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Sample records for 90-day feeding study

  1. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  2. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gao-Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-Shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats.

  3. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Gao-jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats. PMID:27812153

  4. Range Finding 14-Day and 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies with N,N-Dipropylcyclohexanecarboxamide in Rats. Phase 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    clinical chemistry values. Significant increases occurred in male rat liver organ-to-body weight ratios in all three dose levels at the 45 and 90 day necropsies during the 90-day feeding study. A no effect dose was not achieved during this study. Additional testing would be required to confirm a no effect dose level. It is concluded that a toxic hazard may exist from a prolonged significant oral exposure to N,N-Dopropylcyclohexanecarboxamide. It is recommended that further evaluation of this compound as a candidate insect repellent be discontinued due to the deleterious

  5. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  6. Safety assessment of genetically modified milk containing human beta-defensin-3 on rats by a 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Ming-Qing; Liang, Dong; Yin, Songna; Yao, Kezhen; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups which consumed either an AIN93G diet (growth purified diet for rodents recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition) with the addition of 10% or 30% HBD3 milk, an AIN93G diet with the addition of 10% or 30% conventional milk, or an AIN93G diet alone. The results showed that there was no difference in the nutritional composition of HBD3 and conventional milk. Furthermore, body weight, food consumption, blood biochemistry, relative organ weight, and histopathology were normal in those rats that consumed diets containing HBD3. No adverse effects were observed between groups that could be attributed to varying diets or gender.

  7. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; He, Xiaoyun; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Cao, Sishuo; Song, Huan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2012-09-01

    The cry1Ac-M gene, coding one of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins, was introduced into maize H99 × Hi IIB genome to produce insect-resistant GM maize BT-38. The food safety assessment of the BT-38 maize was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 90-days feeding study. We incorporated maize grains from BT-38 and H99 × Hi IIB into rodent diets at three concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50%) and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. A commercialized rodent diet was fed to an additional group as control group. Body weight, feed consumption and toxicological response variables were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. Moreover, detection of residual Cry1Ac-M protein in the serum of rats fed with GM maize was conducted. No death or adverse effects were observed in the current feeding study. No adverse differences in the values of the response variables were observed between rats that consumed diets containing GM maize BT-38 and non-GM maize H99 × Hi IIB. No detectable Cry1Ac-M protein was found in the serum of rats after feeding diets containing GM maize for 3 months. The results demonstrated that BT-38 maize is as safe as conventional non-GM maize.

  8. Safety assessment of the fermented Phylloporia ribis (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) mycelia by oral acute toxicity study in mice and 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianhua; Fan, Yiou; Yao, Wenhuan; Xie, Wei; Guo, Jie; Yan, Yan; Yang, Fei; Xu, Lingchuan

    2014-07-01

    Phylloporia ribis is an edible fungus in China. Its fermented mycelia have been approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of PR China for use as a novel food material, but little information on its safety is available. The present research was the first to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity in experimental animals of fermented Phylloporia ribis mycelia (FPM) following standard procedures. In acute toxicity study, FPM was orally administered to male and female mice twice a day at single dose of 10 g/kg bw. The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of FPM for mice of both sexes was over 10 g/kg bw. No death and abnormal behaviors occurred during 14 days study except for an increased locomotor activity in three animals. In 90-day feeding study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10.0%, 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.25% and 0% (control) FPM for 90 days. The treatment caused no effects on mortality, gross pathology, histology, hematology, and blood chemistry, no dose-dependent changes in food consumption, but caused effect on body weight gain compared with control group. The No Observed Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of FPM was greater than 8.7 g/kg bw/day in both sexes of rats.

  9. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schrøder, M., Poulsen, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emami, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339-349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding study on the GM food with and without spiking with the pure novel gene product, with the knowledge about the identity of the genetic change, the compositional data of the GM food, the results from in-vitro/ex-vivo studies as well as the results from the preceding 28-day toxicity study with the novel gene product, before the hazard characterisation is concluded. The results demonstrated the ability of the 90-day rat feeding study to detect the biological/toxicological effects of the

  10. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  11. Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye

    2008-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in the diet reduce risk of cardiac mortality. Fish oils are a dietary source of LC-PUFAs (EPA, DHA) but intake is low in Western diets. Adding beneficial amounts of LC-PUFAs to foods is limited by their instability and potential to impart off-flavors. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA in man, is more stable than EPA/DHA in food matrices. SDA is present in fish oils (0.5-4%) and in nutraceuticals (echium, borage oil). Genes for Delta6, Delta15 desaturases were introduced into soybeans that convert linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to SDA (15-30% fatty acids). Since addition of SDA soybean oil into human foods increases SDA intake, toxicology studies were undertaken to assess its safety. In a 28-day pilot study, rats were gavaged with SDA soybean oil at dosages up to 3g/kg body weight/day; no treatment-related adverse effects were observed. A 90-day/one generation rat reproduction study was subsequently conducted where SDA soybean oil was added to diets to provide daily doses of 1.5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development.

  12. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  13. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of FT Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    chromosome aberration test and micronucleus assay (Mattie et al., 2011a, 2011b), demonstrated that FT fuel was not mutagenic or genotoxic. The acute...over approximately 90 days, at concentrations of 0, 200, 700, and 2000 mg/m3. In the motor activity test , males exposed to the highest concentration...2 3.1 Test Substance ....................................................................................................................3 3.2

  14. Toxicological Study No. 75-51-YJ81-93, 4-Amino-2-Nitrotoluene (4A2NT) Oral Approximate Lethal Dose 14-day Range Finding 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies in Rats, August 1991-November 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    NOVEMBER 1993 1. PURPOSE. The oral approximate lethal dose study was conducted todetennine an approximate dosage range at which to begin the 14-day...5000 mg/Kg. The 14-day range fmding study suggested a probable compound related effect in the薘~m (high dose ) exposure groups of both sexes and a...possible compound related effect mIlle 1000 ppm (middle dose ) exposure groups of both sexes. An NOAEL was not established for the 90-day subchronic

  15. A 90-day toxicity study of GmTMT transgenic maize in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin; Feng, Yongquan; Zhi, Yuan; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Zhou; Jia, Xudong

    2017-04-01

    GmTMT transgenic maize is a genetically modified maize plant that overexpresses the γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) from Glycine max (Gm). The γ-TMT gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the GmTMT2a protein which can convert γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol. Overexpression of GmTMT2a significantly increased the α-tocopherol content in transgenic maize. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of GmTMT maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Maize grains from GmTMT or Zhen58 were incorporated into rodent diets at low (12.5%), medium (25%) or high (50%) concentrations and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/sex/group) for 90 days. The negative control group of rats (n = 10/sex/group) were fed with common maize diets. Results from body weights, feed consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, absolute and relative organ weights indicated no treatment-related side effects of GmTMT maize grain on rats in comparison with rats consuming diets containing Zhen58 maize grain. In addition, no treatment-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Altogether, our data indicates that GmTMT transgenic maize is as safe and nutritious as its conventional non-transgenic maize.

  16. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Er Hui; Yu, Zhou; Hu, Jing; Xu, Hai Bin

    2013-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control.

  17. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  18. 90-day dietary toxicity study with esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) in micropigs.

    PubMed

    Wedig, John; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    The subchronic (90-day) toxicity of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) was assessed in micropigs. Animals (5/sex/group) received feed containing 5%, 10%, and 17% EPG, mixed accordingly throughout the study to deliver 1.5, 3, and 5 g/kg bw/day of EPG, respectively. Corn oil served as the vehicle control (0 g/kg bw/day). Subsets of animals were evaluated at Week 6; the remainder between Weeks 12 and 14. With the exception of liver and serum vitamin levels, statistically significant difference between control and EPG groups were seen sporadically, and with no apparent connection to treatment and/or no consistency across time intervals. EPG intakes of 3 and 5 g/kg bw/day, but not at 1.5 g/kg bw/day were associated with significantly lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Serum total vitamin D levels were significantly lower across all EPG groups. There were also trends toward lower levels of liver vitamins A and E among EPG-treated animals, but the effects were less consistent. The effects on vitamin levels observed in EPG-treated animals were not accompanied by any signs of vitamin deficiency (e.g., effects on growth, clinical signs, or clinical pathology), and might have been related to the larger mass of EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during transit in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. A repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen,a novel acaricide, in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshinori; Ikemi, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Ebino, Koichi; Kojima, Sayuri; Chiba, Yuko; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Kawakatsu, Hisao; Saka, Machiko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-02-01

    Cyflumetofen is a novel acaricide which is highly active against phytophagous mites. As a part of safety assessment, a repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen was conducted in Fischer (F344/DuCrj) rats of both sexes. Technical grade cyflumetofen was administered in feed to groups of 10 males and 10 females at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 1,000, and 3,000 ppm. Prothrombin time was prolonged in males at 3,000 ppm and plasma globulin levels were decreased in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. At necropsy, enlarged and whitish adrenals were observed in females at 3,000 ppm. There were statistically significant increases in relative liver weight (ratio to body weight) in males and relative adrenal weight in females in the 1,000 ppm group; increased relative liver and kidney weights in both sexes at 3,000 ppm, and increased absolute and relative weights of adrenals in females at 3,000 ppm. Increased absolute liver weight was also noted in males at 3,000 ppm. Histopathologically, at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm males had diffuse vacuolation and females had diffuse hypertrophy of adrenal cortical cells. In addition, vacuolation of ovarian interstitial gland cells was noted in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. There were no treatment-related changes in any parameters for either sex in other dose groups. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of cyflumetofen was judged to be 300 ppm for both sexes (16.5 mg/kg/day for males and 19.0 mg/kg/day for females).

  20. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  1. Safety assessment of essential oil from Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (peperina): 90-days oral subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Mañas, Fernando; Cristofolini, Andrea; Bagnis, Guillermo; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolas; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée

    2015-02-01

    Minthostachys verticillata (Lamiaceae), popularly known as peperina is largely used in popular medicine for its digestive, carminative, antispasmodic and antirheumatic properties. There are no reports of repeated exposure toxicity to guarantee their safety. The present study investigated the chemical composition, analyzed by GC-FID, and the 90-day toxicity and genotoxicity effect of M. verticillata essential oil (Mv-EO), using Wistar rats as test animals. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats/sex/group) and Mv-EO was administered on diet at doses of 0, 1, 4 and 7 g/kg feed. The main components of Mv-EO were pulegone (64.65%) and menthone (23.92%). There was no mortality, adverse effects on general conditions or changes in body weight, food consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the study in male and female rats. Subchronic administration of Mv-EO did not alter the weights, morphological and histopathological analyses of liver, kidney and intestine. Genotoxicity was tested by micronucleus and comet assays. Mv-EO up to a concentration of 7 g/kg feed for 90 days did not exert a cyto-genotoxic effect on the bone marrow and cells blood of Wistar rats. These results suggest that Mv-EO appears to be safe and could be devoid of any toxic risk.

  2. Multisite Study of an Implanted Continuous Glucose Sensor Over 90 Days in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dehennis, Andrew; Mortellaro, Mark A.; Ioacara, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which enables real-time glucose display and trend information as well as real-time alarms, can improve glycemic control and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus. Previous reports have described strategies to extend the useable lifetime of a single sensor from 1-2 weeks to 28 days. The present multisite study describes the characterization of a sensing platform achieving 90 days of continuous use for a single, fully implanted sensor. Method: The Senseonics CGM system is composed of a long-term implantable glucose sensor and a wearable smart transmitter. Study subjects underwent subcutaneous implantation of sensors in the upper arm. Eight-hour clinic sessions were performed every 14 days, during which sensor glucose values were compared against venous blood lab reference measurements collected every 15 minutes using mean absolute relative differences (MARDs). Results: All subjects (mean ± standard deviation age: 43.5 ± 11.0 years; with 10 sensors inserted in men and 14 in women) had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Most (22 of 24) sensors reported glucose values for the entire 90 days. The MARD value was 11.4 ± 2.7% (range, 8.1-19.5%) for reference glucose values between 40-400 mg/dl. There was no significant difference in MARD throughout the 90-day study (P = .31). No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: The Senseonics CGM, composed of an implantable sensor, external smart transmitter, and smartphone app, is the first system that uses a single sensor for continuous display of accurate glucose values for 3 months. PMID:26224762

  3. Human exploration of space: A review of NASA's 90-day study and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stever, H. Guyford; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Gavin, Joseph G.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Levinthal, Elliott C.; Mar, James W.; Mcelroy, John H.; Mcruer, Duane T.; Merrell, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) examines the NASA Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, and alternative concepts. Included in this paper, prepared for the National Space Council, are the answers to a challenging set of questions posed by the Vice President. Concerns addressed include: the appropriate pace, the scope of human exploration, the level of long-term support required, the technology development available and needed, the feasibility of long-duration human spaceflight in a low-gravity environment, scientific objectives, and other considerations such as costs and risks.

  4. Safety assessment of vitacoxib: Acute and 90-day sub-chronic oral toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Lv, Pengyue; Li, Jing; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-02-24

    Vitacoxib, is a newly developed coxibs NSAID (selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2). To date, no experimental data have been published concerning its safety for use as an additive in the human diet. In the present study, we assessed the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of vitacoxib administered by gavage. The acute toxicity tests in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and ICR mice demonstrated that vitacoxib at a dose of 5000 mg/kg BW failed to alter any of the parameters studied. In the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity test, vitacoxib was administered to SD rats at the doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 mg/kg BW. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences for most indexes of sub-chronic toxicity throughout the experiment at the dose of 5-20 mg/kg BW, indicating no apparent dose-dependent. However, there were significant histopathology changes in the liver and kidney, and alterations in some biochemical parameters in the 60 mg/kg BW group. Based on these findings, the gavage LD50 was determined to be > 5000 mg/kg in SD rats and ICR mice, and the 90-day gavage no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of vitacoxib was considered to be 20 mg/kg BW under the present study conditions.

  5. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure.

  6. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  7. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day.

  8. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  9. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn rootworm-protected corn.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B; Lemen, J; Dudek, R; Ward, D; Jiang, C; Nemeth, M; Burns, J

    2006-02-01

    The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with YieldGard (YieldGard Rootworm Corn is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC.) Rootworm corn (MON 863) grain that is protected against feeding damage caused by corn rootworm larvae are presented. Corn rootworm-protection was accomplished through the introduction of a cry3Bb1 coding sequence into the corn genome for in planta production of a modified Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. Grain from MON 863 and its near isogenic control were separately formulated into rodent diets at levels of 11% and 33% (w/w) by Purina Mills, Inc. Additionally, six groups of rats were fed diets containing grain from different conventional (non-biotechnology-derived) reference varieties. The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 863 were compared to those of rats fed grain from conventional corn varieties. All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to Purina Mills, Inc. specifications for Certified LabDiet 5002. There were a total of 400 rats in the study divided into 10 groups of 20 rats/sex/group. Overall health, body weight gain, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were comparable between groups fed diets containing MON 863 and conventional corn varieties. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional and farm animal feeding studies with MON 863 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as existing conventional corn varieties.

  10. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Dudek, R; Lemen, J K; Nemeth, M A

    2006-07-01

    The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with grain from MON 810 corn (YieldGard Cornborer -- YieldGard Cornborer is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC) that is protected against feeding damage from corn and stalk boring lepidopteran insects are presented. Corn borer protection was accomplished through the introduction of cry1Ab coding sequences into the corn genome for in planta production of a bioactive form of Cry1Ab protein. Grain from MON 810 and its near-isogenic control was separately formulated into rodent diets at levels of 11% and 33% (w/w) by Purina Mills, Inc. (PMI). All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to PMI specifications for Certified LabDiet (PMI Certified LabDiet 5002 is a registered trademark of Purina Mills, Inc.) 5002. There were a total of 400 rats in the study divided into 10 groups of 20 rats/sex/group. The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 810 were compared to those of rats fed grain from conventional corn varieties. Overall health, body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were comparable between groups fed diets containing MON 810 and conventional corn varieties. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional and farm animal feeding studies with MON 810 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as grain from existing commercial corn varieties.

  11. Trichloromelamine 14-Day Range Finding and 90-Day Subchronic Studies in Rats. 3 August 1988 - 17 January 1989. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-13

    COSATI CODES 10. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverne if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Trichloroemelamine, toxicity , 14-Day...90-Day 19, ABSTRACT (Conamnue on revers if necessary and identify by block number) The subchronic study examined the toxicity of the food service...observed adverse effect level in the 90-day study was 30 mg/kg/day. Trichloromelamine should be considered moderately toxic when ingested acutely

  12. [Kooroo color: 90-day dietary toxicity study in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ogawa, Yukio; Ueno, Katsunori; Kaneko, Toyozo; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Tohru

    2002-06-01

    A subchronic toxicity study on kooroo color was conducted using F344 rats of both genders. Kooroo color is an extract of yam root, Dioscorea matudai Hayata, of which the major components are known to be flavonoid pigments. Use of kooroo as a food color is permitted by the Food Sanitation Law in Japan, but the chronic toxicity has not been evaluated in the literature. Rats were fed the product of kooroo color (PKC) at doses of 0.5%, 1.50%, and 5.0% in basal powder diet, while control groups received PKC-free basal diet, for ninety days. A vehicle control given propylene glycol (PG) alone, at the same dosage that the 5.0% group received, was included, because PKC used in this study contained ca. 80 percent PG, used as an extractant during the manufacturing processes. Daily observation of general behavior, and weekly measurement of body weight as well as food consumption were performed. Hematological, serum biochemical and anatomopathological examinations were conducted at the end of administration. No abnormalities ascribable to the treatment with PKC or PG were noted in any examination in this study. Hence, dietary intake of 5.0% of PKC, i.e., 2,993 mg/kg/day for males, and 3,376 mg/kg/day for females, as a mean daily intake for 90 days, had no observable adverse effect in F344 rats. Therefore, kooroo color has no significant general toxicity, and its toxicity, if any, is of a very low order.

  13. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  14. A 90-day toxicology study of meat from genetically modified sheep overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals.

  15. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  16. A 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study and a 5-Day Metabolism Study of Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (DIMP) in Mink.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Eighty 12-13 month-old brown "Ranch Wild " mink of each sex were randomized by body weight into eight dose groups of ten animals per sex. The animals...Laboratory Practice Standard (Toxic Substances Control Act) was followed. 90-DAY STUDY One hundred sixty 12-13 month-old brown "Ranch Wild " mink (80...3.2 x 10ŚM sec-’ * Hydrolysis Half- life : 687 years * Decomposition Products: (in microwave plasma discharge): methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl

  17. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  18. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  19. Report of the 90-day study on human exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The basic mission sequence to achieve the President's goal is clear: begin with Space Station Freedom in the 1990's, return to the Moon to stay early in the Next century, and then journey to Mars. Five reference approaches are modeled building on past programs and recent studies to reflect wide-ranging strategies that incorporate varied program objectives, schedules, technologies, and resource availabilities. The reference approaches are (1) balance and speed; (2) the earliest possible landing on Mars; (3) reduce logistics from Earth; (4) schedule adapted to Space Station Freedom; and (5) reduced scales. The study and programmatic assessment have shown that the Human Exploration Initiative is indeed a feasible approach to achieving the President's goals. Several reasonable alternatives exist, but a long-range commitment and significant resources will be required. However, the value of the program and the benefits to the Nation are immeasurable.

  20. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werley, Michael S.; Kirkpatrick, Dan J.; Oldham, Michael J.; Jerome, Ann M.; Langston, Timothy B.; Lilly, Patrick D.; Smith, Donna C.; Mckinney, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1–4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  1. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs.

  2. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity and mass balance study of corn starch fiber in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, Christine M; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Rihner, Marisa O; Lambert, Elizabeth A; Greeley, Melanie A; Godsey, Justin; Eapen, Alex K; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose. There were no toxicologically or biologically relevant findings in any of the test article-treated groups. The few minor differences observed between the corn starch fiber and polydextrose exposed groups were considered to be due to normal biological variation. Following [(14)C]-corn starch fiber dosing, nearly complete excretion of the administered dose occurred over 168 h post-dosing, with the majority excreted in the feces. The dietary no-observed-adverse-effect level of corn starch fiber after 90 days was 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Similar toxicity profiles for corn starch fiber and polydextrose were observed due to the structural and compositional similarities of these materials.

  3. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean.

  4. Calf venous volume during stand-test after a 90-day bed-rest study with or without exercise countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    de Chantemèle, Eric Belin; Pascaud, Ludovic; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Capri, Arnaud; Louisy, Francis; Ferretti, Guido; Gharib, Claude; Arbeille, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The objectives to determine both the contribution to orthostatic intolerance (OI) of calf venous volume during a stand-test, and the effects of a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure on both vein response to orthostatic test and OI, after 90-day head-down tilt bed-rest (HDT). The subjects consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n = 9) and an exercise countermeasure group (CM-gr, n = 9). Calf volume and vein cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by plethysmography and echography during pre- and post-HDT stand-tests. From supine to standing (post-HDT), the tibial and gastronemius vein CSA increased significantly in intolerant subjects (tibial vein, +122% from pre-HDT; gastronemius veins, +145%; P < 0.05) whereas it did not in tolerant subjects. Intolerant subjects tended to have a higher increase in calf filling volume than tolerant subjects, in both sitting and standing positions. The countermeasure did not reduce OI. Absolute calf volume decreased similarly in both groups. Tibial and gastrocnemius vein CSA at rest did not change during HDT in either group. During the post-HDT stand-test, the calf filling volume increased more in the CM-gr than in the Co-gr both in the sitting (+1.3 ± 5.1%, vs.–7.3 ± 4.3%; P < 0.05) and the standing positions (+56.1 ± 23.7%vs.+1.6 ± 9.6%; P < 0.05). The volume ejected by the muscle venous pump increased only in the CM-gr (+38.3 ± 21.8%). This study showed that intolerant subjects had a higher increase in vein CSA in the standing position and a tendency to present a higher calf filling volume in the sitting and standing positions. It also showed that a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure had no effects on either post-HDT OI or on the venous parameters related to it. PMID:15331681

  5. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  6. Results of a 90-day toxicity study on 1,2,3- and 1,1,2-trichloropropane administered via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, D C; Chu, I; Secours, V E; Coté, M G; Plaa, G L; Valli, V E

    1985-12-01

    Trichloropropanes have been identified as environmental contaminants in sediments of the Great Lakes region of North America. Since these chemicals had the potential to find their way into drinking water, a 90-day feeding study was carried out in order to determine their subchronic toxicity. Groups of 10 male and 10 female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied drinking water ad libitum, containing 1,2,3- or 1,1,2-trichloropropane at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L for 13 weeks. Emulphor (0.5%) was used to solubilize the chemicals. At the end of the study, the animals were killed and examined for gross and microscopic changes. Heart, liver, brain, kidney and spleen were excised and weighed. Blood was collected and subjected to a comprehensive hematological analysis. Serum was collected and profiled for changes in 12 biochemical parameters and a portion of liver was used to determined mixed function oxidase activity. Although three animals died during the study, their deaths could not be related to treatment. Decreased growth rate was observed in both sexes of the group receiving 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. There was an increase in liver, kidney and brain weights (relative to body weight) in rats of both sexes fed 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Fatty livers were observed in some of the treated animals but a clear dose-relationship was not evident. An elevation in serum cholesterol was observed in female rats fed the highest dose of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury.

  8. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Yanfang; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-07-01

    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have carried out a useful exploration to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by metabonomics methods. In this study, the rats were fed for 90 days with the GM and NON-GM rice diets. The changes in metabolites of the urine were detected using (1)H-NMR. The metabonomics were analyzed to see whether the GM rice can induce the metabolite changes in the rats' urine when compared with the NON-GM rice group. The multivariate analysis and ANOVA were used to determine the differences and the significance of differences respectively, and eventually we concluded that these differences did not have a biological significance. The conclusion of the metabonomics was comparable with that from the traditional method. As a non-invasive and dynamic monitoring method, metabonomics will be a new way of assessing the food safety of GM foods.

  9. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  10. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  11. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ju; Lee, Taek-Jin; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, EunHo; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Hong, Seung-Guk; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(+)) nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM20(+) NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with control in both 500 mg/kg groups. Total protein and albumin levels were decreased significantly in both sexes in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. Histopathological studies revealed acinar cell apoptosis in the pancreas, inflammation and edema in stomach mucosa, and retinal atrophy of the eye in the 500 mg/kg group. Conclusion There were significant parameter changes in terms of anemia in the hematological and blood chemical analyses in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. The significant toxic change was observed to be below 125 mg/kg, so the no-observed-adverse-effect level was not determined, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 125 mg/kg in both sexes and the target organs were found to be the pancreas, eye, and stomach. PMID:25565829

  12. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, 90-day Study of Emixustat HCL in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U.; Novack, Roger L.; Csaky, Karl G.; Richmond, Preston P.; Birch, David G.; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of emixustat hydrochloride (ACU-4429), a novel visual cycle modulator, in subjects with geographic atrophy (GA) associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to oral emixustat (2, 5, 7, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 90 days. Recovery of rod photoreceptor sensitivity following a photobleach was measured by electroretinography. Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and ophthalmic examinations. Results Seventy-two subjects (54 emixustat, 18 placebo) were evaluated. Emixustat suppressed rod photoreceptor sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression plateaued by Day 14, and was reversible within 7-14 days after drug cessation. No systemic AEs of concern were noted. Dose-related ocular AEs (chromatopsia, 57% emixustat vs. 17% placebo; and delayed dark adaptation, 48% emixustat vs. 6% placebo) were mild to moderate, and the majority resolved on study or within 7-14 days after study drug cessation. Conclusions In this phase II study, emixustat produced a dose-dependent, reversible effect on rod function, and an ocular AE profile that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. These results support further testing of emixustat for the treatment of GA associated with dry AMD. PMID:25932553

  13. Muscle atrophy and bone loss after 90 days' bed rest and the effects of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate: results from the LTBR study.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Frost, Harold M; Schiessl, Hans; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Alkner, Björn; Tesch, Per; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2005-06-01

    Muscle atrophy and bone loss pose substantial problems for long-term space flight and in clinical immobilization. We therefore tested the efficacy of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate to counteract such losses. Twenty five young healthy males underwent strict bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt for 90 days. Subjects were randomized into an exercise group that practiced resistive exercise with a 'flywheel' (FW) device every 2-3 days, a pamidronate group (Pam) that received 60 mg pamidronate i.v. 14 days prior to bed rest and a control group (Ctrl) that received none of these countermeasures. During the study, Ca(++) and protein intake were controlled. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) of calf and forearm. Measurements were taken twice during baseline data collection, after 28 and after 89 days bed rest, and after 14 days recovery. On the same days, urinary Pyridinoline excretion and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, Ca(++) and PTH were measured. Pre-study exercise habits were assessed through the Freiburg questionnaire. Losses in calf mCSA were significantly reduced in FW (Ctrl: -25.6% +/- 2.5% Pam: -25.6% +/- 3.7%, FW: -17.3% +/- 2.7%), but not in the forearm mCSA (Ctrl: -6.4% +/- 4.33%, Pam: -7.7% +/- 4.1%, FW: -7.6% +/- 3.3%). Both diaphyseal and epiphyseal BMC losses of the tibia were mitigated in Pam and FW as compared to Ctrl, although this was significant only at the diaphysis. Inter-individual variability was significantly greater for changes in BMC than in mCSA, and correlation of BMC losses was poor among different locations of the tibia. A significant positive correlation was found between change in tibia epiphyseal BMC and serum cortisol levels. These findings suggest that both countermeasures are only partly effective to preserve BMC (FW and Pam) and mCSA (FW) of the lower leg during bed rest. The partial efficacy of flywheel exercise

  14. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations).

    PubMed

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Radovsky, Ann; Shinohara, Motoki

    2009-06-01

    Possible toxic effects of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were evaluated when administered orally by gavage to rats at levels up to 200mg/kg/day for 90 days. Lower body weight gains were noted in the 10, 50 and 200mg/kg/day group males (not dose-responsive) throughout dosing. Other changes included lower red blood cell parameters, higher reticulocyte counts and lower globulin in the 200mg/kg/day group males and females, higher liver enzymes in males at 50 and 200mg/kg/day, lower total protein and higher albumin/globulin ratio, and lower cholesterol, calcium in males at 200mg/kg/day. Minimal centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was present in 200mg/kg/day group males and correlated with higher liver weights and slightly higher peroxisome beta oxidation activity at the end of the dosing period. Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females.

  15. Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863).

    PubMed

    Doull, J; Gaylor, D; Greim, H A; Lovell, D P; Lynch, B; Munro, I C

    2007-11-01

    MON 863, a genetically engineered corn variety that contains the gene for modified Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein to protect against corn rootworm, was tested in a 90-day toxicity study as part of the process to gain regulatory approval. This study was reanalyzed by Séralini et al. who contended that the study showed possible hepatorenal effects of MON 863. An Expert Panel was convened to assess the original study results as analyzed by the Monsanto Company and the reanalysis conducted by Séralini et al. The Expert Panel concludes that the Séralini et al. reanalysis provided no evidence to indicate that MON 863 was associated with adverse effects in the 90-day rat study. In each case, statistical findings reported by both Monsanto and Séralini et al. were considered to be unrelated to treatment or of no biological or clinical importance because they failed to demonstrate a dose-response relationship, reproducibility over time, association with other relevant changes (e.g., histopathology), occurrence in both sexes, difference outside the normal range of variation, or biological plausibility with respect to cause-and-effect. The Séralini et al. reanalysis does not advance any new scientific data to indicate that MON 863 caused adverse effects in the 90-day rat study.

  16. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  17. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  18. Safety evaluation of AB-LIFE(®) (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529): Antibiotic resistance and 90-day repeated-dose study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Stahl, Buffy; Smith, Amy B; Burns, Frank; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Yeung, Nicolas; Lyra, Anna; Svärd, Laura; Saarinen, Markku T; Alhoniemi, Esa; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-06-01

    AB-LIFE(®) is a probiotic product consisting of equal parts of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, 7528, and 7529) blended with inert excipients. Whole genome sequencing was performed on each of the three strains. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by genomic mining for resistance genes, and assessment for transferability. No risk of transfer potential was identified for any antibiotic resistance genes in the three strains. AB-LIFE(®) was evaluated for potential subchronic oral toxicity in rats, with dosages of 300 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day (equivalent to 5.55 × 10(10) and 1.85 × 10(11) CFU/kg BW/day). Survival of the three test strains through the gastrointestinal tract was supported by fecal analysis. No adverse effects were identified with respect to in-life parameters, clinical or anatomic pathology, translocation, or fecal chemical analyses. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AB-LIFE(®) in male and female rats was 1000 mg/kg BW/day (1.85 × 10(11) CFU of AB-LIFE(®)/kg BW/day), the highest dose level evaluated. These results, in conjunction with a previous acute toxicity study in rats, support the conclusion that AB-LIFE(®) is safe for human consumption.

  19. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork.

  20. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F.

  1. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 4: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ee Tsin; Kogel, Ulrike; Veljkovic, Emilija; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Gregory; Leroy, Patrice; Guedj, Emmanuel; Rodrigo, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The objective of the study was to characterize the toxicity from sub-chronic inhalation of test atmospheres from the candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), Tobacco Heating System version 2.2 (THS2.2), and to compare it with that of the 3R4F reference cigarette. A 90-day nose-only inhalation study on Sprague-Dawley rats was performed, combining classical and systems toxicology approaches. Reduction in respiratory minute volume, degree of lung inflammation, and histopathological findings in the respiratory tract organs were significantly less pronounced in THS2.2-exposed groups compared with 3R4F-exposed groups. Transcriptomics data obtained from nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma showed concentration-dependent differential gene expression following 3R4F exposure that was less pronounced in the THS2.2-exposed groups. Molecular network analysis showed that inflammatory processes were the most affected by 3R4F, while the extent of THS2.2 impact was much lower. Most other toxicological endpoints evaluated did not show exposure-related effects. Where findings were observed, the effects were similar in 3R4F- and THS2.2-exposed animals. In summary, toxicological changes observed in the respiratory tract organs of THS2.2 aerosol-exposed rats were much less pronounced than in 3R4F-exposed rats while other toxicological endpoints either showed no exposure-related effects or were comparable to what was observed in the 3R4F-exposed rats.

  2. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  3. Baroreflex Sensitivity Decreases During 90-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Arzeno, N. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases during spaceflight and simulated spaceflight (head down bed rest [BR]). However, previous studies have only examined BRS in response to a limited blood pressure (BP) range or to a single sudden change in BP. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine BRS during 90 days of 6deg head-down tilt BR over a broad range of BP perturbations. METHODS: Nineteen normal volunteers (12M, 7F) were tested one day before BR, and then near BR days 30, 60 and 90. BP was pharmacologically altered by continuous infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Electrocardiogram and continuous BP were collected during 10 min of normal saline (NS), followed by increasing concentrations of PE (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 micro-g/kg/min). After a 20 min break, NS was infused again for 10 min, followed by increasing concentrations of SNP (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 micro-g/kg/min). Baroreceptor sensitivity was measured as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) and mean RR were analyzed using data from only the NS infusions. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of BR and gender. RESULTS: RR decreased (p<0.001) from pre- BR across BR days. High frequency in normalized units, a measure of parasympathetic activity, decreased with BR (p=0.027) and was lower (p=0.046) in men (0.39+/-0.02, mean+/-SEM) than women (0.48+/-0.02). The spontaneous baroreflex slope, our measure of BRS, increased with PE and decreased with SNP across BR (p<0.001). The percentage decrease in BRS from pre- to post-BR appeared to be larger in women (43.6+/-7.0%) than in men (31.3+/-3.9%, p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decrease during 90 days of BR, and BRS tends to diminish more in women than in men.

  4. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine

    PubMed Central

    Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A.; Endres, John R.; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals. PMID:27635133

  5. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Amy; Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A; Endres, John R; Murbach, Timothy S; Marx, Tennille; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals.

  6. A 90-Day Tenofovir Reservoir Intravaginal Ring for Mucosal HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd J.; Clark, Meredith R.; Albright, Theodore H.; Nebeker, Joel S.; Tuitupou, Anthony L.; Clark, Justin T.; Fabian, Judit; McCabe, R. Tyler; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir (TFV) recently demonstrated 39% protection against HIV infection in women. We designed and evaluated a novel reservoir TFV intravaginal ring (IVR) to potentially improve product effectiveness by providing a more controlled and sustained vaginal dose to maintain cervicovaginal concentrations. Polyurethane tubing of various hydrophilicities was filled with a high-density TFV/glycerol/water semisolid paste and then end-sealed to create IVRs. In vitro, TFV release increased with polyurethane hydrophilicity, with 35 weight percent water-swelling polyurethane IVRs achieving an approximately 10-mg/day release for 90 days with mechanical stiffness similar to that of the commercially available NuvaRing. This design was evaluated in two 90-day in vivo sheep studies for TFV pharmacokinetics and safety. Overall, TFV vaginal tissue, vaginal fluid, and plasma levels were relatively time independent over the 90-day duration at approximately 104 ng/g, 106 ng/g, and 101 ng/ml, respectively, near or exceeding the highest observed concentrations in a TFV 1% gel control group. TFV vaginal fluid concentrations were approximately 1,000-fold greater than levels shown to provide significant protection in women using the TFV 1% gel. There were no toxicological findings following placebo and TFV IVR treatment for 28 or 90 days, although slight to moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates in the vaginal epithelia were observed in these animals compared to naïve animals. In summary, the controlled release of TFV from this reservoir IVR provided elevated sheep vaginal concentrations for 90 days to merit its further evaluation as an HIV prophylactic. PMID:23006751

  7. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  8. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  9. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  10. 29 CFR 2590.715-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. 2590... PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.715-2708 Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General... not apply any waiting period that exceeds 90 days, in accordance with the rules of this section....

  11. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  12. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  13. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  14. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  15. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  16. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  17. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  18. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  19. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  20. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  1. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2). Part 5: microRNA expression from a 90-day rat inhalation study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol causes reduced effects on lung tissue compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Sewer, Alain; Kogel, Ulrike; Talikka, Marja; Wong, Ee Tsin; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Guedj, Emmanuel; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-11-30

    Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are designed to reduce the individual risk of tobacco-related disease as well as population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. Experimental proof of their benefit needs to be provided at multiple levels in research fields. Here, we examined microRNA (miRNA) levels in the lungs of rats exposed to a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) in a 90-day OECD TG-413 inhalation study. Our aim was to assess the miRNA response to THS2.2 aerosol compared with the response to combustible cigarettes (CC) smoke from the reference cigarette 3R4F. CC smoke exposure, but not THS2.2 aerosol exposure, caused global miRNA downregulation, which may be explained by the interference of CC smoke constituents with the miRNA processing machinery. Upregulation of specific miRNA species, such as miR-146a/b and miR-182, indicated that they are causal elements in the inflammatory response in CC-exposed lungs, but they were reduced after THS2.2 aerosol exposure. Transforming transcriptomic data into protein activity based on corresponding downstream gene expression, we identified potential mechanisms for miR-146a/b and miR-182 that were activated by CC smoke but not by THS2.2 aerosol and possibly involved in the regulation of those miRNAs. The inclusion of miRNA profiling in systems toxicology approaches increases the mechanistic understanding of the complex exposure responses.

  2. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  3. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  4. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  5. 90-day postoperative mortality is a legitimate measure of hepatopancreatobiliary surgical quality

    PubMed Central

    Mise, Yoshihiro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Parker, Nathan H.; Conrad, Claudius; Aloia, Thomas A.; Lee, Jeffery E.; Fleming, Jason B.; Katz, Matthew H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the legitimacy of 90-day mortality as a measure of hepatopancreatobiliary quality. Summary Background Data The 90-day mortality rate has been increasingly but not universally reported after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. The legitimacy of this definition as a measure of surgical quality has not been evaluated. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the causes of all deaths that occurred within 365 postoperative days in patients undergoing hepatectomy (n = 2811) and/or pancreatectomy (n = 1092) from January 1997 through December 2012. The rates of surgery-related, disease-related, and overall mortality within 30 days, within 30 days or during the index hospitalization, within 90 days, and within 180 days following surgery were calculated. Results Seventy-nine (3%) surgery-related deaths and 92 (3%) disease-related deaths occurred within 365 days after hepatectomy. Twenty (2%) surgery-related deaths and 112 (10%) disease-related deaths occurred within 365 days after pancreatectomy. The overall mortality rates at 99 day and 118 days optimally reflected surgery-related mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, respectively. The 90-day overall mortality rate was a less sensitive but equivalently specific measure of surgery-related death. Conclusions and Relevance The 99-day and 118-day definitions of postoperative mortality optimally reflected surgery-related mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, respectively. However, among commonly reported metrics, the 90-day overall mortality rate represents a legitimate measure of surgical quality. PMID:25590497

  6. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  7. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Schmidt, Robert E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2004-05-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation studies and mouse lymphoma tests have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no detailed long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other HCA extract has been previously assessed. We evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry over a period of 90 days. Furthermore, a 90-day histopathological evaluation was conducted. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX of feed intake and were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The body weight and selected organ weights were assessed and correlated as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment. A significant reduction in body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats, while no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation was observed as compared to the control

  8. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality and any other general or specific toxic effects... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9310 TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. (a) Scope. This... no-observed-effects level (NOEL) and toxic effects associated with continuous or repeated exposure...

  9. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality and any other general or specific toxic effects... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9310 TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. (a) Scope. This... no-observed-effects level (NOEL) and toxic effects associated with continuous or repeated exposure...

  10. 26 CFR 54.9815-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. 54.9815-2708 Section 54.9815-2708 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General rule. A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, must not apply any waiting period that exceeds 90...

  11. Implications of the 90-day episode definition used for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model

    PubMed Central

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Ryan, Andrew M.; Hou, Hechuan; Dupree, James M.; Hallstrom, Brian; Miller, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Under the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, hospitals are held accountable for nearly all Medicare payments that occur during the initial hospitalization through 90-days post-discharge (i.e., episode of care). It is unknown whether unrelated expenditures resulting from this “broad” episode definition will impact participating hospital’s average 90-day episode payments. Objective To compare the CJR program’s broad episode definition to a clinically-narrow episode definition Design We identified Medicare claims for patients in Michigan who underwent joint replacement from 2011 through 2013. Using specifications from the CJR model and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare payment measure, we constructed episodes of care and calculated 90-day episode payments. We then compared hospitals’ average 90-day episode payments using the two episode definitions and fit linear regression models to understand whether payment differences were associated with specific hospital characteristics (average CMS-HCC risk score, rural hospital status, joint replacement volume, percentage of Medicaid discharges, teaching hospital status, number of beds, percentage of joint replacements performed on African American patients and median income of the hospital’s county). Setting All Michigan hospitals located in metropolitan statistical areas Participants Medicare beneficiaries Main Outcome and Measure(s) The correlation and difference between average 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR model episode definition and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare episode definition. Results We identified 23,251 joint replacement episodes. 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR episode definition ranged from $17,349 to $29,465 (mean: $22,122, standard deviation: $2,600). Episode payments were slightly lower (mean: $21,670) when the Hospital Compare episode definition was used. Both methods were strongly correlated (r=0.99, p<0.001). The average

  12. Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2003-12-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body

  13. Prognostic Abilities and Quality Assessment of Models for the Prediction of 90-Day Mortality in Liver Transplant Waiting List Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barthold, Marc; Kaltenborn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-score and diverse variants are widely used for prognosis on liver transplant waiting-lists. Methods 818 consecutive patients on the liver transplant waiting-list included to calculate the MELD, MESO Index, MELD-Na, UKELD, iMELD, refitMELD, refitMELD-Na, upMELD and PELD-scores. Prognostic abilities for 90-day mortality were investigated applying Receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Independent risk factors for 90-day mortality were identified with multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. Methodological quality of the underlying development studies was assessed with a systematic assessment tool. Results 74 patients (9%) died on the liver transplant waiting list within 90 days after listing. All but one scores, refitMELD-Na, had acceptable prognostic performance with areas under the ROC-curves (AUROCs)>0.700. The iMELD performed best (AUROC = 0.798). In pediatric cases, the PELD-score just failed to reach the acceptable threshold with an AUROC = 0.699. All scores reached a mean quality score of 72.3%. Highest quality scores could be achieved by the UKELD and PELD-scores. Studies specifically lack statistical validity and model evaluation. Conclusions Inferior quality assessment of prognostic models does not necessarily imply inferior prognostic abilities. The iMELD might be a more reliable tool representing urgency of transplantation than the MELD-score. PELD-score is assumedly not accurate enough to allow graft allocation decision in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:28129338

  14. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  15. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet.

  16. Vancomycin MIC Does Not Predict 90-Day Mortality, Readmission, or Recurrence in a Prospective Cohort of Adults with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Clemenzi-Allen, Angelo; Gahbauer, Alice; Deck, Daniel; Imp, Brandon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Chambers, Henry F.; Doernberg, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a tremendous health burden. Previous studies examining the association of vancomycin MIC and outcomes in patients with SAB have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the association between vancomycin MICs and 30- or 90-day mortality in individuals with SAB. This was a prospective cohort study of adults presenting from 2008 to 2013 with a first episode of SAB. Subjects were identified by an infection surveillance system. The main predictor was vancomycin MIC by MicroScan. The primary outcomes were death at 30 and 90 days, and secondary outcomes included recurrence, readmission, or a composite of death, recurrence, and readmission at 30 and 90 days. Covariates included methicillin susceptibility, demographics, illness severity, comorbidities, infectious source, and antibiotic use. Cox proportional-hazards models with propensity score adjustment were used to estimate 30- and 90-day outcomes. Of 429 unique first episodes of SAB, 11 were excluded, leaving 418 individuals for analysis. Eighty-three (19.9%) participants had a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml. In the propensity-adjusted Cox model, a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml compared to <2 μg/ml was not associated with a greater hazard of mortality or composite outcome of mortality, readmission, and recurrence at either 30 days (hazard ratios [HRs] of 0.86 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.41, 1.80] [P = 0.70] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.55, 1.58] [P = 0.80], respectively) or 90 days (HRs of 0.91 [95% CI, 0.49, 1.69] [P = 0.77] and 0.69 [95% CI, 0.46, 1.04] [P = 0.08], respectively) after SAB diagnosis. In a prospective cohort of patients with SAB, vancomycin MIC was not associated with 30- or 90-day mortality or a composite of mortality, disease recurrence, or hospital readmission. PMID:27324762

  17. The development and succession of microbial communities in 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Bojie; Su, Qiang; Xie, Beizhen; Qin, Youcai; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for permanent astrobase life-support artificial closed ecosystem, is an artificial ecosystem which consists of plant cultivation, animal breeding and waste treatment units. It has been used to carry out a 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three crew members. Apparently, it’s hard to prevent the growth of microorganisms in such closed ecosystem for their strong adaptive capacity. Original microorganisms in the cabin, microbes in the course of loads delivery and the autologous microorganism by crew members and animals themselves are all the main source of the interior microorganisms, which may grow and regenerate in air, water and plants. Therefore, if these microorganisms could not be effectively monitored and controlled, it may cause microbial contamination and even lead to the unsteadiness of the whole closed ecosystem. In this study, the development and succession of the microbial communities of air, water system, plant system, and key facilities surfaces in Lunar Palace 1 were continuously monitored and analyzed by using plate counting method and molecular biological method during the 90-day experiment. The results were quite useful for the controlling of internal microorganisms and the safe operation of the whole system, and could also reveal the succession rules of microorganisms in an artificial closed ecosystem.

  18. 77 FR 45571 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in Hawaii and Notice of Status Review AGENCY...: We, NMFS, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to identify the Hawaiian population of the green... Species Act (ESA). The green turtle was listed under the ESA on July 28, 1978. Breeding populations of...

  19. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  20. 76 FR 61825 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk Species as... CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29... term ``species'' to include ``any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct...

  1. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  2. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  3. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  4. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    O(3) and MSS coexposure appeared to be more than additive. Results for the TiO(2) and quartz controls were consistent with the known pulmonary toxicity of these compounds. The overall severity of lung injury was TiO(2) < LSS < MSS < O(3) + MSS < quartz. Except for TiO(2), the increased duration of dust presence in the lung from 7 to 90 days transformed the acute inflammatory response to a chronic inflammatory lesion. This study showed that LSS and MSS are more hazardous in the lungs than nuisance dusts.

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-09-01

    O(3) and MSS coexposure appeared to be more than additive. Results for the TiO(2) and quartz controls were consistent with the known pulmonary toxicity of these compounds. The overall severity of lung injury was TiO(2) < LSS < MSS < O(3) + MSS < quartz. Except for TiO(2), the increased duration of dust presence in the lung from 7 to 90 days transformed the acute inflammatory response to a chronic inflammatory lesion. This study showed that LSS and MSS are more hazardous in the lungs than nuisance dusts.

  6. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed. PMID:28257483

  7. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed.

  8. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding.

  9. Effects of furan on male rat reproduction parameters in a 90-day gavage study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M; Taylor, Marnie; Bourque, Christine; Curran, Ivan; Gurofsky, Susan; Gill, Santokh

    2014-07-01

    Furan is produced in foods during processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Previously, we reported that furan-exposed rats exhibited dose-dependent gross and histological changes in liver which correlated with changes in liver serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. Here we report the effects of furan on the male reproductive system. There were no histological or weight changes in the reproductive organs. Serum testosterone levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner whereas serum LH was decreased. There were no changes in 17-OHase, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities or serum FSH. Furan did not alter mRNA expression levels for the LH receptor or Tspo but in contrast, mRNA levels of StAR were increased in all doses of furan. The mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1) was increased by furan at the high dose, as was the level of intratesticular testosterone. We conclude that subchronic furan exposure affects testicular steroidogenesis.

  10. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  11. Anatomical sector analysis of load-bearing tibial bone structure during 90-day bed rest and 1-year recovery.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Tomas; Rittweger, Jörn; Hyttinen, Jari; Felsenberg, Dieter; Sievänen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the bone response to long bed rest-related immobility and during subsequent recovery differed at anatomically different sectors of tibial epiphysis and diaphysis. For this study, peripheral quantitative tomographic (pQCT) scans obtained from a previous 90-day 'Long Term Bed Rest' intervention were preprocessed with a new method based on statistical approach and re-analysed sector-wise. The pQCT was performed on 25 young healthy males twice before the bed rest, after the bed rest and after 1-year follow-up. All men underwent a strict bed rest intervention, and in addition, seven of them received pamidronate treatment and nine did flywheel exercises as countermeasures against disuse-related bone loss. Clearly, 3-9% sector-specific losses in trabecular density were observed at the tibial epiphysis on average. Similarly, cortical density decreased in a sector-specific way being the largest at the anterior sector of tibial diaphysis. During recovery, the bed rest-induced bone losses were practically restored and no consistent sector-specific modulation was observed in any subgroup. It is concluded that the sector-specific analysis of bone cross-sections has potential to reveal skeletal responses to various interventions that cannot be inferred from the average analysis of the whole bone cross-section. This approach is considered also useful for evaluating the bone responses from the biomechanical point of view.

  12. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF THE SEALING ABILITY OF TWO ENDODONTIC SEALERS IN ROOT CANALS EXPOSED TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT FOR 45 AND 90 DAYS

    PubMed Central

    Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Vanni, José Roberto; Della Bona, Álvaro; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Porto, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill) in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12). After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm) was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification). The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05). Group E90 (2.03±0.94) showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (p<0.001). None of the sealers, in both study conditions, were able to prevent dye leakage. PMID:19089029

  13. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  14. 76 FR 54423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan... listing all chimpanzees as endangered may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice,...

  15. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal...

  16. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2012-0072: 4500030113] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... species to, or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... had had portions of their genome deliberately spliced with genes from another species...

  17. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... 20, 2010, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), Alabama Rivers Alliance, Clinch Coalition... shad may be warranted. On April 28, 2011, in response to the negative 90-day finding, CBD filed a notice of intent to sue DOC and NMFS for alleged violations of the ESA in making its finding. CBD...

  18. 75 FR 41436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical Habitat for the Endangered Leatherback Sea Turtle... endangered leatherback sea turtle under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition does not... leatherback sea turtles and their habitat under our jurisdiction. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  19. 78 FR 41716 - Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver From the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... beginning of this notice. Long-Range Weather Forecasts The FMCSA reviewed information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA). The NOAA posts long-range... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver...

  20. 78 FR 66675 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Multiple Species of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction... extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to list a species.... Next, we evaluate whether the information indicates that the species at issue faces extinction...

  1. 76 FR 7820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Texas Pipefish as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a... suggests an extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to... extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly discussing...

  2. 76 FR 67401 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... 54423) a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under...

  3. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...We (NMFS) announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list 19 species and 3 subpopulations of sharks as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted for 9 species: Centrophorus harrissoni, Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus, Mustelus fasciatus,......

  4. 76 FR 55638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Snowy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Kansas; the southern Texas coast into northeast Mexico; and the central Mexican plateau) (AOU 1957, pp... of plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife...

  5. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... the 1973 Act, published in May 1974 (USDI 1974). A third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l... ``any species or subspecies of fish and wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate...

  6. 75 FR 46894 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies With Critical Habitat AGENCY... finding on two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as...

  7. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  8. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list either the Eastern population or the Southern Rocky Mountain (SRM) population of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) as a distinct population segment (DPS) that is endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on......

  9. Percutaneous reduction of mitral valve regurgitation using the MitraClip system - immediate and 90-day follow-up of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Piotr; Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, Dorota; Telichowski, Artur; Witkowski, Tomasz; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of hemodynamically significant valvular heart diseases has been the domain of cardiac surgery for decades. However, a promising novel method is the MitraClip system, involving percutaneous connection of insufficient valve leaflets with special cobalt-chrome clips. Our study presents clinical characteristics, course of treatment with the MitraClip system, and immediate and 90-day clinical and echocardiographic follow-up of the first 3 patients treated in our institution. Subsequently, based on data from the literature and our own experience, the current position around the world, and the target group of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment using the MitraClip system, are discussed.

  10. MELD-Na as a prognostic indicator of 30- and 90-day mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease after creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation.

  11. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  12. Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes in the Lungs of Mice 7 and 90 Days After Intratracheal Instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have many potential applications in the electronic, computer, and aerospace industries. Because unprocessed nanotubes could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods, and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were each intratracheally instilled once with 0,0.1 or 0.5 mg of nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control, and killed for histopathological study 7 d or 90 d after the treatment. All nanotube products induced epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7 -d groups. These lesions persisted and were worse in the 90-d groups. We found that, if nanotubes reach the lung, they can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  13. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  14. Cerebral Cortex Plasticity After 90 Days of Bed Rest: Data from TMS and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Donna R.; Ramsey, David; Johnson, Kevin; Kola, Jejo; Ricci, Raffaella; Hicks, Christian; Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Epstein, Charles; George, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Microgravity animal models have demonstrated corticospinal plasticity; however, little is understood of its functional significance. In this pilot study, we explored corticospinal plasticity in a bed rest model. We hypothesized that the lack of weight bearing would induce cortical reorganization correlating with performance. Methods Four subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and functional mobility testing (FMT) before and after 90 d of bed rest. Recruitment curves (RC) were created by measuring motor evoked potentials over a range of TMS intensities with changes in the slope of the RC reflecting changes in corticospinal excitability. Results Significant leg RC slope decreases were observed on post-bed rest day 1 (P1) (t(2805) = −4.14, P < 0.0001), P2 (t(2805) = −6.59, P < 0.0001), P3 (t(2805) = −6.15, P < 0.0001), P5 (t(2805) = −7.93, P < 0.0001), P8 (t(2805) = −3.30, P = 0.001), and P12 (t(2805)= −3.33, P = 0.0009), suggesting a group decrease in corticospinal excitability in the immediate post-bed rest period with recovery approaching baseline over the following 2 wk. Significant effects were observed for hand RC slopes only for P2 (t(2916) = 1.97, P = 0.049), P3 (t(2916) = −2.12, P = 0.034), and P12 (t(2916) = −2.19, P = 0.029); no significant effects were observed for days P0 (t(2916) = −1.32, ns), P1 (t(2916) = 1.00, ns), P5 (t(2916) = −0.21, ns), or P8 (t(2916) = −0.27, ns). fMRI showed no change in activation for the hand but an increase in activation post-bed rest for the leg. On an individual basis, a more heterogeneous response was found which showed a potential association with performance on FMT. Discussion Results of this research include a better understanding of the cortical plasticity associated with leg disuse and may lead to applications in patient and astronaut rehabilitation. PMID:20058735

  15. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S.; Skinner, Eila C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant. PMID:28149935

  16. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S; Skinner, Eila C

    2017-01-27

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant.

  17. Evolution of a 90-day model of care for bundled episodic payments for congestive heart failure in home care.

    PubMed

    Feld, April; Madden-Baer, Rose; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center's Episode-Based Payment initiatives propose a large opportunity to reduce cost from waste and variation and stand to align hospitals, physicians, and postacute providers in the redesign of care that achieves savings and improve quality. Community-based organizations are at the forefront of this care redesign through innovative models of care aimed at bridging gaps in care coordination and reducing hospital readmissions. This article describes a community-based provider's approach to participation under the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative and a 90-day model of care for congestive heart failure in home care.

  18. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  19. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  20. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Au, Tu C; MacPhail, Robert; Hardas, Sarita S; Butterfield, D Allan; Sultana, Rukhsana; Goodman, Michael; Tseng, Michael T; Dan, Mo; Haghnazar, Hamed; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Nanoceria is used as a catalyst in diesel fuel, as an abrasive in printed circuit manufacture, and is being pursued as an antioxidant therapeutic. Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria administration. An ~5% aqueous dispersion of citrate-stabilized 30 nm ceria, synthesized and characterized in-house, or vehicle, was iv infused into rats terminated 1, 7, 30, or 90 days later. Cageside observations were obtained daily, body weight weekly. Daily urinary and fecal cerium outputs were quantified for 2 weeks. Nine organs were weighed and samples collected from 14 tissues/organs/systems, blood and cerebrospinal fluid for cerium determination. Histology and oxidative stress were assessed. Less than 1% of the nanoceria was excreted in the first 2 weeks, 98% in feces. Body weight gain was initially impaired. Spleen weight was significantly increased in some ceria-treated groups, associated with abnormalities. Ceria was primarily retained in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. There was little decrease of ceria in any tissue over the 90 days. Granulomas were observed in the liver. Time-dependent oxidative stress changes were seen in the liver and spleen. Nanoscale ceria was persistently retained by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, associated with adverse changes. The results support concern about the long-term fate and adverse effects of inert nanoscale metal oxides that distribute throughout the body, are persistently retained, and produce adverse changes.

  1. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or ‘minor’ stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Background Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ‘minor’ stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. Aim To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. Design and setting The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Method Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. Results A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. Conclusion There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. PMID:27919935

  2. Vertical jump performance after 90 days bed rest with and without flywheel resistive exercise, including a 180 days follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Maganaris, Constantinos; Ferretti, José Luis

    2007-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and neuromuscular de-conditioning occur in response to space flight and bed-rest. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of flywheel training to conserve jumping power and height during 90 days bed rest. Twenty-four young healthy men underwent strict bed-rest (-6 degrees head down tilt) for 90 days. Eight participants were assigned to a flywheel group (FW) and 16 to a control group (Ctrl). The ground reaction force was measured during vertical jump tests twice during baseline data collection, and on day 4, 7, 14, 90 and 180 of recovery. In half of the participants, jump tests were also performed within minutes after re-ambulation and on four more occasions during the first 2 days of recovery. Jump height was reduced from 40.6 cm (SD 6.1 cm) during the first baseline measurement to 27.6 cm (SD 5.6 cm) on day 4 of recovery in Ctrl, but only from 38.6 cm (SD 3.9 cm) to 34.4 cm (SD 6.5 cm) in FW (P < 0.001). At the same time, peak power was reduced from 47.4 W/kg (SD 8.0 W/kg) to 34.5 W/kg in Ctrl, but only from 46.2 W/kg (6.0 W/kg) to 42.2 W/kg SD 4.6 W/kg) in FW (P < 0.001). Jump height and peak power were completely recovered after 163 and 140 days in Ctrl, respectively, and after 72 and 18 days in FW (regression analysis). In conclusion, flywheel exercise could effectively offset neuromuscular de-conditioning during bed-rest, and led to full recovery at an earlier stage. These findings nourish the hope that adequate training paradigms can fully sustain neuromuscular function under microgravity conditions.

  3. 76 FR 12308 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species: 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Six Species of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... NOAA-U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) (jointly, ``the Services'') policy clarifies the agencies... subsist chiefly on small schooling fishes, such as mullets and clupeids. They also reported that they feed... the literature on observations of sawfish feeding behavior, noted that they attack fish by...

  4. Recent Studies on Feeding Problems in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Vaz, Petula C. M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews recent studies on behavioral interventions for children with autism and feeding problems. The applicability of interventions that have been tested with other populations of children with feeding problems is discussed, as well as directions for future research.

  5. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  6. 76 FR 20613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ..., range, and population trends, including: (a) Habitat requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering...) Historical and current population levels, and current and projected trends; and (e) Past and ongoing.... The trend for Spring Mountains acastus checkerspot butterfly was described as ``Unknown.''...

  7. Study on mycoflora of poultry feed ingredients and finished feed in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ghaemmaghami, Seyed Soheil; Modirsaneii, Mehrdad; Khosravi, Ali Reza; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Unhygienic poultry feedstuffs can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effect on poultry production and public health. In the present study, mycobiota and colony-forming units per gram in ingredients and finish poultry feed was evaluated with special reference to potentially mycotoxigenic fungi. Materials and Methods: Eighty five samples of corn, soybean meal and poultry finished feed were collected from nine poultry feed factories located in three provinces i.e. Tehran, Alborz and Qom in Iran from October 2014 to January 2015. Samples were cultured on Sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA), Aspergillus flavus and parasiticus agar (AFPA) and dichloran rosebengal chloramphenicol agar (DRBC) and incubated at 28 °C for 7–10 days. Purified fungal colonies were identified by a combination of macro- and microscopic morphological criteria. For determining the rate of fungal contamination, samples were cultured on SDA and colony forming units (CFUs) were calculated. Results: A total of 384 fungal isolates belonging to 7 genera of filamentous fungi and yeasts were obtained from corn (124 isolates), soybean meal (92 isolates), and feed before (72 isolates), and after pelleting (96 isolates). The most prominent fungal isolate in corn, soybean meal and feed before pelleting (feed as mash form) was Fusarium but in feed after pelleting was Aspergillus. Among 5 Aspergillus species isolated, potentially aflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates was predominant in corn (46.6%), soybean meal (72.7%) and poultry finished feed (75%). CFUs results indicated that 9/22 corn samples (40.9%), none of 22 soybean meal samples, 19/41 finished feed (46.3%) were contaminated higher than the standard limit. Conclusions: Our results indicated that corn, soybean meal and finished feed of poultry feed mill are contaminated with various fungal genera by different levels sometimes higher that the standard limits. Contamination with potentially mycotoxigenic fungi especially Aspergillus

  8. Assessment of the reporting of quality and outcome measures in hepatic resections: a call for 90-day reporting in all hepatectomy series

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E; Ohlendorf, Joanna M; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the current state of quality and outcomes measures being reported for hepatic resections in the recent literature. Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for English language articles published between 1 January 2002 and 30 April 2013. Two examiners reviewed each article and relevant citations for appropriateness of inclusion, which excluded papers of liver donor hepatic resections, repeat hepatectomies or meta-analyses. Data were extracted and summarized by two examiners for analysis. Results Fifty-five studies were identified with suitable reporting to assess peri-operative mortality in hepatic resections. In only 35% (19/55) of the studies was the follow-up time explicitly stated, and in 47% (26/55) of studies peri-operative mortality was limited to in-hospital or 30 days. The time period in which complications were captured was not explicitly stated in 19 out of 28 studies. The remaining studies only captured complications within 30 days of the index operation (8/28). There was a paucity of quality literature addressing truly patient-centred outcomes. Conclusion Quality outcomes after a hepatic resection are inconsistently reported in the literature. Quality outcome studies for a hepatectomy should report mortality and morbidity at a minimum of 90 days after surgery. PMID:26228262

  9. 77 FR 33143 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ...; fax (303) 236-4005. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the Federal... white-tailed ptarmigan is a small bird in the order Galliformes, family Phasianidae, and the subfamily Tetraoninae, which includes the grouse, or ground-feeding game birds (Hoffman 2006, p. 11; NatureServe 2011,...

  10. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  11. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  12. 90-Day Nose-Only Inhalation Toxicity Study of Trifluoroiodomethane (CG3I) to Male and Female Fischer Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    or 8% CF3I, minimal to mild atrophy of the testes and degeneration of spermatogonia in male rats exposed to 4 or 8% CF3I, and a mild m increase in...parameters included erythrocyte (RBC), leukocyte (WBC), differential leukocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular... differentials were determined according to established procedures. Erythrocytes were enumerated on a Coulter counter (Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL

  13. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study.

  14. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  15. Subchronic lead feeding study in male rats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Duane M; Mielke, Howard W; Heneghan, James B

    2008-10-01

    This study was done to establish baseline information on the bioavailability of low levels of different species of lead by oral feeding in young rats and to compare this with lead-contaminated soils of similar dosage. These results can be used to help establish low-level risk assessments for lead exposure in children. Lead acetate was used in this study as a point of reference because it was considered to be 100% bioavailable. The required amounts of either lead acetate or lead nitrate were added to the control soil of 135 mg/kg lead to match the targeted test soil lead concentrations of 375, 750, 1500, and 3000 mg/kg lead. This lead-contaminated soil was mixed 5% (soil/diet) by weight with a semipurified lab chow diet, which resulted in final dietary lead concentrations of 6.75, 18.75, 37.5, 75, and 150 microg Pb/g diet. Results from this study indicated that (1) the dietary lead concentrations used did not result in any overt signs of lead toxicity (i.e., no significant effect on body weight gain, food consumption, or fecal output), (2) there were significant dose-dependent increases in fecal lead concentration and total fecal lead output, although there were no significant differences among study groups, (3) there was a time-dependent decrease in net whole-body lead uptake from a total group average of 65% at week 1 down to approximately 40% by week 5, and (4) there were no significant differences in terminal blood lead levels among study groups. Results from this study demonstrated a significant dose-dependent increase in tissue lead concentrations (mug Pb per g tissue weight) for bone, kidney, and liver for all study groups. There were no significant differences between the lead acetate and the test soil study groups at any lead dosages; however, there was a significantly increased lead incorporation into the bones from the lead nitrate study group. In summary, these results demonstrate that rats metabolize and handle lead of relatively small particle size

  16. A study of microstrip array antennas with the feed network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, Ely; Malamud, Gabi; Shtrikman, Shmuel; Treves, David

    1989-04-01

    The radiation and losses in microstrip antennas with a corporate feed network are studied. A surface current approach is applied in which the electrical currents in the feed lines are modeled as ideal transmission lines. The free-space radiation and the surface-wave excitation of typical segments in printed feed networks are studied. A four-element array antenna with its printed feed network is analyzed, and predicted radiation patterns, directivity, and gain are presented and compared with experimental results. The gain and directivity of large arrays of 16, 64, 256, and 1024 elements are calculated, and measurements in the frequency range of 10 to 35 GHz are reported.

  17. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  18. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  19. [Encouragement and protection of breast-feeding: conoscitive study].

    PubMed

    Di Labio, Luisa; Pane, Concettina; Cicolini, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The factors associated with exclusive breast-feeding in a Naples health district were studied in October 2008 in the period between the first and second vaccinations (neonates aged between 60 and 120 days) . Questions regarded both the mother and the child and the answers were collected in a database and compared with other methods of nutrition or mixed methods. Statistical analysis was performed using multivariate logistic regression. Results showed that only 38.5% of the mothers interviewed practiced breast-feeding alone while 20% did mixed feeding and 41.5% preferred artificial feeding. The variables negatively related to breast-feeding were: breast problems, older-aged mothers, Cesarean section, first experience of breast-feeding, lack of rooming-in and/or prenatal preparative courses. Positively associated variables were: higher level of education of the mother, higher level of information regarding the advantages of breast-feeding. The conclusions of this study confirm those of previous studies regarding the relationship between exclusive breast-feeding and biological and social factors.

  20. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  1. A subchronic feeding study of dicamba-tolerant soybean with the dmo gene in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyun; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiyin; Xu, Wentao; Jia, Xin; Zhao, Bo; Zhao, Changhui; Huang, Kunlun; Liang, Zhihong

    2016-06-01

    The dicamba-tolerant soybean MON87708 expresses the dicamba mono-oxygenase (DMO) enzyme that is encoded by the dmo gene. In order to evaluate the safety of this soybean, a 90-day subchronic feeding toxicity study (13 weeks) was conducted on Sprague-Dawley rats. A total of 140 rats were divided into 7 groups (10/sex/group), including a standard commercial diet control group. The genetically modified (GM) soybean MON87708 and the near isogenic non-GM soybean A3525 were respectively processed to unhulled, full-fat, and heat-treated powder, then mixed into the diet at levels of 7.5%, 15%, and 30% (wt/wt) with the main nutrients of the various diets balanced and then fed to 6 groups. The remaining group of rats fed with a commercial rat diet served as blank control. Some isolated parameters indicated statistically significant differences in body weight, feed consumption/utilization, hematology, serum biochemistry, and relative organ weights. These differences were not consistent across gender or test-diet dose, which were attributed to incidental and biological variability. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the transgenic soybean MON87708 containing DMO was as safe as non-transgenic isogenic counterpart with historical safe use.

  2. 78 FR 10601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 44 Species of Corals as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... cycle and include the order Anthoathecatae (hydrocorals). To date, 134 unique coral taxa have been found... role in the distribution of Alaska coral species, including nutrient flows and productivity, water... directly and indirectly affect cold water corals, yet no empirical studies to date have...

  3. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health.

  4. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  5. Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and several microns long, but they often pack tightly together to form rods or ropes of microscopic sizes. Carbon nanotubes possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and have many potential applications in the electronics, computer, and aerospace industries. Unprocessed nanotubes are very light and could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs. Because the toxicity of nanotubes in the lung is not known, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 0, 0.1, or 0.5 mg of carbon nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control and euthanized 7 d or 90 d after the single treatment for histopathological study of the lungs. All nanotube products induced dose-dependent epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7-d groups. These lesions persisted and were more pronounced in the 90-d groups; the lungs of some animals also revealed peribronchial inflammation and necrosis that had extended into the alveolar septa. The lungs of mice treated with carbon black were normal, whereas those treated with high-dose quartz revealed mild to moderate inflammation. These results show that, for the test conditions described here and on an equal-weight basis, if carbon nanotubes reach the lungs, they are much more toxic than carbon black and can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  6. Bioaccumulation and locomotor effects of manganese sulfate in Sprague-Dawley rats following subchronic (90 days) inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tapin, Danielle; Kennedy, Greg; Lambert, Jean; Zayed, Joseph . E-mail: joseph.zayed@umontreal.ca

    2006-03-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic compound that was introduced as an antiknock additive to replace lead in unleaded fuel. The combustion of MMT results in the emission of fine Mn particulates mainly in the form of manganese sulfate and manganese phosphate. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of subchronic exposure to Mn sulfate in different tissues, on locomotor activity, on neuropathology, and on blood serum biochemical parameters. A control group and three groups of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 6-h/day, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive weeks at 30, 300, or 3000 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Mn sulfate. Locomotor activity was measured during 36 h using an Auto-Track System. Blood and the following tissues were collected and analyzed for manganese content by neutron activation analysis: olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, caudate/putamen, cerebellum, frontal cortex, liver, lung, testis, and kidney. Neuronal cell counts were obtained for the caudate/putamen and the globus pallidus and clinical biochemistry was assessed. Manganese concentrations were increased in blood, kidney, lung, and testis and in all brain regions in the 3000 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group. Significant differences were also noted in the 300 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group. Neuronal cell counts for the globus pallidus were significantly different between the two highest exposed groups and the controls. Locomotor activity for all exposure concentrations and resting time for the middle and highest concentrations for the two night resting periods were significantly increased. Total ambulatory count was decreased significantly for all exposure concentrations. Biochemical profiles also presented significant differences. No body weight loss was observed between all groups. These results suggest that neurotoxicity could occur at low exposure levels of Mn sulfate, one of the main combustion products of MMT.

  7. STS-90 Day 09 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-90 mission, the sleep period of the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk, is interrupted due to problems with equipment that removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. Because of this, Columbia's crew went to bed about two hours later than scheduled.

  8. STS-90 Day 04 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue work with the Escher Staircase Behavior Testing of Adult Rats experiment. This is the first of two behavior testing sessions with the adult rats being used for this experiment. The rats will have a 'hyper drive' unit placed on their head which has recording electrodes made of microscopic wires that are positioned in the brain to record activity in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is that portion of the brain used to develop spatial maps to help us navigate from one place to the other. With the 'hyper drive' units in place, the rats will then be put through a maze or on a track. While the rat is maneuvering on the maze or track, the cell activity of the hippocampus will be measured and recorded.

  9. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  10. A chronometric approach to the study of feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, S

    1980-01-01

    In many mammalian genera, the stimulus to feed is intimately associated with circadian rhythms. This stimulus arises from within the brain from biological time-keeping systems. Such a chronometric approach to feeding behavior follows from a consideration of the terrestrial mammal's space-time pattern within the ecological niche. The ecological niche is a division of time as well as space. The restriction of certain behaviors to certain times of day and the concomitant evolution of nocturnality or diurnality represent strong advantages for survival in the wild. Experimental data, primarily from studies on the rat, in support of the chronometric approach, include: the reinstatement of cyclic feeding patterns after food deprivation; the continuation of circadian pattern of wheel running and nocturnal drinking during food deprivation; consideration of the ontogeny of the feeding pattern; the phenomenon of anticipatory appetite--the experimental demonstration that time of day can act as a conditioned stimulus for feeding; the evaluation of rhythms in digestion, absorption and assimilatory biochemical processes; the realization that many of these rhythms are not simply a consequence of the presence of food in the gut; the realization that the brain exerts considerable control over the peripheral rhythmic nutritional processes via ANS and endocrinological systems; and the fact that within the brain the SCN and structures well known to be involved in nutritional regulation, such as the VMH, LHA and monoamine systems, may all be involved in the circadian pattern of feeding. Further, the function of these neurological structures may be understood better by consideration of data from temporal changes in feeding patterns.

  11. Parametric Design Studies on a Direct Liquid Feed Fuel Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, H. A.; Narayanan, S. R.; Nakamura, B.; Surampudi, S.; Halpert, G.

    1995-01-01

    Parametric design studies were carried out on a direct methanol liquid feed fuel cell employing 1 M MeOH fuel, air and oxygen as oxidant in a 2 inch x 2 inch cell employing polymeric electrolyte membranes. Measurements include voltage-current output parameters, methanol crossover rate, and impedance as a function of several design and operational variables. Design variables are described.

  12. New analysis of a rat feeding study with a genetically modified maize reveals signs of hepatorenal toxicity.

    PubMed

    Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Cellier, Dominique; de Vendomois, Joël Spiroux

    2007-05-01

    Health risk assessment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) cultivated for food or feed is under debate throughout the world, and very little data have been published on mid- or long-term toxicological studies with mammals. One of these studies performed under the responsibility of Monsanto Company with a transgenic corn MON863 has been subjected to questions from regulatory reviewers in Europe, where it was finally approved in 2005. This necessitated a new assessment of kidney pathological findings, and the results remained controversial. An Appeal Court action in Germany (Münster) allowed public access in June 2005 to all the crude data from this 90-day rat-feeding study. We independently re-analyzed these data. Appropriate statistics were added, such as a multivariate analysis of the growth curves, and for biochemical parameters comparisons between GMO-treated rats and the controls fed with an equivalent normal diet, and separately with six reference diets with different compositions. We observed that after the consumption of MON863, rats showed slight but dose-related significant variations in growth for both sexes, resulting in 3.3% decrease in weight for males and 3.7% increase for females. Chemistry measurements reveal signs of hepatorenal toxicity, marked also by differential sensitivities in males and females. Triglycerides increased by 24-40% in females (either at week 14, dose 11% or at week 5, dose 33%, respectively); urine phosphorus and sodium excretions diminished in males by 31-35% (week 14, dose 33%) for the most important results significantly linked to the treatment in comparison to seven diets tested. Longer experiments are essential in order to indicate the real nature and extent of the possible pathology; with the present data it cannot be concluded that GM corn MON863 is a safe product.

  13. A functional variant in the 3ˈ-UTR of VEGF predicts the 90-day outcome of ischemic stroke in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Weng, Yingfeng; Wang, Yujie; Wu, Hui; Li, Xia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shengyue

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays critical roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, which are associated with post-stroke functional recovery. However, the effects of the VEGFA polymorphisms on the outcome of ischemic stroke (IS) have been rarely reported. We therefore investigated the associations of +936C/T variant (rs3025039) with the susceptibilities and the 90-day outcomes from 494 IS patients and 337 healthy controls in Chinese population through the establishment of logistic multivariate regression model. Stroke severity at admission and outcome of 90 days were respectively assessed according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. The analysis showed that there were no significant associations of the rs3025039 genotypes with the susceptibility (P = 0.229) and the severity (P = 0.734). However, when we divided the 308 IS patients into two groups according to the different outcomes, we found that the rs3025039 TC+TT genotype significantly increased the risk of poor recovery [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–3.37]. Interestingly, we observed another 3ˈUTR variant, +1451C/T (rs3025040), exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1.0) with +936C/T and was located in a predicted microRNA-binding site. The rs3025040 T allele significantly decreased the luciferase activities in four cell lines, which indicated a potential disruption of the miRNA-mRNA interaction that would result in lower VEGF expression levels. Our data suggested that the +936C/T variants significantly increased the risk of poorer stroke outcome by affecting the bindings of miR-199a and miR-199b to VEGF mRNA at the rs30250340 polymorphic site. PMID:28234972

  14. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Harris, Mark A.; Haws, Laurie C.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC{sub 50} values < 10 mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation. Highlights: ► Mouse small intestine gene expression is highly responsive to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. ► Cr(VI) elicits more differential gene expression after 7 days of exposure than 90 days of exposure. ► Oral exposure to Cr(VI) leads to

  15. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Anna K; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Proctor, Deborah M; Harris, Mark A; Haws, Laurie C; Thompson, Chad M

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose-response modeling identified >80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose-response curves with EC(50) values ranging from 10 to 100mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC(50) values <10mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation.

  16. Addressing the recovery of feeding rates in post-exposure feeding bioassays: Cyathura carinata as a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Pais-Costa, Antonia Juliana; Acevedo, Pelayo; Marques, João Carlos; Martinez-Haro, Mónica

    2015-02-15

    Post-exposure bioassays are used in environmental assessment as a cost-effective tool, but the effects of organism's recovery after exposure to pollutant has not yet been addressed in detail. The recoveries of post-exposure feeding rates after being exposed to two sublethal concentrations of cadmium during two different exposure periods (48 h and 96 h) were evaluated under laboratory conditions using the estuarine isopod Cyathura carinata. Results showed that feeding depression was a stable endpoint up to 24 h after cadmium exposure, which is useful for ecotoxicological bioassays. - Highlights: • We studied recovery of post-exposure feeding rates 48–96 h after cadmium exposure. • The assay is based on the isopod Cyathura carinata. • Post-exposure feeding inhibition is a stable sublethal endpoint.

  17. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Snell, Chelsea; Bernheim, Aude; Bergé, Jean-Baptiste; Kuntz, Marcel; Pascal, Gérard; Paris, Alain; Ricroch, Agnès E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required, a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed.

  18. Effects of feeding Ascochyta-infected and normal lentils to rats (short-term study).

    PubMed Central

    Tarwid, J N; Morrall, R A; Mills, J H

    1985-01-01

    Weanling, female, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either rat chow with no lentils, 80% normal lentils or 80% diseased lentils heavily infected with the fungus Ascochyta lentis. Body weight, feed consumption and clinical appearance were monitored over 90 days and blood samples were collected at the termination of the experiment. Weight gain and feed consumption were similar in the control group and the group fed diseased lentils. Weight gain was slightly depressed in the group fed normal lentils. These effects were attributed to the lentils being a poorer source of protein than the wheat, barley and soybean meal used in the control diet, but the protein content of the diseased lentils was higher than the normal lentils. Total white blood cell counts and lymphocyte counts were significantly depressed (P = 0.05) in the group fed the diseased lentil diet. Significant differences (P = 0.05) were found among groups in the ratios of liver, kidney and spleen weights to body weight. Images Fig. 1. PMID:4075241

  19. A comparative study of wire feeding and powder feeding in direct diode laser deposition for rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, Waheed Ul Haq; Pinkerton, Andrew J.; Li, Lin

    2005-07-01

    Metal powder feeding has been used widely in various rapid prototyping and tooling processes such as direct laser deposition (DLD) and layered engineered net shaping (LENS) to achieve near net shape accuracy. Although powder recycling has been practiced, the material usage efficiency has been very low (normally below 30%). This study compares the process characteristics, advantages and disadvantages of wire- and powder-feed DLD. A 1.5 kW diode laser is used to build multiple layer parts, which are compared and analysed in terms of surface finish, microstructure and deposition efficiency. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction and optical microscopy are used for the material characterisation. The microstructure of samples from both the methods is similar, with some porosity found in powder-feed components, but the surface finish and material usage efficiency is better for wire-feed samples. The deposition angle is found to be critical in the case of wire feeding and the characteristics of different feed angles are explored. Possible reasons for the different characteristics of the two deposition techniques are discussed.

  20. Understanding adolescent mothers' feelings about breast-feeding. A study of perceived benefits and barriers.

    PubMed

    Radius, S M; Joffe, A

    1988-03-01

    This study was designed to assess the benefits and barriers accruing to breast-feeding as perceived by pregnant adolescents, and to establish whether these perceptions distinguished between adolescent mothers who chose to breast versus bottle feed. Surveys were completed by 254 young women attending prenatal clinics. Overall, 19.3% indicated their intent to breast-feed. When categorized by intended method of infant feeding (breast versus bottle), breast-feeding mothers cited more benefits and fewer barriers associated with that method of infant feeding. Overall, perceived benefits were more successful than perceived barriers in distinguishing between the groups of respondents. For those interested in promoting breast-feeding among adolescent mothers, our data support an emphasis on the diverse benefits of this method of infant feeding. Our results also suggest the usefulness of peer role models in correcting misinformation and encouraging breast-feeding among adolescent mothers.

  1. A preliminary study of breast-feeding and maternal symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, E S; Guethlein, W; Vaz, N; Bagiella, E

    2000-01-01

    The association between breast-feeding status and maternal health is examined. A survey questionnaire was presented via the World Wide Web. Self-reports of 168 breast-feeding and 65 weaned mothers between 4 and 208 weeks postpartum were compared for physician visits, symptomatology, and Perceived Stress Scale scores in the last month. Breast-feeding was associated with fewer physician visits and symptoms and less perceived stress. Moreover, the longer a woman breast-fed before she weaned, the fewer the symptoms and less stress she reported. Breast-feeding is associated with better maternal health both during the breast-feeding period and after weaning. Further research on the effects on maternal health of breast-feeding is indicated. Future prospective longitudinal investigations should address the possible inhibition of lactation by stress and physiological mechanisms that may link breast-feeding and weaning with maternal health.

  2. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after...

  3. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    nociception , social interaction, the forced swim test, spontaneous locomotor activity, passive avoidance or Morris water maze performance. However...system. V.4. Technical Methods V.4.1. Pain / Distress Assessment V.4.1.1. APHIS Form 7023 Information V.4.1.1.1. Number of Animals V...4.1.1.1.1. Column C: 0 V.4.1.1.1.2. Column D: 150 V.4.1.1.1.3. Column E: 0 V.4.1.2. Pain Relief / Prevention V.4.1.2.1. Anesthesia

  4. Studies on the Inhalation Toxicity of Dyes Present in Colored Smoke Munitions. Phase IV. 90-Day Inhalation Exposures of Rats to Dye Aerosols

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    epithelial cell hyperplasla and proliferation of foamy alveolar •. macrophages and lymphoid hyperplasia in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes of rats exposed...These accumulations of alveolar macrophages were accompanied by slight to moderate hyperplasia of k Type II cells (granular pneumocytes). In the nasal...dose rats. These accumulations of alveolar macrophages were accompanied by slight to moderate hyperplasii of Type II cells (granular pneumocytes). In the

  5. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Bio-Derived Gevo Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-31

    Animals were fed a certified rodent diet (Formulab Diet Purina Lab Chow, PMI Nutrition, International, LLC, Brentwood MO), ad libitum, except during...weights of the liver , kidneys, adrenals, testes, epididymides, ovaries, uterus, thymus, spleen, brain, and heart were obtained after dissection from the...g) 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 % BW (mean) 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 % BW (SD) 0.01 0.005 0.005 0.01 Liver Average (g) 10.15a 10.51 9.98 10.89 SD (g) 0.46a

  6. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Swedish Biofuel Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (SPA) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    concentration in the 700 or 2000 mg/m3 exposure groups. No indications of changes in reproductive health were found when vaginal cytology and sperm...deemed biologically significant. As an indicator of reproductive health, vaginal cytology was assessed during week 9 of exposure and sperm count...endpoints assessed were neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity. 4 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release

  7. Coke forming reaction kinetic study on petroleum based feeds

    SciTech Connect

    Shigley, J.K.; Fu, Ta-Wei

    1988-08-01

    The carbonization of hydrocarbons is a very complex process. The pyrolysis reactions are predominantly free radical in nature and can be summarized as a polymerization process. The phase transitions from a 199% isotropic phase to an anisotropic mesophase during the carbonization of many feeds is an important and much studied phenomena. This phenomena is capitalized on in industry to produce needle or graphite coke. The kinetics of pitch polymerization and coke formation have historically been studied by measuring the solubility of the heat treated material in various solvents. The concentration of free radicals in the carbonized samples have also been used to investigate the mechanistic and kinetic aspects of the process. A very extensive study was conducted by Greinke using GPC techniques to measure the changes in narrow molecular weight ranges and the overall molecular weight distribution of a pitch during carbonization. This study focuses on the use of product volatile matter as the measure of extent of carbonization of two different feedstocks. It is ideally suited for use in commercial coking operations as a control or quality parameter of green coke.

  8. Mothers' perceptions of the influences on their child feeding practices - A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Spence, Alison C; Hesketh, Kylie D; Crawford, David A; Campbell, Karen J

    2016-10-01

    Children's diets are important determinants of their health, but typically do not meet recommendations. Parents' feeding practices, such as pressure or restriction, are important influences on child diets, but reasons why parents use particular feeding practices, and malleability of such practices, are not well understood. This qualitative study aimed to explore mothers' perceptions of influences on their feeding practices, and assess whether an intervention promoting recommended feeding practices was perceived as influential. The Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program was a cluster-randomised controlled trial involving 542 families aiming to improve child diets. Following the trial, when children were two years old, 81 intervention arm mothers were invited to participate in qualitative interviews, and 26 accepted (32%). Thematic analysis of interview transcripts used a tabular thematic framework. Eight major themes were identified regarding perceived influences on child feeding practices. Broadly these encompassed: practical considerations, family setting, formal information sources, parents' own upbringing, learning from friends and family, learning from child and experiences, and parents' beliefs about food and feeding. Additionally, the Melbourne InFANT Program was perceived by most respondents as influential. In particular, many mothers reported being previously unaware of some recommended feeding practices, and that learning and adopting those practices made child feeding easier. These findings suggest that a variety of influences impact mothers' child feeding practices. Health practitioners should consider these factors in providing feeding advice to parents, and researchers should consider these factors in planning interventions.

  9. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    , broilers, lactating dairy cows, and fish, comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients from a range of GM plants with their near isogenic counterpart and commercial varieties, showed that they were comparable with those for near isogenic non-GM lines and commercial varieties. In Section 3 toxicological in vivo, in silico, and in vitro test methods are discussed which may be applied for the safety and nutritional assessment of specific compounds present in food and feed or of whole food and feed derived from GM plants. Moreover the purpose, potential and limitations of the 90-day rodent feeding trial for the safety and nutritional testing of whole food and feed have been examined. Methods for single and repeated dose toxicity testing, reproductive and developmental toxicity testing and immunotoxicity testing, as described in OECD guideline tests for single well-defined chemicals are discussed and considered to be adequate for the safety testing of single substances including new products in GM food and feed. Various in silico and in vitro methods may contribute to the safety assessment of GM plant derived food and feed and components thereof, like (i) in silico searches for sequence homology and/or structural similarity of novel proteins or their degradation products to known toxic or allergenic proteins, (ii) simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in order to study the digestive stability of newly expressed proteins and in vitro systems for analysis of the stability of the novel protein under heat or other processing conditions, and (iii) in vitro genotoxicity test methods that screen for point mutations, chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage/repair. The current performance of the safety assessment of whole foods is mainly based on the protocols for low-molecular-weight chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, pesticides, food additives and contaminants. However without adaptation, these protocols have limitations for testing of whole food and feed

  10. SETI low-frequency feed design study for DSS 24

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, P. H.; Lee, P. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Sky Survey project requires operation from 1 to 10 GHz on the beam waveguide (BWG) antenna DSS 24. The BWG reflectors are undersized in the 1- to 3.02-GHz range, resulting in poor performance. Horn designs and a method for implementing 1- to 3.02-GHz operation on DSS 24 are presented. A combination of a horn and a shaped feed reflector placed above the main reflector is suggested. The horn and feed reflector could be hidden in the RF shadow of the subreflector and struts. Results from computer analysis of this design indicate that adequate performance could be achieved.

  11. Ecological study of effect of breast feeding on infant mortality in Latin America

    PubMed Central

    Betrán, Ana P; de Onís, Mercedes; Lauer, Jeremy A; Villar, José

    2001-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of exclusive breast feeding and partial breast feeding on infant mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America. Design Attributable fraction analysis of national data on infant mortality and breast feeding. Setting Latin America and the Caribbean. Main outcome measures Mortality from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections and nationally representative breastfeeding rates. Results 55% of infant deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infections in Latin America are preventable by exclusive breast feeding among infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy. Among infants aged 0-3 months, 66% of deaths from these causes are preventable by exclusive breast feeding; among infants aged 4-11 months, 32% of such deaths are preventable by partial breast feeding. 13.9% of infant deaths from all causes are preventable by these breastfeeding patterns. The annual number of preventable deaths is about 52 000 for the region. Conclusions Exclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding throughout the remainder of infancy could substantially reduce infant mortality in Latin America. Interventions to promote breast feeding should target younger infants. What is already known on this topicInfant mortality is lower among breast fed than non-breast fed infantsThe reductions are greatest for deaths from diarrhoeal disease and acute respiratory infectionsWhat this study addsExclusive breast feeding of infants aged 0-3 months and partial breast feeding for the remainder of the first year would prevent about 52 000 infant deaths a year in Latin AmericaThis corresponds to 13.9% of infant deaths from all causesPromotion of breast feeding has an important role in increasing survival of infants PMID:11498485

  12. Breast-feeding problems after epidural analgesia for labour: a retrospective cohort study of pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Volmanen, P; Valanne, J; Alahuhta, S

    2004-01-01

    Various clinical practices have been found to be associated with breast-feeding problems. However, little is known about the effect of pain, obstetrical procedures and analgesia on breast-feeding behaviour. We designed a retrospective study with a questionnaire concerning pain, obstetrical procedures and breast-feeding practices mailed to 164 primiparae in Lapland. Altogether 99 mothers (60%) returned completed questionnaires that could be included in the analysis, which was carried out in two steps. Firstly, all accepted questionnaires were grouped according to the success or failure to breast-feed fully during the first 12 weeks of life. Secondly, an ad hoc cohort study was performed on the sub-sample of 64 mothers delivered vaginally. As many as 44% of the 99 mothers reported partial breast feeding or formula feeding during the first 12 weeks. Older age of the mother, use of epidural analgesia and the problem of "not having enough milk" were associated with the failure to breast-feed fully. Caesarean section, other methods of labour analgesia and other breast-feeding problems were not associated with partial breast feeding or formula feeding. In the sub-sample, 67% of the mothers who had laboured with epidural analgesia and 29% of the mothers who laboured without epidural analgesia reported partial breast feeding or formula feeding (P = 0.003). The problem of "not having enough milk" was more often reported by those who had had epidural analgesia. Further studies conducted prospectively are needed to establish whether a causal relationship exists between epidural analgesia and breast-feeding problems.

  13. A Pilot Study to Increase Chewing in Children with Feeding Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkert, Valerie M.; Piazza, Cathleen C.; Vaz, Petula C. M.; Frese, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Children with feeding disorders often display chewing deficits. Unfortunately, there is a paucity of research examining procedures to increase or teach chewing to children with feeding disorders. The few studies on this topic have utilized multicomponent treatments typically involving a shaping procedure. In addition, to our knowledge, studies on…

  14. Early Feeding Abilities in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Parental Report Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Erin M.; Hustad, Katherine C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goals of this study were to 1) describe the feeding skills of young children with cerebral palsy (CP); and 2) elucidate the type and severity of feeding problems for children with and without oral-motor involvement. Method Parents of 37 children (16 females, 21 males) with CP, who ranged in age from 11-58 months (mean age = 41 months), completed questionnaires regarding their child's past and current feeding abilities. Children were also clinically evaluated to determine whether each had evidence of oral-motor involvement. Results Children with CP and oral-motor involvement had significantly more difficulty with self-feeding, increased frequency of coughing and choking, increased prevalence of swallowing evaluation and feeding therapy, and were introduced to solid food at a later age relative to children with CP who did not have oral-motor involvement. Both groups of children were similar in their history of tube feeding, bottle feeding, difficulty with solid foods, use of adaptive equipment, duration of mealtimes, and presence of choking, coughing, and gagging. Conclusions Children with and without oral-motor involvement initially presented with similar feeding difficulties. However, feeding problems appeared to resolve to a greater extent in children without oral-motor involvement. The difficulties identified early in life, for children with oral-motor involvement, appeared to persist with development. PMID:20046974

  15. Feeding families and children--1776 to 1976. A bicentennial study.

    PubMed

    Lowenberg, M E; Lucas, B L

    1976-03-01

    The food heritage which Americans enjoy today owes its great diversity to the influences of many ethnic groups--the native Indians, Franciscan friars in California, Mexican-Americans, the British, the French, the Creoles, and later, northern Europeans and those of Mediterranean stock. Geography and climate in different parts of our large country and religious beliefs have also played a part in the development of our present-day, varied cuisine. In our colonial and pioneer days, most people raised their own food, but as our nation has become industrialized and urbanized, we find that now only 7 per cent of our population produces the food for our entire nation, and our consumers generally buy their food in stores. Even as late as the beginning of the twentieth century, infant feeding practices could be considered unscientific and primitive. Only in recent years have knowledge of metabolism and the rapid increase in nutritional science permitted progress in infant feeding. Problems of feeding families remain, nevertheless--different than in the early days of our nation--and their solution challenges American ingenuity.

  16. Studies on an ultrasonic atomization feed direct methanol fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chaoqun; Liu, Linghao; Tang, Kai; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    Direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is promising as an energy conversion device for the replacement of conventional chemical cell in future, owing to its convenient fuel storage, high energy density and low working temperature. The development of DMFC technology is currently limited by catalyst poison and methanol crossover. To alleviate the methanol crossover, a novel fuel supply system based on ultrasonic atomization is proposed. Experimental investigations on this fuel supply system to evaluate methanol permeation rates, open circuit voltages (OCVs) and polarization curves under a series of conditions have been carried out and reported in this paper. In comparison with the traditional liquid feed DMFC system, it can be found that the methanol crossover under the ultrasonic atomization feed system was significantly reduced because the DMFC reaches a large stable OCV value. Moreover, the polarization performance does not vary significantly with the liquid feed style. Therefore, the cell fed by ultrasonic atomization can be operated with a high concentration methanol to improve the energy density of DMFC. Under the supply condition of relatively high concentration methanol such as 4M and 8M, the maximum power density fed by ultrasonic atomization is higher than liquid by 6.05% and 12.94% respectively.

  17. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  18. Validation study of a lateral-flow immunoassay for detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients.

    PubMed

    Klein, Frank; Lupo, Tony; Pielack, Don; Mozola, Mark

    2005-01-01

    An immunoassay with a lateral flow format has been developed for the detection of ruminant by-product material in animal feeds and feed ingredients. The test is designed for the analysis of animal feeds destined for feeding to ruminants to ensure that they do not contain ruminant by-products in violation of the ruminant-to-ruminant feed ban established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 1997. This feed ban was established as a firewall against exposure of ruminant livestock animals to the prion agents responsible for neurological diseases such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie. The test is designed for field use, e.g., at a feed mill, and yields a qualitative (presence/absence) result in 15-20 min. The objective of the study was to validate the lateral-flow test for detection of ruminant by-product material in a variety of finished animal feeds and feed ingredients. Results indicate that the test is specific for ruminant material and can detect as little as 1% ruminant material in these commodities.

  19. System Level spatial-frequency EEG changes coincident with a 90-day cognitive-behavioral therapy program for couples in relationship distress.

    PubMed

    DuRousseau, Donald R; Beeton, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Evaluating relationship intervention programs traditionally involves the use of self-report surveys or observational studies to assess changes in behavior. Instead, to investigate intervention-related changes in behavior, our study evaluates spatial-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) patterns from the brains of couples participating in an Imago Relationship workshop and 12 weeks of group counseling sessions lasting approximately 90 days. This explorative study recorded 32-channel EEGs from nine committed distressed couples prior to, during and immediately following the Imago Relationship Therapy program. A repeated measures t-Test approach was applied to investigate if significant group level brain pattern changes could be identified in key resting state networks in the brains of the participants that could be correlated with changes in relationship outcome. The study results show that significant reductions in EEG power in the alpha2, beta3 and gamma bands were evident in the averaged brain activity in the pre-frontal, frontal and temporal-parietal cortices that are anatomically associated with the frontal executive, default mode and salience networks of the human brain. Our current understanding of system level neural connectivity and network dynamics strongly indicates that each of these systems is integrally required in learning and implementing a complex communication process taught in the Imago intervention. Thus, a high degree of hemispheric lateralization is consistent with our understanding of language function and mood regulation in the brain and is consistent with recent research into the use of resting frontal EEG asymmetry as an indicator of behavioral changes in distressed couples undergoing a program for relationship improvement. Although preliminary, these results further indicate that the EEG is an inexpensive and easily quantifiable measure, and possibly predictor, of behavioral changes in response to a cognitive behavioral intervention.

  20. Does breast feeding provide protection against acute appendicitis? A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Alves, João Guilherme Bezerra; Figueiroa, José Natal; Barros, Isabela

    2008-10-01

    Breast feeding stimulates a more tolerant lymphoid tissue at the base of the appendix and this could provide protection against acute appendicitis. Two studies reported that children and adolescents with appendicitis were less likely to have been breast fed. In a case-control study of 200 children with histologically confirmed acute appendicitis matched by 200 siblings with the same sex and difference age - up to three-year-old - we found breast feeding in at least the first two months of life and for more than four months provides protection against acute appendicitis. These findings suggesting that breast feeding may possibly give protection against the development of appendicitis.

  1. Maternal employment and breast-feeding initiation: findings from the Millennium Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Summer S; Griffiths, Lucy J; Dezateux, Carol; Law, Catherine

    2007-05-01

    Maternal employment rates have increased rapidly in recent years and little is known about how this influences whether women start breast feeding. We examined data from the Millennium Cohort Study to determine whether a mother's employment status (full-time, part-time, self-employed, on leave, not employed/student) and employment characteristics are related to breast-feeding initiation. This analysis comprised 14 830 white mothers from Britain and Ireland (6917 employed) with singleton babies, born from 2000 to 2002. Information was obtained on infant feeding history and mother's employment when the cohort child was 9 months old. We found that women employed full-time were less likely to initiate breast feeding than mothers who were not employed/students, after adjustment for confounding factors [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) = 0.92; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89, 0.96]; however, there were no differences in breast-feeding initiation between mothers employed part-time, self-employed, or on leave and mothers who were not employed/students. Among employed mothers, those who returned to work within 4 months postpartum were less likely to start breast feeding than women who returned at 5 or 6 months [aRR = 0.95; 95% CI 0.92, 0.99], and women who returned within the first 6 weeks were much less likely to start breast feeding [aRR = 0.85; 95% CI 0.77, 0.94]. Mothers returning for financial reasons were also less likely to initiate breast feeding [aRR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.93, 0.99] than those who returned for other reasons. Policies to increase breast feeding should address how both the time and circumstances of a mother's return to employment postpartum influence whether she decides to start breast feeding.

  2. Hypernatraemic dehydration and breast feeding: a population study

    PubMed Central

    Oddie, S; Richmond, S; Coulthard, M

    2001-01-01

    As part of a population based regional review of all neonatal readmissions, the incidence of dehydration with hypernatraemia in exclusively breast fed infants was estimated. All readmissions to hospital in the first month of life during 1998 from a population of 32 015 live births were reviewed. Eight of 907 readmissions met the case definition, giving an incidence of at least 2.5 per 10 000 live births. Serum sodium at readmission varied from 150to 175 mmol/l. One infant had convulsions. The sole explanation for hypernatraemia was unsuccessful breast feeding in all cases. The eight cases are compared with the 65 cases published in the literature since 1979. Presentation, incidence, risk factors, pathophysiology, treatment, and prevention are discussed.

 PMID:11567942

  3. Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

    2015-03-16

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  4. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Auad, Sheyla M.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. PMID:25785498

  5. A Study of Breast Feeding Practices Among Families of Armed Forces Personnel in a Large Cantonment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pmp; Bhalwar, R

    2002-10-01

    A cross sectional epidemiological study design was undertaken on a randomly selected sample of 175 families of Armed Forces personnel staying in a large cantonment and having at least one child in the age group 3 to 24 months. The mean duration of lactational amenorrhoea was found to be 6.24 months (SD ± 3.25 months) and that of breast feeding was found to be 11.14 months (SD ± 6.37 month). The present study observed positive association between the duration of exclusive breast feeding and the duration of lactational amenorrhoea, as well as between the lack of practice of exclusive breast feeding and number of spells of upper respiratory tract infection and acute gastroenteritis. Based on the findings of the study, certain measures to promote the practice of exclusive breast feeding for the first 4-6 months of life have been suggested.

  6. Predicting the impact of feed spacer modification on biofouling by hydraulic characterization and biofouling studies in membrane fouling simulators.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, A; Lehmann, S; Bucs, Sz S; Fresquet, M; Fel, L; Prest, E I E C; Ogier, J; Schellenberg, C; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kruithof, J C; Vrouwenvelder, J S

    2017-03-01

    Feed spacers are an essential part of spiral-wound reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membrane modules. Geometric modification of feed spacers is a potential option to reduce the impact of biofouling on the performance of membrane systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the biofouling potential of two commercially available reference feed spacers and four modified feed spacers. The spacers were compared on hydraulic characterization and in biofouling studies with membrane fouling simulators (MFSs). The virgin feed spacer was characterized hydraulically by their resistance, measured in terms of feed channel pressure drop, performed by operating MFSs at varying feed water flow rates. Short-term (9 days) biofouling studies were carried out with nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water to accelerate the biofouling rate. Long-term (96 days) biofouling studies were done without nutrient dosage to the MFS feed water. Feed channel pressure drop was monitored and accumulation of active biomass was quantified by adenosine tri phosphate (ATP) determination. The six feed spacers were ranked on pressure drop (hydraulic characterization) and on biofouling impact (biofouling studies). Significantly different trends in hydraulic resistance and biofouling impact for the six feed spacers were observed. The same ranking for biofouling impact on the feed spacers was found for the (i) short-term biofouling study with nutrient dosage and the (ii) long-term biofouling study without nutrient dosage. The ranking for hydraulic resistance for six virgin feed spacers differed significantly from the ranking of the biofouling impact, indicating that hydraulic resistance of clean feed spacers does not predict the hydraulic resistance of biofouled feed spacers. Better geometric design of feed spacers can be a suitable approach to minimize impact of biofouling in spiral wound membrane systems.

  7. A research study of sources of support for bottle feeding in new mothers.

    PubMed

    Cairney, Patricia; Barbour, Rosaline

    2007-06-01

    This paper asks if there is a difference in mothers' perceptions of the support they receive about bottle feeding from a range of professional and non-professional sources. The findings are put into the context of associated demographic characteristics. It forms part of a larger study, which was a longitudinal postal survey of 500 childbearing women across two health board regions in Scotland. Women were recruited at 34 weeks gestation by post. The results reported here are from further postal questionnaires at one and three months postnatally. Older women and those with higher education were more likely to initiate and maintain breast feeding, and less likely to introduce solid foods early. Younger women, who were mainly bottle feeding, were more likely to feel they had enough knowledge about feeding their infants than older women and were significantly more likely to feel that relatives were supportive about infant feeding. However, findings suggest that this confidence is largely dependent upon the support provided by relatives. Given the likelihood of misinformation and the potential for passing on inappropriate practices, this issue merits further examination. Health promotion strategies aimed at relatives of new mothers could, therefore, help to redress this and, thereby, promote more health advantages for the infants involved. However, there may be a large number of younger women who do not have knowledgeable support for infant feeding from relatives or friends and for whom access to health professionals for this information is restricted, possibly leading to poor infant-feeding decisions.

  8. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-05-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear.

  9. Extracellular norepinephrine in the medial hypothalamus increases during feeding in chicks: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, T; Utimura, D; Kato, H; Kubo, T; Sugahara, K

    2000-11-01

    Norepinephrinergic function in the medial hypothalamus is important for the regulation of feeding behavior in chicks as well as in rats. This study was conducted to clarify the variation of extracellular norepinephrine (NE) in the medial hypothalamus, including the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN), during feeding behavior of layer-type chicks. To measure extracellular NE and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol (MHPG), a major metabolite of NE, we used microdialysis and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection. After the collection of baseline samples, food-deprived animals were allowed access to the food for 3 h. Extracellular NE significantly increased during the first hour of access to food, and then returned to baseline levels. MHPG also increased during the feeding, but its increase continued throughout the remainder of the experiment. This study suggests that the variation of NE in the medial hypothalamus may be involved in the control of feeding in layer-type chicks.

  10. Investigation of biosecurity risks associated with the feed delivery: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Bottoms, Kate; Dewey, Cate; Richardson, Karen; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2015-01-01

    This study explored potential biosecurity issues related to the delivery of feed to commercial farms. A pilot study was conducted to collect information about the day-to-day feed delivery, including biosecurity concerns at the level of the feed truck, the driver, and the farm. In addition, a reusable rubber boot was tested in an effort to increase the proportion of farms at which truck drivers wore clean footwear, and to explore an alternative to the standard plastic disposable boots that may be unsafe in winter conditions. Most farms did well in terms of proper dead-stock management and keeping the farm lane and feed bin areas clean. The provision of reusable rubber boots significantly increased the proportion of deliveries in which the driver wore clean footwear. PMID:25969585

  11. A Cultural Understanding of Chinese Immigrant Mothers’ Feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S. L.; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A.; Jones, Shelby S.

    2015-01-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/ cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children. PMID:25555536

  12. A cultural understanding of Chinese immigrant mothers' feeding practices. A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Nan; Cheah, Charissa S L; Van Hook, Jennifer; Thompson, Darcy A; Jones, Shelby S

    2015-04-01

    Differences in parental feeding practices revealed across and within different ethnic/cultural groups indicate that cultural examinations of feeding practices in understudied non-European-American populations require urgent attention. China ranks as the second largest source country for children in foreign-born U.S. households. Contrary to the stereotype of slender Asians, Chinese-American young children are at high risk for obesity but have not received sufficient attention from researchers and practitioners dealing with parental feeding practices and childhood obesity. The present study aimed to understand food-related parenting practices among Chinese immigrants in the U.S. using qualitative focus groups. Twenty-two mothers with preschool aged children participated in a discussion regarding parent-child food-related interactions and feeding practices. A thematic approach was adopted to analyze the focus group data following five stages of framework analysis. Thirteen key themes of feeding practices were identified, including 9 that are in existing feeding measures (pre-exiting practices) and 4 practices that have not been documented or emphasized in previous feeding measures (culturally-emphasized practices), including regulating healthy routines and food energy, spoon-feeding, using social comparison to pressure the child to eat, and making an effort to prepare/cook specific foods. Through the use of an emic approach and meaning-centered evidence, the complexities of parent-child interactions and unique nuances of parental feeding in this understudied population were revealed. Our findings can guide future development of culturally-appropriate measurement and inform intervention programs to promote the healthy development of Chinese-American children.

  13. The cleft seal for bottle-feeding--A report on case studies.

    PubMed

    Dawjee, S M; Du Plessis, F

    2006-08-01

    Clefting of the lip and palate is the most frequent craniofacial malformation that occurs in newborn babies. The greatest immediate challenge facing a neonate with a cleft is to take nourishment. In developing countries and particularly in rural areas, palatal obturators and other aids that can assist in feeding are not easily available or accessible. The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate and report on the cleft seal, a simple and inexpensive device that is used with a feeding bottle to promote nourishment of a neonate with a cleft palate. The cleft seal is made of either silicone or thermoform plastic and consists of a spoon-like projection attached to a circular washer. The latter fits snugly between the teat base and collar of the feeding bottle, while the spoon-like projection forms a canopy over the teat and separates the nasal cavity from the mouth during feeding. Closure of the cleft emulates the natural feeding process and favours normal orofacial development. Results from this study indicate that there is an increase in nutritional intake over a shorter feeding time when using the cleft seal. Parents also report an absence of nasal regurgitation. The greatest advantage of the cleft seal lies in its negligible cost and ease of use, which can enable distribution and application in remote neonatal centres, where nursing and parental care givers are often at a loss as to what to do when faced with a newborn with a cleft palate.

  14. Mealtime Energy Intake and Feeding Behaviour in Children Who Fail to Thrive: A Population-Based Case-Control Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Kathryn N.; Wright, Charlotte M.; Drewett, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    Background: The essential link between energy needs and energy intake is feeding behaviour, yet few studies have directly observed feeding behaviour in children who have failed to thrive. A cohort of 961 term infants was screened to identify children with first year weight gain below the 5th centile in order to examine their feeding behaviour and…

  15. Methods appropriate for studying the relationship of breast-feeding to obesity.

    PubMed

    Adair, Linda S

    2009-02-01

    A vast literature examines the association of breast-feeding with body composition and risk of overweight and obesity in childhood and adulthood. Several recent systematic reviews, including one by the World Health Organization, concluded that there is a small protective effect of breast-feeding against overweight in later life. Nearly all studies covered by these reviews used observational study designs that limit causal inferences. Methodological strengths, weaknesses, and main results of the epidemiologic studies that have drawn conclusions about the relation between infant feeding and overweight in childhood and adulthood are briefly reviewed to provide a methodological perspective for the subsequent presentations in this symposium. The focus is on the role of recall and selection bias, appropriate representation of exposures, inadequate control for confounding, and the utility of alternative study designs that may circumvent some of the problems.

  16. A Case Study on Maximizing Aqua Feed Pellet Properties Using Response Surface Methodology and Genetic Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Tumuluru, Jaya

    2013-01-10

    Aims: The present case study is on maximizing the aqua feed properties using response surface methodology and genetic algorithm. Study Design: Effect of extrusion process variables like screw speed, L/D ratio, barrel temperature, and feed moisture content were analyzed to maximize the aqua feed properties like water stability, true density, and expansion ratio. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out in the Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India. Methodology: A variable length single screw extruder was used in the study. The process variables selected were screw speed (rpm), length-to-diameter (L/D) ratio, barrel temperature (degrees C), and feed moisture content (%). The pelletized aqua feed was analyzed for physical properties like water stability (WS), true density (TD), and expansion ratio (ER). Extrusion experimental data was collected by based on central composite design. The experimental data was further analyzed using response surface methodology (RSM) and genetic algorithm (GA) for maximizing feed properties. Results: Regression equations developed for the experimental data has adequately described the effect of process variables on the physical properties with coefficient of determination values (R2) of > 0.95. RSM analysis indicated WS, ER, and TD were maximized at L/D ratio of 12-13, screw speed of 60-80 rpm, feed moisture content of 30-40%, and barrel temperature of = 80 degrees C for ER and TD and > 90 degrees C for WS. Based on GA analysis, a maxium WS of 98.10% was predicted at a screw speed of 96.71 rpm, L/D radio of 13.67, barrel temperature of 96.26 degrees C, and feed moisture content of 33.55%. Maximum ER and TD of 0.99 and 1346.9 kg/m3 was also predicted at screw speed of 60.37 and 90.24 rpm, L/D ratio of 12.18 and 13.52, barrel temperature of 68.50 and 64.88 degrees C, and medium feed moisture content of 33.61 and 38.36%. Conclusion: The present data analysis indicated

  17. A serial qualitative interview study of infant feeding experiences: idealism meets realism

    PubMed Central

    Craig, Leone C A; Britten, Jane; McInnes, Rhona M

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the infant feeding experiences of women and their significant others from pregnancy until 6 months after birth to establish what would make a difference. Design Qualitative serial interview study. Setting Two health boards in Scotland. Participants 72 of 541 invited pregnant women volunteered. 220 interviews approximately every 4 weeks with 36 women, 26 partners, eight maternal mothers, one sister and two health professionals took place. Results The overarching theme was a clash between overt or covert infant feeding idealism and the reality experienced. This is manifest as pivotal points where families perceive that the only solution that will restore family well-being is to stop breast feeding or introduce solids. Immediate family well-being is the overriding goal rather than theoretical longer term health benefits. Feeding education is perceived as unrealistic, overly technical and rules based which can undermine women's confidence. Unanimously families would prefer the balance to shift away from antenatal theory towards more help immediately after birth and at 3–4 months when solids are being considered. Family-orientated interactive discussions are valued above breastfeeding-centred checklist style encounters. Conclusions Adopting idealistic global policy goals like exclusive breast feeding until 6 months as individual goals for women is unhelpful. More achievable incremental goals are recommended. Using a proactive family-centred narrative approach to feeding care might enable pivotal points to be anticipated and resolved. More attention to the diverse values, meanings and emotions around infant feeding within families could help to reconcile health ideals with reality. PMID:22422915

  18. Rat and poultry feeding studies with soybean meal produced from imidazolinone-tolerant (CV127) soybeans.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaoyun; de Brum, Paulo A R; Chukwudebe, Amechi; Privalle, Laura; Reed, Andrew; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Cui; Wang, Cuiyan; Lu, Jing; Huang, Kunlun; Contri, Daniela; Nakatani, Andreia; de Avila, Valdir S; Klein, Claudete H; de Lima, Gustavo J M M; Lipscomb, Elizabeth A

    2016-02-01

    The safety and nutritional properties of CV127 soybeans were evaluated in rat and broiler feeding studies. Some episodic differences were observed between rats fed CV127, Conquista, and the standard diet for the endpoints examined. None of these differences were considered treatment related, adverse, or biologically meaningful. In general, birds fed diets containing CV127, Conquista, or Monsoy 8001 showed no significant differences in growth and performance response variables. Chickens fed diets containing Coodetec 217 had lower body weight and weight gain for all developmental periods compared to CV127, but no significant differences were found in feed conversion for the two diets during any development period. The results of both feeding studies demonstrate that CV127 soybeans are as safe, wholesome, and nutritionally valuable as the other soybean meals tested, including those varieties for which histories of safe use have been established and well documented.

  19. [Breast feeding and child care: a case study of 2 rural areas of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Gil-Romo, S E; Rueda-Arróniz, F; Díez-Urdanivia-Coria, S

    1993-01-01

    The present research is included in the fields of public health, social sciences and gender studies. Its objective is to provide insight into the nursing behaviour of two groups of mothers, their domestic and extra-domestic child care arrangements and their attitudes towards breast-feeding. Thirty-five mothers were selected in Malinalco, Mexico, and 35 in the Sierra de Juárez, Oaxaca. Each mother had at least two children and one of them under three years of age. The study was exploratory in its initial phase, subsequently cross-sectional, comparative and prospective. It constitutes a foundation for longitudinal case studies. A pre-coded questionnaire, including the following issues, was administered: family composition; maternal schooling; maternal employment; nursing behaviour with the last child; child care and attitudes towards breast-feeding. The main information regarding 33 mothers in Malinalco and 31 in Oaxaca revealed that in both areas mothers decided how to feed their children during the first days; during the first month, 55 per cent of mothers in Malinalco breast-fed their child, while approximately 90 per cent did so in Oaxaca. The majority of women worked outside home and resorted to extra-domestic arrangements for child care. No relation was found between the feeding method chosen with the last child and maternal employment. About 90 per cent of women in both areas were "happy" to have been born females and breast-feeding was considered a "must". Seventy five per cent of mothers would not allow other women to breast feed their child, even though they were aware that maternal milk is the best.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Effects of feeding calves genetically modified corn bt11: a clinico-biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Nobuaki; Murata, Hideo; Mikami, Osamu; Yoshioka, Miyako; Guruge, Keerthi S; Yamanaka, Noriko; Nakajima, Yasuyuki; Miyazaki, Shigeru

    2006-10-01

    Genetically modified corn Bt11 is insect-resistant and expresses Cry1Ab toxin, an insecticidal protein, in kernels. Although Bt11 corn is considered safe based on animal performance, there are no reports available on the clinico-biochemical effects of feeding it to cattle. In this study, we evaluated the effects of feeding Bt11 to calves, using blood and ruminal clinico-biochemical parameters. Our three-month-long feeding experiment demonstrated that calves (n=6), fed with a ration containing 43.3% of Bt11 corn kernels as dry matter, did not develop any discernible clinical, hematological, biochemical, or ruminal abnormalities as compared with control calves (n=6) fed non-Bt11 corn. The results suggest that the transgenic Bt11 has no negative clinico-biochemical effects on calves.

  1. Complementary feeding and the early origins of obesity risk: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Muniandy, Naleena Devi; Allotey, Pascale A; Soyiri, Ireneous N; Reidpath, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The rise in the prevalence of childhood obesity worldwide calls for an intervention earlier in the life cycle. Studies show that nutrition during early infancy may contribute to later obesity. Hence, this study is designed to determine if the variation in complementary feeding practices poses a risk for the development of obesity later in life. A mixed methods approach will be used in conducting this study. Methods and analysis The target participants are infants born from January to June 2015 in the South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) platform. The SEACO is a Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) that is established in the District of Segamat in the state of Johor, Malaysia. For the quantitative strand, the sociodemographic data, feeding practices, anthropometry measurement and total nutrient intake will be assessed. The assessment will occur around the time complementary feeding is expected to start (7 Months) and again at 12 months. A 24-hour diet recall and a 2-day food diary will be used to assess the food intake. For the qualitative strand, selected mothers will be interviewed to explore their infant feeding practices and factors that influence their practices and food choices in detail. Ethics and dissemination Ethical clearance for this study was sought through the Monash University Human Research and Ethics Committee (application number CF14/3850-2014002010). Subsequently, the findings of this study will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, national and international conferences. PMID:27852704

  2. Do maternal perceptions of child eating and feeding help to explain the disconnect between reported and observed feeding practices?: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Bergmeier, Heidi J; Skouteris, Helen; Hetherington, Marion M; Rodgers, Rachel F; Campbell, Karen J; Cox, Rachael

    2017-02-08

    Research demonstrates a mismatch between reported and observed maternal feeding practices. This mismatch may be explained by maternal cognitions, attitudes, and motivations relating to dyadic parent-child feeding interactions. These complex constructs may not be apparent during observations nor evidenced in self-report questionnaire. Therefore, the aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to gain a more nuanced and contextualized understanding of (a) maternal perceptions of children's food intake control; (b) how parent-child mealtime interactions influence maternal feeding practices; and (c) ways in which mothers may promote healthy child eating and weight outcomes. Semistructured telephone interviews were conducted with 23 mothers (M = 38.4 ± 3.7 years of age) of preschool-aged children (M = 3.8 ± 0.6 years of age, 19 were normal weight, 14 were girls), who had previously completed child feeding questionnaire and participated in two home-based mealtime observations, 12 months apart. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and themes extracted to create the database. Four major themes emerged: (a) Maternal confidence in children's ability to regulate food intake is variable; (b) Implementing strategies for nurturing healthy relationships with food beyond the dining table; (c) Fostering positive mealtime interactions is valued above the content of what children eat; and (d) Situation-specific practices and inconsistencies. Findings indicate that maternal feeding practices are shaped by both parent and child influences, and child feeding is mostly guided by controlling the family food environment, rather than by directly pressuring or restricting their child's eating. Results also highlighted the need for research to consider both parent and child influences on child feeding.

  3. Efficacy of semielevated side-lying positioning during bottle-feeding of very preterm infants: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Park, Jinhee; Thoyre, Suzanne; Knafl, George J; Hodges, Eric A; Nix, William B

    2014-01-01

    Very preterm (VP, ≤30 wk gestational age) infants are at risk for impaired lung function, which significantly limits their ability to eat. A semielevated side-lying (ESL) position is a feeding strategy that may improve oral feeding by supporting breathing during feeding. The study evaluated the efficacy of the ESL position compared with the semielevated supine (ESU) position on physiological stability and feeding performance of bottle-fed VP infants. Using a within-subject crossover design, 6 VP infants were bottle-fed twice on 1 day, in both the ESL and ESU positions in a random order. Physiological stability (heart rate, oxygen saturation [SaO2], and respiratory characteristics) and feeding performance (percent intake, proficiency, efficiency, and duration of feeding) were measured before and/or during feeding. Very preterm infants fed in the ESL position demonstrated significantly less variation in heart rate, less severe and fewer decreases in heart rate, respiratory rate that was closer to the prefeeding state, shorter and more regular intervals between breaths, and briefer feeding-related apneic events. No significant differences for SaO2 or feeding performance were found. The findings indicate that the ESL position may support better regulation of breathing during feeding, thereby allowing VP infants to better maintain physiological stability throughout feeding.

  4. Dietary Protein and Calcium Interact to Influence Calcium Retention: A Controlled Feeding Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To test the effect of dietary protein on Ca (Ca) retention at low and high Ca intakes. Methods: In a randomized, controlled feeding study with a 2x2 factorial crossover design, healthy post-menopausal women (n=27), consumed either ~675 or ~1510 mg Ca/d, with both low and high protein (pro...

  5. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in nutrient-controlled feeding study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evalua...

  6. Dietary Adherence Monitoring Tool for Free-living, Controlled Feeding Studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To devise a dietary adherence monitoring tool for use in controlled human feeding trials involving free-living study participants. Methods: A scoring tool was devised to measure and track dietary adherence for an 8-wk randomized trial evaluating the effects of two different dietary patter...

  7. Authentication of organic feed by near-infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Tres, A; van der Veer, G; Perez-Marin, M D; van Ruth, S M; Garrido-Varo, A

    2012-08-22

    Organic products tend to retail at a higher price than their conventional counterparts, which makes them susceptible to fraud. In this study we evaluate the application of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) as a rapid, cost-effective method to verify the organic identity of feed for laying hens. For this purpose a total of 36 organic and 60 conventional feed samples from The Netherlands were measured by NIRS. A binary classification model (organic vs conventional feed) was developed using partial least squares discriminant analysis. Models were developed using five different data preprocessing techniques, which were externally validated by a stratified random resampling strategy using 1000 realizations. Spectral regions related to the protein and fat content were among the most important ones for the classification model. The models based on data preprocessed using direct orthogonal signal correction (DOSC), standard normal variate (SNV), and first and second derivatives provided the most successful results in terms of median sensitivity (0.91 in external validation) and median specificity (1.00 for external validation of SNV models and 0.94 for DOSC and first and second derivative models). A previously developed model, which was based on fatty acid fingerprinting of the same set of feed samples, provided a higher sensitivity (1.00). This shows that the NIRS-based approach provides a rapid and low-cost screening tool, whereas the fatty acid fingerprinting model can be used for further confirmation of the organic identity of feed samples for laying hens. These methods provide additional assurance to the administrative controls currently conducted in the organic feed sector.

  8. Development and evaluation of a Chinese-language newborn feeding hotline: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Patricia A; Livingstone, Verity H; Chang, Bruce; Klein, Michael C

    2009-01-01

    Background Preference for formula versus breast feeding among women of Chinese descent remains a concern in North America. The goal of this study was to develop an intervention targeting Chinese immigrant mothers to increase their rates of exclusive breastfeeding. Methods We convened a focus group of immigrant women of Chinese descent in Vancouver, British Columbia to explore preferences for method of infant feeding. We subsequently surveyed 250 women of Chinese descent to validate focus group findings. Using a participatory approach, our focus group participants reviewed survey findings and developed a priority list for attributes of a community-based intervention to support exclusive breastfeeding in the Chinese community. The authors and focus group participants worked as a team to plan, implement and evaluate a Chinese language newborn feeding information telephone service staffed by registered nurses fluent in Chinese languages. Results Participants in the focus group reported a strong preference for formula feeding. Telephone survey results revealed that while pregnant Chinese women understood the benefits of breastfeeding, only 20.8% planned to breastfeed exclusively. Only 15.6% were breastfeeding exclusively at two months postpartum. After implementation of the feeding hotline, 20% of new Chinese mothers in Vancouver indicated that they had used the hotline. Among these women, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding was 44.1%; OR 3.02, (95% CI 1.78–5.09) compared to women in our survey. Conclusion Initiation of a language-specific newborn feeding telephone hotline reached a previously underserved population and may have contributed to improved rates of exclusive breastfeeding. PMID:19178746

  9. Gravimetric determination of amylase-treated neutral detergent fiber in feeds with refluxing in beakers or crucibles: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Mertens, David R

    2002-01-01

    As an important constituent of animal feeds, fiber represents the portion of feeds that is bulky and difficult to digest. The neutral detergent fiber (NDF) method, developed over 30 years ago, is the method of choice for measuring total fiber in forages and other feeds. Several modifications that were made to improve its general applicability to all feeds and others developed in individual laboratories often resulted in variability among laboratories in measuring NDF. The amylase-treated NDF (aNDF) method, therefore, was developed as an accurate and precise method of measuring total insoluble fiber in feeds. A collaborative study was conducted to evaluate the repeatability and reproducibility of the aNDF method over the full range of animal feed materials. Twelve laboratories representing research, feed company, regulatory, and commercial feed testing laboratories analyzed 11 materials as blind duplicates. The materials represented feed matrixes, including animal products; high-protein, high-fat, and high-pectin feeds; oil seeds; grains; heated by-product feeds; and legume and grass hays and silages. Materials selected varied in chemical composition and contained 0-90% aNDF, 1-16% ash, 1-20% crude fat, 1-40% crude protein, and 0-50% starch. Correcting results for changes in blanks and reporting results as ash-free aNDF organic matter (aNDFom) improved the repeatability and reproducibility of results when aNDF was <25%. The within-laboratory repeatability standard deviation (Sr) for percentage aNDFom in feeds varied from 0.21 to 1.82 and among-laboratory reproducibility standard deviation (S(R)) varied from 0.37 to 2.24. The HORRAT was <2 for all materials except feed materials containing >10% fat. However, standard deviations of repeatability and reproducibility for feeds with >10% fat were similar to those of other materials. It is recommended that the aNDF method be accepted for Official First Action status.

  10. A study of marketing and its effect on infant feeding practices.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, A

    2001-09-01

    A baby milk market was created in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries and was conceived through the mutual attraction of the manufacturers and doctors. This has partly attributed to the change from breast to artificial feeding. This study was conducted to determine whether marketing had any effect on infant feeding practices. Fifty Malay mothers whose last child was aged less than five years were asked, by questionnaire and by interview, to identify whether several marketing methods influenced their decision on the selection of infant feeding practice. It was found that these mothers felt milk advertisements on television were attractive (72%), were influenced by others to buy a particular brand of formula (38.4%), were influenced by free milk samples to buy a particular brand of milk formula (65.2%) and were not influenced by their doctors on the chosen method of feeding (68%). More studies should be conducted on a bigger sample in other settings and targeting other methods of marketing to substantiate the above results. Further, similar studies among Chinese and Indian mothers are also required.

  11. Longitudinal study of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese children.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Ushida, Nagako; Yakushiji, Masashi

    2006-11-01

    The aim of this investigation was to study the effects of prolonged breast- or bottle-feeding on dental caries in Japanese infants. This longitudinal study was conducted by means of a questionnaire and clinical examination of 592 children at 18 months, 2 years and 3 years of age. The children were divided into three groups: 1) children still being breast-fed at 18 months of age (n=42); 2) children still being bottle-fed at 18 months of age (n=45); and 3) children weaned off of breast- or bottle-feeding and with no nonnutritive-sucking habits at 18 months of age (n=205). Results showed that breast-feeding at 18 months of age produced many significant differences to the control children, including a higher prevalence of caries and higher number of dft. However, no significant differences were observed between bottle-fed and control children. In conclusion, our results suggest that prolonged breast-feeding at an early age before primary dentition has fully erupted is a risk factor for dental caries. Therefore, breast-fed children need to be monitored more closely, and aggressive methods of preventive care need to be instituted. It is also important to identify factors related to dental caries among breastfed children as soon as possible, and develop effective preventive programs.

  12. Rationale and Design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) Study for Self-Regulation of Energy Intake in Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Eneli, Ihuoma U.; Tylka, Tracy L.; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P.; Perez, Susana A.; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics include two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers’ excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children’s self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness. PMID:25616192

  13. Rationale and design of the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) study for self-regulation of energy intake in preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Eneli, Ihuoma U; Tylka, Tracy L; Hummel, Jessica; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Perez, Susana A; Kaciroti, Niko; Lumeng, Julie C

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, the Institute of Medicine Early Childhood Prevention Policies Report identified feeding dynamics as an important focus area for childhood obesity prevention and treatment. Feeding dynamics includes two central components: (1) caregiver feeding practices (i.e., determining how, when, where, and what they feed their children) and (2) child eating behaviors (i.e., determining how much and what to eat from what food caregivers have provided). Although there has been great interest in overweight and obesity prevention and treatment in young children, they have not focused comprehensively on feeding dynamics. Interventions on feeding dynamics that reduce caregivers' excessive controlling and restrictive feeding practices and encourage the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake may hold promise for tackling childhood obesity especially in the young child but currently lack an evidence base. This manuscript describes the rationale and design for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare a group of mothers and their 3-to 5-year old children who received an intervention focused primarily on feeding dynamics called the Feeding Dynamic Intervention (FDI) with a Wait-list Control Group (WLC). The primary aim of the study will be to investigate the efficacy of the FDI for decreasing Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) and improving energy compensation (COMPX). The secondary aim will be to examine the effect of the FDI in comparison to the WLC on maternal self-reported feeding practices and child satiety responsiveness.

  14. Determination of oxytetracycline/oxytetracycline hydrochloride in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Thiex, Nancy J; Larson, Richard

    2009-01-01

    A method for determining oxytetracycline (OTC) in animal feed, fish feed, and veterinary medicinal products at medicated use and contamination levels was collaboratively studied. The method is applicable to the analysis of animal feeds and mineral premixes containing levels > or =2 mg/kg, and fish feed containing levels > or =10 mg/kg. Oxytetracycline hydrochloride (OTC.HCI) is extracted from ground feed material in acid-methanol solution using mechanical agitation. After centrifugation for 5 min at 1230 x g, an aliquot of the extract is diluted with water andlor acid-methanol so that the concentration of OTC.HCI is approximately the same as that in the working standard, and the solutions contain at least 50% water. Injectable veterinary medicinal materials (also called animal remedy materials) are diluted with water andlor extractant to reach the target concentration. The extracts are filtered and analyzed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection with excitation at 390 nm and emission at 512 nm. Twenty-eight test samples of medicated feeds, supplements, and drug premixes, including 4 test samples for trace-level analysis, were sent to 17 collaborators in Canada, The Netherlands, and the United States. Results were received from 11 laboratories. The RSDr values (within-laboratory repeatability) ranged from 1.26 to 9.21%; RSDR values (among-laboratory reproducibility) ranged from 2.14 to 12.9%, and HorRat values ranged from 0.54 to 3.02. It is recommended that this method be adopted AOAC Official First Action.

  15. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study.

    PubMed

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-05-13

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice.

  16. Infant Feeding Practices in a Multi-Ethnic Asian Cohort: The GUSTO Study

    PubMed Central

    Toh, Jia Ying; Yip, Grace; Han, Wee Meng; Fok, Doris; Low, Yen-Ling; Lee, Yung Seng; Rebello, Salome A.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Kwek, Kenneth; Godfrey, Keith M.; Chong, Yap-Seng; Chong, Mary Foong-Fong

    2016-01-01

    The optimal introduction of complementary foods provides infants with nutritionally balanced diets and establishes healthy eating habits. The documentation of infant feeding practices in multi-ethnic Asian populations is limited. In a Singapore cohort study (GUSTO), 842 mother-infant dyads were interviewed regarding their feeding practices when the infants were aged 9 and 12 months. In the first year, 20.5% of infants were given dietary supplements, while 5.7% took probiotics and 15.7% homeopathic preparations. At age 9 months, 45.8% of infants had seasonings added to their foods, increasing to 56.3% at 12 months. At age 12 months, 32.7% of infants were given blended food, although 92.3% had begun some form of self-feeding. Additionally, 87.4% of infants were fed milk via a bottle, while a third of them had food items added into their bottles. At both time points, more than a third of infants were provided sweetened drinks via the bottle. Infants of Indian ethnicity were more likely to be given dietary supplements, have oil and seasonings added to their foods and consumed sweetened drinks from the bottle (p < 0.001). These findings provide a better understanding of variations in infant feeding practices, so that healthcare professionals can offer more targeted and culturally-appropriate advice. PMID:27187461

  17. [Feeding strategies of mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children: a qualitative study through videotaped observations].

    PubMed

    Perosa, Gimol Benzaquen; Carvalhaes, Maria Antonieta de Barros Leite; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Silveira, Flávia Cristina Pereira

    2011-11-01

    The scope of this study was to identify and compare maternal feeding strategies and characteristics of the interaction between mothers of malnourished and eutrophic children. Eight pairs of mother/malnourished child and eight pairs of mother/eutrophic child (aged between 9 to 24 months) living in poor inner areas, were videotaped during meals, at home. Through analysis of the videos, the strategies were identified and episodes qualitatively analyzed, according to the peculiar characteristics of the interaction, especially maternal responsivity. There were no significant differences in strategies used by the mothers of both groups. The observations of the episodes have shown that feeding a child is a highly interactive process, dependent upon the abilities and characteristics of both partners. The success of feeding appears to be associated with contextual conditions, maternal responsivity and also to the appetite and flexibility of the child. It is suggested that, in projects geared to malnourished children, besides supplements and feeding orientation, special attention be given to maternal self esteem and in helping mothers to deal with children suffering from loss of appetite.

  18. A call-to-action from the feedM.E. Middle East study group

    PubMed Central

    Al-Zeer, Osama; Ozcagli, Tahsin G.; Uyar, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Up to 50% of hospitalized patients worldwide are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. Guidelines recommend nutritional screening of all patients on hospital admission. Results from studies of hospitalized patients show that screening, with follow-up nutritional assessment and care when indicated, can improve patients’ clinical outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. Despite compelling evidence, attention to nutritional care remains suboptimal in clinical settings worldwide. The feedM.E. Global Study Group developed a simple, stepwise Nutrition Care Pathway to facilitate best-practice nutrition care. This pathway guides clinicians to screen patients’ nutritional status on hospital admission or at initiation of care; intervene promptly with nutrition care when needed; and supervene or follow-up routinely with adjustment and reinforcement of nutrition care plans. The feedM.E. Middle East Study Group seeks to extend this program to our region. We advise clinicians to adopt and adapt the Nutrition Care Pathway, bringing quality nutrition care to everyday practice. PMID:26219439

  19. Infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort-A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Budree, Shrish; Goddard, Elizabeth; Brittain, Kirsty; Cader, Shihaam; Myer, Landon; Zar, Heather J

    2016-10-02

    Childhood malnutrition is highly prevalent in low- and middle-income countries. The choices of complementary foods, which are important in infant nutrition, are poorly described in this setting. We investigated infant feeding practices in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein Child Health Study. Longitudinal feeding data were collected from March 2012 to March 2015. Feeding practices at birth, 6-10 and 14 weeks and 6, 9, and 12 months, were investigated using food frequency questionnaires. Anthropometry was measured at birth and 12 months. The quality of the diet was analyzed using the World Health Organization infant and young child feeding indicators. Regression models were used to explore associations between feeding and growth outcomes at 1 year. Exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months was low (13%), and 19% of infants were introduced to solid foods before 4 months. There was high daily consumption of processed meat (56%) and inappropriate foods such as fruit juice (82%), soft drinks (54%), and refined sugary foods (51%) at 1 year. Dietary diversity and consumption of iron rich foods were low at 6 months (5% and 3%, respectively) but higher by 12 months (75% and 78%). Longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding was associated with a lower height-for-age z-score at 1 year. Several dietary deficits and a rising trend in the consumption of inappropriate nutritionally poor foods were identified. These findings raise concern about poor dietary practices and the impact on child and long-term health.

  20. Nutritional status and complementary feeding among HIV-exposed infants: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kamenju, Pili; Liu, Enju; Hertzmark, Ellen; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Kupka, Roland; Aboud, Said; Manji, Karim P; Duggan, Christopher; Fawzi, Wafaie W

    2016-09-30

    Complementary feeding is crucial for improving child survival and promoting growth and development, particularly among HIV-exposed children who have higher risk of morbidity and mortality than their un-exposed peers. This prospective study employed an infant and child feeding index (ICFI) to measure complementary feeding and determine its association with nutritional status among 2092 HIV-exposed infants followed from 6 to 24 months of age in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The ICFI measured both quality and quantity of complementary feeding, including current breastfeeding status, food consistency, dietary diversity scores (DDS), food group frequency score, and meal frequency. The ICFI score ranged from 0 to 9; the median score was 6 (Inter-Quartile Range, IQR= 4-7). After adjusting for potential confounders, high ICFI scores were associated with reduced risk of stunting (high vs. low tertile hazard ratio, HR: 0.72; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.57, 0.91; P< 0.01) and underweight (high vs. low tertile HR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.61, 1.02; P= 0.07). Low DDS were associated with higher risk of stunting (low vs. high tertile HR: 1.59; 95% CI: 1.23, 2.07; P< 0.01) and underweight (low vs. high tertile HR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.96; P= 0.01). In this setting, high DDS and ICFI scores were protective of stunting and underweight. We recommend for nutrition programs in low-income countries to emphasize educating HIV-exposed children's caregivers on the importance of dietary diversity and optimal complementary feeding to improve nutritional status in this important subpopulation.

  1. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.; Shen, B.

    1992-01-01

    Virginia Tech has several articles which support the NASA Langley effort in the area of large aperture radiometric antenna systems. This semi-annual report reports on the following activities: a feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas and the design of array feeds for large reflector antennas.

  2. Maternal Eating Disorders and Infant Feeding Difficulties: Maternal and Child Mediators in a Longitudinal General Population Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micali, Nadia; Simonoff, Emily; Stahl, Daniel; Treasure, Janet

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maternal eating disorders (ED) have been shown to increase the risk of feeding difficulties in the offspring. Very few studies, however, have investigated whether the effect of a maternal ED on childhood feeding is a direct effect or whether it can be ascribed to other child or maternal factors. We aimed to determine the role of…

  3. Amblyomma maculatum Feeding Augments Rickettsia parkeri Infection in a Rhesus Macaque Model: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Banajee, Kaikhushroo H.; Embers, Monica E.; Langohr, Ingeborg M.; Doyle, Lara A.; Hasenkampf, Nicole R.; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rickettsia parkeri is an emerging eschar-causing human pathogen in the spotted fever group of Rickettsia and is transmitted by the Gulf coast tick, Amblyomma maculatum. Tick saliva has been shown to alter both the cellular and humoral components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. However, the effect of this immunomodulation on Rickettsia transmission and pathology in an immunocompetent vertebrate host has not been fully examined. We hypothesize that, by modifying the host immune response, tick feeding enhances infection and pathology of pathogenic spotted fever group Rickettsia sp. In order to assess this interaction in vivo, a pilot study was conducted using five rhesus macaques that were divided into three groups. One group was intradermally inoculated with low passage R. parkeri (Portsmouth strain) alone (n = 2) and another group was inoculated during infestation by adult, R. parkeri-free A. maculatum (n = 2). The final macaque was infested with ticks alone (tick feeding control group). Blood, lymph node and skin biopsies were collected at several time points post-inoculation/infestation to assess pathology and quantify rickettsial DNA. As opposed to the tick-only animal, all Rickettsia-inoculated macaques developed inflammatory leukograms, elevated C-reactive protein concentrations, and elevated TH1 (interferon-γ, interleukin-15) and acute phase inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6) post-inoculation, with greater neutrophilia and interleukin-6 concentrations in the tick plus R. parkeri group. While eschars formed at all R. parkeri inoculation sites, larger and slower healing eschars were observed in the tick feeding plus R. parkeri group. Furthermore, dissemination of R. parkeri to draining lymph nodes early in infection and increased persistence at the inoculation site were observed in the tick plus R. parkeri group. This study indicates that rhesus macaques can be used to model R. parkeri rickettsiosis, and suggests that immunomodulatory factors

  4. Infant feeding practices among mildly wasted children: a retrospective study on Nias Island, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study investigated the infant feeding practices of participating mothers who were recruited into a research project aimed at improving the nutritional status of mildly wasted children (< -1.0 to ≥ -1.5 Weight-for-Height Z-scores) aged ≥ 6 to < 60 months on Nias Island, Indonesia. Methods Cross-sectional, questionnaire-based interview of mothers of the index children (n = 215) who were admitted to the community program for mildly wasted children in the study area. Four focus groups and twenty in-depth interviews were conducted to explore further information on infant feeding practices in the study area. Results Retrospective results indicated that 6% of the mothers never breastfed. Fifty two percent of mothers initiated breastfeeding within six hours of birth, but 17% discarded colostrum. Exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age was practiced by 12%. Seventy-four percent of the mothers offered supplementary liquids besides breast milk within the first 7 days of life, and 14% of infants received these supplementary liquids from 7 days onwards until 6 months of age. Moreover, 79% of the infants were given complementary foods (solid, semi-solid, or soft foods) before 6 months of age. About 9% of the children were breastfed at least two years. Less than one in five of the mildly wasted children (19%) were breastfed on admission to the community program. Qualitative assessments found that inappropriate infant feeding practices were strongly influenced by traditional beliefs of the mothers and paternal grandmothers in the study areas. Conclusion Generally, suboptimal infant feeding was widely practiced among mothers of mildly wasted children in the study area on Nias Island, Indonesia. To promote breastfeeding practices among mothers on Nias Island, appropriate nutrition training for community workers and health-nutrition officers is needed to improve relevant counseling skills. In addition, encouraging public nutrition education that promotes

  5. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri,; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-11-30

    This report describes the development of the design of an advanced dry feed system that was carried out under Task 4.0 of Cooperative Agreement DE-FE0007902 with the US DOE, “Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the use of Low- Rank Coal.” The resulting design will be used for the advanced technology IGCC case with 90% carbon capture for sequestration to be developed under Task 5.0 of the same agreement. The scope of work covered coal preparation and feeding up through the gasifier injector. Subcomponents have been broken down into feed preparation (including grinding and drying), low pressure conveyance, pressurization, high pressure conveyance, and injection. Pressurization of the coal feed is done using Posimetric1 Feeders sized for the application. In addition, a secondary feed system is described for preparing and feeding slag additive and recycle fines to the gasifier injector. This report includes information on the basis for the design, requirements for down selection of the key technologies used, the down selection methodology and the final, down selected design for the Posimetric Feed System, or PFS.

  6. Simulation of long term renewable energy feed-in for European power system studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kies, Alexander; Nag, Kabitri; von Bremen, Lueder; Lorenz, Elke; Heinemann, Detlev; Späth, Stephan

    2014-05-01

    Renewable energies already play a remarkable role in Europe as of today. It is expected that wind and solar amongst other renewables will contribute strongly to the future European energy generation. However, wind and solar generation facilities have due to the weather dependent nature of their resources highly fluctuating feed-in profiles. To overcome the mismatch between energy demand and generation it is important to study and understand the generation patterns and balancing potentials. The goal of the current work is to investigate how the feed-in time series from different renewable sources like on- and offshore wind, photovoltaic, solar thermal, wave, hydro, geothermal and biomass power and combination of them look like in an European power supply system . The work is part of the RESTORE 2050 project (BMU) that investigates the requirements for cross-country grid extensions, usage of storage technologies and capacities, the development of new balancing technologies and the conceptual design of the future energy market which is suitable for high generation percentages of solar and wind. High temporally and spatially resolved long term weather data from COSMO-EU, MERRA and Meteosat (MFG/MSG) satellite data has been used to simulate feed-in from several types of renewable energy sources on a 7 x 7 km grid covering Europe. For wind speeds MERRA reanalysis data has been statistically downscaled to account for orography. Generation was aggregated on the country level and production patterns and their variations in time of different resources were investigated for the years ranging from 2002 to 2012. In a first step the quality of the simulated feed in time series has been investigated by comparison to real observations of wind power and PV generation. Furthermore, some sensitivity studies with respect to underlying assumptions like spatial distribution of wind and PV capacities, the chosen hub-height and wind power curve have been done and will be presented. While

  7. WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study: protocol design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Gail G; Hirschman, Jay D; Owens, Tameka A; McNutt, Suzanne W; Sallack, Linnea E

    2014-03-01

    The federal Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), which began in the 1970s, has undergone revisions in the past several years, including revision to contents of the supplemental food "packages" in 2009 based on recommendations provided by an Institute of Medicine (IOM) committee of The National Academies. In 2010, the IOM held a workshop to examine and recommend research priorities for the program. The overall purpose of the current (ie, second) WIC Infant and Toddler Feeding Practices Study (ITFPS-2) is to conduct a nationally representative, longitudinal study of contemporary WIC infant and toddler feeding practices. This study will update earlier studies and collect information on variations in WIC program components. The study will also assess ways in which WIC may address obesity in early childhood and examine changes in feeding practices that may stem from the 2009 food package revisions. The sample is drawn from the universe of WIC sites nationally, excluding only those with an insufficient volume of eligible participants. Eligibility for the study includes the ability to be interviewed in English or Spanish. Approximately 8000 women and infants are being sampled, and ∼ 4000 are expected to participate. Eligible women are invited to participate during their WIC enrollment visit, and informed consent is sought. The design includes a core sample to be followed until the infant reaches age 2 y and a supplemental sample to be used in some cross-sectional analyses to ensure adequate representation of groups that might be underrepresented in the core sample. Participants will complete up to 11 interviews (core sample) or 4 interviews (supplemental sample) each except for the prenatal interview, which includes a quantitative 24-h recall of food intake for the infant. Eighty sites have been sampled across 26 states and 1 territory. Instruments have been developed and pretested in both English and Spanish, and interviewers

  8. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  9. Association between feeding methods and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of infants in their first 18 months of life.

    PubMed

    Yonezu, Takuro; Arano-Kojima, Taiko; Kumazawa, Kaido; Shintani, Seikou

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate infant feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding methods on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Japanese infants. A random sample of 353 mothers of infants of 18 months of age was interviewed at a public health facility in "K" city. The prevalence and duration of infant feeding patterns categorized as breast-feeding, partial breast-feeding, and bottle-feeding, were determined. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits (pacifier use and finger sucking). The data were analyzed using the Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons to assess possible association between feeding method and non-nutritive sucking behavior. The infants were categorized into the following groups depending on feeding method: breast-feeding (27.2%), partial breast-feeding (32.0%), or bottle-feeding (40.8%). Among all infants, 13.9% used a pacifier, 18.4% sucked their fingers, and 0.3% had both habits at 18 months of age. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and finger sucking. In contrast, bottle-feeding was strongly associated with pacifier use and finger sucking. These results suggest that breast-feeding provides benefits to infants, and that non-nutritive sucking habits may be avoided by promoting correct breast-feeding practices.

  10. Exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in Northwest Ethiopia: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Biks, Gashaw Andargie; Berhane, Yemane; Worku, Alemayehu; Gete, Yigzaw Kebede

    2015-05-01

    Despite the overall national success in reducing infant mortality rate in Ethiopia, infant mortality rate is still high in northwest Amhara region. This study is conducted in one of the high mortality areas with the aim of identifying risk factors that are associated with infant mortality in Northwest Amhara Region, Ethiopia. A prospective open cohort study involving 1752 infants (1472.4518 person years of follow-up) was undertaken from November 2009 to August 2011. Kaplan-Meier Survival analysis was used to estimate infant mortality rate. Risk factors associated with infant mortality were assessed using multivariate Poisson regression. The overall infant mortality rate was 88 per 1000 person-years (95% CI: 74.3, 104.9). After controlling other important predictors in multivariate Poisson regression, infants not exclusively breastfed [IRR = 7.86, 95% CI: (5.11, 12.10), )], breast milk initiated after 24 hours of birth [IRR = 4.84,95% CI: (2.94,7.99)], mothers not washing hands with soap after visiting toilet and before feeding child [IRR = 4.61, 95% CI: (2.24, 9.48)], being rural residents [IRR = 2.33, 95% CI: (1.12, 4.88)], infants born within 24 months for the previous birth [IRR = 2.79, 95%CI: (1.88, 4.15)], have increased the risk of infant mortality. In conclusion, exclusive breast feeding is the strongest predictor of infant survival in this predominantly rural setting where hygienic standards are poor. Supporting mothers to exclusively breast feeding which is cost effective, safe and feasible strategy, can help reduce infant mortality in the study setting.

  11. An integrated study of toxicant-induced inhibition of feeding and digestion activity in Daphnia magna

    SciTech Connect

    Coen, W.M. De; Janssen, C.R.; Persoone, G.

    1995-12-31

    Previous studies on D. magna exposed to xenobiotics have demonstrated that feeding inhibition can be used as a general indicator of toxic stress. In order to evaluate the consequences of the reduced food absorption on the energy balance of the organism, the effects of short-term exposure to sublethal toxicant concentrations of 8 chemicals on physiological (ingestion rate) and biochemical aspects (digestive enzyme activity) of the feeding process were investigated. The ingestion activity was assessed using a simple and sensitive method based on the use of fluorescent latex microbeads. The biochemical aspects of feeding were studied by analyzing the activity of 5 digestive enzymes, each responsible for the breakdown of one of the three major macromolecular constituents of the food (3 carbohydrases: amylase, cellulose and {beta}-galactosidase; trypsin and esterase). Using ingestion as an effect criterium, correlation analysis revealed a significant (p < 0.05) and positive (r{sup 2} = 0.89) correlation between the 1.5h EC50 value and the conventional acute toxicity endpoint (24hEC50). For 3 out of 5 enzymes studied a clear concentration-response relationship was observed. The 2h EC 10 value (inhibition) of {beta}-galactosidase activity and 2h EC5 value of trypsin and esterase activity showed a significant linear correlation (r{sup 2} respectively 0.98, 0.96 and 0.95) with the 24hEC50 value. The relationships between the physiological and biochemical effects will be discussed in the context of toxicant-induced homeostatic adjustments in the organism`s metabolism. Finally the potential use of both types of effect criteria as rapid screening tools in aquatic toxicity testing will be reviewed.

  12. Implementation of enteral feeding protocol in an intensive care unit: Before-and-after study

    PubMed Central

    Padar, Martin; Uusvel, Gerli; Starkopf, Liis; Starkopf, Joel; Reintam Blaser, Annika

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the effects of implementing an enteral feeding protocol on the nutritional delivery and outcomes of intensive care patients. METHODS An uncontrolled, observational before-and-after study was performed in a tertiary mixed medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU). In 2013, a nurse-driven enteral feeding protocol was developed and implemented in the ICU. Nutrition and outcome-related data from patients who were treated in the study unit from 2011-2012 (the Before group) and 2014-2015 (the After group) were obtained from a local electronic database, the national Population Registry and the hospital’s Infection Control Service. Data from adult patients, readmissions excluded, who were treated for at least 7 d in the study unit were analysed. RESULTS In total, 231 patients were enrolled in the Before and 249 in the After group. The groups were comparable regarding demographics, patient profile, and severity of illness. Fewer patients were mechanically ventilated on admission in the After group (86.7% vs 93.1% in the Before group, P = 0.021). The prevalence of hospital-acquired infections, length of ICU stay and ICU, 30- and 60-d mortality did not differ between the groups. Patients in the After group had a lower 90-d (P = 0.026) and 120-d (P = 0.033) mortality. In the After group, enteral nutrition was prescribed less frequently (P = 0.039) on day 1 but significantly more frequently on all days from day 3. Implementation of the feeding protocol resulted in a higher cumulative amount of enterally (P = 0.049) and a lower cumulative amount of parenterally (P < 0.001) provided calories by day 7, with an overall reduction in caloric provision (P < 0.001). The prevalence of gastrointestinal symptoms was comparable in both groups, as was the frequency of prokinetic use. Underfeeding (total calories < 80% of caloric needs, independent of route) was observed in 59.4% of the study days Before vs 76.9% After (P < 0.001). Inclusion in the Before group, previous

  13. Probiotic preparation reduces faecal water genotoxicity and cytotoxicity in chickens fed ochratoxin A contaminated feed (in vivo study).

    PubMed

    Śliżewska, Katarzyna; Nowak, Adriana; Smulikowska, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of the faecal water of chickens fed ochratoxin A (OTA) contaminated feed with and without probiotic preparation. The study was performed on 20 healthy female Ross broiler chickens divided into 4 groups: control chickens - fed with non-supplemented feed; PP chickens - fed feed supplemented with the probiotic preparation; OTA chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA; OTA + PP chickens - fed feed contaminated with 1 mg per kg of OTA and supplemented with the probiotic preparation. Faecal water samples were collected on the 35(th) day of life of chickens from each group. Genotoxicity was measured using the comet assay, and cytotoxicity by means of MTT tests. Mean DNA damage, measured as the percentage of DNA in the tails of the comets, was 8.50 ± 1.10 for chickens fed OTA at 1 mg/kg and 6.41 ± 0.67 in the controls. The supplementation of feed with the probiotic preparation decreased the extent of DNA damage to 4.74 ± 0.78. In the control group of chickens the average cytotoxicity was 38.5 ± 0.5 (in MTT), while in the probiotic preparation group (PP group) it was 31.8 ± 0.7 (in MTT). After supplementation of the feed with the probiotic preparation, the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity were decreased in a statistically significant manner.

  14. The determinants of exclusive breast feeding in urban slums: a community based study.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Ranjana; Mahajan, P C; Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2009-02-01

    The actual rate of Exclusive Breast Feeding (EBF) (up to the age of 6 months) is dismally low in urban slums of India. The reasons and determinants of this are debatable. The study was planned to understand the determinants of EBF in the infants in urban slums. A community-based cross sectional study was done in urban slums of Gwalior, India. The data were collected by interviewing the caregivers of 279 infants aged between 6 and 11 months from November 2005 to July 2006. Only 11 (3.8%) mothers knew that EBF should be done till six months and 22 (7.8%) actually practiced EBF. A total of 178 (63.8%) and 212 (76.0%) newborns were given pre- and post-lacteal feeds with 26.2% discarding colostrum. Only 22 (7.8%) practiced EBF. The early breastfeeding (BF) initiation, Ante Natal Clinic (ANC) visits, mothers' education and immunization visits were significantly associated with higher probability of EBF. There were a number of myths and misconceptions about BF in this urban slum population. The correct information about BF was more common amongst the women who had frequent contacts with health facilities due to any reason or during ANC or immunization visit. Similarly, it is the continuum of good health and feeding practices and the mothers who start early BF or get their child immunized regularly are more likely to EBF their children. Considering the widely prevalent myths and low rate of utilization of health services along with high potential benefits of EBF, every opportunity of mothers' interaction with the health facility should be utilized for promoting correct and EBF practices.

  15. Subchronic feeding study of high oleic acid soybeans (Event DP-3Ø5423-1) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Delaney, Bryan; Appenzeller, Laura M; Munley, Susan M; Hoban, Denise; Sykes, Greg P; Malley, Linda A; Sanders, Craig

    2008-12-01

    DP-3Ø5423-1 (305423) is a genetically-modified (GM) soybean that was produced by biolistic insertion of a gm-fad2-1 gene fragment and the gm-hra gene into the germline of soybean seeds. The gm-fad2-1 gene fragment cosuppresses expression of the endogenous FAD2-1 gene encoding the seed-specific omega-6 fatty acid desaturase resulting in higher concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) relative to linoleic acid (18:2). The gm-hra gene encoding a modified acetolactate synthase (ALS) enzyme was used as a selectable marker. In the current study, processed fractions (meal, hulls, and oil) from 305423 soybeans, non-GM soybeans with a similar genetic background (near isoline control) and three commercially-available non-GM varieties were used to formulate diets that were nutritionally comparable to PMI Certified Rodent LabDiet 5002. Diets were fed to young adult Crl:CD(SD) rats (12/sex/group) for approximately 90 days. Compared with rats fed the non-GM control diet, no biologically relevant differences were observed in rats fed the 305423 diet with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, mortality, clinical signs of toxicity, or ophthalmological observations. No test diet-related effects were observed on neurobehavioral assessments, organ weights, or clinical or anatomic pathology. These results demonstrated that 305423 soybeans are as safe and wholesome as non-GM soybeans.

  16. Knowledge and attitudes about infant feeding among nulliparous and parous women in Port Moresby: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Frank, D; Ripa, P; Vince, J D; Tefuarani, N

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of the advantages of breastfeeding, the disadvantages of bottle feeding and the Papua New Guinean legislation to protect breastfeeding was determined in a comparative study of nulliparous and parous women attending the Antenatal Clinic of Port Moresby General Hospital. A high proportion (40%) of both groups had had experience of bottle feeding. Whilst the large majority (94%) of the women indicated that breastfeeding was the best way to feed babies, knowledge of the reasons for its superiority over bottle feeding and of the dangers of bottle feeding was poor in both groups. Knowledge of the legislation to protect breastfeeding was also poor and was the only area in which there was a significant difference between the groups, nulliparous women having poorer knowledge (p = 0.015). The level of education did not appear to be associated with knowledge about feeding. There is an urgent need to review the legislation, to find ways of enforcing it, and to improve the education of young people on issues of infant feeding.

  17. Scoping Studies to Evaluate the Benefits of an Advanced Dry Feed System on the Use of Low-Rank Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Rader, Jeff; Aguilar, Kelly; Aldred, Derek; Chadwick, Ronald; Conchieri, John; Dara, Satyadileep; Henson, Victor; Leininger, Tom; Liber, Pawel; Liber, Pawel; Lopez-Nakazono, Benito; Pan, Edward; Ramirez, Jennifer; Stevenson, John; Venkatraman, Vignesh

    2012-03-30

    The purpose of this project was to evaluate the ability of advanced low rank coal gasification technology to cause a significant reduction in the COE for IGCC power plants with 90% carbon capture and sequestration compared with the COE for similarly configured IGCC plants using conventional low rank coal gasification technology. GE’s advanced low rank coal gasification technology uses the Posimetric Feed System, a new dry coal feed system based on GE’s proprietary Posimetric Feeder. In order to demonstrate the performance and economic benefits of the Posimetric Feeder in lowering the cost of low rank coal-fired IGCC power with carbon capture, two case studies were completed. In the Base Case, the gasifier was fed a dilute slurry of Montana Rosebud PRB coal using GE’s conventional slurry feed system. In the Advanced Technology Case, the slurry feed system was replaced with the Posimetric Feed system. The process configurations of both cases were kept the same, to the extent possible, in order to highlight the benefit of substituting the Posimetric Feed System for the slurry feed system.

  18. Initial studies of array feeds for the 70-meter antenna at 32 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, P. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a study to determine the feasibility of using array feed techniques to improve the performance of the 70 m antenna at 32 GHz are presented. Changing from 8.4 to 32 GHz has the potential of increasing the gain by 11.6 dB, but recent measurements indicate that additional losses of from 3 to 7 dB occur at 32 GHz, depending on the elevation angle. Array feeds were proposed to recover some of the losses by compensating for surface distortions that contribute to these losses. Results for both surface distortion compensation and pointing error correction are discussed. These initial studies, however, had one significant restriction: The mechanical finite element model was used to characterize the surface distortions, not the measured distortions from three angle holography data, which would be more representative of the actual antenna. Further work is required to provide for a more accurate estimate of performance that utilizes holography data and, in particular, one that evaluates the performance in the focal plane region of the antenna.

  19. Study on evaluation of silage from pineapple (Ananas comosus) fruit residue as livestock feed.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Nisarani Kollurappa Shivakumar; Vallesha, Naglapura Chandrashekara; Awachat, Vaibhav Bhagvan; Anandan, Samireddypalli; Pal, Din Taran; Prasad, Cadaba Srinivasa

    2015-03-01

    Pineapple is a commercially important fruit crop grown in Asian and African countries. Pineapple fruit residue (PFR) accounts for more than 65% of the processed fruits, and its disposal is a major problem due to its high moisture and sugar content predisposing it to fungal growth and spoilage. Silage technique was adopted to address this problem, and the PFR silage was evaluated for its feeding value. It was observed that on 15th day, the pH of PFR silage was 4.2-4.3 and lactic acid content was 6-8% (DM basis). Combination of 4 parts leafy crown and 1 part peels/pomace was found very ideal to achieve moisture content of 65-70% and produced a good quality silage with minimum fungal count (<3-4 colony forming units) on 15th day of ensiling. Nutritive value in terms of energy and minerals was superior to maize green fodder. Feeding trial in two groups of sheep with 10 numbers in each group fed total mixed ration (TMR) comprising 62% PFR/maize silage and 48% concentrate mixture (DM basis) for 75-day period did not show any adverse effects on nutrient utilization (DM, CP, NDF, ADF), serum biochemical (total protein, creatinine, urea nitrogen, SGOT, SGPT), and mineral profile (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn) and supported a daily growth rate of 140 g. The overall performance was similar to those sheep fed TMR with maize green fodder silage. Feeding PFR silage replacing hybrid napier green fodder in two groups of cows with eight in each group showed an improvement in average daily milk yield by 3.0 lit per cow and fat content by 0.6 U fed PFR silage-based TMR as compared to cows fed hybrid napier green fodder-based TMR. In both studies (sheep or cows), there was no evidence of metabolic or health-related disorders indicating that PFR silage was effectively utilized. Pineapple fruit residue that was hitherto wasted was successfully converted to silage and was found to be a valuable alternative to conventional green fodder. Ensiling of PFR not only improved the economics of feeding

  20. Overview of the NASA Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Exploration Feed-Forward Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DwyerCianciolo, Alicia M.; Zang, Thomas A.; Sostaric, Ronald R.; McGuire, M. Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Technology required to land large payloads (20 to 50 mt) on Mars remains elusive. In an effort to identify the most viable investment path, NASA and others have been studying various concepts. One such study, the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDLSA) Study [1] identified three potential options: the rigid aeroshell, the inflatable aeroshell and supersonic retropropulsion (SRP). In an effort to drive out additional levels of design detail, a smaller demonstrator, or exploration feed-forward (EFF), robotic mission was devised that utilized two of the three (inflatable aeroshell and SRP) high potential technologies in a configuration to demonstrate landing a two to four metric ton payload on Mars. This paper presents and overview of the maximum landed mass, inflatable aeroshell controllability and sensor suite capability assessments of the selected technologies and recommends specific technology areas for additional work.

  1. Infant feeding practices, dietary adequacy, and micronutrient status measures in the MAL-ED study.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura E; Bose, Anuradha; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Nesamvuni, Cebisa; de Moraes, Milena Lima; Turab, Ali; Patil, Crystal; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Ahmed, Tahmeed

    2014-11-01

    The overall goal of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study is to evaluate the roles of repeated enteric infection and poor dietary intakes on the development of malnutrition, poor cognitive development, and diminished immune response. The use of 8 distinct sites for data collection from Latin America, sub-Saharan Africa, and South Asia allow for an examination of these relationships across different environmental contexts. Key to testing study hypotheses is the collection of appropriate data to characterize the dietary intakes and nutritional status of study children from birth through 24 months of age. The focus of the current article is on the collection of data to describe the nature and adequacy of infant feeding, energy and nutrient intakes, and the chosen indicators to capture micronutrient status in children over time.

  2. Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis Study: Phase 2 Report on Exploration Feed-Forward Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwyer Ciancolo, Alicia M.; Davis, Jody L.; Engelund, Walter C.; Komar, D. R.; Queen, Eric M.; Samareh, Jamshid A.; Way, David W.; Zang, Thomas A.; Murch, Jeff G.; Krizan, Shawn A.; Olds, Aaron D.; Powell, Richard W.; Shidner, Jeremy D.; Kinney, Daivd J.; McGuire, M. Kathleen; Arnold, James O.; Covington, M. Alan; Sostaric, Ronald R.; Zumwalt, Carlie H.; Llama, Eduardo G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA senior management commissioned the Entry, Descent and Landing Systems Analysis (EDL-SA) Study in 2008 to identify and roadmap the Entry, Descent and Landing (EDL) technology investments that the agency needed to successfully land large payloads at Mars for both robotic and human-scale missions. Year 1 of the study focused on technologies required for Exploration-class missions to land payloads of 10 to 50 t. Inflatable decelerators, rigid aeroshell and supersonic retro-propulsion emerged as the top candidate technologies. In Year 2 of the study, low TRL technologies identified in Year 1, inflatables aeroshells and supersonic retropropulsion, were combined to create a demonstration precursor robotic mission. This part of the EDL-SA Year 2 effort, called Exploration Feed Forward (EFF), took much of the systems analysis simulation and component model development from Year 1 to the next level of detail.

  3. Effect of cellooligosaccharide or synbiotic feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Toshiya; Kawashima, Kenji; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Murakami, Toshiaki; Kanagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takashige; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Yasuda, Kenji; Terada, Fuminori; Kushibiki, Shiro

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134(T) (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n = 16), SB feeding group (n = 18), and control group (n = 18). Body weight at 90 days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90 days of age were greater (P < 0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P < 0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90 days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB.

  4. Thiopeptin, a New Feed-Additive Antibiotic: Biological Studies and Field Trials

    PubMed Central

    Mine, K.; Miyairi, N.; Takano, N.; Mori, S.; Watanabe, N.

    1972-01-01

    Thiopeptin is a new antibiotic, produced by Streptomyces tateyamensis and developed solely for animal use as a feed additive. The antibiotic content in animal tissue and feed was assayed in terms of the antimicrobial activity against Mycoplasma laidlawii A. This antibiotic was found to be relatively nontoxic in rats and mice. In chickens, this antibiotic is excreted into feces within 48 hr of administration and is not absorbed in tissue. It is well tolerated in both broilers and swine and is highly stable in animal feed. Thiopeptin-supplemented feed contributes to the improvement of weight gain, feed efficiency in chickens and swine, and the egg performance in layers. Thus, thiopeptin, when used as a feed additive, is quite suitable for supplementing animal nutrition. PMID:4680812

  5. Preliminary Assessment of the Relative Toxicity of 1,5-Diazido-3- Nitrazapentane 90-Day Dermal Application Male and Female Rabbits Study Number 75-51-Y809-90, May 1990 - June 1992. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    blood samples were collected by the cephalic ear artery from both male and female rabbits each dose group. Tables 4 and 5 list the clinical chemistry and...4. CLINICAL CHEMISTRY Serum Glutamic Oxaloacetic Transaminase (SGOT) (AST) (Aspartate Aminotransferase) Serum Glutamic Pyruvic Transaminase (SGPT...Appendices C-L). (3) The clinical chemistry values (Appendices I and J) showed a significant change in total protein in the 78 mg/kg group for male rabbits and

  6. Studies on Methanol Crossover in Liquid-Feed Direct Methanol Pem Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narayanan, S. R.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of liquid feed direct methanol fuel cells using various types of Nafion membranes as the solid polymer electrolyte have been studied. The rate of fuel crossover and electrical performance has been measured for cells with Nafion membranes of various thicknesses and equivalent weights. The crossover rate is found to decrease with increasing thickness and applied current. The dependence of crossover rate on current density can be understood in terms of a simple linear diffusion model which suggests that the crossover rate can be influenced by the electrode structure in addition to the membrane. The studies suggest that Nafion EW 1500 is a very promising alternate to Nafion EW 1100 for direct methanol fuel cells.

  7. Recombinant Bile Salt-Stimulated Lipase in Preterm Infant Feeding: A Randomized Phase 3 Study

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Charlotte; Hascoet, Jean-Michel; Ertl, Tibor; Gadzinowski, Janusz S.; Carnielli, Virgilio; Rigo, Jacques; Lapillonne, Alexandre; Couce, María L.; Vågerö, Mårten; Palmgren, Ingrid; Timdahl, Kristina; Hernell, Olle

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Feeding strategies are critical for healthy growth in preterm infants. Bile salt-stimulated lipase (BSSL), present in human milk, is important for fat digestion and absorption but is inactivated during pasteurization and absent in formula. This study evaluated if recombinant human BSSL (rhBSSL) improves growth in preterm infants when added to formula or pasteurized breast milk. Patients and Methods LAIF (Lipase Added to Infant Feeding) was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 study in infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. The primary efficacy variable was growth velocity (g/kg/day) during 4 weeks intervention. Follow-up visits were at 3 and 12 months. The study was performed at 54 centers in 10 European countries. Results In total 415 patients were randomized (rhBSSL n = 207, placebo n = 208), 410 patients were analyzed (rhBSSL n = 206, placebo n = 204) and 365 patients were followed until 12 months. Overall, there was no significantly improved growth velocity during rhBSSL treatment compared to placebo (16.77 vs. 16.56 g/kg/day, estimated difference 0.21 g/kg/day, 95% CI [-0.40; 0.83]), nor were secondary endpoints met. However, in a predefined subgroup, small for gestational age infants, there was a significant effect on growth in favor of rhBSSL during treatment. The incidence of adverse events was higher in the rhBSSL group during treatment. Conclusions Although this study did not meet its primary endpoint, except in a subgroup of infants small for gestational age, and there was an imbalance in short-term safety, these data provide insights in nutrition, growth and development in preterm infants. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01413581 PMID:27244221

  8. Phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets developed for controlled feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    Racette, Susan B.; Spearie, Catherine Anderson; Phillips, Katherine M.; Lin, Xiaobo; Ma, Lina; Ostlund, Richard E.

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterols reduce cholesterol absorption and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations, but the quantity and physiological significance of phytosterols in common diets are generally unknown because nutrient databases do not contain comprehensive phytosterol data. The primary aim of this study was to design prototype phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets for use in controlled feeding studies of the influence of phytosterols on health. A second aim was to quantify the phytosterol content of these prototype diets and three other diets consumed in the United States. This study was conducted from June, 2001 to September, 2008 and involved designing, preparing, and then analyzing five different diets: an experimental phytosterol-deficient ‘control’ diet, a relatively high-phytosterol diet based on the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, American Heart Association (AHA) diet, Atkins® lifetime maintenance plan, and a vegan diet. A single day of meals for each diet was homogenized and the resulting composites were analyzed for free, esterified, and glycosylated phytosterols by gas chromatography. Independent samples t tests were used to compare the diets’ total phytosterol content. The total phytosterol content of the experimental phytosterol-deficient diet was 64 mg/2000 kcal, with progressively larger quantities in Atkins®, AHA, vegan, and the high-phytosterol DASH diet (163, 340, 445 and 500 mg/2000 kcal, respectively). Glycosylated phytosterols, which are often excluded from phytosterol analyses, comprised 15.9 ± 5.9% (mean±SD) of total phytosterols. In summary, phytosterol-deficient and high-phytosterol diets that conform to recommended macronutrient guidelines and are palatable can now be used in controlled feeding studies. PMID:19942022

  9. A study of breast feeding rates at a large Australian obstetric hospital.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, W; Yuen, H P

    1995-11-01

    A prospective breast feeding survey in a large obstetric hospital was carried out from 1988 to 1991. For each year, a sample of women were interviewed following delivery and data was collected which included the method of feeding, patient status (public or private patients), age, parity, (including previous breast feeding experience), marital status, country of birth and the number of babies. The mother's feeding method after delivery and on discharge from hospital were recorded. Women who were breast feeding on discharge were interviewed at 3 months. When putting the figures for the 4 years together, the breast feeding commencement rate was 88%, the breast feeding rate on discharge was 80% and the breast feeding rate at 3 months was between 51% and 57%. Factors found to be affecting the breast feeding rate at 3 months included patient status, age and parity. Problems experienced by the mothers after discharge from hospital included nipple pain, nipple trauma and mastitis. Private patients reported a significantly higher rate of mastitis than public patients.

  10. Life cycle assessment of animal feeds prepared from liquid food residues: a case study of rice-washing water.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Akifumi; Ishida, Mitsuyoshi; Ohmori, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Yamashita, Takahiro; Yokoyama, Hiroshi; Tatsugawa, Kenji; Ijiri, Satoru; Kawashima, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy consumption of three methods used to produce animal feed from concentrated rice-washing water (CRW) and disposing of the rice-washing water through wastewater treatment. Four scenarios were compared using LCA: (i) producing concentrated liquid feed by centrifugation (CC) of CRW with wastewater treatment and discharge of the supernatant, (ii) producing concentrated liquid feed by heating evaporation (HC) of CRW, (iii) producing dehydrated feed by dehydration (DH) of CRW, and (iv) wastewater treatment and discharge of nonconcentrated rice-washing water (WT). The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 metric ton of rice washed for cooking or processing. Our results suggested that the energy consumptions of CC, HC, DH, and WT were 108, 322, 739, and 242 MJ per FU, respectively, and the amounts of GHG emissions from CC, HC, DH, and WT were 6.4, 15.8, 45.5, and 22.5 kg of CO equivalents per FU, respectively. When the produced feed prepared from CRW was assumed to be transported 200 km to farms, CC and HC still emitted smaller GHGs than the other scenarios, and CC consumed the smallest amount of energy among the scenarios. The present study indicates that liquid feed production from CRW by centrifugation has a remarkably reduced environmental impact compared with the wastewater treatment and discharge of rice-washing water.

  11. Maternal mind-mindedness during infancy, general parenting sensitivity and observed child feeding behavior: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Claire; Blissett, Jackie

    2014-01-01

    Maternal mind-mindedness, or the tendency to view the child as a mental agent, has been shown to predict sensitive and responsive parenting behavior. As yet the role of mind-mindedness has not been explored in the context of feeding interactions. This study evaluates the relations between maternal mind-mindedness at 6 months of infant age and subsequently observed maternal sensitivity and feeding behaviors with children at age 1 year. Maternal mind-mindedness was greater in mothers who had breast-fed compared to formula-fed. Controlling for breast-feeding, mind-mindedness at 6 months was correlated with observations of more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors at 1 year of age. Mind-mindedness was also associated with greater general maternal sensitivity in play and this general parenting sensitivity mediated the effect of mind-mindedness on more sensitive and positive feeding behaviors. Interventions to promote maternal tendency to consider their child's mental states may encourage more adaptive parental feeding behaviors.

  12. A field study on feed supplementation, body weight and selected blood parameters in local pigs in Laos.

    PubMed

    Chittavong, Malavanh; Lindberg, Jan Erik; Jansson, Anna

    2013-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate feed allowances, body weight (BW), haematocrit, haemoglobin, plasma ionised calcium (iCa), sodium, potassium, pH and glucose concentration and faecal K/Na ratio in local growing pigs, sows and piglets kept by small-holder farmers in Laos. Starting hypotheses were that (1) local pigs are under fed, (2) BW is higher in pigs receiving supplementary feed and (3) the blood profile of pigs subjected to very poor nutrition is outside the normal range. On 54 pig-keeping smallholdings in Borikhamxay province, Lao PDR, daily feed allowances were weighed and BW recorded for 27 lactating sows, 54 piglets and 27 growing pigs. Blood samples were collected from the vena jugularis in all pigs. Feed supplementation did not affect BW, but plasma iCa concentration was outside the normal range for all pigs. There was a tendency for lower faecal K/Na ratio in Na-supplemented sows. The results confirm that local pigs in small-scale production systems in Laos suffer from poor nutrition. The most important challenge for farmers appears to be provision of more feed, particularly feed with a high Ca content.

  13. Self-reported breast feeding practices and the Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Abdullah; Hashem, Alaa AbouBakr; Hamadah, Reem E; Alhoulan, Asma; AlMakadma, Yosra A; Khan, Tehreem A; Al-Hamdani, Abdurahman K; Senok, Abiola

    2016-01-01

    Background The Baby Friendly Hospital Initiative (BFHI) is a practice guideline for healthcare providers to promote breastfeeding and increase breastfeeding rates. Objective This study aimed to examine reported experiences and views on breastfeeding of women using prenatal and postnatal services, and opinions of staff, in the context of the BFHI programme in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting This prospective, longitudinal study was conducted from December 2013 to September 2015 at two healthcare facilities (BFHI and non-BFHI) in Riyadh Saudi Arabia. Methods Women 36–40 weeks gestation receiving antenatal care at the hospitals were enrolled. Questionnaires were administered prenatally, at 1, 3 and 6 months postnatal and to the administrator and maternity staff. Results We recruited 277 women with an estimated 80% response rate. 156 (BFHI=78/139, non-BFHI=78/138, 56%) participants completed all questionnaires. Most BFHI-hospital participants (77.9%, n=8 for this question) acknowledged seeing the breast feeding policy compared to 23.5% (n=23) at the non-BFHI-hospital (p<0.01). Breast feeding education and encouragement was higher at the BFHI-hospital (93.3%) compared to the non-BFHI-hospital (48.2%; p<0.01). At postpartum discharge, 51% (n=53) of mothers in the BFHI-hospital were breast feeding exclusively versus 29.6% (n=29) at the non-BFHI-hospital. Where formula feed was introduced, women in the BFHI-hospital more often practiced mixed feeding rather than exclusive formula feeding with some switching from mixed feeding to exclusive breast feeding between 3 and 6 months postpartum. Exclusive breast feeding rates declined in both hospitals at 3 and 6 months postpartum with lack of community services for lactation being a major reason. Although BFHI-hospital staff (n=9) were more conversant with BFHI principles, defects in adherence to the BFHI 10 Steps were identified. Conclusions This is the first study assessing the

  14. Complementary feeding practices among mothers in selected slums of Dhaka city: a descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Hoque, Md Asirul; Alam, Md Safiul

    2014-03-01

    Improper complementary feeding (CF) practice is one of the main reasons for malnutrition among Bangladeshi children aged less than two years. In this context, using the guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO), this study assessed the CF practices among mothers in four selected slums (Tejgoan, Rayerbazar, Beribadh, and Jafrabad) of Dhaka city. This descriptive study, conducted during January-June 2010, included 120 mother-child pairs from the selected slums. Samples were selected conveniently, and the sociodemographic profiles of mothers in the four slums were similar. The mean (standard deviation) age of the children was 14.68 +/- 5.55 months. A questionnaire, developed following the guidelines of WHO for CF practices, was used for collecting data. Twenty-seven (23%) mothers were exclusively breastfeeding (EBF) their children. Among non-EBF mothers, 15 (16%) started CF after the recommended time. At 6-8 months of age, 2 (40%) of the EBF and 12 (67%) of the non-EBF mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. In both the groups--9-11 months of age--about 70% mothers gave complementary foods twice a day to their children. The frequency of CF was acceptable (3 times a day) in 13 (81%) of the EBF and 32 (56%) of the non-EBF children at 12-23 months of age. Complementary foods given by 24 (89%) of the EBF and 86 (93%) of the non-EBF mothers to their children were not adequate in energy contents. Two (7%) EBF and 16 (17%) non-EBF mothers did not wash their hands after defaecation. Three (11%) EBF and 24 (26%) non-EBF mothers did not properly clean their hands and utensils before feeding. Nine (33%) EBF mothers did not wash their children's hands. Fifty (54%) non-EBF mothers also did not do this. Feeding with psychosocial care practices was not perfect in either of the groups. The findings showed that, according to the WHO guidelines, the CF practices among mothers of children aged less than two years were very poor in the selected slums of

  15. Differentiation of bacterial feeding nematodes in soil ecological studies by means of arbitrarily primed PCR

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Der Knaap, Esther; Rodriguez, Russell J.; Freckman, Diana W.

    1993-01-01

    Arbitrarily-primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR) was used to differentiate closely related bacterial-feeding nematodes of the genera: Caenorhabditis, Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia. Average percentage similarity of bands generated by ap-PCR with seven different primers between 14 isolates of Caenorhabditis elegans was ⪢ 90%, whereas between C. elegans, C. briggsae and C. remanei similarity was < 20%. Based on intra- and inter-specific similarity between Caenorhabditis isolates, analysis of Acrobeloides, Cephalobus and Zeldia isolates revealed either similar or different genotypes. Distinct genotypes were verified by morphological analyses. In addition, the genotypes obtained from single egg-derived nematode populations were also obtained from ap-PCR analysis of single worms. Due to the difficulty of identification of soil nematodes, the ap-PCR offers potential as a rapid and reliable technique to assess biodiversity. Ap-PCR will make it feasible, for the first time, to study the ecological interactions of unique nematode genotypes in soil habitats.

  16. Decision-making on the use of diverse combinations of agricultural products and natural plants in pig feed: a case study of native pig smallholder in northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    We have identified the feed offered to native pigs in a case study of smallholder in northern Thailand. We examined the types and fresh weights of pig feed over two 10-day periods in household A, in September 2006 (rainy season) and in December 2006 and January 2007 (dry season). The study results are as follows. (1) They offered 18 types of feed in total during the rainy and dry seasons, of which seven types were common to the rainy and dry seasons, five types were offered during the rainy season only, and six types during the dry season only. (2) They offered agricultural products as 34% of feed (rainy season) and 61% of feed (dry season), and natural plants used exclusively for pig feed as 66% of feed (rainy season) and 39% of feed (dry season). (3) The feed combinations at each feeding time differed 80% of the time during both the rainy and dry seasons. These results show not only that they offered diverse combinations of agricultural products and natural plants as pig feed, but also that they changed feed kinds in both the rainy and dry seasons.

  17. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  18. A preliminary study of the behavioral effects of feeding enrichment on African elephants.

    PubMed

    Stoinski, T.S.; Daniel, E.; Maple, T.L.

    2000-01-01

    Although commonly practiced with many species, feeding enrichment in elephants is understudied. The behavioral effects of feeding enrichment were tested in three African elephants by substituting an equal dry weight of browse for hay in an ABA design. The results showed a significant increase in feeding and significant decreases in drinking and inactivity when the browse was present. Additionally, changes in feeding, inactivity, and time spent in contact were observed outside the time the browse was actually presented, although the relationship of these changes to the experimental methodology is unknown. A significant increase in visibility to zoo visitors during the browse conditions demonstrates that browse is an effective, naturalistic method for increasing visibility as well as species-typical behaviors. Managers of captive elephants should consult with a nutritionist to address issues of energetics, nutritional content, and secondary compounds when using browse as feeding enrichment. Zoo Biol 19:485-493, 2000. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic.

  20. Bee pollen product supplementation to horses in training seems to improve feed intake: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Turner, K K; Nielsen, B D; O'Connor, C I; Burton, J L

    2006-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of supplementation of Dynamic Trio 50/50, a bee pollen-based product, to improve physical fitness, blood leukocyte profiles, and nutritional variables in exercised horses. Ten Arabian horses underwent a standardised exercise test (SET), then were pair-matched by sex and fitness and randomly assigned to BP (receiving 118 g of Dynamic Trio 50/50 daily) or CO (receiving 73 g of a placebo) for a period of 42 days. A total collection was conducted from days 18 to 21 on six geldings to determine nutrient retention and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) digestibility. Horses were exercise conditioned and completed another SET on day 42. V160 and V200 were calculated from SET heart rates (HR). Lactate, glucose, haematocrit (HT) and haemoglobin (HB) concentrations were determined from SET blood samples. Total leukocyte count, and circulating numbers of various leukocytes and IgG, IgM and IgA concentrations were determined in rest and recovery blood samples from both SETs. Geldings on BP (n = 3) ate more feed than CO. BP had less phosphorus excretion, and tended to retain more nitrogen. BP tended to digest more NDF and ADF while having lower NDF digestibility and tending to have lower ADF digestibility. No treatment differences existed for V160 and V200, HR, lactate, HT and HB. There was a trend for lymphocyte counts to be lower in BP than CO on day 42. Dynamic Trio 50/50 supplementation may have a positive effect on performance by helping horses in training meet their potentially increased nutrient demands by increasing feed intake and thus nutrient retention.

  1. Further studies of bulk and orosensory decrement in producing satiation of feeding in Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Horn, C C; Geizhals, C R; Kupfermann, I

    2001-11-09

    Prior evidence has suggested that meal satiation in the marine mollusk Aplysia is associated with stretch of the crop. The current data, however, suggest that under some conditions, bulk in the crop can be dissociated from the propensity to feed. The crop was hyper-distended 6 h after a satiating meal of rehydrated seaweed; that is, the crop took in water and therefore contained a greater volume than it had contained immediately after satiation. Animals presented with food 6 h after an initial satiating meal consumed a new meal despite the fact that their crop was distended beyond the level at which they had previously terminated feeding. This unexpected result led to additional experiments designed to study possible orosensory decrement during presentation of food. Orosensory input was assessed by recording from the metacerebral cell (MCC) in free-moving animals. The MCC receives excitatory input in response to chemosensory stimulation of the lips, and exhibited a slow decrement during the course of a meal or during repeated lip stimulation without ingestion. Lesions of the cerebro-buccal connectives abolished the long-term MCC response decrement to lip stimulation. This result suggests that the MCC long-term response decrement to lip stimulation is a product of buccal-ganglion feedback and may not reflect sensory decrement of chemosensory pathways. Therefore, satiation may not produce a change in lip sensitivity to chemosensory input. Our data suggest that one important factor that determines satiation is a stretch stimulus of the posterior esophagus/anterior crop. This stretch stimulus may subside over several hours as the crop contents are redistributed or as receptors slowly adapt.

  2. Maternal feeding self-efficacy and fruit and vegetable intakes in infants. Results from the SAIDI study.

    PubMed

    Koh, Gloria A; Scott, Jane A; Woodman, Richard J; Kim, Susan W; Daniels, Lynne A; Magarey, Anthea M

    2014-10-01

    Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables (FV) is a characteristic of a healthy diet but remains a challenge in nutrition interventions. This cross-sectional study explored the multi-directional relationships between maternal feeding self-efficacy, parenting confidence, child feeding behaviour, exposure to new food and FV intake in a cohort of 277 infants. Mothers with healthy infants weighing ≥2500 g and ≥37 weeks gestation were recruited post-natally from 11 South Australian hospitals. Socio-demographic data were collected at recruitment. At 6 months postnatal, infants were weighed and measured, and mothers completed a questionnaire exploring their perceptions of child feeding behaviour and child exposure to new foods. The questionnaire also included the Short Temperament Scale for Infants, Kessler 10 to measure maternal psychological distress and 5 items measuring maternal feeding self-efficacy. The number of occasions and variety of FV (number of subgroups within food groups) consumed by infants were estimated from a 24-hour dietary recall and 2 days food record. Structural equation modelling was performed using Mplus version 6.11. Median (IQR) variety scores were 2 (1-3) for fruit and 3 (2-5) for vegetable intake. The most popular FV consumed were apple (n = 108, 45.0%) and pumpkin (n = 143, 56.3%). None of the variables studied predicted the variety of child fruit intake. Parenting confidence, exposure to new foods and child feeding behaviour were indirectly related to child vegetable intake through maternal feeding self-efficacy while total number of children negatively predicted child vegetable variety (p < 0.05). This highlights the need for addressing antecedents of maternal feeding self-efficacy and the family eating environment as key strategies towards development of healthy eating in children.

  3. Effects of time on feed and post-mortem aging on palatability and lipid composition of crossbred Wagyu beef.

    PubMed

    Xie, Y R; Busboom, J R; Cornforth, D P; Shenton, H T; Gaskins, C T; Johnson, K A; Reeves, J J; Wright, R W; Cronrath, J D

    1996-06-01

    Twenty-seven Wagyu-sired steers were fed for 90 (14 steers) or 170 (13 steers) days to study the effects of time on feed on palatability and fatty acid composition, and the effects of post-mortem aging time (2, 4 or 10 days) on palatability. Hot carcass weight, fat thickness, longissimus dorsi muscle area, yield grade, estimated kidney, pelvic and heart fat and maturity score were increased (p < 0.05) by an additional 80 days on the high concentrate feed, but marbling was not changed (p > 0.05). Feeding the high concentrate diet for 170 days increased Warner-Bratzler shear force values (p < 0.05) and tended to decrease tenderness (p > 0.05), flavor intensity and connective tissue scores. For the 90 day feeding group, 4 days of aging improved connective tissue score (p < 0.05) and tended to increase (p > 0.05) tenderness scores and decrease shear force, compared with 2 days of aging. For the 170 day feeding group, 10 days of aging improved (p < 0.05) shear force and all sensory attributes except flavor intensity, compared to 2 days of aging. An additional 80 days on feed decreased (p < 0.05) stearic acid and total saturated fatty acids (SFA) and generally increased (p < 0.05) monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), MUFA:SFA, and PUFA:SFA in subcutaneous fat and longissimus dorsi muscle. The cholesterol content of fat and muscle increased (p < 0.05) as time on feed increased. Ninety days on a high concentrate diet was adequate for yearling crossbred Wagyu steers to produce highly acceptable carcasses. The additional 80 days on feed produced little or no overall benefit and the steers became overfinished and less tender. Ten days post-mortem aging improved (p < 0.05) all palatability attributes except flavor intensity.

  4. Model studies on the detectability of genetically modified feeds in milk.

    PubMed

    Poms, R E; Hochsteiner, W; Luger, K; Glössl, J; Foissy, H

    2003-02-01

    Detecting the use of genetically modified feeds in milk has become important, because the voluntary labeling of milk and dairy products as "GMO free" or as "organically grown" prohibits the employment of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). The aim of this work was to investigate whether a DNA transfer from foodstuffs like soya and maize was analytically detectable in cow's milk after digestion and transportation via the bloodstream of dairy cows and, thus, whether milk could report for the employment of transgene feeds. Blood, milk, urine, and feces of dairy cows were examined, and foreign DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction by specifically amplifying a 226-bp fragment of the maize invertase gene and a 118-bp fragment of the soya lectin gene. An intravenous application of purified plant DNA showed a fast elimination of marker DNA in blood or its reduction below the detection limit. With feeding experiments, it could be demonstrated that a specific DNA transfer from feeds into milk was not detectable. Therefore, foreign DNA in milk cannot serve as an indicator for the employment of transgene feeds unless milk is directly contaminated with feed components or airborne feed particles.

  5. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits.

    PubMed

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  6. Quercetin Feeding in Newborn Dairy Calves Cannot Compensate Colostrum Deprivation: Study on Metabolic, Antioxidative and Inflammatory Traits

    PubMed Central

    Gruse, Jeannine; Kanitz, Ellen; Weitzel, Joachim M.; Tuchscherer, Armin; Stefaniak, Tadeusz; Jawor, Paulina; Wolffram, Siegfried; Hammon, Harald M.

    2016-01-01

    Immaturity of the neonatal immune system is causative for high morbidity in calves and colostrum intake is crucial for acquiring passive immunity. Pathogenesis is promoted by reactive oxygen species accumulating at birth if counter-regulation is inadequate. The flavonol quercetin exerts antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects that may enhance neonatal health. The aim of this work was to study effects of quercetin feeding on metabolic, antioxidative and inflammatory parameters in neonatal calves to investigate whether quercetin could compensate for insufficient colostrum supply. Twenty-eight newborn calves were assigned to two dietary groups fed colostrum or milk-based formula on day 1 and 2 and milk replacer thereafter. From day 2 onwards, 7 calves per diet group were additionally fed quercetin aglycone (50 mg/(kg body weight × day)). Blood samples were taken repeatedly to measure plasma concentrations of flavonols, glucose, lactate, total protein, albumin, urea, non-esterified fatty acids, triglycerides, cholesterol, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, immunoglobulins, fibrinogen, haptoglobin and serum amyloid A. Trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity, ferric reducing ability of plasma, thiobarbituric acid reactive species and F2-isoprostanes were analyzed to evaluate plasma antioxidative status. Expression of tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, serum amyloid A, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase mRNA were measured in liver tissue on day 8. Plasma flavonol concentrations were detectable only after quercetin-feeding without differences between colostrum and formula feeding. Plasma glucose, lactate, total protein, immunoglobulins, triglycerides, cholesterol, trolox equivalent antioxidative capacity and thiobarbituric acid reactive species were higher after colostrum feeding. Body temperature, fecal fluidity and plasma concentrations of cortisol and haptoglobin were higher in

  7. Psychosocial Care in Complementary Feeding of Children: A Comparative Study of the Urban and Rural Communities of Osun State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunba, Beatrice Olubukola

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated psychosocial care in complementary feeding of children under two years of age. The cross-sectional study was carried out in Osun State of Nigeria within Sub-Saharan Africa, and 450 mothers were interviewed of which 337 were from the urban and 113 from the rural communities. Results revealed that 37.4% of the respondents…

  8. Correlation between subsequent lengths of postpartum amenorrhoea in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in rural Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ford, K

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between subsequent lengths of lactational amenorrhoea for individual women in a prospective study of breast-feeding women in Bangladesh was studied. The data indicate that previous length of amenorrhoea has significant predictive value for the subsequent length of amenorrhoea. Information on previous experience with lactational amenorrhoea should be therefore incorporated into guidelines for the introduction of family planning during lactation.

  9. Behavioral and Psychophysiological Responsiveness During Child Feeding in Mothers with Histories of Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth R; Hodges, Eric A; Propper, Cathi; Postage, Pamela L; Zipkin, Elana C; Bentley, Margaret E; Ward, Dianne S; Hamer, Robert M; Bulik, Cynthia M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this pilot project was to describe maternal responsiveness during child feeding in mothers with eating disorder histories through the combined use of observational, self-report, and physiologic methods. For this non-randomized cohort pilot study, 25 mothers with histories of eating disorders and 25 mothers with no history of an eating disorder with children ages 6-36 months were selected such that the groups were similar based on child age group (within 6 months) and child sex. Maternal behavioral responsiveness to child cues was assessed by video-recording and behavioral coding of both a free-play and feeding episode. Physiologic engagement was assessed through measurement of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) reactivity during free-play and feeding episodes. No differences were detected in observed behavioral responsiveness during feeding or free-play in mothers with eating disorder histories compared with controls. Mothers with eating disorder histories did report more parenting stress, increased anxiety, and exhibited a blunted physiologic stress response (less RSA reactivity) during both feeding and free-play interactions with their children. These results support future larger-scale investigations of RSA reactivity in mothers with eating disorders.

  10. Estimating the feeding rate of the bedbug Cimex lectularius in an infested room: an inexpensive method and a case study.

    PubMed

    Reinhardt, K; Isaac, D; Naylor, R

    2010-03-01

    The common bedbug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), is a globally re-emerging pest that is playing an increasing role in legal disputes and compensation claims as a result of its unpleasant feeding activity. However, there is little information about the feeding frequency of bedbugs outside controlled laboratory cultures. Here, we present a simple method of estimating the average time since the last bloodmeal of individual female bedbugs in a single sampling event, applicable to a single bedbug harbourage or an entire room. Using the temperature-dependent rate of decrease in the abdomen size of the bedbug after a bloodmeal, we found that, in a highly infested room kept at a constant temperature of 26 degrees C, females fed every 2.5 days on average. Our method corrects for variations in body size across different populations and determines the shrinkage that occurs when individuals are preserved in ethanol. This method should, therefore, be widely applicable. It is cheap, rapid and, if coupled with information on the total number of bedbugs present in a room, allows for the estimation of the minimum number of times persons lodging in a room have been bitten by bedbugs. This method can also be used to calculate the feeding rate of other blood-sucking insects on their hosts. The sex ratio in the infestation was female-biased. Finally, our case study suggests that individual female bedbugs within a harbourage do not seem to feed at a regular rate, but tend to synchronize feeding patterns.

  11. The external Q factor of a dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio frequency cavities: theoretical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Dai, J; Belomestnykh, S; Ben-Zvi, I; Xu, Wencan

    2013-11-01

    We propose a theoretical model based on network analysis to study the external quality factor (Q factor) of dual-feed coupling for superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities. Specifically, we apply our model to the dual-feed 704 MHz half-cell SRF gun for Brookhaven National Laboratory's prototype Energy Recovery Linac (ERL). The calculations show that the external Q factor of this dual-feed system is adjustable from 10(4) to 10(9) provided that the adjustment range of a phase shifter covers 0°-360°. With a period of 360°, the external Q factor of the coupling system changes periodically with the phase difference between the two coupling arms. When the RF phase of both coupling arms is adjusted simultaneously in the same direction, the external Q factor of the system also changes periodically, but with a period of 180°.

  12. Time-restricted feeding and risk of metabolic disease: a review of human and animal studies.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Jeff; Hoddy, Kristin K; Jambazian, Pera; Varady, Krista A

    2014-05-01

    Time-restricted feeding (TRF), a key component of intermittent fasting regimens, has gained considerable attention in recent years. TRF allows ad libitum energy intake within controlled time frames, generally a 3-12 hour range each day. The impact of various TRF regimens on indicators of metabolic disease risk has yet to be investigated. Accordingly, the objective of this review was to summarize the current literature on the effects of TRF on body weight and markers of metabolic disease risk (i.e., lipid, glucoregulatory, and inflammatory factors) in animals and humans. Results from animal studies show TRF to be associated with reductions in body weight, total cholesterol, and concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, insulin, interleukin 6, and tumor necrosis factor-α as well as with improvements in insulin sensitivity. Human data support the findings of animal studies and demonstrate decreased body weight (though not consistently), lower concentrations of triglycerides, glucose, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased concentrations of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. These preliminary findings show promise for the use of TRF in modulating a variety of metabolic disease risk factors.

  13. NTP Toxicology and Carcinogenesis Studies of Pentachlorophenol (CAS NO. 87-86-5) in F344/N Rats (Feed Studies).

    PubMed

    1999-04-01

    Pentachlorophenol has been used as an herbicide, algicide, defoliant, wood preservative, germicide, fungicide, and molluscicide. Pentachlorophenol was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for carcinogenicity testing based on its widespread use as a wood preservative, potential for entering the environment (pentachlorophenol residues have been found worldwide in soil, water, and air samples; in food products; and in human and animal tissues and body fluids), and likelihood of bioaccumulation in the environment (pentachlorophenol is persistent in soil, having a half-life of up to 5 years). Technical Report No. 349 contains the results of the 2-year studies of pentachlorophenol performed by the NTP with B6C3F1 mice. Male and female F344/N rats were exposed to pentachlorophenol (approximately 99% pure) in feed for 28 days or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in vitro in Salmonella typhimurium and cultured Chinese hamster ovary cells and in vivo in rat and mouse bone marrow cells. 28-DAY STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female F344/N rats were given 0, 200, 400, 800, 1,600, or 3,200 ppm pentachlorophenol, equivalent to average daily doses of approximately 20, 40, 75, 150, or 270 mg pentachlorophenol/kg body weight to males and females in feed for 28 days. With the exception of one male and two females exposed to 3,200 ppm, all rats survived until the end of the study. The final mean body weights and body weight gains of male rats exposed to 1,600 or 3,200 ppm and female rats exposed to 400, 800, 1,600, or 3,200 ppm were significantly less than those of the controls; rats exposed to 3,200 ppm lost weight during the study. Feed consumption by 3,200 ppm males was less than that by the control group throughout the study. The absolute and relative liver weights of 400, 800, and 1,600 ppm males and all exposed groups of females were significantly greater than those of the controls. Compared to the control groups, the incidences of minimal to mild

  14. Feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stutzman, W. L.; Takamizawa, K.; Werntz, P.; Lapean, J.; Barts, R.; Shen, B.

    1991-01-01

    Virginia Tech is involved in a number of activities with NASA Langley related to large aperture radiometric antenna systems. These efforts are summarized and the focus of this report is on the feasibility study of a synthesis procedure for array feeds to improve radiation performance of large distorted reflector antennas; however, some results for all activities are reported.

  15. A STUDY TO EVALUATE THE LEVELS OF DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS IN DAIRY FEEDS IN THE U.S.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), in cooperation with USDA and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), has undertaken a program to study the presence of dioxin-like compounds in animal feeds. Two phases of this program have been completed, and this paper reports on t...

  16. Study on Intelligent Multi-concentrates Feeding System for Dairy Cow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yinfa; Wang, Ranran; Song, Zhanhua; Yan, Shitao; Li, Fa-De

    To implement precision feeding for dairy cow, an intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system was developed. The system consists of two parts, one is precision ingredients control subsystem, the other is multi-concentrates discharge subsystem. The former controls the latter with 4 stepper motors. The precision ingredients control subsystem was designed based on Samsung S3C2440 ARM9 microprocessor and WinCE5.0 embedded operating system. The feeding system identifies the dairy cow with passive transponder using RFID (Radio frequency identification) reader. According to the differences of based diet intake and individual dairy cow milk yield, the system can automatically and quantificationally discharge 4 kinds of different concentrates on the basis of the cow identification ID. The intelligent multi-concentrates feeding system for dairy cow has been designed and implemented. According to the experiment results, the concentrate feeding error is less than 5%, the cow inditification delay time is less than 0.5s and the cow inditification error rate is less than 0.01%.

  17. Association between breast-feeding practices and sucking habits: a cross-sectional study of children in their first year of life.

    PubMed

    Moimaz, Suzely A S; Zina, Lívia G; Saliba, Nemre A; Saliba, Orlando

    2008-09-01

    In addition to providing nutrition and immunological protection, breast-feeding has positive effects on the development of the infant's oral cavity. The aim of the present study is to assess breast-feeding patterns and to analyze the influence of breast-feeding practices and maternal sociodemographic variables on the prevalence of non-nutritive sucking habits in a sample of Brazilian infants. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Southern Brazil. A random sample of 100 mothers of infants up to 12 months of age was interviewed during the National Vaccination Campaign Day. The prevalence and median duration of breast-feeding were assessed. Breast-feeding practice, the exposure factor, was categorized as exclusive breast-feeding, predominant breast-feeding, complementary breast-feeding, or weaning. Maternal sociodemographic variables included age, race, marital status, educational level, profession, and family income. The outcome investigated was the prevalence of sucking habits (pacifier use and thumb sucking). We used two-sample tests, the chi-square test and FISHER'S EXACT TEST for statistical analyses of the data. The study revealed that 75% of infants were being breast-fed. Pacifier use and thumb sucking were common in 55%. Bottle-feeding was prevalent in 74% of infants. Breast-feeding was negatively correlated with pacifier use and thumb sucking (OR=0.11; 95% CI: 0.03 to 0.4). Bottle-feeding was strongly associated with weaning (p=0.0003). Among the sociodemographic variables, only marital status showed a statistical association with sucking habits (p=0.04). These findings suggest that breast-feeding can prevent the occurrence of sucking habits. Although we could not evaluate causality assessment, malocclusion prevention seems to be yet one more reason for promoting breast-feeding practices.

  18. Phase Equilibrium Studies of Savannah River Tanks and Feed Streams for the Salt Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, C.F.

    2001-06-19

    A chemical equilibrium model is developed and used to evaluate supersaturation of tanks and proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The model uses Pitzer's model for activity coefficients and is validated by comparison with a variety of thermodynamic data. The model assesses the supersaturation of 13 tanks at the Savannah River Site (SRS), indicating that small amounts of gibbsite and or aluminosilicate may form. The model is also used to evaluate proposed feed streams to the Salt Waste Processing Facility for 13 years of operation. Results indicate that dilutions using 3-4 M NaOH (about 0.3-0.4 L caustic per kg feed solution) should avoid precipitation and reduce the Na{sup +} ion concentration to 5.6 M.

  19. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate and cupric citrate to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I

    1996-09-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate or cupric citrate in seven experiments (six in floor pens, one in wire-floored batteries). In Experiment 1, feeding 125 or 250 mg/kg copper increased growth (4.9%) and decreased feed conversion ratios (3.4%), total plasma cholesterol (40.2%), and breast muscle cholesterol (37.0%). Feeding 375 mg/kg copper was without further beneficial effect. In Experiment 2, withdrawing growth promoting supplements of copper from the feed for the last 7 d caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in breast muscle cholesterol at 42 d of age: 57.2, 48.0, and 43.2 mg/100 g meat for birds supplemented for 0, 35, or 42 d, respectively. Feeding 10 vs 260 mg/kg copper caused only small increases in tissue copper levels: 0.36 vs 0.41 mg/kg for breast meat, and 0.48 vs 0.60 mg/kg for thigh meat, respectively. Litter copper accumulations in these experiments were similar to those of earlier reports. Breast muscle cholesterol was reduced by feeding 125 mg/kg supplemental copper from cupric citrate (27.84 mg/100 g) or 125 mg supplemental copper from cupric sulfate pentahydrate (25.32 mg/100 g) compared to broilers fed the control diet (43.92 mg/100 g). Cupric citrate was efficacious for growth promotion at lower copper levels than cupric sulfate pentahydrate, resulting in reduced litter copper.

  20. [A 104-week feeding study of genetically modified soybeans in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Yoshimitsu; Tada, Yukie; Fukumori, Nobutaka; Tayama, Kuniaki; Ando, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Kubo, Yoshikazu; Nagasawa, Akemichi; Yano, Norio; Yuzawa, Katsuhiro; Ogata, Akio

    2008-08-01

    A chronic feeding study to evaluate the safety of genetically modified glyphosate-tolerant soybeans (GM soybeans) was conducted using F344 DuCrj rats. The rats were fed diet containing GM soybeans or Non-GM soybeans at the concentration of 30% in basal diet. Non-GM soybeans were a closely related strain to the GM soybeans. These two diets were adjusted to an identical nutrient level. In this study, the influence of GM soybeans in rats was compared with that of the Non-GM soybeans, and furthermore, to assess the effect of soybeans themselves, the groups of rats fed GM and Non-GM soybeans were compared with a group fed commercial diet (CE-2). General conditions were observed daily and body weight and food consumption were recorded. At the termination (104 weeks), animals were subjected to hematology, serum biochemistry, and pathological examinations. There were several differences in animal growth, food intake, organ weights and histological findings between the rats fed the GM and/or Non-GM soybeans and the rats fed CE-2. However, body weight and food intake were similar for the rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. Gross necropsy findings, hematological and serum biochemical parameters, and organ weights showed no meaningful difference between rats fed the GM and Non-GM soybeans. In pathological observation, there was neither an increase in incidence nor any specific type of nonneoplastic or neoplastic lesions in the GM soybeans group in each sex. These results indicate that long-term intake of GM soybeans at the level of 30% in diet has no apparent adverse effect in rats.

  1. Acute effects of dietary glycemic index on antioxidant capacity in a nutrient-controlled feeding study.

    PubMed

    Botero, Diego; Ebbeling, Cara B; Blumberg, Jeffrey B; Ribaya-Mercado, Judy D; Creager, Mark A; Swain, Janis F; Feldman, Henry A; Ludwig, David S

    2009-09-01

    Oxidative stress, caused by an imbalance between antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species, may be an early event in a metabolic cascade elicited by a high glycemic index (GI) diet, ultimately increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. We conducted a feeding study to evaluate the acute effects of low-GI compared with high-GI diets on oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The crossover study comprised two 10-day in-patient admissions to a clinical research center. For the admissions, 12 overweight or obese (BMI: 27-45 kg/m(2)) male subjects aged 18-35 years consumed low-GI or high-GI diets controlled for potentially confounding nutrients. On day 7, after an overnight fast and then during a 5-h postprandial period, we assessed total antioxidant capacity (total and perchloric acid (PCA) protein-precipitated plasma oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and oxidative stress status (urinary F(2alpha)-isoprostanes (F(2)IP)). On day 10, we measured cardiovascular disease risk factors. Under fasting conditions, total antioxidant capacity was significantly higher during the low-GI vs. high-GI diet based on total ORAC (11,736 +/- 668 vs. 10,381 +/- 612 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.002) and PCA-ORAC (1,276 +/- 96 vs. 1,210 +/- 96 micromol Trolox equivalents/l, P = 0.02). Area under the postprandial response curve also differed significantly between the two diets for total ORAC and PCA-ORAC. No diet effects were observed for the other variables. Enhancement in plasma total antioxidant capacity occurs within 1 week on a low-GI diet, before changes in other risk factors, raising the possibility that this phenomenon may mediate, at least in part, the previously reported effects of GI on health.

  2. Feeding behavior and dietary intake of male children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Castro, Kamila; Faccioli, Larissa Slongo; Baronio, Diego; Gottfried, Carmem; Perry, Ingrid Schweigert; Riesgo, Rudimar

    2016-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with restrictive or repetitive behaviors and difficulties with verbal and interpersonal communication, in which some problems involving nutrition may be present. This study aims to evaluate dietary intake and identify feeding behavioral problems in male children and adolescents with ASD when compared to matched controls, as well as parents or caregivers' feelings about strategies for dealing with eating problems. A 3-day food record was performed and nutrient intake was compared to the Dietary Reference Intake according to age. To evaluate children feeding behavior and parents or caregivers' feelings, the Behavior Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFA) was used. ASD patients consumed in average more calories than controls (though with a high patient's frequency above and below calorie range references), had a limited food repertoire, high prevalence of children with inadequate calcium, sodium, iron vitamin B5, folate, and vitamin C intake. BPFA scores were also higher in the ASD group when compared to controls for all frequencies (child behavior, parents and total). These findings lead us to endorse the importance of evaluating feeding problems in the clinical routine, considering also the singular features of the patients.

  3. Morphophysiological study of digestive system litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Kollar, 1832).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Géssica; Dos Santos, Vânia Cristina; de Figueiredo Gontijo, Nelder; Constantino, Reginaldo; de Oliveira Paiva E Silva, Gabriela; Bahia, Ana Cristina; Gomes, Fabio Mendonça; de Alcantara Machado, Ednildo

    2017-03-11

    Termites are the major decomposers of lignocellulosic biomass on Earth and are commonly considered as biological reactor models for lignocellulose degradation. Despite their biotechnological potential, few studies have focused on the morphophysiological aspects of the termite digestive system. We therefore analyze the morphology, ultrastructure and gut luminal pH of the digestive system in workers of the litter-feeding termite Cornitermes cumulans (Blattodea: Termitidae). Their digestive system is composed of salivary glands and an alimentary canal with a pH ranging from neutral to alkaline. The salivary glands have an acinar structure and present cells with secretory characteristics. The alimentary canal is differentiated into the foregut, midgut, mixed segment and hindgut, which comprises the ileum (p1), enteric valve (p2), paunch (p3), colon (p4) and rectum (p5) segments. The foregut has a well-developed chewing system. The midgut possesses a tubular peritrophic membrane and two cell types: digestive cells with secretory and absorptive features and several regenerative cells in mitosis, both cell types being organized into regenerative crypts. The mixed segment exhibits cells rich in glycogen granules. Hindgut p1, p4 and p5 segments have flattened cells with a few apical invaginations related to mitochondria and a thick cuticular lining. Conversely, the hindgut p3 segment contains large cuboid cells with extensive apical invaginations associated with numerous mitochondria. These new insights into the morphophysiology of the digestive system of C. cumulans reveal that it mobilizes lignocellulose components as a nutritional source by means of a highly compartmentalized organization with specialized segments and complex microenvironments.

  4. Establishment of an Artificial Tick Feeding System to Study Theileria lestoquardi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Tajeri, Shahin; Razmi, Gholamreza; Haghparast, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of good experimental models for Theileria sp. infection is important for theileriosis research. Routinely, infection of ticks is accomplished by feeding on parasite-infected animals (sheep, cows and horses), which raises practical and ethical problems, driving the search for alternative methods of tick infection. Artificial tick feeding systems are based mainly on rearing ticks on host-derived or hand-made artificial membranes. We developed a modified feeding assay for infecting nymphal stages of Hyalomma anatolicum ticks with Theileria lestoquardi, a highly pathogenic parasite of sheep. We compared two different membranes: an artificial silicone membrane and a natural alternative using mouse skin. We observed high attachment rates with mouse skin, whereas in vitro feeding of H. anatolicum nymphs on silicone membranes was unsuccessful. We could infect H. anatolicum nymphs with T. lestoquardi and the emerging adult ticks transmitted infective parasites to sheep. In contrast, similar infections with Rhipicephalus bursa, a representative tick with short mouth-parts that was proposed as a vector for T. lestoquardi, appeared not to be a competent vector tick species. This is the first report of an experimentally controlled infection of H. anatolicum with T. lestoquardi and opens avenues to explore tick-parasite dynamics in detail. PMID:28036364

  5. An interactive parents' guide for feeding preschool-aged children: pilot studies for improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are few motivational materials to help families with limited resources develop optimal, practical feeding strategies for young children to reduce dietary risk for poor diet and weight status. Formative evaluation strategies consisting of both qualitative and quantitative data helped to refine ...

  6. Studies on the feeding of cupric sulfate pentahydrate, cupric citrate, and copper oxychloride to broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Ewing, H P; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Menten, J F

    1998-03-01

    Male commercial broiler strain chickens were fed either a control diet (based on corn and soybean meal) or the control diet supplemented with cupric sulfate pentahydrate, copper oxychloride, or cupric citrate in two experiments conducted in floor pens. In Experiment 1, feeding copper at 125 mg/kg diet for 42 d significantly increased broiler growth; and the response from cupric citrate was significantly better than either cupric sulfate or copper oxychloride. In Experiment 2, the inclusion of copper from cupric citrate was reduced to 63 mg/kg and the length of the experiment was increased to 56 d. Cupric sulfate pentahydrate and copper oxychloride treatments increased weight gain by 4.9% and cupric citrate increased weight gain by 9.1%. The feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds) in the birds fed copper were not significantly different from those fed the basal diet (P > 0.05) unless corrections were made for the weights of the dead birds; the adjusted feed conversion ratios (grams of feed:grams of gain of live birds + grams of gain of mortalities) for the copper-treated birds in Experiments 1 and 2 were 5.2 and 7.6% lower, respectively, than the ratios of birds fed the basal diets. Plasma copper levels increased in supplemented chicks by 35% in Experiment 1 and 24% in Experiment 2. Liver copper levels in both experiments were increased by 26% with copper supplementation. Mortality was not affected by dietary treatment in either experiment (P > 0.05).

  7. Infantile Anorexia and Co-parenting: A Pilot Study on Mother–Father–Child Triadic Interactions during Feeding and Play

    PubMed Central

    Lucarelli, Loredana; Ammaniti, Massimo; Porreca, Alessio; Simonelli, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Infantile Anorexia (IA), defined by the Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood Revised (DC: 0-3R, Zero To Three, 2005), occurs when the child (a) refuses to eat adequate amounts of food for at least 1 month, and shows growth deficiency, (b) does not communicate hunger and lacks interest in food, and (c) the child’s food refusal does not follow a traumatic event and is not due to an underlying medical illness. IA usually emerges during the transition to self-feeding, when the child issues of autonomy are played out daily in the feeding situation. Studies evidence that the feeding interactions between children with IA and their mothers are characterized by low reciprocity, greater interactional conflict and negative affects (Chatoor et al., 2000; Ammaniti et al., 2010, 2012). Moreover, these studies pointed out that maternal depression and eating disorders are frequently associated with IA (Cooper et al., 2004; Ammaniti et al., 2010; Lucarelli et al., 2013). To date, research has focused almost exclusively on the mother–child dyad, while fathers’ involvement, co-parental and family interactions are poorly studied. The current study is a pilot research that investigated mother–father–child triadic interactions, during feeding and play, in families with children diagnosed with IA, in comparison to families with normally developing children. Until now, at the study participated N = 10 families (five with a child with IA diagnosis and five with lack of child’s IA diagnosis, matched for child’s age and gender). The parents–child triadic interactions were assessed in feeding and play contexts using the Lausanne Trilogue Play (Fivaz-Depeursinge and Corboz-Warnery, 1999), adapted to observe father-mother-infant primary triangle in the feeding context, compared to the play context (Lucarelli et al., 2012). Families of the IA-group showed difficulties in expressing and sharing pleasure and positive

  8. Non-nutritive sucking evaluation in preterm newborns and the start of oral feeding: a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Neiva, Flávia C. B.; Leone, Cléa R.; Leone, Claudio; Siqueira, Lisiane L.; Uema, Kátia Akiko; Evangelista, Daiana; Delgado, Susana; Rocha, Adriana; Buhler, Karina Bernardis

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The assessment of early sucking by preterm infants provides information on the ability of these infants to efficiently and safely receive nutrients via an oral route (oral feeding). To analyze the application and reliability of an instrument in assessing non-nutritive sucking that indicates a capacity for oral feeding in the routine care of different neonatal units. METHODS: A multicenter, prospective cohort study was conducted in seven neonatal units. A non-nutritive sucking assessment with a formulary validated by Neiva et al (2008) (variables evaluated: rooting reaction; easy initiation of sucking; labial sealing; tongue central groove; peristaltic tongue movements; jaw raising and lowering movements; labial, tongue and jaw coordination; sucking strength; sucking rhythm; bites; excessive jaw excursion; stress signals) was applied to 199 pre-term newborns, who had a chronological age ≥ 2 days and were clinically stable. These infants were divided into two groups based on their corrected gestational age at the first assessment, as follows: Group I-infants with a gestational age ≤ 33 weeks and Group II-infants with a gestational age between 34 and 36 6/7 weeks. RESULTS: The mean gestational age was 31.66±2 weeks, and the mean birth weight was 1494 ± 373 g. The mean scores on the non-nutritive sucking assessment were 46 ± 25 in Group I and 49 ± 24 in Group II. The beginning of oral feeding was successful in 43 (67.2%) infants in Group I and 64 (81%) infants in Group II (p = 0.089). CONCLUSION: The method identified preterm infants who were able to feed orally based on 33 points in the non-nutritive sucking assessment and a corrected gestational age of 32 weeks or more. The corrected gestational age was the most important factor in predicting the success of oral feeding. PMID:24964303

  9. Associations of breast-feeding patterns and introduction of solid foods with childhood bone mass: The Generation R Study.

    PubMed

    van den Hooven, Edith H; Gharsalli, Mounira; Heppe, Denise H M; Raat, Hein; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2016-03-28

    Breast-feeding has been associated with later bone health, but results from previous studies are inconsistent. We examined the associations of breast-feeding patterns and timing of introduction of solids with bone mass at the age of 6 years in a prospective cohort study among 4919 children. We collected information about duration and exclusiveness of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of any solids with postnatal questionnaires. A total body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scan was performed at 6 years of age, and bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), area-adjusted BMC (aBMC) and bone area (BA) were analysed. Compared with children who were ever breast-fed, those never breast-fed had lower BMD (-4·62 mg/cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·97), BMC (-8·08 g; 95 % CI -12·45, -3·71) and BA (-7·03 cm2; 95 % CI -12·55, -1·52) at 6 years of age. Among all breast-fed children, those who were breast-fed non-exclusively in the first 4 months had higher BMD (2·91 mg/cm2; 95 % CI 0·41, 5·41) and aBMC (3·97 g; 95 % CI 1·30, 6·64) and lower BA (-4·45 cm2; 95 % CI -8·28, -0·61) compared with children breast-fed exclusively for at least 4 months. Compared with introduction of solids between 4 and 5 months, introduction <4 months was associated with higher BMD and aBMC, whereas introduction between 5 and 6 months was associated with lower aBMC and higher BA. Additional adjustment for infant vitamin D supplementation did not change the results. In conclusion, results from the present study suggest that ever breast-feeding compared with never breast-feeding is associated with higher bone mass in 6-year-old children, but exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months or longer was not positively associated with bone outcomes.

  10. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  11. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  12. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  19. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  20. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  1. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  2. Preverbal Infants Anticipate that Food Will Be Brought to the Mouth: An Eye Tracking Study of Manual Feeding and Flying Spoons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kochukhova, Olga; Gredeback, Gustaf

    2010-01-01

    This study relies on eye tracking technology to investigate how humans perceive others' feeding actions. Results demonstrate that 6-month-olds (n = 54) anticipate that food is brought to the mouth when observing an adult feeding herself with a spoon. Still, they fail to anticipate self-propelled (SP) spoons that move toward the mouth and manual…

  3. QTLs associated with dry matter intake, metabolic mid-test weight, growth and feed efficiency have little overlap across 4 beef cattle studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The identification of genetic markers associated with complex traits that are expensive to record such as feed intake or feed efficiency would allow these traits to be included in selection programs. To identify large-effect QTL, we performed a series of genome-wide association studies a...

  4. Determination of starch, including maltooligosaccharides, in animal feeds: comparison of methods and a method recommended for AOAC collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary B

    2009-01-01

    Starch is a nutritionally important carbohydrate in feeds that is increasingly measured and used for formulation of animal diets. Discontinued production of the enzyme Rhozyme-S required for AOAC Method 920.40 invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds. The objective of this study was to compare methods for the determination of starch as potential candidates as a replacement method and for an AOAC collaborative study. Many starch methods are available, but they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. After assays were evaluated that differed in gelatinization method, number of reagents, and sample handling, and after assays with known methodological defects were excluded, 3 enzymatic-colorimetric assays were selected for comparison. The assays all used 2-stage, heat-stable, a-amylase and amyloglucosidase hydrolyses, but they differed in the gelatinization solution (heating in water, 3-(N-morpholino) propanesulfonic acid buffer, or acetate buffer). The measured values included both starch and maltooligosaccharides. The acetate buffer-only method was performed in sealable vessels with dilution by weight; it gave greater starch values (2-6 percentage units of sample dry matter) in the analysis of feed/food substrates than did the other methods. This method is a viable candidate for a collaborative study.

  5. Subchronic studies of doxylamine in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Jackson, C D; Blackwell, B N

    1988-02-01

    Doxylamine succinate, a histamine (H1) antagonist (antihistamine), was administered as an admixture in the feed to male and female B6C3F1 mice for 14 or 90 days. Dose levels of 0, 100, 250, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm doxylamine were administered to males and females in the 14-day study while dose levels of 0, 80, 162, 325, 750, and 1500 ppm were administered to both sexes in the 90-day study. Little toxicity was seen in the 14-day study. Final body weights in the highest dose group were reduced 4.0 and 7.3% in males and females, respectively. Treatment-related histopathological changes in the 14-day study were limited to a very low incidence of hepatic necrosis in both sexes. There was little toxicity observed in the 90-day study and no clear dose response relative to weight gain was observed. Histologically, the liver was the only organ affected by doxylamine administration. The liver lesions consisted of hepatic cell cytomegaly and/or karyomegaly which varied from mild to severe and a possible dose-related hepatic necrosis.

  6. [A study on feeding ecology and migration patterns of Dosidicus gigas off Peru using stable isotope analysis].

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Chen, Xin-jun; Li, Yun-kai; Han, Meng-jie

    2015-09-01

    As a pelagic cephalopod and one of the main target species of Chinese distant water fishery, jumbo squids (Dosidicus gigas) play a major role in the marine ecosystems of the eastern Pacific. Understanding the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids is of importance for better utilizing the resources. The isotopic signatures of gladius, have been proved to be a powerful tool to reveal high resolution and ontogenic variations in individual foraging strategies of squids; which is an archival tissue with no elemental turnover after formation. In this study, the growth equation of gladius proostracum was established based on the age information determined by statolith. Gladius was cut successionally by the growth curve of gladius proostracum, the stable isotopic values of the gladius profiles were determined, and the feeding ecology and migration patterns of jumbo squids during its growth process were investigated. Results showed that the jumbo squids began to migrate after 180 days of postnatal, and their trophic levels tended to decrease throughout the life span. These results demonstrated the feasibility of using continuous sampling hard tissue to study the feeding ecology and habitat transfer of jumbo squids.

  7. Preliminary study of acceleration based sensor to record nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at water surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subakti, Aji; Khotimah, Zarah F.; Darozat, Fajar M.

    2017-01-01

    In this preliminary study, the acceleration based sensor was developed to monitor the activity of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) feeding behavior at the water surface. This study was conducted for three weeks in a fish pond with 40 m2 in size, stocked with 850 fingerlings of Nile tilapia strain Nirwana-2 (average biomass of 13 g, fed four times a day at 8 am, 12 pm, 4 pm, and 8 pm). The acceleration sensor system was installed floating in the pond and was designed in a way so that the xz plane of the sensor will be parallel with water surface, while the y-axis will be pointing downward. By sensing the acceleration caused by the surface wave, the activities of fish near surface water could be monitored. The result showed that there were three distinctive patterns could be observed which was related to the feeding activity of fish. Generally, it can be concluded that this acceleration based sensor system can be integrated with automatic feeder machine, in particular by analyzing the recorded patter, it is possible to monitor when the fish stop eating, and so the right amount of feed could be given to the fish.

  8. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  9. Effect of feed presentation on feeding patterns of dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; Mason, G J; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of feed presentation on meal frequency and duration, as well as diurnal feeding patterns of dairy calves, and to assess any longer-term differences in feeding patterns resulting from previous experience. Twenty Holstein bull calves were exposed from wk 1 to 8 of life to 1 of 2 feed presentation treatments: concentrate and chopped grass hay (<2.5 cm) offered at a ratio of 7:3 as a mixture (MIX), or as separate components (COM). Feed was provided ad libitum. Calves received 8L/d of milk replacer (1.2 kg of dry matter), with the amount progressively reduced after 5 wk to facilitate weaning by the end of wk 7. At the beginning of wk 9, all calves received the MIX diet and remained on trial for an additional 3 wk. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 4d during wk 6, 8, 9, and 11. In wk 6, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding than calves fed COM (56.7 vs. 46.8 min/d). In wk 8, calves fed MIX spent more time feeding (174.0 vs. 139.1 min/d) and had a lower rate of intake (11.5 vs. 14.7 g/min) compared with calves fed COM. Meal frequency was similar between treatments (12.2 meals/d). Diurnal feeding patterns in wk 8 were also affected by feed presentation, with calves fed MIX spending less time feeding at time of feed delivery and more time feeding throughout the rest of the daylight hours than calves fed COM. Diurnal feeding patterns of hay and concentrate in wk 8 differed for calves fed COM, with more time spent consuming hay at time of feed delivery and less time spent consuming hay throughout the rest of the day. Once calves previously fed COM were transitioned to the MIX diet in wk 9, meal frequency, meal duration, and diurnal feeding patterns were similar between treatments: both treatments spent similar amounts of time feeding (173.9 min/d) and had similar peaks in feeding activity at time of feed delivery, sunrise, and sunset. Provision of hay and concentrate to young calves as a mixed ration

  10. Eating nanomaterials: cruelty-free and safe? the EFSA guidance on risk assessment of nanomaterials in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being added to food handling and packaging materials, or directly, to human food and animal feed. To ensure the safety of such engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), in May 2011, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a guidance document on Risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain. It states that risk assessment should be performed by following a step-wise procedure. Whenever human or animal exposure to nanomaterials is expected, the general hazard characterisation scheme requests information from in vitro genotoxicity, toxicokinetic and repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity studies in rodents. Numerous prevailing uncertainties with regard to nanomaterial characterisation and their hazard and risk assessment are addressed in the guidance document. This article discusses the impact of these knowledge gaps on meeting the goal of ensuring human safety. The EFSA's guidance on the risk assessment of ENMs in food and animal feed is taken as an example for discussion, from the point of view of animal welfare, on what level of uncertainty should be considered acceptable for human safety assessment of products with non-medical applications, and whether animal testing should be considered ethically acceptable for such products.

  11. A preliminary study in Wistar rats with enniatin A contaminated feed.

    PubMed

    Manyes, Lara; Escrivá, Laura; Serrano, Ana Belén; Rodríguez-Carrasco, Yelko; Tolosa, Josefa; Meca, Giuseppe; Font, Guillermina

    2014-03-01

    A 28-day repeated dose preliminary assay, using enniatin A naturally contaminated feed through microbial fermentation by a Fusarium tricinctum strain, was carried out employing 2-month-old female Wistar rats as in vivo experimental model. In order to simulate a physiological test of a toxic compound naturally produced by fungi, five treated animals were fed during 28 days with fermented feed. As control group, five rats were fed with standard feed. At the 28th day, blood samples were collected for biochemical analysis and the gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidneys were removed from each rat for enniatin A detection and quantitation. Digesta were collected from stomach, duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon. Enniatin A present in organs and in biological fluids was analyzed by liquid chromatography-diode array detector (LC-DAD) and confirmed by LC-mass spectrometry linear ion trap (MS-LIT); also several serum biochemical parameters and a histological analysis of the duodenal tract were performed. No adverse effects were found in any treated rat at the enniatin A concentration (20.91 mg/kg bw/day) tested during the 28-day experiment. Enniatin A quantitation in biological fluids ranged from 1.50 to 9.00 mg/kg, whereas in the gastrointestinal organs the enniatin A concentration ranged from 2.50 to 23.00 mg/kg. The high enniatin A concentration found in jejunum liquid and tissue points to them as an absorption area. Finally, two enniatin A degradation products were identified in duodenum, jejunum and colon content, probably produced by gut microflora.

  12. Feeding practices and early childhood caries: a cross-sectional study of preschool children in kanpur district, India.

    PubMed

    Prakasha Shrutha, Santhebachalli; Vinit, Grandim Balarama Gupta; Giri, Kolli Yada; Alam, Sarwar

    2013-01-01

    Background. Early childhood caries (ECC) is a public health problem due to its impact on children's health, development, and wellbeing. The objective of this study was to assess the caries experience in 3-5-year-old children and to evaluate the relationship with their mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene habits in Kanpur. Method. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken on 2000 (974 boys and 1026 girls) children aged 3-5 years from a random sample of preschools in Kanpur district, India. Dental caries experience was recorded using WHO criteria. A pretested questionnaire with 9 questions was used for collecting information regarding mothers' practices regarding feeding and oral hygiene practices. Chi-square test (χ (2)) and Student's t-test were used for statistical analysis. Results. The prevalence of ECC was 48% with mean dmft of 2.03 ± 2.99. Boys (57%) were affected more than girls (43%) which was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.05). Caries prevalence was high and statistically significant (P < 0.05) among those who were breast fed for longer duration, during nighttime, those falling asleep with bottle, and those fed with additional sugar in milk. Conclusion. Determining the role of feeding practices on early childhood caries can help in the development of appropriate oral health promotion strategies.

  13. Military Nutrition (Research Study Group 8 on Nutritional Aspects of Military Feeding)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-12

    adults , rhanges in body weight are primarily caused by addition or loss of adipose tissue, due to imbalance between energy intake and energy output... body fat standards. The U.S.A. Army Weight Control Program (132,133) and the Canadian Forces (134) define overweight / obesity by means of cut-off points...Field Feeding System 467-488 8.4.2.3 Effects of ’A’ Ration Meals on Body Weight During Sustained Field Operations 489-490 8.4.2.4 Nutrient Intakes

  14. Barriers to Infant and Child-feeding Practices: A Qualitative Study of Primary Caregivers in Rural Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Nankumbi, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to explore the barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices by primary caregivers living in a rural Ugandan district. A community-based qualitative design and focus group discussions were used for collecting data from primary caregivers of children aged 0 to 24 month(s). On an average, each of the four focus group discussions had 11 participants. The focus group discussions were conducted using a structured interview guide and were tape-recorded. The recorded data were later transcribed and analyzed using qualitative thematic analysis techniques. All the participants were females, and the majority had low levels of education and at least one child in the age-group of 0-24 month(s) in their household. The findings show that the main barriers to the use of appropriate infant and young child-feeding practices fall under four themes: caregiver's knowledge about breastfeeding, caregiver's knowledge about complimentary feeding, influence of culture custodians on the caregivers, and patterns and burden of other responsibilities the caregivers have in the household. The four categories of barriers imply that there are various missed opportunities to implement hospital and community-based interventions to improve infant and young child-feeding practices, which is one way of preventing malnutrition. Therefore, in rural areas of Uganda, the major factors responsible for the high prevalence of malnutrition among infants and children are still those related to knowledge, culture, and social status of the primary caregivers. PMID:25995727

  15. Lessons from the feeding infants and toddlers study in North America: what children eat, and implications for obesity prevention.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Deming, Denise; Dattilo, Anne; Reidy, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    The latest exhaustive survey of dietary patterns in infants from the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) in North America documents and quantifies current trends in infant feeding. These include higher than generally recommended energy, protein, and saturated fat intakes. The majority of infants are bottle fed at some point in their first year of life, and their weaning diet often includes low intakes of fruits and vegetables, with high starchy, rather than green or yellow, vegetables. Early introduction of solids, use of cow's milk prior to 1 year of age, and high juice intake in the first 2 years - all less desirable diet practices - are improving, but are still prevalent. More preschoolers are likely to get sweets or sweetened beverages than a serving of fruit or a vegetable on a given day. These food intake patterns mimic the adult American diet and are associated with an increased risk of obesity in childhood and later life. But more importantly, these patterns appear to be set as early as 18 months of age, and by 20 months of age, they mimic the adult diet. Despite increase in total energy intake, and greater variety of foods, the basic characteristics of macronutrient intake distribution and food group contribution of energy to the diet before 2 years of age remain remarkably stable and similar to the family table. Obesity prevention needs to include specific targets in terms of breastfeeding and adequate formula feeding, as well as appropriate introduction of weaning foods with goals of changing the inadequate patterns documented in the FITS. These interventions will also require addressing parent and caregiver behaviors, including attending to hunger satiety cues (responsive feeding), and shaping early food preferences. This needs to be done starting at birth, in the first months of life. Early intervention offers a unique and potentially efficacious opportunity to shape the future dietary patterns of the next generation.

  16. Kinetic study of ferronickel slag grinding at variation of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanwani, Edy; Ikhwanto, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls on the kinetic of grinding of ferronickel slag in a laboratory scale ball mill. The experiments were started by crushing the ferronickel slag samples using a roll crusher to produce -3 mesh (-6.7 mm) product. This product, after sampling and sample dividing processes, was then used as feed for grinding process. The grinding was performed with variations of ball filling and ratio of feed to grinding balls for 150 minutes. At every certain time interval, particle size analysis was carried out on the grinding product. The results of the experiments were also used to develop linear regression model of the effect of grinding variables on the P80 of the product. Based on this study, it was shown that P80 values of the grinding products declined sharply until 70 minutes of grinding time due to the dominant mechanism of impact breakage and then decreased slowly after 70 minutes until 150 minutes of grinding time due to dominant mechanism of attrition breakage. Kinetics study of the grinding process on variations of grinding ball filling showed that the optimum rate of formation of fine particles for 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% mill volume was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at 50% volume of mill. At the variations of ratio of feed to grinding balls it was shown that the optimum rate of grinding for the ratio of 1:10, 1: 8 and 1: 6 was achieved at a particle size of 400 µm and for the ratio of 1: 4 was at 841 µm in which the best initial rate of formation occurred at a 1:10 ratio. In this study, it was also produced two regression models that can predict the P80 value of the grinding product as a function of the variables of grinding time, ball filling and the ratio of the feed to grinding balls.

  17. Feeding regulation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Pool, Allan-Hermann; Scott, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Neuromodulators play a key role in adjusting animal behavior based on environmental cues and internal needs. Here, we review the regulation of Drosophila feeding behavior to illustrate how neuromodulators achieve behavioral plasticity. Recent studies have made rapid progress in determining molecular and cellular mechanisms that translate the metabolic needs of the fly into changes in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory states. These neuromodulators in turn promote or inhibit discrete feeding behavioral subprograms. This review highlights the links between physiological needs, neuromodulatory states, and feeding decisions. PMID:24937262

  18. Chronic toxicity, reproductive, and teratogenic studies of hexazinone.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, G L; Kaplan, A M

    1984-12-01

    Hexazinone [3-cyclohexyl-6-(dimethylamino)-1-methyl-1,3,5-triazine 2,4(1H,3H)-dione; CAS 51235-04-2] was tested for oral toxicity in rats (both 90-day and 2-year feeding studies), mice (8-week and 2-year feeding studies), and dogs (90-day feeding study). The teratogenic potential was evaluated in rabbits and rats and functional reproductive capacity was studied in rats. Ninety-day feeding of up to 1000 ppm produced no signs of a toxic response in rats. Rats fed 5000 ppm had growth curves slightly inferior to those of the controls as the only detectable difference. Extending the feeding period to 2 years produced decreased body weights in males fed 2500 ppm (top level tested) and in females fed either 1000 or 2500 ppm. All other indices of response, including the type and distribution of tumors, were similar in the test and control rats with the no-effect level being 200 ppm. Eight-week feeding of up to 10,000 ppm in mice produced increased liver weight only at the highest level without any other changes. Two-year feeding of either 200, 2500, or 10,000 ppm resulted in sloughing of the distal tip of the tail and increased liver weights among mice fed 10,000 ppm. Hypertrophy of centrilobular hepatocytes and hyperplasic nodules were increased in mice fed either 2500 or 10,000 ppm. No evidence of a tumorigenic response was evident. The no-effect level was 200 ppm. Dogs fed 5000 ppm for 90 days had decreased rate of body weight gain with clinical enzyme changes suggestive of liver damage. Microscopic examination of the liver failed to reveal any alterations and dogs fed either 200 or 1000 ppm were indistinguishable from controls. The no-effect level in the dog was 1000 ppm. No evidence of a teratogenic response was seen in either rats or rabbits and reproduction capacity in rats fed up to 2500 ppm for three generations was unaffected.

  19. Study of cholesterol and vitamin E levels in broiler meat from different feeding regimens by TOF-SIMS.

    PubMed

    Marzec, Magdalena E; Wojtysiak, Dorota; Połtowicz, Katarzyna; Nowak, Joanna; Pedrys, Roman

    2016-06-10

    The quality of chicken meat, which is one of the most widely consumed meats in the world, has been the subject of research and studies for many years. There are several ways to improve the quality of this type of meat, including changing the concentrations of individual molecular components. Such important components of meat are inter alia, cholesterol, vitamin E, and some fatty acids such as ω-3 and ω-6. Manipulation of ingredient levels may be achieved by enriching chicken feed with elements of different types such as vegetable oils, garlic, or selenium. Thus far, various biochemical and biophysical methods have been used to study quality of different meat types, especially broiler meat. Here, the authors demonstrate the use of high-resolution time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) mass spectrometry to assess how variations in animal nutrition affect concentrations of specific lipids in the meat, such as cholesterol and vitamin E. In the presented experiment, there were four different dietary treatments. Feed for animals in the first group was supplemented with soy oil in 50%, the second group's feed was supplemented with linseed oil in 50%, a combination of these two oils in the proportion of 44%:56% was used for the third group, and in the reference group, animals were fed with beef tallow. From each group, four individuals were selected for further analysis. Positive and negative ion mass spectra were generated from the pectoralis superficialis muscle tissue of the left carcass side of each one animal. Using TOF-SIMS with a bismuth cluster ion source (Bi3 (+)), and based on characteristic peaks for cholesterol in the positive mode and vitamin E in the negative mode, the authors have illustrated the relationship of these lipids levels to the various feeding regimens. Simultaneously, the authors characterized the varying dependences on the concentrations of measured lipids in fat and muscle fibers. The cholesterol concentration in muscle

  20. Feeding rate as valuable information in primate feeding ecology.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Naofumi

    2009-04-01

    In this review I outline studies on wild non-human primates using information on feeding rate, which is defined as the food intake per minute on a dry-weight basis; further, I summarize the significance of feeding rate in primate feeding ecology. The optimal foraging theory has addressed three aspects of animal feeding: (1) optimal food patch choice, (2) optimal time allocation to different patches, and (3) optimal food choice. In order to gain a better understanding of these three aspects, the feeding rate itself or its relevance indices (e.g., rates of calorie and protein intake) could be appropriate measures to assess the quality of food and food patches. Moreover, the feeding rate plays an essential role in estimation of total food intake, because it varies greatly for different food items and the feeding time is not a precise measure. The feeding rate could also vary across individuals who simultaneously feed on the same food items in the same food patch. Body size-dependent and rank-dependent differences in the feeding rate sometimes cause individuals to take strategic behavioral options. In the closing remarks, I discuss the usefulness of even limited data on feeding rate obtained under adverse observational conditions in understanding primate feeding ecology.

  1. Clearing obstructed feeding tubes.

    PubMed

    Marcuard, S P; Stegall, K L; Trogdon, S

    1989-01-01

    This is a report of an in vitro study evaluating the ability of six solutions to dissolve clotted enteral feeding, which can cause feeding tube occlusion. The following clotted enteral feeding products were tested: Ensure Plus, Ensure Plus with added protein (Promod 20 g/liter), Osmolite, Enrich, and Pulmocare. Clot dissolution was then tested by adding Adolf's Meat Tenderizer, Viokase, Sprite, Pepsi, Coke, or Mountain Dew. Distilled water served as control. Dissolution score for each mixture was assessed blindly. Best dissolution was observed with Viokase in pH 7.9 solution (p less than 0.01). Similar results were obtained when feeding tube patency was restored in eight in vitro occluded feeding tubes (Dobbhoff, French size 8) by using first Pepsi (two/eight successful) and then Viokase in pH 7.9 (six/six successful). We also report our experience in the first 10 patients with occluded feeding tubes using this Viokase solution injected through a Drum catheter into the feeding tube. In seven patients, this method proved to be successful, and the reasons for failure in three patients include a knotted tube, impacted tablet powder, and a formula clot fo 24 hr duration and 45 cm in length.

  2. Role of Social Support in Improving Infant Feeding Practices in Western Kenya: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukuria, Altrena G; Martin, Stephanie L; Egondi, Thaddeus; Bingham, Allison; Thuita, Faith M

    2016-01-01

    into account the interaction effects of intervention area and increasing social support over time, we found a significant association in the grandmother intervention area on dietary diversity (OR, 1.19; CI, 1.01 to 1.40; P=.04). No significant effects were found on minimum acceptable diet. Conclusion: Engaging fathers and grandmothers of infants to improve their knowledge of optimal infant feeding practices and to encourage provision of social support to mothers could help improve some feeding practices. Future studies should engage all key household influencers in a family-centered approach to practice and support infant feeding recommendations. PMID:27016544

  3. Effects of almond and pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition in a randomised cross-over human feeding study.

    PubMed

    Ukhanova, Maria; Wang, Xiaoyu; Baer, David J; Novotny, Janet A; Fredborg, Marlene; Mai, Volker

    2014-06-28

    The modification of microbiota composition to a 'beneficial' one is a promising approach for improving intestinal as well as overall health. Natural fibres and phytochemicals that reach the proximal colon, such as those present in various nuts, provide substrates for the maintenance of healthy and diverse microbiota. The effects of increased consumption of specific nuts, which are rich in fibre as well as various phytonutrients, on human gut microbiota composition have not been investigated to date. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of almond and pistachio consumption on human gut microbiota composition. We characterised microbiota in faecal samples collected from volunteers in two separate randomised, controlled, cross-over feeding studies (n 18 for the almond feeding study and n 16 for the pistachio feeding study) with 0, 1·5 or 3 servings/d of the respective nuts for 18 d. Gut microbiota composition was analysed using a 16S rRNA-based approach for bacteria and an internal transcribed spacer region sequencing approach for fungi. The 16S rRNA sequence analysis of 528 028 sequence reads, retained after removing low-quality and short-length reads, revealed various operational taxonomic units that appeared to be affected by nut consumption. The effect of pistachio consumption on gut microbiota composition was much stronger than that of almond consumption and included an increase in the number of potentially beneficial butyrate-producing bacteria. Although the numbers of bifidobacteria were not affected by the consumption of either nut, pistachio consumption appeared to decrease the number of lactic acid bacteria (P< 0·05). Increasing the consumption of almonds or pistachios appears to be an effective means of modifying gut microbiota composition.

  4. TANK 21 AND TANK 24 BLEND AND FEED STUDY: BLENDING TIMES, SETTLING TIMES, AND TRANSFERS

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Leishear, R.; Poirier, M.

    2012-05-31

    The Salt Disposition Integration (SDI) portfolio of projects provides the infrastructure within existing Liquid Waste facilities to support the startup and long term operation of the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Within SDI, the Blend and Feed Project will equip existing waste tanks in the Tank Farms to serve as Blend Tanks where salt solutions of up to 1.2 million gallons will be blended in 1.3 million gallon tanks and qualified for use as feedstock for SWPF. In particular, Tanks 21 and 24 are planned to be used for blending and transferring to the SDI feed tank. These tanks were evaluated here to determine blending times, to determine a range of settling times for disturbed sludge, and to determine that the SWPF Waste Acceptance Criteria that less than 1200 mg/liter of solids will be entrained in salt solutions during transfers from the Tank 21 and Tank 24 will be met. Overall conclusions for Tank 21 and Tank 24 operations include: (1) Experimental correction factors were applied to CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models to establish blending times between approximately two and five hours. As shown in Phase 2 research, blending times may be as much as ten times greater, or more, if lighter fluids are added to heavier fluids (i.e., water added to salt solution). As the densities of two salt solutions converge this effect may be minimized, but additional confirmatory research was not performed. (2) At the current sludge levels and the presently planned operating heights of the transfer pumps, solids entrainment will be less than 1200 mg/liter, assuming a conservative, slow settling sludge simulant. (3) Based on theoretical calculations, particles in the density range of 2.5 to 5.0 g/mL must be greater than 2-4 {micro}m in diameter to ensure they settle adequately in 30-60 days to meet the SWPF feed criterion (<1200 mg/l). (4) Experimental tests with sludge batch 6 simulant and field turbidity data from a recent Tank 21 mixing evolution suggest the solid

  5. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  6. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  7. Case study of active array feed compensation with sidelobe control for reflector surface distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acosta, R. J.; Zaman, A. J. M.; Bobinsky, E. A.; Cherrette, A. R.; Lee, S. W.

    1988-01-01

    The feasibility of electromagnetically compensating for reflector surface distortions has been investigated. The performance characteristics (gain, sidelobe levels, etc.) of large communication antenna systems degrade as the reflector surface distorts mainly due to thermal effects from a varying solar flux. The techniques described in this report can be used to maintain the design performance characteristics independently of thermal effects on the reflector surface. With the advent of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMIC), a greater flexibility in array-fed reflector system design can be achieved. MMIC arrays provide independent control of amplitude and phase for each of many radiating elements of the feed array. It is assumed that the surface characteristics (x,y,z, its first and second derivatives) under distorted conditions are known.

  8. Experimental Study on Coal Feeding Property of 600MW CFB Boiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. P.; Tian, L. N.; Du, Q.; Yang, H. P.; Wang, X. H.; Zhou, K.; Zhang, S. H.

    In the CFB boiler technology, improving the steam parameters can lead to the improvement of power plant efficiency. However, during the process of large scale, there exist some key problems, such as uniformity of coal feeding, it is a major factor which showed great influence on the boiler efficiency, temperature distribution, etc. In the paper, based on the structure of commercial 600MW CFB boiler unit and similarity principle, the experiment-rig was set-up; using hot trace particle injection and thermocouple temperature collection system, the three-dimensional diffusing property of hot trace particle was analyzed by measuring the temperature distribution at different positions under different operating conditions of variant bed material height and fluidized air velocity.

  9. Early childhood feeding practices and dental caries in preschool children: a multi-centre birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Dental caries (decay) is an international public health challenge, especially amongst young children. Early Childhood Caries is a rapidly progressing disease leading to severe pain, anxiety, sepsis and sleep loss, and is a major health problem particularly for disadvantaged populations. There is currently a lack of research exploring the interactions between risk and protective factors in the development of early childhood caries, in particular the effects of infant feeding practises. Methods/Design This is an observational cohort study and involves the recruitment of a birth cohort from disadvantaged communities in South Western Sydney. Mothers will be invited to join the study soon after the birth of their child at the time of the first home visit by Child and Family Health Nurses. Data on feeding practices and dental health behaviours will be gathered utilizing a telephone interview at 4, 8 and 12 months, and thereafter at 6 monthly intervals until the child is aged 5 years. Information collected will include a) initiation and duration of breastfeeding, b) introduction of solid food, c) intake of cariogenic and non-cariogenic foods, d) fluoride exposure, and e) oral hygiene practices. Children will have a dental and anthropometric examination at 2 and 5 years of age and the main outcome measures will be oral health quality of life, caries prevalence and caries incidence. Discussion This study will provide evidence of the association of early childhood feeding practices and the oral health of preschool children. In addition, information will be collected on breastfeeding practices and the oral health concerns of mothers living in disadvantaged areas in South Western Sydney. PMID:21223601

  10. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  11. Association of Temperament and Acute Stress Responsiveness with Productivity, Feed Efficiency, and Methane Emissions in Beef Cattle: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J.; Rooke, John A.; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P < 0.001). Plasma cortisol, CK, and FFA concentrations increased after transport (P = 0.038, P = 0.006, and P < 0.001, respectively). Temperament (CS) and CK concentration were correlated (r = 0.29; P = 0.015). The extreme group analysis reveals that excitable animals (FS; P = 0.032) and higher stress response (cortisol, P = 0.007; FFA, P = 0.007; and CK, P = 0.003) were associated with lower DMI. ADG was lower in more temperamental animals (CS, P = 0.097, and FS, P = 0.030). Fat depth was greater in steers showing calmer CS (P = 0.026) and lower plasma CK (P = 0.058). Temperament did not show any relationship with RFI or CH4 emissions. However, steers with higher cortisol showed improved feed efficiency (lower

  12. Subchronic feeding study of stacked trait genetically-modified soybean (3Ø5423 × 40-3-2) in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Qi, Xiaozhe; He, Xiaoyun; Luo, Yunbo; Li, Shuangying; Zou, Shiying; Cao, Sishuo; Tang, Maozhi; Delaney, Bryan; Xu, Wentao; Huang, Kunlun

    2012-09-01

    The genetically-modified (GM) soybean 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 expresses siRNA for the fatty acid desaturase-2 enzyme which results in higher concentrations of oleic acid (18:1) relative to linoleic acid (18:2) compared with non-GM soybeans. It also expresses the CP4 EPSPS protein for tolerance to glyphosate. In this study, three different dietary concentrations (7.5%, 15% and 30% wt/wt) of 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 or non-GM soybeans were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days during which in-life nutritional and growth performance variables were evaluated followed by analysis of standard clinical chemistry, hematology and organ variables. Compared with rats fed the non-GM control diet, some statistically significant differences were observed in rats fed the 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 diet. However the differences were not considered treatment-related and commonly fell within the normal ranges of the control group consuming the commercial diet. These results demonstrated that the GM soybean 3Ø5423 × 40-3-2 is as safe as non-GM soybeans.

  13. Determination of dietary starch in animal feeds and pet food by an enzymatic-colorimetric method: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Starch, glycogen, maltooligosaccharides, and other α-1,4- and α-1,6-linked glucose carbohydrates, exclusive of resistant starch, are collectively termed "dietary starch". This nutritionally important fraction is increasingly measured for use in diet formulation for animals as it can have positive or negative effects on animal performance and health by affecting energy supply, glycemic index, and formation of fermentation products by gut microbes. AOAC Method 920.40 that was used for measuring dietary starch in animal feeds was invalidated due to discontinued production of a required enzyme. As a replacement, an enzymatic-colorimetric starch assay developed in 1997 that had advantages in ease of sample handling and accuracy compared to other methods was considered. The assay was further modified to improve utilization of laboratory resources and reduce time required for the assay. The assay is quasi-empirical: glucose is the analyte detected, but its release is determined by run conditions and specification of enzymes. The modified assay was tested in an AOAC collaborative study to evaluate its accuracy and reliability for determination of dietary starch in animal feedstuffs and pet foods. In the assay, samples are incubated in screw cap tubes with thermostable α-amylase in pH 5.0 sodium acetate buffer for 1 h at 100°C with periodic mixing to gelatinize and partially hydrolyze α-glucan. Amyloglucosidase is added, and the reaction mixture is incubated at 50°C for 2 h and mixed once. After subsequent addition of water, mixing, clarification, and dilution as needed, free + enzymatically released glucose are measured. Values from a separate determination of free glucose are subtracted to give values for enzymatically released glucose. Dietary starch equals enzymatically released glucose multiplied by 162/180 (or 0.9) divided by the weight of the as received sample. Fifteen laboratories that represented feed company, regulatory, research, and commercial feed

  14. Exploring the infant feeding practices of immigrant women in the North West of England: a case study of asylum seekers and refugees in Liverpool and Manchester.

    PubMed

    Hufton, Emily; Raven, Joanna

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the infant feeding experiences of refugees residing in the UK. To enable successful health promotion for this population, such experiences must be understood. The study aimed to gain an understanding of infant feeding practices among a group of UK-based refugee mothers. Objectives were to explore mothers' perceptions and influences of infant feeding practices, to explore challenges faced by mothers in feeding their infants and to identify concerns and experiences of health care professionals with regard to caring for them. Fifteen semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions with refugee mothers and five semi-structured interviews with health care providers were conducted in 2012. A framework approach was used to identify main themes. Overall mothers were dissatisfied with their infant feeding outcomes. A preference to exclusively breastfeed was often not achieved. Most resorted to using formula feed, perceiving that this was primarily due to a lack of support. Mothers who were positive to human immunodeficiency virus followed the UK guidelines of exclusively formula feeding for 6 months, but struggled with guilt of not being able to breastfeed. All mothers unable to exclusively breastfeed experienced a sense of loss. Lack of wider support services coupled with complex lifestyles appeared to create challenges in providing infant feeding support. The results highlight a need for an intensified response to facilitate these mothers to maintain their preferred infant feeding choices, or when required, to support them in the adoption of a new method. Using experienced refugee mothers to guide newer mothers, and integrating health and social care, would be positive starting points.

  15. Study parameters influencing NOAEL and LOAEL in toxicity feeding studies for pesticides: exposure duration versus dose decrement, dose spacing, group size and chemical class.

    PubMed

    Zarn, Jürg A; Engeli, Barbara E; Schlatter, Josef R

    2011-11-01

    The effect of exposure duration on no observed adverse effect levels (NOAEL) and lowest observed adverse effect levels (LOAEL) in rodent pesticide feeding studies was evaluated. Ratios of NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentrations in feed, were calculated from subacute to subchronic, subchronic to chronic and subacute to chronic studies. There was no statistical significant effect of exposure duration on ratio distributions. Whereas geometric means of ratios were in a narrow range of 1.1-2.5, the geometric standard deviations and 95th percentiles increased with dose spacing of the involved studies. With the exception of carbamates, the chemical class of pesticides had no influence on the ratio distributions. However, the number of animals in the shorter-term study of ratio couples being ≤ 1 was statistically significantly higher than in ratio couples being >1. Ratios ≤ 1 may be partly explained by the dose decrement over time observed in feeding studies applying the test substances in constant concentrations. The dose decrement possibly converts initially toxic doses to less toxic doses beyond the subacute phase. Ratios >1 seem to be caused predominantly by differences in study design parameters. In dietary risk assessment, the acceptable daily intake (ADI) is compared to pesticide intake estimates based on mean food consumption (i.e. the so called theoretical maximum daily intake, TMDI) being orders of magnitude lower than actual food consumption on eating occasions for certain food commodities. As subacute, subchronic and chronic NOAEL (and LOAEL), expressed as pesticide concentration in feed did not differ statistically significantly, the TMDI as benchmark for the ADI may underestimate the significance of the toxicity of subacute exposure.

  16. Continuous manufacturing of tablets with PROMIS-line - Introduction and case studies from continuous feeding, blending and tableting.

    PubMed

    Simonaho, Simo-Pekka; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Ervasti, Tuomas; Toiviainen, Maunu; Korhonen, Ossi

    2016-07-30

    Drug manufacturing technology is in the midst of modernization and continuous manufacturing of drug products is especially the focus of great interest. The adoption of new manufacturing approaches requires extensive cooperation between industry, regulatory bodies, academics and equipment manufacturers. In this paper we introduce PROMIS-line which is a continuous tableting line built at the University of Eastern Finland, School of Pharmacy, PROMIS-centre. PROMIS-line is modular and tablets can be produced via dry granulation or direct compression. In three case studies, continuous feeding, blending and tablet performance is studied to illustrate some basic features of PROMIS-line. In conclusion, the PROMIS-line is an excellent tool for studying the fundamentals of continuous manufacturing of tablets.

  17. Associations between maternal depressive symptoms and child feeding practices in a cross-sectional study of low-income mothers and their young children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Maternal depression may influence feeding practices important in determining child eating behaviors and weight. However, the association between maternal depressive symptoms and feeding practices has been inconsistent, and most prior studies used self-report questionnaires alone to characterize feeding. The purpose of this study was to identify feeding practices associated with maternal depressive symptoms using multiple methodologies, and to test the hypothesis that maternal depressive symptoms are associated with less responsive feeding practices. Methods In this cross-sectional, observational study, participants (n = 295) included low-income mothers and their 4- to 8-year-old children. Maternal feeding practices were assessed via interviewer-administered questionnaires, semi-structured narrative interviews, and videotaped observations in home and laboratory settings. Maternal depressive symptoms were measured using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Regression analyses examined associations between elevated depressive symptoms (CES-D score ≥16) and measures of maternal feeding practices, adjusting for: child sex, food fussiness, number of older siblings; and maternal age, body mass index (BMI), education, race/ethnicity, single parent status, perceived child weight, and concern about child weight. Results Thirty-one percent of mothers reported depressive symptoms above the screening cutoff. Mothers with elevated depressive symptoms reported more pressuring of children to eat (β = 0.29; 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.03, 0.54) and more overall demandingness (β = 0.16; 95% CI: 0.03, 0.29), and expressed lower authority in child feeding during semi-structured narrative interview (Odds Ratio (OR) for low authority: 2.82; 95% CI: 1.55, 5.12). In homes of mothers with elevated depressive symptoms, the television was more likely audible during meals (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.05, 3.48) and mothers were less likely to eat with

  18. Studies of acoustic-electric feed-throughs for power transmission through structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Doty, Benjamin; Badescu, Mircea; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Aldrich, Jack; Chang, Zensheu

    2006-01-01

    There are numerous engineering design problems where the use of wires to transfer power and communicate data thru the walls of a structure is prohibitive or significantly difficult that it may require a complex design. Using physical feedthroughs in such systems may make them susceptible to leakage of chemicals or gasses, loss of pressure or vacuum, as well as difficulties in providing adequate thermal or electrical insulation. Moreover, feeding wires thru a wall of a structure reduces the strength of the structure and makes the structure prone to cracking due to fatigue that can result from cyclic loading and stress concentrations. One area that has already been identified to require a wireless alternative to electrical feedthroughs is the container of the Mars Sample Return Mission, which will need wireless sensors to sense a pressure leak and to avoid potential contamination. The idea of using elastic or acoustic waves to transfer power was suggested recently by [Y. Hu, et al., July 2003]. This system allows for the avoidance of cabling or wiring. The technology is applicable to the transfer of power for actuation, sensing and other tasks inside any sealed container or vacuum/pressure vessel. An alternative approach to the modeling presented previously [Sherrit et a., 2005] used network analysis to solve the same problem in a clear and expandable manner. Experimental tests on three different designs of these devices were performed. The three designs used different methods of coupling the piezoelectric element to the wall. In the first test the piezoelectric material was bolted using a backing structure. In the second test the piezoelectric was clamped after the application of grease and finally the piezoelectric element was attached using a conductive epoxy. The mechanical clamp with grease produced the highest measured efficiency of 53% however this design was the least practical from a fabrication viewpoint. The power transfer efficiency of conductive epoxy

  19. Serum β-Glucuronidase Activity in Response to Fruit and Vegetable Supplementation: A Controlled Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    Maruti, Sonia S.; Chang, Jyh-Lurn; Prunty, JoAnn; Bigler, Jeannette; Schwarz, Yvonne; Li, Shuying S.; Li, Lin; King, Irena B.; Potter, John D.; Lampe, Johanna W.

    2008-01-01

    Background Fruit and vegetable intake may lower the risk of some cancers. One hypothesized, but understudied, chemopreventive mechanism is that plant food constituents inhibit β-glucuronidase, an acid hydrolase that deconjugates glucuronides. Methods We conducted a cross-over feeding trial in 63 healthy women and men aged 20−40 years, to examine the effect of diet on serum β-glucuronidase activity. Participants were randomized to 2 two-week experimental diets with an intervening washout period: a diet high in selected citrus fruit, crucifers, and soy (F&V) and a diet devoid of fruits, vegetables, and soy (basal). Serum β-glucuronidase activity was measured during the pre-intervention, F&V, and basal periods. Linear mixed models were used to obtain effect estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results We observed statistically significantly higher β-glucuronidase activity during the F&V than the basal diet (ratio, F&V versus basal diet, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.05−1.13; P <0.01). These results were probably due to decreased β-glucuronidase activity during the basal diet (ratio, basal period versus pre-intervention, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87−0.98; P=0.01), rather than increased enzyme activity during the F&V diet (ratio, F&V period versus pre-intervention, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.96−1.06; P=0.64). The diet-enzyme activity relation did not differ by sex (P interaction=0.30), but there was a suggestion of a short-term diet effect at 8 days versus 15 days (P interaction=0.06). Conclusion This intervention of selected fruits and vegetables did not lower β-glucuronidase activity. Further investigation is needed regarding what other foods and phytochemicals may influence β-glucuronidase activity and effect modifiers of this relation PMID:18628435

  20. A Preference Based Measure of Complementary Feeding Quality: Application to the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children

    PubMed Central

    Mittinty, Murthy N.; Golley, Rebecca K.; Smithers, Lisa G.; Brazionis, Laima; Lynch, John W.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution. PMID:24155886

  1. Poor Infant Feeding Practices and High Prevalence of Malnutrition in Urban Slum Child Care Centres in Nairobi: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mutoro, Antonina; Owino, Victor; Garcia, Ada L.; Wright, Charlotte M.

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the style and quality of feeding and care provided in child day-care centres in slum areas. This study purposively sampled five day-care centres in Nairobi, Kenya, where anthropometric measurements were collected among 33 children aged 6–24 months. Mealtime interactions were further observed in 11 children from four centres, using a standardized data collection sheet. We recorded the child actions, such as mood, interest in food, distraction level, as well as caregiver actions, such as encouragement to eat, level of distraction and presence of neutral actions. Of the 33 children assessed, with a mean age of 15.9 ± 4.9 months, 14 (42%) were female. Undernutrition was found in 13 (39%) children with at least one Z score <−2 or oedema (2): height for age <−2 (11), weight for age <−2 (11), body mass index for age <−2 (4). Rates of undernutrition were highest (9 of 13; 69%) in children aged 18–24 months. Hand-washing before the meal was lacking in all centres. Caregivers were often distracted and rarely encouraged children to feed, with most children eating less than half of their served meal. Poor hygiene coupled with non-responsive care practices observed in the centres is a threat to child health, growth and development. PMID:26507408

  2. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk) of Mizoram

    PubMed Central

    Lalthansanga, James; Samanta, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule) meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM) on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk) were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule) meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1) on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4). Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration) at 0% (G1), 20% (G2), 30% (G3), and 40% (G4). Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM) intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg) was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05), although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01) as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization. PMID:27047176

  3. Does broodstock nutritional history affect the response of progeny to different first-feeding diets? A whole-body transcriptomic study of rainbow trout alevins.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Viviana; Corraze, Geneviève; Larroquet, Laurence; Mazurais, David; Médale, Françoise

    2016-06-01

    The whole-body transcriptome of trout alevins was characterised to investigate the effects of long-term feeding of rainbow trout broodstock females a diet free of fishmeal and fish oil on the metabolic capacities of progeny. Effects were studied before first feeding and after 3 weeks of feeding diets containing different proportions of marine and plant ingredients. Feeding alevins plant-based diets resulted in lower fish body weight, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. No differences in whole-body lipids were found between treatments, and the tissue fatty acid profile strongly reflected that of the respective broodstock or first-feeding diets. We showed that the maternal diet history did not significantly affect expressions of any genes before the first feeding. Interestingly, we found an effect of maternal nutritional history on gene expression in alevins after 3 weeks of feeding. The major differences in the transcriptome of alevins from plant-based diet-fed females compared with those from commercial-fed females were as follows: (i) down-regulation of genes involved in muscle growth/contraction and (ii) up-regulation of genes involved in carbohydrate and energy metabolism related to the delay in growth/development observed with plant-based diets. Our findings also showed an effect of the first-feeding diets, irrespective of maternal nutritional history. Specifically, the introduction of plant ingredients resulted in the up-regulation of genes involved in amino acid/protein and cholesterol metabolism and in differences in the expressions of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Information gained through this study opens up avenues for further reduction of marine ingredients in trout diets, including the whole rearing cycle.

  4. Ninety-day oral toxicity studies on two genetically modified maize MON810 varieties in Wistar Han RCC rats (EU 7th Framework Programme project GRACE).

    PubMed

    Zeljenková, Dagmar; Ambrušová, Katarína; Bartušová, Mária; Kebis, Anton; Kovrižnych, Jevgenij; Krivošíková, Zora; Kuricová, Miroslava; Líšková, Aurélia; Rollerová, Eva; Spustová, Viera; Szabová, Elena; Tulinská, Jana; Wimmerová, Soňa; Levkut, Mikuláš; Révajová, Viera; Ševčíková, Zuzana; Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; La Paz, Jose Luis; Corujo, Maria; Pla, Maria; Kleter, Gijs A; Kok, Esther J; Sharbati, Jutta; Hanisch, Carlos; Einspanier, Ralf; Adel-Patient, Karine; Wal, Jean-Michel; Spök, Armin; Pöting, Annette; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; Steinberg, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    The GMO Risk Assessment and Communication of Evidence (GRACE; www.grace-fp7.eu ) project is funded by the European Commission within the 7th Framework Programme. A key objective of GRACE is to conduct 90-day animal feeding trials, animal studies with an extended time frame as well as analytical, in vitro and in silico studies on genetically modified (GM) maize in order to comparatively evaluate their use in GM plant risk assessment. In the present study, the results of two 90-day feeding trials with two different GM maize MON810 varieties, their near-isogenic non-GM varieties and four additional conventional maize varieties are presented. The feeding trials were performed by taking into account the guidance for such studies published by the EFSA Scientific Committee in 2011 and the OECD Test Guideline 408. The results obtained show that the MON810 maize at a level of up to 33 % in the diet did not induce adverse effects in male and female Wistar Han RCC rats after subchronic exposure, independently of the two different genetic backgrounds of the event.

  5. Studies on feeding peanut meal as a protein source for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Costa, E F; Miller, B R; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Ewing, H P

    2001-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to compare the performance of broilers fed soybean meal (SBM) versus peanut meal (PNM) as protein sources. Ross x Ross 208 broiler chickens were placed in battery brooders (Experiments 1 to 3, four replicates of 8 chicks per treatment) and floor pens (Experiment 4, four replicates of 34 chicks per treatment). In Experiment 1, addition of 0, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased 0 to 18 d BW gain (BWG; 0.374c vs. 0.495b vs. 0.508b vs. 0.508b kg, respectively) and decreased feed conversion ratio (FCR; 2.09c vs. 1.63b vs. vs. 1.54b vs. 1.54b g/g, respectively) compared to the corn-SBM-based control diet (BWG = 0.593a and FCR = 1.36a). In Experiment 2, diets were formulated with the same amino acid minimums, and as the percentage of PNM increased in the diets (0, 10, 20, and 32%), BWG decreased (0.560a vs. 0.532a vs. 0.521a vs. 0.458b kg, respectively) and FCR increased (1.72b vs. 1.71b vs. 1.79bc vs. 1.86c g/g, respectively). In Experiment 3, addition of Thr to a corn-PNM-based diet increased BWG (-Thr = 0.284c vs. +Thr = 0.397b kg) and decreased FCR (-Thr = 1.60b vs. +Thr = 1.54b g/g). The BWG and FCR were best for the corn-SBM-based control diet (0.499a kg and 1.38a g/g, respectively). In Experiment 4, during the growing period (18 to 42 d), significant interactions occurred between protein source (PNM vs. SBM) and protein level (16 and 20% vs. 24%) for BW and FCR but not for carcass, breast, or leg quarter yield or fat pad weights (P < 0.05) at 42 d of age. Technical (not economic) performance of birds fed PNM was similar to SBM at the highest protein levels fed. PNM could be used as a protein source for broilers under appropriate economic conditions.

  6. Infant feeding patterns in families with a diabetes history – observations from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hummel, Sandra; Vehik, Kendra; Uusitalo, Ulla; McLeod, Wendy; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Frank, Nicole; Gesualdo, Patricia; Yang, Jimin; Norris, Jill M; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between diabetes family history and infant feeding patterns. Design Data on breast-feeding duration and age at first introduction of cow’s milk and gluten-containing cereals were collected in 3-month intervals during the first 24 months of life. Setting Data from the multicentre TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, including centres in the USA, Sweden, Finland and Germany. Subjects A total of 7026 children, including children with a mother with type 1 diabetes (T1D; n 292), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; n 404) or without diabetes but with a father and/or sibling with T1D (n 464) and children without diabetes family history (n 5866). Results While exclusive breast-feeding ended earlier and cow’s milk was introduced earlier in offspring of mothers with T1D and GDM, offspring of non-diabetic mothers but a father and/or sibling with T1D were exclusively breast-fed longer and introduced to cow’s milk later compared with infants without diabetes family history. The association between maternal diabetes and shorter exclusive breast-feeding duration was attenuated after adjusting for clinical variables (delivery mode, gestational age, Apgar score and birth weight). Country-specific analyses revealed differences in these associations, with Sweden showing the strongest and Finland showing no association between maternal diabetes and breast-feeding duration. Conclusions Family history of diabetes is associated with infant feeding patterns; however, the associations clearly differ by country, indicating that cultural differences are important determinants of infant feeding behaviour. These findings need to be considered when developing strategies to improve feeding patterns in infants with a diabetes family history. PMID:24477208

  7. Association between home birth and breast feeding outcomes: a cross-sectional study in 28 125 mother–infant pairs from Ireland and the UK

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Clare; Taut, Cristina; Zigman, Tamara; Gallagher, Louise; Campbell, Harry; Zgaga, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between breast feeding outcomes and place of birth (home vs hospital birth). Design Population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Ireland and UK. Participants 10 604 mother–infant pairs from the Growing Up in Ireland study (GUI, 2008–2009) and 17 521 pairs from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (UKMCS, 2001–2002) at low risk of delivery complications were included in the study. Primary and secondary outcome measures Breast feeding initiation, exclusivity and duration. Results Home birth was found to be significantly associated with breast feeding at all examined time points, including at birth, 8 weeks, 6 months and breast feeding exclusively at 6 months. In GUI, adjusted OR was 1.90 (95% CI 1.19 to 3.02), 1.78 (1.18 to 2.69), 1.85 (1.23 to 2.77) and 2.77 (1.78 to 4.33), respectively, and in UKMCS it was 2.49 (1.84 to 3.44), 2.49 (1.92 to 3.26), 2.90 (2.25 to 3.73) and 2.24 (1.14 to 4.03). Conclusions Home birth was strongly associated with improved breast feeding outcomes in low-risk deliveries. While the association between home birth and breast feeding is unlikely to be directly causal, further research is needed to determine which factor(s) drive the observed differences, to facilitate development of perinatal care that supports breast feeding. PMID:27503858

  8. Detection of ruminant meat and bone meals in animal feed by real-time polymerase chain reaction: result of an interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Prado, Marta; Berben, Gilbert; Fumière, Olivier; van Duijn, Gert; Mensinga-Kruize, Jonne; Reaney, Scott; Boix, Ana; von Holst, Christoph

    2007-09-05

    The commercialization of animal feeds infected by prions proved to be the main cause of transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). Therefore, feed bans were enforced, initially for ruminant feeds, and later for all feeds for farmed animals. The development and validation of analytical methods for the species-specific detection of animal proteins in animal feed has been indicated in the TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies) Roadmap (European Commission. The TSE (Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy) roadmap. URL: http://europa.eu.int/comm/food/food/biosafety/bse/roadmap_en.pdf, 2005) as the main condition for lifting the extended feed ban. Methods based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seem to be a promising solution for this aim. The main objective of this study was to determine the applicability of four different real-time PCR methods, developed by three National expert laboratories from the European Union (EU), for the detection and identification of cattle or ruminant species in typical compound feeds, fortified with meat and bone meals (MBM) from different animal species at different concentration levels. The MBM samples utilized in this study have been treated using the sterilization condition mandatory within the European Union (steam pressure sterilization at 133 degrees C, 3 bar, and 20 min), which is an additional challenge to the PCR methods evaluated in this study. The results indicate that the three labs applying their PCR methods were able to detect 0.1% of cattle MBM, either alone or in mixtures with different materials such as fishmeal, which demonstrates the improvement made by this technique, especially when compared with results from former interlaboratory studies.

  9. Feeding practices of young children aged 12-23 months in different socio-economic settings: a study from an urban area of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Santika, Otte; Februhartanty, Judhiastuty; Ariawan, Iwan

    2016-07-01

    Poor feeding practices among young children lead to malnutrition, and the poor are at a greater risk than the better off groups. Child-feeding practices in various socio-economic strata, especially in urban settings, have not yet been well studied in Indonesia. This study aims to explore the feeding practices of 12-23 months old children from different socio-economic status (SES) groups. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, which included low (n 207), medium-high (n 205), medium-low (n 208) and high SES households (n 194) in forty-three villages within thirty-three sub-districts of Bandung city. Two non-consecutive 24 h recall and eight core indicators of child-feeding practices were assessed through interviews. The results showed that children from the high SES group were more likely to be exclusively breast-fed and to continue breast-feeding up to 1 year of age, met minimum dietary diversity and minimum acceptable diet, and also consumed Fe-rich or Fe-fortified foods. In contrast, children from low SES consumed more energy-rich food (grain) but fewer foods from the other food groups. Consumption of major nutrients differed across the SES groups. Inadequate nutrition was higher among children from the lower SES groups. Fortified foods were consumed by a larger proportion of children from the high SES group and contributed considerably to their overall nutrient intake. This study shows that young children's feeding practices were not adequate, most notably among the low SES households. However, after adjusting with potential confounders, there was not enough evidence to conclude SES as a risk factor for feeding practice.

  10. Breast feeding and infant mortality.

    PubMed

    Golding, J; Emmett, P M; Rogers, I S

    1997-10-29

    The evidence linking bottle feeding to infant and early childhood mortality has been reviewed. Ecological studies of national time trends in infant mortality do not parallel breast feeding trends in those countries, and indicate that falling death rates are more likely to be related to better health care facilities and social conditions. Direct studies of deaths provide some contradictory findings; meta-analyses are not informative because of the many differences in statistical and sample methodology. The methodology exhibited in most studies is more likely to have over- rather than under-estimated a relationship between bottle feeding and infant mortality. Retrospective analyses must take account of changes in feeding pattern due to early signs of illness. Prospective population studies able to account for large numbers of potential confounders provide the best estimates, especially if proportional hazards models are used. Two such studies have been carried out--both showed protective effects of breast feeding.

  11. Infant feeding and vision

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the past several years, a number of randomized controlled trials have compared the effects of breastfeeding and formula feeding and the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)–supplemented and non-supplemented formulas on visual function in both preterm and term infants. Some studies have shown b...

  12. A qualitative study to understand positive and negative child feeding behaviors of immigrant Asian Indian mothers in the US.

    PubMed

    Momin, Shabnam R; Chung, Kimberly R; Olson, Beth H

    2014-09-01

    To understand current practice of child feeding behaviors, and underlying factors influencing these practices in Asian Indian mothers, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with 27 immigrant Asian Indian mothers of children ages 5-10 years. Using the theory of planned behavior as a guiding framework, child feeding behaviors employed, beliefs about the outcomes of feeding behaviors, perceived ease or difficultly in practicing feeding behaviors, and social norms were explored during the interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted using coding and display matrices. Mothers were motivated by nutrition outcomes when practicing positive and negative controlling feeding behaviors. Outcomes related to preservation of Indian culture and values also influenced feeding behaviors. Pressuring to eat was often practiced despite the perception of ineffectiveness. Use of food rewards was found, and use of TV to control children's food intake despite the clear understanding of undesirable nutrition outcomes was a unique finding. Asian Indian mothers need effective child feeding strategies that are culturally appropriate. Integrating cultural beliefs in nutrition education could help support existing motivation and behavior modification.

  13. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B; Spicer, Paul

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers' beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers.

  14. Understanding infant feeding beliefs, practices and preferred nutrition education and health provider approaches: an exploratory study with Somali mothers in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Steinman, Lesley; Doescher, Mark; Keppel, Gina A.; Pak-Gorstein, Suzinne; Graham, Elinor; Haq, Aliya; Johnson, Donna B.; Spicer, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore Somali mothers’ beliefs and practices around infant feeding and education, towards developing a culturally informed infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. Four focus groups were conducted to explore: (1) beliefs about infant feeding, hunger and ideal weight; (2) feeding practices; (3) nutrition education approaches; and (4) provider/mother interactions. Thirty-seven Somali mother participants identified the following themes within these topics: (1) strategies for assessing hunger, satiety and when to feed; shared beliefs that plump babies are healthy, leading to worry about infant weight; (2) context of breast milk adequacy, difficulties breastfeeding and environmental and cultural barriers to breastfeeding, leading to nearly universal early supplementation with formula; (3) preferred education approaches include provider visits with interpreters, Somali language educational materials and advice from older, experienced family members; and (4) desired health provider skills include: listening, explaining, empathy, addressing specific concerns, repeating important information, offering preventive advice and sufficient visit time. This study presents knowledge about Somali beliefs and practices that can directly guide discussions with these families. Given that these infants appear on a trajectory towards obesity, influencing infant feeding practices in the Somali community is a good upstream approach to preventing obesity. These findings will underpin a new infant nutrition curriculum for health providers. PMID:20055931

  15. The role of infant feeding practices in the explanation for ethnic differences in infant growth: the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study.

    PubMed

    de Hoog, Marieke L A; van Eijsden, Manon; Stronks, Karien; Gemke, Reinoud J B J; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M

    2011-11-01

    Rapid early growth in infants may influence overweight and CVD in later life. Both rapid growth and these disease outcomes disproportionately affect some ethnic minorities. We determined ethnic differences in growth rate (Δ standard deviation scores, ΔSDS) during the first 6 months of life and assessed the explanatory role of infant feeding. Data were derived from a multiethnic cohort for the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study (The Netherlands). Growth data (weight and length) of 2998 term-born singleton infants with no fetal growth restriction were available for five ethnic populations: Dutch (n 1619), African descent (n 174), Turkish (n 167), Moroccan (n 232) and other non-Dutch (n 806). ΔSDS for weight, length and weight-for-length between 4 weeks and 6 months were defined using internal references. Infant feeding pattern (breast-feeding duration, introduction of formula feeding and complementary feeding) in relation to ethnic differences in growth rate was examined by multivariate linear regression. Results showed that the growth rate was higher in almost all ethnic minorities, with β between 0·07 and 0·41 for ΔSDS weight and between 0·12 and 0·42 for ΔSDS length, compared with ethnic Dutch infants. ΔSDS weight-for-length was similar across groups, except for Moroccan infants (β 0·25, P < 0·05) after correction for confounders. In general, exclusive breast-feeding for 4 months was associated with slower growth for all three growth measures. Feeding factors explained, to a small degree, the higher weight and length gain in African descent infants, but not the higher ΔSDS weight-for-length in the Moroccan population. More research is needed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of the high infant growth rate in Turkish and Moroccan infants.

  16. Breast-feeding and maternal cardiovascular function.

    PubMed

    Mezzacappa, E S; Kelsey, R M; Myers, M M; Katkin, E S

    2001-11-01

    Two studies examined the effects of breast-feeding on maternal cardiovascular function. In the first experiment, groups of breast-feeding and bottle-feeding women were compared on preejection period (PEP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) recorded for 1-min periods before and during standard laboratory stressors. Compared with bottle-feeders, breast-feeders had higher CO throughout the session, and greater decreases in CO and increases in TPR during cold pressor. In the second experiment, HR and blood pressure (BP) were compared before and after one breast-feeding and one bottle-feeding session in a within-subjects design. Both feeding methods increased BP but decreased HR, and systolic BP was higher for the breast-feeding than the bottle-feeding condition. Both studies support the notion that breast-feeding alters maternal cardiovascular function, possibly through the actions of oxytocin.

  17. Parent-Reported Feeding and Feeding Problems in a Sample of Dutch Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Moor, Jan; Didden, Robert; Korzilius, Hubert

    2007-01-01

    Little is known about the feeding behaviors and problems with feeding in toddlers. In the present questionnaire study, data were collected on the feeding behaviors and feeding problems in a relatively large (n = 422) sample of Dutch healthy toddlers (i.e. 18-36 months old) who lived at home with their parents. Results show that three meals a day…

  18. Retracting Inconclusive Research: Lessons from the Séralini GM Maize Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-08-01

    In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Séralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup©-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup©, or Roundup© for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney and liver damage than normal controls. Shortly after this study was published, numerous scientists and several scientific organizations criticized the research as methodologically and ethically flawed. In January 2014, the journal retracted the article without the authors' consent on the grounds that the research was inconclusive. In June 2014, Environmental Sciences Europe published a slightly modified version of the retracted paper. The publication, retraction and subsequent republication of the Séralini study raise important scientific and ethical issues for journal editors. Decisions to retract an article should be made on the basis of well-established policies. Articles should be retracted only for serious errors that undermine the reliability of the data or results, or for serious ethical lapses, such as research misconduct or mistreatment of animal or human subjects. Inconclusiveness, by itself, is not a sufficient reason for retracting an article, though a flawed study design might be. Retracted articles that are submitted for republication should undergo scientific review to ensure that they meet appropriate standards. Republished articles should be linked to the original, retracted publication. Journals that are reviewing studies with significant scientific and social implications should take special care to ensure that peer review is rigorous and fair.

  19. A Poor Job Market and a Steady Currency Feed "Overseas-Study Fever" in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hvistendahl, Mara

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese news media have a name for the craze that has gripped students here in the past few years: "overseas-study fever." And despite the worsening global financial crisis and a slowing domestic economy, it shows little sign of letting up. Recruiters say a high household savings rate, a difficult job market, and a steady currency,…

  20. Case Studies on the Impact of Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) on Ground Water Quality

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a series of case studies involving commercial swine, poultry, dairy, and beef CAFO operations where ground water contamination by nitrate and ammonia has occurred to ascertain whether other stressors in CAFO wastes are also being transported through the vado...

  1. Flat mite mouthparts and feeding: Raoiella a case study (Tetranychoidea: Tenuipalpidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LTSEM) allows an almost perfect preservation of specimens and offers an extraordinarily detailed glimpse of micromorphology and behaviour. The use of LTSEM to study mouthpart morphology in the mite family Tenuipalpidae, in particular the genus Raoiella,...

  2. Perceptions of flatulence from bean consumption among adults in 3 feeding studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many consumers avoid eating beans because they believe legume consumption will cause excessive intestinal gas or flatulence. An increasing body of research and the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans supports the benefits of a plant-based diet, and legumes specifically, in the reduction of chronic disease risks. The purpose of the current research was to investigate the perception of increased flatulence and gastrointestinal discomfort among participants who consumed a ½ cup of beans daily for 8 or 12 weeks. Methods Participants in three studies to test the effects of beans on heart disease biomarkers completed the same weekly questionnaire to assess gastrointestinal discomfort issues such as increased flatulence, stool changes, and bloating. Studies 1 and 2 were randomized crossover trials. Participants consumed ½ cup of pinto beans, black-eyed peas, and canned carrots as control (n = 17) in Study 1 for three randomized 8-week phases. For Study 2, participants ate ½ cup baked beans or canned carrots as control (n = 29) for two randomized 8-week phases. Study 3 was a parallel arm trial with 40 subjects receiving ½ cup pinto beans and 40 consuming a control soup for 12 weeks. Changes in the frequency of perceived flatulence, stool characteristics, and bloating were the primary outcome measures. Chi-square distributions were examined for the presence or absence of symptoms and demographic characteristics to determine differences by gender, age, body mass index (BMI), and bean type. Results Less than 50% reported increased flatulence from eating pinto or baked beans during the first week of each trial, but only 19% had a flatulence increase with black-eyed peas. A small percentage (3-11%) reported increased flatulence across the three studies even on control diets without flatulence-producing components. Conclusions People's concerns about excessive flatulence from eating beans may be exaggerated. Public health nutritionists should address the

  3. Retracting Inconclusive Research: Lessons from the Séralini GM Maize Feeding Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In September 2012, Gilles-Eric Séralini and seven coauthors published an article in Food and Chemical Toxicology claiming that rats fed Roundup©-resistant genetically modified maize alone, genetically modified maize with Roundup©, or Roundup© for 2 years had a higher percentage of tumors and kidney and liver damage than normal controls. Shortly after this study was published, numerous scientists and several scientific organizations criticized the research as methodologically and ethically flawed. In January 2014, the journal retracted the article without the authors’ consent on the grounds that the research was inconclusive. In June 2014, Environmental Sciences Europe published a slightly modified version of the retracted paper. The publication, retraction and subsequent republication of the Séralini study raise important scientific and ethical issues for journal editors. Decisions to retract an article should be made on the basis of well-established policies. Articles should be retracted only for serious errors that undermine the reliability of the data or results, or for serious ethical lapses, such as research misconduct or mistreatment of animal or human subjects. Inconclusiveness, by itself, is not a sufficient reason for retracting an article, though a flawed study design might be. Retracted articles that are submitted for republication should undergo scientific review to ensure that they meet appropriate standards. Republished articles should be linked to the original, retracted publication. Journals that are reviewing studies with significant scientific and social implications should take special care to ensure that peer review is rigorous and fair. PMID:26251636

  4. Changes in the prevalence of breast feeding in preterm infants discharged from neonatal units: a register study over 10 years

    PubMed Central

    Flacking, Renée; Hellström-Westas, Lena

    2016-01-01

    Objective There are indications that the prevalence of exclusively breastfed preterm infants is decreasing in Sweden. The objective was to investigate trends in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from Swedish neonatal units and associated factors in preterm infants. Design, setting and participants This is a register study with data from the Swedish Neonatal Quality Register. Data from 29 445 preterm infants (gestational age (GA) <37 weeks) who were born during the period 2004–2013 were retrieved. Data included maternal, perinatal and neonatal characteristics. Data were analysed for the whole population as well as for 3 GA groups. Results From 2004 to 2013, the prevalence of exclusive breast feeding decreased, in extremely preterm (GA 22–27 weeks) from 55% to 16%, in very preterm (GA 28–31 weeks) from 41% to 34% and in moderately preterm infants (GA 32–36 weeks) from 64% to 49%. The decline was statistically significant (p<0.001) in all 3 GA groups. This decline remained significant when adjustments were made for factors negatively associated with exclusive breast feeding and which became more prevalent during the study period, that is, small for GA (all groups) and maternal mental illness (very preterm and moderately preterm infants). Conclusions In the past 10 years, Sweden has experienced a lower rate of exclusive breast feeding in preterm infants, especially in extremely preterm infants. The factors analysed in this study explain only a small proportion of this decline. The decline in exclusive breast feeding at discharge from neonatal units raises concern and present challenges to the units to support and promote breast feeding. PMID:27965252

  5. Environmental and Water Quality Operational Studies. Prey Selection and Feeding Patterns of Fish in a Southern United States Hydropower Tailwater.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-10-01

    peaking hydropower generation at Lake Hartwell /4. Georgia -South Carolina, on the diel prey selection and feeding of four species of fish--silver redhorse...releases on the feeding of fish. Materials and Methods 2. The tailwater of Lake Hartwell is that reach of the Savannah River between Georgia and South...Carolina extending 15-20 km downstream from Hartwell Dam (Figure 1). During generation of peaking hydropower 3 I Hartwel Lake StStation 2 !~ Or g S

  6. An in vitro study of urea, water, ion and CO2/HCO3- transport in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark (Squalus acanthias): the influence of feeding.

    PubMed

    Liew, Hon Jung; De Boeck, Gudrun; Wood, Chris M

    2013-06-01

    In vitro gut sac preparations made from the cardiac stomach (stomach 1), pyloric stomach (stomach 2), intestine (spiral valve) and colon were used to examine the impact of feeding on transport processes in the gastrointestinal tract of the dogfish shark. Preparations were made from animals that were euthanized after 1-2 weeks of fasting, or at 24-48 h after voluntary feeding on a 3% ration of teleost fish (hake). Sacs were incubated under initially symmetrical conditions with dogfish saline on both surfaces. In comparison to an earlier in vivo study, the results confirmed that feeding caused increases in H(+) secretion in both stomach sections, but an increase in Cl(-) secretion only in stomach 2. Na(+) absorption, rather than Na(+) secretion, occurred in both stomach sections after feeding. All sections of the tract absorbed water and the intestine strongly absorbed Na(+) and Cl(-), regardless of feeding condition. The results also confirmed that feeding increased water absorption in the intestine (but not in the colon), and had little influence on the handling of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), which exhibited negligible absorption across the tract. However, K(+) was secreted in the intestine in both fasted and fed preparations. Increased intestinal water absorption occurred despite net osmolyte secretion into the mucosal saline. The largest changes occurred in urea and CO2/HCO3(-) fluxes. In fasted preparations, urea was absorbed at a low rate in all sections except the intestine, where it was secreted. Instead of an increase in intestinal urea secretion predicted from in vivo data, feeding caused a marked switch to net urea absorption. This intestinal urea transport occurred at a rate comparable to urea reabsorption rates reported at gills and kidney, and was apparently active, establishing a large serosal-to-mucosal concentration gradient. Feeding also greatly increased intestinal CO2/HCO3(-) secretion; if interpreted as HCO3(-) transport, the rates were in the upper range

  7. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary-school age Latino children: A pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the U.S.-Mexican border region of San Diego, California

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted 4 focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County (CA). Latino mothers’ mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. Two themes around feeding emerged, including: 1) feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children; and 2) feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors and reinforcement strategies for “eating well”. These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and may help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children. PMID:24315129

  8. Maternal attitudes and behaviors regarding feeding practices in elementary school-aged Latino children: a pilot qualitative study on the impact of the cultural role of mothers in the US-Mexican border region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  9. Maternal Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Feeding Practices in Elementary School-Aged Latino Children: A Pilot Qualitative Study on the Impact of the Cultural Role of Mothers in the US-Mexican Border Region of San Diego, California.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Rhee, Kyung; Blanco, Estela; Boutelle, Kerri

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the attitudes and behaviors of Latino mothers around feeding their children. Using qualitative methods, we conducted four focus groups in Spanish with 41 Latino mothers of elementary school-age children in San Diego County, CA. Latino mothers' mean age was 41 years; 90% were foreign-born; and 74% had a high school education or less. We explored cultural viewpoints around feeding and cooking and feeding strategies used. Focus groups were analyzed based on a priori and emergent themes. The following themes around feeding emerged: feeding attitudes central to the maternal responsibility of having well-fed children and feeding behaviors that centered on cooking methods, supportive behaviors, and reinforcement strategies for "eating well." These findings increase our understanding of the Latino maternal role to feed children and can help to inform more culturally appropriate research to effectively address nutritional issues and obesity prevention in Latino children.

  10. Short-term effects of the DASH diet in adults with moderate chronic kidney disease: a pilot feeding study

    PubMed Central

    Tyson, Crystal C.; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Corsino, Leonor; Batch, Bryan C.; Allen, Jenifer; Sapp, Shelly; Barnhart, Huiman; Nwankwo, Chinazo; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet lowers blood pressure (BP) for adults with normal kidney function, evidence is lacking regarding its safety and efficacy in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to test the effects of the DASH diet on serum electrolytes and BP in adults with moderate CKD. Methods In a prospective before–after feeding study, 11 adults with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 and medication-treated hypertension were provided a reduced-sodium, run-in diet for 1 week followed by a reduced-sodium, DASH diet for 2 weeks. Changes in serum electrolytes and BP were compared pre–post DASH. Results Eleven participants underwent feeding; 1 completed 1 week and 10 completed 2 weeks of DASH. Compared with baseline, DASH modestly increased serum potassium at 1 week (mean ± standard deviation, +0.28 ± 0.4 mg/dL; P = 0.043) but had no significant effect on potassium at 2 weeks (+0.15 ± 0.28 mg/dL; P = 0.13). Serum bicarbonate was reduced (−2.5 ± 3.0 mg/dL; P = 0.03) at 2 weeks. Neither incident hyperkalemia nor new onset metabolic acidosis was observed. Clinic BP and mean 24-h ambulatory BP was unchanged. DASH significantly reduced mean nighttime BP (−5.3 ± 5.8 mmHg; P = 0.018), and enhanced percent declines in both nocturnal systolic BP (−2.1% to −5.1%; P = 0.004) and diastolic BP (−3.7% to −10.0%; P = 0.008). Conclusions These pilot data suggest that a reduced-sodium DASH dietary pattern does not cause acute metabolic events in adults with moderate CKD and may improve nocturnal BP. Definitive studies are needed to determine long-term effects of DASH in CKD. PMID:27478603

  11. Instability in human forearm movements studied with feed-back-controlled electrical stimulation of muscles.

    PubMed

    Jacks, A; Prochazka, A; Trend, P S

    1988-08-01

    1. Amplitude-modulated electrical stimulation was applied to the elbow flexors and extensors to produce movements of the forearm in normal subjects. The parameters of the modulating (command) signal were set in isometric trials so as to produce equal and opposite background torques, and equal and supportive torque modulations. 2. Bode plots relating forearm movement to command signal (modulating) frequency showed the muscle-load to have a low-pass characteristic similar to that previously described in the cat, and a slightly larger bandwidth than described previously in man. 3. The transduced forearm signals were fed back to provide the command signal to the stimulators via a filter which mimicked the transfer function of muscle spindle primary endings. In effect this replaced the neural part of the reflex arc with an accessible model, but left the muscle-load effector intact. 4. All six subjects developed forearm oscillations (tremor) when the loop gain exceeded a threshold value. The mean tremor frequency at onset was 4.4 Hz, which was similar to that of the equivalent vibration-evoked tremor (previous paper, Prochazka & Trend, 1988). 5. With the linear spindle model, oscillations tended to grow rapidly in amplitude, and the stimuli became painful. The inclusion of a logarithmic limiting element resulted in stable oscillations, without significant alterations in frequency. This allowed us to study the effect on tremor of including analog delays in the loop, mimicking those associated with peripheral nerve transmission and central reflexes. In one subject, loop delays of 0, 20, 40 and 100 ms resulted in tremor at 4.0, 3.6, 3.0 and 2.1 Hz respectively, as quantified by spectral analysis. 6. By considering separately the phase contributions of the different elements of the reflex arc, including delays, it became clear that muscle-load properties were important in setting the upper limit of tremor frequencies which could conceivably be supported by reflexes. 7. The

  12. Comparison of HgO and CuSO4 as digestion catalysts in manual Kjeldahl determination of crude protein in animal feeds: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Kane, P F

    1984-01-01

    The official AOAC manual Kjeldahl method for determining crude protein in animal feeds, 7.015, uses HgO as a catalyst in the digestion step. Because of environmental considerations, there is considerable interest in alternative catalysts. A collaborative study compares the official HgO-catalyzed method and an alternative using CuSO4. Fifty-four samples consisting of blind duplicates of closely matched pairs, representing a range of animal feed materials and 2 standard materials, were analyzed once by each method. Results were returned by 22 laboratories. Means and standard deviations between methods were comparable. The CuSO4-catalyzed method has been adopted official first action.

  13. A study of the blood-feeding patterns of Anopheles mosquitos through precipitin tests*

    PubMed Central

    1960-01-01

    The success of malaria eradication campaigns depends on the use of all methods which make for a better understanding of the biology and behaviour of mosquito vectors. One such method is precipitin testing, by which it is possible to identify the human or animal origin of blood meals of mosquitos and thereby to determine their host preferences and vectorial importance, both generally and locally. In 1955, the World Health Organization in agreement with the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine, Elstree, England, set up a precipitin test service related to entomological surveys in malaria eradication programmes and available to national research and WHO field personnel. The purpose was to stimulate interest in the study of bionomics of Anopheles species, to facilitate the identification of blood meals of Anopheles, to eliminate experimental errors by the use of a standardized technique and highly sensitive antisera, and finally to apply the results in the strategy of malaria eradication. The results obtained over the past five years are summarized in tabular form. The study—the largest ever undertaken—included 51 species of Anopheles and 56 377 tests, of which 93.9% yielded positive results, are reviewed. The available knowledge of the vectorial importance of 39 species of Anopheles is compared with their human blood ratio, this term being used to express the percentage of human blood in relation to all precipitin tests found positive. PMID:20604062

  14. Early nasogastric feeding versus parenteral nutrition in severe acute pancreatitis: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yulong; Tang, Chengwu; Feng, Wenming; Bao, Ying; Yu, Hongbin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of early nasogastric enteral nutrition (EN) with total parenteral nutrition (TPN) in patients with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). Methods: From July 2008 to July 2014,185 patients with SAP admitted to our centre were enrolled in this retrospective study. They were divided into EN group (n=89) and TPN group (n=96) based on the nutrition support modes. Patients in EN group received nasogastric EN support, while patients in TPN group received TPN support within 72 hours of disease onset. The medical records were reviewed and clinical factors were retrospectively analyzed. Results: There were no significant differences in baseline characteristics between two groups. EN group had significantly lower incidence of pancreatic infections (P=0.0333) and extrapancreatic infections (P=0.0431). Significantly shorter hospital stay (P=0.0355) and intensive-care stay (P=0.0313) were found in EN group. TPN group was found to have significantly greater incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) (P=0.0338) and mortality (P=0.0382). Moreover, the incidence of hyperglycemia was significantly higher in TPN group (P=0.0454). Conclusions: Early nasogastric EN was feasible and significantly decreased the incidence of infectious complications as well as the frequency of MODS and mortality caused by SAP. PMID:28083056

  15. Garlic (Allium sativum) feeding impairs Sertoli cell junctional proteins in male Wistar rat testis: microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Hammami, I; Nahdi, A; Atig, F; El May, A; El May, M V

    2016-12-01

    Sertoli cell junctions, such as adhesion junction (AJ), gap junction (GJ) and tight junction (TJ), are important for maintaining spermatogenesis. In previous studies, we showed the inhibitory effect of crude garlic (Allium sativum, As) on spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis. The aim of this work was to complete our investigation on the impact of this plant, especially on Sertoli cell junctional proteins (SCJPs). During 1 month, 24 male rats were divided into groups: group control (0% of As) and treated groups fed 5%, 10% and 15% of As. Light and electron microscopy observations were performed to localise junctional proteins: connexin-43, Zona Occluding-1 and N-cadherin (immunohistochemistry) and to describe junctions. We showed that the specific cells involved in the localisation of the SCJP were similar in both control and treated groups, but with different immunoreactivity intensity between them. The electron microscopy observation focused on TJs between Sertoli cells, constituting the blood-testis barrier, showed ultrastructural changes such as fragmentation of TJs between adjacent Sertoli cell membranes and dilatation of rough endoplasmic reticulum saccules giving an aspect of scale to these junctions. We concluded that crude garlic consumption during 1 month induces perturbations on Sertoli cell junctions. These alterations can explain apoptosis in testicular germ cells previously showed.

  16. Influence of Milk-Feeding Type and Genetic Risk of Developing Coeliac Disease on Intestinal Microbiota of Infants: The PROFICEL Study

    PubMed Central

    De Palma, Giada; Capilla, Amalia; Nova, Esther; Castillejo, Gemma; Varea, Vicente; Pozo, Tamara; Garrote, José Antonio; Polanco, Isabel; López, Ana; Ribes-Koninckx, Carmen; Marcos, Ascensión; García-Novo, María Dolores; Calvo, Carmen; Ortigosa, Luis; Peña-Quintana, Luis; Palau, Francesc; Sanz, Yolanda

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between environmental factors and predisposing genes could be involved in the development of coeliac disease (CD). This study has assessed whether milk-feeding type and HLA-genotype influence the intestinal microbiota composition of infants with a family history of CD. The study included 164 healthy newborns, with at least one first-degree relative with CD, classified according to their HLA-DQ genotype by PCR-SSP DQB1 and DQA1 typing. Faecal microbiota was analysed by quantitative PCR at 7 days, and at 1 and 4 months of age. Significant interactions between milk-feeding type and HLA-DQ genotype on bacterial numbers were not detected by applying a linear mixed-model analysis for repeated measures. In the whole population, breast-feeding promoted colonization of C. leptum group, B. longum and B. breve, while formula-feeding promoted that of Bacteroides fragilis group, C. coccoides-E. rectale group, E. coli and B. lactis. Moreover, increased numbers of B. fragilis group and Staphylococcus spp., and reduced numbers of Bifidobacterium spp. and B. longum were detected in infants with increased genetic risk of developing CD. Analyses within subgroups of either breast-fed or formula-fed infants indicated that in both cases increased risk of CD was associated with lower numbers of B. longum and/or Bifidobacterium spp. In addition, in breast-fed infants the increased genetic risk of developing CD was associated with increased C. leptum group numbers, while in formula-fed infants it was associated with increased Staphylococcus and B. fragilis group numbers. Overall, milk-feeding type in conjunction with HLA-DQ genotype play a role in establishing infants' gut microbiota; moreover, breast-feeding reduced the genotype-related differences in microbiota composition, which could partly explain the protective role attributed to breast milk in this disorder. PMID:22319588

  17. Impaired immunity in harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) exposed to bioaccumulated environmental contaminants: review of a long-term feeding study.

    PubMed Central

    de Swart, R L; Ross, P S; Vos, J G; Osterhaus, A D

    1996-01-01

    Mass mortalities among seals and dolphins inhabiting contaminated marine regions have led to speculation about a possible involvement of immunosuppression associated with environmental pollution. To evaluate whether contaminants at ambient environmental levels can affect immune function of seals, we carried out an immunotoxicological study under semifield conditions. Two groups of 11 harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) originating from a relatively uncontaminated area were fed herring from either the highly polluted Baltic Sea or the relatively uncontaminated Atlantic Ocean. Changes in immune function were monitored over a 2 1/2-year period. The seals that were fed contaminated Baltic herring developed significantly higher body burdens of potentially immunotoxic organochlorines and displayed impaired immune responses as demonstrated by suppression of natural killer cell activity and specific T-cell responses. During a 2-week fasting experiment performed at the end of the feeding study, mobilization of organochlorines from the blubber did not lead to a strong increase of contaminant levels in the blood, and no enhancement of the existing immunosuppression was observed. These results demonstrate that chronic exposure to environmental contaminants accumulated through the food chain affects immune function in harbour seals, whereas short-term fasting periods, which are normal for seals, do not seem to pose an additional risk. The seals of this study were not exposed perinatally to high levels of environmental chemicals, and body burdens of organochlorines measured near the end of the study were lower than those generally observed in free-ranging seals inhabiting many contaminated regions. Therefore, it may be expected that environmental contaminants adversely affect immune function of free-ranging seals inhabiting contaminated regions at least as seriously as observed in these studies. PMID:8880005

  18. Effectiveness of enteral feeding protocol on clinical outcomes in critically ill patients: a study protocol for before-and-after design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhongheng; Li, Qian; Jiang, Lingzhi; Xie, Bo; Ji, Xiaowei; Lu, Jiahong; Jiang, Ronglin; Lei, Shu; Mao, Shihao; Ying, Lijun; Lu, Di; Si, Xiaoshui; He, Jianxin; Ji, Mingxia; Zhu, Jianhua; Chen, Guodong; Shao, Yadi; Xu, Yinghe; Lin, Ronghai; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Weiwen; Luo, Jian; Lou, Tianzheng; He, Xuwei; Chen, Kun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Enteral feed is an important component of nutritional therapy in critically ill patients and underfeeding has been associated with adverse outcomes. The article developed an enteral feeding protocol and planed a before-and-after comparative trial to explore whether implementation of enteral feeding protocol was able to improve clinical outcomes. Methods and analysis The study will be conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) of ten tertiary care academic centers. Critically ill patients expected to stay in ICU for over 3 days and require enteral nutrition (EN) were potentially eligible. This is a before-and-after study comprising three phases: The first phase is the period without enteral feeding protocol; the second phase involves four-week training program, and the last phase is to perform the protocol in participating centers. We plan to enroll a total of 350 patients to provide an 80% power and 0.05 error rate to detect a 15% reduction of mortality. The primary outcome is 28-day mortality. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval to conduct the research has been obtained from all participating centers. Additionally, the results will be published in peer-reviewed journal. Trial registration The study was registered at International Standard Registered Clinical/soCial sTudy Number (ISRCTN) registry (ISRCTN10583582). PMID:27668228

  19. Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tube in Residential Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Focus Group Study on Guideline Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joos, Elke; Van Tongelen, Inge; Wijnants, Karen; Mehuys, Els; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean Paul; Grypdonck, Maria; Van Winckel, Myriam; Boussery, Koen

    2016-01-01

    People with profound intellectual disabilities often receive medication through enteral feeding tube (EFT). In a previous study, we found that current guidelines concerning medication preparation and administration through EFT are often not followed in residential care facilities (RCFs) for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The present…

  20. URINARY MUTAGENESIS AS AN EXPOSURE BIOMARKER OF COOKED-MEAT-ASSOCIATED MUTAGENS: INFLUENCE OF COOKING TEMPERATURE, PHENOTYPE, AND GENOTYPE IN A CONTROLLED METABOLIC FEEDING STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    We evaluated urinary mutagenicity and selected phenotypes and genotypes in 60 subjects in a metabolic feeding study in which meat cooked at low temperature (100oC) was consumed for 1 week followed by meat cooked at high temperature (250oC) the second week. Meat coo...

  1. Ethnic differences in infant feeding practices and their relationship with BMI at 3 years of age - results from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santorelli, Gillian; Fairley, Lesley; Petherick, Emily S; Cabieses, Baltica; Sahota, Pinki

    2014-05-28

    The present study aimed to explore previously unreported ethnic differences in infant feeding practices during the introduction of solid foods, accounting for maternal and birth factors, and to determine whether these feeding patterns are associated with BMI at 3 years of age. An observational study using Poisson regression was carried out to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and infant feeding practices and linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between feeding practices and BMI at 3 years of age in a subsample of 1327 infants in Bradford. It was found that compared with White British mothers, mothers of Other ethnicities were less likely to replace breast milk with formula milk before introducing solid foods (adjusted relative risk (RR) - Pakistani: 0·76 (95 % CI 0·64, 0·91), Other South Asian: 0·58 (95 % CI 0·39, 0·86), and Other ethnicities: 0·50 (95 % CI 0·34, 0·73)). Pakistani and Other South Asian mothers were less likely to introduce solid foods early ( < 17 weeks) (adjusted RR - Pakistani: 0·92 (95 % CI 0·87, 0·96) and Other South Asian: 0·87 (95 % CI 0·81, 0·93)). Other South Asian mothers and mothers of Other ethnicities were more likely to continue breast-feeding after introducing solid foods (adjusted RR - 1·72 (95 % CI 1·29, 2·29) and 2·12 (95 % CI 1·60, 2·81), respectively). Pakistani and Other South Asian infants were more likely to be fed sweetened foods (adjusted RR - 1·18 (95 % CI 1·13, 1·23) and 1·19 (95 % CI 1·10, 1·28), respectively) and Pakistani infants were more likely to consume sweetened drinks (adjusted RR 1·72 (95 % CI 1·15, 2·57)). No association between infant feeding practices and BMI at 3 years was observed. Although ethnic differences in infant feeding practices were found, there was no association with BMI at 3 years of age. Interventions targeting infant feeding practices need to consider ethnicity to identify which populations are failing to follow

  2. Determination of the in vivo prebiotic potential of a maize-based whole grain breakfast cereal: a human feeding study.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-Wells, Andrew L; Helmolz, Kathrin; Nodet, Cecelia; Molzer, Christine; Leonard, Clare; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Jackson, Kim G; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between risk of CVD and intake of whole grain (WG)-rich food. Regular consumption of breakfast cereals can provide not only an increase in dietary WG but also improvements to cardiovascular health. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including prebiotic modulation of the colonic microbiota. In the present study, the prebiotic activity of a maize-derived WG cereal (WGM) was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human feeding study (n 32). For a period of 21 d, healthy men and women, mean age 32 (sd 8) years and BMI 23·3 (sd 0·58) kg/m2, consumed either 48 g/d WG cereal (WGM) or 48 g placebo cereal (non-whole grain (NWG)) in a crossover fashion. Faecal samples were collected at five points during the study on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 (representing at baseline, after both treatments and both wash-out periods). Faecal bacteriology was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes specific for Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium histolyticum/perfringens subgroup, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus subgroup and total bacteria. After 21 d consumption of WGM, mean group levels of faecal bifidobacteria increased significantly compared with the control cereal (P = 0·001). After a 3-week wash-out period, bifidobacterial levels returned to pre-intervention levels. No statistically significant changes were observed in serum lipids, glucose or measures of faecal output. In conclusion, this WG maize-enriched breakfast cereal mediated a bifidogenic modulation of the gut microbiota, indicating a possible prebiotic mode of action.

  3. Breast-feeding after transplantation.

    PubMed

    Constantinescu, Serban; Pai, Akshta; Coscia, Lisa A; Davison, John M; Moritz, Michael J; Armenti, Vincent T

    2014-11-01

    Transplantation affords recipients the potential for a full life and, for some, parenthood. Female transplant recipients must continue to take immunosuppression during pregnancy and breast-feeding. This article reviews case and series reports regarding breast-feeding in those taking transplant medications. Avoidance of breast-feeding has been the customary advice because of the potential adverse effects of immunosuppressive exposure on the infant. Subsequent studies have demonstrated that not all medication exposure translates to risk for the infant, that the exposure in utero is greater than via breast milk and that no lingering effects due to breast-feeding have been found to date in infants who were breast-fed while their mothers were taking prednisone, azathioprine, cyclosporine, and/or tacrolimus. Thus, except for those medications where clinical information is inadequate (mycophenolic acid products, sirolimus, everolimus, and belatacept), the recommendation for transplant recipients regarding breast-feeding has evolved into one that is cautiously optimistic.

  4. Determining suitable dimensions for dairy goat feeding places by evaluating body posture and feeding reach.

    PubMed

    Keil, Nina M; Pommereau, Marc; Patt, Antonia; Wechsler, Beat; Gygax, Lorenz

    2017-02-01

    Confined goats spend a substantial part of the day feeding. A poorly designed feeding place increases the risk of feeding in nonphysiological body postures, and even injury. Scientifically validated information on suitable dimensions of feeding places for loose-housed goats is almost absent from the literature. The aim of the present study was, therefore, to determine feeding place dimensions that would allow goats to feed in a species-appropriate, relaxed body posture. A total of 27 goats with a height at the withers of 62 to 80 cm were included in the study. Goats were tested individually in an experimental feeding stall that allowed the height difference between the feed table, the standing area of the forelegs, and a feeding area step (difference in height between forelegs and hind legs) to be varied. The goats accessed the feed table via a palisade feeding barrier. The feed table was equipped with recesses at varying distances to the feeding barrier (5-55 cm in 5-cm steps) at angles of 30°, 60°, 90°, 120°, or 150° (feeding angle), which were filled with the goats' preferred food. In 18 trials, balanced for order across animals, each animal underwent all possible combinations of feeding area step (3 levels: 0, 10, and 20 cm) and of difference in height between feed table and standing area of forelegs (6 levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 25 cm). The minimum and maximum reach at which the animals could reach feed on the table with a relaxed body posture was determined for each combination. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. The animals were able to feed with a relaxed posture when the feed table was at least 10 cm higher than the standing height of the goats' forelegs. Larger goats achieved smaller minimum reaches and minimum reach increased if the goats' head and neck were angled. Maximum reach increased with increasing height at withers and height of the feed table. The presence of a feeding area step had no influence on minimum and

  5. Nothing gained: an explorative study of the long-term effects of perceived maternal feeding practices on women's and men's adult BMI, body image dissatisfaction, and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ari, Lilac; Zohar, Ada H

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the studies presented here was the prediction of adult body mass index (BMI), body image dissatisfaction, and disordered eating from recalled maternal child feeding practices. Studies 1 and 2 sampled women from the community, and found that recalled childhood feeding practices predicted both current BMI and current disordered eating. Daughters whose mothers pressured them to eat as children had lower BMIs as adults. The more a mother was concerned about her daughter's weight as a child, and the more she restricted fatty food intake, the less the woman was satisfied with her current body image. Disordered eating of adult women was positively related to their mothers' restriction of their fatty food intake as children, and negatively related to the mothers' monitoring of their food intake as children. Combining the samples and subdividing them into four BMI intervals showed that the obese women were higher on all but one of the recalled maternal child feeding practices, as well as on disordered eating and body dissatisfaction. Age was found to be positively related to BMI and drive for thinness, but not to body dissatisfaction or disordered eating, with older women having higher BMI and more drive for thinness. Study 3 sampled adult men from the community and found that recalled maternal child feeding practices predicted adult BMI and disordered eating for men, as well as for women. Considerable sex differences were found for all study variables. Recollection of maternal child feeding practices may have a formative role in the development of body image, disordered eating, and BMI for men and women, even into adulthood.

  6. Batch vs continuous-feeding operational mode for the removal of pesticides from agricultural run-off by microalgae systems: A laboratory scale study.

    PubMed

    Matamoros, Víctor; Rodríguez, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Microalgae-based water treatment technologies have been used in recent years to treat different water effluents, but their effectiveness for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off has not yet been addressed. This paper assesses the effect of microalgae in pesticide removal, as well as the influence of different operation strategies (continuous vs batch feeding). The following pesticides were studied: mecoprop, atrazine, simazine, diazinone, alachlor, chlorfenvinphos, lindane, malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and clofibric acid (tracer). 2L batch reactors and 5L continuous reactors were spiked to 10 μg L(-1) of each pesticide. Additionally, three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were assessed (2, 4 and 8 days) in the continuous feeding reactors. The batch-feeding experiments demonstrated that the presence of microalgae increased the efficiency of lindane, alachlor and chlorpyrifos by 50%. The continuous feeding reactors had higher removal efficiencies than the batch reactors for pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos and lindane. Whilst longer HRTs increased the technology's effectiveness, a low HRT of 2 days was capable of removing malathion, pentachlorobenzene, chlorpyrifos, and endosulfan by up to 70%. This study suggests that microalgae-based treatment technologies can be an effective alternative for removing pesticides from agricultural run-off.

  7. Role of food preoccupation and current dieting in the associations of parental feeding practices to emotional eating in young adults: A moderated mediation study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Natalie A; Dev, Dipti A; Hankey, Maren; Blitch, Kimberly

    2017-04-01

    Parental feeding practices reflecting coercive control are related to children's later eating behaviors, but the mechanisms underlying these effects remain poorly understood. This study examined the relationships between recalled childhood experiences of parental pressure to eat and restriction and current food preoccupation, dieting, and emotional eating in a racially diverse sample of college students (N = 711). Results revealed that parental restriction, but not pressure to eat, was associated with more emotional eating (r = 0.18, p < 0.0001). Food preoccupation mediated the association between restriction and emotional eating (95% CI [3.6495-7.2231]); however, a moderated mediation model revealed that the strength of the indirect effect of restrictive feeding on emotional eating through food preoccupation was significantly different for dieters and non-dieters (index of moderated mediation = 1.79, Boot SE = 0.79; 95% bias-corrected bootstrap CI [-3.5490 to -0.4515]). These findings provide unique insight into the mechanisms linking parental feeding practices with emotional eating in young adulthood. Future studies attempting to clarify the processes through which child feeding practices impact later eating behaviors should consider the role of current dieting.

  8. Breast-feeding, day-care attendance and the frequency of antibiotic treatments from 1.5 to 5 years: a population-based longitudinal study in Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2005-05-01

    This paper aims to study, at the population level, the protective role of breast-feeding on child health and its relation to day-care attendance during the first 5 years of life. The analysis, done on a national sample of children, uses antibiotic treatments as a general measure of health. It takes into account mother's education level, family poverty level, mother's smoking status during pregnancy and after birth, mother's age, sex, gestation duration, and birth rank. The analyses were performed using data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Quebec (LSCDQ), conducted by Santé Québec, a division of the Institut de la Statistique du Québec (ISQ). The study was based on face-to-face interviews and included a set of questionnaires addressed to the children's mothers and fathers. A total of 1841 were included in the sample analyzed. Detailed information on breast-feeding and complementary feeding was collected at 5 and 17 months through face-to-face interviews with the most knowledgeable person, generally the mother. From this information, it has been possible to estimate breast-feeding duration and exclusivity. Our results indicate that the positive effects of breast-feeding on health persist up to the second year of life, even in the presence of day-care attendance. The analyses indicate that breast-feeding reduced the number of antibiotic treatments given to children entering day care before 2.5 years of age. The study also indicates that the more-at-risk children could be protected by breast-feeding and by being taken care of in a familial setting, especially before 2.5 years of age. Mother's education, family poverty level, and other social inequality indicators did not play a role in the frequency of antibiotic treatments. Over the long term, it will be important to continue to monitor the health of children and to implement public health interventions aimed at reducing health problems among children of preschool age.

  9. Characterizing felid tooth marking and gross bone damage patterns using GIS image analysis: an experimental feeding study with large felids.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Jennifer A; Plummer, Thomas; Hartstone-Rose, Adam

    2015-03-01

    In recent years there has been much disagreement over the nature of carnivore involvement in Early Pleistocene zooarchaeological assemblages. This partially reflects the lack of reliable ways to identify the taphonomic signatures of different large carnivore taxa. It is often unclear which carnivore taxon or taxa may have played a role in forming or modifying faunal assemblages found associated with stone tools, and this lack of clarity impacts reconstructions of hominin behavior. The mode, frequency and nutritional yield of carcasses acquired by hominins, and the extent to which hominin foraging impinged on or was constrained by the guild of large predators are topics of great importance. This paper characterizes the taphonomic signature of large felids using a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) image analysis method to study tooth marking and gross bone damage on neotaphonomic experiments carried out with tigers (Panthera tigris) and African lions (Panthera leo) at the Carolina Tiger Rescue (Pittsboro, North Carolina). This sample of over 400 bones significantly increases the size of current neotaphonomic samples modeling felid feeding traces, more than doubling the number of felid-modified specimens described in the literature. We identify a typical pattern of bone damage resulting from large felid carcass modification, which can be distinguished from bone damage patterns produced by hyaenids and canids. In summary, this pattern consists of tooth marking largely restricted to limb bone ends and minimal bone fragmentation. The frequency of tooth marking imparted by large felids in this study is lower than that produced by hyaenids, while canid tooth mark frequencies fall between the two. Investigation of the FLK Zinj assemblage from Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, has documented several specimens with surface damage similar to our neotaphonomic sample. This may signal early access to carcasses through 'power scavenging' by hominins.

  10. The influence of father's child feeding knowledge and practices on children's dietary diversity: a study in urban and rural districts of Northern Ethiopia, 2013.

    PubMed

    Bilal, Selamawit M; Dinant, GeertJan; Blanco, Roman; Crutzen, Rik; Mulugeta, Afework; Spigt, Mark

    2016-07-01

    Infant and young child feeding has been recognised as an essential element to improve growth of children, especially in developing countries where malnutrition among children and its dire consequences are very prevalent. However, little attention has been paid on the influence of fathers on child feeding practices, although fathers are very important in raising well-adjusted, happy and successful children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the influence of fathers' child feeding knowledge and practice on children's dietary diversity. A community-based comparative cross-sectional study was conducted among 850 eligible urban and rural households with children of 6-23 months. The father and mother of the child were interviewed on children's dietary diversity and fathers' knowledge and practice of child feeding. Nearly half (46%) of the children in the rural district did not meet the minimum dietary diversity, and in the urban district, the rate was even worse (72%). Grains were the common food group given to the children in both districts, whereas flesh food was the least commonly consumed food group. Additionally, low vitamin A-rich food and other fruit and vegetable consumption seem to be a problem in both districts. Almost all dimensions of fathers' knowledge and practice were significantly related to children's minimum dietary diversity; especially, fathers' knowledge of food groups was an important predictor (P-value < 0.001) in both districts. Interventions that focus on the fathers' knowledge of child feeding, especially about food groups, are recommended to improve children's dietary diversity in the study communities.

  11. Impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care: a qualitative study of the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Manisha; Ariana, Proochista; Webster, Premila

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the experiences of mothers employed through the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) using focus group discussions (FGDs) to understand the impact of mothers’ employment on infant feeding and care. The effects of mothers’ employment on nutritional status of children could be variable. It could lead to increased household income, but could also compromise child care and feeding. Setting The study was undertaken in the Dungarpur district of Rajasthan, India. Participants Mothers of infants <12 months of age. Ten FGDs, two in each of the five administrative blocks of the study district were conducted. The groups were composed of a minimum of 5 and maximum of 8 participants, giving a total of 62 mothers. Thematic analysis was conducted to assess patterns and generate emergent themes. Results Four major themes were identified—‘mothers' employment compromises infant feeding and care’, ‘caregivers’ inability to substitute mothers’ care’, ‘compromises related to childcare and feeding outweigh benefits from MGNREGA’ and ‘employment as disempowering’. Mothers felt that the comprises to infant care and feeding due to long hours of work, lack of alternative adequate care arrangements, low wages and delayed payments outweighed the benefits from the scheme. Conclusions This study provides an account of the trade-off between mothers’ employment and child care. It provides an understanding of the household power relationships, societal and cultural factors that modulate the effects of mothers’ employment. From the perspective of mothers, it helps to understand the benefits and problems related to providing employment to women with infants in the MGNREGA scheme and make a case to pursue policy changes to improve their working conditions. PMID:24694624

  12. Pediatric Feeding: A Transdisciplinary Team's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooster, Donna M.; Brady, Nancy R.; Mitchell, Amy; Grizzle, Mary H.; Barnes, Margaret

    1998-01-01

    Applies principles of the transdisciplinary team approach to the needs of children with feeding disorders and describes a pediatric feeding team at the University of South Alabama Children's and Women's Hospital. Case studies illustrate the principles. Advantages and challenges in the transdisciplinary approach to feeding disorders are discussed.…

  13. Effect of supplementing urea-treated barley straw with lucerne or vetch hays on feed intake, digestibility and growth of Arsi Bale sheep.

    PubMed

    Abate, Dawit; Melaku, Solomon

    2009-04-01

    The study was conducted at Sinana Agricultural Research Center, Ethiopia to assess the supplementation of graded levels of vetch (Vicia dasycarpa 'lana') and lucerne (Medicago sativa,' Hunter river') hay on feed intake, digestibility and body weight (BW) change of Arsi-Bale sheep fed urea treated barley straw (UTBS). A 7 day- digestibility and a 90 day- feed intake trials were conducted using 28 and 35 sheep, respectively. The experimental design was a randomized complete block design with seven dietary treatments that consisted of feeding UTBS (T1) as the control treatment, UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g dry matter (DM) per day of vetch for T2, T3, T4, respectively and UTBS plus 150, 250 and 350 g DM per day of lucerne for T5, T6 and T7, respectively. Intake of UTBS was not affected (P > 0.05) by inclusion of lucerne hay at 25-35% of daily DM intake. The supplements increased daily intake of total DM, organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) (P < 0.001) as well as apparent digestibility of DM, OM (P < 0.001), NDF (P < 0.01), ADF, crude protein (CP) (P < 0.05) and daily BW gain (P < 0.001). Supplementation with lucerne than vetch hay promoted higher (P < 0.001) CP and ME intakes and daily BW gain. Feeding with the UTBS without supplementation was enough to meet the maintenance requirements of the sheep and allow small BW gain. The results of the study showed that urea treatment of barley straw in conjunction with supplementation of lucerne or vetch hay could serve as a useful strategy in improving smallholder sheep production in the tropics.

  14. Knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) regarding newborn feeding modalities in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa: a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Tomasoni, L R; Galli, M; Declich, S; Pietra, V; Croce, F; Pignatelli, S; Fabiani, M; Simporé, J; Mabilia, M; Ayella, E O; Caracciolo, C; Russo, G; Guaraldi, G; Gambirasio, M N; Vullo, V; Castelli, F

    2011-03-01

    Exclusive formula feeding, exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) with early weaning or the administration of antiretroviral therapy to lactating mothers and/or to breastfed newborns may lower postnatal HIV transmission. The aim of this study was to assess mothers' knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) on lactation in various real-life settings in sub-Saharan Africa. A questionnaire survey investigating KAP with regard to breastfeeding in pregnant women of unknown status (Questionnaire A, 16 items) or HIV-infected women (Questionnaire B, 37 items) was administered. Associations between newborn feeding KAP and demographic, socioeconomic, cultural and obstetric variables were investigated. From January 2007 to January 2008, 2112 pregnant women answered Questionnaire A in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia. Most women (53.0%) declared EBF as the preferred feeding modality. The practice of strictly defined EBF in previous pregnancies was only 11.4%, which was inversely correlated with education and parity. Questionnaire B was answered by 225 HIV-infected pregnant women in Burkina Faso, Tanzania and Uganda. Knowledge about the lactation-associated risk was associated with previous dead children. Significant variability was observed among collaborating sites. The introduction of fluids other than maternal milk within 6 months of age is common practice in sub-Saharan Africa, requiring intensive health education efforts if strictly defined EBF is to be adopted to decrease HIV postnatal transmission. Significant variation in newborn feeding determinants was observed.

  15. Supplementary feeding restructures urban bird communities.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Josie A; Beggs, Jacqueline R; Jones, Darryl N; Stanley, Margaret C

    2015-05-19

    Food availability is a primary driver of avian population regulation. However, few studies have considered the effects of what is essentially a massive supplementary feeding experiment: the practice of wild bird feeding. Bird feeding has been posited as an important factor influencing the structure of bird communities, especially in urban areas, although experimental evidence to support this is almost entirely lacking. We carried out an 18-mo experimental feeding study at 23 residential properties to investigate the effects of bird feeding on local urban avian assemblages. Our feeding regime was based on predominant urban feeding practices in our region. We used monthly bird surveys to compare avian community composition, species richness, and the densities of local species at feeding and nonfeeding properties. Avian community structure diverged at feeding properties and five of the commonest garden bird species were affected by the experimental feeding regime. Introduced birds particularly benefitted, with dramatic increases observed in the abundances of house sparrow (Passer domesticus) and spotted dove (Streptopelia chinensis) in particular. We also found evidence of a negative effect on the abundance of a native insectivore, the grey warbler (Gerygone igata). Almost all of the observed changes did not persist once feeding had ceased. Our study directly demonstrates that the human pastime of bird feeding substantially contributes to the structure of avian community in urban areas, potentially altering the balance between native and introduced species.

  16. Absence of breast-feeding is associated with the risk of type 1 diabetes: a case-control study in a population with rapidly increasing incidence.

    PubMed

    Malcova, Hana; Sumnik, Zdenek; Drevinek, Pavel; Venhacova, Jitrenka; Lebl, Jan; Cinek, Ondrej

    2006-02-01

    There are indications that the effect of environmental factors on the risk of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is increasing over time. This can be documented by the rapid increase of T1DM incidence in genetically stable populations. Our aim was to study an association of T1DM with the variable factors of the perinatal period and of early infancy, using data from children born over a period of changing exposure to some of the studied factors. A case-control dataset was analysed, consisting of 868 diabetic children and 1,466 anonymous controls, mostly schoolmates of the children with T1DM. The data were collected using structured questionnaires completed by parents. After performing univariate analyses, the associations were analysed using multiple logistic regression adjusted for potential confounders, including the year of birth. The risk of T1DM decreased with increasing duration of breast-feeding, while no breast-feeding was associated with an increased T1DM risk, OR=1.93 [95% CI: 1.33-2.80], breast-feeding for more than 12 months was protective, OR=0.42 [95% CI: 0.22-0.81], both being relative to the reference category of breast-feeding for 1-3 months. A short duration of day-care attendance (none or less than 1 year) was weakly associated with the risk of T1DM, OR=1.65 [95% CI: 1.05-2.62]. No association was detected between T1DM and signs of prenatal infections, perinatal stress factors, birth size and weight, indicators of crowding or the presence of a domestic pet in the household. Short breast-feeding period and short attendance to day care is associated with the risk of T1DM in Czech children.

  17. Factors influencing feeding practices of extreme poor infants and young children in families of working mothers in Dhaka slums: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Maitrot, Mathilde Rose Louise

    2017-01-01

    Background Nutritional status differs between infants and young children living in slum and non-slum conditions—infants and young children living in City Corporation slums are likely to have worse nutritional status compared to those from non-slums. Furthermore, families in slums tend to engage female labor in cash-earning activities as a survival strategy; hence, a higher percentage of mothers stay at work. However, little is known about feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers in slums. This study aims to understand the factors that determine feeding practices for infants and young children living in families with working mothers in Dhaka slums. Methods This study adopted a qualitative approach. Sixteen In-depth Interviews, five Key Informant Interviews, and Focused Group Discussions were conducted with family members, community leaders, and program staff. Method triangulation and thematic analyses were conducted. Results Feeding practices for infants and young children in families with working mothers are broadly determined by mothers’ occupation, basis civic facilities, and limited family buying capacity. Although mothers have good nutritional knowledge, they negotiate between work and feeding their infants and young children. Household composition, access to cooking facilities, and poverty level were also found to be significant determining factors. Conclusion The results suggest a trade-off between mothers’ work and childcare. The absence of alternative care support in homes and/or work places along with societal factors outweighs full benefits of project interventions. Improving alternative childcare support could reduce the burden of feeding practice experienced by working mothers and may improve nutritional outcomes. PMID:28207894

  18. Long-term study of the prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. infection in ticks (Ixodes ricinus) feeding on blackbirds (Turdus merula) in NE Poland.

    PubMed

    Gryczyńska, Alicja; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2016-11-01

    Seeking evidence to confirm that blackbirds (Turdus merula) may be involved in environmental maintenance of Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. (the causative agent of Lyme borreliosis), we conducted a long-term study over three separate 2-year periods, together embracing a span of almost 20 years, all in the same area in northeastern Poland. We examined a total of 78 blackbirds and collected 623 Ixodes ricinus ticks feeding on them. The tick infestation prevalence was found to be very high (89.7 %). Among all ticks collected, 9.8 % individuals were infected with B. burgdorferi s.l. spirochetes. We found statistically significant growth in the prevalence of infected ticks as well as an increasing proportion of blackbirds hosting them in subsequent years of study. Ticks feeding on blackbirds were infected mainly with B. garinii (45.7 %), a genospecies commonly encountered in birds, and with B. afzelii (28.6 %), until recently considered rodent-associated. We also identified B. turdi (22.9 %), frequently found in recent years in ticks feeding on birds, and B. spielmanii (2.8 %), which had previously not been found in infected ticks feeding on blackbirds. We also found that ticks infected with genospecies associated with avian reservoir groups (B. garinii and B. turdi) were not randomly distributed on blackbirds, but instead focused on certain bird specimens. We therefore conjecture that this is a result of ticks becoming infected either from the host blackbird itself, or from other infected ticks feeding on the same host blackbird. We did not find any similar dependency for the rodent specialist B. afzelii.

  19. Determination of Starch, Including Maltooligosaccharides, in Animal Feeds: Comparison of Methods and a Method Recommended for AOAC Collaborative Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Discontinued production of the enzyme, Rhozyme-S, (required for AOAC method 14.075) invalidated this method for starch in animal feeds and necessitated a search for another assay. Although many starch methods are available, they vary in accuracy, replicability, and ease of use. Five enzymatic-colo...

  20. LC-MS/MS methods for albendazole analysis in feed and its metabolite residues in fish fillet and a leaching study in feed after an alternative procedure for drug incorporation.

    PubMed

    Busatto, Zenaís; da Silva, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the development of analytical methods for the quantification of albendazole (ABZ) in fish feed and ABZ and its main known metabolites (albendazole sulfoxide, albendazole sulfone and albendazole aminosulfone) in fish fillet employing LC-MS/MS. In order to assess the reliability of the analytical methods, evaluation was undertaken as recommended by related guides proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture for analytical method validation. The calibration curve for ABZ quantification in feed showed adequate linearity (r > 0.99), precision (CV < 1.03%) and trueness ranging from 99% to 101%. The method for ABZ residues in fish fillet involving the QuEChERS technique for sample extraction had adequate linearity (r > 0.99) for all analytes, precision (CV < 13%) and trueness around 100%, with CCα < 122 ng g(-)(1) and CCβ < 145 ng g(-)(1). Besides, by aiming to avoid the risk of ABZ leaching from feed into the aquatic environment during fish medication via the oral route, a promising procedure for drug incorporation in the feed involving coating feed pellets with ethyl cellulose polymer containing ABZ was also evaluated. The medicated feed had good homogeneity (CV < 3%) and a lower release of ABZ (< 0.2%) from feed to water when the medicated feed stayed in the water for up to 15 min.

  1. Corrosion study on high power feeding of telecomunication copper cable in 5 wt.% CaSO4.2H2O solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Hashim, Nabihah; Ibrahim, Mohd Saiful Bahri; Rahman, Muhammad Sayuzi Abdul; Idrus, Muhammad Amin; Hassan, Mohd Rezadzudin; Abdullah, Wan Razli Wan

    2016-07-01

    The studies were carried out to find out the best powering scheme over the copper telephone line. It was expected that the application of the higher power feeding could increase the data transfer and capable of providing the customer's satisfaction. To realize the application of higher remote power feeding, the potential of corrosion problem on Cu cables was studied. The natural corrosion behaviour of copper cable in the 0.5% CaSO4.2H2O solution was studied in term of open circuit potential for 30 days. The corrosion behaviour of higher power feeding was studied by the immersion and the planned interval test to determine the corrosion rate as well as the effect of voltage magnitudes and the current scheme i.e. positive direct (DC+) and alternating current (AC) at about 0.40 ± 0.01 mA/ cm2 current density. In the immersion test, both DC+ and AC scheme showed the increasing of feeding voltage magnitude has increased the corrosion rate of Cu samples starting from 60 to 100 volts. It was then reduced at about 100 - 120 volts which may due to the passive and transpassive mechanism. The corrosion rate was slowly reduced further from 120 to 200 volts. Visually, the positively charged of Cu cable was seems susceptible to severe corrosion, while AC scheme exhibited a slight corrosion reaction on the surface. However, the planned interval test and XRD results showed the corrosion activity of the copper cable in the studied solution was a relatively slow process and considered not to be corroded as a partially protective scale of copper oxide formed on the surface.

  2. Terrestrial feeding in aquatic turtles: environment-dependent feeding behavior modulation and the evolution of terrestrial feeding in Emydidae.

    PubMed

    Stayton, Charles Tristan

    2011-12-15

    Evolutionary transitions between aquatic and terrestrial environments are common in vertebrate evolution. These transitions require major changes in most physiological functions, including feeding. Emydid turtles are ancestrally aquatic, with most species naturally feeding only in water, but some terrestrial species can modulate their feeding behavior appropriately for both media. In addition, many aquatic species can be induced to feed terrestrially. A comparison of feeding in both aquatic and terrestrial environments presents an excellent opportunity to investigate the evolution of terrestrial feeding from aquatic feeding, as well as a system within which to develop methods for studying major evolutionary transitions between environments. Individuals from eight species of emydid turtles (six aquatic, two terrestrial) were filmed while feeding underwater and on land. Bite kinematics were analyzed to determine whether aquatic turtles modulated their feeding behavior in a consistent and appropriate manner between environments. Aquatic turtles showed consistent changes between environments, taking longer bites and using more extensive motions of the jaw and hyoid when feeding on land. However, these motions differ from those shown by species that naturally feed in both environments and mostly do not seem to be appropriate for terrestrial feeding. For example, more extensive motions of the hyoid are only effective during underwater suction feeding. Emydids evolving to feed on land probably would have needed to evolve or learn to overcome many, but not all, aspects of the intrinsic emydid response to terrestrial feeding. Studies that investigate major evolutionary transitions must determine what responses to the new environment are shown by naïve individuals in order to fully understand the evolutionary patterns and processes associated with these transitions.

  3. Study of Women, Infant feeding, and Type 2 diabetes mellitus after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT), a prospective cohort study: methodology and design

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Women with history of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes within 5 years after delivery. Evidence that lactation duration influences incident type 2 diabetes after GDM pregnancy is based on one retrospective study reporting a null association. The Study of Women, Infant Feeding and Type 2 Diabetes after GDM pregnancy (SWIFT) is a prospective cohort study of postpartum women with recent GDM within the Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) integrated health care system. The primary goal of SWIFT is to assess whether prolonged, intensive lactation as compared to formula feeding reduces the 2-year incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus among women with GDM. The study also examines whether lactation intensity and duration have persistent favorable effects on blood glucose, insulin resistance, and adiposity during the 2-year postpartum period. This report describes the design and methods implemented for this study to obtain the clinical, biochemical, anthropometric, and behavioral measurements during the recruitment and follow-up phases. Methods SWIFT is a prospective, observational cohort study enrolling and following over 1, 000 postpartum women diagnosed with GDM during pregnancy within KPNC. The study enrolled women at 6-9 weeks postpartum (baseline) who had been diagnosed by standard GDM criteria, aged 20-45 years, delivered a singleton, term (greater than or equal to 35 weeks gestation) live birth, were not using medications affecting glucose tolerance, and not planning another pregnancy or moving out of the area within the next 2 years. Participants who are free of type 2 diabetes and other serious medical conditions at baseline are screened for type 2 diabetes annually within the first 2 years after delivery. Recruitment began in September 2008 and ends in December 2011. Data are being collected through pregnancy and early postpartum telephone interviews, self-administered monthly mailed

  4. Feasibility study of superconducting power cables for DC electric railway feeding systems in view of thermal condition at short circuit accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumagai, Daisuke; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Tomita, Masaru

    2016-12-01

    A superconducting power cable has merits of a high power transmission capacity, transmission losses reduction, a compactness, etc., therefore, we have been studying the feasibility of applying superconducting power cables to DC electric railway feeding systems. However, a superconducting power cable is required to be cooled down and kept at a very low temperature, so it is important to reveal its thermal and cooling characteristics. In this study, electric circuit analysis models of the system and thermal analysis models of superconducting cables were constructed and the system behaviors were simulated. We analyzed the heat generation by a short circuit accident and transient temperature distribution of the cable to estimate the value of temperature rise and the time required from the accident. From these results, we discussed a feasibility of superconducting cables for DC electric railway feeding systems. The results showed that the short circuit accident had little impact on the thermal condition of a superconducting cable in the installed system.

  5. Feeding difficulties in neonates following cardiac surgery: determinants of prolonged feeding-tube use.

    PubMed

    McKean, Elissa B; Kasparian, Nadine A; Batra, Shweta; Sholler, Gary F; Winlaw, David S; Dalby-Payne, Jacqueline

    2017-01-23

    Aim The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and potential correlates of feeding difficulties in infants who underwent cardiac surgery in the neonatal period and to investigate resource utilisation by infants with feeding difficulties.

  6. Prenatal office practices regarding infant feeding choices.

    PubMed

    Dusdieker, Lois B; Dungy, Claibourne I; Losch, Mary E

    2006-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the obstetric care providers' roles in breast-feeding promotion during prenatal care. A questionnaire addressing breast-feeding issues was sent to family practitioners (FP), obstetric-gynecologists (OB/GYN), and nurse midwives (NM) in Iowa, USA. All NM, 97% of FP, and 85% of OB/GYN reported asking infant feeding preference-usually only at the first prenatal visit. NM (73%) were most likely to provide extensive breast-feeding counseling. OB/GYN (68%) and FP physicians (90%) reported doing their own breast-feeding counseling. Breast examinations targeting future breast-feeding problems were done in 82% to 84% of patients. NM practices shared more information supportive of breast-feeding. Nearly all providers offered prenatal classes, but only 41% of FP offered breast-feeding classes. Free formula samples were available in 73% of FP, 54% of OB/GYN, and 36% NM offices. Pamphlets on formula feeding and also breast-feeding were readily available. Overall NM (64%) reported being strong breast-feeding advocates compared to only 13% of FP and 7% of OB/GYN. In conclusion, little promotion of breast-feeding occurs in most prenatal practice settings.

  7. Storage and feeding of coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenike, A. W.; Carson, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Reliable feeding of coal from storage bins to process requires the knowledge of the behavior of coal during flow. The study of the flow of bulk solids was undertaken in the 1950's and led to the development of flow ability testing equipment and of the Mass Flow concept of design for reliable flow. The theory has since been expanded to two-phase, solids-gas system, and has found world wide application in the design of storage and feeding systems.

  8. Preliminary Assessment of the Oral Toxicity of 1-5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane, 2- and 6-Week Feeding Study, Male and Female Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-01

    TAB Unanounced Just1ficato 0, Distribution/ •-• ~~Avallabillty Codoegl IL Dfat f dpeelar - -- I. l Y ma DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY U. S. ARMY...May 91 Sep 92 TABLE 3. HEMATOLOGY Hematocrit Hemoglobin Erythrocyte Count Total and Differential Leukocyte Counts Mean Cell Volume Mean Cell ...Hemoglobin Mean Cell Hemoglobin Ccncentration TABLE 4. PREDICTED VERSES ACTUAL DAILY DOSE (MG/ML/DAY) (2-WEEK FEEDING STUDY) DANPE SOLUTIONS (MALE RATS

  9. Cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in animal feed and feed materials - trend analysis of monitoring results.

    PubMed

    Adamse, Paulien; Van der Fels-Klerx, H J Ine; de Jong, Jacob

    2017-03-02

    This study aimed to obtain insights into the presence of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in feed materials and feed over time, for the purpose of guiding national monitoring. Data from the Dutch feed monitoring program and from representatives of the feed industry in the period 2007-2013 were used. Data covered the concentrations of cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic in a variety of feed materials and compound feeds in The Netherlands. Trends in the percentage of samples that exceeded the maximum limit (ML), set by the European Commission, and trends in average, median and 90(th) percentile concentrations of each of these elements per feed material or compound feed were investigated. Based on the results, monitoring for cadmium, lead, mercury and arsenic should focus on feed material of mineral origin, feed material of marine origin, especially fish meal, seaweed and algae as well as feed additives belonging to the functional groups of (i) trace elements (notably cupric sulphate, zinc oxide and manganese oxide for arsenic) and (ii) binders and anti-caking agents. Mycotoxin binders are a new group of feed additives that also need attention. For complementary feed it is important to make a proper distinction between mineral and non-mineral feed because the ML in the latter group is usually lower. In seaweed/algae products a relatively large number of samples contained arsenic concentrations that exceeded the ML. Forage crops in general do not need high priority in monitoring programs, although for arsenic grass meal still needs attention.

  10. The Impact Study of a Statcom on Commutation Failures in an HVDC Inverter Feeding a Weak AC System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khatir, Mohamed; Zidi, Sid-Ahmed; Fellah, Mohammed-Karim; Hadjeri, Samir; Flitti, Mohamed

    2012-03-01

    The Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) devices are pure power electronics devices that use voltage source, IGBT, IGCT or GTO based converters to generate reactive current. This paper illustrates the effect of STATCOM connected whit an HVDC inverter feeding a weak AC network, on the recovery from commutation failures following AC side disturbances. MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation results have demonstrated the robust performance of the proposed system based on the first CIGRÉ HVDC Benchmark model against commutation failures.

  11. Toucan hand feeding and nestling growth.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Vince, Martin; Jennings, Jerry; McKerney, Erin; Nilson, Erika

    2012-05-01

    A retrospective analysis of hand-feeding records and growth data from 3 facilities was performed to determine the growth pattern for 8 toucan species raised in captivity. General philosophies of breeding and rearing were similar but approaches to hand-feeding varied. General hand-feeding and chick management records from hatch to fledging were reviewed for 2 of the 3 facilities. Effective hand-feeding formulas were commercially available and minimally modified. Growth curves were developed. Curves approximated typical expected patterns of nestling growth with no loss of weight at fledging. This study provides a basis for hand-feeding protocols and growth curves to assess development.

  12. Feeding dynamics: helping children to eat well.

    PubMed

    Satter, E

    1995-01-01

    Pediatric nurse practitioners are in a key position to help parents learn to effectively feed their children. Classic research studies, current research and clinical observations on feeding have identified children's capabilities, behaviors, and potential competencies with their eating. An appropriate feeding relationship supports children's developmental tasks at every age and allows them to eat the right amount of the proper food to achieve their genetically determined growth endowment. Children must, in turn, attain developmental tasks. In defining and managing feeding problems, the pediatric nurse practitioner may emphasize prevention by building positive feeding interactions, and promoting early detection and management as well as providing treatment for established problems.

  13. Parental feeding behaviour and motivations regarding pre-school age children: A thematic synthesis of qualitative studies.

    PubMed

    Rylatt, Louise; Cartwright, Tina

    2016-04-01

    Poor childhood diet is a major risk factor for disease and obesity, and parents of pre-school children are in a powerful position to influence diet for life. The technique of thematic synthesis (Thomas & Harden, 2008) was used to synthesise recent qualitative research on parental feeding of pre-school age children (18 months-6 years). The aim was to inform development of nutrition advice by gaining a comprehensive picture of parental feeding behaviours and motivations. Six key parental feeding behaviours were identified: modelling, rewards, pressure and encouragement, repeated exposure, creativity, and limiting intake. Four overarching themes regarding motivations were identified: promoting good health (balance and variety, and weight control); building positive relationships (child involvement, and parental engagement and responsiveness); practicalities and constraints (time, cost, and lack of culinary skill, and pressure and flexibility); and emotional motivations (problem avoidance, and emotional investment). Practicalities and constraints, and emotional motivations impacted more significantly on low income parents. In order to be effective, nutrition advice ought to tap into parents' strong desire to build positive relationships and promote good health while remaining sensitive to the significant constraints and practicalities faced.

  14. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  15. LC-MS/MS methods for sulfadimethoxine and ormetoprim analysis in feed and fish fillet and a leaching study for feed after alternative procedures for the incorporation of drugs.

    PubMed

    Fais, Ana Paula; Franco, Rodolfo Scarpino Barboza; da Silva, Agnaldo Fernando Baldo; de Freitas, Osvaldo; Paschoal, Jonas Augusto Rizzato

    2017-04-01

    This paper describes the method development for sulfadimethoxine (SDM) and ormetoprim (OMP) quantitation in fish feed and fish fillet employing LC-MS/MS. In order to assess the reliability of the analytical method, valuation was undertaken as recommended by guidelines proposed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture. The calibration curve for the quantification of both drugs in feed showed adequate linearity (r > 0.99), precision (CV < 12%) and trueness ranging from 97% to 100%. The method for the determination of SDM and OMP residues in fish fillet involved a simple sample preparation procedure that had adequate linearity (r > 0.99), precision (CV < 16%) and trueness around 100%, with CCα < 100.2 ng g(-)(1) and CCβ < 100.4 ng g(-)(1). With a goal of avoiding the risk of drug leaching from feed into the aquatic environment during fish medication via the oral route, different procedures for drug incorporation into feed were evaluated. Coating feed pellets with ethyl cellulose polymer containing the drug showed promising results. In this case, medicated feed released drugs to water at a level below 6% when the medicated feed stayed in the water for up to 15 min.

  16. Early feeding practices and severe early childhood caries in four-year-old children from southern Brazil: a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feldens, C A; Giugliani, E R J; Vigo, Á; Vítolo, M R

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between feeding practices in the first year of life and the occurrence of severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) at 4 years of age. A birth cohort study (n = 500) was conducted in children who were born within the public health system in São Leopoldo, Brazil. Feeding practices were assessed using standardized methods at 6 and 12 months of age. A total of 340 children were examined at 4 years of age. S-ECC was defined as recommended by an expert panel for research purposes: ≥1 cavitated, missing or filled smooth surfaces in primary maxillary anterior teeth or d(1+) mfs ≥5. Poisson regression with robust variance was used in order to determine the early feeding practices which represent risk factors for the occurrence of S-ECC at 4 years of age. The multivariable model showed a higher adjusted risk of S-ECC for the following dietary practices at 12 months: breastfeeding ≥7 times daily (RR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.45-2.68), high density of sugar (RR = 1.43; 95% CI = 1.08-1.89), bottle use for liquids other than milk (RR = 1.41; 95% CI = 1.08-1.86), as well as number of meals and snacks >8 (RR = 1.42; 95% CI = 1.02-1.97). Mother's education ≤8 years was also associated with the outcome. The present study identified early feeding practices which represent risk factors for caries severity in subsequent years. These findings may contribute to developing general and oral health interventions, with special attention to families with low maternal education.

  17. Effect of milk feeding level on development of feeding behavior in dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Miller-Cushon, E K; Bergeron, R; Leslie, K E; DeVries, T J

    2013-01-01

    Evidence exists that early life experiences may influence development of characteristic feeding patterns in dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of milk feeding level on performance and development of feeding patterns in dairy calves. Twenty Holstein bull calves were assigned at birth to a milk replacer feeding level, fed via a teat: (1) ad libitum (ADL) or (2) restricted feeding at 5 L/d (0.75 kg of milk replacer) in 2 feedings/d (RES). All calves were offered concentrate ad libitum during the milk feeding stage. Calves were weaned gradually during wk 7 and then fed a pelleted diet ad libitum for 7 wk. Calves were weighed 2 times/wk. Feed and milk intakes were recorded daily. Feeding behavior was recorded from video for 5 d in each of wk 3, 6, 8, 11, and 14. Calves fed ADL consumed 2.6 times more milk, had greater weight gain (1.2 vs. 0.6 kg/d), and consumed less solid feed (45.2 vs. 98.0 g/d) during the milk feeding period than did calves fed RES. As expected, providing milk ADL resulted in more frequent meals (in wk 6, 7.1 vs. 2.0) and more evenly distributed diurnal patterns of feeding activity compared with the RES milk level. When considering all sucking bouts (milk feeding and nonnutritive sucking), no difference was observed between treatments in daily bout frequency or sucking time/bout. Postweaning, calves fed RES had initially greater rate of intake (24.9 vs. 17.8 g/min) and meal size (160.8 vs. 117.2 g/meal). Diurnal feeding patterns also differed in the first week after weaning, with ADL calves feeding less continuously at the time of feed delivery. Meal characteristics and diurnal patterns of feeding activity were similar between calves by the end of the trial. However, milk feeding level had a longer-term effect on variability in feeding behavior, with calves fed RES having greater day-to-day variability in feeding time and meal size. Variability of meal characteristics also decreased over time across treatments

  18. Studies on some feed additives and materials giving partial protection against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A on egg production of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Stoev, Stoycho D

    2010-06-01

    The protective effects of various feed supplements against the harmful effect of ochratoxin A on egg production and sexual maturation of two-weeks old Plymouth Rock female chicks designed for laying hens were studied. A significant protective effect of the feed additives or materials: water extract of artichoke (WEA), sesame seed (SS), Roxazyme-G (RG) and l-beta phenylalanine (PHE) against the suppressive effect of ochratoxin A (OTA) on egg production of laying hens was found. A similar protection was also seen on the toxic effect of OTA on various internal organs of the same hens. A significant protection was found against the decrease of the weight or the quantity of eggs as well as against the delay of the beginning of the laying period of chicks, both of which were provoked by ochratoxin A. These protective effects were strongest in chicks treated with SS or WEA, but were slightest in chicks treated with l-beta PHE.

  19. Large filter feeding marine organisms as indicators of microplastic in the pelagic environment: the case studies of the Mediterranean basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) and fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus).

    PubMed

    Fossi, Maria Cristina; Coppola, Daniele; Baini, Matteo; Giannetti, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Panti, Cristina; de Sabata, Eleonora; Clò, Simona

    2014-09-01

    The impact of microplastics (plastic fragments smaller than 5 mm) on large filter feeding marine organisms such as baleen whales and sharks are largely unknown. These species potentially are ingesting micro-litter by filter feeding activity. Here we present the case studies of the Mediterranean fin whale (Balaenoptera physalus) and basking shark (Cetorhinus maximus) exploring the toxicological effects of microplastics in these species measuring the levels of phthalates in both species. The results show higher concentration of MEHP in the muscle of basking shark in comparison to fin whale blubber. These species can be proposed as indicators of microplastics in the pelagic environment in the implementation of Descriptor 8 and 10 of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD).

  20. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.; Cavalcanti, Sandra M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  1. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits.

  2. Role of inter personal communication in infant and young child feeding practices in an urban slum: an overview based on case studies.

    PubMed

    Shahrawat, Renu; Joon, Vinod

    2013-12-01

    In India, child malnutrition is prevalent, especially among the poor and vulnerable. It is mostly the result of high levels of exposure to infection and inappropriate infant and young child feeding and caring practices, and it sets in mostly during the first 2 to 3y of life. Therefore, the present study was done to assess the role of inter personal communication in influencing the infant and young child feeding practices of mothers in an urban slum of Delhi. Case study method was used to document the practices of mothers residing in an urban slum of Delhi, for infant and young child feeding. In most of the cases, it was observed that full potential of health system contact of beneficiary was not utilized for providing appropriate Inter Personal Communication (IPC). It was not able to make proper use of the opportunity to create awareness on nutrition issues, change norms and practices, and persuade mothers/families to make positive behavior change. IPC was not effective, as it was not personalized as per patient's educational level and ability to understand technical information. Though IPC component was better for immunization services, it was weakest for nutrition in case of children younger than 2y. ICDS program implementation lays more emphasis on food supplementation than on nutrition and health education interventions. Thus, role of IPC should be increased manifold to inculcate appropriate feeding practices among mothers to improve nutrition in these children. Health and nutrition messages need to reach every household repeatedly through multiple complementary sources to bring desired behavior-change in the community.

  3. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  4. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  5. Breast feeding in organic acidaemias.

    PubMed

    Gokcay, G; Baykal, T; Gokdemir, Y; Demirkol, M

    2006-01-01

    Breast feeding has been recommended for the dietary treatment of infants with organic acidaemias, but studies documenting clinical experience are still very few. Nine infants, diagnosed with methylmalonic acidaemia (n = 4), propionic acidaemia (n = 1), isovaleric acidaemia (n = 2) and glutaric acidaemia type I (n = 2) were breast fed after diagnosis. The age of the patients was 28.9+/- 13.4 months (mean +/- SD) (range 10-57 months). Eight patients were diagnosed with clinical symptoms and one because of an affected sibling. After the control of acute metabolic problems, an initial period with a measured volume of expressed breast milk was continued with on-demand breast feeding with the addition of a special essential amino acid mixture and energy supplements. Breast feeding was well tolerated in seven infants with good growth, metabolic control and neurological outcome. The duration of breast feeding was 12.3+/- 7.4 months (mean +/- SD) (range 4-24 months) in these patients. Breast feeding was terminated in the patient with propionic acidaemia because of two acute metabolic episodes requiring hospitalization, and could not be continued in one of the patients with isovaleric acidaemia owing to shortage of breast milk. A decrease in the frequency of infections, acute metabolic episodes and hospital admissions was observed in breast-fed infants. Breast feeding of infants with organic acidaemias is feasible with close monitoring of clinical parameters such as growth, development and biochemistry, including amino acids, organic acids and ammonia.

  6. Breast-feeding in Spain.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, M J; Martín-Calama, J; Hernandez-Aguilar, M T

    2001-12-01

    Human milk is the best way to nurture the human infant. By breast-feeding their babies, mothers provide them with the best opportunities to wholly develop their potential, while protecting the infants and themselves from a whole range of diseases in the near future and in the years to come. Even though these benefits are widely known and there is ample scientific evidence on the topic, it seems from published data that Spanish women are not breast-feeding their babies as much and for as long as they should. Less than 90% start breast-feeding, at 1 month there is already an attrition of 30%, at 3 months more than half of the infants are taking artificial milk and by 6 months only 10% continue to breast-feed their infants. Low birth weight, Caesarean section and low study level are among the more significant factors that negatively affect breast-feeding. There is still work to do to improve this situation. Promotion of breast-feeding among the general population, mothers and health professionals is needed.

  7. Breast-feeding. The roots.

    PubMed

    Ben-Nun, L

    2006-12-01

    Although breast milk provides the best nutrition for the infant, breast-feeding has been decreasing with the growth in use of prepared milk formulas. This paper evaluates the available biblical literature dealing with breast-feeding. The research is unique in character, as it combines contemporary medical knowledge with presentation of cases taken from ancient history. We include no commentaries, but refer only to the words of the Bible exactly as written. Biblical texts relating to breast-feeding were examined and the cases of biblical characters who were breast-fed were studied. The great historical figures such as Isaac, Rebecca, Moses, Samuel, and Joash were breast-fed, openly or secretly. If the biological mother was unable to nurse her child, a wet nurse took over the feeding. Breast-feeding was the only way infants could survive at that time. Weaning day was very important and was celebrated. The wet nurse played an important role in family life, in some cases remaining to live with the infant after weaning, through childhood and even into adulthood. In spite of advanced technology that provides artificial infant formulas, contemporary mothers, just like biblical mothers, should be encouraged to breast-feed their infants.

  8. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  9. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  10. An experimental study of Aurelia aurita feeding behaviour: Inference of the potential predation impact on a temperate estuarine nursery area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Rita; Teodósio, Maria Alexandra; Garrido, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Temperate estuaries are nursery areas for economically important fisheries resources. The common jellyfish Aurelia aurita is a resident species in many of these areas, where it can reach high abundances. This work aimed to determine the potential for predation of A. aurita on zooplanktonic organisms and early life stages of fishes, measuring feeding rates at concentrations that mimic those occurring for zooplankton, fish eggs and larvae in an estuarine nursery area. A set of experiments was aimed at determining the feeding selectivity of jellyfish when offered a mixture of fish eggs and larvae and wild plankton. Clearance rates varied markedly with prey availability and concentrations. When given mixtures of different prey types, jellyfish preferentially elected some taxa (copepods and fish eggs). Data obtained in the laboratory experiments were used to infer the potential impact of jellyfish predation upon zooplankton and ichthyoplankton in the Guadiana estuary (Southern Iberia). Repeated sampling of zooplankton, fish eggs and medusae was undertaken during the summer season of 2011. Abundance determinations were combined with experimentally estimated clearance rates of individual medusa to infer the potential jellyfish-induced mortality on prey in the area. In June and early August jellyfish-induced mortality rates were very high, and half-life times (t1/2) were consequently short for the zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. Although the potentially overestimation of our feeding rates typical of confined laboratory experiments, the results show high ingestion and clearance rates at high temperatures, typical from summer condition, and results also suggest that either by predation on early life stages of fish, or by competition for food resources, jellyfish may have a significant impact on estuarine communities and its nursery function.

  11. Dose-response feeding study of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in laying hens: effects on laying performance and tissue distribution, accumulation and elimination kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ueberschär, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven; Matthes, Siegfried

    2007-02-01

    Technical short chain chlorinated paraffins (C10-C13 with 60% chlorine) were fed to 93 laying hens from 24 to 32 weeks of age in increasing concentrations of up to 100 mg/kg feed. No significant influence on health, relative organ weights or performance (laying intensity, egg weight, feed consumption) was noted. The chlorinated paraffin content of the tissues was linearly related to the concentration of short chain paraffins of the feed. The highest concentrations were found in abdominal fat, egg yolk and fatty tissues. Breast muscle, egg albumen and bile fluid contained minimal or no residues. Less than 1% of the chlorinated paraffins ingested were incorporated into the body (without head, feet, gut and feathers), whereas about 1.5% were eliminated with the egg yolk and 30% were excreted with urine and faeces. A six-week kinetic depuration study revealed a biphasic elimination with half-lifes of 4-40 min (liver, kidneys, legs, fat, blood) for the initial rapid phase, and 15-30 days (blood, fat, liver, yolk, kidneys, legs) for the terminal slow phase.

  12. Collaborative study of a microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the banned antimicrobial growth promotors tylosin, virginiamycin, spiramycin, zinc bacitracin and avoparcin in animal feed.

    PubMed

    Pol-Hofstad, I; Driessen-Van Lankveld, W; Tomassen, M; De Jong, J; Van Egmond, H

    2008-12-01

    A microbiological screening method (three-plate) for the detection of the antimicrobial growth promoters tylosin, spiramycin, virginiamycin, zinc bacitracin, and avoparcin in animal feed has been developed and validated successfully. A collaborative study involving 18 laboratories receiving 172 samples was carried out to verify the performance characteristics. The detection level for tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin, expressed in microbiological activity, was 1 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 3, 0, and 6%, respectively). Avoparcin could be detected at 1 mg kg(-1) in feed in general (false-positives, 2%; false-negatives, 0%). However, in calf feed the sensitivity was lower. The percentages of false-negatives were found to be 12%, 7%, and 0% at 1, 3, and 5 mg kg(-1), respectively (false-positives, 4%). The limit of detection for zinc bacitracin was 3-5 mg kg(-1) (false-positives, 5-10%; false-negatives, 77% at 1 mg kg(-1), 45% at 2 mg kg(-1), 12% at 3 mg kg(-1), and 4% at 5 mg kg(-1)). The method allowed for a distinction to be made between the groups of antibiotics: avoparcin/zinc bacitracin versus tylosin/virginiamycin/spiramycin. This definitely gives added value to the method in the framework of a follow-up of positive screening results by post-screening and confirmatory analysis.

  13. Centaur feedline dynamics study using power spectral methods. [fundamental mode resonant frequencies of RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feed lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorenzo, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the dynamic characteristics of the Centaur/RL-10 oxygen and hydrogen feedlines. The fundamental-mode resonant frequencies were determined by applying power spectral methods to noise-generated data from hot firings of the RL-10 engine. The effect of net positive suction pressure of the main feed pumps on resonant frequency characteristics was determined to be a straight-line relation. Power spectral methods were also used to determine the dynamic characteristics of the boost pumps.

  14. A comparative study on the tubes and feeding behaviour of eight species of corophioid Amphipoda and their bearing on phylogenetic relationships within the Corophioidea

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, I. M. T.; Moore, P. G.

    1997-01-01

    Observations are presented on mouthpart functional morphology, and on feeding, grooming and defaecatory behaviour of eight species of corophioid Amphipoda, viz. Corophium bonnellii, Lembos websteri, Aora gracilis, A. spinicornis, Gammaropsis nitida, Ericthonius punctatus, Jassa falcata and J. marmorata. These data are considered in relation to tube structure and amphipod posture in relation to the tube. All these species occupy double-ended cylindreical tubes made from 'amphipod silk' secreted by the third and fourth preraeopods, incorporating sediment and other debris to varying degrees. Uniquely among this set of species, however, E. punctatus has a tube that is architecturally distinct. It tapers along its length and has a distinctive oblique main entrance at its widest end. This end is used preferentially. The other species studied use either opening with equal facility. Such a feature is adaptive in facilitating deployment of the antennae and shielding the head of E. punctatus. Two groupings of species are propose: group A which feed inside their tube using pleopod-induced through-tube currents, and group B which feed outside or at the entrance to their tube using external water currents. Group A includes C. bonnellii, L. websteri and the Aora species. Group B includes E. punctatus and the Jassa species. Gammaropsis nitida exhibits traits from both groups, adding weight to its perceived status as a genus representative of the stem corophioid. The ischyrocerid habit of externalizing food-gathering may be regarded as the first step along an evolutionary line leading to the rod-building podocerid types and ultimately towards the caprellids. All species examined show a degree of flexibility in their feeding habits which helps to explain the success of this taxon, which has radiated into a great diversity of aquatic biotopes.

  15. A qualitative study exploring parental accounts of feeding pre-school children in two low-income populations in the UK.

    PubMed

    Hayter, Arabella K M; Draper, Alizon K; Ohly, Heather R; Rees, Gail A; Pettinger, Clare; McGlone, Pauline; Watt, Richard G

    2015-07-01

    Good nutrition in the early years of life is essential, yet the diets of many pre-school children in the UK are known to be poor. Understanding the decisions parents make when feeding young children is very important in determining what type and nature of interventional support may be developed to promote good nutrition. The aim of this study was to explore using qualitative methods, parental perceptions of feeding their children in order to inform the development of a nutrition intervention. Focus groups (n = 33) and individual interviews (n = 6) were undertaken with parents, most of whom were attending children's centres in two deprived populations from one urban (Islington, north London) and one rural (Cornwall) location in England. Accounts of feeding pre-school children were primarily concerned with dealing with the practicalities of modern life, in particular the cost of food and the need to manage on a restricted household budget. Time pressures, a lack of perceived knowledge and confidence in preparing food and managing conflict over food choices between family members were also strong themes. Parents commonly reported differences between how they would like to feed their children and the reality of what they were able to do in their circumstances. These findings suggest that the poor eating habits of many pre-school children may be less a case of parental ignorance but rather the product of a range of coping strategies. Designing an intervention, which helps parents to build their confidence and self-efficacy, may enable them to make positive changes to their children's diets.

  16. Positive effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on 24 month neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants: an Italian cohort study.

    PubMed

    Gibertoni, Dino; Corvaglia, Luigi; Vandini, Silvia; Rucci, Paola; Savini, Silvia; Alessandroni, Rosina; Sansavini, Alessandra; Fantini, Maria Pia; Faldella, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization on neurodevelopment at 24 months of corrected age in very low birth weight infants. A cohort of 316 very low birth weight newborns (weight ≤ 1500 g) was prospectively enrolled in a follow-up program on admission to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of S. Orsola Hospital, Bologna, Italy, from January 2005 to June 2011. Neurodevelopment was evaluated at 24 months corrected age using the Griffiths Mental Development Scale. The effect of human milk nutrition on neurodevelopment was first investigated using a multiple linear regression model, to adjust for the effects of gestational age, small for gestational age, complications at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and socio-economic status. Path analysis was then used to refine the multiple regression model, taking into account the relationships among predictors and their temporal sequence. Human milk feeding during NICU hospitalization and higher socio-economic status were associated with better neurodevelopment at 24 months in both models. In the path analysis model intraventricular hemorrhage-periventricular leukomalacia and growth restriction at discharge proved to be directly and independently associated with poorer neurodevelopment. Gestational age and growth restriction at birth had indirect significant effects on neurodevelopment, which were mediated by complications that occurred at birth and during hospitalization, growth restriction at discharge and type of feeding. In conclusion, our findings suggest that mother's human milk feeding during hospitalization can be encouraged because it may improve neurodevelopment at 24 months corrected age.

  17. Maternal anthropometry and feeding behavior toward preschool children: association with childhood body mass index in an observational study of Chilean families

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background A better understanding of the link between eating behavior and maternal feeding practices with childhood and maternal weight status is of great interest. Objective To assess the association between childhood anthropometric measures with mothers' Body Mass Index (BMI) and their feeding practices toward preschool children in Chile. Methods 1029 children (504 boys, 4.3 ± 0.3 years) and their mothers were selected from public nurseries located in low income neighborhoods in Santiago. Mothers' BMI, children's BMI and waist-to-height ratios were registered. Maternal feeding practices towards their children's nutritional habits were measured using an adapted version of the Child Feeding Questionnaire (CFQ). Results We found a direct correlation (p < 0.001) between children's BMI z-score and their mothers' BMI, both in boys (Spearman rho = 0.26) and girls (rho = 0.30). A direct association was also found between children's BMI z-score with scores of the subscale "concern for child's weight" (Spearman rho = 0.26 in boys and rho = 0.37 in girls; p < 0.001) and "food restriction" (rho = 0.19 in boys and rho = 0.27 in girls; p < 0.001). A reverse significant association was found between children's BMI z-score with scores of "pressure to eat" (rho = -0.30 in boys and rho = -0.36 in girls; p < 0.001). Analyses of the combined categories of childhood obesity and/or maternal obesity showed an important influence of children's weight status on CFQ scores. Conclusion Mothers' BMI and children's BMI z-scores are highly correlated. We found significant associations between mothers' behaviour subscales and children's BMI z-score. It is not possible to establish a causal link between mother's CFQ scores and children's nutritional status, given the cross-sectional nature of this study and the bidirectional influences that exist between mothers and their children. PMID:20040107

  18. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers.

  19. Variability of control data and relevance of observed group differences in five oral toxicity studies with genetically modified maize MON810 in rats.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kerstin; Schmidtke, Jörg; Schmidt, Paul; Kohl, Christian; Wilhelm, Ralf; Schiemann, Joachim; van der Voet, Hilko; Steinberg, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    The data of four 90-day feeding trials and a 1-year feeding trial with the genetically modified (GM) maize MON810 in Wistar Han RCC rats performed in the frame of EU-funded project GRACE were analysed. Firstly, the data obtained from the groups having been fed the non-GM maize diets were combined to establish a historical control data set for Wistar Han RCC rats at the animal housing facility (Slovak Medical University, Bratislava, Slovakia). The variability of all parameters is described, and the reference values and ranges have been derived. Secondly, the consistency of statistically significant differences found in the five studies was analysed. In order to do so, the body weight development, organ weight, haematology and clinical biochemistry data were compared between the studies. Based on the historical control data, equivalence ranges for these parameters were defined, and the values measured in the GM maize-fed groups were compared with these equivalence ranges. Thirdly, the (statistical) power of these feeding studies with whole food/feed was assessed and detectable toxicologically relevant group differences were derived. Linear mixed models (LMM) were applied, and standardized effect sizes (SES) were calculated in order to compare different parameters as well as to provide an overall picture of group and study differences at a glance. The comparison of the five feeding trials showed a clear study effect in the control data. It also showed inconsistency both in the frequency of statistically significant differences and in the difference values between control and test groups.

  20. Subchronic toxicity and mutagenicity/genotoxicity studies of Irvingia gabonensis extract (IGOB131).

    PubMed

    Kothari, Shil C; Shivarudraiah, Prasad; Venkataramaiah, Suresh Babu; Gavara, Swapna; Soni, Madhu G

    2012-05-01

    African Bush Mango from Irvingia gabonensis is a West African culinary fruit and the mucilage from this fruit seed is used to make traditional soups and sauces. Extract from the kernel (IGOB131) has been claimed for its health benefits. In the present investigations, potential adverse effects, if any, of IGOB131 were investigated in dose-response 90-day study and genotoxicity studies. In the subchronic study, Sprague Dawley rats (20/sex/group) were gavaged with I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131) at dose levels of 0, 100, 1000 and 2500 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day for 90-days. No treatment-related changes in clinical signs, functional observations, mortality, ophthalmologic observations, body weights, body weight gain or feed consumption were noted. Similarly, hematological, clinical chemistry, urine analysis parameters, and organ weights did not reveal any toxicologically significant treatment-related changes. No treatment-related macroscopic and microscopic abnormalities were noted at the end of treatment period. The mutagenicity as evaluated by Ames assay, in vitro and in vivo chromosomal aberration test and in vivo micronucleus assay did not reveal any genotoxicity of IGOB131. The results of subchronic toxicity study suggest the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for I. gabonensis extract (IGOB131) as ≥ 2500 mg/kg bw/day, the highest dose tested.

  1. Estimates of residual feed intake in Holstein dairy cattle using an automated, continuous feed intake monitoring system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improving feed efficiency of cattle is a primary goal in livestock production to reduce feed costs and production impacts on the environment. In dairy cattle, studies to estimate efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) are limited primarily due to a lack ...

  2. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of amosite asbestos (CAS No. 12172-73-5) in F344/N rats (feed studies). Technical report series

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, E.E.

    1990-11-01

    Carcinogenesis studies of amosite asbestos alone or in combination with the intestinal carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were conducted in male and female F344/N rats. Amosite asbestos was administered at a concentration of 1% in pelleted diet for the entire lifetime of the rats, starting with the dams of the study animals. The DMH was administered by gavage at a dose of 7.5 mg/kg for males and 15 mg/kg for females every 14 days, starting at 8 weeks of age, for a total of five doses. The administration of DMH did not affect body weight gain either in amosite-exposed or nonexposed animals. Significant increases in the incidences of C-cell carcinomas of the thyroid gland (untreated control, 11/117; amosite, 50/246, P<0.05; amosite preweaning gavage, 14/100) and of leukemia (38/117; 106/249, P<0.05; 49/100, P<0.01) in male rats were observed in amosite-exposed groups. However, the biologic significance of the C-cell carcinomas in relation to amosite asbestos exposure is discounted because of a lack of significance when C-cell adenomas and carcinomas were combined and because the positive effect was not observed in the amosite preweaning gavage group. DMH caused a high incidence (62%-74%) of intestinal neoplasia in amosite-exposed and nonexposed groups. Neither an enchanced carcinogenic nor a protective effect was demonstrated by exposure to amosite asbestos. Under the conditions of these feed studies, amosite asbestos was not overtly toxic, did not affect survival, and was not carcinogenic when ingested at a concentration of 1% in the diet by male or female F344/N rats. The cocarcinogenic studies using DMH were considered inadequate because of the high incidence of DMH-induced intestinal neoplasia in both the amosite asbestos-exposed and nonexposed groups.

  3. Associations of Infant Feeding and Timing of Weight Gain and Linear Growth during Early Life with Childhood Blood Pressure: Findings from a Prospective Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Eijsden, Manon; Gemke, Reinoud J. B. J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Small birth size and rapid postnatal growth have been associated with higher future blood pressure. The timing of these effects, the relative importance of weight gain and linear growth and the role of infant feeding need to be clarified. Methods We assessed how blood pressure relates to birth weight, infant and childhood growth and infant feeding (duration of exclusive breastfeeding and timing of introduction of complementary feeding) in 2227 children aged 5 years from a prospective cohort study (Amsterdam Born Children and their Development). Postnatal growth was represented by statistically independent measures of relative weight gain (weight gain independent of height) and linear growth in four age periods during infancy (0–1 month; 1–3 months; 3–6 months; 6–12 months) and from 12 months to 5 years. Results Lower birth weight was associated with higher childhood diastolic blood pressure (-0.38 mm Hg.SD-1; P = 0.007). Faster relative weight gain and linear growth after 1 month were positively associated with systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Associations of linear growth with systolic blood pressure ranged from 0.47 to 1.49 mm Hg.SD-1; P<0.01 for all. Coefficients were similar for different periods of infancy and also for relative weight gain and linear growth. Compared to breastfeeding <1 month, breastfeeding >1 month was associated with lower blood pressure (e.g. >6 months -1.56 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P<0.001). Compared to >6 months, introduction of complementary feeding <6 months was associated with higher blood pressure (e.g. 4–6 months 0.91 mm Hg systolic blood pressure; P = 0.004). Conclusions After the age of one month faster growth in either weight or height is associated with higher childhood blood pressure. It is unknown whether faster weight gain and linear growth carry the same risk for adult hypertension and cardiovascular morbidity. Longer breastfeeding and delayed introduction of complementary feeding may be

  4. Child Care Provider Adherence to Infant and Toddler Feeding Recommendations: Findings from the Baby Nutrition and Physical Activity Self-Assessment for Child Care (Baby NAP SACC) Study

    PubMed Central

    Davison, Kirsten K.; Hesketh, Kathryn; Taveras, Elsie M.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Identifying characteristics associated with the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler care providers in child care centers could help in preventing childhood obesity. Methods: In 2009, at baseline in a pilot intervention study of 29 licensed Massachusetts child care centers with at least 50% of enrolled children identified as racial minorities, 57 infant and 109 toddler providers completed feeding questionnaires. To assess provider adherence to six IOM-recommended behaviors, we used cluster-adjusted multivariable logistic regression models including provider type (infant or toddler), race, education, and center Child and Adult Care Food Program (CACFP) participation. Results: In multivariable analysis, CACFP participation was associated with providers sitting with children at meals (odds ratio [OR], 5.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2–21.7), offering fruits and vegetables (OR, 3.3; 95% CI 1.7–6.2), and limiting fast food (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.8–6.7). Providers at centers serving meals family style were less likely to allow children to leave food unfinished (OR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.09–0.77). Infant providers were more likely than toddler providers to sit with children at meals (OR, 6.98; 95% CI, 1.51–32.09), allow children to eat when hungry (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 1.34–9.16), and avoid serving sugary (OR, 8.74; 95% CI, 3.05–25.06) or fast foods (OR, 11.56; 95% CI, 3.20–41.80). Conclusions: CACFP participation may encourage IOM-recommended feeding practices among infant and toddler providers. Child care providers may benefit from education about how to feed infants and toddlers responsively, especially when offering foods family style. Future research should explore ways to promote child-centered feeding practices, while addressing barriers to providing children with nutrient-rich foods. PMID:25918873

  5. Final Report Regarding the Findings of the Study Group on the Feasibility of Using Alternative Financial Instruments for Determining Lender Yield under the Federal Family Education Loan Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    The Higher Education Amendments of 1998 required a study of the feasibility of alternative financial instruments for determining lender yields in the Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) and called for an evaluation of the 91-day Treasury bill, 30-day and 90-day commercial paper, and the 90-day London Interbank Offered Rate (LIBOR) as…

  6. Feeding of tropical trees and shrub foliages as a strategy to reduce ruminal methanogenesis: studies conducted in Cuba.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Denia Caridad; Galindo, Juana; González, Rogelio; González, Niurca; Scull, Idania; Dihigo, Luís; Cairo, Juan; Aldama, Ana Irma; Moreira, Onidia

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the main results obtained in Cuba on the effects of feeding tropical trees and shrubs on rumen methanogenesis in animals fed with low quality fibrous diets. More than 20 tree and shrub foliages were screened for phytochemicals and analyzed for chemical constituents. From these samples, seven promising plants (Samanea saman, Albizia lebbeck, Tithonia diversifolia, Leucaena leucocephala, Trichantera gigantea, Sapindus saponaria, and Morus alba) were evaluated for methane reduction using an in vitro rumen fermentation system. Results indicated that the inclusion levels of 25% of Sapindo, Morus, or Trichantera foliages in the foliages/grass mixtures (grass being Pennisetum purpureum) reduced (P < 0.01) methane production in vitro when compared to Pennisetum alone (17.0, 19.1, and 18.0 versus 26.2 mL CH(4)/g fermented dry matter, respectively). It was demonstrated that S. saman, A. lebbeck, or T. diversifolia accession 23 foliages when mixed at the rate of 30% in Cynodon nlemfuensis grass produced lower methane compared to the grass alone. Inclusion levels of 15% and 25% of a ruminal activator supplement containing 29% of L. leucocehala foliage meal reduced methane by 37% and 42% when compared to the treatment without supplementation. In vivo experiment with sheep showed that inclusion of 27% of L. leucocephala in the diet increased the DM intake but did not show significant difference in methane production compared to control diet without this foliage. The results of these experiments suggest that the feeding of tropical tree and shrub foliages could be an attractive strategy for reduction of ruminal methanogenesis from animals fed with low-quality forage diets and for improving their productivity.

  7. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhaskar; Mandal, Tapas K; Patra, Sanjukta

    2015-07-01

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, μ max (media) > μ max (refinery wastewater), K s(media) < K s(refinery wastewater), K I(media) > K I(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q max (media) > q max (refinery wastewater), K s(media) < K s(refinery wastewater), K I(media) > K I(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process.

  8. Effects of sap-feeding insect herbivores on growth and reproduction of woody plants: a meta-analysis of experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Zvereva, Elena L; Lanta, Vojtech; Kozlov, Mikhail V

    2010-08-01

    The majority of generalisations concerning plant responses to herbivory are based on studies of natural or simulated defoliation. However, effects caused by insects feeding on plant sap are likely to differ from the effects of folivory. We assessed the general patterns and sources of variation in the effects of sap feeding on growth, photosynthesis, and reproduction of woody plants through a meta-analysis of 272 effect sizes calculated from 52 papers. Sap-feeders significantly reduced growth (-29%), reproduction (-17%), and photosynthesis (-27%); seedlings suffered more than saplings and mature trees. Deciduous and evergreen woody plants did not differ in their abilities to tolerate damage imposed by sap-feeders. Different plant parts, in particular below- and above-ground organs, responded similarly to damage, indicating that sap-feeders did not change the resource allocation in plants. The strongest effects were caused by mesophyll and phloem feeders, and the weakest by xylem feeders. Generalist sap-feeders reduced plant performance to a greater extent than did specialists. Methodology substantially influenced the outcomes of the primary studies; experiments conducted in greenhouses yielded stronger negative effects than field experiments; shorter (<12 months) experiments showed bigger growth reduction in response to sap feeding than longer experiments; natural levels of herbivory caused weaker effects than infestation of experimental plants by sap-feeders. Studies conducted at higher temperatures yielded stronger detrimental effects of sap-feeders on their hosts. We conclude that sap-feeders impose a more severe overall negative impact on plant performance than do defoliators, mostly due to the lower abilities of woody plants to compensate for sap-feeders' damage in terms of both growth and photosynthesis.

  9. How the pilidium larva feeds

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The nemertean pilidium is a long-lived feeding larva unique to the life cycle of a single monophyletic group, the Pilidiophora, which is characterized by this innovation. That the pilidium feeds on small planktonic unicells seems clear; how it does so is unknown and not readily inferred, because it shares little morphological similarity with other planktotrophic larvae. Results Using high-speed video of trapped lab-reared pilidia of Micrura alaskensis, we documented a multi-stage feeding mechanism. First, the external ciliation of the pilidium creates a swimming and feeding current which carries suspended prey past the primary ciliated band spanning the posterior margins of the larval body. Next, the larva detects prey that pass within reach, then conducts rapid and coordinated deformations of the larval body to re-direct passing cells and surrounding water into a vestibular space between the lappets, isolated from external currents but not quite inside the larva. Once a prey cell is thus captured, internal ciliary bands arranged within this vestibule prevent prey escape. Finally, captured cells are transported by currents within a buccal funnel toward the stomach entrance. Remarkably, we observed that the prey of choice – various cultured cryptomonads – attempt to escape their fate. Conclusions The feeding mechanism deployed by the pilidium larva coordinates local control of cilia-driven water transport with sensorimotor behavior, in a manner clearly distinct from any other well-studied larval feeding mechanisms. We hypothesize that the pilidium’s feeding strategy may be adapted to counter escape responses such as those deployed by cryptomonads, and speculate that similar needs may underlie convergences among disparate planktotrophic larval forms. PMID:23927417

  10. Microarray studies in high and low RFI cattle reveal a potential role for gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) in regulating feed efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is a heritable feed efficiency measure. Mechanisms underlying variation in feed efficiency are currently poorly understood. To address this issue, two divergent cohorts consisting of High (H) and Low (L) RFI individuals were created by assessing RFI in forty-eight Angus-si...

  11. Optical Pickup Feeding Velocity Profile Design of Optical Disk Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Juhn Ho; Seo, Heui-Sik; Lee, Jung Joon; Min, Byunghoon; Son, Heuigi

    2001-03-01

    Residual vibrations and jerks of a pickup body caused by the flexibility of an optical pickup feeding system in optical disk storage may degrade the quality of reading and writing, and increase the track access time. In this study, a feeding velocity profile that suppresses the residual vibrations and jerks is calculated and applied to a stepping-motor-driven feeding system. The calculated feeding velocity profile shows good results compared to the conventional feeding velocity profile of trapezoidal shape.

  12. Utilizing direct skin feeding assays for development of vaccines that interrupt malaria transmission: A systematic review of methods and case study.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Elizabeth B; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Gabriel, Erin E; Healy, Sara A; Hume, Jen C C; Sagara, Issaka; Traore, Sekou F; Doumbo, Ogobara; Duffy, Patrick E

    2016-11-21

    Shifting the malaria priorities from a paradigm of control and elimination to a goal of global eradication calls for renewed attention to the interruption of malaria transmission. Sustained progress toward eradication will require both improved understanding of infectious reservoirs and efficient development of novel transmission-blocking interventions, such as rapidly acting and highly efficacious therapeutics and vaccines. Here, we review the direct skin feeding assay (DSF), which has been proposed as a valuable tool for measuring the in natura transmission of malaria parasites from human hosts to mosquito vectors across heterogeneous populations. To capture the methodological breadth of this assay's use, we first systematically review and qualitatively synthesize previously published investigations using DSFs to study malaria transmission in humans. Then, using a recent Phase 1 trial in Mali of the Pfs25H-EPA/Alhydrogel® vaccine candidate (NCT01867463) designed to interrupt Plasmodium falciparum transmission as a case study, we describe the potential opportunities and current limitations of utilizing the endpoints measured by DSF in making early clinical decisions for individually randomized transmission-interrupting intervention candidates. Using simulations based on the data collected in the clinical trial, we demonstrate that the capacity of the DSF to serve as an evaluative tool is limited by the statistical power constraints of the "effective sample size" (i.e. the number of subjects that are capable of transmitting at the time of feeding). Altogether, our findings suggest DSFs have great potential utility for assessing the public health impacts of emerging antimalarial tools, but additional research is needed to address issues of scalability and to establish correlation with community-wide clinical endpoints as well as complementary in vitro measures, such as standard membrane feeding assays.

  13. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol in feed ingredients and complete feed from central China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Chen, Lei; Qi, Desheng; Zhang, Niya

    2016-06-01

    Between 2012 and 2014, 2528 feed ingredient and complete feed samples were collected from central China. Numbers of 2083, 255 and 190 samples were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON), respectively, by high-performance liquid chromatography in combination with UV or fluorescence detection. The incidence rates of AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feed ingredients and complete feeds were 33.9%, 90.2% and 77.4%, respectively. The percentage of positive samples for AFB1 ranged from 13.1% to 97.1%. Cottonseed meal presented the most serious contamination by AFB1. ZEN and DON contamination levels of feeds ranged from 50% to 100%, indicating serious contamination over the studied 3-year period. This study demonstrates that AFB1, ZEN and DON contamination of feeds in central China is serious and differs over the years. Feeds are mostly contaminated with ZEN, followed by DON and AFB1.

  14. Interplay between filter-feeding zoobenthos and hydrodynamics in the shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) - Earlier and recent studies, perspectives and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riisgård, H. U.; Lassen, J.; Kortegaard, M.; Møller, L. F.; Friedrichs, M.; Jensen, M. H.; Larsen, P. S.

    2007-11-01

    The shallow Odense Fjord (Denmark) is characterized by a large biomass of filter-feeding polychaetes ( Nereis diversicolor), clams ( Mya arenaria), cockles ( Cerastoderma glaucum), and amphipods ( Corophium volutator). The present paper summarizes studies on zoobenthic filter-feeding in Odense Fjord from the last 10 years. The general principles discovered are extracted and compared to available tools for modelling of the primary characteristics of interplay between benthic filter-feeders and hydrodynamics. Earlier works have been supplemented with data from a recent field study conducted in the shallow inner part of the fjord. Based on data from this study site, the reduction in phytoplankton for fully mixed and incompletely mixed flows has been modelled. It was found that fully mixed flow results in a potential half-life for phytoplankton of only 1.3 h, whereas for the incompletely mixed water the half-life is 2.7 times longer. The field measurements clearly demonstrate the presence of a strong interplay between filter-feeders and hydrodynamics, but although a certain grazing impact is evident from vertical chlorophyll a profiles with often strongly reduced near-bottom concentrations it is not straightforward to identify and model even the main bio-physical processes that prevent the dense populations of filter-feeders to completely control the phytoplankton biomass in Odense Fjord.

  15. Mixed feed evaporator

    DOEpatents

    Vakil, Himanshu B.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1982-01-01

    In the preparation of the gaseous reactant feed to undergo a chemical reaction requiring the presence of steam, the efficiency of overall power utilization is improved by premixing the gaseous reactant feed with water and then heating to evaporate the water in the presence of the gaseous reactant feed, the heating fluid utilized being at a temperature below the boiling point of water at the pressure in the volume where the evaporation occurs.

  16. Fiber Optic Feed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-06

    Naval Research Laboratory IIK Washington, DC,20375 5000 NRL Memorandum Report 6741 0 N Fiber Optic Feed DENZIL STILWELL, MARK PARENT AND LEw GOLDBERG...SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Fiber Optic Feed 53-0611-A0 6. AUTHOR(S) P. D. Stilwell, M. G. Parent, L. Goldberg 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND...DISTRIBUTION CODE Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 13. ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) This report details a Fiber Optic Feeding

  17. Xenon Feed System Progress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    From - To) 13-06-2006 Technical Paper 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER F04611-00-C-0055 Xenon Feed System Progress (Preprint) 5b. GRANT...propulsion xenon feed system for a flight technology demonstration program. Major accomplishments include: 1) Utilization of the Moog...successfully fed xenon to a 200 watt Hall Effect Thruster in a Technology Demonstration Program. The feed system has demonstrated throttling of xenon

  18. FEED FORWARD EQUATIONS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    and feed forward stabilization) have been implemented. An on-mount gyro system consists of gyroscopes mounted on the radar antenna which sense...antenna motion and send compensating signals back to the antenna servo mechanism. Feed forward stabilization consists of determining antenna angular rates...caused by ships attitude changes, as measured by a stable platform (such as SINS), and feeding compensating signals back to the antenna servo

  19. VLBI2010 Feed Comparison

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill

    2013-01-01

    VLBI2010 requires a feed that simultaneously has high efficiency over the full 2.2-14 GHz frequency range. The simultaneity requirement implies that the feed must operate at high efficiency over the full frequency range without the need to adjust its focal position to account for frequency dependent phase centre variations. Two feeds meet this specification: The Eleven Feed developed at Chalmers University. (For more information, contact Miroslav Pantaleev, miroslav.pantaleev@chalmers.se. The Eleven Feed, integrated with LNA's in a cryogenic receiver, is available as a product from Omnisys Instruments, info@omnisys.se). The Quadruple Ridged Flared Horn (QRFH) developed at the California Institute of Technology. (For more information please contact Ahmed Akgiray, aakgiray@ieee.org or Sander Weinreb, sweinreb@caltech.edu) Although not VLBI2010 compliant, two triband S/X/Ka feeds are also being developed for the commissioning of VLBI2010 antennas, for S/X observations during the VLBI2010 transition period, and to support X/Ka CRF observations. The two feeds are: The Twin Telescopes Wettzell (TTW) triband feed developed by Mirad Microwave. (For more information please contact Gerhard Kronschnabl, Gerhard.Kronschnabl@bkg.bund.de) The RAEGE (Spain) triband feed developed at Yebes Observatory. (For more information please contact Jose Antonio Lopez Perez, ja.lopezperez@oan.es)

  20. Infectious waste feed system

    DOEpatents

    Coulthard, E. James

    1994-01-01

    An infectious waste feed system for comminuting infectious waste and feeding the comminuted waste to a combustor automatically without the need for human intervention. The system includes a receptacle for accepting waste materials. Preferably, the receptacle includes a first and second compartment and a means for sealing the first and second compartments from the atmosphere. A shredder is disposed to comminute waste materials accepted in the receptacle to a predetermined size. A trough is disposed to receive the comminuted waste materials from the shredder. A feeding means is disposed within the trough and is movable in a first and second direction for feeding the comminuted waste materials to a combustor.

  1. Dopaminergic Modulation of Effort-Related Choice Behavior as Assessed by a Progressive Ratio Chow Feeding Choice Task: Pharmacological Studies and the Role of Individual Differences

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Patrick A.; Pardo, Marta; Nunes, Eric J.; López Cruz, Laura; Vemuri, V. Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E.; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats can lever press on a PROG schedule reinforced by a preferred high-carbohydrate food pellet, or alternatively approach and consume the less-preferred but concurrently available laboratory chow. Rats pass through each ratio level 15 times, after which the ratio requirement is incremented by one additional response. The DA D2 antagonist haloperidol (0.025–0.1 mg/kg) reduced number of lever presses and highest ratio achieved but did not reduce chow intake. In contrast, the adenosine A2A antagonist MSX-3 increased lever presses and highest ratio achieved, but decreased chow consumption. The cannabinoid CB1 inverse agonist and putative appetite suppressant AM251 decreased lever presses, highest ratio achieved, and chow intake; this effect was similar to that produced by pre-feeding. Furthermore, DA-related signal transduction activity (pDARPP-32(Thr34) expression) was greater in nucleus accumbens core of high responders (rats with high lever pressing output) compared to low responders. Thus, the effects of DA antagonism differed greatly from those produced by pre-feeding or reduced CB1 transmission, and it appears unlikely that haloperidol reduces PROG responding because of a general reduction in primary food motivation or the unconditioned reinforcing properties of food. Furthermore, accumbens core signal transduction activity is related to individual differences in work output. PMID:23110135

  2. Establishing cross-discipline consensus on contraception, pregnancy and breast feeding-related educational messages and clinical practices to support women with rheumatoid arthritis: an Australian Delphi study

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne E; Ackerman, Ilana N; Van Doornum, Sharon

    2016-01-01

    Objective Recognising the need for a best-practice and consistent approach in providing care to women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in relation to (1) general health, (2) contraception, (3) conception and pregnancy, (4) breast feeding and (5) early parenting, we sought to achieve cross-discipline, clinical consensus on key messages and clinical practice behaviours in these 5 areas. Design 3-round eDelphi study. In round 1, panellists provided free-text responses to open-ended questions about care for women with RA across the 5 areas. Subsequently, panellists refined and scored the synthesised responses, presented as metathemes, themes and detailed elements. Where ≥5% of panellists did not support a theme in a given round, it was removed. Setting Panel of practicing Australian rheumatologists (n=22), obstetricians/obstetric medicine physicians (n=9) and pharmacists (n=5). Results 34 (94.4%) panellists participated in all 3 rounds. The panel supported 18 themes across the 5 areas (support/strongly support: 88.2–100%) underpinned by 5 metathemes. Metathemes focused on coordination in information delivery, the mode and timing of information delivery, evidence underpinning information, engagement of the right health professionals at the right time and a non-judgemental approach to infant feeding. Themes included practices for primary prevention of chronic disease and their sequelae, the importance of contraception and planning pregnancy and breast feeding, close monitoring of medications, supporting mental well-being, managing disease activity and providing practical support for early parenting. Conclusions A cross-disciplinary clinical panel highly supported key information and clinical practices in the care for women with RA across the continuum of contraception to early parenting within a whole-person, chronic disease management approach. PMID:27633637

  3. Dopaminergic modulation of effort-related choice behavior as assessed by a progressive ratio chow feeding choice task: pharmacological studies and the role of individual differences.

    PubMed

    Randall, Patrick A; Pardo, Marta; Nunes, Eric J; López Cruz, Laura; Vemuri, V Kiran; Makriyannis, Alex; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Correa, Mercè; Salamone, John D

    2012-01-01

    Mesolimbic dopamine (DA) is involved in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Rats with impaired DA transmission reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks with high response requirements, and instead select less effortful food-seeking behaviors. In the present study, the effects of several drug treatments were assessed using a progressive ratio (PROG)/chow feeding concurrent choice task. With this task, rats