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Sample records for 90-day manned test

  1. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  2. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  3. NO{sub x} Abatement Pilot Plant 90-day test results report

    SciTech Connect

    McCray, J.A.; Boardman, R.D.

    1991-08-30

    High-level radioactive liquid wastes produced during nuclear fuel reprocessing at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant are calcined in the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) to provide both volume reduction and a more stable waste form. Because a large component of the HLW is nitric acid, high levels of oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}) are produced in the process and discharged to the environment via the calciner off-gas. The NO{sub x} abatement program is required by the new Fuel Processing Restoration (FPR) project permit to construct to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from the NWCF. Extensive research and development has indicated that the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process is the most promising technology for treating the NWCF off-gas. Pilot plant tests were performed to determine the compatibility of the SCR process with actual NWCF off-gas. Test results indicate that the SCR process is a viable method for abating the NO{sub x} from the NWCF off-gas. Reduction efficiencies over 95% can be obtained, with minimal amounts of ammonia slip, provided favorable operating conditions exist. Two reactors operated with series flow will provide optimum reduction capabilities. Typical operation should be performed with a first reactor stage gas space velocity of 20,000 hr{sup {minus}1} and an inlet temperature of 320{degrees}C. The first stage exhaust NO{sub x} concentration will then dictate the parameter settings for the second stage. Operation should always strive for a peak reactor temperature of 520{degrees}C in both reactors, with minimal NH{sub 3} slip from the second reactor. Frequent fluctuations in the NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentration will require a full-scale reduction facility that is versatile and quick-responding. Sudden changes in NWCF off-gas NO{sub x} concentrations will require quick detection and immediate response to avoid reactor bed over-heating and/or excessive ammonia slip.

  4. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  5. Calf venous volume during stand-test after a 90-day bed-rest study with or without exercise countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    de Chantemèle, Eric Belin; Pascaud, Ludovic; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Capri, Arnaud; Louisy, Francis; Ferretti, Guido; Gharib, Claude; Arbeille, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The objectives to determine both the contribution to orthostatic intolerance (OI) of calf venous volume during a stand-test, and the effects of a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure on both vein response to orthostatic test and OI, after 90-day head-down tilt bed-rest (HDT). The subjects consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n = 9) and an exercise countermeasure group (CM-gr, n = 9). Calf volume and vein cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by plethysmography and echography during pre- and post-HDT stand-tests. From supine to standing (post-HDT), the tibial and gastronemius vein CSA increased significantly in intolerant subjects (tibial vein, +122% from pre-HDT; gastronemius veins, +145%; P < 0.05) whereas it did not in tolerant subjects. Intolerant subjects tended to have a higher increase in calf filling volume than tolerant subjects, in both sitting and standing positions. The countermeasure did not reduce OI. Absolute calf volume decreased similarly in both groups. Tibial and gastrocnemius vein CSA at rest did not change during HDT in either group. During the post-HDT stand-test, the calf filling volume increased more in the CM-gr than in the Co-gr both in the sitting (+1.3 ± 5.1%, vs.–7.3 ± 4.3%; P < 0.05) and the standing positions (+56.1 ± 23.7%vs.+1.6 ± 9.6%; P < 0.05). The volume ejected by the muscle venous pump increased only in the CM-gr (+38.3 ± 21.8%). This study showed that intolerant subjects had a higher increase in vein CSA in the standing position and a tendency to present a higher calf filling volume in the sitting and standing positions. It also showed that a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure had no effects on either post-HDT OI or on the venous parameters related to it. PMID:15331681

  6. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-10-01

    This article discusses the wider experiences regarding the usefulness of the 90-day rat feeding study for the testing of whole foods from genetically modified (GM) plant based on data from a recent EU-project [Poulsen, M., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Lindecrona, R.H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Taylor, M., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007a. Safety testing of GM-rice expressing PHA-E lectin using a new animal test design. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 364-377; Poulsen, M., Kroghsbo, S., Schrøder, M., Wilcks, A., Jacobsen, H., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Shu, Q., Emami, K., Sudhakar, D., Gatehouse, A., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007b. A 90-day safety in Wistar rats fed genetically modified rice expressing snowdrop lectin Galanthus nivalis (GNA). Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 350-363; Schrøder, M., Poulsen, M., Wilcks, A., Kroghsbo, S., Miller, A., Frenzel, T., Danier, J., Rychlik, M., Emami, K., Gatehouse, A., Shu, Q., Engel, K.-H., Knudsen, I., 2007. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein (Bacillus thuringiensis toxin) in Wistar rats. Food Chem. Toxicol. 45, 339-349]. The overall objective of the project has been to develop and validate the scientific methodology necessary for assessing the safety of foods from genetically modified plants in accordance with the present EU regulation. The safety assessment in the project is combining the results of the 90-day rat feeding study on the GM food with and without spiking with the pure novel gene product, with the knowledge about the identity of the genetic change, the compositional data of the GM food, the results from in-vitro/ex-vivo studies as well as the results from the preceding 28-day toxicity study with the novel gene product, before the hazard characterisation is concluded. The results demonstrated the ability of the 90-day rat feeding study to detect the biological/toxicological effects of the

  7. STS-90 Day 04 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue work with the Escher Staircase Behavior Testing of Adult Rats experiment. This is the first of two behavior testing sessions with the adult rats being used for this experiment. The rats will have a 'hyper drive' unit placed on their head which has recording electrodes made of microscopic wires that are positioned in the brain to record activity in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is that portion of the brain used to develop spatial maps to help us navigate from one place to the other. With the 'hyper drive' units in place, the rats will then be put through a maze or on a track. While the rat is maneuvering on the maze or track, the cell activity of the hippocampus will be measured and recorded.

  8. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Hydroprocessed Esters and Fatty Acids (HEFA) Bio-Based Jet Fuel in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    nociception , social interaction, the forced swim test, spontaneous locomotor activity, passive avoidance or Morris water maze performance. However...system. V.4. Technical Methods V.4.1. Pain / Distress Assessment V.4.1.1. APHIS Form 7023 Information V.4.1.1.1. Number of Animals V...4.1.1.1.1. Column C: 0 V.4.1.1.1.2. Column D: 150 V.4.1.1.1.3. Column E: 0 V.4.1.2. Pain Relief / Prevention V.4.1.2.1. Anesthesia

  9. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Bio-Derived Gevo Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Paraffinic Kerosene (SPK) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-31

    Animals were fed a certified rodent diet (Formulab Diet Purina Lab Chow, PMI Nutrition, International, LLC, Brentwood MO), ad libitum, except during...weights of the liver , kidneys, adrenals, testes, epididymides, ovaries, uterus, thymus, spleen, brain, and heart were obtained after dissection from the...g) 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 % BW (mean) 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 % BW (SD) 0.01 0.005 0.005 0.01 Liver Average (g) 10.15a 10.51 9.98 10.89 SD (g) 0.46a

  10. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of FT Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    chromosome aberration test and micronucleus assay (Mattie et al., 2011a, 2011b), demonstrated that FT fuel was not mutagenic or genotoxic. The acute...over approximately 90 days, at concentrations of 0, 200, 700, and 2000 mg/m3. In the motor activity test , males exposed to the highest concentration...2 3.1 Test Substance ....................................................................................................................3 3.2

  11. Manned engineering test satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seko, Hiromi; Satou, Masao; Tomoeda, Hisao; Obara, Hiroaki; Oomura, Katsutoshi

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual design of manned engineering satellites is presented. The mission scenarios for developing manned engineering satellites involve: (1) selecting mission equipment to enable preferential development and validation of mandatory technologies among those for Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS); (2) selecting mission equipment to enable development and validation of independent domestic technologies as well as utilizing to the utmost the manned space technology acquired through the Japanese Experimental Module (JEM); and (3) installing the most effective mission on the basis of relationships with Extravehicular Activity (EVA), robot, and retrieval-type spacecraft technologies, and trends of overseas manned space technology. The results of reviews on the system and subsystems, such as attitude and orbit control, structure, thermal control, electric power, communication, and data processing subsystems are outlined. The results of reviews on the structure, weight, and reentry phase operation are presented.

  12. Baroreflex Sensitivity Decreases During 90-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Arzeno, N. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases during spaceflight and simulated spaceflight (head down bed rest [BR]). However, previous studies have only examined BRS in response to a limited blood pressure (BP) range or to a single sudden change in BP. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine BRS during 90 days of 6deg head-down tilt BR over a broad range of BP perturbations. METHODS: Nineteen normal volunteers (12M, 7F) were tested one day before BR, and then near BR days 30, 60 and 90. BP was pharmacologically altered by continuous infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Electrocardiogram and continuous BP were collected during 10 min of normal saline (NS), followed by increasing concentrations of PE (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 micro-g/kg/min). After a 20 min break, NS was infused again for 10 min, followed by increasing concentrations of SNP (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 micro-g/kg/min). Baroreceptor sensitivity was measured as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) and mean RR were analyzed using data from only the NS infusions. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of BR and gender. RESULTS: RR decreased (p<0.001) from pre- BR across BR days. High frequency in normalized units, a measure of parasympathetic activity, decreased with BR (p=0.027) and was lower (p=0.046) in men (0.39+/-0.02, mean+/-SEM) than women (0.48+/-0.02). The spontaneous baroreflex slope, our measure of BRS, increased with PE and decreased with SNP across BR (p<0.001). The percentage decrease in BRS from pre- to post-BR appeared to be larger in women (43.6+/-7.0%) than in men (31.3+/-3.9%, p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decrease during 90 days of BR, and BRS tends to diminish more in women than in men.

  13. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality and any other general or specific toxic effects... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9310 TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. (a) Scope. This... no-observed-effects level (NOEL) and toxic effects associated with continuous or repeated exposure...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality and any other general or specific toxic effects... REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines § 799.9310 TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents. (a) Scope. This... no-observed-effects level (NOEL) and toxic effects associated with continuous or repeated exposure...

  15. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  16. Manned testing in a simulated space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fender, Donna L.

    1992-11-01

    A view of the facility and operational requirements involved in performing a manned thermal vacuum test is presented. The requirements fall into two major categories. The first category deals with placing the suited crewmen in a hazardous environment and assuring their safety. The second category deals with the constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment. Design areas that deal with man rating a chamber, including fire suppression, emergency repress, emergency power, backups, reliable instrumentation and data systems, communications, television monitoring, biomedical monitoring, material compatibilities, and equipment supporting the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) are discussed. The operational issues that are peculiar to manned testing such as test rules, test procedures, test protocol, emergency drills, availability of hyperbaric facilities, test team training and certification engineering concerns for a safe mechanical and instrumentation buildup, hazard analysis, and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis are discussed. The constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment are addressed.

  17. Manned testing in a simulated space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fender, Donna L.

    1992-01-01

    A view of the facility and operational requirements involved in performing a manned thermal vacuum test is presented. The requirements fall into two major categories. The first category deals with placing the suited crewmen in a hazardous environment and assuring their safety. The second category deals with the constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment. Design areas that deal with man rating a chamber, including fire suppression, emergency repress, emergency power, backups, reliable instrumentation and data systems, communications, television monitoring, biomedical monitoring, material compatibilities, and equipment supporting the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) are discussed. The operational issues that are peculiar to manned testing such as test rules, test procedures, test protocol, emergency drills, availability of hyperbaric facilities, test team training and certification engineering concerns for a safe mechanical and instrumentation buildup, hazard analysis, and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis are discussed. The constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment are addressed.

  18. Conceptual study on manned engineering test satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okazaki, Tsuyoshi; Nakano, Tooru; Inomata, Masabumi; Inagaki, Jun; Oono, Shigeru

    1992-07-01

    An overview of the conceptual study of spacecraft used for validating technologies which will be necessary for manned space development conducted by Japan in the future is presented. An Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) and two-phase liquid loop radiator experiment equipment were selected as the major and optional equipment to be installed onboard the manned engineering test satellites, respectively. Mission items for ECLSS experiment equipment were extracted and traded off from the following on-ground technologies: (1) technology for removing toxic substances, offensive substances, and fine particles from the atmosphere; (2) N2 and O2 partial pressure control and CO2 removal technologies; (3) gas sensing technology; and (4) temperature and humidity control technology. Comparison was conducted on three base-line configurations such as follows: (1) pressurized module (expendable) plus bus section (expendable); (2) pressurized module (retrievable) plus bus section (expendable); and (3) pressurized module (expendable) plus bus section (expendable) plus recovery section. The results of the review on the satellite system base on configuration of the above case (1) are outlined.

  19. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  20. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  1. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  2. 29 CFR 2590.715-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. 2590... PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.715-2708 Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General... not apply any waiting period that exceeds 90 days, in accordance with the rules of this section....

  3. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  4. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  5. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  6. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  7. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  8. 42 CFR 84.102 - Man test 6; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.102 Man test 6; requirements. (a) Man test 6 will be conducted with respect to liquefied breathing gas apparatus only. (b) This test will be conducted to evaluate operation of the... life of the apparatus with a full charge of liquefied breathing gas, and then a one-quarter full...

  9. 42 CFR 84.102 - Man test 6; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.102 Man test 6; requirements. (a) Man test 6 will be conducted with respect to liquefied breathing gas apparatus only. (b) This test will be conducted to evaluate operation of the... life of the apparatus with a full charge of liquefied breathing gas, and then a one-quarter full...

  10. 42 CFR 84.102 - Man test 6; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.102 Man test 6; requirements. (a) Man test 6 will be conducted with respect to liquefied breathing gas apparatus only. (b) This test will be conducted to evaluate operation of the... life of the apparatus with a full charge of liquefied breathing gas, and then a one-quarter full...

  11. 42 CFR 84.102 - Man test 6; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.102 Man test 6; requirements. (a) Man test 6 will be conducted with respect to liquefied breathing gas apparatus only. (b) This test will be conducted to evaluate operation of the... life of the apparatus with a full charge of liquefied breathing gas, and then a one-quarter full...

  12. 42 CFR 84.102 - Man test 6; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.102 Man test 6; requirements. (a) Man test 6 will be conducted with respect to liquefied breathing gas apparatus only. (b) This test will be conducted to evaluate operation of the... life of the apparatus with a full charge of liquefied breathing gas, and then a one-quarter full...

  13. Safety assessment of vitacoxib: Acute and 90-day sub-chronic oral toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Lv, Pengyue; Li, Jing; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-02-24

    Vitacoxib, is a newly developed coxibs NSAID (selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2). To date, no experimental data have been published concerning its safety for use as an additive in the human diet. In the present study, we assessed the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of vitacoxib administered by gavage. The acute toxicity tests in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and ICR mice demonstrated that vitacoxib at a dose of 5000 mg/kg BW failed to alter any of the parameters studied. In the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity test, vitacoxib was administered to SD rats at the doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 mg/kg BW. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences for most indexes of sub-chronic toxicity throughout the experiment at the dose of 5-20 mg/kg BW, indicating no apparent dose-dependent. However, there were significant histopathology changes in the liver and kidney, and alterations in some biochemical parameters in the 60 mg/kg BW group. Based on these findings, the gavage LD50 was determined to be > 5000 mg/kg in SD rats and ICR mice, and the 90-day gavage no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of vitacoxib was considered to be 20 mg/kg BW under the present study conditions.

  14. Range Finding 14-Day and 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies with N,N-Dipropylcyclohexanecarboxamide in Rats. Phase 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    clinical chemistry values. Significant increases occurred in male rat liver organ-to-body weight ratios in all three dose levels at the 45 and 90 day necropsies during the 90-day feeding study. A no effect dose was not achieved during this study. Additional testing would be required to confirm a no effect dose level. It is concluded that a toxic hazard may exist from a prolonged significant oral exposure to N,N-Dopropylcyclohexanecarboxamide. It is recommended that further evaluation of this compound as a candidate insect repellent be discontinued due to the deleterious

  15. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  16. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure.

  17. 42 CFR 84.101 - Man test 5; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.101 Man test 5; requirements. (a) Test 5 will be conducted to determine the maximum.... (b) The wearer will manipulate the devices controlling the supply of breathing gas to the...

  18. 42 CFR 84.101 - Man test 5; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.101 Man test 5; requirements. (a) Test 5 will be conducted to determine the maximum.... (b) The wearer will manipulate the devices controlling the supply of breathing gas to the...

  19. 42 CFR 84.101 - Man test 5; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.101 Man test 5; requirements. (a) Test 5 will be conducted to determine the maximum.... (b) The wearer will manipulate the devices controlling the supply of breathing gas to the...

  20. 42 CFR 84.101 - Man test 5; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.101 Man test 5; requirements. (a) Test 5 will be conducted to determine the maximum.... (b) The wearer will manipulate the devices controlling the supply of breathing gas to the...

  1. 42 CFR 84.101 - Man test 5; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Breathing Apparatus § 84.101 Man test 5; requirements. (a) Test 5 will be conducted to determine the maximum.... (b) The wearer will manipulate the devices controlling the supply of breathing gas to the...

  2. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gao-Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-Shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats.

  3. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Gao-jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats. PMID:27812153

  4. 42 CFR 84.103 - Man tests; performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests; performance requirements. 84.103 Section 84.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.103 Man...

  5. 42 CFR 84.103 - Man tests; performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests; performance requirements. 84.103 Section 84.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.103 Man...

  6. 42 CFR 84.103 - Man tests; performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests; performance requirements. 84.103 Section 84.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.103 Man...

  7. 42 CFR 84.103 - Man tests; performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests; performance requirements. 84.103 Section 84.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.103 Man...

  8. 42 CFR 84.103 - Man tests; performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests; performance requirements. 84.103 Section 84.103 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.103 Man...

  9. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  10. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  11. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  12. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  13. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  14. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  15. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  16. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  17. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  18. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine

    PubMed Central

    Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A.; Endres, John R.; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals. PMID:27635133

  19. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Amy; Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A; Endres, John R; Murbach, Timothy S; Marx, Tennille; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals.

  20. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  1. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  2. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  3. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day.

  4. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  5. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  6. 90-day postoperative mortality is a legitimate measure of hepatopancreatobiliary surgical quality

    PubMed Central

    Mise, Yoshihiro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Parker, Nathan H.; Conrad, Claudius; Aloia, Thomas A.; Lee, Jeffery E.; Fleming, Jason B.; Katz, Matthew H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the legitimacy of 90-day mortality as a measure of hepatopancreatobiliary quality. Summary Background Data The 90-day mortality rate has been increasingly but not universally reported after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. The legitimacy of this definition as a measure of surgical quality has not been evaluated. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the causes of all deaths that occurred within 365 postoperative days in patients undergoing hepatectomy (n = 2811) and/or pancreatectomy (n = 1092) from January 1997 through December 2012. The rates of surgery-related, disease-related, and overall mortality within 30 days, within 30 days or during the index hospitalization, within 90 days, and within 180 days following surgery were calculated. Results Seventy-nine (3%) surgery-related deaths and 92 (3%) disease-related deaths occurred within 365 days after hepatectomy. Twenty (2%) surgery-related deaths and 112 (10%) disease-related deaths occurred within 365 days after pancreatectomy. The overall mortality rates at 99 day and 118 days optimally reflected surgery-related mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, respectively. The 90-day overall mortality rate was a less sensitive but equivalently specific measure of surgery-related death. Conclusions and Relevance The 99-day and 118-day definitions of postoperative mortality optimally reflected surgery-related mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, respectively. However, among commonly reported metrics, the 90-day overall mortality rate represents a legitimate measure of surgical quality. PMID:25590497

  7. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  8. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  9. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  10. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  11. 42 CFR 84.99 - Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.99 Man tests; testing conditions; general requirements. (a) The man tests... by Institute personnel trained in the use of self-contained breathing apparatus, and the wearer will... test to ensure that it is in proper working order. (e) Breathing resistance will be measured within...

  12. Apollo experience report: Manned thermal-vacuum testing of spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclane, J. C., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Manned thermal-vacuum tests of the Apollo spacecraft presented many first-time problems in the areas of test philosophy, operational concepts, and program implementation. The rationale used to resolve these problems is explained and examined critically in view of actual experience. The series of 12 tests involving 1517 hours of chamber operating time resulted in the disclosure of numerous equipment and procedural deficiencies of significance to the flight mission. Test experience and results in view of subsequent flight experience confirmed that thermal-vacuum testing of integrated manned spacecraft provides a feasible, cost-effective, and safe technique with which to obtain maximum confidence in spacecraft flight worthiness early in the program.

  13. Strategies for Ground Based Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Jeff; Peacock, Mike; Gill, Tracy

    2009-01-01

    Integrated testing (such as Multi-Element Integrated Test (MEIT)) is critical to reducing risks and minimizing problems encountered during assembly, activation, and on-orbit operation of large, complex manned spacecraft. Provides the best implementation of "Test Like You Fly:. Planning for integrated testing needs to begin at the earliest stages of Program definition. Program leadership needs to fully understand and buy in to what integrated testing is and why it needs to be performed. As Program evolves and design and schedules mature, continually look for suitable opportunities to perform testing where enough components are together in one place at one time. The benefits to be gained are well worth the costs.

  14. 26 CFR 54.9815-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. 54.9815-2708 Section 54.9815-2708 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General rule. A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, must not apply any waiting period that exceeds 90...

  15. Implications of the 90-day episode definition used for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model

    PubMed Central

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Ryan, Andrew M.; Hou, Hechuan; Dupree, James M.; Hallstrom, Brian; Miller, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Under the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, hospitals are held accountable for nearly all Medicare payments that occur during the initial hospitalization through 90-days post-discharge (i.e., episode of care). It is unknown whether unrelated expenditures resulting from this “broad” episode definition will impact participating hospital’s average 90-day episode payments. Objective To compare the CJR program’s broad episode definition to a clinically-narrow episode definition Design We identified Medicare claims for patients in Michigan who underwent joint replacement from 2011 through 2013. Using specifications from the CJR model and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare payment measure, we constructed episodes of care and calculated 90-day episode payments. We then compared hospitals’ average 90-day episode payments using the two episode definitions and fit linear regression models to understand whether payment differences were associated with specific hospital characteristics (average CMS-HCC risk score, rural hospital status, joint replacement volume, percentage of Medicaid discharges, teaching hospital status, number of beds, percentage of joint replacements performed on African American patients and median income of the hospital’s county). Setting All Michigan hospitals located in metropolitan statistical areas Participants Medicare beneficiaries Main Outcome and Measure(s) The correlation and difference between average 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR model episode definition and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare episode definition. Results We identified 23,251 joint replacement episodes. 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR episode definition ranged from $17,349 to $29,465 (mean: $22,122, standard deviation: $2,600). Episode payments were slightly lower (mean: $21,670) when the Hospital Compare episode definition was used. Both methods were strongly correlated (r=0.99, p<0.001). The average

  16. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  17. A 90-Day Tenofovir Reservoir Intravaginal Ring for Mucosal HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd J.; Clark, Meredith R.; Albright, Theodore H.; Nebeker, Joel S.; Tuitupou, Anthony L.; Clark, Justin T.; Fabian, Judit; McCabe, R. Tyler; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir (TFV) recently demonstrated 39% protection against HIV infection in women. We designed and evaluated a novel reservoir TFV intravaginal ring (IVR) to potentially improve product effectiveness by providing a more controlled and sustained vaginal dose to maintain cervicovaginal concentrations. Polyurethane tubing of various hydrophilicities was filled with a high-density TFV/glycerol/water semisolid paste and then end-sealed to create IVRs. In vitro, TFV release increased with polyurethane hydrophilicity, with 35 weight percent water-swelling polyurethane IVRs achieving an approximately 10-mg/day release for 90 days with mechanical stiffness similar to that of the commercially available NuvaRing. This design was evaluated in two 90-day in vivo sheep studies for TFV pharmacokinetics and safety. Overall, TFV vaginal tissue, vaginal fluid, and plasma levels were relatively time independent over the 90-day duration at approximately 104 ng/g, 106 ng/g, and 101 ng/ml, respectively, near or exceeding the highest observed concentrations in a TFV 1% gel control group. TFV vaginal fluid concentrations were approximately 1,000-fold greater than levels shown to provide significant protection in women using the TFV 1% gel. There were no toxicological findings following placebo and TFV IVR treatment for 28 or 90 days, although slight to moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates in the vaginal epithelia were observed in these animals compared to naïve animals. In summary, the controlled release of TFV from this reservoir IVR provided elevated sheep vaginal concentrations for 90 days to merit its further evaluation as an HIV prophylactic. PMID:23006751

  18. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  19. Submerged Manned Testing of the Prototype Hydrotech Aqua Heat System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    thermal protection used by combat swimmers in long-duration, cold water missions.1 The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) has identified...cognitive tests. Diving was conducted on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday of each week. The following restrictions were implemented: alcohol or caffeine ... Swimmers (Resting Diver Phase), NMRI 97-41, Naval Medical Research Institute, Nov 1997. 2. U.S. Naval Sea Systems Command, Task Assignment 03-12: Manned

  20. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  1. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  2. Safety assessment of essential oil from Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (peperina): 90-days oral subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Mañas, Fernando; Cristofolini, Andrea; Bagnis, Guillermo; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolas; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée

    2015-02-01

    Minthostachys verticillata (Lamiaceae), popularly known as peperina is largely used in popular medicine for its digestive, carminative, antispasmodic and antirheumatic properties. There are no reports of repeated exposure toxicity to guarantee their safety. The present study investigated the chemical composition, analyzed by GC-FID, and the 90-day toxicity and genotoxicity effect of M. verticillata essential oil (Mv-EO), using Wistar rats as test animals. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats/sex/group) and Mv-EO was administered on diet at doses of 0, 1, 4 and 7 g/kg feed. The main components of Mv-EO were pulegone (64.65%) and menthone (23.92%). There was no mortality, adverse effects on general conditions or changes in body weight, food consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the study in male and female rats. Subchronic administration of Mv-EO did not alter the weights, morphological and histopathological analyses of liver, kidney and intestine. Genotoxicity was tested by micronucleus and comet assays. Mv-EO up to a concentration of 7 g/kg feed for 90 days did not exert a cyto-genotoxic effect on the bone marrow and cells blood of Wistar rats. These results suggest that Mv-EO appears to be safe and could be devoid of any toxic risk.

  3. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity and mass balance study of corn starch fiber in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, Christine M; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Rihner, Marisa O; Lambert, Elizabeth A; Greeley, Melanie A; Godsey, Justin; Eapen, Alex K; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose. There were no toxicologically or biologically relevant findings in any of the test article-treated groups. The few minor differences observed between the corn starch fiber and polydextrose exposed groups were considered to be due to normal biological variation. Following [(14)C]-corn starch fiber dosing, nearly complete excretion of the administered dose occurred over 168 h post-dosing, with the majority excreted in the feces. The dietary no-observed-adverse-effect level of corn starch fiber after 90 days was 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Similar toxicity profiles for corn starch fiber and polydextrose were observed due to the structural and compositional similarities of these materials.

  4. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs.

  5. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  6. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  7. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  8. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  9. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  10. 42 CFR 84.100 - Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Contained Breathing Apparatus § 84.100 Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4; requirements. Man tests 1, 2, 3, and 4, set... of work and physical orientation; and (d) Provide information on the operating and...

  11. Multisite Study of an Implanted Continuous Glucose Sensor Over 90 Days in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dehennis, Andrew; Mortellaro, Mark A.; Ioacara, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which enables real-time glucose display and trend information as well as real-time alarms, can improve glycemic control and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus. Previous reports have described strategies to extend the useable lifetime of a single sensor from 1-2 weeks to 28 days. The present multisite study describes the characterization of a sensing platform achieving 90 days of continuous use for a single, fully implanted sensor. Method: The Senseonics CGM system is composed of a long-term implantable glucose sensor and a wearable smart transmitter. Study subjects underwent subcutaneous implantation of sensors in the upper arm. Eight-hour clinic sessions were performed every 14 days, during which sensor glucose values were compared against venous blood lab reference measurements collected every 15 minutes using mean absolute relative differences (MARDs). Results: All subjects (mean ± standard deviation age: 43.5 ± 11.0 years; with 10 sensors inserted in men and 14 in women) had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Most (22 of 24) sensors reported glucose values for the entire 90 days. The MARD value was 11.4 ± 2.7% (range, 8.1-19.5%) for reference glucose values between 40-400 mg/dl. There was no significant difference in MARD throughout the 90-day study (P = .31). No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: The Senseonics CGM, composed of an implantable sensor, external smart transmitter, and smartphone app, is the first system that uses a single sensor for continuous display of accurate glucose values for 3 months. PMID:26224762

  12. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system, preliminary test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A preliminary plan and procedure are presented for conducting an extended manned test program for a regenerative life support system. Emphasis will be placed on elements associated with long-term system operation and long-term uninterrupted crew confinement.

  13. Human exploration of space: A review of NASA's 90-day study and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stever, H. Guyford; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Gavin, Joseph G.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Levinthal, Elliott C.; Mar, James W.; Mcelroy, John H.; Mcruer, Duane T.; Merrell, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) examines the NASA Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, and alternative concepts. Included in this paper, prepared for the National Space Council, are the answers to a challenging set of questions posed by the Vice President. Concerns addressed include: the appropriate pace, the scope of human exploration, the level of long-term support required, the technology development available and needed, the feasibility of long-duration human spaceflight in a low-gravity environment, scientific objectives, and other considerations such as costs and risks.

  14. A 90-day toxicity study of GmTMT transgenic maize in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin; Feng, Yongquan; Zhi, Yuan; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Zhou; Jia, Xudong

    2017-04-01

    GmTMT transgenic maize is a genetically modified maize plant that overexpresses the γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) from Glycine max (Gm). The γ-TMT gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the GmTMT2a protein which can convert γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol. Overexpression of GmTMT2a significantly increased the α-tocopherol content in transgenic maize. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of GmTMT maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Maize grains from GmTMT or Zhen58 were incorporated into rodent diets at low (12.5%), medium (25%) or high (50%) concentrations and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/sex/group) for 90 days. The negative control group of rats (n = 10/sex/group) were fed with common maize diets. Results from body weights, feed consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, absolute and relative organ weights indicated no treatment-related side effects of GmTMT maize grain on rats in comparison with rats consuming diets containing Zhen58 maize grain. In addition, no treatment-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Altogether, our data indicates that GmTMT transgenic maize is as safe and nutritious as its conventional non-transgenic maize.

  15. Analysis and testing of key technologies of PTN on MAN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiancheng; Chen, Ying; Cui, Wanlong

    2009-08-01

    Broadband connectivity to Internet has quickly become one of the most successful telecom service offerings ever. The meeting and marketplace of the future requires Full-Service Broadband. Full Service Broadband encompasses a unique combination of products and experience that will enable operators and network providers to meet this emerging demand for anywhere access to broadband services, quickly, cost-effectively and with minimal risk. Firstly, the standard of PTN (Packet Transmission Network) are analyzed. Then ,by deep analysis the key technology of PTN on MAN. The key technologies of PTN on MAN can be divided into two group: PBT, PBBREP, RRPP, ERP technology, and Carrier Ethernet with MPLS technology. At the same time, communication each other of MSTP and PTN,T-MPLS and IP/MPLS ,PBT and IP/MPLS are carried out by figures. At last, testing of PTN are analyzed, testing contents mainly include: TDM service function of PTN equipment, long time BER capability of STM-1service, time delay capability of PTN equipment, protection and provisioned backup path function of T-MPLS, Wrapping protection a function of T-MPLS loop network,and OAM functions.

  16. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  17. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  18. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-09-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  19. 77 FR 45571 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Green Turtle in Hawaii and Notice of Status Review AGENCY...: We, NMFS, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to identify the Hawaiian population of the green... Species Act (ESA). The green turtle was listed under the ESA on July 28, 1978. Breeding populations of...

  20. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  1. 76 FR 61825 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk Species as... CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29... term ``species'' to include ``any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct...

  2. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  3. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed. PMID:28257483

  4. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed.

  5. Strategies for Ground Testing of Manned Lunar Surface Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Jeff; Gill, Tracy; Peacock, Mike

    2009-01-01

    One of the primary objectives of NASA's Vision for Space Exploration is the creation of a permanently manned lunar outpost. Facing the challenge of establishing a human presence on the moon will require new innovations and technologies that will be critical to expanding this exploration to Mars and beyond. However, accomplishing this task presents an unprecedented set of obstacles, one of the more significant of which is the development of new strategies for ground test and verification. Present concepts for the Lunar Surface System (LSS) architecture call for the construction of a series of independent yet tightly coupled modules and elements to be launched and assembled in incremental stages. Many of these will be fabricated at distributed locations and delivered shortly before launch, precluding any opportunity for testing in an actual integrated configuration. Furthermore, these components must operate flawlessly once delivered to the lunar surface since there is no possibility for returning a malfunctioning module to Earth for repair or modification. Although undergoing continual refinement, this paper will present the current state of the plans and models that have been devised for meeting the challenge of ground based testing for Constellation Program LSS as well as the rationale behind their selection.

  6. 90-day dietary toxicity study with esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) in micropigs.

    PubMed

    Wedig, John; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    The subchronic (90-day) toxicity of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) was assessed in micropigs. Animals (5/sex/group) received feed containing 5%, 10%, and 17% EPG, mixed accordingly throughout the study to deliver 1.5, 3, and 5 g/kg bw/day of EPG, respectively. Corn oil served as the vehicle control (0 g/kg bw/day). Subsets of animals were evaluated at Week 6; the remainder between Weeks 12 and 14. With the exception of liver and serum vitamin levels, statistically significant difference between control and EPG groups were seen sporadically, and with no apparent connection to treatment and/or no consistency across time intervals. EPG intakes of 3 and 5 g/kg bw/day, but not at 1.5 g/kg bw/day were associated with significantly lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Serum total vitamin D levels were significantly lower across all EPG groups. There were also trends toward lower levels of liver vitamins A and E among EPG-treated animals, but the effects were less consistent. The effects on vitamin levels observed in EPG-treated animals were not accompanied by any signs of vitamin deficiency (e.g., effects on growth, clinical signs, or clinical pathology), and might have been related to the larger mass of EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during transit in the gastrointestinal tract.

  7. Trichloromelamine 14-Day Range Finding and 90-Day Subchronic Studies in Rats. 3 August 1988 - 17 January 1989. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-13

    COSATI CODES 10. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverne if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Trichloroemelamine, toxicity , 14-Day...90-Day 19, ABSTRACT (Conamnue on revers if necessary and identify by block number) The subchronic study examined the toxicity of the food service...observed adverse effect level in the 90-day study was 30 mg/kg/day. Trichloromelamine should be considered moderately toxic when ingested acutely

  8. [Kooroo color: 90-day dietary toxicity study in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ogawa, Yukio; Ueno, Katsunori; Kaneko, Toyozo; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Tohru

    2002-06-01

    A subchronic toxicity study on kooroo color was conducted using F344 rats of both genders. Kooroo color is an extract of yam root, Dioscorea matudai Hayata, of which the major components are known to be flavonoid pigments. Use of kooroo as a food color is permitted by the Food Sanitation Law in Japan, but the chronic toxicity has not been evaluated in the literature. Rats were fed the product of kooroo color (PKC) at doses of 0.5%, 1.50%, and 5.0% in basal powder diet, while control groups received PKC-free basal diet, for ninety days. A vehicle control given propylene glycol (PG) alone, at the same dosage that the 5.0% group received, was included, because PKC used in this study contained ca. 80 percent PG, used as an extractant during the manufacturing processes. Daily observation of general behavior, and weekly measurement of body weight as well as food consumption were performed. Hematological, serum biochemical and anatomopathological examinations were conducted at the end of administration. No abnormalities ascribable to the treatment with PKC or PG were noted in any examination in this study. Hence, dietary intake of 5.0% of PKC, i.e., 2,993 mg/kg/day for males, and 3,376 mg/kg/day for females, as a mean daily intake for 90 days, had no observable adverse effect in F344 rats. Therefore, kooroo color has no significant general toxicity, and its toxicity, if any, is of a very low order.

  9. A repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen,a novel acaricide, in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshinori; Ikemi, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Ebino, Koichi; Kojima, Sayuri; Chiba, Yuko; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Kawakatsu, Hisao; Saka, Machiko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-02-01

    Cyflumetofen is a novel acaricide which is highly active against phytophagous mites. As a part of safety assessment, a repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen was conducted in Fischer (F344/DuCrj) rats of both sexes. Technical grade cyflumetofen was administered in feed to groups of 10 males and 10 females at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 1,000, and 3,000 ppm. Prothrombin time was prolonged in males at 3,000 ppm and plasma globulin levels were decreased in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. At necropsy, enlarged and whitish adrenals were observed in females at 3,000 ppm. There were statistically significant increases in relative liver weight (ratio to body weight) in males and relative adrenal weight in females in the 1,000 ppm group; increased relative liver and kidney weights in both sexes at 3,000 ppm, and increased absolute and relative weights of adrenals in females at 3,000 ppm. Increased absolute liver weight was also noted in males at 3,000 ppm. Histopathologically, at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm males had diffuse vacuolation and females had diffuse hypertrophy of adrenal cortical cells. In addition, vacuolation of ovarian interstitial gland cells was noted in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. There were no treatment-related changes in any parameters for either sex in other dose groups. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of cyflumetofen was judged to be 300 ppm for both sexes (16.5 mg/kg/day for males and 19.0 mg/kg/day for females).

  10. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  11. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  12. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF THE SEALING ABILITY OF TWO ENDODONTIC SEALERS IN ROOT CANALS EXPOSED TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT FOR 45 AND 90 DAYS

    PubMed Central

    Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Vanni, José Roberto; Della Bona, Álvaro; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Porto, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill) in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12). After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm) was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification). The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05). Group E90 (2.03±0.94) showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (p<0.001). None of the sealers, in both study conditions, were able to prevent dye leakage. PMID:19089029

  13. 76 FR 54423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan... listing all chimpanzees as endangered may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice,...

  14. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal...

  15. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2012-0072: 4500030113] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... species to, or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... had had portions of their genome deliberately spliced with genes from another species...

  16. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... 20, 2010, the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD), Alabama Rivers Alliance, Clinch Coalition... shad may be warranted. On April 28, 2011, in response to the negative 90-day finding, CBD filed a notice of intent to sue DOC and NMFS for alleged violations of the ESA in making its finding. CBD...

  17. 75 FR 41436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Revise Critical Habitat for the Endangered Leatherback Sea Turtle... endangered leatherback sea turtle under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition does not... leatherback sea turtles and their habitat under our jurisdiction. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  18. 78 FR 41716 - Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver From the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... beginning of this notice. Long-Range Weather Forecasts The FMCSA reviewed information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Weather Service (NOAA). The NOAA posts long-range... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver...

  19. 78 FR 66675 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Multiple Species of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ...; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction... extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to list a species.... Next, we evaluate whether the information indicates that the species at issue faces extinction...

  20. 76 FR 7820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Texas Pipefish as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a... suggests an extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to... extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly discussing...

  1. 76 FR 67401 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... 54423) a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under...

  2. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...We (NMFS) announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list 19 species and 3 subpopulations of sharks as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted for 9 species: Centrophorus harrissoni, Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus, Mustelus fasciatus,......

  3. 76 FR 55638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Snowy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Kansas; the southern Texas coast into northeast Mexico; and the central Mexican plateau) (AOU 1957, pp... of plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife...

  4. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... the 1973 Act, published in May 1974 (USDI 1974). A third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l... ``any species or subspecies of fish and wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate...

  5. 75 FR 46894 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies With Critical Habitat AGENCY... finding on two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as...

  6. MELD-Na as a prognostic indicator of 30- and 90-day mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease after creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation.

  7. THE RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF THE NEW HARRIS-GOODENOUGH DRAW-A-MAN TEST.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUNN, JAMES A.

    A SERIES OF STUDIES SOUGHT TO ASCERTAIN (1) INTER- AND INTRA-RATER RELIABILITY FOR THE HARRIS-GOODENOUGH DRAW-A-MAN TEST, (2) DRAW-A-MAN (DAM) VALIDITY, AND DRAW-A-WOMAN (DAW) VALIDITY. THE DRAWINGS OF 72 STUDENTS IN AN UPPER MIDDLE CLASS WERE SCORED INDEPENDENTLY BY TWO SELF-TAUGHT SCORERS, ONE OF WHOM ALSO RESCORED THE TEST A WEEK LATER. THE…

  8. The Use of the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test as a Predictor of Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Glenn B.; Bemis, Katherine A.

    In an attempt to find a test which minimized cultural bias, three tests were administered to 335 first grade pupils. The subjects comprised 2 groups (123 Anglo children and 212 Spanish surnamed children). The Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (GDAM) and the Lorge-Thorndike Intelligence Test (LT), Form A, were administered as measures of intelligence. The…

  9. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list either the Eastern population or the Southern Rocky Mountain (SRM) population of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) as a distinct population segment (DPS) that is endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on......

  10. Cerebral Cortex Plasticity After 90 Days of Bed Rest: Data from TMS and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Donna R.; Ramsey, David; Johnson, Kevin; Kola, Jejo; Ricci, Raffaella; Hicks, Christian; Borckardt, Jeffrey J.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Epstein, Charles; George, Mark S.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Microgravity animal models have demonstrated corticospinal plasticity; however, little is understood of its functional significance. In this pilot study, we explored corticospinal plasticity in a bed rest model. We hypothesized that the lack of weight bearing would induce cortical reorganization correlating with performance. Methods Four subjects underwent functional MRI (fMRI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and functional mobility testing (FMT) before and after 90 d of bed rest. Recruitment curves (RC) were created by measuring motor evoked potentials over a range of TMS intensities with changes in the slope of the RC reflecting changes in corticospinal excitability. Results Significant leg RC slope decreases were observed on post-bed rest day 1 (P1) (t(2805) = −4.14, P < 0.0001), P2 (t(2805) = −6.59, P < 0.0001), P3 (t(2805) = −6.15, P < 0.0001), P5 (t(2805) = −7.93, P < 0.0001), P8 (t(2805) = −3.30, P = 0.001), and P12 (t(2805)= −3.33, P = 0.0009), suggesting a group decrease in corticospinal excitability in the immediate post-bed rest period with recovery approaching baseline over the following 2 wk. Significant effects were observed for hand RC slopes only for P2 (t(2916) = 1.97, P = 0.049), P3 (t(2916) = −2.12, P = 0.034), and P12 (t(2916) = −2.19, P = 0.029); no significant effects were observed for days P0 (t(2916) = −1.32, ns), P1 (t(2916) = 1.00, ns), P5 (t(2916) = −0.21, ns), or P8 (t(2916) = −0.27, ns). fMRI showed no change in activation for the hand but an increase in activation post-bed rest for the leg. On an individual basis, a more heterogeneous response was found which showed a potential association with performance on FMT. Discussion Results of this research include a better understanding of the cortical plasticity associated with leg disuse and may lead to applications in patient and astronaut rehabilitation. PMID:20058735

  11. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  12. Prognostic Abilities and Quality Assessment of Models for the Prediction of 90-Day Mortality in Liver Transplant Waiting List Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barthold, Marc; Kaltenborn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-score and diverse variants are widely used for prognosis on liver transplant waiting-lists. Methods 818 consecutive patients on the liver transplant waiting-list included to calculate the MELD, MESO Index, MELD-Na, UKELD, iMELD, refitMELD, refitMELD-Na, upMELD and PELD-scores. Prognostic abilities for 90-day mortality were investigated applying Receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Independent risk factors for 90-day mortality were identified with multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. Methodological quality of the underlying development studies was assessed with a systematic assessment tool. Results 74 patients (9%) died on the liver transplant waiting list within 90 days after listing. All but one scores, refitMELD-Na, had acceptable prognostic performance with areas under the ROC-curves (AUROCs)>0.700. The iMELD performed best (AUROC = 0.798). In pediatric cases, the PELD-score just failed to reach the acceptable threshold with an AUROC = 0.699. All scores reached a mean quality score of 72.3%. Highest quality scores could be achieved by the UKELD and PELD-scores. Studies specifically lack statistical validity and model evaluation. Conclusions Inferior quality assessment of prognostic models does not necessarily imply inferior prognostic abilities. The iMELD might be a more reliable tool representing urgency of transplantation than the MELD-score. PELD-score is assumedly not accurate enough to allow graft allocation decision in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:28129338

  13. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  14. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werley, Michael S.; Kirkpatrick, Dan J.; Oldham, Michael J.; Jerome, Ann M.; Langston, Timothy B.; Lilly, Patrick D.; Smith, Donna C.; Mckinney, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1–4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  15. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S.; Skinner, Eila C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant. PMID:28149935

  16. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S; Skinner, Eila C

    2017-01-27

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant.

  17. A 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study and a 5-Day Metabolism Study of Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (DIMP) in Mink.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    Eighty 12-13 month-old brown "Ranch Wild " mink of each sex were randomized by body weight into eight dose groups of ten animals per sex. The animals...Laboratory Practice Standard (Toxic Substances Control Act) was followed. 90-DAY STUDY One hundred sixty 12-13 month-old brown "Ranch Wild " mink (80...3.2 x 10ŚM sec-’ * Hydrolysis Half- life : 687 years * Decomposition Products: (in microwave plasma discharge): methylphosphonic acid, isopropyl

  18. Evolution of a 90-day model of care for bundled episodic payments for congestive heart failure in home care.

    PubMed

    Feld, April; Madden-Baer, Rose; McCorkle, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Innovation Center's Episode-Based Payment initiatives propose a large opportunity to reduce cost from waste and variation and stand to align hospitals, physicians, and postacute providers in the redesign of care that achieves savings and improve quality. Community-based organizations are at the forefront of this care redesign through innovative models of care aimed at bridging gaps in care coordination and reducing hospital readmissions. This article describes a community-based provider's approach to participation under the Bundled Payments for Care Improvement initiative and a 90-day model of care for congestive heart failure in home care.

  19. Dipyridamole-thallium imaging: The lazy man's stress test

    SciTech Connect

    Leppo, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    Dipyridamole-thallium imaging is a relatively safe and accurate method to evaluate myocardial perfusion and stress. It is independent of patient motivation, exercise capacity and antianginal medications. Overall it detects coronary artery disease as well as exercise thallium and has already shown utility in prognostic determinations. The continued use of this test on a wide scale appears warranted and additional large scale experience needs to be critically evaluated. 53 references.

  20. [Maximal anaerobic capacity of man in a modified Wingate test].

    PubMed

    Ushakov, B B; Chelnokova, E V

    1992-01-01

    We studied the possibility of using a 380B Siemens-Elema (Sweden) bicycle ergometer to determine the maximal anaerobic capacity of healthy subjects during a modified Wingate test. Exercise was performed under stable moment conditions, with calculation of braking resistance on the basis of the subjects lean body mass. The values of total work performed and maximal power may be used for comparative evaluation of physical work capacity in participants of training and rehabilitation programs.

  1. Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye

    2008-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in the diet reduce risk of cardiac mortality. Fish oils are a dietary source of LC-PUFAs (EPA, DHA) but intake is low in Western diets. Adding beneficial amounts of LC-PUFAs to foods is limited by their instability and potential to impart off-flavors. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA in man, is more stable than EPA/DHA in food matrices. SDA is present in fish oils (0.5-4%) and in nutraceuticals (echium, borage oil). Genes for Delta6, Delta15 desaturases were introduced into soybeans that convert linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to SDA (15-30% fatty acids). Since addition of SDA soybean oil into human foods increases SDA intake, toxicology studies were undertaken to assess its safety. In a 28-day pilot study, rats were gavaged with SDA soybean oil at dosages up to 3g/kg body weight/day; no treatment-related adverse effects were observed. A 90-day/one generation rat reproduction study was subsequently conducted where SDA soybean oil was added to diets to provide daily doses of 1.5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development.

  2. The development and succession of microbial communities in 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Bojie; Su, Qiang; Xie, Beizhen; Qin, Youcai; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for permanent astrobase life-support artificial closed ecosystem, is an artificial ecosystem which consists of plant cultivation, animal breeding and waste treatment units. It has been used to carry out a 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three crew members. Apparently, it’s hard to prevent the growth of microorganisms in such closed ecosystem for their strong adaptive capacity. Original microorganisms in the cabin, microbes in the course of loads delivery and the autologous microorganism by crew members and animals themselves are all the main source of the interior microorganisms, which may grow and regenerate in air, water and plants. Therefore, if these microorganisms could not be effectively monitored and controlled, it may cause microbial contamination and even lead to the unsteadiness of the whole closed ecosystem. In this study, the development and succession of the microbial communities of air, water system, plant system, and key facilities surfaces in Lunar Palace 1 were continuously monitored and analyzed by using plate counting method and molecular biological method during the 90-day experiment. The results were quite useful for the controlling of internal microorganisms and the safe operation of the whole system, and could also reveal the succession rules of microorganisms in an artificial closed ecosystem.

  3. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Er Hui; Yu, Zhou; Hu, Jing; Xu, Hai Bin

    2013-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control.

  4. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  5. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  6. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  7. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  8. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  9. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  10. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  11. 42 CFR 84.161 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type B and Type BE respirators; test requirements. 84.161 Section 84.161 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  12. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  13. 42 CFR 84.160 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type A and Type AE respirators; test requirements. 84.160 Section 84.160 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES...

  14. Vertical jump performance after 90 days bed rest with and without flywheel resistive exercise, including a 180 days follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Maganaris, Constantinos; Ferretti, José Luis

    2007-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and neuromuscular de-conditioning occur in response to space flight and bed-rest. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of flywheel training to conserve jumping power and height during 90 days bed rest. Twenty-four young healthy men underwent strict bed-rest (-6 degrees head down tilt) for 90 days. Eight participants were assigned to a flywheel group (FW) and 16 to a control group (Ctrl). The ground reaction force was measured during vertical jump tests twice during baseline data collection, and on day 4, 7, 14, 90 and 180 of recovery. In half of the participants, jump tests were also performed within minutes after re-ambulation and on four more occasions during the first 2 days of recovery. Jump height was reduced from 40.6 cm (SD 6.1 cm) during the first baseline measurement to 27.6 cm (SD 5.6 cm) on day 4 of recovery in Ctrl, but only from 38.6 cm (SD 3.9 cm) to 34.4 cm (SD 6.5 cm) in FW (P < 0.001). At the same time, peak power was reduced from 47.4 W/kg (SD 8.0 W/kg) to 34.5 W/kg in Ctrl, but only from 46.2 W/kg (6.0 W/kg) to 42.2 W/kg SD 4.6 W/kg) in FW (P < 0.001). Jump height and peak power were completely recovered after 163 and 140 days in Ctrl, respectively, and after 72 and 18 days in FW (regression analysis). In conclusion, flywheel exercise could effectively offset neuromuscular de-conditioning during bed-rest, and led to full recovery at an earlier stage. These findings nourish the hope that adequate training paradigms can fully sustain neuromuscular function under microgravity conditions.

  15. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean.

  16. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  17. A 90-day toxicology study of meat from genetically modified sheep overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals.

  18. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Au, Tu C; MacPhail, Robert; Hardas, Sarita S; Butterfield, D Allan; Sultana, Rukhsana; Goodman, Michael; Tseng, Michael T; Dan, Mo; Haghnazar, Hamed; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Nanoceria is used as a catalyst in diesel fuel, as an abrasive in printed circuit manufacture, and is being pursued as an antioxidant therapeutic. Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria administration. An ~5% aqueous dispersion of citrate-stabilized 30 nm ceria, synthesized and characterized in-house, or vehicle, was iv infused into rats terminated 1, 7, 30, or 90 days later. Cageside observations were obtained daily, body weight weekly. Daily urinary and fecal cerium outputs were quantified for 2 weeks. Nine organs were weighed and samples collected from 14 tissues/organs/systems, blood and cerebrospinal fluid for cerium determination. Histology and oxidative stress were assessed. Less than 1% of the nanoceria was excreted in the first 2 weeks, 98% in feces. Body weight gain was initially impaired. Spleen weight was significantly increased in some ceria-treated groups, associated with abnormalities. Ceria was primarily retained in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. There was little decrease of ceria in any tissue over the 90 days. Granulomas were observed in the liver. Time-dependent oxidative stress changes were seen in the liver and spleen. Nanoscale ceria was persistently retained by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, associated with adverse changes. The results support concern about the long-term fate and adverse effects of inert nanoscale metal oxides that distribute throughout the body, are persistently retained, and produce adverse changes.

  19. Safety assessment of genetically modified milk containing human beta-defensin-3 on rats by a 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Ming-Qing; Liang, Dong; Yin, Songna; Yao, Kezhen; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups which consumed either an AIN93G diet (growth purified diet for rodents recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition) with the addition of 10% or 30% HBD3 milk, an AIN93G diet with the addition of 10% or 30% conventional milk, or an AIN93G diet alone. The results showed that there was no difference in the nutritional composition of HBD3 and conventional milk. Furthermore, body weight, food consumption, blood biochemistry, relative organ weight, and histopathology were normal in those rats that consumed diets containing HBD3. No adverse effects were observed between groups that could be attributed to varying diets or gender.

  20. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  1. Anatomical sector analysis of load-bearing tibial bone structure during 90-day bed rest and 1-year recovery.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Tomas; Rittweger, Jörn; Hyttinen, Jari; Felsenberg, Dieter; Sievänen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the bone response to long bed rest-related immobility and during subsequent recovery differed at anatomically different sectors of tibial epiphysis and diaphysis. For this study, peripheral quantitative tomographic (pQCT) scans obtained from a previous 90-day 'Long Term Bed Rest' intervention were preprocessed with a new method based on statistical approach and re-analysed sector-wise. The pQCT was performed on 25 young healthy males twice before the bed rest, after the bed rest and after 1-year follow-up. All men underwent a strict bed rest intervention, and in addition, seven of them received pamidronate treatment and nine did flywheel exercises as countermeasures against disuse-related bone loss. Clearly, 3-9% sector-specific losses in trabecular density were observed at the tibial epiphysis on average. Similarly, cortical density decreased in a sector-specific way being the largest at the anterior sector of tibial diaphysis. During recovery, the bed rest-induced bone losses were practically restored and no consistent sector-specific modulation was observed in any subgroup. It is concluded that the sector-specific analysis of bone cross-sections has potential to reveal skeletal responses to various interventions that cannot be inferred from the average analysis of the whole bone cross-section. This approach is considered also useful for evaluating the bone responses from the biomechanical point of view.

  2. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn rootworm-protected corn.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B; Lemen, J; Dudek, R; Ward, D; Jiang, C; Nemeth, M; Burns, J

    2006-02-01

    The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with YieldGard (YieldGard Rootworm Corn is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC.) Rootworm corn (MON 863) grain that is protected against feeding damage caused by corn rootworm larvae are presented. Corn rootworm-protection was accomplished through the introduction of a cry3Bb1 coding sequence into the corn genome for in planta production of a modified Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. Grain from MON 863 and its near isogenic control were separately formulated into rodent diets at levels of 11% and 33% (w/w) by Purina Mills, Inc. Additionally, six groups of rats were fed diets containing grain from different conventional (non-biotechnology-derived) reference varieties. The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 863 were compared to those of rats fed grain from conventional corn varieties. All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to Purina Mills, Inc. specifications for Certified LabDiet 5002. There were a total of 400 rats in the study divided into 10 groups of 20 rats/sex/group. Overall health, body weight gain, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were comparable between groups fed diets containing MON 863 and conventional corn varieties. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional and farm animal feeding studies with MON 863 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as existing conventional corn varieties.

  3. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Dudek, R; Lemen, J K; Nemeth, M A

    2006-07-01

    The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with grain from MON 810 corn (YieldGard Cornborer -- YieldGard Cornborer is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC) that is protected against feeding damage from corn and stalk boring lepidopteran insects are presented. Corn borer protection was accomplished through the introduction of cry1Ab coding sequences into the corn genome for in planta production of a bioactive form of Cry1Ab protein. Grain from MON 810 and its near-isogenic control was separately formulated into rodent diets at levels of 11% and 33% (w/w) by Purina Mills, Inc. (PMI). All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to PMI specifications for Certified LabDiet (PMI Certified LabDiet 5002 is a registered trademark of Purina Mills, Inc.) 5002. There were a total of 400 rats in the study divided into 10 groups of 20 rats/sex/group. The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 810 were compared to those of rats fed grain from conventional corn varieties. Overall health, body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were comparable between groups fed diets containing MON 810 and conventional corn varieties. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional and farm animal feeding studies with MON 810 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as grain from existing commercial corn varieties.

  4. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ju; Lee, Taek-Jin; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, EunHo; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Hong, Seung-Guk; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(+)) nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM20(+) NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with control in both 500 mg/kg groups. Total protein and albumin levels were decreased significantly in both sexes in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. Histopathological studies revealed acinar cell apoptosis in the pancreas, inflammation and edema in stomach mucosa, and retinal atrophy of the eye in the 500 mg/kg group. Conclusion There were significant parameter changes in terms of anemia in the hematological and blood chemical analyses in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. The significant toxic change was observed to be below 125 mg/kg, so the no-observed-adverse-effect level was not determined, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 125 mg/kg in both sexes and the target organs were found to be the pancreas, eye, and stomach. PMID:25565829

  5. 76 FR 67652 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... or predation; (4) inadequacy of existing regulatory mechanisms; and (5) other natural or man-made...-utilization for commercial, recreational, scientific, or educational purposes; (3) disease or predation; (4.... Predation and Disease The NRDC identifies predation and disease as another threat facing river...

  6. Definition study for an extended manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A program was defined which consists of extended ground-based manned tests of regenerative life support systems. The tests are to evaluate prototypes of advanced life support systems under operational, integrated conditions, thus providing data for the design of efficient environmental control and life support systems for use in long-duration space missions. The requirements are defined for test operations to provide a simulation of an orbiting space laboratory. The features of Phase A and B programs are described. These tests use proven backup equipment to ensure successful evaluation of the advanced subsystems. A pre-tests all-systems checkout period is provided to minimize equipment problems during extended testing and to familiarize all crew and operating staff members with test equipment and procedures.

  7. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Schmidt, Robert E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2004-05-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation studies and mouse lymphoma tests have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no detailed long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other HCA extract has been previously assessed. We evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry over a period of 90 days. Furthermore, a 90-day histopathological evaluation was conducted. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX of feed intake and were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The body weight and selected organ weights were assessed and correlated as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment. A significant reduction in body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats, while no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation was observed as compared to the control

  8. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 3: Development test plan. Appendix A: Manufacturing requirements/schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The tests and procedures for the manned remote work station (MRWS) open cherry picker (OCP) development test article (DTA) are described to validate systems requirements and performance specifications. A development test program is outlined to evaluate key design issues and man/machine interfaces when the MRWS OCP is used in a shuttle support role of satellite servicing and in orbit construction of large structures.

  9. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, 90-day Study of Emixustat HCL in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U.; Novack, Roger L.; Csaky, Karl G.; Richmond, Preston P.; Birch, David G.; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of emixustat hydrochloride (ACU-4429), a novel visual cycle modulator, in subjects with geographic atrophy (GA) associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to oral emixustat (2, 5, 7, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 90 days. Recovery of rod photoreceptor sensitivity following a photobleach was measured by electroretinography. Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and ophthalmic examinations. Results Seventy-two subjects (54 emixustat, 18 placebo) were evaluated. Emixustat suppressed rod photoreceptor sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression plateaued by Day 14, and was reversible within 7-14 days after drug cessation. No systemic AEs of concern were noted. Dose-related ocular AEs (chromatopsia, 57% emixustat vs. 17% placebo; and delayed dark adaptation, 48% emixustat vs. 6% placebo) were mild to moderate, and the majority resolved on study or within 7-14 days after study drug cessation. Conclusions In this phase II study, emixustat produced a dose-dependent, reversible effect on rod function, and an ocular AE profile that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. These results support further testing of emixustat for the treatment of GA associated with dry AMD. PMID:25932553

  10. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  11. Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863).

    PubMed

    Doull, J; Gaylor, D; Greim, H A; Lovell, D P; Lynch, B; Munro, I C

    2007-11-01

    MON 863, a genetically engineered corn variety that contains the gene for modified Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein to protect against corn rootworm, was tested in a 90-day toxicity study as part of the process to gain regulatory approval. This study was reanalyzed by Séralini et al. who contended that the study showed possible hepatorenal effects of MON 863. An Expert Panel was convened to assess the original study results as analyzed by the Monsanto Company and the reanalysis conducted by Séralini et al. The Expert Panel concludes that the Séralini et al. reanalysis provided no evidence to indicate that MON 863 was associated with adverse effects in the 90-day rat study. In each case, statistical findings reported by both Monsanto and Séralini et al. were considered to be unrelated to treatment or of no biological or clinical importance because they failed to demonstrate a dose-response relationship, reproducibility over time, association with other relevant changes (e.g., histopathology), occurrence in both sexes, difference outside the normal range of variation, or biological plausibility with respect to cause-and-effect. The Séralini et al. reanalysis does not advance any new scientific data to indicate that MON 863 caused adverse effects in the 90-day rat study.

  12. Hydrogen depolarized carbon dioxide concentrator performance improvements and cell pair structural tests. [for manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. D.; Aylward, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations and testing associated with the CO2 removal efficiency and voltage degradation of a hydrogen depolarized carbon oxide concentrator are reported. Also discussed is the vibration testing of a water vapor electrolysis cell pair. Performance testing of various HDC cell pairs with Cs2CO3 electrolyte provided sufficient parametric and endurance data to size a six man space station prototype CO2 removal system as having 36 HDC cell pairs, and to verify a life capability exceeding six moths. Testing also demonstrated that tetramethylammonium carbonate is an acceptable HDC electrolyte for operating over the relative humidity range of 30 to 90 percent and over a temperature range of 50 to 80 F.

  13. School Readiness and the Draw-a-Man Test: An Empiricaly Derived Alternative to Harris' Scoring System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.

    1985-01-01

    An abbreviated scoring system for the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test found that three items had the same overall potential for correctly identifying at-risk kindergarteners as more time-consuming scoring methods. (CL)

  14. Antarctica as a testing ground for manned missions to the Moon and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, N. E.; Lukin, V. V.

    2017-03-01

    This paper is concerned with the study of expedition activity in Antarctica as a part of the search for useful analogies and solutions which can be taken into account in planning manned missions to the Moon and Mars. The following is considered: natural analogies, human factors, station facilities, means of transportation, scientific programs, safety issues, and historical and political analogies. A rationalization is given for the idea of creating a testing ground in Antarctica (stations Vostok, Novolazarevskaya, Jetty Oasis) for ground-based simulation of functioning of a lunar and Martian base.

  15. Vancomycin MIC Does Not Predict 90-Day Mortality, Readmission, or Recurrence in a Prospective Cohort of Adults with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Clemenzi-Allen, Angelo; Gahbauer, Alice; Deck, Daniel; Imp, Brandon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Chambers, Henry F.; Doernberg, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a tremendous health burden. Previous studies examining the association of vancomycin MIC and outcomes in patients with SAB have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the association between vancomycin MICs and 30- or 90-day mortality in individuals with SAB. This was a prospective cohort study of adults presenting from 2008 to 2013 with a first episode of SAB. Subjects were identified by an infection surveillance system. The main predictor was vancomycin MIC by MicroScan. The primary outcomes were death at 30 and 90 days, and secondary outcomes included recurrence, readmission, or a composite of death, recurrence, and readmission at 30 and 90 days. Covariates included methicillin susceptibility, demographics, illness severity, comorbidities, infectious source, and antibiotic use. Cox proportional-hazards models with propensity score adjustment were used to estimate 30- and 90-day outcomes. Of 429 unique first episodes of SAB, 11 were excluded, leaving 418 individuals for analysis. Eighty-three (19.9%) participants had a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml. In the propensity-adjusted Cox model, a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml compared to <2 μg/ml was not associated with a greater hazard of mortality or composite outcome of mortality, readmission, and recurrence at either 30 days (hazard ratios [HRs] of 0.86 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.41, 1.80] [P = 0.70] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.55, 1.58] [P = 0.80], respectively) or 90 days (HRs of 0.91 [95% CI, 0.49, 1.69] [P = 0.77] and 0.69 [95% CI, 0.46, 1.04] [P = 0.08], respectively) after SAB diagnosis. In a prospective cohort of patients with SAB, vancomycin MIC was not associated with 30- or 90-day mortality or a composite of mortality, disease recurrence, or hospital readmission. PMID:27324762

  16. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  17. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  18. Water electrolysis system refurbishment and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenough, B. M.

    1972-01-01

    The electrolytic oxygen generator for the back-up water electrolysis system in a 90-day manned test was refurbished, improved and subjected to a 182-day bench test. The performance of the system during the test demonstrated the soundness of the basic electrolysis concept, the high development status of the automatic controls which allowed completely hands-off operation, and the capability for orbital operation. Some design improvements are indicated.

  19. Effect of 90-day space flight (MDS-ISS) on immunological parameters in mice: lymphocyte distribution and function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Arthur; Lhuillier, Andrew; Liu, Yi; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Shi, Yufang

    Elucidation of the effects of space flight on the immune system of astronauts and other animal species is important for the survival and success of manned space flight, especially long-term missions. Space flight exposes astronauts to microgravity, galactic cosmic radiation (GCR), and various psycho-social stressors. Blood samples from astronauts returning from space flight have shown changes in the numbers and types of circulating leukocytes. Similarly, normal lym-phocyte homeostasis has been shown to be severely affected in mice using ground-based models of microgravity and GCR exposure, as demonstrated by profound effects on several immuno-logical parameters examined by other investigators and ourselves. In particular, lymphocyte numbers are significantly reduced and subpopulation distribution is altered in the spleen, thy-mus, and peripheral blood following hindlimb unloading (HU) in mice. Lymphocyte depletion was found to be mediated through corticosteroid-induced apoptosis, although the molecular mechanism of apoptosis induction is still under investigation. The proliferative capacity of TCR-stimulated lymphocytes was also inhibited after HU. We have similarly shown that mice exposed to high-energy 56Fe ion radiation have decreased lymphocyte numbers and perturba-tions in proportions of various subpopulations, including CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and B cells in the spleen, and maturation stages of immature T cells in the thymus. To compare these ground-based results to the effects of actual space-flight, fresh spleen and thymus samples were recently obtained from normal and transgenic mice immediately after 90 d. space-flight in the MDS, and identically-housed ground control mice. Total leukocyte numbers in each organ were enumerated, and subpopulation distribution was examined by flow cytometric analysis of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD19, CD25, DX-5, and CD11b. Splenic T cells were stimulated with anti-CD3 and assessed for proliferation after 2-4 d., and production of

  20. United Space Alliance waits to test its one-man submarine for SRB retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The one-man submarine dubbed DeepWorker 2000 sits on the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  1. United Space Alliance waits to test its one-man submarine for SRB retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The one-man submarine dubbed DeepWorker 2000 sits on the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. Inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  2. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  3. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury.

  4. 90-Day Nose-Only Inhalation Toxicity Study of Trifluoroiodomethane (CG3I) to Male and Female Fischer Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-02-01

    or 8% CF3I, minimal to mild atrophy of the testes and degeneration of spermatogonia in male rats exposed to 4 or 8% CF3I, and a mild m increase in...parameters included erythrocyte (RBC), leukocyte (WBC), differential leukocyte and platelet counts, hemoglobin (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular... differentials were determined according to established procedures. Erythrocytes were enumerated on a Coulter counter (Coulter Electronics, Hialeah, FL

  5. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  6. Muscle atrophy and bone loss after 90 days' bed rest and the effects of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate: results from the LTBR study.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Frost, Harold M; Schiessl, Hans; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Alkner, Björn; Tesch, Per; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2005-06-01

    Muscle atrophy and bone loss pose substantial problems for long-term space flight and in clinical immobilization. We therefore tested the efficacy of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate to counteract such losses. Twenty five young healthy males underwent strict bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt for 90 days. Subjects were randomized into an exercise group that practiced resistive exercise with a 'flywheel' (FW) device every 2-3 days, a pamidronate group (Pam) that received 60 mg pamidronate i.v. 14 days prior to bed rest and a control group (Ctrl) that received none of these countermeasures. During the study, Ca(++) and protein intake were controlled. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) of calf and forearm. Measurements were taken twice during baseline data collection, after 28 and after 89 days bed rest, and after 14 days recovery. On the same days, urinary Pyridinoline excretion and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, Ca(++) and PTH were measured. Pre-study exercise habits were assessed through the Freiburg questionnaire. Losses in calf mCSA were significantly reduced in FW (Ctrl: -25.6% +/- 2.5% Pam: -25.6% +/- 3.7%, FW: -17.3% +/- 2.7%), but not in the forearm mCSA (Ctrl: -6.4% +/- 4.33%, Pam: -7.7% +/- 4.1%, FW: -7.6% +/- 3.3%). Both diaphyseal and epiphyseal BMC losses of the tibia were mitigated in Pam and FW as compared to Ctrl, although this was significant only at the diaphysis. Inter-individual variability was significantly greater for changes in BMC than in mCSA, and correlation of BMC losses was poor among different locations of the tibia. A significant positive correlation was found between change in tibia epiphyseal BMC and serum cortisol levels. These findings suggest that both countermeasures are only partly effective to preserve BMC (FW and Pam) and mCSA (FW) of the lower leg during bed rest. The partial efficacy of flywheel exercise

  7. The Great Personhole Cover Debate Revisited: A Test of the Generic "Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Anne Messerly

    In an attempt to determine whether the generic "man" has a strong association with maleness, 307 college students (122 males and 185 females) were polled to assess their attitudes about whether people "outgrow" the limited definition of man or whether the generic still retains an exclusionary, "mostly males" coloring. In order to prevent the…

  8. Results of the International Space Station Interim Resistance Exercise Device Man-in-the-Loop Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, A. D., Jr.; Amonette, W. E.; Bentley, J. R.; Rapley, M. G.; Blazine, K. L.; Loehr, J. A.; Collier, K. R.; Boettcher, C. R.; Skrocki, J. S.; Hohrnann, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    The Interim Resistance Exercise Device (iRED), developed for the International Space Station (ISS), was evaluated using human subjects for a Man-In-The-Loop Test (MILT). Thirty-two human subjects exercised using the iRED in a test that was conducted over a 63-working-day period. The subjects performed the same exercises will be used on board ISS, and the iRED operating constraints that are to be used on ISS were followed. In addition, eight of the subjects were astronauts who volunteered to be in the evaluation in order to become familiar with the iRED and provide a critique of the device. The MILT was scheduled to last for 57,000 exercise repetitions on the iRED. This number of repetitions was agreed to as a number typical of that expected during a 3-person, 17-week ISS Increment. One of the canisters of the iRED failed at the 49,683- repetition mark (87.1% of targeted goal). The remaining canister was operated using the plan for operations if one canister fails during flight (contingency operations). This canister remained functional past the 57,000-repetition mark. This report details the results of the iRED MILT, and lists specific recommendations regarding both operation of the iRED and future resistance exercise device development.

  9. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A mockup of a solid rocket booster nozzle is lowered into the waters of the Atlantic during a test of a new booster retrieval method. A one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  10. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    - The one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is tested in Atlantic waters near Cape Canaveral, Fla. Nearby are divers; inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  11. Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) net centric flight tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Dale

    2009-04-01

    Properly architected avionics systems can reduce the costs of periodic functional improvements, maintenance, and obsolescence. With this in mind, the U.S. Army Aviation Applied Technology Directorate (AATD) initiated the Manned/Unmanned Common Architecture Program (MCAP) in 2003 to develop an affordable, high-performance embedded mission processing architecture for potential application to multiple aviation platforms. MCAP analyzed Army helicopter and unmanned air vehicle (UAV) missions, identified supporting subsystems, surveyed advanced hardware and software technologies, and defined computational infrastructure technical requirements. The project selected a set of modular open systems standards and market-driven commercial-off-theshelf (COTS) electronics and software, and, developed experimental mission processors, network architectures, and software infrastructures supporting the integration of new capabilities, interoperability, and life cycle cost reductions. MCAP integrated the new mission processing architecture into an AH-64D Apache Longbow and participated in Future Combat Systems (FCS) network-centric operations field experiments in 2006 and 2007 at White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), New Mexico and at the Nevada Test and Training Range (NTTR) in 2008. The MCAP Apache also participated in PM C4ISR On-the-Move (OTM) Capstone Experiments 2007 (E07) and 2008 (E08) at Ft. Dix, NJ and conducted Mesa, Arizona local area flight tests in December 2005, February 2006, and June 2008.

  12. Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and several microns long, but they often pack tightly together to form rods or ropes of microscopic sizes. Carbon nanotubes possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and have many potential applications in the electronics, computer, and aerospace industries. Unprocessed nanotubes are very light and could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs. Because the toxicity of nanotubes in the lung is not known, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 0, 0.1, or 0.5 mg of carbon nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control and euthanized 7 d or 90 d after the single treatment for histopathological study of the lungs. All nanotube products induced dose-dependent epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7-d groups. These lesions persisted and were more pronounced in the 90-d groups; the lungs of some animals also revealed peribronchial inflammation and necrosis that had extended into the alveolar septa. The lungs of mice treated with carbon black were normal, whereas those treated with high-dose quartz revealed mild to moderate inflammation. These results show that, for the test conditions described here and on an equal-weight basis, if carbon nanotubes reach the lungs, they are much more toxic than carbon black and can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  13. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  14. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  15. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  16. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  17. 42 CFR 84.159 - Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man tests for gases and vapors; supplied-air respirators; general performance requirements. 84.159 Section 84.159 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE...

  18. Ethnic Differences in the Goodenough-Harris Draw-a-Man and Draw-a-Woman Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugdale, A. E.; Chen, S. T.

    1979-01-01

    The draw-a-man (DAM) and draw-a-woman (DAW) tests were given to 307 school children in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The children were ethnically Malay, Chinese, or Indian (Tamil), and all came from lower socioeconomic groups. Journal availability: British Medical Journal, 1172 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02134. (Author)

  19. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The one-man submarine dubbed DeepWorker 2000 sits on the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  20. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A Diver Operator Plug (DOP) is being pulled down into the ocean by a newly designed one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000. The activity is part of an operation to attach the plug to a mockup of a solid rocket booster nozzle. DeepWorker 2000 is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach the DOP to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  1. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    From the deck of Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships, a crane lowers a one-man submarine into the ocean near Cape Canaveral, Fla. Called DeepWorker 2000, the sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  2. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    After a successful dive, the one-man submarine known as DeepWorker 2000 is lifted from Atlantic waters near Cape Canaveral, Fla., onto the deck of the Liberty Star, one of two KSC solid rocket booster recovery ships. Inside the sub is the pilot, Anker Rasmussen. The sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach a Diver Operator Plug to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  3. A new one-man submarine is tested as vehicle for solid rocket booster retrieval

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    At left, a manipulator arm on a one-man submarine demonstrates its ability to cut tangled parachute riser lines and place a Diver Operator Plug (top right) inside a mock solid rocket booster nozzle (center). Known as DeepWorker 2000, the sub is being tested on its ability to duplicate the sometimes hazardous job United Space Alliance (USA) divers perform to recover the expended boosters in the ocean after a launch. The boosters splash down in an impact area about 140 miles east of Jacksonville and after recovery are towed back to KSC for refurbishment by the specially rigged recovery ships. DeepWorker 2000 will be used in a demonstration during retrieval operations after the upcoming STS-101 launch. The submarine pilot will demonstrate capabilities to cut tangled parachute riser lines using a manipulator arm and attach the DOP to extract water and provide flotation for the booster. DeepWorker 2000 was built by Nuytco Research Ltd., North Vancouver, British Columbia. It is 8.25 feet long, 5.75 feet high, and weighs 3,800 pounds. USA is a prime contractor to NASA for the Space Shuttle program.

  4. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  5. STS-90 Day 09 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-90 mission, the sleep period of the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk, is interrupted due to problems with equipment that removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. Because of this, Columbia's crew went to bed about two hours later than scheduled.

  6. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  7. Percutaneous reduction of mitral valve regurgitation using the MitraClip system - immediate and 90-day follow-up of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Piotr; Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, Dorota; Telichowski, Artur; Witkowski, Tomasz; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of hemodynamically significant valvular heart diseases has been the domain of cardiac surgery for decades. However, a promising novel method is the MitraClip system, involving percutaneous connection of insufficient valve leaflets with special cobalt-chrome clips. Our study presents clinical characteristics, course of treatment with the MitraClip system, and immediate and 90-day clinical and echocardiographic follow-up of the first 3 patients treated in our institution. Subsequently, based on data from the literature and our own experience, the current position around the world, and the target group of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment using the MitraClip system, are discussed.

  8. Safety assessment of the fermented Phylloporia ribis (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) mycelia by oral acute toxicity study in mice and 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianhua; Fan, Yiou; Yao, Wenhuan; Xie, Wei; Guo, Jie; Yan, Yan; Yang, Fei; Xu, Lingchuan

    2014-07-01

    Phylloporia ribis is an edible fungus in China. Its fermented mycelia have been approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of PR China for use as a novel food material, but little information on its safety is available. The present research was the first to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity in experimental animals of fermented Phylloporia ribis mycelia (FPM) following standard procedures. In acute toxicity study, FPM was orally administered to male and female mice twice a day at single dose of 10 g/kg bw. The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of FPM for mice of both sexes was over 10 g/kg bw. No death and abnormal behaviors occurred during 14 days study except for an increased locomotor activity in three animals. In 90-day feeding study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10.0%, 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.25% and 0% (control) FPM for 90 days. The treatment caused no effects on mortality, gross pathology, histology, hematology, and blood chemistry, no dose-dependent changes in food consumption, but caused effect on body weight gain compared with control group. The No Observed Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of FPM was greater than 8.7 g/kg bw/day in both sexes of rats.

  9. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; He, Xiaoyun; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Cao, Sishuo; Song, Huan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2012-09-01

    The cry1Ac-M gene, coding one of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins, was introduced into maize H99 × Hi IIB genome to produce insect-resistant GM maize BT-38. The food safety assessment of the BT-38 maize was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 90-days feeding study. We incorporated maize grains from BT-38 and H99 × Hi IIB into rodent diets at three concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50%) and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. A commercialized rodent diet was fed to an additional group as control group. Body weight, feed consumption and toxicological response variables were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. Moreover, detection of residual Cry1Ac-M protein in the serum of rats fed with GM maize was conducted. No death or adverse effects were observed in the current feeding study. No adverse differences in the values of the response variables were observed between rats that consumed diets containing GM maize BT-38 and non-GM maize H99 × Hi IIB. No detectable Cry1Ac-M protein was found in the serum of rats after feeding diets containing GM maize for 3 months. The results demonstrated that BT-38 maize is as safe as conventional non-GM maize.

  10. Improving the Predictive Validity of the Draw-A-Man Test as a Screening Device for School Readiness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simner, Marvin L.

    An item analysis of Harris' scoring system for the Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test was conducted by comparing sets of protocols obtained in the early fall of kindergarten from children whose overall in-class academic performance placed them either in an at-risk category (N=21) or at the top of their class (N=38) by the end of the school year.…

  11. Preliminary geochemical and physical testing of materials for plugging of man-made accesses to a repository in basalt

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, C.L.; Anttonen, G.J.; O'Rourke, J.E.; Allirot, D.

    1980-04-01

    The available data on environmental conditions (both natural and man-made) at the Hanford Site are sufficient for preconceptual plug system design. Results of the geochemical testing program indicate that preferred candidate plug materials are chemically nonreactive during laboratory tests that simulated some of the expected environmental conditions. Agitated, crushed-basalt samples and mixtures containing basalt were found to be self-cementing under the hydrothermal conditions. Materials considered most suitable for consideration in future test programs and preconceptual plug design are mixtures of natural materials (basalt, clay, glaciofluvial sand, gravel, and zeolite) and processed natural materials (portland cement Type V and grouts plus additives).

  12. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or ‘minor’ stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Background Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ‘minor’ stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. Aim To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. Design and setting The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Method Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. Results A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. Conclusion There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. PMID:27919935

  13. A functional variant in the 3ˈ-UTR of VEGF predicts the 90-day outcome of ischemic stroke in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Weng, Yingfeng; Wang, Yujie; Wu, Hui; Li, Xia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shengyue

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays critical roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, which are associated with post-stroke functional recovery. However, the effects of the VEGFA polymorphisms on the outcome of ischemic stroke (IS) have been rarely reported. We therefore investigated the associations of +936C/T variant (rs3025039) with the susceptibilities and the 90-day outcomes from 494 IS patients and 337 healthy controls in Chinese population through the establishment of logistic multivariate regression model. Stroke severity at admission and outcome of 90 days were respectively assessed according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. The analysis showed that there were no significant associations of the rs3025039 genotypes with the susceptibility (P = 0.229) and the severity (P = 0.734). However, when we divided the 308 IS patients into two groups according to the different outcomes, we found that the rs3025039 TC+TT genotype significantly increased the risk of poor recovery [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–3.37]. Interestingly, we observed another 3ˈUTR variant, +1451C/T (rs3025040), exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1.0) with +936C/T and was located in a predicted microRNA-binding site. The rs3025040 T allele significantly decreased the luciferase activities in four cell lines, which indicated a potential disruption of the miRNA-mRNA interaction that would result in lower VEGF expression levels. Our data suggested that the +936C/T variants significantly increased the risk of poorer stroke outcome by affecting the bindings of miR-199a and miR-199b to VEGF mRNA at the rs30250340 polymorphic site. PMID:28234972

  14. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of Swedish Biofuel Alcohol-to-Jet (ATJ) Synthetic Kerosene with Aromatics (SPA) in Rats with Neurotoxicity Testing and Genotoxicity Assay

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    concentration in the 700 or 2000 mg/m3 exposure groups. No indications of changes in reproductive health were found when vaginal cytology and sperm...deemed biologically significant. As an indicator of reproductive health, vaginal cytology was assessed during week 9 of exposure and sperm count...endpoints assessed were neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and genotoxicity. 4 Distribution Statement A. Approved for public release

  15. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  16. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  17. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study.

  18. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  19. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations).

    PubMed

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Radovsky, Ann; Shinohara, Motoki

    2009-06-01

    Possible toxic effects of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were evaluated when administered orally by gavage to rats at levels up to 200mg/kg/day for 90 days. Lower body weight gains were noted in the 10, 50 and 200mg/kg/day group males (not dose-responsive) throughout dosing. Other changes included lower red blood cell parameters, higher reticulocyte counts and lower globulin in the 200mg/kg/day group males and females, higher liver enzymes in males at 50 and 200mg/kg/day, lower total protein and higher albumin/globulin ratio, and lower cholesterol, calcium in males at 200mg/kg/day. Minimal centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was present in 200mg/kg/day group males and correlated with higher liver weights and slightly higher peroxisome beta oxidation activity at the end of the dosing period. Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females.

  20. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  1. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Yanfang; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-07-01

    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have carried out a useful exploration to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by metabonomics methods. In this study, the rats were fed for 90 days with the GM and NON-GM rice diets. The changes in metabolites of the urine were detected using (1)H-NMR. The metabonomics were analyzed to see whether the GM rice can induce the metabolite changes in the rats' urine when compared with the NON-GM rice group. The multivariate analysis and ANOVA were used to determine the differences and the significance of differences respectively, and eventually we concluded that these differences did not have a biological significance. The conclusion of the metabonomics was comparable with that from the traditional method. As a non-invasive and dynamic monitoring method, metabonomics will be a new way of assessing the food safety of GM foods.

  2. Assessment of the reporting of quality and outcome measures in hepatic resections: a call for 90-day reporting in all hepatectomy series

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E; Ohlendorf, Joanna M; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the current state of quality and outcomes measures being reported for hepatic resections in the recent literature. Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for English language articles published between 1 January 2002 and 30 April 2013. Two examiners reviewed each article and relevant citations for appropriateness of inclusion, which excluded papers of liver donor hepatic resections, repeat hepatectomies or meta-analyses. Data were extracted and summarized by two examiners for analysis. Results Fifty-five studies were identified with suitable reporting to assess peri-operative mortality in hepatic resections. In only 35% (19/55) of the studies was the follow-up time explicitly stated, and in 47% (26/55) of studies peri-operative mortality was limited to in-hospital or 30 days. The time period in which complications were captured was not explicitly stated in 19 out of 28 studies. The remaining studies only captured complications within 30 days of the index operation (8/28). There was a paucity of quality literature addressing truly patient-centred outcomes. Conclusion Quality outcomes after a hepatic resection are inconsistently reported in the literature. Quality outcome studies for a hepatectomy should report mortality and morbidity at a minimum of 90 days after surgery. PMID:26228262

  3. F-16 Simulator for Man-in-the-Loop Testing of Aircraft Control Systems (SIMTACS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    AD-4199 675 F-16 SIMULA TR FOR MAN-JN-THE- JO TTI M? OF AIRCR"F7 L/2 CONTROL M IS (SjMTAC~ )(U) AHOFQC IN T OFT0 UNCLASSIFIED DE 8 A FJ7CTI 3NCKO7O...OF GNI. 4 HLS 󈧨 - Il1.8 IIIIi .25 1.4 1.6 MICROCOPY RESOLUTION T ES r CHART --- .- u,...,n..nmmnmmna,.,mn mmi ihh’nunan immii u N: 9 It ILL 0...belief in my ability to accomplish this task. Acce slon For t NTIS3 FA&I ti :’ ’,. u " ii jj... W\\i U t At .. .. ..) Page Preface

  4. Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 07-2-033 Weaponized Manned/Unmanned Aircraft

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-14

    1.2 Airworthiness Releases. Airworthiness Releases may require some or all of the following: a. All software on the aircraft/rotorcraft...sub-tests including hardware component testing, software testing, data link/communications testing, range safety testing, and flight tests. TOP 07-1...machine interface (HMI). Particular attention should be given to the operator interface for the weapons release function. d. Hardware and software

  5. Ethnic differences in the Goodenough-Harris draw-a-man and draw-a-woman tests.

    PubMed

    Dugdale, A E; Chen, S T

    1979-11-01

    The draw-a-man (DAM) and draw-a-woman (DAW) tests were given to 307 schoolchildren in Petaling Jaya, Malaysia. The children were ethnically Malay, Chinese, or Indian (Tamil), and all came from lower socioeconomic groups. The standard scores of the Chinese children averaged 118 in the DAM and 112 in the DAW tests. These scores were significantly better than the American standards. Malay children scored significantly lower than Chinese, and Tamil children scored lower again. The nutritional status of the children had no influence on the scores. Chinese and Tamil children scored better in the DAM than the DAW, while in Malay boys the reverse was true. Malay children tended to emphasise clothing in the DAM, but Chinese and Tamil children scored better on items relating to facial features and body proportions. The Goodenough-Harris draw-a-person tests are obviously not culture-free, but the causes of ethnic differences have not been elucidated.

  6. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  7. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  8. Results of a 90-day toxicity study on 1,2,3- and 1,1,2-trichloropropane administered via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, D C; Chu, I; Secours, V E; Coté, M G; Plaa, G L; Valli, V E

    1985-12-01

    Trichloropropanes have been identified as environmental contaminants in sediments of the Great Lakes region of North America. Since these chemicals had the potential to find their way into drinking water, a 90-day feeding study was carried out in order to determine their subchronic toxicity. Groups of 10 male and 10 female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied drinking water ad libitum, containing 1,2,3- or 1,1,2-trichloropropane at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L for 13 weeks. Emulphor (0.5%) was used to solubilize the chemicals. At the end of the study, the animals were killed and examined for gross and microscopic changes. Heart, liver, brain, kidney and spleen were excised and weighed. Blood was collected and subjected to a comprehensive hematological analysis. Serum was collected and profiled for changes in 12 biochemical parameters and a portion of liver was used to determined mixed function oxidase activity. Although three animals died during the study, their deaths could not be related to treatment. Decreased growth rate was observed in both sexes of the group receiving 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. There was an increase in liver, kidney and brain weights (relative to body weight) in rats of both sexes fed 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Fatty livers were observed in some of the treated animals but a clear dose-relationship was not evident. An elevation in serum cholesterol was observed in female rats fed the highest dose of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F.

  10. The Orion Atmosphere Revitalization Technology in Manned Ambient Pressure Space Suit Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Amy; Sweterlitsch, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    An amine-based carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapor sorbent in pressure-swing regenerable beds has been developed by Hamilton Sundstrand and baselined for the Atmosphere Revitalization System (ARS) for moderate duration missions of the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle. The Orion ARS is designed to support not only open-cabin operations, tests of which have been reported in previous years at this conference, but also closed space suit-loop operations. A previous low-pressure suit loop test was performed with a human metabolic simulator, and humans wearing emergency masks were tested in a closed-loop configuration before that. In late 2011, simple tests were performed in a suit-loop configuration with human test subjects in prototype space suits with prototype umbilicals at ambient and two slightly above-ambient pressures. Trace contaminant filters and a prototype blower were also incorporated into the test rig. This paper discusses the performance of the ARS technology in that 2011 test configuration.

  11. Developmental Testing of Electric Thrust Vector Control Systems for Manned Launch Vehicle Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bates, Lisa B.; Young, David T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes recent developmental testing to verify the integration of a developmental electromechanical actuator (EMA) with high rate lithium ion batteries and a cross platform extensible controller. Testing was performed at the Thrust Vector Control Research, Development and Qualification Laboratory at the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center. Electric Thrust Vector Control (ETVC) systems like the EMA may significantly reduce recurring launch costs and complexity compared to heritage systems. Electric actuator mechanisms and control requirements across dissimilar platforms are also discussed with a focus on the similarities leveraged and differences overcome by the cross platform extensible common controller architecture.

  12. Man-computer Inactive Data Access System (McIDAS). [design, development, fabrication, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A technical description is given of the effort to design, develop, fabricate, and test the two dimensional data processing system, McIDAS. The system has three basic sections: an access and data archive section, a control section, and a display section. Areas reported include hardware, system software, and applications software.

  13. Design, fabrication and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The wet oxidation of sewage sludge during space flight was studied for water and gas recovery, and the elimination of overboard venting. The components of the system are described. Slurry and oxygen supply modules were fabricated and tested. Recommendations for redesign of the equipment are included.

  14. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  15. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  16. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  17. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  18. 42 CFR 84.163 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes; test requirements. 84.163 Section 84.163 Public Health PUBLIC... RELATED ACTIVITIES APPROVAL OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTIVE DEVICES Supplied-Air Respirators § 84.163 Man test for gases and vapors; Type C supplied-air respirators, demand and pressure-demand classes;...

  19. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  20. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  1. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  2. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  3. 42 CFR 84.162 - Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Man test for gases and vapors; Type C respirators, continuous-flow class and Type CE supplied-air respirators; test requirements. 84.162 Section 84.162 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RESEARCH AND RELATED ACTIVITIES...

  4. Comparison of TaqMan® Array Card and MYCOTB™ with conventional phenotypic susceptibility testing in MDR-TB

    PubMed Central

    Foongladda, S.; Banu, S.; Pholwat, S.; Gratz, J.; O-Thong, S.; Nakkerd, N.; Chinli, R.; Ferdous, S. S.; Rahman, S. M. M.; Rahman, A.; Ahmed, S.; Heysell, S.; Sariko, M.; Kibiki, G.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY BACKGROUND: Although phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) is endorsed as the standard for second-line drug testing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, it is slow and laborious. METHODS: We evaluated the accuracy of two faster, easier methodologies that provide results for multiple drugs: a genotypic TaqMan® Array Card (TAC) and the Sensititre® MYCOTB™ plate. Both methods were tested at three central laboratories in Bangladesh, Tanzania, and Thailand with 212 multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates and compared with the laboratories' phenotypic method in use. RESULTS: The overall accuracy for ethambutol, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, ofloxacin, and moxifloxacin vs. the phenotypic standard was 87% for TAC (range 70–99) and 88% for the MYCOTB plate (range 76–98). To adjudicate discordances, we re-defined the standard as the consensus of the three methods, against which the TAC and MYCOTB plate yielded 94–95% accuracy, while the phenotypic result yielded 93%. Some isolates with genotypic mutations and high minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were phenotypically susceptible, and some isolates without mutations and low MIC were phenotypically resistant, questioning the phenotypic standard. CONCLUSIONS: In our view, the TAC, the MYCOTB plate, and the conventional phenotypic method have similar performance for second-line drugs; however, the former methods offer speed, throughput, and quantitative DST information. PMID:27393547

  5. Re-Design and Beat Testing of the Man-Machine Integration Design and Analysis System: MIDAS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shively, R. Jay; Rutkowski, Michael (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Man-machine Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) is a human factors design and analysis system that combines human cognitive models with 3D CAD models and rapid prototyping and simulation techniques. MIDAS allows designers to ask 'what if' types of questions early in concept exploration and development prior to actual hardware development. The system outputs predictions of operator workload, situational awareness and system performance as well as graphical visualization of the cockpit designs interacting with models of the human in a mission scenario. Recently, MIDAS was re-designed to enhance functionality and usability. The goals driving the redesign include more efficient processing, GUI interface, advances in the memory structures, implementation of external vision models and audition. These changes were detailed in an earlier paper. Two Beta test sites with diverse applications have been chosen. One Beta test site is investigating the development of a new airframe and its interaction with the air traffic management system. The second Beta test effort will investigate 3D auditory cueing in conjunction with traditional visual cueing strategies including panel-mounted and heads-up displays. The progress and lessons learned on each of these projects will be discussed.

  6. Straw man 900-1000 GeV crystal extraction test beam for Fermilab collider operation

    SciTech Connect

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.

    1996-10-01

    A design for a 900-1000 GeV, 100 khz parasitic test beam for use during collider operations has been developed. The beam makes use of two bent crystals, one for extraction and the other one for redirecting the beam in to the present Switchyard beam system. The beam requires only a few modifications in the A0 area and largely uses existing devices. It should be straight-forward to modify one or two beam lines in the fixed target experimental areas to work above 800 GeV. Possibilities for improvements to the design,to operate at higher fluxes are discussed.

  7. Starch absorption by healthy man evaluated by lactulose hydrogen breath test.

    PubMed

    Flourié, B; Florent, C; Etanchaud, F; Evard, D; Franchisseur, C; Rambaud, J C

    1988-01-01

    The amounts of hydrogen produced from starch and lactulose were compared to assess the accuracy of the hydrogen breath test with lactulose as standard to quantify starch malabsorption. The mean amounts of hydrogen produced from starch and lactulose were not different in fecal homogenates and in breath excretion after carbohydrate infusions into the cecum. Known amounts of starch infused into the cecum of 18 subjects were compared with amounts calculated from the total excess excretion of hydrogen in breath computed in relation to hydrogen production after the ingestion of 10 g lactulose; calculated amounts were 3.6 +/- 1.0, 9.9 +/- 1.3, and 22.0 +/- 3.4 g for the infusion of 5, 10, and 25 g of starch, respectively. The lactulose hydrogen breath test based on total excess hydrogen volume provides a valid measurement of the mean amount of starch metabolized in the colon in a group of subjects. However, large individual variations preclude its use in a given subject.

  8. Technology evaluation of man-rated acceleration test equipment for vestibular research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taback, I.; Kenimer, R. L.; Butterfield, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    The considerations for eliminating acceleration noise cues in horizontal, linear, cyclic-motion sleds intended for both ground and shuttle-flight applications are addressed. the principal concerns are the acceleration transients associated with change in direction-of-motion for the carriage. The study presents a design limit for acceleration cues or transients based upon published measurements for thresholds of human perception to linear cyclic motion. The sources and levels for motion transients are presented based upon measurements obtained from existing sled systems. The approaches to a noise-free system recommends the use of air bearings for the carriage support and moving-coil linear induction motors operating at low frequency as the drive system. Metal belts running on air bearing pulleys provide an alternate approach to the driving system. The appendix presents a discussion of alternate testing techniques intended to provide preliminary type data by means of pendulums, linear motion devices and commercial air bearing tables.

  9. 'No man is an island'. Testing the specific role of social isolation in formal thought disorder.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Paulo; Spray, Amy; Sellwood, William; Bentall, Richard P

    2015-12-15

    Recent work has focused on the role of the environment in psychosis with emerging evidence that specific psychotic experiences are associated with specific types of adversity. One risk factor that has been often associated with psychosis is social isolation, with studies identifying isolation as an important feature of prodromal psychosis and others reporting that social networks of psychotic patients are smaller and less dense than those of healthy individuals. In the present study, we tested a prediction that social isolation would be specifically associated with formal thought disorder. 80 patients diagnosed with psychosis-spectrum disorder and 30 healthy participants were assessed for formal thought disorder with speech samples acquired during an interview that promoted personal disclosure and an interview targeting everyday topics. Social isolation was significantly associated with formal thought disorder in the neutral interview and in the salient interview, even when controlling for comorbid hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness. Hallucinations, delusions and suspiciousness were not associated with social isolation when formal thought disorder was controlled for. Formal thought disorder is robustly and specifically associated with social isolation. Social cognitive mechanisms and processes are discussed which may explain this relationship as well as implications for clinical practice and future research.

  10. Application of receiver-operator analysis to diagnostic tests of iron deficiency in man.

    PubMed

    Kim, I; Pollitt, E; Leibel, R L; Viteri, F E; Alvarez, E

    1984-09-01

    The objective of the present report is to demonstrate the use of receiver-operator characteristics (ROC) analysis in the selection of diagnostic tests for iron deficiency in a specific population. Conventional ROC curves were prepared with true positive fraction (TPF) and false positive fraction (FPF) determined by the application of different cut-off points for four indicators of iron status. ROC plots were then transformed into normal deviate scales. The advantages of Gaussian transformation of TPF and FPF when underlying decision functions are normally distributed are: the ROC curve is a straight line; and the separation between the two distributions and shape of these distributions can be simply quantitated as intercepts and slopes. In the present study, pretreatment hemoglobin concentration was the most robust diagnostic indicator of iron deficiency as operationally defined by a response of hemoglobin to iron treatment. Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin was a more sensitive and specific predictor than either serum ferritin or transferin saturation when a stringent operational definition of iron deficiency was used. These findings illustrate the utility of ROC analysis in discriminating between diagnostic indicators having different degrees of accuracy.

  11. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 4: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ee Tsin; Kogel, Ulrike; Veljkovic, Emilija; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Gregory; Leroy, Patrice; Guedj, Emmanuel; Rodrigo, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The objective of the study was to characterize the toxicity from sub-chronic inhalation of test atmospheres from the candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), Tobacco Heating System version 2.2 (THS2.2), and to compare it with that of the 3R4F reference cigarette. A 90-day nose-only inhalation study on Sprague-Dawley rats was performed, combining classical and systems toxicology approaches. Reduction in respiratory minute volume, degree of lung inflammation, and histopathological findings in the respiratory tract organs were significantly less pronounced in THS2.2-exposed groups compared with 3R4F-exposed groups. Transcriptomics data obtained from nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma showed concentration-dependent differential gene expression following 3R4F exposure that was less pronounced in the THS2.2-exposed groups. Molecular network analysis showed that inflammatory processes were the most affected by 3R4F, while the extent of THS2.2 impact was much lower. Most other toxicological endpoints evaluated did not show exposure-related effects. Where findings were observed, the effects were similar in 3R4F- and THS2.2-exposed animals. In summary, toxicological changes observed in the respiratory tract organs of THS2.2 aerosol-exposed rats were much less pronounced than in 3R4F-exposed rats while other toxicological endpoints either showed no exposure-related effects or were comparable to what was observed in the 3R4F-exposed rats.

  12. The Performance of American Indian Children on the Draw-A-Man Test. National Study of American Indian Education, Series III, No. 2, Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levensky, Kay

    As a part of the National Study of American Indian Education, this document reports on 1700 American Indian primary school children (representing 14 tribal groups and 12 states) who were administered the Goodenough Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) as a measure of mental alertness. A comparison is given of the Indian and white children's scores. It appears…

  13. Quantification of hepatitis C virus in patients treated with peginterferon-alfa 2a plus ribavirin treatment by COBAS TaqMan HCV test.

    PubMed

    Kanda, T; Imazeki, F; Yonemitsu, Y; Mikami, S; Takada, N; Nishino, T; Takashi, M; Tsubota, A; Kato, K; Sugiura, N; Tawada, A; Wu, S; Tanaka, T; Nakamoto, S; Mikata, R; Tada, M; Chiba, T; Kurihara, T; Arai, M; Fujiwara, K; Kanai, F; Yokosuka, O

    2011-07-01

    Extremely low levels of serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA can be detected by COBAS TaqMan HCV test. To investigate whether the COBAS TaqMan HCV test is useful for measuring rapid virological response (RVR) and early virological response (EVR) to predict sustained virological response (SVR), we compared the virological response to PEG-IFN-alfa 2a plus RBV in 76 patients infected with HCV genotype 1 when undetectable HCV RNA by the COBAS TaqMan HCV test was used, with those when below 1.7 log IU/mL HCV RNA by COBAS TaqMan HCV test was used, which corresponded to the use of traditional methods. Among the 76 patients, 28 (36.8%) had SVR, 13 (17.1%) relapsed, 19 (25.0%) did not respond, and 16 (21.0%) discontinued the treatment due to side effects. The positive predictive values for SVR based on undetectable HCV RNA by COBAS TaqMan HCV test at 24 weeks after the end of treatment [10/10 (100%) at week 4, 21/23 (91.3%) at week 8 and 26/33 (78.7%) at week 12] were superior to those based on <1.7 log IU/mL HCV RNA [17/19 (89.4%) at week 4, 27/38 (71.0%) at week 8, and 27/43 (62.7%) at week 12]. The negative predictive values for SVR based on <1.7 log IU/mL HCV RNA by COBAS TaqMan HCV test [46/57 (80.7%) at week 4, 37/38 (97.3%) at week 8, and 32/33 (96.9%) at week 12] were superior to those based on undetectable HCV RNA [48/66 (72.7%) at week 4, 46/53 (86.7%) at week 8, and 41/43 (95.3%) at week 12]. The utilization of both undetectable RNA and <1.7 log IU/mL HCV RNA by COBAS TaqMan HCV test is useful and could predict SVR and non-SVR patients with greater accuracy.

  14. Design and manufacture of wheels for a dual-mode (manned - automatic) lunar surface roving vehicle. Volume 2: Proposed test plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    A developmental test plan for the wheel and wheel drive assembly of the dual-mode (manned/automated) lunar surface roving vehicle is presented. The tests cover performance, as well as critical environmental characteristics. Insofar as practical, the environmental conditions imposed will be in the sequence expected during the hardware's life from storage through the lunar mission. Test procedures are described for static load deflection and endurance tests. Soft soil tests to determine mobility characteristics including drawbar-pull and thrust vs slip, and motion resistance for various wheel loads are also discussed. Test designs for both ambient and thermal vacuum conditions are described. Facility, transducer, and instrumentation requirements are outlined.

  15. Toxicological Study No. 75-51-YJ81-93, 4-Amino-2-Nitrotoluene (4A2NT) Oral Approximate Lethal Dose 14-day Range Finding 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies in Rats, August 1991-November 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    NOVEMBER 1993 1. PURPOSE. The oral approximate lethal dose study was conducted todetennine an approximate dosage range at which to begin the 14-day...5000 mg/Kg. The 14-day range fmding study suggested a probable compound related effect in the薘~m (high dose ) exposure groups of both sexes and a...possible compound related effect mIlle 1000 ppm (middle dose ) exposure groups of both sexes. An NOAEL was not established for the 90-day subchronic

  16. Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2003-12-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body

  17. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  18. Safety evaluation of AB-LIFE(®) (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529): Antibiotic resistance and 90-day repeated-dose study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Stahl, Buffy; Smith, Amy B; Burns, Frank; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Yeung, Nicolas; Lyra, Anna; Svärd, Laura; Saarinen, Markku T; Alhoniemi, Esa; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-06-01

    AB-LIFE(®) is a probiotic product consisting of equal parts of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, 7528, and 7529) blended with inert excipients. Whole genome sequencing was performed on each of the three strains. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by genomic mining for resistance genes, and assessment for transferability. No risk of transfer potential was identified for any antibiotic resistance genes in the three strains. AB-LIFE(®) was evaluated for potential subchronic oral toxicity in rats, with dosages of 300 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day (equivalent to 5.55 × 10(10) and 1.85 × 10(11) CFU/kg BW/day). Survival of the three test strains through the gastrointestinal tract was supported by fecal analysis. No adverse effects were identified with respect to in-life parameters, clinical or anatomic pathology, translocation, or fecal chemical analyses. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AB-LIFE(®) in male and female rats was 1000 mg/kg BW/day (1.85 × 10(11) CFU of AB-LIFE(®)/kg BW/day), the highest dose level evaluated. These results, in conjunction with a previous acute toxicity study in rats, support the conclusion that AB-LIFE(®) is safe for human consumption.

  19. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Whittaker, Margaret H; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  20. Rocket man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklake, John

    2008-06-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, Wernher von Braun was famous as the man who led the West's journey into space. Some also remember him as the German engineer who developed the V-2 missile that bombarded Antwerp and London at the end of the Second World War. However, many still celebrate Von Braun, who died in 1977, as the man who put the astronauts on the Moon. While this is not strictly true, there is no doubt that Von Braun was one of the most influential engineers, lobbyists and personalities in the Moon-landing project.

  1. Origin of Man: Problems in the Interpretation of New Evidence. Test Edition. AAAS Study Guides on Contemporary Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almquist, Alan J.; Cronin, John E.

    This is one of several study guides on contemporary problems produced by the American Association for the Advancement of Science with support of the National Science Foundation. This guide focuses on the origin of man. Part I, The Biochemical Evidence for Human Evolution, contains four sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Macromolecular Data; (3)…

  2. System Level spatial-frequency EEG changes coincident with a 90-day cognitive-behavioral therapy program for couples in relationship distress.

    PubMed

    DuRousseau, Donald R; Beeton, Theresa A

    2015-09-01

    Evaluating relationship intervention programs traditionally involves the use of self-report surveys or observational studies to assess changes in behavior. Instead, to investigate intervention-related changes in behavior, our study evaluates spatial-frequency electroencephalography (EEG) patterns from the brains of couples participating in an Imago Relationship workshop and 12 weeks of group counseling sessions lasting approximately 90 days. This explorative study recorded 32-channel EEGs from nine committed distressed couples prior to, during and immediately following the Imago Relationship Therapy program. A repeated measures t-Test approach was applied to investigate if significant group level brain pattern changes could be identified in key resting state networks in the brains of the participants that could be correlated with changes in relationship outcome. The study results show that significant reductions in EEG power in the alpha2, beta3 and gamma bands were evident in the averaged brain activity in the pre-frontal, frontal and temporal-parietal cortices that are anatomically associated with the frontal executive, default mode and salience networks of the human brain. Our current understanding of system level neural connectivity and network dynamics strongly indicates that each of these systems is integrally required in learning and implementing a complex communication process taught in the Imago intervention. Thus, a high degree of hemispheric lateralization is consistent with our understanding of language function and mood regulation in the brain and is consistent with recent research into the use of resting frontal EEG asymmetry as an indicator of behavioral changes in distressed couples undergoing a program for relationship improvement. Although preliminary, these results further indicate that the EEG is an inexpensive and easily quantifiable measure, and possibly predictor, of behavioral changes in response to a cognitive behavioral intervention.

  3. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  4. Warm Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Direct Antiglobulin Testing With a False-Negative Result in a 53-Year-Old Man: The DAT Will Set You Free.

    PubMed

    Losos, Michael; Hamad, Diane; Joshi, Sarita; Scrape, Scott; Chen, Jian

    2016-08-01

    Warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia (WAIHA), the most common of the relatively uncommon autoimmune-mediated hemolytic anemias (AIHAs), is mediated by polyclonal immunoglobulin (Ig)G autoantibodies in most cases. Herein, we present a case of WAIHA involving a direct antiglobulin test (DAT) with an initially negative result. Using a modified DAT protocol, repeat testing of the same specimen material from a previously healthy 53-year-old man yielded positive results. This case demonstrates that investigation of an apparently negative DAT result plays a critical role in the differential diagnosis of patients with rapidly progressing hemolytic anemia and the reversal of that decline.

  5. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet.

  6. Bat white-nose syndrome: a real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction test targeting the intergenic spacer region of Geomyces destructanstructans.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muller, Laura K.; Lorch, Jeffrey M.; Lindner, Daniel L.; O'Connor, Michael; Gargas, Andrea; Blehert, David S.

    2013-01-01

    The fungus Geomyces destructans is the causative agent of white-nose syndrome (WNS), a disease that has killed millions of North American hibernating bats. We describe a real-time TaqMan PCR test that detects DNA from G. destructans by targeting a portion of the multicopy intergenic spacer region of the rRNA gene complex. The test is highly sensitive, consistently detecting as little as 3.3 fg of genomic DNA from G. destructans. The real-time PCR test specifically amplified genomic DNA from G. destructans but did not amplify target sequence from 54 closely related fungal isolates (including 43 Geomyces spp. isolates) associated with bats. The test was further qualified by analyzing DNA extracted from 91 bat wing skin samples, and PCR results matched histopathology findings. These data indicate the real-time TaqMan PCR method described herein is a sensitive, specific, and rapid test to detect DNA from G. destructans and provides a valuable tool for WNS diagnostics and research.

  7. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 2: Simulation requirements. Appendix A: Open cherry picker development test articles specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A manned remote work station (MRWS) mission scenario, broken down into the three time phases was selected as the basis for analysis of the MRWS flight article requirements and concepts. The mission roles for the three time phases, supporting tradeoff and evaluation studies, was used to identify key issues requiring simulation. The MRWS is discussed in terms of its capability to perform such operations as support of Spacelab experiments, servicing and repair of satellites, and construction. Future considerations for the use of the MRWS are also given.

  8. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Harris, Mark A.; Haws, Laurie C.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC{sub 50} values < 10 mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation. Highlights: ► Mouse small intestine gene expression is highly responsive to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. ► Cr(VI) elicits more differential gene expression after 7 days of exposure than 90 days of exposure. ► Oral exposure to Cr(VI) leads to

  9. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Anna K; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Proctor, Deborah M; Harris, Mark A; Haws, Laurie C; Thompson, Chad M

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose-response modeling identified >80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose-response curves with EC(50) values ranging from 10 to 100mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC(50) values <10mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation.

  10. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science.

  11. Offset-Web-Press Man (print. & pub.), 4-48.033--Technical Report on Development of USES Aptitude Test Battery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. U.S. Training and Employment Service.

    The United States Training and Employment Service General Aptitude Test Battery (GATB), first published in 1947, has been included in a continuing program of research to validate the tests against success in many different occupations. The GATB consists of 12 tests which measure nine aptitudes: General Learning Ability; Verbal Aptitude; Numerical…

  12. Second-generation Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV quantitative test for viral load monitoring: a novel dual-probe assay design.

    PubMed

    Zitzer, Heike; Heilek, Gabrielle; Truchon, Karine; Susser, Simone; Vermehren, Johannes; Sizmann, Dorothea; Cobb, Bryan; Sarrazin, Christoph

    2013-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA viral load (VL) monitoring is a well-established diagnostic tool for the management of chronic hepatitis C patients. HCV RNA VL results are used to make treatment decisions with the goal of therapy to achieve an undetectable VL result. Therefore, a sensitive assay with high specificity in detecting and accurately quantifying HCV RNA across genotypes is critical. Additionally, a lower sample volume requirement is desirable for the laboratory and the patient. This study evaluated the performance characteristics of a second-generation real-time PCR assay, the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV quantitative test, version 2.0 (CAP/CTM HCV test, v2.0), designed with a novel dual-probe approach and an optimized automated extraction and amplification procedure. The new assay demonstrated a limit of detection and lower limit of quantification of 15 IU/ml across all HCV genotypes and was linear from 15 to 100,000,000 IU/ml with high accuracy (<0.2-log(10) difference) and precision (standard deviation of 0.04 to 0.22 log(10)). A specificity of 100% was demonstrated with 600 HCV-seronegative specimens without cross-reactivity or interference. Correlation to the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HCV test (version 1) was good (n = 412 genotype 1 to 6 samples, R(2) = 0.88; R(2) = 0.94 without 105 genotype 4 samples). Paired plasma and serum samples showed similar performance (n = 25, R(2) = 0.99). The sample input volume was reduced from 1 to 0.65 ml in the second version. The CAP/CTM HCV test, v2.0, demonstrated excellent performance and sensitivity across all HCV genotypes with a smaller sample volume. The new HCV RNA VL assay has performance characteristics that make it suitable for use with currently available direct-acting antiviral agents.

  13. Test results of six-month test of two water electrolysis systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, E. S.; Wells, G. W.

    1972-01-01

    The two water electrolysis systems used in the NASA space station simulation 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system were refurbished as required and subjected to 26-weeks of testing. The two electrolysis units are both promising systems for oxygen and hydrogen generation and both needed extensive long-term testing to evaluate the performance of the respective cell design and provide guidance for further development. Testing was conducted to evaluate performance in terms of current, pressure, variable oxygen demands, and orbital simulation. An automatic monitoring system was used to record, monitor and printout performance data at one minute, ten minute or one-hour intervals. Performance data is presented for each day of system operation for each module used during the day. Failures are analyzed, remedial action taken to eliminate problems is discussed and recommendations for redesign for future space applications are stated.

  14. A review of cryogenic testing performed by the thermochemical test branch, Manned Spacecraft Center in support of Apollo 13 and14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Propp, C. E.; Mcgee, J. M.

    1971-01-01

    The Apollo 13 anomaly provided considerable impetus for a variety of types of cryogenic and ignition tests. The logic of the various test program designs, the test techniques, and their final impact upon the investigation findings are described. In addition, several test programs initiated to determine the thermal performance and general performance characteristics of the redesigned Apollo 14 cryogenic storage system are presented.

  15. C.E.B.A.S. mini module: Test results of an artificial (man-made) aquatic ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blüm, V.; Kreuzberg, K.; Stretzke, E.

    1994-11-01

    The original Closed Equilibrated Biological Aquatic System (C.E.B.A.S.) is a long-term multi-generation research facility for experiments with aquatic animals and plants in a space station the development of which is surrounded by a large international scientific program. In addition, a miniaturized laboratory prototype, the C.E.B.A.S. MINI MODULE, with a total volume of about 10 - 12 liters for a Spacelab middeck locker was developed and a first version was tested successfully for two weeks with a population of fishes (Xiphophorus helleri) in the animal tank and a Ceratophyllum spec. in the illuminated higher plant growth chamber. The water recycling system consisted of a bacteria filter and a mechanical filter and the silastic tubing gas exchanger was separated by valves for the utilization in emergency cases only. Data were collected with the acquisition module of the original C.E.B.A.S. process control system. In addition, an optimized version was tested for 7 weeks with fishes and plants and thereafter with fish and with plants only for 2 and 1 weeks, resp.. The paper presents the relevant water parameters (e. g., pH, pressure, temperature, oxygen saturation, flow rate, ion concentrations) during the test period as well as morphological and physiological data of the enclosed animals and plants. On the basis of the given results the possible role of the C.E.B.A.S. system as a scientific tool in artificial ecosystem research and for the development of a combined animal-plant intensive aquaculture system and its utilization in bioregenerative life support is discussed.

  16. Comparison of the Xpert MTB/RIF test with an IS6110-TaqMan real-time PCR assay for direct detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in respiratory and nonrespiratory specimens.

    PubMed

    Armand, Sylvie; Vanhuls, Pascale; Delcroix, Guy; Courcol, René; Lemaître, Nadine

    2011-05-01

    The sensitivities of the Xpert MTB/RIF test and an in-house IS6110-based real-time PCR using TaqMan probes (IS6110-TaqMan assay) for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) DNA were compared by use of 117 clinical specimens (97 culture positive and 20 culture negative for MTBC) that were frozen in sediment. The 97 clinical specimens included 60 respiratory and 37 nonrespiratory specimens distributed into 36 smear-positive and 61 smear-negative specimens. Among the 97 culture-positive specimens, 4 had rifampin-resistant isolates. Both methods were highly specific and exhibited excellent sensitivity (100%) with smear-positive specimens. The sensitivity of the Xpert MTB/RIF test with the whole smear-negative specimens was more reduced than that of the IS6110-TaqMan assay (48 versus 69%, P = 0.005). Both methods exhibited similar sensitivities with smear-negative respiratory specimens, but the Xpert MTB/RIF test had lower sensitivity with smear-negative nonrespiratory specimens than the IS6110-TaqMan assay (37 versus 71%, P = 0.013). Finally, the sensitivities of the Xpert MTB/RIF test and the IS6110-TaqMan assay were 79% and 84%, respectively, with respiratory specimens and 53% and 78%, respectively (P = 0.013), with nonrespiratory specimens. The Xpert MTB/RIF test correctly detected the rifampin resistance in smear-positive specimens but not in the one smear-negative specimen. The Xpert MTB/RIF test is a simple rapid method well adapted to a routine laboratory that appeared to be as sensitive as the IS6110-TaqMan assay with respiratory specimens but less sensitive with paucibacillary specimens, such as smear-negative nonrespiratory specimens.

  17. Manned-Unmanned Teaming of Aircraft - Literature Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    25 4.17 Manned Unmanned System Integration Capability ( MUSIC ...25 Table 12. MUSIC Tests...monitored, including the Manned Unmanned Systems Integration Capability ( MUSIC ) demonstration program, the TARANIS testing component of the UK’s Strategic

  18. Manned lunar exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    The objectives, major missions, outlines of the systems, system structures, system configurations of the manned lunar surface site, and manned lunar transportation system are presented. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), pressurized environment conditions, and operation schedule of manned lunar surface site are also outlined. This report is represented in viewgraphs only.

  19. Field evaluation of Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative test for early infant diagnosis using dried blood spots samples in comparison to Roche COBAS Ampliprep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Chang, Joy; Omuomo, Kenneth; Anyango, Emily; Kingwara, Leonard; Basiye, Frank; Morwabe, Alex; Shanmugam, Vedapuri; Nguyen, Shon; Sabatier, Jennifer; Zeh, Clement; Ellenberger, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Timely diagnosis and treatment of infants infected with HIV are critical for reducing infant mortality. High-throughput automated diagnostic tests like Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 Qual Test (Roche CAPCTM Qual) and the Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative (Abbott Qualitative) can be used to rapidly expand early infant diagnosis testing services. In this study, the performance characteristics of the Abbott Qualitative were evaluated using two hundred dried blood spots (DBS) samples (100 HIV-1 positive and 100 HIV-1 negative) collected from infants attending the antenatal facilities in Kisumu, Kenya. The Abbott Qualitative results were compared to the diagnostic testing completed using the Roche CAPCTM Qual in Kenya. The sensitivity and specificity of the Abbott Qualitative were 99.0% (95% CI: 95.0-100.0) and 100.0% (95% CI: 96.0-100.0), respectively, and the overall reproducibility was 98.0% (95% CI: 86.0-100.0). The limits of detection for the Abbott Qualitative and Roche CAPCTM Qual were 56.5 and 6.9copies/mL at 95% CIs (p=0.005), respectively. The study findings demonstrate that the Abbott Qualitative test is a practical option for timely diagnosis of HIV in infants.

  20. A comparison of two West Nile virus detection assays (TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and VecTest antigen assay) during three consecutive outbreaks in northern Illinois.

    PubMed

    Lampman, Richard L; Krasavin, Nina M; Szyska, Michael; Novak, Robert J

    2006-03-01

    Mosquitoes identified as female Culex (Culex) species, primarily mixtures or uniform batches of Culex pipiens and Culex restuans, were collected daily from gravid traps by 2 mosquito abatement districts (MADs) in Cook County, Illinois. From 2002 through 2004, batches (pools) of mosquitoes were tested by the MADs for West Nile virus (WNV) by using VecTest WNV antigen assays and the same samples were retested, usually within 1-2 wk, for WNV RNA by the TaqMan reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). There were 952 TaqMan-positive pools out of 3,953 pools over the 3 years, and about one half of that number were VecTest-positive. The difference between the 2 detection assays varied between and within years. The VecTest assays detected about 57% and 69% of the TaqMan RT-PCR-positive pools from Des Plaines Valley MAD and Northwest MAD in 2002, but only about 40% and 46% in 2003, and 36% and 55% in 2004, respectively. Based on a subset of the 2004 data, a linear relationship was found between VecTest detection of WNV and TaqMan cycle threshold between 18 and 28 cycles. A temporal decrease in the difference between the 2 assays was observed in 2003 and 2004, which we conjecture is due, at least partially, to a seasonal decline in the proportion of recently infected mosquitoes. This trend was not observed in 2002 because infection rates indicated a high likelihood of more than 1 infected mosquito per pool at the peak of transmission. Unlike a previous study, the 95% confidence intervals of infection rates based on the 2 detection methods did not always overlap. The highest infection rates occurred in 2002 when mean monthly temperatures were above average.

  1. Genetic and environmental factors affecting perinatal and preweaning survival of D'man lambs.

    PubMed

    Boujenane, Ismaïl; Chikhi, Abdelkader; Lakcher, Oumaïma; Ibnelbachyr, Mustapha

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the viability of 4,554 D'man lambs born alive at Errachidia research station in south-eastern Morocco between 1988 and 2009. Lamb survival to 1, 10, 30 and 90 days old was 0.95, 0.93, 0.93 and 0.92, respectively. The majority of deaths (85.7%) occurred before 10 days of age. Type and period of birth both had a significant effect on lamb survival traits, whereas age of dam and sex of lamb did not. The study revealed a curvilinear relationship between lamb's birth weight and survival traits from birth to 90 days, with optimal birth weights for maximal perinatal and preweaning survival varying according to type of birth from 2.6 to 3.5 kg. Estimation of variance components, using an animal model including direct and maternal genetic effects, the permanent maternal environment as well as fixed effects, showed that direct and maternal heritability estimates for survival traits between birth and 90 days were mostly low and varied from 0.01 to 0.10; however, direct heritability for survival at 1 day from birth was estimated at 0.63. Genetic correlations between survival traits and birth weight were positive and low to moderate. It was concluded that survival traits of D'man lambs between birth and 90 days could be improved through selection, but genetic progress would be low. However, the high proportion of the residual variance to total variance reinforces the need to improve management and lambing conditions.

  2. Microorganisms and Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information to update Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology No. 111, "Microorganisms and Man," by W. C. Noble and Jay Naidoo (Edward Arnold, 1979). Topics include: (1) food poisoning; (2) airborn infections in man; (3) infection in animals and plants; and (4) biodegradation and biosynthesis. (JN)

  3. Man's Role in Nature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Roger Tory

    1975-01-01

    Presents a viewpoint that the civilized man, the humane man, accepts not only the humane ethic but also the conservationist's philosophy and the environmentalist's point of view because all these views are overlapping, interlocking and essential to a better and more civilized world. (BR)

  4. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  5. Radiation environments and absorbed dose estimations on manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S B; Atwell, W; Beever, R; Hardy, A

    1986-01-01

    In order to make an assessment of radiation risk during manned missions in space, it is necessary first to have as accurate an estimation as possible of the radiation environment within the spacecraft to which the astronauts will be exposed. Then, with this knowledge and the inclusion of body self-shielding, estimations can be made of absorbed doses for various body organs (skin, eye, blood-forming organs, etc.). A review is presented of our present knowledge of the radiation environments and absorbed doses expected for several space mission scenarios selected for our development of the new radiation protection guidelines. The scenarios selected are a 90-day mission at an altitude (450 km) and orbital inclinations (28.5 degrees, 57 degrees and 90 degrees) appropriate for NASA's Space Station, a 15-day sortie to geosynchronous orbit and a 90-day lunar mission. All scenarios chosen yielded dose equivalents between five and ten rem to the blood forming organs if no large solar particle event were encountered. Such particle events could add considerable exposure particularly to the skin and eye for all scenarios except the one at 28.5 degrees orbital inclination.

  6. Manned maneuvering unit latching mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The astronaut/Manned Maneuvering Unit interface, which presented a challenging set of requirements for a latching mechanism, is described. A spring loaded cam segment with variable ratio pulley release actuator was developed to meet the requirements. To preclude jamming of the mechanism, special precautions were taken such as spring loaded bearing points and careful selection of materials to resist cold welding. The mechanism successfully passed a number of tests which partially simulated orbital conditions.

  7. Manned systems technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  8. Filming The Man Hunters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hockings, Paul

    1976-01-01

    "The Man Hunters" is a film about paleoanthropology. This article is a personal account of how the film was put together using anthropological knowledge and numerous anthropologists and how the film was received by the American public. (Author)

  9. Man-systems integration and the man-machine interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems integration and the man-machine interface are presented. Man-systems integration applies the systems' approach to the integration of the user and the machine to form an effective, symbiotic Man-Machine System (MMS). A MMS is a combination of one or more human beings and one or more physical components that are integrated through the common purpose of achieving some objective. The human operator interacts with the system through the Man-Machine Interface (MMI).

  10. Man up Monday: An Integrated Public Health Approach to Increase Sexually Transmitted Infection Awareness and Testing among Male Students at a Midwest University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Elizabeth A.; Eastman-Mueller, Heather P.; Henderson, Scott; Even, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This campaign sought to (a) increase awareness of sexual health and chlamydia testing; (b) motivate students, particularly sexually active men who do not pursue regular sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing, to get tested; and (c) improve the capacity of the student health center to provide free chlamydia testing and treatment…

  11. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    PubMed

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity.

  12. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  13. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  19. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea, lungs, pharynx, larynx, nose. (E..., but not be limited to, evaluation of skin and fur, eyes and mucous membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including...

  20. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  1. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  2. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  3. Evaluation of performances of VERSANT HCV RNA 1.0 assay (kPCR) and Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV test v2.0 at low level viremia.

    PubMed

    Mazzuti, Laura; Lozzi, Maria Antonietta; Riva, Elisabetta; Maida, Paola; Falasca, Francesca; Antonelli, Guido; Turriziani, Ombretta

    2016-07-01

    We assess the concordance between low level HCV values obtained using the VERSANT HCV RNA 1.0 Assay (kPCR) and COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HCV Quantitative Test v2.0. The correlation between the values obtained by the two RT-PCR assays for samples with quantifiable HCV RNA levels revealed that viral load measured by kPCR significantly correlated with that of the CAP/CTM (R=0.644, P<0.0001). The results show a good concordance (n=126/144, 87%); discordant results were mainly observed in the assessment of values below the lower limit of detection of the assays. These variations may have an impact on clinical decisions for patients on HCV triple therapy or interferon- free regimens. It is therefore recommended to monitor individual patients with the same test throughout treatment.

  4. AUTO PARTS MAN, WORKBOOK.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DOVER, BUEL H.

    THE INFORMATION IN THIS STUDY GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED FOR USE IN THE RELATED TECHNICAL CLASSROOM INSTRUCTION PHASE OF THE AUTO PARTS MAN APPRENTICE TRAINING PROGRAM. THE MATERIAL WAS PLANNED UNDER THE DIRECTION OF THE STATE EDUCATIONAL ADVISORY COMMITTEE FOR THE AUTOMOTIVE TRADE. THE UNITS ARE (1) SCOPE AND OPPORTUNITY, (2) AREAS OF RESPONSIBILITY,…

  5. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  6. Eskimo Medicine Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Otto

    "Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer…

  7. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  8. Man as a Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The…

  9. Why Man Explores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication was prepared from a transcript of a panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Missions to Mars. The members of the Why Man Explores panel were selected as authorities in classical disciplines relating to exploration.

  10. Landing A Man Downtown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, W. G., II

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the urban transport problems in comparison with those involved in a journey to the Moon. Indicates that the problem of enabling man to travel through the inner space of conurbations may prove to be more difficult than the transport problem of space travel. (CC)

  11. Ethology and Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biology and Human Affairs, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews four texts and compilations of papers in an effort to assess the relevance of animal behavior studies to anthropology and sociology. Concludes that where a basic element of behavior occurs widely throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the higher mammals and primates, we may expect to find a manifestation in man." Limitations of the…

  12. The Ascent of Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rein, Martin

    1975-01-01

    Miami-Dade Community College (Florida) and the University of California at San Diego have developed an educational package, consisting of a study guide and two books, to complement Jacob Bronowski's"Ascent of Man" series on national television. This educational package allows colleges to offer courses based on the television broadcasts.…

  13. Comparison of the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test v1.0 with v2.0 in HIV-1 viral load quantification.

    PubMed

    Tung, Yi-Ching; Ke, Liang-Yin; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Kuei-Hsiang; Lee, Su-Chen; Lin, Yi-Ying; Chou, Li-Chiu; Tsai, Wen-Chan

    2015-04-01

    Roche modified the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) test version 1.0 (CAP/CTM v1.0), resulting in the COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0). The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of the CAP/CTM v2.0 and to compare this performance with that of the CAP/CTM v1.0. The study was conducted in a small local study group in Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. A total of 86 plasma samples from HIV-1-seropositive patients were tested using the two assays. The correlation and concordance of results between the two assays were calculated. The CAP/CTM v2.0 generated higher values than did the CAP/CTM v1.0, and five samples (5.8%) yielded a difference of > 1 log10 copies/mL. In addition, our data show that CAP/CTM v1.0 and CAP/CTM v2.0 yielded relatively consistent values for 23 samples with low viral loads (< 200 copies/mL). Furthermore, when viral loads were in a medium range (2-5 log10 copies/mL), the results of the two assays were more compatible. This study shows a good correlation between CAP/CTM v1.0 and v2.0 in HIV-1 viral load measurement. Further attention must be paid to those cases in which measured viral loads present larger differences between the two assays.

  14. Quantification of intrahepatic total HBV DNA in liver biopsies of HBV-infected patients by a modified version of COBAS(®) Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0.

    PubMed

    Salpini, Romina; Piermatteo, Lorenzo; Gill, Upkar; Battisti, Arianna; Stazi, Francesca; Guenci, Tania; Giannella, Sara; Serafini, Valentina; Kennedy, Patrick T F; Perno, Carlo Federico; Svicher, Valentina; Ciotti, Marco

    2017-04-11

    Intrahepatic total HBV DNA (it-HBV DNA) level might reflect the size of virus reservoir and correlate with the histological status of the liver. To quantitate it-HBV DNA in a series of 70 liver biopsies obtained from hepatitis B chronic patients, a modified version of the COBAS(®)Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0 was used for this purpose. The linearity and reproducibility of the modified protocol was tested by quantifying serial dilutions of a full-length HBV containing plasmid and it-HBV DNA from a reference patient. A good linear trend between the expected values and those generated by the assay was observed at different concentrations of both plasmid and reference patient (R (2) = 0.994 and 0.962, respectively). Differences between the values obtained in two independent runs were ≤0.3 log IU for the plasmid and ≤0.6 log IU/mg for the reference patient, showing a high inter-run reproducibility. In the 70 liver biopsies, it-HBV DNA level ranged from 1.4 to 5.4 log IU/mg, with a good linearity and reproducibility between the values obtained in two runs [R (2) = 0.981; median (IQR) difference of it-HBV DNA 0.05 (0.02-0.09) IU/mg]. The modified COBAS(®)Ampliprep/COBAS(®)TaqMan HBV test v2.0 allows an accurate quantitation of it-HBV DNA. Its determination may have prognostic value and may be a useful tool for the new therapeutic strategies aimed at eradicating the HBV infection.

  15. An in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction: standardisation and comparison with the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor and Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV tests for the quantification of hepatitis B virus DNA

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Ana Paula de Torres; Levi, José Eduardo; Lemos, Marcilio Figueiredo; Calux, Samira Julien; Oba, Isabel Takano; Moreira, Regina Célia

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to standardise an in-house real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) to allow quantification of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in serum or plasma samples, and to compare this method with two commercial assays, the Cobas Amplicor HBV monitor and the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HBV test. Samples from 397 patients from the state of São Paulo were analysed by all three methods. Fifty-two samples were from patients who were human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C virus positive, but HBV negative. Genotypes were characterised, and the viral load was measure in each sample. The in-house rtPCR showed an excellent success rate compared with commercial tests; inter-assay and intra-assay coefficients correlated with commercial tests (r = 0.96 and r = 0.913, p < 0.001) and the in-house test showed no genotype-dependent differences in detection and quantification rates. The in-house assay tested in this study could be used for screening and quantifying HBV DNA in order to monitor patients during therapy. PMID:26872342

  16. Three synergistic studies: A Manned Lunar Outpost, a Manned Mars Explorer, and an Antarctic Planetary Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The students at the University of Houston College of Architecture undertook three synergistic studies during the 1987-1988 academic year. These studies included a Manned Lunar Outpost, a Manned Mars Explorer Mission, and an Antarctic Planetary Testbed which would provide the necessary data and facilities for testing proposed missions to the Moon, Mars and beyond. All research was based on existing or near-term technology.

  17. Man's future in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Studies evaluating potential operational and commercial uses of space are being conducted, taking into account astronomy, astrophysics, manned bases and laboratories in earth orbit, space colonization, terrestrial communications, space processing and manufacturing, interstellar probes, planetary exploration, and the use of space for terrestrial energy supply. The present status in the exploration of the solar system is examined, giving attention to Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. A brief outline of the development of human colonies on Mars is presented.

  18. Typhoon Man-Yi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Typhoon Man-Yi was pummeling the Japanese island of Okinawa with winds between 230 and 295 kilometers per hour (125-160 knots, 144-184 miles per hour) and heavy rain on the morning of July 13, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. The immense storm covered hundreds of kilometers with spiraling bands of thunderstorms, though it had lost the distinctive cloud-free eye it exhibited the day before. Typhoons are common in Japan, but powerful typhoons usually strike the island nation later in the year. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that Man-Yi is the fourth typhoon of the 2007 season and may be the most powerful ever observed in the northwest Pacific in July, reported Kyodo News. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expected the typhoon to strike Kyushu, a southern Japanese island, on July 14, and then curve northeast along the eastern shore of Japan. By the time the storm reaches Tokyo on July 15, it should be degraded to a tropical storm. As of July 13, Typhoon Man-Yi had injured eight and flooded twenty houses in Okinawa, and forced airlines to cancel hundreds of flights, said Kyodo News. The storm was expected to bring heavy rain to Japan's Pacific coast. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

  19. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  20. Engineered Structured Sorbents for the Adsorption of Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor from Manned Spacecraft Atmospheres: Applications and Testing 2008/2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, David F.; Perry, Jay L.; Knox, James C.; Junaedi, Christian

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes efforts to improve on typical packed beds of sorbent pellets by making use of structured sorbents and alternate bed configurations to improve system efficiency and reliability. The benefits of the alternate configurations include increased structural stability gained by eliminating clay bound zeolite pellets that tend to fluidize and erode, and better thermal control during sorption to increase process efficiency. Test results that demonstrate such improvements are described and presented.

  1. Models of Man in Industrial Relations Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Bruce E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Kaufman attempts to identify essential characteristics that distinguish behavioral from nonbehavioral research in industrial relations. He argues that they are distinguished by the psychological model of man that is contained in the theoretical framework used to deduce or test hypotheses. Comments from Lewin, Mincer, and Cummings with Kaufman's…

  2. The Design and Testing of the LSSIF Advanced Thermal Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henson, Robert A.; Keller, John R.

    1995-01-01

    The Life Support Systems Integration Facility (LSSIF) provides a platform to design and evaluate advanced manned space systems at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The LSSIF Early Human Testing Initiative requires the integration of such subsystems to enable human occupancy of the 6 meter chamber for a 90 day closed volume test. The Advanced Thermal Control System (TCS) is an important component of the integrated system by supplying coolant to the subsystems within the chamber, such as the Air Revitalization System. The TCS incorporates an advanced high efficiency, heat pump to reject waste heat from the chamber to an external sink or 'lift' temperature that emulates a Lunar environment. The heat pump is the High Lift Heat Pump, developed by Foster-Miller, Inc., and is the main test article of the TCS. The heat pump prototype utilizes a non-CFC refrigerant in a design where the thermal requirements exceed existing terrestrial technology. These operating requirements provide a unique opportunity to design and test an advanced integrated thermal system and the associated controls. The design, control, and systems integration of the heat pump and the TCS also have terrestrial technology application. This paper addresses the design of the TCS and the heat pump, along with the control scheme to fully test the heat pump. Design approaches utilized in the LSSIF TCS are promoted for implementation in terrestrial thermal systems. The results of the preliminary thermal and fluid analyses used to develop the control of the thermal systems will also be discussed. The paper includes objectives for the 90 day human test and the test setup. Finally, conclusions will be drawn and recommendations for Earth design application are submitted.

  3. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  4. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  5. Man and his spaceships

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    The resiliency and adaptive ability of microbial life in real time on Earth relies heavily upon horizontal gene transfer. Based on that knowledge, how likely is earth based microbial life to colonize extraterrestrial targets such as Mars? To address this question, we consider manned and unmanned space exploration, the resident microbiota that is likely to inhabit those vehicles, the adaptive potential of that microbiota in an extraterrestrial setting especially with regards to mobile genetic elements, and the likelihood that Mars like environments could initiate and sustain colonization. PMID:23481263

  6. Manned remote work station development article, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The mission requirements for the manned remote work station (MRWS) flight article and the manned remote work station open cherry picker development test article is defined. Considerations are given for the near, mid, and far term use of the MRWS with emphasis on its ultimate application: constructing the Solar Power Satellite.

  7. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission tests. 61.67 Section 61.67... Emission tests. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, the owner or operator of a source to which this subpart applies shall test emissions from the source, (1) Within 90 days...

  8. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission tests. 61.67 Section 61.67... Emission tests. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, the owner or operator of a source to which this subpart applies shall test emissions from the source, (1) Within 90 days...

  9. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perez-Davis, Marla E.; Faymon, Karl A.

    1987-01-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  10. The manned space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovit, B.

    The development and establishment of a manned space station represents the next major U.S. space program after the Space Shuttle. If all goes according to plan, the space station could be in orbit around the earth by 1992. A 'power tower' station configuration has been selected as a 'reference' design. This configuration involves a central truss structure to which various elements are attached. An eight-foot-square truss forms the backbone of a structure about 400 feet long. At its lower end, nearest the earth, are attached pressurized manned modules. These modules include two laboratory modules and two so-called 'habitat/command' modules, which provide living and working space for the projected crew of six persons. Later, the station's pressurized space would be expanded to accommodate up to 18 persons. By comparison, the Soviets will provide habitable space for 12 aboard a 300-ton station which they are expected to place in orbit. According to current plans the six U.S. astronauts will work in two teams of three persons each. A ninety-day tour of duty is considered.

  11. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  12. The Nature of Man and Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Gregory, Lura N.

    The many problems presented by the nature of man and in studying man are the focus of this paper which attempts to place these problems in perspective in terms of the past and future. The enigma facing man, that man must study man, is related in an introduction. Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's developments in the study of the nature of man are…

  13. Vestibular ataxia and its measurement in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Methods involved in and results obtained with a new comprehensive ataxia test battery are described, and definitions of spontaneous and induced vestibular ataxia in man are given in terms of these findings. In addition, the topic of alcohol-induced ataxia in relation to labyrinth function is investigated. Items in the test battery comprise a sharpened Romberg test, in which the subject stands on the floor with eyes closed and arms folded against his chest, feet heel-to-toe, for 60 seconds; an eyes-open walking test; an eyes-open standing test; an eyes-closed standing test; an eyes-closed on-leg standing test; an eyes-closed walk a line test; an eyes-closed heel-to-toe walking test; and supplementary ataxia tests such as the classical Romberg test.

  14. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  15. The results of the flight test of the small satellite "Compass-2" aimed at searching for abnormal phenomena in the ionosphere associated with earthquakes and other natural and man-caused events.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, Vladimir

    The experimental small satellite "COMPASS - 2" was designed for the monitoring of the ionosphere and near-Earth space with the purpose of detection, registration and study of abnormal phenomena in the ionosphere associated with earthquakes and other natural and man-caused phenomena and to investigate the probability of detecting precursors of strong earthquakes. The scientific payload of the "Compass- 2" satellite comprises five devices: -low/ultra low frequencies wave analyzer; -high radio frequencies wave analyzer; -two frequencies GPS receiver; - two frequencies UHF transmitter; -energetic particles and ultraviolet detectors. The small satellite "COMPASS - 2" was launched to the orbit on 26 May 2006 and have worked up to the end of May 2007. Despite the malfunction of the platform, the measurements of the plasma parameters of the ionosphere and the registration of some interesting phenomena were made during this test flight. Two-frequency GPS receiver successfully has operated for measurements of key parameter of the ionosphere - the integrated contents of electrons . The same GPS receiver was used for positioning of satellite and time binding of onboard measurements with high accuracy. The radio-frequency dynamic spectrums of plasma emissions in the ionosphere were obtained by the Radio Frequency Analyzer (RFA). That spectrum provides information on the ionospheric parameters and processes. The detector of energetic particles DRF has registered the phenomena of powerful storm activity in the top atmosphere; streams of the accelerated protons and electrons were registered in the near Earth space during a large geomagnetic storm on December, 15, 2006. Registered protons have been accelerated and have got in a vicinity of the Earth as a result of solar flashes of 13-th and on December, 14-th, 2006. Low-Frequency Wave analyzer VLF/ULF have registered the whistlers modes propagating in the ionosphere. Abnormal signals associated, probably, with the earthquake

  16. IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Coupling station. Man holds flexible couplers to reactor Dolly and HTRE rig. Date: April 22, 1955. INEEL negative no. 55-1010 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. Six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem for Space Station Prototype (SSP) application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostell, G. D.; Schubert, F. H.; Shumar, J. W.; Hallick, T. M.; Jensen, F. C.

    1974-01-01

    A six man, self contained, electrochemical carbon dioxide concentrating subsystem for space station prototype use was successfully designed, fabricated, and tested. A test program was successfully completed which covered shakedown testing, design verification testing, and acceptance testing.

  18. History of Manned Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    U.S. manned space projects from Mercury Redstone 3 through Skylab 4 are briefly described including dates, flight duration, crew, and number of earth/moon orbits. The flight costs of each project are itemized. Highlights in the history of the manned space program from 1957 to February, 1974 are included.

  19. Stellar map of neolithic man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pskovskiy, Y. P.

    1978-01-01

    Observations made by ancient man are of great interest to present day astronomers. Drawings made by neolithic man in caves show a surprising sense of perspective. The discoveries in the Fern Grotto in California are of special interest. Photographs of cave drawings are included.

  20. Man in a Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, VA.

    The sixth level of the social studies curriculum (Fairfax County Public Schools, Virginia), "Man in a Changing World," is designed to maintain a balance between the study of concepts and the development of inquiry skills. Emphasis is given to the role of individual man in several social settings, past and present, Western and non-Western. The…

  1. Jerking stiff-man syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, R; Romero, M; Chaparro, J

    1982-01-01

    A female patient had permanent axial muscular rigidity similar to the "stiff-man syndrome", together with axial myoclonus triggered by stretch reflexes and by supramaximal stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. The disorder responded to treatment with diazepam and baclofen. This disorder bore a marked similarity to the so-called "jerking stiff-man syndrome". PMID:7161612

  2. Performance of the New Aptima HCV Quant Dx Assay in Comparison to the Cobas TaqMan HCV2 Test for Use with the High Pure System in Detection and Quantification of Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Plasma or Serum.

    PubMed

    Schalasta, Gunnar; Speicher, Andrea; Börner, Anna; Enders, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Quantitating the level of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA is the standard of care for monitoring HCV-infected patients during treatment. The performances of commercially available assays differ for precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantitation (LOQ). Here, we compare the performance of the Hologic Aptima HCV Quant Dx assay (Aptima) to that of the Roche Cobas TaqMan HCV test, version 2.0, using the High Pure system (HPS/CTM), considered a reference assay since it has been used in trials defining clinical decision points in patient care. The assays' performance characteristics were assessed using HCV RNA reference panels and plasma/serum from chronically HCV-infected patients. The agreement between the assays for the 3 reference panels was good, with a difference in quantitation values of <0.5 log. High concordance was demonstrated between the assays for 245 clinical samples (kappa = 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.720 to 0.881); however, Aptima detected and/or quantitated 20 samples that HPS/CTM did not detect, while Aptima did not detect 1 sample that was quantitated by HPS/CTM. For the 165 samples quantitated by both assays, the values were highly correlated (R= 0.98;P< 0.0001). The linearity of quantitation from concentrations of 1.4 to 6 log was excellent for both assays for all HCV genotypes (GT) tested (GT 1a, 1b, 2b, and 3a) (R(2)> 0.99). The assays had similar levels of total and intra-assay variability across all genotypes at concentrations from 1,000 to 25 IU/ml. Aptima had a greater analytical sensitivity, quantitating more than 50% of replicates at 25-IU/ml target. Aptima showed performance characteristics comparable to those of HPS/CTM and increased sensitivity, making it suitable for use as a clinical diagnostic tool on the fully automated Panther platform.

  3. Light in man's environment

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, J

    2016-01-01

    Light in the form of solar radiation influenced early civilisations and resulted in the independent development of a number of sun-worshipping dieties. These were of particular importance as hunter gatherers transformed into settled agricultural societies. All artificial light sources were synonymous with fire, and early civilisations began to expand their visual day by burning brands, oil, and candles. Fire-based light sources extended for thousands of years and were still present in the era of gas lighting. Light meant fire risk. The advent of incandescent bulbs and the era of electric lighting really only expanded in the early part of the twentieth century. Fluorescent lighting became available in the 1940s, and today the drive for low energy has resulted in a plethora of novel light sources—in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Evolution governed the development of the eye in relation to roughly 12 h of light gradually changing to 12 h of darkness. Today almost daylight levels can be achieved abruptly at the flick of a switch. Many studies have demonstrated the spectral dependence of eye health, with the retinal hazard zone associated with wavelengths in the blue, peaking at 441 nm— many of today's low-energy sources peak in this region. Given the increased longevity and artificial light sources emitting at biologically unfriendly wavelengths, attention has to be directed towards light in man's environment as a risk factor in age-related ocular diseases. PMID:26742864

  4. Light in man's environment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J

    2016-02-01

    Light in the form of solar radiation influenced early civilisations and resulted in the independent development of a number of sun-worshipping dieties. These were of particular importance as hunter gatherers transformed into settled agricultural societies. All artificial light sources were synonymous with fire, and early civilisations began to expand their visual day by burning brands, oil, and candles. Fire-based light sources extended for thousands of years and were still present in the era of gas lighting. Light meant fire risk. The advent of incandescent bulbs and the era of electric lighting really only expanded in the early part of the twentieth century. Fluorescent lighting became available in the 1940s, and today the drive for low energy has resulted in a plethora of novel light sources-in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Evolution governed the development of the eye in relation to roughly 12 h of light gradually changing to 12 h of darkness. Today almost daylight levels can be achieved abruptly at the flick of a switch. Many studies have demonstrated the spectral dependence of eye health, with the retinal hazard zone associated with wavelengths in the blue, peaking at 441 nm- many of today's low-energy sources peak in this region. Given the increased longevity and artificial light sources emitting at biologically unfriendly wavelengths, attention has to be directed towards light in man's environment as a risk factor in age-related ocular diseases.

  5. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  6. How was the Turin Shroud Man crucified?

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, M; Fanti, G; D'Arienzo, M; Porzionato, A; Macchi, V; De Caro, R

    2014-12-01

    As the literature is not exhaustive with reference to the way the Turin Shroud (TS) Man was crucified, and it is not easy to draw significant information from only a "photograph" of a man on a linen sheet, this study tries to add some detail on this issue based on both image processing of high resolution photos of the TS and on experimental tests on arms and legs of human cadavers. With regard to the TS Man hands, a first hypothesis states that the left hand of the TS Man was nailed twice at two different anatomical sites: the midcarpal joint medially to the pisiform between the lunate/pyramidal and capitate/uncinate bones (Destot's space) and the radiocarpal joint between the radio, lunate and scaphoid; also the right hand would have been nailed twice. A second hypothesis, preferred by the authors, states that the hands were nailed only once in the Destot's space with partial lesion of the ulnar nerve and flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumbs. With regard to the TS Man feet, the imprint of the sole of the right foot leads to the conclusion that TS Man suffered a dislocation at the ankle just before the nailing. The entrance hole of the nail on the right foot is a few inches from the ankle, and excludes a double nailing. The nail has been driven between the tarsal bones. The TS Man suffered the following tortures during crucifixion: a very serious and widespread causalgia due to total paralysis of the upper right limb (paradoxical causalgia); a nailing of the left wrist with damage to the ulnar nerve; a similar nailing of the right wrist; and a nailing to both feet using one only nail that injured the plantaris medialis nerves. The respiratory limitation was probably not sufficient to cause death by asphyxiation. Also considering the hypovolemia produced by scourging and the many other tortures detectable on the TS, the principal cause of death can be attributed to a myocardial infarction.

  7. A Manned Orbital Space Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnitzer, Emanuel

    1960-01-01

    A study is under way of a manned orbital space laboratory, some of the purposes of which would be to determine man's adaptability to space and to study structures and systems in space before committing manned spacecraft to long-range missions. It uses an inflatable torus as laboratory and living quarters and has an erectable solar collector as the source of heat for the power plant. The station rotates six times per minute in order to provide some artificial gravity together with stabilization. An escape taxi, which is not shown, is attached to the bottom of the station.

  8. Poor man`s parallelism in environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.M.; Rogers, L.L.

    1995-02-01

    Poor man`s parallelism is a term to describe the harnessing of commonly available computational approaches containing a high degree of implicit or explicit parallelism with distributed computer resources to produce a large gain in processing time. The distinguishing features of poor man`s techniques are their accessibility and relatively low cost. In some circumstances, the clever exploitation of existing hardware and software may achieve as much improvement in the timely completion of tasks as do high-end, state-of-the-art parallel technologies. The ANN-GA approach to the optimization of environmental remediation strategies is an example of poor man`s parallelism: it integrates two well-known computational technologies, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the genetic algorithm (GA), with a simple scheme for exploiting a network of Unix workstations to solve a nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem. Although this work has been motivated by the need to tame a computational tiger rather than to experiment with different flavors of parallelism, the approach has reached a level of maturity where it is instructive to examine how parallelism is embodied in its various components. It also stands as a demonstration of how even resource-lean organizations can take advantage of parallelism to solve problems.

  9. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2). Part 5: microRNA expression from a 90-day rat inhalation study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol causes reduced effects on lung tissue compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Sewer, Alain; Kogel, Ulrike; Talikka, Marja; Wong, Ee Tsin; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Guedj, Emmanuel; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-11-30

    Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are designed to reduce the individual risk of tobacco-related disease as well as population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. Experimental proof of their benefit needs to be provided at multiple levels in research fields. Here, we examined microRNA (miRNA) levels in the lungs of rats exposed to a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) in a 90-day OECD TG-413 inhalation study. Our aim was to assess the miRNA response to THS2.2 aerosol compared with the response to combustible cigarettes (CC) smoke from the reference cigarette 3R4F. CC smoke exposure, but not THS2.2 aerosol exposure, caused global miRNA downregulation, which may be explained by the interference of CC smoke constituents with the miRNA processing machinery. Upregulation of specific miRNA species, such as miR-146a/b and miR-182, indicated that they are causal elements in the inflammatory response in CC-exposed lungs, but they were reduced after THS2.2 aerosol exposure. Transforming transcriptomic data into protein activity based on corresponding downstream gene expression, we identified potential mechanisms for miR-146a/b and miR-182 that were activated by CC smoke but not by THS2.2 aerosol and possibly involved in the regulation of those miRNAs. The inclusion of miRNA profiling in systems toxicology approaches increases the mechanistic understanding of the complex exposure responses.

  10. Manned Mars mission cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  11. GD goal - Lower-cost manned lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenorovitz, Jeffrey M.

    1993-01-01

    A proprietary feasibility evaluation is presented for more cost-effective means of accomplishing manned lunar missions than those of the Apollo program. The proposal involves a series of flights employing the Space Shuttle Orbiter and an expendable launcher such as the Ariane 5, which would be supplied by the ESA. The crew module would be externally similar to the Apollo three-man capsule, but would be smaller due to a two-man crew. Cost projections are made which encompass hardware development, production, testing, and operations (including those of the Space Shuttle and Ariane 5).

  12. Biological Individuality of Man

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-12-01

    blindness and partial bi- lateral macular degeneration are known; presumably, cone function is com- pletely lost but normal rod function is...32: 28-62. Percival, S.P.B. andl. Meanock. 1968. Chloroquine: Opthalmological satety and clinical assessment in rheumatoid arthritis ...test" cr " macular da’/zle test" (Scverin et al., 1063) ncxious agents and drugs were shown to increase the time required for recovery of visual

  13. Man, space flight and medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of experience obtained from space flight to evaluate man's physiological capability to function in space. Results of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs are presented, with emphasis on the latter. The space medicine requirements which were necessary for assuring man's safe journey into and return from space have resulted in hardware and techniques of great value to terrestrial medicine. The need to monitor the physiologic function of crewmen led to the development of miniaturized, nonirritating, and highly reliable sensors.

  14. Manned versus unmanned - The implications to NASP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Kasten, Terry D.

    1990-10-01

    The assessment of unmanned approaches to experimental aerospace vehicles in general and to the NASP program in particular is summarized. Technical requirements for NASP demonstration are presented and unmanned options for satisfying requirements are discussed. The X-30 sensitivities to technical requirements are described. A correlation of the NASP program to prior flight test programs, both manned and unmanned, is also presented. It is noted that subscale vehicles may reduce risk by as much as 18 percent for approximately $200 M. It is concluded that half-scale vehicles may reduce program risk by 60 percent, while reducing X-30 costs by 40 percent. Also, an unmanned X-30 will probably cost more than a manned X-30 due to costs associated with additional software development and ground support systems costs.

  15. Development of Dual TaqMan Based One-Step rRT-PCR Assay Panel for Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Test of MERS-CoV: A Novel Human Coronavirus, Ahead of Hajj Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Hashemzadeh, Mohammad Sadegh; Rasouli, Rahimeh; Zahraei, Bentolhoda; Izadi, Morteza; Tat, Mahdi; Saadat, Seyed Hassan; Najarasl, Mohammad; Khansari Nejad, Behzad; Dorostkar, Ruhollah

    2016-01-01

    Background Coronaviruses (CoVs) are large ribonucleic acid (RNA) viruses causing primarily respiratory disease in humans. A novel human coronavirus, subsequently named middle east respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), was first reported in Saudi Arabia in September of 2012. With increasing numbers of infections and deaths from MERS-CoV, development of a rapid and reliable kit was crucial to prevent further spread of MERS-CoV. Objectives In this study, we present two real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) assays for in-house rapid and sensitive diagnostic testing of MERS-CoV, detecting the regions upstream of the envelope gene (upE) and open reading frame (ORF) 1b, respectively, for initial screening and final confirmation of MERS-CoV infection, as recommended by the world health organization (WHO). Materials and Methods In this experimental study, acquiring patient samples was difficult; thus, according to WHO recommendations and standard protocols, we synthesized RNA sequences of upE and ORF1b genes as the template signatures and TaqMan based-diagnostic rRT-PCR assays were carried out using these synthetic genes for detection of MERS-CoV. In this research, we also inaugurated a cell-free system to transcribe these RNA sequences using the DNA templates synthesized. Results The upE and ORF1b based one-step rRT-PCR assays were optimized by testing several times via different synthetic RNAs, and validation results were highly successful. The sensitivity obtained for upE was fewer than ten copies of RNA template per reaction and for ORF1b was 50 or fewer copies per reaction. Conclusions This study showed that the developed rRT-PCR assays are rapid, reliable, reproducible, specific, sensitive, and simple tools for detection of MERS-CoV. Finally, a kit consisting of two assay signatures and controls was assembled, which can be distributed to public health laboratories in Iran to support international MERS-CoV surveillance and public

  16. Detection and quantitation of HBV DNA in miniaturized samples: multi centre study to evaluate the performance of the COBAS ® AmpliPrep/COBAS ® TaqMan ® hepatitis B virus (HBV) test v2.0 by the use of plasma or serum specimens.

    PubMed

    Berger, Annemarie; Gohl, Peter; Stürmer, Martin; Rabenau, Holger Felix; Nauck, Markus; Doerr, Hans Wilhelm

    2010-11-01

    Laboratory analysis of blood specimens is an increasingly important tool for rapid diagnosis and control of therapy. So, miniaturization of test systems is needed, but reduced specimens might impair test quality. For rapid detection and quantitation of HBV DNA, the COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV test has proved a robust instrument in routine diagnostic services. The test system has been modified recently for application of reduced samples of blood plasma and for blood serum, too. The performance of this modified COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV v2.0 (HBV v2.0 (this test is currently not available in the USA)) test was evaluated by comparison with the former COBAS(®) AmpliPrep/COBAS(®) TaqMan(®) HBV v1.0 (HBV v1.0) test. In this study a platform correlation of both assay versions was done including 275 HBV DNA positive EDTA plasma samples. Comparable results were obtained (R(2)=0.97, mean difference -0.03 log(10)IU/ml). The verification of equivalency of the sample matrix (plasma vs. serum samples tested in HBV v2.0 in the same run) showed comparable results for all 278 samples with a R(2)=0.99 and a mean difference of 0.06 log(10)IU/ml. In conclusion, the new test version HBV v2.0 is highly specific and reproducible and quantifies accurately HBV DNA in EDTA plasma and serum samples from patients with chronic HBV infection.

  17. The Black Man in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  18. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  19. 10 CFR 26.168 - Blind performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the blind performance test samples submitted to the laboratory must be positive for one or more drugs... blind performance test samples to the HHS-certified laboratory. (1) During the initial 90-day period of... licensee or other entity shall submit blind performance test samples to each HHS-certified laboratory...

  20. Identification of chemicals carcinogenic to man

    SciTech Connect

    Wilbourn, J.D.; Haroun, L.; Vainio, H.; Montesano, R.

    1984-01-01

    Although both the epidemiologic and experimental studies have led to the identification of chemical carcinogens, the limitations in epidemiologic approaches and the need for primary prevention of cancer require a greater reliance on experimental studies. Long-term carcinogenicity studies in experimental animals have been instrumental in identifying chemicals with carcinogenic activity, and, in some cases, the experimental evidence has preceded the epidemiologic evidence (for 4-aminobiphenyl, aflatoxin B1, diethylstilbestrol, melphalan, mustard gas, and vinyl chloride). A better understanding of the multistage process of carcinogenesis and the findings from various short-term tests available more recently may provide a more solid basis for extrapolating experimental findings to man.

  1. Staphylococcal carriage in man

    PubMed Central

    Munch-Petersen, E.

    1961-01-01

    The author reviews the published findings on the carriage of Staphylococcus pyogenes var. aureus during the last two decades, dealing mainly with observations made in British Commonwealth countries, Scandinavia and the USA. The importance of the role played by staphylococcal carriers in the spread of infection both in hospitals and among adults and children in the general population is clearly brought out and is of particular interest in view of the current increase in resistance of staphylococcal strains to antibiotics. There does not appear to have been any well-defined trend towards either an increase or a decrease in staphylococcal carriage in the past twenty years; annual variations have been quite considerable and the precipitate drop in the carriage rate in hospitals in 1949 (perhaps due to the extensive use of penicillin) has since been made up. A particularly high carriage rate was found among hospital staff and twice as high a rate among children born in hospitals as among those delivered at home. Closer study and better control of staphylococcal infections in hospital wards are clearly necessary. It is appreciated, however, that, before more effective control measures can be taken, there must be improvements in the present methods of sampling, in the testing of strains for pathogenicity and in other techniques. PMID:13726780

  2. Platelet size in man.

    PubMed

    Paulus, J M

    1975-09-01

    The shape and parameters of platelet size distributions were studied in 50 normal persons and 97 patients in order to test the proposed thesis that platelet size heterogeneity results mainly from aging in the circulation. This thesis was contradicted (1) by size distributions of age-homogeneous, newly-born cell populations which were lognormal with increased (instead of decreased) dispersion of volumes and (2) by the macrothrombocytosis found in some populations with normal age distribution. For these reasons, thrombocytopoiesis appeared to play the major role in determining platelet size. A model was built in which the volume variation of platelet territories due to megakaryocyte growth and membrane demarcation at each step of maturation was a random proportion of the previous value of the volume. This model explains the lognormal shape of both newborn and circulating platelet size distributions. It also implies that (1) the mean and standard deviation of platelet logvolumes depend on the rates of volume change of the individual platelet territories (growth rate minus demarcation rate) as well as on megakaryocyte maturation time; (2) platelet hyperdestruction causes an increase in the mean and dispersion of the rates of territory volume change; (3) Mediterranean macrothrombocytosis and some hereditary macrothrombocytotic thrombocytopenias or dysthrombocytopoieses reflect a diminished rate of territory demarcation, and (4) platelet size heterogeneity is caused mainly by the variations in territory growth and demarcation and not by aging in the circulation.

  3. Validation of dilution of plasma samples with phosphate buffered saline to eliminate the problem of small volumes associated with children infected with HIV-1 for viral load testing using Cobas AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0).

    PubMed

    Mine, Madisa; Nkoane, Tapologo; Sebetso, Gaseene; Sakyi, Bright; Makhaola, Kgomotso; Gaolathe, Tendani

    2013-12-01

    The sample requirement of 1 mL for the Roche COBAS AmpliPrep/COBAS TaqMan HIV-1 test, version 2.0 (CAP CTM HIV v2.0) limits its utility in measuring plasma HIV-1 RNA levels for small volume samples from children infected with HIV-1. Viral load monitoring is the standard of care for HIV-1-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in Botswana. The study aimed to validate the dilution of small volume samples with phosphate buffered saline (1× PBS) when quantifying HIV-1 RNA in patient plasma. HIV RNA concentrations were determined in undiluted and diluted pairs of samples comprising panels of quality assessment standards (n=52) as well as patient samples (n=325). There was strong correlation (R(2)) of 0.98 and 0.95 within the dynamic range of the CAP CTM HIV v2.0 test between undiluted and diluted samples from quality assessment standards and patients, respectively. The difference between viral load measurements of diluted and undiluted pairs of quality assessment standards and patient samples using the Altman-Bland test showed that the 95% limits of agreement were between -0.40 Log 10 and 0.49 Log 10. This difference was within the 0.5 Log 10 which is generally considered as normal assay variation of plasma RNA levels. Dilution of samples with 1× PBS produced comparable viral load measurements to undiluted samples.

  4. Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

    The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

  5. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  6. Man, Controller of the Universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olowin, R. P.

    2011-06-01

    The Man, Controller of the Universe painted by the renowned Mexican artist Diego Rivera in the gigantic mural of the Palace of Fine Arts in Mexico City is overlooked by a telescope. We acknowledge this instrument as the Plaskett Telescope at the Dominion Astrophysical Observatory in Victoria, Canada.

  7. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  8. Man...An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  9. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  10. Man in the Marine Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hogg, Thomas C.; And Others

    The program, Man in the Marine Environment, conducted by the Department of Anthropology, Oregon State University, between July, 1970 and June, 1971, consisted of two major components: (1) research, and (2) direct educational outputs in the form of a series of credit seminars and a public speaker's program. Research, as described in the procedures…

  11. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  12. New Manning System Field Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-01

    our Analytic hodel (see Chapter 5, New Manning Svestem Field Evaluacion . Technical Revore No. I, RAJL-, November c t, e number or soldiers retaking...and meaningful performance measures are not only crucial to the WRAIR N Field Evaluacion but also to the Army. To know which unit does betzer than

  13. Man-Machine Communication Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-02-01

    communication difficulty for the computer-naive; discovery of major communication structures in human communication that have been left out of man-machine...processes; creation of a new overview of how human communication functions in cooperative task-oriented activity; and assistance in ARPA policy formation on CAI equipment development.

  14. The Preparation of Some Compounds for Testing as Insect Repellents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-12-28

    J. F. Shronts Naval llcdical Research Institute Attention 1 Capt. E. G. Hakannson (MC) USN Lt. Cmdr. M. Pijoan (MC) USNR Naval Research...have been submitted for 90-day subacute toxicity studies « 0-7139, 0-7209 and 0-7227 have passed acute toxicity tests (0- 7227 with reservations...but have not been submitted for 90-day subacute toxicity studies , 0-7392, 0-7430 and 0-13058 have been submitted for acute toxicity tests. Forty-fivo

  15. Lymphocytic hypophysitis in a man.

    PubMed

    Guay, A T; Agnello, V; Tronic, B C; Gresham, D G; Freidberg, S R

    1987-03-01

    Fewer than 20 patients with lymphocytic adenohypophysitis have been reported, all of them women, and it usually occurs during pregnancy or the postpartum period. We report the recognition of lymphocytic adenohypophysitis in a man. The patient presented with anterior hypopituitarism and an intrasellar mass on computed tomography. Antipituitary antibodies, found in only one of the previous patients, were not present in this man, although low titer antinuclear antibodies were found. The implications of this latter finding are unclear. The patient's histocompatibility antigen (HLA) types were A2, B8, Bw58, DR1, and DR5. The degree of pituitary failure seemed out of proportion to the size of the mass seen on computed tomographic scan.

  16. RenderMan design principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.

  17. Manned Mars Mission program concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, E. C.; Johnson, P.; Pearson, J.; Tucker, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SRS Manned Mars Mission and Program Analysis study designed to support a manned expedition to Mars contemplated by NASA for the purposes of initiating human exploration and eventual habitation of this planet. The capabilities of the interactive software package being presently developed by the SRS for the mission/program analysis are described, and it is shown that the interactive package can be used to investigate the impact of various mission concepts on the sensitivity of mass required in LEO, schedules, relative costs, and risk. The results, to date, indicate the need for an earth-to-orbit transportation system much larger than the present STS, reliable long-life support systems, and either advanced propulsion or aerobraking technology.

  18. Obesity in the ageing man.

    PubMed

    Michalakis, K; Goulis, D G; Vazaiou, A; Mintziori, G; Polymeris, A; Abrahamian-Michalakis, A

    2013-10-01

    As the population is ageing globally, both ageing and obesity are recognized as major public health challenges. The aim of this narrative review is to present and discuss the current evidence on the changes in body composition, energy balance and endocrine environment that occur in the ageing man. Obesity in the ageing man is related to changes in both body weight and composition due to alterations in energy intake and total energy expenditure. In addition, somatopenia (decreased GH secretion), late-onset hypogonadism (LOH), changes in thyroid and adrenal function, as well as changes in appetite-related peptides (leptin, ghrelin) and, most importantly, insulin action are related to obesity, abnormal energy balance, redistribution of the adipose tissue and sarcopenia (decreased muscle mass). A better understanding of the complex relationship of ageing-related endocrine changes and obesity could lead to more effective interventions for elderly men.

  19. Searching for the ideal MAN tool

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    The quantity of online documentation and viewing tools is overwhelming, with the World Wide Web, vendor-supported and local-site documentation and tools, etc. Maintaining the information and tools is equally overwhelming. However, statistics show that MAN usage far exceeds usage of other online documentation tools. But as one knows, MAN has its own problems, and at the forefront are MAN`S many inconsistencies. MAN is the standard Unix (and POSIX) tool which provides good summary information for those already familiar with a command. Well-written manual pages provide a good overall documentation. However, when a particular manual becomes too long, it becomes a cumbersome method to use for reading documentation. The paper describes MAN`s problems and the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center requirements for MAN.

  20. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  1. 10 CFR 26.168 - Blind performance testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Laboratories Certified by the Department of Health... blind performance test samples to the HHS-certified laboratory. (1) During the initial 90-day period of... licensee or other entity shall submit blind performance test samples to each HHS-certified laboratory...

  2. Manned remote work station development article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The two prime objectives of the Manned Remote Work Station (MRWS) Development Article Study are to first, evaluate the MRWS flight article roles and associated design concepts for fundamental requirements and embody key technology developments into a simulation program; and to provide detail manufacturing drawings and schedules for a simulator development test article. An approach is outlined which establishes flight article requirements based on past studies of Solar Power Satellite, orbital construction support equipments, construction bases and near term shuttle operations. Simulation objectives are established for those technology issues that can best be addressed on a simulator. Concepts for full-scale and sub-scale simulators are then studied to establish an overall approach to studying MRWS requirements. Emphasis then shifts to design and specification of a full-scale development test article.

  3. Overview of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Testing At MSFC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traweek, Mary S.; Tatara, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Previously, almost all water used by the crew during space flight has been transported from earth or generated in-flight as a by-product of fuel cells. Additionally, this water has been stored and used for relatively short periods. To achieve the United States' commitment to a permanent manned presence in space, more innovative techniques are demanded. Over 20,000 pounds of water and large quantities of air would have to be transported to the International Space Station (ISS) every 90 days with a corresponding amount of waste returned to earth, for an 8-person crew. This approach results in prohibitive logistics costs, and necessitates near complete recovery and recycling of water. The potential hazards associated with long-term reuse of reclaimed water and revitalized air resulted in the recognition that additional characterization of closed-loop systems and products is essential. Integrated physical/chemical systems have been designed, assembled, and operated to provide air and potable water meeting ISS quality specifications. The purpose of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is to conduct research related to the performance of the ISS and its Environmental Control components. The ECLSS Test Program encompasses the Water Recovery Test (WRT), the Integrated Air Revitalization Test (IART), and Life Testing, which permits ECLSS design evaluation. These subsystems revitalize air and reclaim waste waters representative of those to be generated on-orbit. This paper provides an overview of MSFC's 1997 ECLSS testing. Specific tests include: the Stage 10 Water Recovery Test; the Contaminant Injection Test; the Performance Enhancement Test and Life Testing of the Four Bed Molecular Sieve; the Oxygen Generator Assembly Life Test; and the ISS Water Distribution Biofilm Life Test.

  4. Editorial Research Reports on Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

    Nine reports published in this volume study the uneasy coexistence of modern man and the complex society he has wrought. Man's apparent disorganized behavior is attributed to his inability to adapt readily to the charged pace of technological change. To combat the advancement of machine over man, he must, therefore, insist that moral and…

  5. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  6. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  7. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  8. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  9. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  10. Overview of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) testing at MSFC.

    PubMed

    Traweek, M S; Tatara, J D

    1998-01-01

    Previously, almost all water used by the crew during space flight has been transported from earth or generated inflight as a by-product of fuel cells. Additionally, this water has been stored and used for relatively short periods. To achieve the United States' commitment to a permanent manned presence in space, more innovative techniques are demanded. Over 20,000 pounds of water and large quantities of air would have to be transported to the International Space Station (ISS) every 90 days with a corresponding amount of waste returned to earth, for an eight-person crew. This approach results in prohibitive logistics costs, and necessitates near complete recovery and recycling of water. The potential hazards associated with long-term reuse of reclaimed water and revitalized air resulted in the recognition that additional characterization of closed-loop systems and products is essential. Integrated physical/chemical systems have been designed, assembled, and operated to provide air and potable water meeting ISS quality specifications. The purpose of the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) test program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is to conduct testing related to the performance of the ISS and its Environmental Control components. The ECLSS Test Program encompasses the Water Recovery Test (WRT), the Integrated Air Revitalization Test (IART), and Life Testing, which permits ECLSS design evaluation. These subsystems revitalize air and reclaim waste waters representative of those to be generated on-orbit. This article provides an overview of MSFC's ECLSS testing. Specific tests include: the Stage 10 Water Recovery Test; the Contaminant Injection Test; the Four-Bed Molecular Sieve Performance Enhancement Test; and Life Testing.

  11. America and the Future of Man. Courses by Newspaper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheiber, Jane L., Ed.

    This national program offers college-level instruction through the newspaper. Published by the University Extension of the University of California at San Diego, this resource kit combines a course on United States history and the future of man and society. The kit contains a soundsheet, lectures, student study guide, student reader, self-tests,…

  12. Roles and needs of man in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Human capabilities and requirements on space missions are discussed. Utilitarian and humanistic motivations for manned missions are considered, and a general program of development from easy space access and return, to a permanent LEO presence, to the limited self-sufficiency of man in space, is proposed. Man's potential as scientific observer, operator, and engineer/technician is illustrated with examples from the Apollo and Skylab missions. It is shown that future increases in man's space presence will require significant improvements in habitation technology, crew comfort and safety, operational effectiveness and reliability, and man/machine interactions: man-tended systems must be standardized and adapted to (mainly EVA) human servicing; permanently manned systems must be designed to attain levels of comfort, privacy, and overall habitability more like those expected on the ground.

  13. Effects of weightlessness in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The program for the Apollo 16 flight was designed to include both safeguards against and investigations of the physiological problems arising from increase in the period of manned space flight. Precautions included the provision of a controlled diet with high potassium content, carefully controlled work loads and work-rest cycles, and an emergency cardiology consultation service, and investigations were made to enable preflight vs postflight comparisons of metabolic, cardiovascular, and central nervous system data. Results of these investigations indicate that adjustment to weightlessness can be satisfactorily assisted by appropriate countermeasures, including attention to diet.

  14. Stone man: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Eshghpour, Majid; Niknami, Mahdi; Saeedi, Morteza

    2012-12-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare hereditary connective tissue disease characterized by the progressive ectopic ossification of ligaments, tendons, and facial and skeletal muscles throughout life. Symptoms begin in childhood as localized soft tissue swellings. Immobility and articular dysfunction appear with involvement of the spine and proximal extremities. The temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a critical component involved in the maxillofacial region, resulting in severe limitation of masticatory function, although TMJ involvement is rare. The aim of this article is to present a 28-year-old man with dental problems and slowly progressive limitation of motion in the jaw, knees, shoulders and hips as well as neck distortion.

  15. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    1989-01-01

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  16. Comparison of Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0) with other real-time PCR assays in HIV-1 monitoring and follow-up of low-level viral loads.

    PubMed

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Spahlinger, Timothy; Harmon, Marlene Louise; Schnellinger, Brian; Li, Qing; Dejelo, Corazon; Schmotzer, Christine; Zhou, Lan

    2013-01-01

    Viral load monitoring of HIV-1 has become standard of care in HIV-1 positive patients. In this study, we evaluated the performance characteristics of the Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 2.0 (CAP/CTM v2.0) in comparison with Roche Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 test version 1.0 (CAP/CTM v1.0) and Abbott RealTime HIV-1 assay (m2000), with special emphasis on the quantitation of clinically controversial low-level viral loads. The performance characteristics of CAP/CTM v2.0 were confirmed by the validation study. All three assays performed comparably, with Abbott m2000 showing slightly decreased sensitivity for detection of viral loads close to the lower limit of quantitation. Follow-up of patients with low-level viral loads revealed that some of those represent single viral blips; however, a significant portion of these patients have intermittent or persistent low-positive viremia. We conclude that CAP/CTM v2.0 is an accurate and reliable assay for HIV-1 viral load monitoring.

  17. The rights of man and animal experimentation.

    PubMed

    Martin, J

    1990-09-01

    Since emotions give contradictory signals about animal experimentation in medical science, man's relationship to animals must be based upon reason. Thomas Aquinas argues that man is essentially different from animals because man's intellectual processes show evidence of an abstract mechanism not possessed by animals. Man's rights arise in association with this essential difference. The consequence is that only man possesses true rights by Aquinas's definition; animals have them only by analogy. However, cruelty to animals is illicit and they should be protected, principally not because they have rights, but because he who is cruel to animals is more likely to be cruel to his fellowman. If there is a need for animal experimentation in science for the good of man, this approach gives philosophical justification for experimentation, since man's well-being must come before that of animals because of his unique possession of rights. However, those experiments should be carried out in the kindest way possible, to promote kindness towards man. To see man as solely part of a biological continuum in competition for rights with those beings close to him biologically, detracts from man's dignity.

  18. TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TOP OF MTR. MAN CLIMBS FRAME ON FOOT LADDER TO POSITION CRANE HOOK, WHICH WILL LIFT TOP PLUG FROM REACTOR AS A STEP IN REFUELING PROCEDURES. NOTE CRANE OPERATOR AT UPPER LEFT OF VIEW. ENTIRE APPARATUS, INCLUDING FRAME AND DRIVES FOR CONTROL RODS, WILL BE LIFTED. INL NEGATIVE NO. 6199. R.G. Larsen, Photographer, 6/22/1952 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Evaluation of Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong Hyun; Kim, Young Jae; Ki, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Youn; Lee, Nam Yong

    2011-01-01

    Nucleic acid-based amplification tests allow the rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Recently, a real-time PCR assay for M. tuberculosis complex, the Cobas TaqMan MTB test (Roche Diagnostics, Basel, Switzerland), was introduced. We performed a prospective study to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Cobas TaqMan MTB test system. A total of 406 specimens collected from 247 patients were simultaneously tested by conventional culture, Cobas Amplicor MTB PCR, and TaqMan MTB PCR. The cross-reactivity with other Mycobacterium species and the detection limit were also evaluated. Among 406 specimens, a total of 24 specimens (5.9%) were culture positive: 14 specimens were positive by both TaqMan and Amplicor MTB PCRs, while 5 specimens were positive by only TaqMan PCR. The remaining five specimens were negative by both PCR methods. Seven specimens with negative culture results were positive by TaqMan PCR, but five of these were negative by Amplicor MTB PCR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values were 79.1%, 98.2%, 73.1%, and 98.7% for TaqMan and 58.3%, 99.5%, 87.5%, and 97.4% for the Amplicor MTB PCR test, respectively. There was no cross-reactivity with M. tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial species. The detection limit for the Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR test was 4.0 copies/μl. The Cobas TaqMan MTB PCR test showed higher sensitivity for detection of the M. tuberculosis complex without disturbing the specificity and NPV than the Amplicor MTB PCR test.

  20. The Socio-Technical Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Yamir

    In the last 20 years or so, the field of complexity science has entered a new age. The combination of new theoretical insights and the data revolution has prepared the ground for a number of conceptual milestones in many disciplines as diverse as biology, physics, engineering, and economic and social sciences. At the same time, we have been able to identify new challenges whose solutions will confer the science of complex systems an unprecedented applied dimension. Here I would like to focus on one of these challenges: the socio-technical man. With the ever-increasing growth of both the world population and new technologies, it is fundamental for the well-being of humanity and our society to understand how humans interact among them and with the new technological environment...

  1. A man with worsening weakness.

    PubMed

    Proietti, G; Puliti, M; Tulli, F; Silvestri, M

    1999-01-01

    The contemporary presence of organomegaly, skin manifestations, polyneuropathy, endocrinopathy and monoclonal component characterises the POEMS syndrome, often associated with osteosclerotic myeloma and Castelman's disease and more frequent in the Japanese. Clinical manifestations seem to be related to the production of many interleukins, mainly IL-1, IL-6 and TNF. Several endocrinopathies have been described, the most frequent being diabetes. Only one previous case of hypoparathyroidism associated with the syndrome has been described in medical reviews. Polyneuropathy is often sensitivo-motory and skin disease accounts for Raynaud phenomenon, skin pigmentation, hypertricosis and others. We describe the case of a 74-year-old man who underwent clinical examination for weakness mainly in the legs. Clinical and instrumental data showed rhabdomyolysis due to hypoparathyroidism. The contemporary presence of a monoclonal band of light chains on proteic electrophoresis, organomegaly and distal leg neuropathy allowed us to make a diagnosis of POEMS syndrome.

  2. Dexamethasone suppression test

    MedlinePlus

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  3. Man to Man about Rape: A Rape Prevention Program for Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ring, Timothy E.; Kilmartin, Christopher

    1992-01-01

    Describes "Man to Man about Rape," project offered at one university that uses both didactic and small group experiential formats to educate male college students about male socialization, intimacy, violent behavior, objectification, father-son relationships, and sexual behavior. (NB)

  4. The man and the hill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leopold, Luna Bergere

    1962-01-01

    He was sitting on a large slab of rock. As he looked at the cloud of dust hanging hazily on the horizon, the piece of antler and the block of flint he held in his hand hung as if they were suspended from their previous rapid motion. The man gazed intently across the swaying grass which rose in wave-like billows across the distant hills. What was that dust - a herd of buffalo, a band of hunters, or were coyotes chasing the antelope again? After watching for a while he started again to chip the flint with a rapid twisting motion of the bone in his right hand. The little chips of flint fell in the grass before him. It is the same hill but the scene has changed. Seated on the same rock, holding the reins of a saddle horse, a man dressed in buckskin took the fur cap off his head and wiped his brow. He was looking intently across a brown and desolate landscape at a cloud of dust on the far horizon. Was it the hostile tribe of Indians? It could be buffalo. Nervously he kicked at the ground with the deerhide moccasin, pushing the flint chips out of the way. He wiped the dust from his long rifle. What a terrible place - no water, practically no grass, everything bare and brown. Now at sunset, slanting across the hills green with springtime, a cowman sits on a big rock, pushes his sombrero back on his head, and looks across the valley at a large but quiet herd of stock, moving slowly as each steer walks from one lush patch of grass to another, nibbling. Suddenly he stood up. Far on the horizon some dark objects were moving. Is it the sheepmen? Could it be the stage coach from Baggs to the Sweetwater Crossing?Same hill - a gray truck was grinding slowly toward the summit. It pulled up near a small fenced enclosure where there were some instruments painted a bright silver color. A man stepped out of the truck and turned to his younger companion, "You've never found an arrowhead? Maybe you have never thought about it correctly. If you want to find where an Indian camped long

  5. The man and the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziejska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The universe has always aroused people's curiosity. It fascinates and at the same time scares in its vastness. Encourages us to reflect of the meaning of human life. This begs the questions: whether there is a life beyond Earth? Whether is it possible that the man is alone in such a large space? These questions still remain unanswered, and topics concerning "the cosmos" constantly evoke many emotions. It is especially fascinating for the youngest students. Quite often, preschoolers can flawlessly name the planets according to their order of appearance in relation to the sun. They are happy to take the fun inspired by journeys into space. Teaching through action is extremely important for the development of the child-man* (Piaget, 2006). The thinking originates primarily from the action. Therefore, students should undertake independent research activities, perform experiments and conduct observations and thus raise questions about the world, looking for meanings and solutions. Adults (a teacher, a person with a passion) are to be the support in the search for knowledge, its processing and cleaning. Its role is to ensure a proper development of environment that is conducive to research activity. The answer to these requirements was to create in the oldest technical school in Poland (Railway Technical College, now Technical College No. 7) the astronomical observatory, which can be used by pupils of Warsaw's kindergartens and schools. There are organized activities for children and youth in this school, as well as trainings for teachers. Younger students during such an interdisciplinary courses are, among others, the opportunity to get acquainted with the construction of the telescope, they can build their own rockets and organize their racing or create your own star constellations. Older students as a result of observations and experiments may confirm or refute the hypothesis that the universe is within each of us. The classes are enriched using applications on

  6. The Development of Man and His Culture: New World Prehistory. Grade Two. Teacher's Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil's Study Guide [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test: Form 2, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-test. Publications No. 28, 29, 30, 33 and 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Carol E.; And Others

    The social studies unit includes a teaching guide, teacher background material, student text, study guide, and composite pretest/posttest. Subject matter focuses on archaeological methods, history of man in America, and the Hopi Indians in the past and present. The unit is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed to be used in…

  7. THE MAN MADE WORLD, TEACHER'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES ENGINEERING--MAN'S APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF HIS ENVIRONMENT.…

  8. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  9. Learning Processes in Man, Machine and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malita, Mircea

    1977-01-01

    Deciphering the learning mechanism which exists in man remains to be solved. This article examines the learning process with respect to association and cybernetics. It is recommended that research should focus on the transdisciplinary processes of learning which could become the next key concept in the science of man. (Author/MA)

  10. Resources and Man, A Study and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Earth Sciences.

    Presented are the results of two years of inquiry by the Committee on Resources and Man established by the National Academy of Sciences. Chapters 1 and 2 pose the problem: since resources are finite, as population increases the ratio of resources to man must eventually fall to an unacceptable level. Chapter 3 considers the possibility of evading…

  11. Man Is the Measure...the Measurer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The science of metrology has moved from man as the measure to man as the measurer. This transformation is documented with examples from the history of metrology. Outcome measures, which rest on the same history of measurement, are units constructed and maintained for their utility, constancy, and generality. (Author/SLD)

  12. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  13. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  14. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  15. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  16. Man's Size in Terms of Fundamental Constants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, William H.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews calculations that derive an order of magnitude expression for the size of man in terms of fundamental constants, assuming that man satifies these three properties: he is made of complicated molecules; he requires an atmosphere which is not hydrogen and helium; he is as large as possible. (CS)

  17. Teaching Ideas About Man and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

    This is a collection of papers which resulted from an assignment given in a seminar dealing with the topic Man and His Environment at Phoenix Union High School, Arizona. The interdisciplinary seminar focused on the relationships between man and his physical environment. Its purpose was to introduce the participants to the spectrum of environmental…

  18. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be...

  19. The War in Man; Media and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilhelmsen, Frederick D.; Bret, Jane

    The authors present a picture of contemporary man torn by conflicting forces, caught in a psychic house divided against itself, a victim of war between media and machines. Machines, they state, represent the rationalistic tradition which has brought man to the brink of psychic and social disaster. The media they see as offering hope--true…

  20. Man and Nature, Resource Paper No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Yi-Fu

    Man and nature is the theme of this resource paper which is part of a series designed to supplement existing texts and to fill a gap between significant research in geography and readily accessible materials. The approach followed in the paper is loosely dialectical: the intent is to understand man and nature by posing one concept against the…

  1. Marihuana in Man: Three Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)

  2. Physiological characteristics of cold acclimatization in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, Lazar; Purkayastha, S. S.; Jayashankar, A.; Nayar, H. S.

    1981-09-01

    Studies were conducted on 15 healthy young soldiers to evaluate the effect of a cold acclimatization schedule on the thermoregulatory and metabolic activity on exposure to acute cold stress. These men were exposed to cold (10‡C) for 4 h daily wearing only shorts for 21 days, in a cold chamber. They were subjected to a standard cold test at 10 ± 1‡C the day 1, 6, 11 and 21. The subjects were made to relax in a thermoneutral room (26 28‡C) for 1 h and their heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen consumption, oral temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, peripheral temperatures, and shivering activity were recorded. Then they were exposed to 10‡C and measurements were repeated at 30 min intervals, for 2 h. The cold induced vasodilatation (CIVD), cold pressor response and thermoregulatory efficiency tests were measured initially and at the end of acclimatization schedule. The data show that the procedure resulted in elevated resting metabolism, less fall in body temperature during acute cold stress, reduction in shivering, improvement in CIVD and thermoregulatory efficiency and less rise in BP and HR during cold pressor response. The data suggest the possibility of cold acclimatization in man by repeated exposure to moderately severe cold stress.

  3. Enhanced performance for the manned maneuvering unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Paul E.

    We have all seen the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) on television, in the newspaper, magazines and any number of other places. It is probably one of the most widely recognized articles ever put into orbit. This paper briefly describes the MMU. The description includes an overview of the controls and physical features and a discussion of the propulsion and electrical systems. Operational experience to date is briefly covered. The MMU was first used on STS 41-B for the first untethered space walk on February 7, 1984. Next usage was for the Solar Max mission on STS 41-C, followed by the retrieval of the Westar and Palapa communication satellites on mission STS 51-A in November, 1984. One of the "lessons learned" during these space operations was the need for enhanced performance by the MMU, and leads into a discussion of how that increased performance capability will be provided. Current work on a Propellant Tank Kit (PTK), which will provide enhanced performance, is shown. The PTK will provide sufficient propellant storage capability such that the MMU with PTK will have twice the previous delta velocity capability; i.e., double the MMU's maneuvering ability. Results of development testing in the NASA/JSC Weightless Environment Test Facility are included. Current status of PTK development is presented. This paper ends with a brief discussion of proposed space operations using the enhanced MMU performance in erecting space structures from the Space Shuttle, assembling and maintaining Space Station, rescue-transfer of astronauts and other space operations.

  4. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  5. The role of bioregenerative life-support systems in a manned future in space.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, C A

    1993-04-01

    Thus far in the manned space program, human life support has depended on storage of air, water, food, and energy. There are no refrigerators on Shuttle, and fresh foods are limited to what can be stowed in lockers for the first 3 days of a mission, when spoilage becomes a factor. Oxygen is stored, CO2 is scrubbed, and water is stored and treated. As we approach the Space Station era, life support will be a combination of storage and resupply. Duty cycles will be 90 days, and physico-chemical (P/C) systems will be important for recycling oxygen and water. Nutritionists seek a capability for refrigerated storage of fresh food on Station. However, most food still will be thermostabilized, rehydratables that can be stored at room temperature. Present Shuttle food is not much more sophisticated than repackaged camp food, and tends to be high in salt content. Hopefully, menus will be healthier on Station, where dietary countermeasures against biomedical responses to chronic microgravity might be implemented, and certainly need to be studied.

  6. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  7. Hermes - A manned European system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cretenet, J.-C.

    Features of a European hypersonic winged reentry vehicle, Hermes, are presented, together with the technology requirements for its development and the missions it would serve. LEO is beginning to hold promise for the manufacture of materials in microgravity and/or vacuum conditions in orbiting facilities which need to be serviced. A manned, reusable, winged reentry vehicle would permit the delivery and return of payloads from space, recovery of the first stage of the Ariane V rocket for reuse, and return of the Hermes to a landing at the Kourou launch site. The avionics would be similar to those of modern aircraft, as would the landing system. In-orbit operational techniques would be needed, as would an internal environment similar to Spacelab, a rigid turnaround time, high utilization rate, and a 10 yr lifetime. The length of the Hermes is projected as 12.5 m, wingtip to wingtip breadth of 7.4 m, and a total mass of 11,400 kg for a heliosynchronous orbit mission, while 15,400 kg are available for a circular, 490 m/sec orbit.

  8. Modulation of soleus H reflex by lateral tilting in man.

    PubMed

    Aiello, I; Rosati, G; Sau, G F; Cacciotto, R; Lentinu, M E; Tidore, B; Traccis, S

    1992-04-01

    Static vestibular influences on extensor tone of the lower limbs in man were studied by analyzing the changes in right soleus H-reflex (RSHR) area in relation to lateral tiltings. Eight normal adult volunteers were tested in an experimental situation designed to minimize all afferent inputs, except the vestibular ones. Each subject was seated on a chair which could be tilted laterally from the vertical to both sides. Lateral tiltings were applied at a random order from the vertical (0 degree, control position) to 4 degrees, 8 degrees, 12 degrees, 16 degrees, and 20 degrees of both sides (test positions). The results showed inhibition in SHR area of the leg ipsilateral to the tilting and facilitation of the contralateral SHR. These data indicate that, in man, as in the decerebrate cat, tonic labyrinth reflexes act asymmetrically and that, in static condition, the vestibular system modulates muscle tone of the lower limbs adequately to counteract lateral perturbation of upright position.

  9. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  10. The persistent dream - Soviet plans for manned lunar missions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Den Abeelen, L.

    Soviet hopes of achieving the supreme space `first' were crushed in July 1969 when an American became the first human on the Moon. Following the four unsuccessful flight tests of the N1 lunar booster, the Soviet manned lunar landing effort was officially suspended, but even as the Russians were denying they had ever planned to land a cosmonaut on the moon, NPO Energia was designing craft for a long-term scientific, even semi-industrial presence on the lunar surface.

  11. Can Intelligence Be Estimated From Drawings Of A Man?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisman, John M.; Yamokoski, Tom

    1973-01-01

    The Goodenough-Harris Draw-A-Man Test (DAM) and either the WISC or Stanford-Binet (S-B) were administered to 158 normal'' children. Discrepancy scores between the DAM and the S-B or WISC indicated that the DAM IQ tends to be below, at times considerably, IQs obtained from individual scales. Moreover, the DAM seemed to be virtually useless in…

  12. Functions of a Man-Machine Interactive Information Retrieval System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    An effective man-machine interactive retrieval system is not achieved by simply placing a terminal on each end of an existing machine retrieval...many of these needs was developed and tested. The objective of the development of this system, BROWSER, was to investigate the effectiveness of a free...form query with a combinatorial search algorithm and the effectiveness of various techniques and components to facilitate online browsing.

  13. 50 (Fifty) Years of Research on Man in Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    compartment that seriously restricted mobility , and required the aircrew to fly the aircraft continuously on instruments without out. ’de visibility. Another...Environmental control standards for space cabins * Abrupt acceleration for landing of manned space vehicles * Human performance and mobility in weightless...Firing tests were conducted in a C-47 at Eglin AFB (Captain Simons, Mr. Flexman, 7184, 1965) " Mobile laboratory measurement of acoustic noises from

  14. Design and Verification of Critical Pressurised Windows for Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoure, Richard; Busto, Lara; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben; Leal, Mendes M.

    2014-06-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spaceflight (WDMS) project was tasked with establishing the state-of-art and explore possible improvements to the current structural integrity verification and fracture control methodologies for manned spacecraft windows.A critical review of the state-of-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice was conducted. Shortcomings of the methodology in terms of analysis, inspection and testing were identified. Schemes for improving verification practices and reducing conservatism whilst maintaining the required safety levels were then proposed.An experimental materials characterisation programme was defined and carried out with the support of the 'Glass and Façade Technology Research Group', at the University of Cambridge. Results of the sample testing campaign were analysed, post-processed and subsequently applied to the design of a breadboard window demonstrator.Two Fused Silica glass window panes were procured and subjected to dedicated analyses, inspection and testing comprising both qualification and acceptance programmes specifically tailored to the objectives of the activity.Finally, main outcomes have been compiled into a Structural Verification Guide for Pressurised Windows in manned spacecraft, incorporating best practices and lessons learned throughout this project.

  15. Toxicity test of a dental commercial composite

    PubMed Central

    Ponce-Bravo, Santa; Martínez-Rivera, José-Luis; Garcés-Ortíz, Maricela

    2015-01-01

    Background International rules must be followed for testing biosecurity in dental materials. A new brand of restorative material appeared in the market and regulations indicated that it should be tested for toxicity. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the 90-day sub chronic toxicity of one triethylene glycol dimethacrylate containing composite (MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite™) orally administered to rats according to Organization for Economic Co-Operation and Development no. 48 guidelines and the requirements specified in the ISO 10993-11. Material and Methods Wistar rats ate the polymerized composite during 90 days and were observed to determine changes in their behavior, eye and skin signs and other attitudes such as aggressiveness, posture, walking and response to handling. After 90 days were sacrificed to ascertain blood alterations, we did special hematological tests and assessed microscopic slides from 33 different organs. Results We recorded no significant changes in clinical behavior of the animals. Microscopic review of the H&E stained slides obtained from the analyzed organs showed no abnormal inflammatory or cytological changes and all hematological special tests were within normal limits. Conclusions Results of this study show that under our experimental conditions the MEDENTAL Light-Cure Composite™ does not produce inflammatory or cytological changes suggestive of toxicity. Key words:Dental materials, composite resin, toxicity, inflammation, TEGDMA. PMID:26155348

  16. A middle man approach to knowledge acquisition in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Janice A.; Lin, Min-Jin; Mayer, Richard J.; Sterle, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    The Weed Control Advisor (WCA) is a robust expert system that has been successfully implemented on an IBM AT class microcomputer in CLIPS. The goal of the WCA was to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an economical, efficient, user friendly system through which Texas rice producers could obtain expert level knowledge regarding herbicide application for weed control. During the development phase of the WCA, an improved knowledge acquisition method which we call the Middle Man Approach (MMA) was applied to facilitate the communication process between the domain experts and the knowledge engineer. The MMA served to circumvent the problems associated with the more traditional forms of knowledge acquisition by placing the Middle Man, a semi-expert in the problem domain with some computer expertise, at the site of system development. The middle man was able to contribute to system development in two major ways. First, the Middle Man had experience working in rice production and could assume many of the responsibilities normally performed by the domain experts such as explaining the background of the problem domain and determining the important relations. Second, the Middle Man was familiar with computers and worked closely with the system developers to update the rules after the domain experts reviewed the prototype, contribute to the help menus and explanation portions of the expert system, conduct the testing that is required to insure that the expert system gives the expected results answer questions in a timely way, help the knowledge engineer structure the domain knowledge into a useable form, and provide insight into the end user's profile which helped in the development of the simple user friendly interface. The final results were not only that both time expended and costs were greatly reduced by using the MMA, but the quality of the system was improved. This papa will introduce the WCA system and then discuss traditional knowledge acquisition along with

  17. The Ancestry and Affiliations of Kennewick Man

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten; Poznik, G. David; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; de León, Marcia Ponce; Allentoft, Morten E.; Moltke, Ida; Jónsson, Hákon; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malhi, Ripan S.; Orlando, Ludovic; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Meltzer, David J.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon-dated to 8340–9200 calibrated years BP1. His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the Claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The morphological analysis was important to judicial decisions that Kennewick Man was not Native American and that therefore NAGPRA did not apply. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted2. Subsequent craniometric analysis affirmed Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans2. In order to resolve Kennewick Man’s ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ~1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide. Among the Native American groups for whom genome wide data is available for comparison, several appear to be descended from a population closely related to that of Kennewick Man, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genomic-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We therefore conclude based on genetic comparisons that Kennewick Man shows continuity with Native North Americans over at least the last eight millennia. PMID:26087396

  18. Orthostatic vasomotor response in spinal man.

    PubMed

    Krebs, M; Ragnarrson, K T; Tuckman, J

    1983-04-01

    The cardiovascular adaptation of tetraplegics to the upright position has been previously demonstrated to be deficient. Presumably this is due to the interruption of the spinal pathways linking supraspinal control centres with the peripheral sympathetic motor neurons. Review of previous studies of this phenomenon reveals that vasomotor responses have been determined primarily from blood flow measurements in the extremities. Contradictory conclusions have been drawn. Study of the visceral circulation, in particular renal blood flow, could shed more light on this poorly understood area. Renal clearance tests were carried out on seven healthy controls and eight chronic, clinically complete tetraplegic patients. Renal blood flow, mean arterial pressure, and total renal vascular resistance in both supine and passive head-up tilt positions were calculated from collected data. Renal blood flow and total renal vascular resistance showed significant decrease and increase respectively during tilting in controls and tetraplegic subjects. Although the renal circulation is autoregulated, postural change causes profound alteration of the renal blood flow mediated through the haemodynamic effects of the renal nerves. Sympathetic renal vasoconstriction is mediated by the carotid sinus reflex through the vasomotor centre in the brainstem. In the absence of supraspinal influence the renal vasculature is shown to respond to an orthostatic stimulus with a vigorous vasoconstriction. The adaptation of spinal man to the upright position may involve the recovery of a spinal vasomotor reflex involving the splanchnic circulation.

  19. Synergistic Man: Outcome Model for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseve, Ronald J.

    1973-01-01

    Drawing on the insights of Ruth Benedict and Abraham Maslow in their search for an ethical gauge by which to rate personal-social health, this article proposes synergistic man'' as the desired outcome model for counselors. (Author)

  20. Mission analyses for manned flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations to develop a high altitude aircraft program plan are reported along with an analysis of manned comet and asteroid missions, the development of shuttle sortie mission objectives, and an analysis of major management issues facing the shuttle sortie.

  1. Laser Pyro System Standardization and Man Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an X-38 laser pyro system standardization system designed for a new manned rated program. The plans to approve this laser initiation system and preliminary ideas for this system are also provided.

  2. Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162700.html Cardiology Still a Man's Field, Survey Finds Women less ... Dr. Claire Duvernoy, chair of the Women in Cardiology Council at the American College of Cardiology (ACC). ...

  3. QX MAN: Q and X file manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krein, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    QX MAN is a grid and solution file manipulation program written primarily for the PARC code and the GRIDGEN family of grid generation codes. QX MAN combines many of the features frequently encountered in grid generation, grid refinement, the setting-up of initial conditions, and post processing. QX MAN allows the user to manipulate single block and multi-block grids (and their accompanying solution files) by splitting, concatenating, rotating, translating, re-scaling, and stripping or adding points. In addition, QX MAN can be used to generate an initial solution file for the PARC code. The code was written to provide several formats for input and output in order for it to be useful in a broad spectrum of applications.

  4. Sex and the Man With Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Sexual Side Effects in People with Cancer Sex and the Man With Cancer In this guide, ... you and your partner some information about cancer, sex, and sexuality. We cannot answer every question, but ...

  5. Sexuality for the Man with Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Sexuality for the Man With Cancer Cancer, sex, and sexuality When you first learned you had ... affect your sexual function. What is a normal sex life? People vary a great deal in their ...

  6. Unmanned Aerial System, New System Manning Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    during the same mission, the area under surveillance is subject to a chemical attack during a period of inclement weather, say low-level fog or rain...these potential fog -of-war situations occur that systems design, particularly manning, must be able to cope with the imposed load. This concept is...of some of the data, that is, because of the dispersion in manning values for the five systems chosen, a rank-based regression would provide a more

  7. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  8. Environmental control system development for manned spacecraft 1960-1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popma, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of environmental revitalization techniques from their beginnings in caisson and submarine habitats, up to the present time. The use of CO2 adsorbents, such as LiOH and their application to the first U.S. manned spaceflight is described, together with the beginnings of the regenerable CO2 sorber technology using molecular sieves and its ultimate application to Skylab. The concepts and hardware systems used for atmospheric revitalization on all major U.S. ground-based manned tests is detailed, including CO2 reduction and O2 generation processes. Current research and development efforts are also outlined. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the recently completed SSP, the most advanced and complete ECS that has been fabricated to date.

  9. Zoonotic aspects of filarial infections in man

    PubMed Central

    Dissanaike, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    This article gives an account of the filarial parasites found in man and their potential transmissibility to and from other vertebrate animals under natural and experimental conditions. Those species that are regarded as being primarily parasites of other vertebrates, but which also infect man, are then dealt with in greater detail. These include the subperiodic strain of Brugia malayi and perhaps also B. pahangi, both of which are found in wild and domestic carnivores and monkeys, and Dirofilaria species of dogs and racoons. The Brugia parasites develop to maturity with the production of microfilaraemia and clinical manifestations in man similar to those caused by periodic B. malayi in man. Human dirofilariasis, on the other hand, represents a transmission cul-de-sac for the parasite. Clinical manifestations are mild or absent and generally the worms do not mature and, even if they do, they rarely give rise to microfilaraemia. D. immitis causes pulmonary dirofilariasis, and D. repens and D. tenuis give rise to subcutaneous nodules in man. The diagnosis of dirofilariasis depends on an awareness of the infection in the animal reservoirs and of the possibility of man being exposed to bites of infected vectors. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6 PMID:314349

  10. Three-Man Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Breadboard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1989-06-01

    The development of the Three-Man (2.2 lb CO2/man-day) Solid Electrolyte CO2 Electrolysis Breadboard consisted of a Phase 1 and 2 effort. The Phase 1 effort constituted fabrication of three electrolysis cell types and performing parametric testing, off-design testing, and cell life testing. The Phase 2 consisted of the preliminary design, incorporation of palladium (Pd) tubes for hydrogen separation from the electrolyzer cathode feed gases, design support testing, final design, fabrication, and performance testing of the breadboard system. The results of performance tests demonstrated that CO2 electrolysis in an oxygen reclamation system for long duration space-based habitats is feasible. Closure of the oxygen system loop, therefore, can be achieved by CO2 electrolysis. In a two step process the metabolic CO2 and H2O vapor are electrolyzed into O2, H2, and CO. The CO can subsequently be disproportionated into carbon and CO2 in a carbon deposition reactor and the CO2 in turn be recycled and electrolyzed for total O2 recovery. The development effort demonstrated electrolyzer system can be designed and built to operate safely and reliably and the incorporation of Pd tubes for hydrogen diffusion can be integrated safely with predictable performance.

  11. Three-Man Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the Three-Man (2.2 lb CO2/man-day) Solid Electrolyte CO2 Electrolysis Breadboard consisted of a Phase 1 and 2 effort. The Phase 1 effort constituted fabrication of three electrolysis cell types and performing parametric testing, off-design testing, and cell life testing. The Phase 2 consisted of the preliminary design, incorporation of palladium (Pd) tubes for hydrogen separation from the electrolyzer cathode feed gases, design support testing, final design, fabrication, and performance testing of the breadboard system. The results of performance tests demonstrated that CO2 electrolysis in an oxygen reclamation system for long duration space-based habitats is feasible. Closure of the oxygen system loop, therefore, can be achieved by CO2 electrolysis. In a two step process the metabolic CO2 and H2O vapor are electrolyzed into O2, H2, and CO. The CO can subsequently be disproportionated into carbon and CO2 in a carbon deposition reactor and the CO2 in turn be recycled and electrolyzed for total O2 recovery. The development effort demonstrated electrolyzer system can be designed and built to operate safely and reliably and the incorporation of Pd tubes for hydrogen diffusion can be integrated safely with predictable performance.

  12. Orbital construction support equipment - Manned remote work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassiff, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The Manned Remote Work Station (MRWS) is a versatile piece of orbital construction support equipment which can support in-space construction in various modes of operation. Proposed near-term Space Shuttle mission support and future large orbiting systems support, along with the various construction modes of MRWS operation, are discussed. Preliminary flight subsystems requirements and configuration design are presented. Integration of the MRWS development test article with the JSC Mockup and Integration Facility, including ground-test objectives and techniques for zero-g simulations, is also presented.

  13. Zika Phase I Clinical Trial Material—From Research to Release in 90 Days | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Over the past 12 months, we’ve grown accustomed to seeing Zika in the news. The virus has been linked to thousands of cases of microcephaly in Brazilian babies. Numerous countries, including the United States, have reported Zika-related deaths. And there is no vaccine available at this time. In the face of what has become a global health crisis, the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) at the NIH/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) responded to a call from Anthony Fauci, Ph.D., head, NIAID, to get a candidate vaccine into human trials by the summer of 2016.

  14. Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes in the Lungs of Mice 7 and 90 Days After Intratracheal Instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have many potential applications in the electronic, computer, and aerospace industries. Because unprocessed nanotubes could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods, and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were each intratracheally instilled once with 0,0.1 or 0.5 mg of nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control, and killed for histopathological study 7 d or 90 d after the treatment. All nanotube products induced epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7 -d groups. These lesions persisted and were worse in the 90-d groups. We found that, if nanotubes reach the lung, they can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  15. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding.

  16. Decay in AN/PSS-14 Operator Skill at 30, 60, and 90 Days Following Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    units are analyzed by the Electronics Unit which in turn produces auditory signals in the Earpiece and an external speaker mounted in the Electronics...present. Major components of the AN/PSS-14 are its battery case and cable (mounted on a belt worn by the operator), the electronics unit, earpiece ...and cable, control grip, wand assembly, and sensor head. V "--- Battery CaseSand Cable and Cable Electronics Unit (EU) ’*- Earpiece and Cable WNW Sensor

  17. 45 CFR 147.116 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... 147.116 Section 147.116 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS HEALTH INSURANCE REFORM REQUIREMENTS FOR THE GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL HEALTH... health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, must not apply...

  18. Learning Teaching (LT) Program: Developing an Effective Teacher Feedback System. 90-Day Cycle Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park,Sandra; Takahashi, Sola; White, Taylor

    2014-01-01

    Early career teachers make up an increasingly large proportion of the public school teaching force. Often less effective and facing greater challenges than their more experienced counterparts, new teachers tend to leave the profession at high rates and, given that the modal length of teaching experience has now dropped to one year, finding ways to…

  19. Low Magnitude Mechanical Signals Reduce Risk-Factors for Fracture during 90-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muir, J. W.; Xia, Y.; Holquin, N.; Judex, S.; Qin, Y.; Evans, H.; Lang, T.; Rubin, C.

    2007-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight leads to multiple deleterious changes to the musculoskeletal system, where loss of bone density, an order of magnitude more severe than that which follows the menopause, combined with increased instability, conspire to elevate the risk of bone fracture due to falls on return to gravitational fields. Here, a ground-based analog for spaceflight is used to evaluate the efficacy of a low-magnitude mechanical intervention, VIBE (Vibrational Inhibition of Bone Erosion), as a potential countermeasure to preserve musculoskeletal integrity in the face of disuse. Twenty-six subjects consented to ninety days of six-degree head-down tilt bed-rest. 18 completed the 90d protocol, 8 of which received daily 10-minute exposure to 30 Hz, 0.3g VIBE, applied in the supine position using a vest elastically coupled to the vibrating platform. The shoulder harness induced a load of 60% of the subjects body weight. At baseline and 90d, Qualitative Ultrasound Scans (QUS) of the calcaneus and CT-scans of the hip and spine were performed to measure changes in bone density. Postural control (PC) was assessed through center of pressure (COP) recordings while subjects stood on a force platform for 4 minutes of quiet stance with eyes closed, and again with eyes opened. As compared to control bedrest subjects,

  20. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Notice of Initiation) 20 Notification to the ITC that no domestic interested party has responded to the... response is filed with the Department) 40 Notification to the ITC that no domestic interested party...

  1. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Notice of Initiation) 20 Notification to the ITC that no domestic interested party has responded to the... response is filed with the Department) 40 Notification to the ITC that no domestic interested party...

  2. Effects of furan on male rat reproduction parameters in a 90-day gavage study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M; Taylor, Marnie; Bourque, Christine; Curran, Ivan; Gurofsky, Susan; Gill, Santokh

    2014-07-01

    Furan is produced in foods during processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Previously, we reported that furan-exposed rats exhibited dose-dependent gross and histological changes in liver which correlated with changes in liver serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. Here we report the effects of furan on the male reproductive system. There were no histological or weight changes in the reproductive organs. Serum testosterone levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner whereas serum LH was decreased. There were no changes in 17-OHase, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities or serum FSH. Furan did not alter mRNA expression levels for the LH receptor or Tspo but in contrast, mRNA levels of StAR were increased in all doses of furan. The mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1) was increased by furan at the high dose, as was the level of intratesticular testosterone. We conclude that subchronic furan exposure affects testicular steroidogenesis.

  3. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects... (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea... hematopoietic system, reticulocyte counts and bone marrow cytology may be indicated. (D) Other...

  4. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects... (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea... hematopoietic system, reticulocyte counts and bone marrow cytology may be indicated. (D) Other...

  5. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects... (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea... hematopoietic system, reticulocyte counts and bone marrow cytology may be indicated. (D) Other...

  6. Evaluation of the 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale JP-5 Jet Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-01

    the required fill shall be rejected . If the number of defective or underfilled containers exceeds the acceptance number for ...035 The experiments reported herein were conducted according to the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals," Institute of Laboratory Animal...and is approved for publication. FOR THE COMMANDER BRUCE 0. STUART, PhD Director Toxic Hazards Division Air Force Aerospace Medical Research

  7. Report of the 90-day study on human exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The basic mission sequence to achieve the President's goal is clear: begin with Space Station Freedom in the 1990's, return to the Moon to stay early in the Next century, and then journey to Mars. Five reference approaches are modeled building on past programs and recent studies to reflect wide-ranging strategies that incorporate varied program objectives, schedules, technologies, and resource availabilities. The reference approaches are (1) balance and speed; (2) the earliest possible landing on Mars; (3) reduce logistics from Earth; (4) schedule adapted to Space Station Freedom; and (5) reduced scales. The study and programmatic assessment have shown that the Human Exploration Initiative is indeed a feasible approach to achieving the President's goals. Several reasonable alternatives exist, but a long-range commitment and significant resources will be required. However, the value of the program and the benefits to the Nation are immeasurable.

  8. Evaluation of 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale Diesel Fuel Marine (DFM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    ileum, kidneys, larynx, liver, lungs and bronchi, mammary gland, mesenteric and mandibular lymph nodes, nasal cavity, ovaries, pancreas, parathyroids...Virtually all of the male rats exposed to 300 mg/M 3 had mineralized deposits in the renal papilla . The incidence of mineralization in male rats exposed to...demonstrated mineralization of the renal papilla . The severity of this lesion was characterized as mild, with no indication of a dose related increase in

  9. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... purchase. (b) The specific factual situation presented may be summarized as follows: Customer purchased... profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to the creditor (member firm...(c)(8) prohibits a creditor, as a general rule, from effecting a purchase of a security in a...

  10. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... purchase. (b) The specific factual situation presented may be summarized as follows: Customer purchased... profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to the creditor (member firm...(c)(8) prohibits a creditor, as a general rule, from effecting a purchase of a security in a...

  11. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... follows: Customer purchased stock in a special cash account with a member firm on Day 1. On Day 3 customer sold the same stock at a profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to... of a security in a customer's special cash account if any security has been purchased in that...

  12. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... purchase. (b) The specific factual situation presented may be summarized as follows: Customer purchased... profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to the creditor (member firm...(c)(8) prohibits a creditor, as a general rule, from effecting a purchase of a security in a...

  13. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... follows: Customer purchased stock in a special cash account with a member firm on Day 1. On Day 3 customer sold the same stock at a profit. On Day 8 customer delivered his check for the cost of the purchase to... of a security in a customer's special cash account if any security has been purchased in that...

  14. A Review of the Biomedical Effects of Marihuana on Man in the Military Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The review documents in detail the current state of knowledge of the effects of marihuana on man. The study examines the relationships between... marihuana use and performance of the man in a military environment and identifies opportunities for future research by the Army in this field. The scope of...review includes a description of behavioral tests used to measure marihuana effects, the influence of an individual’s expectations, and effects of

  15. In vitro sensitivity testing of cells of histologically typified ovarian carcinomas and carcinoma of corpus with 3H-cyclophosphamide-metabolites in the serum of man after massive dose therapy.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, V; Schaumlöffel, E; Jankowski, R P

    1978-12-01

    Cells of a carcinoma of the uterine corpus and of five ovarian carcinomas were cultured in vitro with monolayer and sandwich methods, respectively. After 24-hours-incubation with serum samples of patients treated with a massive dose of 3H-cyclophosphamide (60 mg/kg body weight i.v.)-the samples were taken at different times after application-these cultures with a chromatographically defined content of free metabolites were interpreted, guided by morphological criteria. Incubation of the cultures with serum samples taken 5 hours after application of the massive dose turned out to be a practical system for detection, before the start of therapy, of the sensitivity of malignant tumors to cyclophosphamide. Statements about the proliferation kinetics of the malignant cells, about the active ultimate form of the antitumor agent and its way of action, which are not guaranteed experimentally, are largely eliminated by this method. The justification for using 4-hydroxy- and 4-hydroperoxy-cyclophosphamide to test the sensitivity of malignant cells in vitro to cyclophosphamide was critically examined.

  16. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  17. Managing the aging man in Asia: a review.

    PubMed

    Tong, Seng Fah; Ho, Christopher; Tan, Hui Meng

    2011-01-01

    The aging man is becoming a major burden to Asian countries because of the current poor health status of Asian men and the aging Asian population. Life expectancy at birth for men is shorter than women by an average of 4 years in Asian countries and major causes of death are cardiovascular disease, cancers, injuries and infections. However, there are considerable variations between Asian countries because of great disparity in socioeconomic status. Male-specific disorders, such as male sexual health and urological conditions, are other major health burdens because they have a great impact on men's quality of life. More importantly, many risk factors to the causes of mortality and morbidities, such as high-risk behavior and smoking, can be improved with health promotion and early intervention. The current evidence suggests that the poor health status of men is the result of their poor health care utilization, negative health-seeking behavior, the adverse social environment for men and gender-insensitive health care delivery. However, much evidence is still needed as Asian countries have great diversity in culture, societal values and men's needs. Asian time-tested wisdom on a balanced healthy lifestyle to longevity should be explored as potential men's health promotional programs. Taking into account Asian men's health-care needs, a gender-streamlined approach and man-friendly health care delivery should be on the national agenda in managing the aging man.

  18. Wiring test program insulation material related properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reher, Heinz-Josef

    1995-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides an overview of activities at DASA-RI concerning the testing of wires for manned spacecraft, including test facilities, arc-tracking tests, flammability tests, microgravity tests, and standardization, and outlines future activities.

  19. The Centauri project: Manned interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of antimatter engines for spacecraft propulsion will allow man to expand to the nearest stellar neighbors such as the Alpha Centuri system. Compared to chemically powered rockets like the Apollo mission class which would take 50,000 years to reach the Centauri system, antimatter propulsion would reduce one way trip time to 30 years or less. The challenges encountered by manned interstellar travel are formidable. The spacecraft must be a combination of sublight speed transportation system and a traveling microplanet serving an expanding population. As the population expands from the initial 100 people to approximately 300, the terraformed asteroid, enclosed by a man-made shell will allow for expansion over its surface in the fashion of a small terrestrial town. All aspects of human life - birth; death; physical, emotional, and educational needs; and government and law must be met by the structure, systems, and institutions on-board.

  20. Nuclear power: key to man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The start of the Third Millennium will be highlighted by the establishment of man's extraterrestrial civilization with three technical cornerstones leading to the off-planet expansion of the human resource base. These are (1) the availability of compact energy sources for power and propulsion, (2) the creation of permanent manned habitats in space, and (3) the ability to process materials anywhere in the Solar System. In the 1990s and beyond, nuclear reactors could represent the prime source of both space power and propulsion. The manned and unmanned space missions of tomorrow will demand first kilowatt and then megawatt levels of power. Various nuclear power plant technologies will be discussed, with emphasis on derivatives from the nuclear rocket technology.

  1. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  2. The cost of landing man on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, H. C., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    In a period where the space program budget is generally static at about 1/3 of the level reached during the Apollo program, manned planetary flight is not considered by NASA planners to be a realistic near term goal. Much of NASA's current planning is based on the perception that manned planetary flight would be more costly than the Apollo lunar landing. This paper demonstrates that with current technological improvements in avionics, structure, and space transportation, the landing of an American on Mars would cost only 1/3 to 2/3 of the lunar landing; on a per capita basis such a program would cost less than $200, compared to Apollo's $325 (all dollars in 1981 base). Given the fact that a manned Mars landing is the last such exploration feat left to this generation, the cost should clearly not be a major deterrent.

  3. Further diagnostic thoughts about the Elephant Man.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M M

    1988-04-01

    Further evidence for a diagnosis of the Elephant Man's condition is reviewed. It is known that the Elephant Man had "mocassin" lesions, hyperostoses of the skull, and absence of café-au-lait spots, all of which are characteristic of Proteus syndrome. Recently, questions have been raised about his skeletal findings and their relevance to neurofibromatosis. However, other skeletal diagnoses have been entertained, including Maffucci syndrome, Paget's disease of bone, pyarthrosis, and fibrous dysplasia. These diagnostic possibilities are discussed and evaluated critically. It is concluded that the skeletal findings are most consistent with Proteus syndrome and coincidental hip disease secondary to childhood trauma.

  4. Otto Rank and man's urge to immortality.

    PubMed

    Goldwert, M

    1985-04-01

    Otto Rank, one of Sigmund Freud's original followers, posited the existence of an "urge to immortality" as man's deepest drive. In his Psychology and the Soul, Rank traced the desire for immortality through four historical eras, with particular emphasis on the creativity of the hero and the artist. By the end of his life, Rank had not only repudiated orthodox psychoanalysis and developed then abandoned a psychology of the will, he had moved "beyond psychology" to a religious view of history and the nature of man.

  5. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  6. Manned Certification Tests of the Modernized MK 16 MOD 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    the UBA inspiratory hose. Twenty-four divers using six modernized MK 16 MOD 1 UBAs performed 63 dives: 20 each at 130 feet of sea water ( fsw ) for 30...minutes and 150 fsw for 35 minutes, and 23 at 300 fsw for 20 minutes (40, 45 and 91 msw). Decompression was according U.S. Navy Diving Manual...7 Oxygen Control Comparison with Legacy MK 16 MOD 1 ............................................ 7 Dives to 130 fsw

  7. Manned Spacecraft Landing and Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, Don

    2004-01-01

    As recent history has tragically demonstrated, a successful space mission is not complete until the crew has safely returned to earth and has been successfully recovered. It is noted that a safe return to earth does not guarantee a successful recovery. The focus of this presentation will be a discussion of the ground operation assets involved in a successful recovery. The author's experience in land and water-based recovery of crewed vehicles and flight hardware at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Edwards Air Force Base, international landing sites, and the Atlantic Ocean provides for some unique insight into this topic. He has participated in many aspects of Space Shuttle landing and recovery operations including activation of Transatlantic Abort Landing (TAL) sites and Emergency Landing Sites (ELS) as an Operations Test Director, execution of post landing convoy operations as an Orbiter Move Director, Operations Test Director, and Landing and Recovery Director, and recovery of solid rocket boosters, frustum and their parachutes 140 miles offshore in a wide range of sea states as a Retrieval Diver/Engineer. The recovery operations for the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo were similar from a landing and recovery perspective in th t they all were capsules with limited "flying" capability and had a planned End of Mission (EOM) in an ocean with a descent slowed by parachutes. The general process was to deploy swim teams via helicopters to prepare the capsule for recovery and assist with crew extraction when required. The capsule was then hoisted onto the deck of a naval vessel. This approach required the extensive use and deployment of military assets to support the primary landing zone as well as alternate and contingency locations. The Russian Soyuz capsule also has limited "flying" capability; however, the planned EOM is terrestrial. In addition to use of parachutes to slow the reentry descent, soft-landing rockets on the bottom of the vehicle are employed to cushion the

  8. [The Six Million Dollar Man: from fiction to reality].

    PubMed

    Langeveld, C H Kees

    2013-01-01

    The term 'bionic' has been in existence since 1958, but only gained general recognition from the television series 'The Six Million Dollar Man'. Following a crash, the central figure in this series - test pilot Steve Austin - has an eye, an arm and both legs replaced by prostheses which make him stronger and faster than a normal person. This story is based on the science fiction book 'Cyborg' by Martin Caidin. In the world of comic books and films there are a number of examples of people who are given superhuman powers by having technological gadgets built in. Although the latter is not yet possible, the bionic human has now become reality.

  9. Skylab: The Second Manned Mission. A Scientific Harvest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This black and white video presentation covers the Skylab launch activities and docking with unmanned SL-1 workshop. Included are observations of student experiments (the Minchmog minnows and Arabella, the spider), observations of student experiments, exercise routines, and the enabling of the Earth Resources Experiments Package. Also shown is planet Earth documentation, manned operation of the Apollo Telescope Mount for observations of the Sun and beyond, outside EVA activity, testing of the Astronaut Maneuvering Unit, experiments to explore industrial uses of space, and the Skylab living routine.

  10. Hemodynamics of erection in man

    SciTech Connect

    Shirai, M.; Ishii, N.

    1981-02-01

    Inquiry was made into the theory that closure of the efferent vein from the corpora cavernosa is essential for erection of the human penis. To determine whether the venous closure is indeed a prerequisite to human penile erection, two tests were carried out in men: (1) direct infusion in 133Xe into corpora cavernosa and (2) performance of carvernosography. In each case, penile erection was induced by providing the subject with sexual stimulation. The behavioral changes were studied through the 133Xe clearance curve and the contrast medium, respectively. When the penis remained flaccid, the 133Xe clearance curve followed a gentle path and the contrast medium could be noted within the penis for a relatively long period. However, on erection with sexual stimulation, the 133Xe clearance curve fell rapidly instead of following the gentle course expected in the case of venous closure. Also, the contrast medium quickly flowed out of the corpora cavernosa. The human penis therefore can well erect without closure of the efferent vein from the corpora cavernosa.

  11. University for Man Annual Report for 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. University for Man.

    The 1981 report describes current activities, publications and films, sources of financial support, and organizational overview of the University for Man (UFM), founded in 1967 in Manhattan, Kansas, on the concept of citizens learning from each other and involving themselves to affect their community. The organization is divided into three program…

  12. Chemistry in "The Ascent of Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostettler, John D.; Brooks, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    Describes "The Ascent of Man," a course emphasizing science and human values. Detailed are some chemical topics covered in the course, and how these topics are used in other traditional chemistry courses. Topics discussed include alchemy, the chemical revolution, steam engines, the Manhattan project, and several bioethical problems. (CS)

  13. Man in a Changing Society--MIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marklund, Inger, Ed.; Otter, Annica, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Described is the Man in a Changing Society (MIS) project in which K-12 Swedish children use parish records to study and research local history. Church records in Sweden contain detailed information about individuals living during the 18th and 19th centuries. To make this information accessible to researchers, the Swedish church records are being…

  14. [A man with severe traumatic brain injury].

    PubMed

    Oudeman, Eline A; Martins Jarnalo, Carine O; van Ouwerkerk, Willem J R

    2013-01-01

    We present a 41-year-old man with severe traumatic brain injury. Cranial imaging studies revealed cerebral contusion and a longitudinal fracture of the temporal bone. Several days later brain herniated into the left external auditory canal. Imaging studies showed the known skull fracture with a direct connection between the external acoustic meatus and the intracranial structures.

  15. Man and Environment, Study Guide, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    Subject information, course instructions, and resource materials for a television course, "Man and Environment," are compiled in this student study guide. The interdisciplinary, modular course emphasizes the importance of such concerns as destruction of the environment and the declining quality of life while educating the public about…

  16. THE MAN MADE WORLD, LABORATORY MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS LABORATORY MANUAL, THE COMPANION VOLUME TO THE STUDENT'S TEXT FOR THE "MAN MADE WORLD" HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, CONTAINS 31 EXPERIMENTS DEALING WITH THE THEORY, CIRCUITRY, AND OPERATION OF COMPUTERS, AND RELATED TECHNOLOGY. THE COURSE WAS WRITTEN BY SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND EDUCATORS, AND IS INTENDED AS A PART OF THE CULTURAL CURRICULUM FOR ALL…

  17. Man's Search: English, Mythology. 5112.22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersheimer, Lenore C.

    A course which is an exploration of man's eternal search to understand himself and his world through the study of the mythology of the world is presented. Performance objectives include: (1) Students will recognize the content of the myths studied; (2) Students will identify the specific characteristics of the civilization studied; (3) Students…

  18. Man-Machine Communication Through a Teletypewriter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinoff, Morris

    A ten-year research study designed a mechanized information system in the information processing field. Special attention was paid to implementation criteria entering into on-line retrieval through man-machine dialog from a remote typewriter or video terminal and four major areas were investigated: search strategies, machine stored indexer aids,…

  19. Determining Pilot Manning for Bomber Longevity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    pilots across a range of fleet mission-capable rates. Determination of actual optimum manning levels is sensitive to duration and prob- ability...33 3.3.4 Sortie Duration ...schedule repetition assumption is not applicable 15 to the long- duration bomber mission problem and unnecessary because the creation of detailed crew

  20. The Language of Man. Book 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littell, Joseph Fletcher, Ed.

    Book 4 of "The Language of Man" series contains articles which deal with semantics, levels of language (including informal, formal and technical language, jargon, and gobbledygook), the hidden persuaders (advertising of merchandise and political candidates), and communications of the future (including the computer and other mass media now being…