína; Bartušová, Mária; Kebis, Anton; Kovrižnych, Jevgenij; Krivošíková, Zora; Kuricová, Miroslava; Líšková, Aurélia; Rollerová, Eva; Spustová, Viera; Szabová, Elena; Tulinská, Jana; Wimmerová, Soňa; Levkut, Mikuláš; Révajová, Viera; Ševčíková, Zuzana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; La Paz, Jose Luis; Corujo, Maria; Pla, Maria; Kleter, Gijs A; Kok, Esther J; Sharbati, Jutta; Hanisch, Carlos; Einspanier, Ralf; Adel-Patient, Karine; Wal, Jean-Michel; Spök, Armin; Pöting, Annette; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; Steinberg, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    The GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence (GRACE; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project is funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE is to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM) maize in order to comparatively evaluate their use in GM plant risk assessment. In the present study, the results of two 90-day feeding trials with two different GM maize MON810 varieties, their near-isogenic non-GM varieties and four additional conventional maize varieties are presented. The feeding trials were performed by taking into account the guidance for such studies published by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2011 and the OECD Test Guideline 408. The results obtained show that the MON810 maize at a level of up to 33 % in the diet did not induce adverse effects in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats after subchronic exposure, independently of the two different genetic backgrounds of the event. PMID:25270621

  16. Continuous manufacturing of tablets with PROMIS-line - Introduction and case studies from continuous feeding, blending and tableting.

    PubMed

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Ervasti, Tuomas; Toiviainen, Maunu; Korhonen, Ossi

    2016-07-30

    Drug manufacturing technology is in the midst of modernization and continuous manufacturing of drug products is especially the focus of great interest. The adoption of new manufacturing approaches requires extensive cooperation between industry, regulatory bodies, academics and equipment manufacturers. In this paper we introduce PROMIS-line which is a continuous tableting line built at the University of Eastern Finland, School of Pharmacy, PROMIS-centre. PROMIS-line is modular and tablets can be produced via dry granulation or direct compression. In three case studies, continuous feeding, blending and tablet performance is studied to illustrate some basic features of PROMIS-line. In conclusion, the PROMIS-line is an excellent tool for studying the fundamentals of continuous manufacturing of tablets. PMID:26879237

  17. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  18. Infant feeding practices at routine PMTCT sites, South Africa: results of a prospective observational study amongst HIV exposed and unexposed infants - birth to 9 months

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background We sought to investigate infant feeding practices amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers (0-9 months postpartum) and describe the association between infant feeding practices and HIV-free survival. Methods Infant feeding data from a prospective observational cohort study conducted at three (of 18) purposively-selected routine South African PMTCT sites, 2002-2003, were analysed. Infant feeding data (previous 4 days) were gathered during home visits at 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 weeks postpartum. Four feeding groups were of interest, namely exclusive breastfeeding, mixed breastfeeding, exclusive formula feeding and mixed formula feeding. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to investigate associations between feeding practices (0-12 weeks) and infant HIV-free survival. Results Six hundred and sixty five HIV-positive and 218 HIV-negative women were recruited antenatally and followed-up until 36 weeks postpartum. Amongst mothers who breastfed between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-positive mothers practiced exclusive breastfeeding compared with HIV-negative: at 3 weeks 130 (42%) versus 33 (17%) (p < 0.01); this dropped to 17 (11%) versus 1 (0.7%) by four months postpartum. Amongst mothers practicing mixed breastfeeding between 3 weeks and 6 months postpartum, significantly more HIV-negative mothers used commercially available breast milk substitutes (p < 0.02) and use of these peaked between 9 and 12 weeks. The probability of postnatal HIV or death was lowest amongst infants living in the best resourced site who avoided breastfeeding, and highest amongst infants living in the rural site who stopped breastfeeding early (mean and standard deviations: 10.7% ± 3% versus 46% ± 11%). Conclusions Although feeding practices were poor amongst HIV-positive and -negative mothers, HIV-positive mothers undertake safer infant feeding practices, possibly due to counseling provided through the routine PMTCT programme. The

  19. Timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors among children aged 6 to 12 months in Northern Ethiopia: an institution-based cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for the first six months of life is critical for the wellbeing of the child. In the mean while, timely initiation and starting nutritionally-adequate, safe, age-appropriate complementary feeding at six months is recommended for the better health and development of infants. According to the Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey 2011, timely initiation of complementary feeding in Ethiopia at the 6th month was only 51%. The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of timely initiation of complementary feeding and associated factors in Mekelle town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods An institutional based cross-sectional study design was conducted among 422 mothers of infants aged from six months to one year selected from six public health facilities. Sample size proportional to the patient flow rate of each institution was allocated and systematic random sampling method was used to get the study participant. An exit interview using structured questionnaire was conducted about their experience on complementary feeding and related experience. The questionnaire was pretested among 21 mothers. Data were entered with EPI info version 3.5.1 and cleaning and analysis was done by using SPSS version 16. Frequencies distribution, binary and multiple logistic regressions were done. OR and 95% confidence interval was computed. Result The prevalence of timely initiation of complementary feeding at sixth month was 62.8% (265/422, 95% C.I: 58.1, 67.31%). Educational level, occupation of mother, parity, having ANC follow up, and birth preparedness were found to be independent predictor of timely initiation of complementary feeding. Conclusions Almost two-third of mothers initiated complementary feeding at six month of child’ age as recommended. This was relatively higher prevalence than most developing countries. However, significant proportion of mothers still did not initiate complementary feeding timely. Mothers who are illiterate

  20. What factors explain pregnant women’s feeding intentions in Bradford, England: A multi-methods, multi-ethnic study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Using a multi-methods approach we aimed to explore the relative prediction of demographic, socioeconomic and modifiable predictors from the Theory of Planned behaviour (TPB) in explaining feeding intentions amongst a multi-ethnic sample. Methods 476 women completed a questionnaire at 28 weeks gestation. They were grouped into breastfeeding (N = 258), mixed-feeding (N = 50), bottle-feeding (N = 88) intenders, or a no clear intention (N = 88). Multinomial adjusted regressions explored the influence of modifiable TPB factors, along with ethnicity and socioeconomic status in predicting group membership. Free-text responses allowed women to elaborate on reasons behind their intention. Results TPB factors were significant predictors of feeding intention. Women with high intention to breastfeed were less likely to report high attitudes in any other feeding alternative. Bottle-feeding intenders reported poorer self-efficacy regarding breastfeeding compared to breastfeeding intenders (prevalence rate ratio, PRR = 0.10). Mixed and bottle-feeding intenders reported greater self-efficacy for mixed-feeding (PRR = 1.80, 5.50 respectively). Descriptive norms for mixed (PRR = 13.77) and bottle-feeding (PRR = 10.68) were predictive of mixed-feeding intention. Reasons for breastfeeding intentions related to health considerations, whilst bottle-feeding reasons related to convenience. Mixed-feeding intenders reported both breast and bottle-related factors. Conclusions Understanding modifiable predictors related to feeding intentions like TPB factors can help professionals target appropriate interventions to encourage breastfeeding. PMID:24472414

  1. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  2. Feeding natural hydrophilic bile acids inhibits intestinal cholesterol absorption: studies in the gallstone-susceptible mouse.

    PubMed

    Wang, David Q-H; Tazuma, Susumu; Cohen, David E; Carey, Martin C

    2003-09-01

    We explored the influence of the hydrophilic-hydrophobic balance of a series of natural bile acids on cholesterol absorption in the mouse. Male C57L/J mice were fed standard chow or chow supplemented with 0.5% cholic; chenodeoxycholic; deoxycholic; dehydrocholic; hyocholic; hyodeoxycholic; alpha-, beta-, or omega-muricholic; ursocholic; or ursodeoxycholic acids for 7 days. Biliary bile salts were measured by reverse-phase HPLC, and hydrophobicity indices were estimated by Heuman's method. Cholesterol absorption efficiency was determined by a plasma dual-isotope ratio method. In mice fed chow, natural proportions of tauro-beta-muricholate (42 +/- 6%) and taurocholate (50 +/- 7%) with a hydrophobicity index of -0.35 +/- 0.04 produced cholesterol absorption of 37 +/- 5%. Because bacterial and especially hepatic biotransformations of specific bile acids occurred, hydrophobicity indices of the resultant bile salt pools differed from fed bile acids. We observed a significant positive correlation between hydrophobicity indices of the bile salt pool and percent cholesterol absorption. The principal mechanism whereby hydrophilic bile acids inhibit cholesterol absorption appears to be diminution of intraluminal micellar cholesterol solubilization. Gene expression of intestinal sterol efflux transporters Abcg5 and Abcg8 was upregulated by feeding cholic acid but not by hydrophilic beta-muricholic acid nor by hydrophobic deoxycholic acid. We conclude that the hydrophobicity of the bile salt pool predicts the effects of individual fed bile acids on intestinal cholesterol absorption. Natural alpha- and beta-muricholic acids are the most powerful inhibitors of cholesterol absorption in mice and might act as potent cholesterol-lowering agents for prevention of cholesterol deposition diseases in humans. PMID:12748061

  3. Benefits of immediate jejunostomy feeding after major abdominal trauma--a prospective, randomized study.

    PubMed

    Moore, E E; Jones, T N

    1986-10-01

    Benefits of immediate postinjury nutritional support remain ill defined. Seventy-five consecutive patients undergoing emergent celiotomy with an abdominal trauma index (A.T.I.) greater than 15 were randomized prospectively to a control group (no supplemental nutrition during first 5 days) or enteral-fed group. The enteral patients had a needle catheter jejunostomy (N.C.J.) placed at laparotomy with the constant infusion of an elemental diet (Vivonex HN) begun at 18 hours and advanced to 3,000 ml/day (3,000 kcal, 20 gm N2) within 72 hours. Control and enteral-fed groups were comparable with respect to demographic features, trauma mechanism, shock, colon injury, splenectomy, A.T.I., and initial nutritional assessment. Twenty (63%) of the enteral patients were maintained on the elemental diet greater than 5 days; four (12%) needed total parenteral nutrition (T.P.N.). Nine (29%) of the control patients required T.P.N. Nitrogen balance was markedly improved (p less than 0.001) in the enteral-fed group. Although visceral protein markers and overall complication rate were not significantly different, septic morbidity was greater (p less than 0.025) in the control group (abdominal infection in seven and pneumonia in two) compared to the enteral-fed patients (abdominal abscess in three). Analysis of patients with A.T.I. 15-40 disclosed sepsis in seven (26%) of the control versus one (4%) of the enteral-fed group (p less than 0.01). Our clinical experience demonstrates the feasibility of immediate postoperative enteral feeding via N.C.J. after major abdominal trauma, and suggests this early nutrition reduces septic complications in critically injured patients. PMID:3095557

  4. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Mwase, Ivan; Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L; Wright, Charlotte M

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6-24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score <-2 or oedema (2): height for age <-2 (11), weight for age <-2 (11), body mass index for age <-2 (4). Rates of undernutrition were highest (9 of 13; 69%) in children aged 18-24 months. Hand-washing before the meal was lacking in all centres. Caregivers were often distracted and rarely encouraged children to feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. PMID:26507408

  5. A Preference Based Measure of Complementary Feeding Quality: Application to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mittinty, Murthy N.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Smithers, Lisa G.; Brazionis, Laima; Lynch, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution. PMID:24155886

  6. BIOFEAT: Biodiesel fuel processor for a vehicle fuel cell auxiliary power unit. Study of the feed system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sgroi, M.; Bollito, G.; Saracco, G.; Specchia, S.

    An integrated auxiliary power unit (APU) based on a 10 kW e integrated biodiesel fuel processor has been designed and is being developed. Auto-thermal reforming (ATR) and thermal cracking (TC) were considered for converting the fuel into a hydrogen-rich gas suitable for PEM fuel cells. The fuel processor includes also a gas clean-up system that will reduce the carbon monoxide in the primary processor exit gas to below 10 ppm via a new heat-integrated CO clean-up unit, based on the assembly of catalytic heat exchange plates, so as to meet the operational requirements of a PEMFC stack. This article is devoted to the study and selection of the proper feed strategy for the primary fuel processor. Different pre-treatment and feed alternatives (e.g. based on nozzles or simple coils) were devised and tested for the ATR processors, which turned out to be the preferred primary processing route. A nozzle-based strategy was finally selected along with special recommendations about the constituent materials and the operating procedures to be adopted to avoid coking and nozzle corrosion as well as to allow a wide turn down ratio.

  7. Does broodstock nutritional history affect the response of progeny to different first-feeding diets? A whole-body transcriptomic study of rainbow trout alevins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Mazurais, David; Médale, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The whole-body transcriptome of trout alevins was characterised to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of rainbow trout broodstock females a diet free of fishmeal and fish oil on the metabolic capacities of progeny. Effects were studied before first feeding and after 3 weeks of feeding diets containing different proportions of marine and plant ingredients. Feeding alevins plant-based diets resulted in lower fish body weight, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. No differences in whole-body lipids were found between treatments, and the tissue fatty acid profile strongly reflected that of the respective broodstock or first-feeding diets. We showed that the maternal diet history did not significantly affect expressions of any genes before the first feeding. Interestingly, we found an effect of maternal nutritional history on gene expression in alevins after 3 weeks of feeding. The major differences in the transcriptome of alevins from plant-based diet-fed females compared with those from commercial-fed females were as follows: (i) down-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth/contraction and (ii) up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism related to the delay in growth/development observed with plant-based diets. Our findings also showed an effect of the first-feeding diets, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. Specifically, the introduction of plant ingredients resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid/protein and cholesterol metabolism and in differences in the expressions of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Information gained through this study opens up avenues for further reduction of marine ingredients in trout diets, including the whole rearing cycle. PMID:27112276

  8. Feed Formulation and Manufacture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter provides information on feed formulation and manufacture. To formulate and manufacture high quality fish feeds, including tilapia feeds, one should have knowledge of nutrient requirements, nutrient composition, digestibility, and availability of feed ingredients; impacts of manufacturin...

  9. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  10. Development of Wide Band Feeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.; Ichikawa, R.

    2012-12-01

    Wide Band feeds are being developed at NICT, NAOJ, and some universities in Japan for VLBI2010, SKA, and MARBLE. SKA, the Square Kilometre Array, will comprise thousands of radio telescopes with square kilometer aperture size for radio astronomy. MARBLE consists of small portable VLBI stations developed at NICT and GSI in Japan. They all need wide band feeds with a greater than 1:10 frequency ratio. Thus we have been studying wide band feeds with dual linear polarization for these applications.

  11. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-01

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies. PMID:17725317

  12. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother–infant pairs from Ireland and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ireland and UK. Participants 10 604 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008–2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001–2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Results Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Conclusions Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. PMID:27503858

  13. A comparative study on vaccination pain in the methods of massage therapy and mothers’ breast feeding during injection of infants referring to Navabsafavi Health Care Center in Isfahan

    PubMed Central

    Esfahani, Mitra Savabi; Sheykhi, Sanaz; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Jodakee, Mohamadreza; Boroumandfar, Khadijeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Vaccination is one of the most common painful procedures in infants. The irreversible consequences due to pain experiences in infants are enormous. Breast feeding and massage therapy methods are the non-drug methods of pain relief. Therefore, this research aimed to compare the vaccination-related pain in infants who underwent massage therapy or breast feeding during injection. Materials and Methods: This study is a randomized clinical trial. Ninety-six infants were allocated randomly and systematically to three groups (breast feeding, massage, and control groups). The study population comprised all infants, accompanied by their mothers, referring to one of the health centers in Isfahan for vaccination of hepatitis B and DPT at 6 months of age and for MMR at 12 months of age. Data gathering was done using questionnaire and checklist [neonatal infant pain scale (NIPS)]. Data analysis was done using descriptive and inferential statistical methods with SPSS software. Results: Findings of the study showed that the three groups had no statistically significant difference in terms of demographic characteristics (P > 0/05). The mean pain scores in the breast feeding group, massage therapy, and control group were 3.4, 3.9, and 4.8, respectively (P < 0.05). Then the least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test was performed. Differences between the groups, i.e. massage therapy and breast feeding (P = 0.041), breast feeding group and control (P < 0.001), and massage therapy and control groups (P = 0.002) were statistically significant. Conclusion: Considering the results of the study, it seems that breast feeding during vaccination has more analgesic effect than massage therapy. Therefore, it is suggested as a noninvasive, safe, and accessible method without any side effects for reducing vaccination-related pain. PMID:24554949

  14. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice. PMID:26388172

  15. Study of element patterns and excitations of the line feeds of the spherical reflector antenna in Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kildal, P.-S.

    1986-02-01

    The element patterns of the circularly polarized line feeds for the spherical reflector in Arecibo are calculated, showing strong endfire radiation. The radiation fields of the line feeds are then obtained by adding up the contributions from all elements. The optimum excitation of the feed is found by an approximate stationary-phase solution of the radiation field. This shows that the element pattern gives a large phase contribution to the excitation, because of the finite diameter of the feed. If not corrected for, this phase error can cause losses up to 1.5 dB. The excitation is optimized further by cutting and trying. The validity of the analytical models is checked by calculation of the radiation pattern of the existing 96.6 ft 430 MHz feed. The excitation is modeled from measured phases along the feed. The calculated radiation patterns show good agreement with the measurements, including the phase errors and the dip in the center. By using the proposed new excitation it should be possible to increase the efficiency of the 96.6 ft feed by 0.7 dB and to increase the efficiency of the 40 ft feeds at higher frequencies by even more.

  16. A descriptive study of nasogastric tube feeding among geriatric inpatients in Malaysia: utilization, complications, and caregiver opinions.

    PubMed

    Nordin, Nordiana; Kamaruzzaman, Shahrul Bahyah; Chin, Ai-Vyrn; Poi, Philip J H; Tan, Maw Pin

    2015-01-01

    The strong emphasis on feeding in Asian cultures may influence decisions for nasogastric (NG) tube feeding in geriatric inpatients. We evaluated the utility, complications, and opinions of caregivers toward NG tube feeding in an acute geriatric ward in a teaching hospital in Kuala Lumpur. Consecutive patients aged 65 years and older receiving NG tube feeding were included. Sociodemographic, clinical, and laboratory indices were recorded. Opinion on NG tube feeding were evaluated through face-to-face interviews with caregivers, recruited through convenience sampling. Of 432 patients admitted, 96 (22%), age ± standard deviation = 80.8 ± 7.4 years, received NG tube feeding. The complication and mortality rates were 69% and 38%, respectively. Diabetes (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.34 [1.07, 10.44], aspiration pneumonia (8.15 [2.43, 27.24]), impaired consciousness (3.13 [1.05, 9.36]), and albumin ≤26 g/dl (4.43 [1.46, 13.44]) were independent predictors of mortality. Other relatives were more likely than spouses (23.5 [3.59, 154.2]) and caregivers with tertiary education more likely than those with no formal education ( 18 [1.23, 262.7]) to agree to NG feeding. Sixty-four percent of caregivers felt NG tube feeding was appropriate at the end of life, mostly due to the fear of starvation. NG tube feeding is widely used in our setting, despite high complication and mortality rates, with likely influences from cultural emphasis on feeding. PMID:25803603

  17. EFFECTS OF CADMIUM ON RENAL AGING: A CHRONIC CADMIUM FEEDING STUDY IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to accumulate preferentially in the renal proximal tubules. Animal and human autopsy studies have shown that damage to the renal proximal tubular cells is associated with toxicity from chronic Cd exposure. The present study was undertaken to determine if Cd ...

  18. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  19. [Factors associated with breast feeding. II Study of women with no prenatal control].

    PubMed

    Avila-rosas, H; Ambrosi-c, R; Cabrera-o, P; Gordillo-f, J; Oliva-c, J; Toussaint-m, G; Cruz-r, I; Karchmer-k, S

    1989-01-01

    This prospective study on breastfeeding practices sought to identify if factors that intervene or determine breastfeeding practices are those influenced by women themselves, promoted by institutions such as hospitals or is a combination of both factors. The methodology included 582 women who did not attend prenatal consultations and only attended the 3 hospitals included in the study to deliver their babies. Hospital A studied 252 women, supported breastfeeding practices and gave patients milk samples; hospital B studied 80 women, did not support breastfeeding and gave milk samples; and hospital C interviewed 250 women, did not support breastfeeding and did not give women milk samples. Invitations to attend the study explained that 12 hours postpartum a questionnaire would be given and 15 days postpartum a session would be held to verify if they were breastfeeding. The independent variables were: place of birth, residence of the new mothers and that their own mothers age, educational level, status of relationship with the father of the baby, number of pregnancies, number of live children, background and number of previous stillbirths, were they living with the father of the baby and was he supporting her, was the pregnancy planned, previous problems with breastfeeding, was previous baby breastfed number of previous babies breastfed, reasons for not breastfeeding, and prior to the study what were other sources of information on breastfeeding. Results demonstrated that the sociocultural and demographic differences between each of the 3 populations attending the 3 hospitals were found to have stronger effects on breastfeeding practices than hospital policies. PMID:12342596

  20. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B; Spicer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers' beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  1. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B.; Spicer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  2. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    PubMed

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification. PMID:24337863

  3. The Study of Association between Mother Weight Efficacy Life-style with Feeding Practices, Food Groups Intake and Body Mass Index in Children Aged 3-6 Years

    PubMed Central

    Gholamalizadeh, Maryam; Entezari, Mohammad Hassan; Paknahad, Zamzam; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Doaei, Saeid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nutrition in childhood has a significant role in current and adulthood health. Recent studies have shown that the mother's life-style has an important role in the methods used by mother to feed child, child's diet and body mass index (BMI). This study paper aimed to investigate the association between mother's weight efficacy life-style (WEL) with feeding practices and diet in children aged 3-6 years. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, which was carried out in 18 Primary Schools of Rasht (Iran) in 2012, 165 mothers with children aged 3-6 years were participated. Mothers reported their own and their child's demographics. Aspects of mother's WEL and mother's control practices were assessed using WEL questionnaire and Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire respectively. Height and weight of mothers participated in the study were measured. Child's dietary intake was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). The role of mother's weight efficacy in predicting child's feeding practices and child's diet was assessed using the linear regression. Statistical significance for all P values was set at 0.003. Results: The results were showed that mother's weight efficacy was related to child feeding practices and child's dietary intake. The mothers with similar WEL applied similar methods in child nutrition. Mothers with better weight efficacy used more encourage balance and variety (β = 1.860), environmental control (β = 0.437), child involvement (β = 0.203) and less emotion regulation using foods (β = −0.213) and their children eat fewer snacks (β = −0.318) (PV= 0.003). Conclusions: The result of this study showed that maternal life-style was associated with feeding practices and child's intake. There was no significant relation between the maternal self-efficacy and child BMI. PMID:24554988

  4. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  5. A Poor Job Market and a Steady Currency Feed "Overseas-Study Fever" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese news media have a name for the craze that has gripped students here in the past few years: "overseas-study fever." And despite the worsening global financial crisis and a slowing domestic economy, it shows little sign of letting up. Recruiters say a high household savings rate, a difficult job market, and a steady currency, the yuan,…

  6. Flat mite mouthparts and feeding: Raoiella a case study (Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) allows an almost perfect preservation of specimens and offers an extraordinarily detailed glimpse of micromorphology and behaviour. The use of LTSEM to study mouthpart morphology in the mite family Tenuipalpidae, in particular the genus Raoiella,...

  7. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  8. Retracting Inconclusive Research: Lessons from the Séralini GM Maize Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Séralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup©-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup©, or Roundup© for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney and liver damage than normal controls. Shortly after this study was published, numerous scientists and several scientific organizations criticized the research as methodologically and ethically flawed. In January 2014, the journal retracted the article without the authors’ consent on the grounds that the research was inconclusive. In June 2014, Environmental Sciences Europe published a slightly modified version of the retracted paper. The publication, retraction and subsequent republication of the Séralini study raise important scientific and ethical issues for journal editors. Decisions to retract an article should be made on the basis of well-established policies. Articles should be retracted only for serious errors that undermine the reliability of the data or results, or for serious ethical lapses, such as research misconduct or mistreatment of animal or human subjects. Inconclusiveness, by itself, is not a sufficient reason for retracting an article, though a flawed study design might be. Retracted articles that are submitted for republication should undergo scientific review to ensure that they meet appropriate standards. Republished articles should be linked to the original, retracted publication. Journals that are reviewing studies with significant scientific and social implications should take special care to ensure that peer review is rigorous and fair. PMID:26251636

  9. Analytical method development and preformulation stability studies of L-665,871 (a beta-agonist) in swine feed.

    PubMed

    DeMontigny, P; Dave, K J

    1993-10-01

    An analytical procedure for the determination of the beta-agonist L-665,871 by LC with fluorescence detection has been developed. The mobile phase consists of acetonitrile-phosphate buffer (pH 3.0) with ion-pairing reagent hexanesulphonic acid sodium salt for the analysis of swine feed samples with 1 and 20 microgram g-1 L-665,871. Storage of feed samples at room temperature, however, indicated that the stability L-665,871 and its analogue L-674,239 were greatly compromised by the presence of moisture in the feed. Acidification with maleic acid and/or freezing the feeds were found to significantly improve drug stability. PMID:7905752

  10. Comparative studies on Asian and Caucasian children. 2: Nutrition, feeding practices and health.

    PubMed

    Warrington, S; Storey, D M

    1988-01-01

    The growth of children whose parents originated from the Indian subcontinent (Asians) and of indigenous, white children in Rochdale (Caucasians) has been related to dietary intake which was estimated by 3-day weighed intakes during a longitudinal study at 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months of age. The use of human milk vis-à-vis infant milk formulas, the age of introduction of solid food and the effect of other environmental factors were also evaluated. Multiple regression analysis revealed the effects of diet per se on growth to be fairly minimal; a maximum of 28 per cent of the variation in growth could be explained by diet and the few individual nutrients significantly correlated with a growth index were not consistent. PMID:3371300

  11. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

  12. An in vitro study of urea, water, ion and CO2/HCO3- transport in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias): the influence of feeding.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    In vitro gut sac preparations made from the cardiac stomach (stomach 1), pyloric stomach (stomach 2), intestine (spiral valve) and colon were used to examine the impact of feeding on transport processes in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark. Preparations were made from animals that were euthanized after 1-2 weeks of fasting, or at 24-48 h after voluntary feeding on a 3% ration of teleost fish (hake). Sacs were incubated under initially symmetrical conditions with dogfish saline on both surfaces. In comparison to an earlier in vivo study, the results confirmed that feeding caused increases in H(+) secretion in both stomach sections, but an increase in Cl(-) secretion only in stomach 2. Na(+) absorption, rather than Na(+) secretion, occurred in both stomach sections after feeding. All sections of the tract absorbed water and the intestine strongly absorbed Na(+) and Cl(-), regardless of feeding condition. The results also confirmed that feeding increased water absorption in the intestine (but not in the colon), and had little influence on the handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), which exhibited negligible absorption across the tract. However, K(+) was secreted in the intestine in both fasted and fed preparations. Increased intestinal water absorption occurred despite net osmolyte secretion into the mucosal saline. The largest changes occurred in urea and CO2/HCO3(-) fluxes. In fasted preparations, urea was absorbed at a low rate in all sections except the intestine, where it was secreted. Instead of an increase in intestinal urea secretion predicted from in vivo data, feeding caused a marked switch to net urea absorption. This intestinal urea transport occurred at a rate comparable to urea reabsorption rates reported at gills and kidney, and was apparently active, establishing a large serosal-to-mucosal concentration gradient. Feeding also greatly increased intestinal CO2/HCO3(-) secretion; if interpreted as HCO3(-) transport, the rates were in the upper range

  13. Short-term effects of the DASH diet in adults with moderate chronic kidney disease: a pilot feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Crystal C.; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Corsino, Leonor; Batch, Bryan C.; Allen, Jenifer; Sapp, Shelly; Barnhart, Huiman; Nwankwo, Chinazo; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet lowers blood pressure (BP) for adults with normal kidney function, evidence is lacking regarding its safety and efficacy in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to test the effects of the DASH diet on serum electrolytes and BP in adults with moderate CKD. Methods In a prospective before–after feeding study, 11 adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 and medication-treated hypertension were provided a reduced-sodium, run-in diet for 1 week followed by a reduced-sodium, DASH diet for 2 weeks. Changes in serum electrolytes and BP were compared pre–post DASH. Results Eleven participants underwent feeding; 1 completed 1 week and 10 completed 2 weeks of DASH. Compared with baseline, DASH modestly increased serum potassium at 1 week (mean ± standard deviation, +0.28 ± 0.4 mg/dL; P = 0.043) but had no significant effect on potassium at 2 weeks (+0.15 ± 0.28 mg/dL; P = 0.13). Serum bicarbonate was reduced (−2.5 ± 3.0 mg/dL; P = 0.03) at 2 weeks. Neither incident hyperkalemia nor new onset metabolic acidosis was observed. Clinic BP and mean 24-h ambulatory BP was unchanged. DASH significantly reduced mean nighttime BP (−5.3 ± 5.8 mmHg; P = 0.018), and enhanced percent declines in both nocturnal systolic BP (−2.1% to −5.1%; P = 0.004) and diastolic BP (−3.7% to −10.0%; P = 0.008). Conclusions These pilot data suggest that a reduced-sodium DASH dietary pattern does not cause acute metabolic events in adults with moderate CKD and may improve nocturnal BP. Definitive studies are needed to determine long-term effects of DASH in CKD. PMID:27478603

  14. A prospective study of the feeding and brushing practices of WIC mothers: six- and twelve-month data and ethnicity and familial variables.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, P; Oberg, D; Domoto, P K; Jeffcott, E; Leroux, B

    1996-01-01

    This study, part of a project that provided a baby cup to WIC children in Washington State, reports the feeding and brushing behaviors at six and twelve months and the influence of cultural and familial variables. Results show there are large differences in feeding and brushing practices among ethnic groups, i.e., Asian mothers reported the greatest reliance on the bottle at twelve months. Marital status was related to feeding practices, i.e., single women were more likely to put the baby to bed with a bottle at six and twelve months and were more likely to use a cup at twelve months. The presence of additional children at home was related to infrequent brushing and lower rates of cup use at twelve months. Awareness of ethnic and familial variables such as marital status and number of children may be useful in formulating specific recommendations when counseling mothers and other caretakers. PMID:8708119

  15. Dose validation of PhIP hair level as a biomarker of heterocyclic aromatic amines exposure: a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Le Marchand, Loïc; Yonemori, Kim; White, Kami K; Franke, Adrian A; Wilkens, Lynne R; Turesky, Robert J

    2016-07-01

    Hair measurement of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a promising biomarker of exposure to this carcinogen formed in cooked meats. However, the dose relationship between normal range intake and hair levels and the modulating effects of CYP1A2 metabolism and hair melanin need to be evaluated. We conducted a randomized, cross-over feeding study among 41 non-smokers using ground beef cooked to two different levels of doneness, 5 days a week for 1 month. PhIP was measured by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in food (mean low dose = 0.72 µg/serving; mean high dose = 2.99 µg/serving), and change in PhIP hair level was evaluated. CYP1A2 activity was assessed in urine with the caffeine challenge test and head hair melanin was estimated by UV spectrophotometry. We observed a strong dose-dependent increase in hair PhIP levels. This increase was highly correlated with dose received (ρ = 0.68, P < 0.0001). CYP1A2 activity and normalizing for hair melanin did not modify the response to the intervention. Consumption of PhIP at doses similar to those in the American diet results in a marked dose-dependent accumulation of PhIP in hair. Hair PhIP levels may be used as a biomarker of dietary exposure in studies investigating disease risk. PMID:27207666

  16. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitos through precipitin tests*

    PubMed Central

    1960-01-01

    The success of malaria eradication campaigns depends on the use of all methods which make for a better understanding of the biology and behaviour of mosquito vectors. One such method is precipitin testing, by which it is possible to identify the human or animal origin of blood meals of mosquitos and thereby to determine their host preferences and vectorial importance, both generally and locally. In 1955, the World Health Organization in agreement with the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Elstree, England, set up a precipitin test service related to entomological surveys in malaria eradication programmes and available to national research and WHO field personnel. The purpose was to stimulate interest in the study of bionomics of Anopheles species, to facilitate the identification of blood meals of Anopheles, to eliminate experimental errors by the use of a standardized technique and highly sensitive antisera, and finally to apply the results in the strategy of malaria eradication. The results obtained over the past five years are summarized in tabular form. The study—the largest ever undertaken—included 51 species of Anopheles and 56 377 tests, of which 93.9% yielded positive results, are reviewed. The available knowledge of the vectorial importance of 39 species of Anopheles is compared with their human blood ratio, this term being used to express the percentage of human blood in relation to all precipitin tests found positive. PMID:20604062

  17. Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159339.html Antibiotics May Blunt Breast-Feeding's Benefits Infants given the drugs were prone to infections ... use of antibiotics may dampen some of the benefits of breast-feeding, a new study suggests. Researchers ...

  18. Influence of milk-feeding type and genetic risk of developing coeliac disease on intestinal microbiota of infants: the PROFICEL study.

    PubMed

    Palma, Giada De; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Pozo, Tamara; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Marcos, Ascensión; García-Novo, María Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder. PMID:22319588

  19. Feeding Studies on Selected Zooplankton in a Temperate Estuary, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froneman, P. W.

    2000-11-01

    Total chlorophyll- a (chl a), primary production and grazing impact of selected zooplankton were estimated at six stations in the Kariega Estuary in summer 1999. Total surface chl a and production ranged from 1·13 to 2·12 mg chl a m -3and from 18·1 to 37·7 mg C m -3d -1, respectively. At all stations both chl a and production were dominated by small picophytoplankton (<2 μm). Total zooplankton abundance and biomass ranged from 126 to 16 468 ind m -3and from 4·7 to 58·2 mg m -3, respectively. Throughout the study zooplankton (>200 μm) were dominated by the copepods Acartia longipatella and Pseudodiaptomus hessei which comprised >75% of total biomass. Also well represented in the zooplankton assemblages were representatives of the genus Halicyclops and the mysid, Mesopodopsis wooldridgei which generally comprised <5% of total abundance. At all stations, the highest biomass and abundance values were recorded at night which could be related to the distinct vertical migrations of the zooplankton. Individual gut pigment concentrations for P. hessei ranged from 0·2 to 1·3 ng (pigm) ind -1and between 0·1 and 0·5 ng (pigm) ind -1for A. longipatella. For M. wooldridgei, gut pigment concentrations ranged from 0·8 to 1·3 ng (pigm) ind -1. Gut pigment destruction rates for A. longipatella, P. hessei and M. wooldridgei were estimated at 92 (±5), 79 (±7) and 53 (±9)%, respectively. Ingestion rates of the two copepods ranged between 17·6 and 31·1 ng (pigm) ind -1d -1for P. hessei and between 19·7 and 38·4 ng (pigm) ind -1d -1for A. longipatella. These rates correspond to a carbon ingestion rate of between 0·9 and 1·6 μg C ind -1d -1for P. hessei and between 1·0 and 1·9 μg C ind -1d -1for A. longipatella. Total daily ingestion rate of M. wooldridgei ranged between 21·1 and 35·2 ng (pigm) ind -1. This corresponds to a carbon ingestion rate of between 1·2 and 1·8 μg C ind -1d -1. Carbon derived from the consumption of phytoplankton was sufficient to

  20. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a special tube that carries food and medicine to the stomach through the nose. It can be ...

  1. Feasibility studies to control acute diarrhoea in children by feeding fermented milk preparations Actimel and Indian Dahi.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, K N; Bhasin, S K

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study feasibility of diarrhoea control in children (6 months to 5 y of age) by feeding fermented milk preparations. The design used was a randomized controlled clinical trial and the study was carried out at the Delhi University College Hospital providing tertiary care, and a nearby community centre Nand Nagri, a resettlement colony in East Delhi. Children suffering from acute diarrhoea (75 patients from the hospital and 75 from the community) were allocated to three groups by double-blind technique. Group 1 was given a fermented milk, Actimel, containing 10(8) of each Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus per gram. Group 2 was given Indian Dahi (Lf 40) containing 10(8) of each Lactococcus lactis, Lactococcus lactis cremoris and Leuconostac mesenteroides cremoris per gram. Group 3 was given ultra-heat-treated yoghurt preparation (no live bacteria). Actimel was also used as a starter to prepare the curd in order to study the preventive effect of diarrhoea in children in a community. In the hospital study Indian Dahi and Actimel administration reduced mean duration of diarrhoea by 0.3 and 0.6 day (P<0.001), respectively. The corresponding figures in the community study were 0.2 and 0.5 day (P<0.05), respectively. The families using Actimel as a starter showed a reduction in diarrhoeal morbidity episodes by 40% of the children tested in a 3 month follow-up. In conclusion, Actimel, fermented milk containing Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, and Indian Dahi can significantly reduce the duration of diarrhoea in children; the former preparation being superior. PMID:12556949

  2. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  3. Accumulation and depuration of okadaic acid esters in the European green crab (Carcinus maenas) during a feeding study.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Kevin; Cold, Ulrik; Fischer, Knud

    2008-03-01

    Soft shell crab is a seafood delicacy in many parts of the world. In Denmark, it has been investigated whether a commercial production of soft shell European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) would be feasible. In relation to this, a feeding study was performed to examine if occurrence of DSP toxins in the product could be a food safety problem. The crabs were fed with mussels containing DSP toxins (2500 microg total okadaic acid equivalents/kg) for 17 days and then fasted for 19 days. The content of total okadaic acid equivalents in the digestive organs was on average 27 times higher than the corresponding content in the body meat. The highest level of total okadaic acid equivalents measured was 12 microg/kg in body meat and 503 microg/kg in digestive organs. The results show that the content of DSP toxins in a commercial product of soft shell European green crab (without digestive organs) could be regarded as negligible. PMID:17983637

  4. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  5. Comparison of erythromycin versus metoclopramide for gastric feeding intolerance in patients with traumatic brain injury: A randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Makkar, Jeetinder Kaur; Gauli, Basanta; Jain, Kajal; Jain, Divya; Batra, Yatinder Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Background: No randomized controlled trial demonstrates the efficacy of erythromycin or metoclopramide in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of metoclopramide and erythromycin for improving gastric aspirate volume (GAV) in patients with TBI. Materials and Methods: Patients with Glasgow coma score more than 5 admitted to trauma Intensive Care Unit within 72 h of head injury were assessed for eligibility. 115 patients were prospectively randomized to receive metoclopramide, erythromycin, or placebo eighth hourly. Gastric feeding intolerance was defined as GAV more than 150 ml with abdominal symptoms. Two consecutive high GAV was defined as feeding failure. Feeding failure was treated by increasing the frequency of dose to 6 hourly in metoclopramide and erythromycin group. Combination therapy with both drugs was given as rescue in the placebo group. Results: Incidence of high GAV was as high as 60.5% in placebo group. Use of erythromycin was associated with a decrease in the incidence of feeding intolerance to 28.9% (P = 0.006). Although feed intolerance decreased to 43.6% in metoclopramide group, values did not reach statistical significance. The proportion of patients not having high GAV at different days were significantly higher in erythromycin group (P = 0.027, log-rank test). There was no difference in the proportion of patients not having feeding failure in three groups with increasing number of days. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in the incidence of high GAV with the use of erythromycin when compared to metoclopramide and placebo. PMID:27375386

  6. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off. PMID:26882523

  7. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V; Malaba, Thokozile R; Majo, Florence D; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7-12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. PMID:26602298

  8. The SHINE Trial Infant Feeding Intervention: Pilot Study of Effects on Maternal Learning and Infant Diet Quality in Rural Zimbabwe

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Amy; Smith, Laura E.; Mbuya, Mduduzi N. N.; Chigumira, Ancikaria; Fundira, Dadirai; Tavengwa, Naume V.; Malaba, Thokozile R.; Majo, Florence D.; Humphrey, Jean H.; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J.

    2015-01-01

    The Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial is designed to measure the independent and combined effects of improved water, sanitation, and hygiene and improved infant feeding on child stunting and anemia in Zimbabwe. We developed and pilot-tested the infant feeding intervention delivered by 9 village health workers to 19 mothers of infants aged 7–12 months. Between September 2010 and January 2011, maternal knowledge was assessed using mixed methods, and infant nutrient intakes were assessed by 24-hour recall. We observed positive shifts in mothers' knowledge. At baseline, 63% of infants met their energy requirement and most did not receive enough folate, zinc, or calcium; none met their iron requirement. Postintervention, all infants received sufficient fat and vitamin A, and most consumed enough daily energy (79%), protein (95%), calcium (89%), zinc (89%), folate (68%), and iron (68%). The SHINE trial infant feeding intervention led to significant short-term improvements in maternal learning and infant nutrient intakes. PMID:26602298

  9. Characterizing felid tooth marking and gross bone damage patterns using GIS image analysis: an experimental feeding study with large felids.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Jennifer A; Plummer, Thomas; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been much disagreement over the nature of carnivore involvement in Early Pleistocene zooarchaeological assemblages. This partially reflects the lack of reliable ways to identify the taphonomic signatures of different large carnivore taxa. It is often unclear which carnivore taxon or taxa may have played a role in forming or modifying faunal assemblages found associated with stone tools, and this lack of clarity impacts reconstructions of hominin behavior. The mode, frequency and nutritional yield of carcasses acquired by hominins, and the extent to which hominin foraging impinged on or was constrained by the guild of large predators are topics of great importance. This paper characterizes the taphonomic signature of large felids using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) image analysis method to study tooth marking and gross bone damage on neotaphonomic experiments carried out with tigers (Panthera tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo) at the Carolina Tiger Rescue (Pittsboro, North Carolina). This sample of over 400 bones significantly increases the size of current neotaphonomic samples modeling felid feeding traces, more than doubling the number of felid-modified specimens described in the literature. We identify a typical pattern of bone damage resulting from large felid carcass modification, which can be distinguished from bone damage patterns produced by hyaenids and canids. In summary, this pattern consists of tooth marking largely restricted to limb bone ends and minimal bone fragmentation. The frequency of tooth marking imparted by large felids in this study is lower than that produced by hyaenids, while canid tooth mark frequencies fall between the two. Investigation of the FLK Zinj assemblage from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented several specimens with surface damage similar to our neotaphonomic sample. This may signal early access to carcasses through 'power scavenging' by hominins. PMID:25467112

  10. Chronic (89-week) feeding study with hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate, starch acetate, lactose and sodium alginate in mice.

    PubMed

    Til, H P; Feron, V J; Immel, H R; Vogel, W F

    1986-08-01

    A chronic feeding study was carried out in mice with two chemically modified potato starches, hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (HP-starch) and starch acetate (AC-starch), and with lactose and sodium alginate. Each of the materials was fed to a group of 75 male and 75 female mice for 89 wk. The dietary level of the test products was gradually increased until the diets contained (by weight) 55% HP-starch, 55% AC-starch, 55% lactose or 25% alginate. The control diet contained 55% pregelatinized potato starch. Each of the four test materials caused increased water consumption, distinct caecal and colonic enlargement, a slightly increased incidence of intratubular nephrosis and, with the exception of AC-starch, also slightly lower body weights. An increased incidence of gastric trichobezoars was observed in mice fed either the modified starches or lactose. The occurrence of concrements in the renal pelvis along with slight urinary changes, such as increased amounts of amorphous material in the urine and increased urinary Ca content, in mice fed HP-starch, AC-starch or lactose was regarded as an effect of little, if any, toxicological significance. Alginate fed at 25% (w/w) of the diet was nephrotoxic to mice, as shown by extremely high water consumption, high urine production, urinary incontinence, high pH and low specific gravity of the urine, increased level of blood urea nitrogen, increased kidney weights, distension of the renal calyx and the high incidence of dilated distal tubules. Caecal and colonic enlargement and changes in urinalysis were found to be reversible and had completely or largely disappeared within 2-5 wk of the cessation of the treatment in wk 87. The incidence of intratubular calcinosis or of concrements in the pelvic space was not reduced during the recovery period. The study did not provide any evidence of carcinogenicity of the products tested. PMID:2430873

  11. Parents’ Perceptions and Adherence to Children’s Diet and Activity Recommendations: the 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study

    PubMed Central

    Deming, Denise M.; Reidy, Kathleen C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Solving the childhood obesity problem will require strategies for changes in policy, the environment, the community, and the family. Filling the data gap for children younger than 4 years could facilitate interventions aimed at this critical age group. The objective of this study was to describe parents’ and caregivers’ perceptions of the healthfulness of their young child’s diet and body weight and to assess their adherence to the American Academy of Pediatrics’ 5-2-1-0 recommendations. Methods We conducted a descriptive analysis of parents’ and caregivers’ survey data for 887 infants younger than 12 months, 925 toddlers aged 12 to 23.9 months, and 1,461 preschoolers aged 24 to 47.9 months. Data were from the national, cross-sectional 2008 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS). Results Most parents considered their child’s weight to be about right but were more likely to think their child was underweight (8%–9%) than overweight (2%–3%). Most parents thought their child consumed enough fruits and vegetables: however, only 30% of preschoolers met the recommendation for 5 daily servings. Only 2% of toddlers met the recommendation for no screen time, whereas 79% of preschoolers met the recommendation to limit daily screen time to 2 hours or less. About 56% of toddlers and 71% of preschoolers met the recommendation of at least 1 hour of daily outdoor play. About 56% of toddlers and 52% of preschoolers met the recommendation to limit consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. Conclusion The FITS 2008 findings underscore the ongoing need for research on policies and strategies to prevent childhood obesity from infancy through preschool. Health care providers can play a vital role because they are an important and early point of contact for parents. PMID:26402049

  12. Pharmacokinetic study of enrofloxacin in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral administration in medicated feed.

    PubMed

    Teles, J A; Castello Branco, L C; Del Bianchi, M; Pilarski, F; Reyes, F G R

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the disposition kinetics of enrofloxacin (ENR) in the plasma and its distribution in the muscle tissue of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg body weight via medicated feed. The fish were kept at a temperature between 28 and 30 °C. The collection period was between 30 min and 120 h after administration of the drug. The samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector (HPLC-FLD). The ENR was slowly absorbed and eliminated from the plasma (Cmax = 1.24 ± 0.37 μg/mL; Tmax = 8 h; T1/2Ke  = 19.36 h). ENR was efficiently distributed in the muscle tissue and reached maximum values (2.17 ± 0.74 μg/g) after 8 h. Its metabolite, ciprofloxacin (CIP), was detected and quantified in the plasma (0.004 ± 0.005 μg/mL) and muscle (0.01 ± 0.011 μg/g) for up to 48 h. After oral administration, the mean concentration of ENR in the plasma was well above the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC50 ) for most bacteria already isolated from fish except for Streptococcus spp. This way the dose used in this study allowed for concentrations in the blood to treat the diseases of tilapia. PMID:26270353

  13. Analysis shows revamp route to naphtha feed

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, E.; Ortiz, C.H.; Arzate, E. )

    1988-11-21

    An existing ethylene plant was studied, using a computer-simulated flexibility analysis, to determine the changes required to convert one of the cracking furnaces from ethane feed to naphtha feed. The simulation determined the changes in flow rate, operating temperature, and steam/hydrocarbon ratio that would result from the liquid feed.

  14. Feeding infants directly at the breast during the postpartum hospital stay is associated with increased breastfeeding at 6 months postpartum: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Forster, Della A; Johns, Helene M; McLachlan, Helen L; Moorhead, Anita M; McEgan, Kerri M; Amir, Lisa H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore whether feeding only directly from the breast in the first 24–48 h of life increases the proportion of infants receiving any breast milk at 6 months. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Three maternity hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Participants 1003 postpartum English-speaking women with a healthy singleton term infant, who intended to breast feed, were recruited between 2009 and 2011. Women were excluded if they or their infant were seriously ill. 92% (n=924) were followed up at 6 months postpartum. Primary and secondary outcome measures Main exposure variable —type of infant feeding in hospital up to time of study recruitment (24–48 h postpartum), categorised as ‘fed directly at the breast only’ or ‘received at least some expressed breast milk (EBM) or infant formula’. Primary outcome—proportion of infants receiving any breast milk feeding at 6 months postpartum. Secondary outcomes—proportion of infants receiving only breast milk feeding at 6 months; breast milk feeding duration; and maternal characteristics associated with giving any breast milk at 6 months. Results Infants who had fed only at the breast prior to recruitment were more likely to be continuing to have any breast milk at 6 months than those who had received any EBM and/or infant formula (76% vs 59%; adjusted OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.24 to 2.48 (adjusted for parity, type of birth, breastfeeding intention, breastfeeding problems at recruitment, public/private status, epidural for labour or birth, maternal body mass index and education)). Conclusions Healthy term infants that fed only directly at the breast 24–48 h after birth were more likely to be continuing to breast feed at 6 months than those who received any EBM and/or formula in the early postpartum period. Support and encouragement to initiate breastfeeding directly at the breast is important. PMID:25953728

  15. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities

    PubMed Central

    Galbraith, Josie A.; Jones, Darryl N.; Stanley, Margaret C.

    2015-01-01

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species. PMID:25941361

  16. Feed-forward regulation of bile acid detoxification by CYP3A4: studies in humanized transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Stedman, Catherine; Robertson, Graham; Coulter, Sally; Liddle, Christopher

    2004-03-19

    Bile acids are potentially toxic end products of cholesterol metabolism and their concentrations must be tightly regulated. Homeostasis is maintained by both feed-forward regulation and feedback regulation. We used humanized transgenic mice incorporating 13 kb of the 5' regulatory flanking sequence of CYP3A4 linked to a lacZ reporter gene to explore the in vivo relationship between bile acids and physiological adaptive CYP3A gene regulation in acute cholestasis after bile duct ligation (BDL). Male transgenic mice were subjected to BDL or sham surgery prior to sacrifice on days 3, 6, and 10, and others were injected with intraperitoneal lithocholic acid (LCA) or vehicle alone. BDL resulted in marked hepatic activation of the CYP3A4/lacZ transgene in pericentral hepatocytes, with an 80-fold increase in transgene activation by day 10. Individual bile acids were quantified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Serum 6beta-hydroxylated bile acids were increased following BDL, confirming the physiological relevance of endogenous Cyp3a induction to bile acid detoxification. Although concentrations of conjugated primary bile acids increased after BDL, there was no increase in LCA, a putative PXR ligand, indicating that this cannot be the only endogenous bile acid mediating this protective response. Moreover, in LCA-treated animals, 5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-beta-d-galactopyranoside staining showed hepatic activation of the CYP3A4 transgene only on the liver capsular surface, and minimal parenchymal induction, despite significant liver injury. This study demonstrates that CYP3A up-regulation is a significant in vivo adaptive response to cholestasis. However, this up-regulation is not dependent on increases in circulating LCA and the role of other bile acids as regulatory molecules requires further exploration. PMID:14681232

  17. Physicians' attitudes about artificial feeding in older patients with severe cognitive impairment in Japan: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Aita, Kaoruko; Takahashi, Miyako; Miyata, Hiroaki; Kai, Ichiro; Finucane, Thomas E

    2007-01-01

    Background The question of whether to withhold artificial nutrition and hydration (ANH) from severely cognitively impaired older adults has remained nearly unexplored in Japan, where provision of ANH is considered standard care. The objective of this study was to identify and analyze factors related to the decision to provide ANH through percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) in older Japanese adults with severe cognitive impairment. Methods Retrospective, in-depth interviews with thirty physicians experienced in the care of older, bed-ridden, non-communicative patients with severe cognitive impairment. Interview content included questions about factors influencing the decision to provide or withhold ANH, concerns and dilemmas concerning ANH and the choice of PEG feeding as an ANH method. The process of data collection and analysis followed the Grounded Theory approach. Results Data analysis identified five factors that influence Japanese physicians' decision to provide ANH through PEG tubes: (1) the national health insurance system that allows elderly patients to become long-term hospital in-patients; (2) legal barriers with regard to limiting treatment, including the risk of prosecution; (3) emotional barriers, especially abhorrence of death by 'starvation'; (4) cultural values that promote family-oriented end-of-life decision making; and (5) reimbursement-related factors involved in the choice of PEG. However, a small number of physicians did offer patients' families the option of withholding ANH. These physicians shared certain characteristics, such as a different perception of ANH and repeated communication with families concerning end-of-life care. These qualities were found to reduce some of the effects of the factors that favor provision of ANH. Conclusion The framework of Japan's medical-legal system unintentionally provides many physicians an incentive to routinely offer ANH for this patient group through PEG tubes. It seems apparent that end

  18. Nutri-Bébé 2013 Study Part 2. How do French mothers feed their young children?

    PubMed

    Bocquet, A; Vidailhet, M

    2015-10-01

    Nutri-Baby SFAE 2013 is the 5th edition of a survey conducted every 8 years since 1981 by SFAE (Secteur Français des Aliments de l'Enfance) in collaboration with an opinion poll institute (SOFRES) for the feeding behavior part of the study and with CREDOC for calculating nutrient intake: 1,188 mothers of infants and young children from 15 days to 3 years of age were interviewed in 2013. The present paper is limited to the behavioral part of the investigation on the observance by mothers of pediatric recommendations. Overall, the "2013 mother" is self-confident (76% declare being confident in their experience and instinct). They are aware of the recommendations of healthcare professionals, but the family circle is also influential. Although growing-up milk is more widely consumed than in 2005 (+8%), cow's milk (half-skimmed and not whole milk), even if it is introduced 2 months later than in 2005, is still consumed by 34% of children at 12-17 months of age and by 64% of 24 - to 29-month-old children. Milk is still frequently warmed up in a microwave oven. Breastfeeding mothers or those who breastfed more frequently give growing-up milk and home-cooked foods and afterwards their children refuse different foods less frequently. Adult foods that are not adapted for children are introduced too early. Foods in morsels are proposed very late. Fried foods and sweet foods appear too early in infant meals. Consumption of infant formulas and specific baby foods is increasing, but at around 1 year of age a decrease in the consumption of these adapted foods is observed. PMID:26474671

  19. Determination of Starch, Including Maltooligosaccharides, in Animal Feeds: Comparison of Methods and a Method Recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discontinued production of the enzyme, Rhozyme-S, (required for AOAC method 14.075) invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds and necessitated a search for another assay. Although many starch methods are available, they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. Five enzymatic-colo...

  20. Infant feeding practices and obesity.

    PubMed

    Himes, J H

    1979-08-01

    Selected assumptions regarding associations between artificial feeding and infantile obesity are examined. Although some artificial baby foods (desserts, meats, egg yolks) have considerably greater caloric density than breast milk, a large class of baby foods and most milks and formulas are comparable to breast milk in caloric density. The intake of infant foods seems to be related more to caloric density than volume. Modern day artificial feeding in developed countries tends to produce larger weight gains than breast feeding, although no good data exist to evaluate the composition of these weight gains. Many more data from well planned studies are needed to fully elucidate possible mechanisms of infantile obesity. PMID:458075

  1. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan

    2016-07-01

    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  2. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT), a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT) is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline) who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation) live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self-administered monthly mailed

  3. Clogging of feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Perkins, A M

    1988-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating clotting ability of some formulas with intact protein and hydrolyzed protein sources in a series of buffers ranging from a pH of 1 thru 10. The following 10 products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure, Enrich, Osmolite, Pulmocare, Citrotein, Resource, Vivonex TEN, Vital, and Hepatic Acid II. Protein (10 and 20 g/liter) was added to Citrotein and Ensure Plus. All formulas were tested at full and some at half strength. Clotting occurred only in premixed intact protein formulas (Pulmocare, Ensure Plus, Osmolite, Enrich, Ensure) and in Resource. No clotting was observed for Citrotein (intact protein formula in powder form), Vital, Vivonex TEN, and Hepatic Aid II. Adding protein did not cause or increase clotting. In summary, clotting of some liquid formula diet appears to be an important factor causing possible gastric feeding tube occlusion. The following measures may help in preventing this problem: flushing before and after aspirating for gastric residuals to eliminate acid precipitation of formula in the feeding tube, advance the nasogastric feeding tube into the duodenum if possible, and avoid mixing these products with liquid medications having a pH value of 5.0 or less. PMID:3138452

  4. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  5. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced. PMID:26719102

  6. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians. PMID:22927194

  7. Prediction of initiation and cessation of breastfeeding from late pregnancy to 16 weeks: the Feeding Your Baby (FYB) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Donnan, Peter T; Dalzell, Janet; Symon, Andrew; Rauchhaus, Petra; Monteith-Hodge, Ewa; Kellett, Gillian; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Whitford, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Objective To derive prediction models for both initiation and cessation of breastfeeding using demographic, psychological and obstetric variables. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Women delivering at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, UK. Data sources Demographic data and psychological measures were obtained during pregnancy by questionnaire. Birth details, feeding method at birth and at hospital discharge were obtained from the Ninewells hospital database, Dundee, UK. Breastfeeding women were followed up by text messages every 2 weeks until 16 weeks or until breastfeeding was discontinued to ascertain feeding method and feeding intentions. Participants Pregnant women over 30 weeks gestation aged 16 years and above, living in Dundee, booked to deliver at Ninewells Hospital, Dundee, and able to speak English. Main outcome measure Initiation and cessation of breastfeeding. Results From the total cohort of women at delivery (n=344) 68% (95% CI 63% to 73%) of women had started breastfeeding at discharge. Significant predictors of initiating breastfeeding were older age, parity, greater intention to breastfeed from a Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)-based questionnaire, higher Iowa Infant Feeding Assessment Scale (IIFAS) score as well as living with a husband or partner. For the final model, the AUROC was 0.967. For those who initiated breastfeeding (n=233), the strongest predictors of stopping were low intention to breastfeed from TPB, low IIFAS score and non-managerial/professional occupations. Conclusions The findings from this study will be used to inform the protocol for an intervention study to encourage and support prolonged breastfeeding as intentions appear to be a key intervention focus for initiation. The predictive models could be used to identify women at high risk of not initiating and also women at high risk of stopping for interventions to improve the longevity of breastfeeding. PMID:23906958

  8. Breast feeding pattern in neonates.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, S P; Sharma, V K; Kumar, V

    1994-09-01

    The present study comprised 100 mothers of newborn babies with regard to their belief and practices about lactation. A vast majority (98.2%) of the mothers were breast feeding, 87.9% mothers used prelacteal feeds of one sort or the other. Only 0.5% breast fed their babies within 6 hours and nearly 50% started after 48 hours. Colostrum was discarded by 82.9% of mother and nearly 73% wanted to continue breast feeding beyond 1 year. The age of weaning preferred was after 1 year by 91%. Only 24.7% mothers had undergone antenatal check ups. Hence, much needs to be done with regards to proper antenatal care and advice to discourage wrong and harmful feeding practices. PMID:7883365

  9. Large filter feeding marine organisms as indicators of microplastic in the pelagic environment: the case studies of the Mediterranean basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

    PubMed

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Coppola, Daniele; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Panti, Cristina; de Sabata, Eleonora; Clò, Simona

    2014-09-01

    The impact of microplastics (plastic fragments smaller than 5 mm) on large filter feeding marine organisms such as baleen whales and sharks are largely unknown. These species potentially are ingesting micro-litter by filter feeding activity. Here we present the case studies of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) exploring the toxicological effects of microplastics in these species measuring the levels of phthalates in both species. The results show higher concentration of MEHP in the muscle of basking shark in comparison to fin whale blubber. These species can be proposed as indicators of microplastics in the pelagic environment in the implementation of Descriptor 8 and 10 of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD). PMID:24612776

  10. Dhilirolides E-N, meroterpenoids produced in culture by the fungus Penicillium purpurogenum collected in Sri Lanka: structure elucidation, stable isotope feeding studies, and insecticidal activity.

    PubMed

    Centko, Ryan M; Williams, David E; Patrick, Brian O; Akhtar, Yasmin; Garcia Chavez, Miguel Angel; Wang, Yan Alexander; Isman, Murray B; de Silva, E Dilip; Andersen, Raymond J

    2014-04-18

    Extracts of laboratory cultures of the fungus Penicilium purpurogenum obtained from rotting fruit of the tree Averrhoa bilimbi growing in Sri Lanka have yielded 10 new meroterpenoids, dhilirolides E-N (5-14). The structures of the new dhilirolides have been elucidated by analysis of spectroscopic data and a single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis of dhilirolide L (12). Dhilirolides A-N (1-14) represent the four unprecedented and rearranged dhilirane, isodhilirane, 14,15-dinordhilirane, and 23,24-dinorisodhilirane meroterpenoid carbon skeletons. Stable isotope feeding studies have confirmed the meroterpenoid biogenetic origin of the dhilirolides and provided support for a proposed genesis of the new carbon skeletons. Dhilirolide L (12) showed significant feeding inhibition and sublethal developmental disruption in the cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni, an important agricultural pest, at low concentrations. PMID:24684453

  11. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.; Cavalcanti, Sandra M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  12. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  13. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... breastfeed your baby or bottle feed using infant formula . Health experts agree that breastfeeding is the healthiest ... is hungry. You do not need to make formula before feeding, worry about clean water, or carry ...

  14. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    MedlinePlus

    ... jaw muscles. Feeding Your Child with the Gravity Method Your provider will show you the best way ... the button. Feeding Your Child with the Syringe Method Your provider will teach you the best way ...

  15. Infant feeding practices in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chen, S T

    1978-12-01

    Retrospective nutritional data on 100 children, aged 6 months to 2 1/2 years, who were admitted to the University Hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, was obtained by interviewing the mothers of the children. Analysis of the data revealed that 1) only 49% of the children were breast-fed as infants; 2) 50% of the mothers who did breast-feed discontinued breast-feeding before the children were 3 months old; and 3) the weaning diet of at least 1/3 of the children was inadequate. 18% of the children were Malays, 49% were Chinese, and 33% were Indian. The proportion of breast-fed children was highest among the Malays and lowest among the Chinese. Mothers with higher incomes tended to stop breast-feeding earlier than mothers with lower incomes. 67% of the women said they stopped breast-feeding due to inadequate lactation. Most of the children received supplementary foods at relatively early ages. 50% of the infants received starchy foods by the time they were 3 1/2 months old, and 50% received fruit or fruit juice by the time they were 3 1/2 months old. Vegetable products, meat, fish, and eggs were not added to the diet until the children were considerably older. Recommendations, based on the study findings, were 1) hospitals should discontinue the practice of deferring breast-feeding initiation for 24 hours after delivery; 2) mothers should be encouraged to breast-feed fully; and 3) health personnel should discourage the widespread use of costly precooked cereals for supplementary feeding. Tables depicted 1) the frequency distribution of the 100 children by income and by milk feeding patterns according to ethnic affiliation and 2) the cost of serving precooked cereals as compared to the cost of serving home cooked meals. PMID:755160

  16. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  17. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Pol-Hofstad, I; Driessen-Van Lankveld, W; Tomassen, M; De Jong, J; Van Egmond, H

    2008-12-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 3, 0, and 6%, respectively). Avoparcin could be detected at 1 mg kg(-1) in feed in general (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 0%). However, in calf feed the sensitivity was lower. The percentages of false-negatives were found to be 12%, 7%, and 0% at 1, 3, and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively (false-positives, 4%). The limit of detection for zinc bacitracin was 3-5 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 5-10%; false-negatives, 77% at 1 mg kg(-1), 45% at 2 mg kg(-1), 12% at 3 mg kg(-1), and 4% at 5 mg kg(-1)). The method allowed for a distinction to be made between the groups of antibiotics: avoparcin/zinc bacitracin versus tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin. This definitely gives added value to the method in the framework of a follow-up of positive screening results by post-screening and confirmatory analysis. PMID:19680856

  18. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children. PMID:20040107

  19. A comparative study on the tubes and feeding behaviour of eight species of corophioid Amphipoda and their bearing on phylogenetic relationships within the Corophioidea

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, I. M. T.; Moore, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    Observations are presented on mouthpart functional morphology, and on feeding, grooming and defaecatory behaviour of eight species of corophioid Amphipoda, viz. Corophium bonnellii, Lembos websteri, Aora gracilis, A. spinicornis, Gammaropsis nitida, Ericthonius punctatus, Jassa falcata and J. marmorata. These data are considered in relation to tube structure and amphipod posture in relation to the tube. All these species occupy double-ended cylindreical tubes made from 'amphipod silk' secreted by the third and fourth preraeopods, incorporating sediment and other debris to varying degrees. Uniquely among this set of species, however, E. punctatus has a tube that is architecturally distinct. It tapers along its length and has a distinctive oblique main entrance at its widest end. This end is used preferentially. The other species studied use either opening with equal facility. Such a feature is adaptive in facilitating deployment of the antennae and shielding the head of E. punctatus. Two groupings of species are propose: group A which feed inside their tube using pleopod-induced through-tube currents, and group B which feed outside or at the entrance to their tube using external water currents. Group A includes C. bonnellii, L. websteri and the Aora species. Group B includes E. punctatus and the Jassa species. Gammaropsis nitida exhibits traits from both groups, adding weight to its perceived status as a genus representative of the stem corophioid. The ischyrocerid habit of externalizing food-gathering may be regarded as the first step along an evolutionary line leading to the rod-building podocerid types and ultimately towards the caprellids. All species examined show a degree of flexibility in their feeding habits which helps to explain the success of this taxon, which has radiated into a great diversity of aquatic biotopes.

  20. A qualitative study exploring parental accounts of feeding pre-school children in two low-income populations in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Arabella K M; Draper, Alizon K; Ohly, Heather R; Rees, Gail A; Pettinger, Clare; McGlone, Pauline; Watt, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Good nutrition in the early years of life is essential, yet the diets of many pre-school children in the UK are known to be poor. Understanding the decisions parents make when feeding young children is very important in determining what type and nature of interventional support may be developed to promote good nutrition. The aim of this study was to explore using qualitative methods, parental perceptions of feeding their children in order to inform the development of a nutrition intervention. Focus groups (n = 33) and individual interviews (n = 6) were undertaken with parents, most of whom were attending children's centres in two deprived populations from one urban (Islington, north London) and one rural (Cornwall) location in England. Accounts of feeding pre-school children were primarily concerned with dealing with the practicalities of modern life, in particular the cost of food and the need to manage on a restricted household budget. Time pressures, a lack of perceived knowledge and confidence in preparing food and managing conflict over food choices between family members were also strong themes. Parents commonly reported differences between how they would like to feed their children and the reality of what they were able to do in their circumstances. These findings suggest that the poor eating habits of many pre-school children may be less a case of parental ignorance but rather the product of a range of coping strategies. Designing an intervention, which helps parents to build their confidence and self-efficacy, may enable them to make positive changes to their children's diets. PMID:23316717

  1. Studies on the effects of essential-oil-based feed additives on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and selected bacterial groups in the gastrointestinal tract of piglets.

    PubMed

    Maenner, K; Vahjen, W; Simon, O

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 2 different phytogenic products on performance, ileal nutrient digestibility, and composition of the intestinal microbiota. The 2 phytogenic products contained different essential oil mixtures (EOM) characterized by either menthol (Mentha arvensis; EOM-M) or cinnamon aldehyde (Cinnamomum aromaticum; EOM-C) as main constituents. Three treatments consisted of control diet without EOM addition and diets supplemented with EOM-M or EOM-C. Reproducibility of the effects was examined in 4 trials with a total of 300 male castrated and female piglets weaned at 25 d of age. The number of pens per treatment in trials I through III were 7, 9, and 9, respectively, for research station conditions, and 10 in trial IV for simulated farm conditions. In research station conditions, the experimental unit consisted of flat deck pens with 2 piglets per pen, whereas it consisted of floor pens with straw bedding with 5 piglets per pen in farm conditions. The feed additives had no effect on feed intake or BW gain. Improvements (P < 0.05) in G:F were observed for EOM-M supplemented diets in 2 of 4 trials as well as for the combined data of all trials. These improvements were associated with greater (P<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility of CP and of most AA. The effect of EOM-C on these response criteria was intermediate between control and EOM-M. Real-time PCR analysis of the gastrointestinal contents for 7 bacterial groups (Lactobacillus spp., Enterococcus spp., Clostridium coccoides and Clostridium leptum cluster, Escherichia spp., and Escherichia coli toxin estII) indicated no effect of treatments on the gastrointestinal microbiota. It was concluded that EOM-M consistently improved feed efficiency in weaned piglets, and it was associated with improved ileal protein and AA digestibility. In general, however, the effectiveness of EOM as feed additives differs considerably depending on the constituents. PMID:21357448

  2. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers. PMID:23960108

  3. Final Report Regarding the Findings of the Study Group on the Feasibility of Using Alternative Financial Instruments for Determining Lender Yield under the Federal Family Education Loan Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 required a study of the feasibility of alternative financial instruments for determining lender yields in the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and called for an evaluation of the 91-day Treasury bill, 30-day and 90-day commercial paper, and the 90-day London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) as…

  4. Microstructural study of MMC layers produced by combining wire and coaxial WC powder feeding in laser direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Fuquan; Gao, Zhenzeng; Li, Liqun; Chen, Yanbin

    2016-03-01

    Combined wire and powder deposition by laser (WPDL) has proven to be a promising method for fabricating Metal Matrix Compounds (MMC). Here we demonstrate the deposition of a MMC layer onto Ti6Al4V substrate by WPDL. WC powder was fed from a coaxial nozzle whilst titanium wire was fed from a lateral nozzle into a laser generated melt pool. The appearance of the MMC layer was controlled by process parameters including wire feeding rate, powder feeding rate and laser power. The microstructure of these compound layers were subsequently analyzed by SEM, EDS and XRD. It has shown that compound layer are comprised of α-Ti, WC, W2C, TiC, W and (W,Ti) C1-x phase. The W2C phase and TiC phase was formed and distributed in titanium matrix with different shape at the different location of MMC layer. WC particles were distributed throughout the MMC layer as enforcement phase, which occurring metallic bonding with matrix. The presence of WC and TiC phase in the MMC layer enhanced its microhardness and abrasive.

  5. Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire. Establishing cutoff points.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Sheryl O; Cross, Matthew B; Hennessy, Erin; Tovar, Alison; Economos, Christina D; Power, Thomas G

    2012-02-01

    Researchers use the Caregiver's Feeding Styles Questionnaire (CFSQ) to categorize parent feeding into authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, and uninvolved styles. The CFSQ assesses self-reported feeding and classifies parents using median splits which are used in a substantial body of parenting literature and allow for direct comparison across studies on dimensions of demandingness and responsiveness. No national norms currently exist for the CFSQ. This paper establishes and recommends cutoff points most relevant for low-income, minority US samples that researchers and clinicians can use to assign parents to feeding styles. Median scores for five studies are examined and the average across these studies reported. PMID:22119478

  6. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  7. Suitability of feeding and chewing time for estimation of feed intake in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Pahl, C; Hartung, E; Grothmann, A; Mahlkow-Nerge, K; Haeussermann, A

    2016-09-01

    Monitoring of feeding and rumination behaviour can provide useful information for dairy herd management. The feeding behaviour of dairy cows can be recorded by different techniques, such as video cameras, weighing troughs or chewing sensors. Among feeding characteristics, individual feed intake of cows is of utmost interest, but as weighing troughs have high space and cost requirements they are used primarily in research studies. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether records on feeding time or chewing activity or a combination of both contain enough information to estimate feed intake with sufficient accuracy. Feed intake and feeding time per cow were recorded by means of weighing troughs. Concurrently, chewing activity of seven cows was recorded by MSR-ART pressure sensors during five to eight measuring days per cow. Feeding and chewing behaviour were evaluated in time slots (1 min) and additionally assigned to feeding bouts for further analysis. The 1 min time slots were classified into feeding/no feeding or chewing/no chewing by the two systems, and agreement was found in 92.2% of the records. On average, cows spent 270±39 min/day at the feeding troughs and chewed 262±48 min/day. The average fresh matter intake (FMI) was 49.6±5.1 kg/day. Feed intake was divided into 9.7 bouts/day during which cows fed in average 27.8±21.7 min/bout and chewed 27.0±23.1 min/bout. The correlation between FMI and feeding time was r=0.891 and between FMI and chewing time r=0.780 overall cows. Hence, both systems delivered suitable information for estimating feed intake. PMID:26201971

  8. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of amosite asbestos (CAS No. 12172-73-5) in F344/N rats (feed studies). Technical report series

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.

    1990-11-01

    Carcinogenesis studies of amosite asbestos alone or in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted in male and female F344/N rats. Amosite asbestos was administered at a concentration of 1% in pelleted diet for the entire lifetime of the rats, starting with the dams of the study animals. The DMH was administered by gavage at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg for males and 15 mg/kg for females every 14 days, starting at 8 weeks of age, for a total of five doses. The administration of DMH did not affect body weight gain either in amosite-exposed or nonexposed animals. Significant increases in the incidences of C-cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland (untreated control, 11/117; amosite, 50/246, P<0.05; amosite preweaning gavage, 14/100) and of leukemia (38/117; 106/249, P<0.05; 49/100, P<0.01) in male rats were observed in amosite-exposed groups. However, the biologic significance of the C-cell carcinomas in relation to amosite asbestos exposure is discounted because of a lack of significance when C-cell adenomas and carcinomas were combined and because the positive effect was not observed in the amosite preweaning gavage group. DMH caused a high incidence (62%-74%) of intestinal neoplasia in amosite-exposed and nonexposed groups. Neither an enchanced carcinogenic nor a protective effect was demonstrated by exposure to amosite asbestos. Under the conditions of these feed studies, amosite asbestos was not overtly toxic, did not affect survival, and was not carcinogenic when ingested at a concentration of 1% in the diet by male or female F344/N rats. The cocarcinogenic studies using DMH were considered inadequate because of the high incidence of DMH-induced intestinal neoplasia in both the amosite asbestos-exposed and nonexposed groups.

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  10. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for...

  11. Child Care Provider Adherence to Infant and Toddler Feeding Recommendations: Findings from the Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Baby NAP SACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Hesketh, Kathryn; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Identifying characteristics associated with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler care providers in child care centers could help in preventing childhood obesity. Methods: In 2009, at baseline in a pilot intervention study of 29 licensed Massachusetts child care centers with at least 50% of enrolled children identified as racial minorities, 57 infant and 109 toddler providers completed feeding questionnaires. To assess provider adherence to six IOM-recommended behaviors, we used cluster-adjusted multivariable logistic regression models including provider type (infant or toddler), race, education, and center Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participation. Results: In multivariable analysis, CACFP participation was associated with providers sitting with children at meals (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–21.7), offering fruits and vegetables (OR, 3.3; 95% CI 1.7–6.2), and limiting fast food (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–6.7). Providers at centers serving meals family style were less likely to allow children to leave food unfinished (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09–0.77). Infant providers were more likely than toddler providers to sit with children at meals (OR, 6.98; 95% CI, 1.51–32.09), allow children to eat when hungry (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.34–9.16), and avoid serving sugary (OR, 8.74; 95% CI, 3.05–25.06) or fast foods (OR, 11.56; 95% CI, 3.20–41.80). Conclusions: CACFP participation may encourage IOM-recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler providers. Child care providers may benefit from education about how to feed infants and toddlers responsively, especially when offering foods family style. Future research should explore ways to promote child-centered feeding practices, while addressing barriers to providing children with nutrient-rich foods. PMID:25918873

  12. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding ... drip chamber, roller clamp, and long tube) Extension set, for a Bard Button or MIC-KEY (this ...

  13. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar; Mandal, Tapas K; Patra, Sanjukta

    2015-07-01

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, μ max (media) > μ max (refinery wastewater), K s(media) < K s(refinery wastewater), K I(media) > K I(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q max (media) > q max (refinery wastewater), K s(media) < K s(refinery wastewater), K I(media) > K I(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process. PMID:25951780

  14. Newborn First Feed and Prelacteal Feeds in Mansoura, Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hady, Doaa M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Prelacteal feed (feeding any other substance before first breastfeeding) appears to be common despite its harmful effects. By definition a child provided with prelacteal feed (PLF) is not exclusively breastfed and PLF has many implications for the success and early initiation of breastfeeding. Objectives. To describe the prevalence of, nature of, and reasons for and factors associated with PLF. Methods. 647 mother-infant dyads were studied. Data was collected about the sociodemographic features of the family and baby, maternity care, the type of first feed before suckling, and causes of PLF. Maternal weight and height were measured and body mass index was calculated. Results. About 58% of newborns received prelacteal feeds. The commonest PLF was sugar/glucose water (39.6%). The most frequent reasons for giving PLF are tradition (61.0%) and mother's/mother in law's advice (58.3%). The logistic regression revealed that the independent predictors of PLF are urban residence; maternal education; father's education; low, middle, and high social class; maternal obesity; receiving antenatal care at private clinics and no antenatal care; Caesarean section; female babies; low birth weight; and admission to neonatal intensive care. Conclusion. Indiscriminate use of PLF should be discouraged in medical education and in antenatal maternal health education. PMID:24895560

  15. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  16. Salmonella occurrence and Enterobacteriaceae counts in pig feed ingredients and compound feed from feed mills in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Burns, Anne Marie; Lawlor, Peadar G; Gardiner, Gillian E; McCabe, Evonne M; Walsh, Des; Mohammed, Manal; Grant, Jim; Duffy, Geraldine

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of non-typhoidal Salmonellae and Enterobacteriaceae counts in raw ingredients and compound feeds sampled from feed mills manufacturing pig diets. Between November 2012 and September 2013, feed ingredients (n=340) and compound pig feed (n=313) samples were collected from five commercial feed mills and one home compounder at various locations throughout Ireland. Feed ingredients included cereals, vegetable protein sources and by-products of oil extraction and ethanol production. The compound feeds included meal and pelleted feed for all stages of pig production. Samples were analysed for Salmonella using standard enrichment procedures. Recovered isolates were serotyped, characterised for antibiotic resistance and subtyped by multi locus variance analysis (MLVA). Total Enterobacteriaceae counts were also performed. Salmonella was recovered from 2/338 (0.6%) ingredients (wheat and soybean meal), at two of the six mills. Salmonella was also detected in 3/317 (0.95%) compound feeds including pelleted feed which undergoes heat treatment. All isolates recovered from feed ingredient and compound feed samples were verified as Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serotype (4,[5],12:i:-) that lack the expression of flagellar Phase 2 antigens representing monophasic variants of Salmonella Typhimurium (4,[5],12:i:-). Isolates exhibited resistance to between two and seven antimicrobials. Two distinct MLVA profiles were observed, with the same profile recovered from both feed and ingredients, although these did not originate at the same mill. There was no relationship between the occurrence of Salmonella and a high Enterobacteriaceae counts but it was shown that Enterobacteriaceae counts were significantly lower in pelleted feed (heat treated) than in meal (no heat treatment) and that Enterobacteriaceae counts would be very useful indicator in HACPP programme. Overall, although the prevalence of Salmonella in pig feed and feed

  17. Feed your head: neurodevelopmental control of feeding and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel A; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  18. Feed Your Head: Neurodevelopmental Control of Feeding and Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel A.; Blackshaw, Seth

    2014-01-01

    During critical periods of development early in life, excessive or scarce nutritional environments can disrupt the development of central feeding and metabolic neural circuitry, leading to obesity and metabolic disorders in adulthood. A better understanding of the genetic networks that control the development of feeding and metabolic neural circuits, along with knowledge of how and where dietary signals disrupt this process, can serve as the basis for future therapies aimed at reversing the public health crisis that is now building as a result of the global obesity epidemic. This review of animal and human studies highlights recent insights into the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of central feeding circuitries, the mechanisms by which gestational and early postnatal nutritional status affects this process, and approaches aimed at counteracting the deleterious effects of early over- and underfeeding. PMID:24274739

  19. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1. PMID:26771914

  20. Interplay between filter-feeding zoobenthos and hydrodynamics in the shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) - Earlier and recent studies, perspectives and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lassen, J.; Kortegaard, M.; Møller, L. F.; Friedrichs, M.; Jensen, M. H.; Larsen, P. S.

    2007-11-01

    The shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) is characterized by a large biomass of filter-feeding polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), clams ( Mya arenaria), cockles ( Cerastoderma glaucum), and amphipods ( Corophium volutator). The present paper summarizes studies on zoobenthic filter-feeding in Odense Fjord from the last 10 years. The general principles discovered are extracted and compared to available tools for modelling of the primary characteristics of interplay between benthic filter-feeders and hydrodynamics. Earlier works have been supplemented with data from a recent field study conducted in the shallow inner part of the fjord. Based on data from this study site, the reduction in phytoplankton for fully mixed and incompletely mixed flows has been modelled. It was found that fully mixed flow results in a potential half-life for phytoplankton of only 1.3 h, whereas for the incompletely mixed water the half-life is 2.7 times longer. The field measurements clearly demonstrate the presence of a strong interplay between filter-feeders and hydrodynamics, but although a certain grazing impact is evident from vertical chlorophyll a profiles with often strongly reduced near-bottom concentrations it is not straightforward to identify and model even the main bio-physical processes that prevent the dense populations of filter-feeders to completely control the phytoplankton biomass in Odense Fjord.

  1. The convenience of breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Tompson, M

    1971-08-01

    Immediately after delivery when the baby is put to breast, the simplicity of breast feeding becomes apparent. There is no concern about the milk not agreeing with the baby, and if he is kept with his mother so she can feed him on demand, the baby will probably gain more weight than if he were on formula. The mother's milk is always right and is always there. Traveling is convenient if clothes are worn that make discreet nursing possible; a 2-piece outfit such as a blouse and a skirt works well. A rest room or a dressing room can also be used for nursing privacy. A diaper or little blanket thrown over the baby can be a casual cover-up if needed. The nursing mother has no bottles to carry around and no fears of running out of supplies. A study by Spock found that mothers of twins who were breast feeding were better organized than those who were bottle feeding. Although the breast feeding mother is tied down to being a mother of her baby, she grows in discovery of her importance to her baby. Weaning is a gradual process. As the baby nurses less, the mother's milk supply decreases. Even after a baby has been weaned, he might need an occasional nursing to assuage a trying experience like a bump or an illness. PMID:4935488

  2. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  3. Tick capillary feeding for the study of proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions as potential antigens for the control of tick infestation and pathogen infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ticks represent a significant health risk to animals and humans due to the variety of pathogens they can transmit during feeding. The traditional use of chemicals to control ticks has serious drawbacks, including the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks and environmental contamination with chemical residues. Vaccination with the tick midgut antigen BM86 was shown to be a good alternative for cattle tick control. However, results vary considerably between tick species and geographic location. Therefore, new antigens are required for the development of vaccines controlling both tick infestations and pathogen infection/transmission. Tick proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions may provide good candidate protective antigens for these vaccines, but appropriate screening procedures are needed to select the best candidates. Methods In this study, we selected proteins involved in tick-Anaplasma (Subolesin and SILK) and tick-Babesia (TROSPA) interactions and used in vitro capillary feeding to characterize their potential as antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations and infection with Anaplasma marginale and Babesia bigemina. Purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies were generated against recombinant SUB, SILK and TROSPA and added to uninfected or infected bovine blood to capillary-feed female Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. Tick weight, oviposition and pathogen DNA levels were determined in treated and control ticks. Results The specificity of purified rabbit polyclonal antibodies against tick recombinant proteins was confirmed by Western blot and against native proteins in tick cell lines and tick tissues using immunofluorescence. Capillary-fed ticks ingested antibodies added to the blood meal and the effect of these antibodies on tick weight and oviposition was shown. However, no effect was observed on pathogen DNA levels. Conclusions These results highlighted the advantages and some of the disadvantages of in vitro tick capillary

  4. How different are baby-led weaning and conventional complementary feeding? A cross-sectional study of infants aged 6–8 months

    PubMed Central

    Morison, Brittany J; Taylor, Rachael W; Haszard, Jillian J; Schramm, Claire J; Williams Erickson, Liz; Fangupo, Louise J; Fleming, Elizabeth A; Luciano, Ashley; Heath, Anne-Louise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare the food, nutrient and ‘family meal’ intakes of infants following baby-led weaning (BLW) with those of infants following a more traditional spoon-feeding (TSF) approach to complementary feeding. Study design and participants Cross-sectional study of dietary intake and feeding behaviours in 51 age-matched and sex-matched infants (n=25 BLW, 26 TSF) 6–8 months of age. Methods Parents completed a questionnaire, and weighed diet records (WDRs) on 1–3 non-consecutive days, to investigate food and nutrient intakes, the extent to which infants were self-fed or parent-fed, and infant involvement in ‘family meals’. Results BLW infants were more likely than TSF infants to have fed themselves all or most of their food when starting complementary feeding (67% vs 8%, p<0.001). Although there was no statistically significant difference in the large number of infants consuming foods thought to pose a choking risk during the WDR (78% vs 58%, p=0.172), the CI was wide, so we cannot rule out increased odds with BLW (OR, 95% CI: 2.57, 0.63 to 10.44). No difference was observed in energy intake, but BLW infants appeared to consume more total (48% vs 42% energy, p<0.001) and saturated (22% vs 18% energy, p<0.001) fat, and less iron (1.6 vs 3.6 mg, p<0.001), zinc (3.0 vs 3.7 mg, p=0.001) and vitamin B12 (0.2 vs 0.5 μg, p<0.001) than TSF infants. BLW infants were more likely to eat with their family at lunch and at the evening meal (both p≤0.020). Conclusions Infants following BLW had similar energy intakes to those following TSF and were eating family meals more regularly, but appeared to have higher intakes of fat and saturated fat, and lower intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin B12. A high proportion of both groups were offered foods thought to pose a choking risk. PMID:27154478

  5. mHealth Series: Text messaging data collection of infant and young child feeding practice in rural China – a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xiaozhen; Wang, Wei; Helena van Velthoven, Michelle; Chen, Li; Scherpbier, Robert W.; Zhang, Yanfeng; Wu, Qiong; Li, Ye; Rao, Xiuqin; Car, Josip

    2013-01-01

    Background Face–to–face interviews by trained field workers are commonly used in household surveys. However, this data collection method is labor–intensive, time–consuming, expensive, prone to interviewer and recall bias and not easily scalable to increase sample representativeness. Objective To explore the feasibility of using text messaging to collect information on infant and young child feeding practice in rural China. Methods Our study was part of a clustered randomized controlled trial that recruited 591 mothers of children aged 12 to 29 months in rural China. We used the test–retest method: first we collected data through face–to–face interviews and then through text messages. We asked the same five questions on standard infant and young child feeding indicators for both methods and asked caregivers how they fed their children yesterday. We assessed the response rate of the text messaging method and compared data agreement of the two methods. Finding In the text messaging survey, the response rate for the first question and the completion rate were 56.5% and 48.7%, respectively. Data agreement between the two methods was excellent for whether the baby was breastfed yesterday (question 1) (kappa, κ = 0.81), moderate for the times of drinking infant formula, fresh milk or yoghurt yesterday (question 2) (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.46) and whether iron fortified food or iron supplement was consumed (question 3) (κ = 0.44), and poor for 24–hour dietary recall (question 4) (ICC = 0.13) and times of eating solid and semi–solid food yesterday (question 5) (ICC = 0.06). There was no significant difference in data agreement between the two surveys at different time intervals. For infant and young child feeding indicators from both surveys, continued breastfeeding at 1 year (P = 1.000), continued breastfeeding at 2 years (P = 0.688) and minimum meal frequency (P = 0.056) were not significantly

  6. Acute, mutagenicity, teratogenicity and subchronic oral toxicity studies of diaveridine in rodents.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Cao, Xingyuan

    2015-09-01

    Diaveridine (DVD) is a member of the 2,4-pyrimidinediamine class of dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors. It is used in combination with sulfaquinoxaline as an antiprotozoal agent in animals for the prophylaxis and treatment of coccidiosis and leucocytozoonosis. Herein, we report a complete toxicological safety assessment of DVD for clinical use. The study of toxicity, genetic toxicity (mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus assay, mice sperm abnormality test and in vivo chromosome aberration test of mammalian bone marrow), 90-day sub-chronic toxicity and teratogenicity test were performed. In the acute oral toxicity tests, median lethal dose, LD50, was more than 2378mg/kg body weight in Sprague Dawley rats (1025mg/kg body weight in ICR mice). The testing results for three terms of mutagenicity toxicity (mouse chromosome aberration, erythrocyte micronucleus and sperm abnormality) were all negative at 128-512mg/kg body weight. For 90-day feeding of DVD at the dosage of 10mg/kg body weight in both male and female SD rats, no signs of toxicological effects were detected. Meanwhile, for teratogenicity test in female SD rats at the dosage of 37mg/kg body weight, there were no toxicological signs observed. Thus, our results suggested that the DVD is safe when administered orally in rats at 10mg/kg body weight per day. PMID:26397222

  7. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  8. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  9. Breast Feeding in Kingston, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally M.; Back, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    A longitudinal study was carried out on 300 Kingston infants born at the University Hospital of the West Indies. The method of milk feeding and the reasons given by the mothers for beginning bottle feeding were recorded. Other factors influencing the incidence of breast feeding were examined. Complementing in hospital, maternal employment, improving socio-economic status, advertising, and general misinformation were considered important. A higher incidence of gastro-enteritis was found in the first 4 months of life among partly or wholly bottle-fed babies than among breast-fed babies. Weight increments were calculated for the first 3 months of life. A higher proportion of infants with increments in the lowest 25% were bottle fed than those infants with increments in the remaining 75%. PMID:5464065

  10. Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on psychological distress, well-being, and maternal self-efficacy in breast-feeding mothers: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Perez-Blasco, Josefa; Viguer, Paz; Rodrigo, Maria F

    2013-06-01

    Several pilot studies have provided evidence that mindfulness-based intervention is beneficial during pregnancy, yet its effects in mothers during the early parenting period are unknown. The purpose of the present pilot study was to examine the effectiveness of a mindfulness-based intervention in breast-feeding mothers. We developed and tested an 8-week mindfulness-based intervention aimed at improving maternal self-efficacy, mindfulness, self-compassion, satisfaction with life, and subjective happiness, and at reducing psychological distress. A randomized controlled, between-groups design was used with treatment and control groups (n = 26) and pretest and posttest measures. ANCOVA results indicated that, compared to the control group, mothers in the treatment group scored significantly higher on maternal self-efficacy, some dimensions of mindfulness (observing, acting with awareness, non-judging, and non-reactivity), and self-compassion (self-kindness, mindfulness, over-identification, and total self-compassion). In addition, mothers who received the treatment exhibited significantly less anxiety, stress, and psychological distress. The results supported previous research findings about the benefits of mindfulness-based intervention in women from the perinatal and postpartum periods through the early parenting period. Additional research is needed to validate our findings in non-breast-feeding mothers and to examine the intervention's indirect benefits in terms of family relationships and child development. PMID:23512648

  11. Long term study of ixodid ticks feeding on red deer (Cervus elaphus) in a meso-Mediterranean climate.

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, F; González, J; Tercero Jaime, J M; Olmeda, A S

    2016-05-01

    Red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) are very valuable in trophy-hunting but also contribute to the preservation of natural areas. They are affected by many parasites and pathogens, including hard ticks that are not only important parasites themselves but can also act as vectors and/or reservoirs of pathogens. Tick phenology is complex insofar as population dynamics depend on environmental conditions, vegetation, host availability and their own intrinsic characteristic. Ticks were collected monthly from January 2007 to December 2014 from red deer on a natural reserve located in a meso-Mediterranean environment in Central Spain. A total of 8978 specimens of ixodid ticks were recovered with a mean Parasitization Index of 65.06 ticks/deer. Red deer were infected the whole year round with a summer-spring pattern and two secondary peaks in February and October. The main species was Hyalomma lusitanicum Koch followed by Rhipicephalus bursa Canestrini and Fanzago, Rhipicephalus pusillus Gil Collado, Dermacentor marginatus Sulzer and Ixodes ricinus L. Hyalomma lusitanicum has a complex life cycle in which several generations initiate their cycle at different times throughout the year, most probably lasting more than 1 year. We also describe the ability of nymphs to feed on large ungulates even though their habitual host is wild rabbit. PMID:26715543

  12. Impact of type of child growth intervention program on caregivers' child feeding knowledge and practices: a comparative study in Ga West Municipality, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Agbozo, Faith; Colecraft, Esi; Ellahi, Basma

    2016-07-01

    Community-based growth promotion (CBGP) delivered by community volunteers aims at enhancing the traditional growth monitoring and promotion (GMP) program delivered by community health nurses through the promotion of optimum infant and young child feeding (IYCF) leading to improved child growth. This study compared IYCF knowledge and practices among caregiver-child pairs (0-24 months) receiving child welfare services from CBGP (n = 124) and GMP (n = 108) programs. Semistructured questionnaires were used to interview caregivers on IYCF knowledge/practices and validated food frequency questionnaire used to record infants' food intakes. Group differences were determined using Chi-square and independent samples t-tests (P < 0.05; 95% confidence interval [CI]). Mean IYCF knowledge scores were similar (CBGP: 10.84 ± 1.69 vs. GMP: 10.23 ± 1.38, P = 0.062). However, more CBGP caregivers (17%) were highly knowledgeable than their GMP counterparts (5%) (P = 0.011). Early breastfeeding initiation (CBGP: 54% vs. GMP: 28%, P < 0.0001), exclusive breastfeeding (CBGP: 73% vs. GMP: 56%, P = 0.001), and timely complementary feeding (CBGP: 72% vs. GMP: 49%, P = 0.014) were reportedly higher among CBGP caregivers. Underweight was 11% (CBGP: 8% vs. GMP: 14%, P = 0.154). Mean dietary diversity scores (10 food groups) were similar (CBGP: 4.49 ± 1.89 vs. GMP: 3.87 ± 1.89, P = 0.057) but more CBGP caregivers (77%) achieved minimum dietary diversity than their GMP counterparts (61%) (P = 0.035). Few caregivers achieved minimum meal frequency (CBGP: 31% vs. GMP: 29%, P = 0.486) and minimum acceptable diet (CBGP: 23% vs. GMP: 21%, P = 0.464) indicators. Number of children under 5 years owned by caregiver (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.405; 95% CI: 1.13-78.53, P = 0.038), her educational level (AOR: 0.112; 95% CI: 0.02-0.90, P = 0.040), and IYCF knowledge (AOR: 0.140; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79, P = 0.026) significantly predicted optimum child feeding

  13. Economic values of growth and feed efficiency for fish farming in recirculating aquaculture system with density and nitrogen output limitations: a case study with African catfish (Clarias gariepinus).

    PubMed

    Besson, M; Komen, H; Aubin, J; de Boer, I J M; Poelman, M; Quillet, E; Vancoillie, C; Vandeputte, M; van Arendonk, J A M

    2014-12-01

    In fish farming, economic values (EV) of breeding goal traits are lacking, even though they are key parameters when defining selection objectives. The aim of this study was to develop a bioeconomic model to estimate EV of 2 traits representing production performances in fish farming: the thermal growth coefficient (TGC) and the feed conversion ratio (FCR). This approach was applied to a farm producing African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in a recirculating aquaculture system (RAS). In the RAS, 2 factors could limit production level: the nitrogen treatment capacity of the biofilter or the fish density in rearing tanks at harvest. Profit calculation includes revenue from fish sales, cost of juveniles, cost of feed, cost of waste water treatment, and fixed costs. In the reference scenario, profit was modeled to zero. EV were calculated as the difference in profit per kilogram of fish between the current population mean for both traits (µt) and the next generation of selective breeding (µt+Δt) for either TGC or FCR. EV of TGC and FCR were calculated for three generations of hypothetical selection on either TGC or FCR (respectively 6.8% and 7.6% improvement per generation). The results show that changes in TGC and FCR can affect both the number of fish that can be stocked (number of batches per year and number of fish per batch) and the factor limiting production. The EV of TGC and FCR vary and depend on the limiting factors. When dissolved NH3-N is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, increasing TGC decreases the number of fish that can be stocked but increases the number of batches that can be grown. As a result, profit remains constant and EVTGC is zero. Increasing FCR, however, increases the number of fish stocked and the ratio of fish produced per kilogram of feed consumed ("economic efficiency"). The EVFCR is 0.14 €/kg of fish, and profit per kilogram of fish increases by about 10%. When density is the limiting factor for both µt and µt+Δt, the

  14. Feeding DDGS to other animals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is true that historically DDGS has primarily been fed to beef, dairy, swine, and poultry animals. It also appears to be a viable ingredient for aquafeeds. But it should be appropriate as a feed ingredient for other animals as well. To date, however, there have been only a few published studies...

  15. A self-paced oral feeding system that enhances preterm infants’ oral feeding skills

    PubMed Central

    Lau, C; Fucile, S; Schanler, RJ

    2014-01-01

    Aim Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants have difficulty transitioning to independent oral feeding, be they breast- or bottle-feeding. We developed a ‘self-paced’ feeding system that eliminates the natural presence of the positive hydrostatic pressure and internal vacuum build-up within a bottle during feeding. Such system enhanced these infants’ oral feeding performance as monitored by overall transfer (OT; % ml taken/ml prescribed), rate of transfer (RT; ml/min over an entire feeding). This study hypothesizes that the improvements observed in these infants resulted from their ability to use more mature oral feeding skills (OFS). Methods ‘Feeders and growers’ born between 26–29 weeks gestation were assigned to a control or experimental group fed with a standard or self-paced bottle, respectively. They were monitored when taking 1–2 and 6–8 oral feedings/day. OFS was monitored using our recently published non-invasive assessment scale that identifies 4 maturity levels based on infants’ RT and proficiency (PRO; % ml taken during the first 5 min of a feeding/total ml prescribed) during bottle feeding. Results Infants oral feeding outcomes, i.e., OT, RT, PRO, and OFS maturity levels were enhanced in infants fed with the self-paced vs. standard bottle (p ≤ 0.007). Conclusion The improved oral feeding performance of VLBW infants correlated with enhanced OFS. This study is a first to recognize that VLBW infants’ true OFS are more mature than recognized. We speculate that the physical properties inherent to standard bottles that are eliminated with the self-paced system interfere with the display of their true oral feeding potential thereby hindering their overall oral feeding performance. PMID:25999776

  16. Feed up, Feedback, and Feed Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Douglas; Frey, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    "Feeding up" establishes a substantive line of inquiry that compels learners to engage in investigation and inquire. It also forms the basis for the assessments that follow. Once students understand the purpose and begin to work, they receive "feedback" that is timely and scaffolds their understanding. Based on their responses, the teacher gains a…

  17. Precursor feeding studies and molecular characterization of geraniol synthase establish the limiting role of geraniol in monoterpene indole alkaloid biosynthesis in Catharanthus roseus leaves.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishna; Kumar, Sarma Rajeev; Dwivedi, Varun; Rai, Avanish; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Shanker, Karuna; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2015-10-01

    The monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs) are generally derived from strictosidine, which is formed by condensation of the terpene moiety secologanin and the indole moiety tryptamine. There are conflicting reports on the limitation of either terpene or indole moiety in the production of MIAs in Catharanthus roseus cell cultures. Formation of geraniol by geraniol synthase (GES) is the first step in secologanin biosynthesis. In this study, feeding of C. roseus leaves with geraniol, but not tryptophan (precursor for tryptamine), increased the accumulation of the MIAs catharanthine and vindoline, indicating the limitation of geraniol in MIA biosynthesis. This was further validated by molecular and in planta characterization of C. roseus GES (CrGES). CrGES transcripts exhibited leaf and shoot specific expression and were induced by methyl jasmonate. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CrGES significantly reduced the MIA content, which was restored to near-WT levels upon geraniol feeding. Moreover, over-expression of CrGES in C. roseus leaves increased MIA content. Further, CrGES exhibited correlation with MIA levels in leaves of different C. roseus cultivars and has significantly lower expression relative to other pathway genes. These results demonstrated that the transcriptional regulation of CrGES and thus, the in planta geraniol availability plays crucial role in MIA biosynthesis. PMID:26398791

  18. Nutritional and safety assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through biotechnology--case studies by the International Food Biotechnology Committee of ILSI.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    During the last two decades, the public and private sectors have made substantial research progress internationally toward improving the nutritional value of a wide range of food and feed crops. Nevertheless, significant numbers of people still suffer from the effects of undernutrition. As newly developed crops with nutritionally improved traits come closer to being available to producers and consumers, scientifically sound and efficient processes are needed to assess the safety and nutritional quality of these crops. In 2004, a Task Force of international scientific experts, convened by the International Food Biotechnology Committee (IFBiC) of ILSI, published recommendations for the safety and nutritional assessment of foods and feeds nutritionally improved through modern biotechnology (J. Food Science, 2004, 69:CRH62-CRH68). The comparative safety assessment process is a basic principle in this publication and is the starting point, not the conclusion, of the analysis. Significant differences in composition are expected to be observed in the case of nutritionally enhanced crops and must be assessed on a case-by-case basis. The Golden Rice 2 case study will be presented as an example of a food crop nutritionally enhanced through the application of modern biotechnology (i.e., recombinant DNA techniques) to illustrate how the 2004 recommendations provide a robust paradigm for the safety assessment of "real world" examples of improved nutrition crops. PMID:18296343

  19. By-Product Feeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By-product feeds are generated from the production of food, fiber, and bio-energy products for human consumption. They include plant feedstuffs such as hulls, stalks, peels, and oil seed meals, and animal by-products such as blood meal, fats, bone meal, or processed organ meats. Some feed by-product...

  20. Infant Feeding and Attachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Mary D. Salter; Tracy, Russel L.

    This paper has two major purposes: first, to consider how infant feeding behavior may fit into attachment theory; and second, to cite some evidence to show how an infant's early interaction with his mother in the feeding situation is related to subsequent development. It was found that sucking and rooting are precursor attachment behaviors that…

  1. Tube Feeding Transition Plateaus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Marsha Dunn

    2007-01-01

    The journey children make from tube feeding to oral feeding is personal for each child and family. There is a sequence of predictable plateaus that children climb as they move toward orally eating. By better understanding this sequence, parents and children can maximize the development, learning, enjoyment and confidence at each plateau. The…

  2. Development of Wideband Feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, Hideki; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Sekido, Mamoru; Kondo, Tetsuro

    2015-08-01

    Wideband feeds have developed for Kashima 34m antenna and new 2.4m portable VLBI antennas. Prototypes of the wideband feeds are multimode horns, first one was set on 34m in the end of 2013, and then replaced next one with 6.5-15.0GHz receiving frequency. Now, a new feed for 3.2GHz-14.4GHz will be installed in 2.4m and 34m antennas in this spring, which are named NINJA feed, because of its design flexibility in beam shpae. Next, IGUANA feed is now under design and fabrication, which is aimed for 2.2-22GHz and covers VGOS(VLBI2010) specification. This has coaxial structure, the smaller "daughter feed" for 6.4-22GHz is placed in the center of the larger "Mother feed" for 2.2-6.4GHz.They are used for our project of time and frequency transfer between remote atomic clocks by wideband VLBI, named Gala-V(Garapagos VLBI), and will also be used wideband VLBI observation for astronmy and geodesy.Prototype feeds were tested in measurement of aperture efficiency, SEFD and Tsys of 34m "Super Kashima Antenna" and both 6.7/12.2GHz methanol maser detection in one reciever system, and then better one is used for wideband VLBI observations.

  3. Testing Feeds for Salmonella.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Human salmonellosis outbreaks have been linked to contamination of animal feeds. Thus it is crucial to employ sensitive Salmonella detection methods for animal feeds. Based on a review of the literature, Salmonella sustains acid injury at about pH 4.0 to5.0. Low pH can also alter the metabolism of S...

  4. The compatibility of various polymeric liner and pipe materials with simulated double-shell slurry feed at 90/degree/C: Hanford Grout Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Hymas, C.R.

    1989-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of various polymeric liner and pipe materials with a low-level radioactive waste slurry called double-shell slurry feed (DSSF). The evaluation was necessary as part of the permitting process authorized by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), PL-94-580. Materials that were examined included five flexible membrane liners (Hytrel/reg sign/ polyester, polyurethane, 8130 XR5/reg sign/, polypropylene, and high-density polyethylene) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe. The liner and pipe samples were immersed for 120 days in the synthetic DSSE at 90/degree/C, the maximum expected temperature in the waste disposal scenario. Physical properties of the liner and pipe samples were measured before immersion and every 30 days after immersion, in accordance with EPA Method 9090. In addition, some of the materials were exposed to four different radiation doses after 30 days of immersion. Physical properties of these materials were measured immediately after exposure and after an additional 90 days of immersion to determine each material's response to radiation, and whether radiation exposure affected the chemical compatibility of the material. 20 refs., 41 figs., 13 tabs.

  5. A fast and simple procedure for determination of perfluoroalkyl substances in food and feed: a method verification by an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Hrádková, P; Poustka, J; Pulkrabová, J; Hlousková, V; Kocourek, V; Llorca, M; Farré, M; Barceló, D; Hajslová, J

    2013-09-01

    In this study, a simple, fast, and cheap sample preparation procedure for the analysis of three well-known representatives of perfluoroalkyl substances (perfluorooctane sulfonate, perfluorooctanoic acid, and perfluorooctane sulfonamide) was validated in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The method was based on extraction with methanol followed by a dispersive solid phase extraction cleanup step by addition of activated charcoal for fish tissue, fish feed, and milk samples. The novel analytical approach combined with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry makes it possible to achieve limits of quantification below 1 μg/kg (defined by Commission Recommendation 2010/161/EU). This method provides a high laboratory sample throughput: ten samples in 60 min. The validated procedure was successfully verified in an interlaboratory study. PMID:23609786

  6. Gastrostomy feeding tube - pump - child

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - pump; G-tube - pump; Gastrostomy button - pump; Bard Button - pump; MIC-KEY - pump ... Gather supplies: Feeding pump (electronic or battery powered) Feeding set that matches the feeding pump (includes a feeding bag, drip chamber, roller clamp, ...

  7. Social customs and beliefs regarding breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Arora, A K; Singh, R N; Gupta, B D; Gupta, M; Dabi, D R

    1985-12-01

    This study, undertaken to investigate the social customs and beliefs surrounding breast feeding in Western Rajasthan, India, was conducted at the Umaid Hospital for Women and Children in Jodhpur. 300 women attending the pediatric outpatient and impatient departments and underfive clinics at the hospital constituted the study subjects. The women ranged in age from 15-42 years. They were interviewed to collect information on social and family variables and on breast feeding. Of the 300 women, 65.3% were residents of urban areas. 92.7% of the respondents believed in inaugural feeding with 32.3% preferring honey, followed by, among others, animal milk (17.6%), and janam ghutti (11.7%). Honey and janam ghutti were preferred by rural respondents; jaggery (13.8%), water (9.7%), and tea (7.7%) were preferred by urban women. Ceremonial ritual prior to beginning breast feeding was observed by 47.9% of the urban women (despite better education in urban areas) and 57.7% of the rural women. Colostrum feeding was denied by 32.6% women, but it was favored by 65.8% urban and 46.1% rural women. Nearly 33% urban and 40.9% rural mothers favored the restriction of breast feeding during maternal illness. During illness of the child, 48.4% urban and 51.9% rural women favored breast feeding restriction. The breast-feeding practices reflect a strong interlocking influence with social customs and beliefs as do the preference of women for inaugural feeds. The use of these feeds depends upon local customs and beliefs and the socioeducational level of the population. This is strongly supported by the observation that 79.7% of the women gave inaugural feed because of advice of an elderly family member or family tradition. PMID:3837777

  8. Effect of different feeding regimes on pre-weaning growth rumen fermentation and its influence on post-weaning performance of lambs.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, R S; Tripathi, M K; Verma, D L; Karim, S A

    2009-10-01

    Influence of pre-weaning live weight on post-weaning growth performance was assessed on thirty-nine 15-day-old Indian native lambs, randomly fed in three equal groups until 180 days of age. During pre-weaning phase lambs were maintained under feeding regimen of grazing (C-0; Control), grazing and ad lib creep mixture supplementation (C-AL) or grazing, with ad lib creep mixture and milk replacer supplementation (C-ALMR). Lambs were allowed to suckle respective dam in morning and evening till 90 days of age, and fed ad lib green leaves of Ailanthus excelsa after grazing. After weaning all lambs were maintained on grazing and ad lib finisher concentrates supplementation. Pre-weaning performance of lambs in terms of weaning weight (17.2 kg), average daily gain (ADG; 154 g) and feed conversion ratio 3.73 was higher (p < 0.01) in C-ALMR lambs but total gain and ADG were similar among three groups during post-weaning phase. However, improved pre-weaning plane of nutrition and growth rate increased (p < 0.01) finishing weight (FW) of lambs in C-AL, 33 kg and C-ALMR, 32 kg. Dry matter intake was significantly (p < 0.01) higher in C-AL and C-ALMR lambs due to combined effect of feeding. Rumen pH was lowest (p = 0.049) in C-AL lambs. Rumen ciliate protozoa population (10(4)/ml) decreased in C-ALMR lambs (4.3) but increased in C-AL lambs (50.0) more so in C-0 Lambs (19.8). Concentrate feeding of C-AL lamb improved nutrient digestibility. Lambs of C-0 group consumed more DM during post-weaning phase that improved growth performance, while nutrient digestibility was not affected by pre-weaning nutrition. Thus, pre-weaning nutrition has significant influence on FW, however influence of milk replacer feeding on lamb growth need further studies. PMID:19141102

  9. The effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake and feeding behavior of pregnant ewes.

    PubMed

    Bøe, K E; Dønnem, I

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of frozen grass silage on the feed intake, feed preferences, and feeding behavior of ewes. Two experiments were conducted, each involving 8 pregnant ewes in a Latin square design with 4 treatments: 1) frozen silage; 2) partly frozen silage; 3) frozen, chopped silage; 4) and unfrozen silage (control). In Exp. 2, the ewes in square 1 were fed grass silage with low DM content (LDM) and in square 2 the ewes were fed grass silage with high DM content (HDM). In both experiments, each treatment period lasted for 14 d. A feed preference test was conducted, where the ewes could choose between 2 of the experimental feed treatments for 1 d in a changeover design so that they were exposed to all pairwise combinations of the 4 treatments. On the last day of each experimental period in Exp. 1, the feeding behavior was scored by direct observation for 4 h. In Exp. 1 ( < 0.0001) and in Exp. 2 ( = 0.03), feed intake in the first 4 h after feeding was lowest on the frozen silage treatment and highest on the control treatment. The DMI in the first 4 h after feeding was higher ( = 0.005) in the HDM treatment than in the LDM treatment. The total daily feed intake in Exp. 1 was lowest on the frozen, chopped silage treatment and highest on the unfrozen silage treatment ( = 0.02). In Exp. 2, daily feed intake did not differ ( = 0.32) among treatments. Total daily feed intake was higher ( < 0.0001) in the LDM treatment than in the HDM treatment but there was no difference in the DMI. There was no difference in the preference for the different feed treatments, when considering either the first 4 h ( = 0.12 to = 0.86) or the whole 24-h period ( = 0.25 to = 0.53). Time spent eating normally was longer on the control treatment and shorter on the frozen silage treatments ( < 0.0001) whereas time spent eating by tearing off feed from the frozen block followed the opposite pattern ( < 0.0001). We conclude that intake of frozen silage was

  10. Chagas Disease and Breast-feeding

    PubMed Central

    López-Vélez, Rogelio

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease (infection by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi) is a major parasitic disease of the Americas and one of the main neglected tropical diseases. Although various routes of transmission sre recognized, the risk for transmission of the infection through breast-feeding has not clearly been established. We reviewed the literature on transmission of T. cruzi through breast-feeding to provide breast-feeding mothers with Chagas disease with medical guidance. Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. In these cases, thermal treatment of milk before feeding the infant may be considered. PMID:24050257

  11. Influence of feeding state on neurofunctional differences between individuals who are obese and normal weight: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, James; Dimitropoulos, Anastasia

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a complex disorder associated with serious health risks. Examining differences in brain activity between normal weight and obese populations in response to food cues may help researchers and clinicians understand the underlying causes of overeating and obesity and help prevent them. Multiple neuroimaging studies have investigated weight differences in functional activity to food cues but have found varying results. We performed six meta-analyses of functional neuroimaging studies of weight differences in response to food images and isolated differences in processing between normal weight and obese participants. Within this study, 7 papers and 3 sets of unpublished data on functional activation to food images were analyzed using an Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analytic approach. These analyses also addressed how feeding state impacts functional activity between weight groups. Feeding state affected weight related differences in neurofunctional activity triggered by visual food cues. In the premeal state, greater activation in the amygdala/hippocampus was found in obese participants compared to normal weight participants and, in the postmeal state, obese individuals had greater activation in the caudate and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) as compared to normal weight individuals. Regions of the brain associated with caloric evaluation, arousal, and memory were more active in the obese before eating, while less activity was found in an area linked to interoceptive processing. In the postmeal state, greater activity was found in the obese in areas related to risk vs. reward evaluation and reward processing. These findings may help researchers and clinicians understand and treat obesity related behaviors by identifying the altered functional regions that lead to obesity, providing a guide for future research on which neural regions need to be the target of further investigation. PMID:24380884

  12. GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL VIEW OF TUMALO FEED CANAL (RIGHT) AND BEND FEED CANAL (LEFT) INTERSECTION. LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  13. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  14. Experience and Personality Differences among Breast- and Bottle-Feeding Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg-Cross, Linda; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Studies the relationship between different feeding modes and the mother's enjoyment of feeding and her attitude toward and style of weaning the child. Results indicate breast-feeding mothers are higher sensation seekers, more satisfied with the feeding experience, and more ambivalent about weaning than the artifically feeding mothers. (Author)

  15. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FEED ENVELOPE

    SciTech Connect

    HERTING DL

    2008-03-19

    Laboratory work was completed on a set of evaporation tests designed to establish a feed envelope for the fractional crystallization process. The feed envelope defines chemical concentration limits within which the process can be operated successfully. All 38 runs in the half-factorial design matrix were completed successfully, based on the qualitative definition of success. There is no feed composition likely to be derived from saltcake dissolution that would cause the fractional crystallization process to not meet acceptable performance requirements. However, some compositions clearly would provide more successful operation than other compositions.

  16. Coal feed lock

    DOEpatents

    Pinkel, I. Irving

    1978-01-01

    A coal feed lock is provided for dispensing coal to a high pressure gas producer with nominal loss of high pressure gas. The coal feed lock comprises a rotor member with a diametral bore therethrough. A hydraulically activated piston is slidably mounted in the bore. With the feed lock in a charging position, coal is delivered to the bore and then the rotor member is rotated to a discharging position so as to communicate with the gas producer. The piston pushes the coal into the gas producer. The rotor member is then rotated to the charging position to receive the next load of coal.

  17. Effect of feeding habit on weight in infancy.

    PubMed

    Swiet, M D; Fayers, P

    1977-04-23

    A population study of 758 infants born at the same hospital showed that weight at the ages of six week and six months was not significantly related to breast or bottle feeding, the early introduction of solids, or the sodium content of bottle feeds. Weight at six weeks was related to the volume and energy content of the feeds which were examined in those bobies that were bottle-fed alone. Although analysis of a single feed showed that mothers mixed feeds incorrectly, there was no evidence that mixing of overstrength feeds leads to obesity. PMID:67296

  18. Treatment of Severe Feeding Refusal in Infants and Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Thomas; And Others

    1997-01-01

    This retrospective study examined the effectiveness of an inpatient multidisciplinary program for treatment of severe feeding refusal. Nineteen infants and toddlers recovering from medical and surgical disorders which had required non-oral feeding were studied. A modified method of rapid introduction of oral feedings resulted in conversion to…

  19. Nutri-bébé 2013 Study Part 3. Nutri-Bébé Survey 2013:3/Behaviour of mothers and young children during feeding.

    PubMed

    Le Heuzey, M-F; Turberg-Romain, C

    2015-10-01

    This new study by the Secteur français des aliments de l'enfance (SFAE) (French Agency for Children's Foods) confirms the improvement in the nutritional environment of young children, particularly in sharing family meals. Incorporating the sample of breastfed children is a new feature, although food refusal behavior in infants did not appear to differ greatly whether or not they were being breastfed, and mothers expressed a need to be informed and guided in order for their children to better accept varied foods. We still found long-term continuation of feeding bottles and in parallel excessively early introduction of adult foods and significant and inappropriate viewing of screens for age. PMID:26474670

  20. Octopamine: a new feeding modulator in Lymnaea

    PubMed Central

    Vehovszky, Á.

    1998-01-01

    The role of octopamine (OA) in the feeding system of the pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, was studied by applying behavioural tests on intact animals, and a combination of electrophysiological analysis and morphological labelling in the isolated central nervous system. OA antagonists phentolamine, demethylchlordimeform (DCDM) and 2-chloro-4-methyl-2-(phenylimino)-imidazolidine (NC-7) were injected into intact snails and the sucrose-induced feeding response of animals was monitored. Snails that received 25 to 50 mg kg-1 phentolamine did not start feeding in sucrose, and the same dose of NC-7 reduced the number of feeding animals by 80 to 90% 1 to 3 hours after injection. DCDM treatment reduced feeding by 20 to 60%. In addition, both phentolamine and NC-7 significantly decreased the feeding rate of those animals that still accepted food after 1 to 6 hours of injection. In the central nervous system a pair of buccal neurons was identified by electrophysiological and morphological criteria. After double labelling (intracellular staining with Lucifer yellow followed by OA-immunocytochemistry) these neurons were shown to be OA immunoreactive, and electrophysiological experiments confirmed that they are members of the buccal feeding system. Therefore the newly identified buccal neurons were called OC neurons (putative octopamine containing neurons or octopaminergic cells). Synchronous intracellular recordings demonstrated that the OC neurons share a common rhythm with feeding neurons either appearing spontaneously or evoked by intracellularly stimulated feeding interneurons. OC neurons also have synaptic connections with identified members of the feeding network: electrical coupling was demonstrated between OC neurons and members of the B4 cluster motoneurons, furthermore, chemically transmitted synaptic responses were recorded both on feeding motoneurons (B1, B2 cells) and the SO modulatory interneuron after the stimulation of OC neurons. However, elementary synaptic