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Sample records for 90-day rodent feeding

  1. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements.

  2. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO.

  3. Safety Assessment of Food and Feed from GM Crops in Europe: Evaluating EFSA's Alternative Framework for the Rat 90-day Feeding Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Bonnie; Du, Yingzhou; Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Appenzeller, Laura M

    2017-07-12

    Regulatory-compliant rodent subchronic feeding studies are compulsory regardless of a hypothesis to test, according to recent EU legislation for the safety assessment of whole food/feed produced from genetically modified (GM) crops containing a single genetic transformation event (European Union Commission Implementing Regulation No. 503/2013). The Implementing Regulation refers to guidelines set forth by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for the design, conduct, and analysis of rodent subchronic feeding studies. The set of EFSA recommendations was rigorously applied to a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats. After study completion, the appropriateness and applicability of these recommendations were assessed using a battery of statistical analysis approaches including both retrospective and prospective statistical power analyses as well as variance-covariance decomposition. In the interest of animal welfare considerations, alternative experimental designs were investigated and evaluated in the context of informing the health risk assessment of food/feed from GM crops.

  4. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Gao-jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats. PMID:27812153

  5. A 90-Day Feeding Study in Rats to Assess the Safety of Genetically Engineered Pork.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Gao-Jun; Jiang, Sheng-Wang; Qian, Li-Li; Cai, Chun-Bo; Wang, Qing-Qing; Ma, De-Zun; Li, Biao; Xie, Shan-Shan; Cui, Wen-Tao; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory recently produced genetically engineered (GE) Meishan pigs containing a ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant. These GE pigs develop and grow as normal as wild type pigs but produce pork with greater lean yield and lower fat mass. To assess any potential subchronic toxicity risks of this GE pork, a 90-day feeding study was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were randomly divided into five groups, and fed for 90 days with basic diet and basic diets formulated with low dose and high dose pork prepared from wild type pigs and GE pigs, respectively. Animal behaviors and clinical signs were monitored twice daily, and body weight and food consumption were measured and recorded weekly. At days 45 and 90, blood tests (lipid panel, electrolytes, parameters related to liver and kidney functions, and complete blood counts) were performed. Additionally, gross pathology and histopathological analyses were performed for major organs in each group. Data analysis shows that there were no significant differences in growth rate, food consumption, and blood test parameters between rat groups fed with GE pork and wild type pork. Although differences in some liver function parameters (such as aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, and alkaline phosphatase) and white blood cell counts (such as lymphocyte percentage and monocyte percentage) were observed between rats fed with high dose GE pork and basic diet, all test results in rats fed with GE pork are in the normal range. Additionally, there are no apparent lesions noted in all organs isolated from rats in all five feeding groups on days 45 and 90. Overall, our results clearly indicate that food consumption of GE pork produced by ZFN-edited myostatin loss-of-function mutant pigs did not have any long-term adverse effects on the health status in rats.

  6. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice.

  7. Safety assessment of genetically modified milk containing human beta-defensin-3 on rats by a 90-day feeding study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin; Gao, Ming-Qing; Liang, Dong; Yin, Songna; Yao, Kezhen; Zhang, Yong

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, transgenic technology has been widely applied in many fields. There is concern about the safety of genetically modified (GM) products with the increased prevalence of GM products. In order to prevent mastitis in dairy cows, our group produced transgenic cattle expressing human beta-defensin-3 (HBD3) in their mammary glands, which confers resistance to the bacteria that cause mastitis. The milk derived from these transgenic cattle thus contained HBD3. The objective of the present study was to analyze the nutritional composition of HBD3 milk and conduct a 90-day feeding study on rats. Rats were divided into 5 groups which consumed either an AIN93G diet (growth purified diet for rodents recommended by the American Institute of Nutrition) with the addition of 10% or 30% HBD3 milk, an AIN93G diet with the addition of 10% or 30% conventional milk, or an AIN93G diet alone. The results showed that there was no difference in the nutritional composition of HBD3 and conventional milk. Furthermore, body weight, food consumption, blood biochemistry, relative organ weight, and histopathology were normal in those rats that consumed diets containing HBD3. No adverse effects were observed between groups that could be attributed to varying diets or gender.

  8. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  9. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified maize expressing Cry1Ac-M protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pengfei; He, Xiaoyun; Chen, Delong; Luo, Yunbo; Cao, Sishuo; Song, Huan; Liu, Ting; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2012-09-01

    The cry1Ac-M gene, coding one of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal proteins, was introduced into maize H99 × Hi IIB genome to produce insect-resistant GM maize BT-38. The food safety assessment of the BT-38 maize was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats by a 90-days feeding study. We incorporated maize grains from BT-38 and H99 × Hi IIB into rodent diets at three concentrations (12.5%, 25%, 50%) and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n=10/sex/group) for 90 days. A commercialized rodent diet was fed to an additional group as control group. Body weight, feed consumption and toxicological response variables were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. Moreover, detection of residual Cry1Ac-M protein in the serum of rats fed with GM maize was conducted. No death or adverse effects were observed in the current feeding study. No adverse differences in the values of the response variables were observed between rats that consumed diets containing GM maize BT-38 and non-GM maize H99 × Hi IIB. No detectable Cry1Ac-M protein was found in the serum of rats after feeding diets containing GM maize for 3 months. The results demonstrated that BT-38 maize is as safe as conventional non-GM maize.

  10. Range Finding 14-Day and 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies with N,N-Dipropylcyclohexanecarboxamide in Rats. Phase 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-12-01

    clinical chemistry values. Significant increases occurred in male rat liver organ-to-body weight ratios in all three dose levels at the 45 and 90 day necropsies during the 90-day feeding study. A no effect dose was not achieved during this study. Additional testing would be required to confirm a no effect dose level. It is concluded that a toxic hazard may exist from a prolonged significant oral exposure to N,N-Dopropylcyclohexanecarboxamide. It is recommended that further evaluation of this compound as a candidate insect repellent be discontinued due to the deleterious

  11. Effects of 90-day feeding of transgenic Bt rice TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Er Hui; Yu, Zhou; Hu, Jing; Xu, Hai Bin

    2013-12-01

    Rice is a staple food crop; however, the threat of pests leads to a serious decline in its output and quality. The CryAb/CryAc gene, encodes a synthetic fusion Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crystal protein, was introduced into rice MingHui63 to produce insect-resistant rice TT51. This study was undertaken to investigate potential unintended effects of TT51 on the reproductive system in male rats. Male rats were treated with diets containing 60% of either TT51 or MingHui63 by weight, nutritionally balanced to an AIN93G diet, for 90days. An additional negative control group of rats were fed with a rice-based AIN93G diet. Body weights, food intake, hematology, serum chemistry, serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights were measured, and gross as well as microscopic pathology were examined. No diet-related significant differences in the values of response variables were observed between rats that were fed with diet containing transgenic TT51, MingHui63 and the control in this 90-day feeding study. In addition, necropsy and histopathology examination indicated no treatment-related changes. The results from the present study indicated that TT51 does not appear to exert any effect on the reproductive system in male rats compared with MingHui63 or the control. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative safety testing of genetically modified foods in a 90-day rat feeding study design allowing the distinction between primary and secondary effects of the new genetic event.

    PubMed

    Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2007-10-01

    new gene product in the GM food. The authors consider on this basis that the 90-day, rodent feeding study with one high dose level and a dietary design based upon compositional data on the GM food and toxicity data on the gene product is sensitive and specific enough to verify the presence/absence of the biological/nutritional/toxicological effects of the novel gene insert and further by the use of spiking able to separate potentially unintended effects of the novel gene product from other unintended effects at the level of intake defined in the test and within the remit of the test. Recommendations for further work necessary in the field are given.

  13. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  14. Safety assessment of the fermented Phylloporia ribis (Lonicera japonica Thunb.) mycelia by oral acute toxicity study in mice and 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lianhua; Fan, Yiou; Yao, Wenhuan; Xie, Wei; Guo, Jie; Yan, Yan; Yang, Fei; Xu, Lingchuan

    2014-07-01

    Phylloporia ribis is an edible fungus in China. Its fermented mycelia have been approved by the National Health and Family Planning Commission (NHFPC) of PR China for use as a novel food material, but little information on its safety is available. The present research was the first to evaluate acute and subchronic toxicity in experimental animals of fermented Phylloporia ribis mycelia (FPM) following standard procedures. In acute toxicity study, FPM was orally administered to male and female mice twice a day at single dose of 10 g/kg bw. The Maximum Tolerated Dose (MTD) of FPM for mice of both sexes was over 10 g/kg bw. No death and abnormal behaviors occurred during 14 days study except for an increased locomotor activity in three animals. In 90-day feeding study, male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing 10.0%, 5.0%, 2.5%, 1.25% and 0% (control) FPM for 90 days. The treatment caused no effects on mortality, gross pathology, histology, hematology, and blood chemistry, no dose-dependent changes in food consumption, but caused effect on body weight gain compared with control group. The No Observed Adverse-Effect Level (NOAEL) of FPM was greater than 8.7 g/kg bw/day in both sexes of rats.

  15. Compositional and toxicological analysis of a GM potato line with reduced α-solanine content--a 90-day feeding study in the Syrian Golden hamster.

    PubMed

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Frank, Thomas; Shepherd, Louise V T; Conner, Sean; Davies, Howard V; Meyer, Otto; Danier, Jürgen; Rychlik, Michael; Belknap, William R; McCue, Kent F; Engel, Karl-Heinz; Stewart, Derek; Knudsen, Ib; Poulsen, Morten

    2012-10-01

    Steroidal glycoalkaloids (GAs) are toxins, produced by plants of the Solanaceae family. The potato plant (Solanum tuberosum L.) and its tubers predominantly contain the two GAs α-chaconine and α-solanine. These compounds are believed to act in synergy, and the degree of toxicity may therefore depend on their ratio in the potato. To determine the influence of α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio in potatoes on toxicity, a GM potato line (SGT 9-2) with reduced α-solanine content, and the parental control line (Desirée wild-type) having a traditional α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio were (1) studied for compositional similarity by analysing for a range of potato constituents, and (2) used in a 90-day feeding trial with the Syrian Golden hamster to study differential toxicity. The animal feeding study used diets with up to 60% freeze-dried potato powder from either line. Whilst data indicated some compositional differences between the GM line and its wildtype control these did not raise concerns related to nutritional value or safety. Results of the feeding trials showed a low number of significant differences between potato lines with different α-solanine: α-chaconine ratio but none were considered to raise safety concerns with regard to human (or animal) consumption.

  16. Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye

    2008-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in the diet reduce risk of cardiac mortality. Fish oils are a dietary source of LC-PUFAs (EPA, DHA) but intake is low in Western diets. Adding beneficial amounts of LC-PUFAs to foods is limited by their instability and potential to impart off-flavors. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA in man, is more stable than EPA/DHA in food matrices. SDA is present in fish oils (0.5-4%) and in nutraceuticals (echium, borage oil). Genes for Delta6, Delta15 desaturases were introduced into soybeans that convert linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to SDA (15-30% fatty acids). Since addition of SDA soybean oil into human foods increases SDA intake, toxicology studies were undertaken to assess its safety. In a 28-day pilot study, rats were gavaged with SDA soybean oil at dosages up to 3g/kg body weight/day; no treatment-related adverse effects were observed. A 90-day/one generation rat reproduction study was subsequently conducted where SDA soybean oil was added to diets to provide daily doses of 1.5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development.

  17. Comparison of grain from corn rootworm resistant transgenic DAS-59122-7 maize with non-transgenic maize grain in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    He, X Y; Huang, K L; Li, X; Qin, W; Delaney, B; Luo, Y B

    2008-06-01

    DAS-59122-7 (59122) is a transgenic maize (Zea mays L.) that contains genes encoding Cry34Ab1 and Cry35Ab1 proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner strain 149B1 and phosphinothricin acetyltransferase (PAT) protein from Streptomyces viridochromogenes. Expression of these proteins in planta confers resistance to corn rootworms and other Coleopteran parasites and tolerance to herbicides containing glufosinate ammonium, respectively. In the current study, processed flours from 59122 maize grain or its near isogenic control line (091) were used at two concentrations (50% and 70% wt/wt) to produce diets that were fed to rats for 90 days in accordance with Chinese toxicology guidelines (GB15193.13-2003). A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional negative control. No significant differences in body weight and feed utilization were observed between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 and 091 Control corn. Statistical differences (p<0.05) were observed in certain hematology and serum chemistry response variables between rats consuming diets formulated with 59122 or 091 Control flour compared to AIN93G diet. However, the mean value of these response variables in the 59122 groups were not statistically different from those observed in diets formulated with corresponding high and low concentrations of the flour from the 091 Control maize grain. Therefore, the statistical differences were considered to be related to consumption of diets containing high concentrations of maize flour (compared to AIN93G diets) regardless of source rather than to consumption of flour from 59122 maize grain. The results from this study demonstrated that 59122 maize grain is as safe as non-transgenic maize grain.

  18. A 90-day toxicity study of GmTMT transgenic maize in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jin; Feng, Yongquan; Zhi, Yuan; Zhang, Lan; Yu, Zhou; Jia, Xudong

    2017-04-01

    GmTMT transgenic maize is a genetically modified maize plant that overexpresses the γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) from Glycine max (Gm). The γ-TMT gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the GmTMT2a protein which can convert γ-tocopherol into α-tocopherol. Overexpression of GmTMT2a significantly increased the α-tocopherol content in transgenic maize. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of GmTMT maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Maize grains from GmTMT or Zhen58 were incorporated into rodent diets at low (12.5%), medium (25%) or high (50%) concentrations and administered to Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10/sex/group) for 90 days. The negative control group of rats (n = 10/sex/group) were fed with common maize diets. Results from body weights, feed consumption, clinical chemistry, hematology, absolute and relative organ weights indicated no treatment-related side effects of GmTMT maize grain on rats in comparison with rats consuming diets containing Zhen58 maize grain. In addition, no treatment-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Altogether, our data indicates that GmTMT transgenic maize is as safe and nutritious as its conventional non-transgenic maize.

  19. Toxicological Study No. 75-51-YJ81-93, 4-Amino-2-Nitrotoluene (4A2NT) Oral Approximate Lethal Dose 14-day Range Finding 90-Day Subchronic Feeding Studies in Rats, August 1991-November 1993

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    NOVEMBER 1993 1. PURPOSE. The oral approximate lethal dose study was conducted todetennine an approximate dosage range at which to begin the 14-day...5000 mg/Kg. The 14-day range fmding study suggested a probable compound related effect in the薘~m (high dose ) exposure groups of both sexes and a...possible compound related effect mIlle 1000 ppm (middle dose ) exposure groups of both sexes. An NOAEL was not established for the 90-day subchronic

  20. Subacute (90 days) oral toxicity studies of Kombucha tea.

    PubMed

    Vijayaraghavan, R; Singh, M; Rao, P V; Bhattacharya, R; Kumar, P; Sugendran, K; Kumar, O; Pant, S C; Singh, R

    2000-12-01

    Kombucha tea (KT) is a popular health beverage and is used as an alternative therapy. KT is prepared by placing the kombucha culture in solution of tea and sugar and allowing to ferment. The inoculum is a fungus consisting of symbiotic colony of yeast and bacteria. KT is consumed in several countries and is believed to have prophylactic and therapeutic benefits in a wide variety of ailments, viz., intestinal disorders, arthritis, ageing and stimulation of immunological system. Though KT is used in several parts of the world its beneficial effects and adverse effects have not been scientifically evaluated. Since there are no animal toxicological data on KT, subacute oral toxicity study was carried out. Five groups of rats were maintained: (a) control group given tap water orally, (b) KT given 2 ml/kg orally, (c) plain tea (PT) given 2 ml/kg orally, (d) KT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v) and (e) PT given in drinking water, 1% (v/v). The rats were given this treatment daily for a period of 90 days. Weekly records of weight, feed intake, water intake and general behaviour were monitored. There was no significant difference in the growth of the animals as evidenced by the progressive body weight change. The organ to body weight ratio and histological evaluation did not show any toxic signs. The haematological and biochemical variables were within the clinical limits. The study indicates that rats fed KT for 90 days showed no toxic effects.

  1. Functional Evolution of the Feeding System in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Philip G.; Rayfield, Emily J.; Fagan, Michael J.; Herrel, Anthony; Pataky, Todd C.; Jeffery, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The masticatory musculature of rodents has evolved to enable both gnawing at the incisors and chewing at the molars. In particular, the masseter muscle is highly specialised, having extended anteriorly to originate from the rostrum. All living rodents have achieved this masseteric expansion in one of three ways, known as the sciuromorph, hystricomorph and myomorph conditions. Here, we used finite element analysis (FEA) to investigate the biomechanical implications of these three morphologies, in a squirrel, guinea pig and rat. In particular, we wished to determine whether each of the three morphologies is better adapted for either gnawing or chewing. Results show that squirrels are more efficient at muscle-bite force transmission during incisor gnawing than guinea pigs, and that guinea pigs are more efficient at molar chewing than squirrels. This matches the known diet of nuts and seeds that squirrels gnaw, and of grasses that guinea pigs grind down with their molars. Surprisingly, results also indicate that rats are more efficient as well as more versatile feeders than both the squirrel and guinea pig. There seems to be no compromise in biting efficiency to accommodate the wider range of foodstuffs and the more general feeding behaviour adopted by rats. Our results show that the morphology of the skull and masticatory muscles have allowed squirrels to specialise as gnawers and guinea pigs as chewers, but that rats are high-performance generalists, which helps explain their overwhelming success as a group. PMID:22558427

  2. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn rootworm-protected corn.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B; Lemen, J; Dudek, R; Ward, D; Jiang, C; Nemeth, M; Burns, J

    2006-02-01

    The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with YieldGard (YieldGard Rootworm Corn is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC.) Rootworm corn (MON 863) grain that is protected against feeding damage caused by corn rootworm larvae are presented. Corn rootworm-protection was accomplished through the introduction of a cry3Bb1 coding sequence into the corn genome for in planta production of a modified Cry3Bb1 protein from Bacillus thuringiensis. Grain from MON 863 and its near isogenic control were separately formulated into rodent diets at levels of 11% and 33% (w/w) by Purina Mills, Inc. Additionally, six groups of rats were fed diets containing grain from different conventional (non-biotechnology-derived) reference varieties. The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 863 were compared to those of rats fed grain from conventional corn varieties. All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to Purina Mills, Inc. specifications for Certified LabDiet 5002. There were a total of 400 rats in the study divided into 10 groups of 20 rats/sex/group. Overall health, body weight gain, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were comparable between groups fed diets containing MON 863 and conventional corn varieties. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional and farm animal feeding studies with MON 863 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as existing conventional corn varieties.

  3. Results of a 90-day safety assurance study with rats fed grain from corn borer-protected corn.

    PubMed

    Hammond, B G; Dudek, R; Lemen, J K; Nemeth, M A

    2006-07-01

    The results of a 90-day rat feeding study with grain from MON 810 corn (YieldGard Cornborer -- YieldGard Cornborer is a registered trademark of Monsanto Technology, LLC) that is protected against feeding damage from corn and stalk boring lepidopteran insects are presented. Corn borer protection was accomplished through the introduction of cry1Ab coding sequences into the corn genome for in planta production of a bioactive form of Cry1Ab protein. Grain from MON 810 and its near-isogenic control was separately formulated into rodent diets at levels of 11% and 33% (w/w) by Purina Mills, Inc. (PMI). All diets were nutritionally balanced and conformed to PMI specifications for Certified LabDiet (PMI Certified LabDiet 5002 is a registered trademark of Purina Mills, Inc.) 5002. There were a total of 400 rats in the study divided into 10 groups of 20 rats/sex/group. The responses of rats fed diets containing MON 810 were compared to those of rats fed grain from conventional corn varieties. Overall health, body weight, food consumption, clinical pathology parameters (hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic appearance of tissues were comparable between groups fed diets containing MON 810 and conventional corn varieties. This study complements extensive agronomic, compositional and farm animal feeding studies with MON 810 grain, confirming that it is as safe and nutritious as grain from existing commercial corn varieties.

  4. [Populations of harmful rodents on commercial swine-breeding farms and their effect on the technology of swine feeding].

    PubMed

    Bildirev, N; Kesiakova, S

    1983-01-01

    The effect was studied of the swine-feeding technology in five industrial complexes on the population density of the harmful rodents in them. This made it necessary to estimate the population density of the rodents in each productional section of the swine-breeding complexes, and to work out their technologic characteristic on the nutrition principle. It was established that the population density of rodents correlated positively with their access to feeds. In sections where rated, mechanical, and protected feeding was prectised the number of rodents were considerably lower than in sections with unrated feeding of pigs. It is believed that the rat invasion of the buildings in the industrial swine-breeding complexes is a factor that contributes to the rise of populations of harmful rodents, while the vast access to feeds is of greater importance chiefly for their further development.

  5. Evaluation of the safety and nutritional equivalence of a genetically modified cottonseed meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Dryzga, M D; Yano, B L; Andrus, A K; Mattsson, J L

    2007-10-01

    Meal prepared from Cry1F/Cry1Ac transgenic/genetically modified cottonseed (WIDESTRIKE Insect Protection, hereafter referred to as WIDESTRIKE) was compared to cottonseed meal prepared from four conventionally bred lines of cotton (three commercial non-transgenic line controls (PHY72, PHY78 and 98M-2983), and a near isoline non-transgenic control (PSC355) in a 90-day dietary study to evaluate safety and nutritional equivalence. Diets were formulated with 10% WIDESTRIKE cottonseed meal equivalent to 7,235 mg/kg/day for males and 7,935 mg/kg/day for females. Animals were evaluated by cage-side and hand-held detailed clinical observations, body weight, and feed consumption. Functional tests, motor activity and ophthalmic examinations were conducted pre-exposure and prior to study termination. Standard hematology, clinical chemistry, prothrombin time and urinalysis parameters were evaluated. All rats had a complete necropsy and selected organs were weighed. Histopathologic examinations were performed on all rats fed the diets containing the near isoline non-transgenic control or WIDESTRIKE. Following 90 days of feeding, no adverse effects were observed during the conduct of clinical observations or in any of the parameters measured in this study. This study demonstrated that rodent diets prepared with 10% cottonseed meal from WIDESTRIKE cottonseeds do not produce any untoward effects and are nutritionally equivalent to cottonseed meals prepared from other, non-transgenic cottonseeds.

  6. Analysis of fumonisin B1 in rodent feed by CE with fluorescence detection of the FMOC derivative.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, M; Thompson, H C

    1996-01-01

    A fast, simple, and environmentally friendly method has been developed for the analysis of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in rodent feed using CE. FB1 is the major fumonisin metabolite produced by the fungus Fusarium moniliforme and has been implicated in human and animal diseases. FB1 was extracted from rodent feed with acetonitrile/water (50/50) (vol/vol) and cleaned up with a C18 Sep-Pak Vac cartridge (Waters Corp., Milford, MA, U.S.A.). FB1 was quantitated after elution from the column using capillary electrophoresis with a 25-mM sodium borate buffer (pH 9.0) containing 10% acetonitrile and fluorescence detection of the (9-fluorenylmethyl) chloroformate (FMOC) derivative. The minimum detectable amount in rodent feed was 0.5 pmm. Recovery values in spiked rodent feed averaged more than 87% over the 2-20 ppm range.

  7. Baroreflex Sensitivity Decreases During 90-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Arzeno, N. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases during spaceflight and simulated spaceflight (head down bed rest [BR]). However, previous studies have only examined BRS in response to a limited blood pressure (BP) range or to a single sudden change in BP. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine BRS during 90 days of 6deg head-down tilt BR over a broad range of BP perturbations. METHODS: Nineteen normal volunteers (12M, 7F) were tested one day before BR, and then near BR days 30, 60 and 90. BP was pharmacologically altered by continuous infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Electrocardiogram and continuous BP were collected during 10 min of normal saline (NS), followed by increasing concentrations of PE (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 micro-g/kg/min). After a 20 min break, NS was infused again for 10 min, followed by increasing concentrations of SNP (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 micro-g/kg/min). Baroreceptor sensitivity was measured as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) and mean RR were analyzed using data from only the NS infusions. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of BR and gender. RESULTS: RR decreased (p<0.001) from pre- BR across BR days. High frequency in normalized units, a measure of parasympathetic activity, decreased with BR (p=0.027) and was lower (p=0.046) in men (0.39+/-0.02, mean+/-SEM) than women (0.48+/-0.02). The spontaneous baroreflex slope, our measure of BRS, increased with PE and decreased with SNP across BR (p<0.001). The percentage decrease in BRS from pre- to post-BR appeared to be larger in women (43.6+/-7.0%) than in men (31.3+/-3.9%, p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decrease during 90 days of BR, and BRS tends to diminish more in women than in men.

  8. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure.

  9. Dose-dependant hypothyroidism in mice induced by commercial trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole rodent feed.

    PubMed

    Altholtz, Lotus Y; La Perle, Krista Marie DuBray; Quimby, Fred William

    2006-10-01

    Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) medication in the feed or water is commonly administered to immunocompro mised mice to prevent the occurrence of Pneumocystis murina (formerly P. carinii) pneumonia. Therapeutic doses of SMX can cause decreased total and free thyroxine (T4) levels in dogs and thyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia in mice, rats, and dogs. Our primary objective was to determine whether SMX at doses present in commercially available rodent TMP-SMX feed would pro duce hypothyroidism in mice. Plasma T4 levels were determined prior to and after placement of Brand A TMP-SMX feed (daily SMX dose, 240 mg/kg), Brand B TMP-SMX feed (daily SMX dose, 2400 mg/kg), and their respective controls (doses calculated for a 25-g mouse according to vendor's information). T4 levels in the mice fed Brand B TMP-SMX feed were significantly decreased by 2 wk after feed placement. Levels of thyroid stimulating hormone in male and female mice given Brand B TMP-SMX feed were significantly elevated compared with those of control groups at 6 wk after feed placement, when only these mice showed evidence of thyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia. No significant change in T4 levels occurred over the course of 11 wk in mice given the Brand A TMP-SMX chow or either control feed. In light of the significant clinical hypothyroidism that occurred in our mice while receiving Brand B TMP-SMX diet, we recommend SMX levels more similar to that of Brand A to avoid such unwanted effects which could confound research data.

  10. Feeding-induced oleoylethanolamide mobilization is disrupted in the gut of diet-induced obese rodents

    PubMed Central

    Igarashi, Miki; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Narayanaswami, Vidya; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by initiating neural and hormonal responses to the ingestion of nutrients. In addition to peptide hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CKK) and peptide YY (PYY), the lipid-derived mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been implicated in the control of satiety. Previous studies in humans and rodent models have shown that obesity is associated with changes in CCK, PYY and other gut-derived peptide hormones, which may contribute to decreased satiety and increased energy intake. In the present study, we show that small-intestinal OEA production is disrupted in the gut of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice. In lean rodents, feeding or duodenal infusion of Intralipid® or pure oleic acid stimulate jejunal OEA mobilization. This response is strikingly absent in DIO rats and mice. Confirming previous reports, we found that feeding rats or mice a high-fat diet for 7 days is sufficient to suppress jejunal OEA mobilization. Surprisingly, a similar effect is elicited by feeding rats and mice a high-sucrose low-fat diet for 7 days. Collectively, our findings suggest that high fat-induced obesity is accompanied by alterations in the post-digestive machinery responsible for OEA biosynthesis, which may contribute to reduced satiety and hyperphagia. PMID:26024927

  11. Feeding-induced oleoylethanolamide mobilization is disrupted in the gut of diet-induced obese rodents.

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Miki; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V; Narayanaswami, Vidya; Piomelli, Daniele

    2015-09-01

    The gastrointestinal tract plays a critical role in the regulation of energy homeostasis by initiating neural and hormonal responses to the ingestion of nutrients. In addition to peptide hormones, such as cholecystokinin (CKK) and peptide YY (PYY), the lipid-derived mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been implicated in the control of satiety. Previous studies in humans and rodent models have shown that obesity is associated with changes in CCK, PYY and other gut-derived peptide hormones, which may contribute to decreased satiety and increased energy intake. In the present study, we show that small-intestinal OEA production is disrupted in the gut of diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and mice. In lean rodents, feeding or duodenal infusion of Intralipid® or pure oleic acid stimulates jejunal OEA mobilization. This response is strikingly absent in DIO rats and mice. Confirming previous reports, we found that feeding rats or mice a high-fat diet for 7 days is sufficient to suppress jejunal OEA mobilization. Surprisingly, a similar effect is elicited by feeding rats and mice a high-sucrose low-fat diet for 7 days. Collectively, our findings suggest that high fat-induced obesity is accompanied by alterations in the post-digestive machinery responsible for OEA biosynthesis, which may contribute to reduced satiety and hyperphagia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... medulla/pons, cerebellum and cerebrum), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels: cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... medulla/pons, cerebellum and cerebrum), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels: cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... medulla/pons, cerebellum and cerebrum), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels: cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea...

  15. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... medulla/pons, cerebellum and cerebrum), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels: cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system—adrenals, parathyroid, thyroid. (D) Respiratory system—trachea...

  16. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects... other origin) and bile acids, may also be useful. (C) If a test chemical has an effect on the... problems occur in the high dose group compromising the significance of the data, the next dose level should...

  17. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-03-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD(50) = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days.

  18. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  19. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  20. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  1. 29 CFR 2590.715-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. 2590... PLANS Other Requirements § 2590.715-2708 Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General... not apply any waiting period that exceeds 90 days, in accordance with the rules of this section....

  2. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  3. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  4. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  5. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants... Payments § 24.402 Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. (a) Eligibility. A tenant or owner... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of...

  6. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a mobile... 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations; (b) The person meets the other...

  7. Between-host phylogenetic distance and feeding efficiency in hematophagous ectoparasites: rodent fleas and a bat host.

    PubMed

    Krasnov, Boris R; Korine, Carmi; Burdelova, Nadezhda V; Khokhlova, Irina S; Pinshow, Berry

    2007-07-01

    We hypothesized that a parasite exploits most effectively its principal host, less effectively a host that is phylogenetically close to its principal host, and least effectively a host that is phylogenetically distant from its principal host. We tested this hypothesis by quantifying the feeding efficiency of two flea species (Parapulex chephrenis and Xenopsylla ramesis) on two rodents, Acomys cahirinus, the specific host of P. chephrenis, and Meriones crassus, a preferred host of X. ramesis, and one bat, Rousettus aegyptiacus, an alien host to both flea species. In both fleas, fewer individuals succeed in feeding when offered with their nonspecific or nonpreferred rodent host to feed on compared with those allowed to feed on their preferred or specific rodent host or, surprisingly, on a bat. The proportion of P. chephrenis that fed was higher on A. cahirinus than on R. aegyptiacus. In contrast, similar proportions of X. ramesis took blood from M. crassus and R. aegyptiacus. The mass-independent size of the blood meal taken by the fleas differed significantly between species, being higher in X. ramesis than in P. chephrenis. However, each flea species took similar amounts of blood from any of the three host species. The duration of early, middle, and late digestion stages differed significantly between P. chephrenis and Xenopsylla conformis, all being shorter in the former, independent of the source of blood. Both fleas digested bat blood significantly faster than the blood of either rodent host. The time of survival after a single blood meal differed significantly between flea species, with X. ramesis surviving significantly longer than P. chephrenis, although no effect of host species on flea survival was found. In terms of the evaluation criteria that we used, we concluded that (a) the alien bat host appeared not to be inferior as a source of food to a rodent host phylogenetically close to the flea's principal host and (b) that the rarity of finding rodent fleas

  8. TURN Score Predicts 90-day Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients After IV Thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, David; Nyström, Karin; Schindler, Joseph; Wira, Charles; Greer, David; Halliday, Janet; Sheth, Kevin N

    2015-10-01

    We developed the TURN score for predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) after IV thrombolysis. Our purpose was to evaluate its ability to predict 90-day outcome. We retrospectively analyzed data from 303 patients who received IV rt-PA during the NINDS rt-PA trial. Severe outcome was defined as 90-day modified Rankin scale (mRS) scores ≥5, 90-day Barthel index (BI) scores <60 and 90-day Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores >2. Excellent outcome was defined as 90-day mRS scores ≤1, 90-day BI scores ≥95 and 90-day GOS scores = 1. Agreement between TURN and 90-day outcome was assessed by univariate logistic regression reporting odds ratios (OR) and by areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC). TURN was also compared with 6 other scores for predicting sICH or severe outcome. TURN predicted 90-day mRS ≥5 with OR 5.73, 95% confidence interval (3.60, 9.10), P < 0.001 and AUROC 0.83, 95% confidence interval (0.77, 0.89). TURN also predicted 90-day mRS ≤1 with OR 5.24, 95% confidence interval (3.43, 7.99), P < 0.001 and AUROC 0.80, 95% confidence interval (0.74, 0.85). TURN predicted 90-day mRS ≥5 with OR significantly higher than DRAGON (2.30, P = 0.01), ASTRAL (1.18, P < 0.001), HAT (2.89, P = 0.05) and SEDAN (2.16, P = 0.01), and with AUROC significantly higher than SPAN-100 (0.64, P < 0.001) and SEDAN (0.71, P = 0.01). Likewise, TURN predicted 90-day mRS ≤1 with OR significantly higher than Stroke-TPI (2.89, P = 0.05), DRAGON (2.29, P = 0.01), ASTRAL (1.15, P < 0.001), HAT (2.71, P = 0.04) and SEDAN (2.15, P = 0.01), and with AUROC significantly higher than SPAN-100 (0.58, P < 0.001) and SEDAN (0.70, P = 0.01). Similar results were obtained using 90-day BI and 90-day GOS scores. TURN predicted 90-day outcome with comparable or better accuracy compared to several existing clinical scores.

  9. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  10. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset...

  11. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  12. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  13. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  14. 25 CFR 900.17 - Can the statutory 90-day period be extended?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can the statutory 90-day period be extended? 900.17... ASSISTANCE ACT Review and Approval of Contract Proposals § 900.17 Can the statutory 90-day period be extended...-day deadline applies....

  15. Active Surveillance for Adverse Events Within 90 Days: The Standard for Reporting Surgical Outcomes After Pancreatectomy.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Lilian; Bruno, Morgan; Parker, Nathan H; Prakash, Laura; Mise, Yoshihiro; Lee, Jeffrey E; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Aloia, Thomas A; Conrad, Claudius; Fleming, Jason B; Katz, Matthew H G

    2015-10-01

    The rate of adverse events after pancreatectomy is widely reported as a measure of surgical quality. However, morbidity data are routinely acquired retrospectively and often are reported at 30 days. The authors hypothesized that morbidity after pancreatectomy is therefore underreported. They sought to compare rates of adverse events calculated at multiple time points after pancreatectomy. The authors instituted an active surveillance system to detect, categorize, and grade the severity of all adverse events after pancreatectomy, using the modified Accordion system and International Study Group of Pancreatic Surgery definitions. All patients and clinical events were monitored directly for at least 90 days after surgery. Of 315 consecutively monitored patients, 239 (76 %) experienced 500 unique adverse events. The absolute number of unique adverse events increased by 32 % between index discharge and 90 days and by 10 % between 30 and 90 days. The number of severe adverse events increased by 96 % between discharge and 90 days and by 29 % between 30 and 90 days. In this study, 16 % of the patients experienced at least one severe adverse event within the index hospitalization, 24 % within 30 postoperative days, and 29 % within 90 days. Among the 80 readmissions that occurred within 90 days, 28 (35 %) occurred later than 30 days after pancreatectomy. Approximately one-third of severe adverse events and readmissions are reported more than 30 days after surgery. All adverse events that occur within 90 days of surgery must be identified and reported for accurate characterization of the morbidity associated with pancreatectomy.

  16. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine

    PubMed Central

    Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A.; Endres, John R.; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals. PMID:27635133

  17. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine.

    PubMed

    Clewell, Amy; Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A; Endres, John R; Murbach, Timothy S; Marx, Tennille; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals.

  18. 90-day dietary toxicity study with esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) in micropigs.

    PubMed

    Wedig, John; Bechtel, David H

    2014-12-01

    The subchronic (90-day) toxicity of esterified propoxylated glycerol (EPG) was assessed in micropigs. Animals (5/sex/group) received feed containing 5%, 10%, and 17% EPG, mixed accordingly throughout the study to deliver 1.5, 3, and 5 g/kg bw/day of EPG, respectively. Corn oil served as the vehicle control (0 g/kg bw/day). Subsets of animals were evaluated at Week 6; the remainder between Weeks 12 and 14. With the exception of liver and serum vitamin levels, statistically significant difference between control and EPG groups were seen sporadically, and with no apparent connection to treatment and/or no consistency across time intervals. EPG intakes of 3 and 5 g/kg bw/day, but not at 1.5 g/kg bw/day were associated with significantly lower serum 25-OH vitamin D levels. Serum total vitamin D levels were significantly lower across all EPG groups. There were also trends toward lower levels of liver vitamins A and E among EPG-treated animals, but the effects were less consistent. The effects on vitamin levels observed in EPG-treated animals were not accompanied by any signs of vitamin deficiency (e.g., effects on growth, clinical signs, or clinical pathology), and might have been related to the larger mass of EPG acting as a lipid "sink" during transit in the gastrointestinal tract.

  19. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  20. The First 90 Days of the New Middle School Principal in a Turnaround School: In-Depth Case Study of the Transition Period (First 90 Days)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baeza, Marco A.

    2010-01-01

    This study analyzed skills, strategies, and theories that new middle school principals used to be successful during their transition period (the first 90 days) in turnaround schools. Based on research on transitions, three research questions guided the study: 1. Do middle school principals in a turnaround school situation find the transition…

  1. Diabetes Is Not Associated With Increased 90-Day Mortality Risk in Critically Ill Patients With Sepsis.

    PubMed

    van Vught, Lonneke A; Holman, Rebecca; de Jonge, Evert; de Keizer, Nicolette F; van der Poll, Tom

    2017-10-01

    To determine the association of pre-existing diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia during the first 24 hours of ICU admissions with 90-day mortality in patients with sepsis admitted to the ICU. We used mixed effects logistic regression to analyze the association of diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia with 90-day mortality (n = 128,222). All ICUs in the Netherlands between January 2009 and 2014 that participated in the Dutch National Intensive Care Evaluation registry. All unplanned ICU admissions in patients with sepsis. The association between 90-day mortality and pre-existing diabetes, hyperglycemia, and hypoglycemia, corrected for other factors, was analyzed using a generalized linear mixed effect model. In a multivariable analysis, diabetes was not associated with increased 90-day mortality. In diabetes patients, only severe hypoglycemia in the absence of hyperglycemia was associated with increased 90-day mortality (odds ratio, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.19-7.32), whereas in patients without pre-existing diabetes, several combinations of abnormal glucose levels were associated with increased 90-day mortality. In the current retrospective large database review, diabetes was not associated with adjusted 90-day mortality risk in critically ill patients admitted with sepsis.

  2. Safety assessment of essential oil from Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (peperina): 90-days oral subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Mañas, Fernando; Cristofolini, Andrea; Bagnis, Guillermo; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolas; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée

    2015-02-01

    Minthostachys verticillata (Lamiaceae), popularly known as peperina is largely used in popular medicine for its digestive, carminative, antispasmodic and antirheumatic properties. There are no reports of repeated exposure toxicity to guarantee their safety. The present study investigated the chemical composition, analyzed by GC-FID, and the 90-day toxicity and genotoxicity effect of M. verticillata essential oil (Mv-EO), using Wistar rats as test animals. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats/sex/group) and Mv-EO was administered on diet at doses of 0, 1, 4 and 7 g/kg feed. The main components of Mv-EO were pulegone (64.65%) and menthone (23.92%). There was no mortality, adverse effects on general conditions or changes in body weight, food consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the study in male and female rats. Subchronic administration of Mv-EO did not alter the weights, morphological and histopathological analyses of liver, kidney and intestine. Genotoxicity was tested by micronucleus and comet assays. Mv-EO up to a concentration of 7 g/kg feed for 90 days did not exert a cyto-genotoxic effect on the bone marrow and cells blood of Wistar rats. These results suggest that Mv-EO appears to be safe and could be devoid of any toxic risk.

  3. Peripheral obestatin has no effect on feeding behavior and brain Fos expression in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Kobelt, Peter; Wisser, Anna-Sophia; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Bannert, Norbert; Gourcerol, Guillaume; Inhoff, Tobias; Noetzel, Steffen; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Taché, Yvette; Mönnikes, Hubert

    2009-01-01

    Obestatin is produced in the stomach from proghrelin by post-translational cleavage. The initial report claimed anorexigenic effects of obestatin in mice. Contrasting studies indicated no effect of obestatin on food intake (FI). We investigated influences of metabolic state (fed/fasted), environmental factors (dark/light phase) and brain Fos response to intraperitoneal (ip) obestatin in rats, and used the protocol from the original study assessing obestatin effects in mice. FI was determined in male rats injected ip before onset of dark or light phase, with obestatin (1 or 5 μmol/kg), CCK8S (3.5 nmol/kg) or 0.15 M NaCl, after fasting (16 h, n = 8/group) or ad libitum (n = 10-14/group) food intake. Fos expression in hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei was examined in freely fed rats 90 min after obestatin (5 μmol/kg), CCK8S (1.75 nmol/kg) or 0.15 M NaCl (n = 4/group). Additionally, fasted mice were injected ip with obestatin (1 μmol/kg) or urocortin 1 (2 nmol/kg) 15 min before food presentation. No effect on FI was observed after obestatin administration during the light and dark phase under both metabolic conditions while CCK8S reduced FI irrespectively of the conditions. The number of Fos positive neurons was not modified by obestatin while CCK8S increased Fos expression in selective brain nuclei. Obestatin did not influence the refeeding response to a fast in mice, while urocortin was effective. Therefore, peripheral obestatin has no effect on FI under various experimental conditions and did not induce Fos in relevant central neuronal circuitries modulating feeding in rodents. PMID:18342400

  4. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  5. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  6. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII... AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews Day 1 Event Regulation 0 Initiation § 351.218(c) 15 Filing of Notice of Intent to Participate...

  7. Contemporary 90-day mortality rates after radical cystectomy in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Schiffmann, J; Gandaglia, G; Larcher, A; Sun, M; Tian, Z; Shariat, S F; McCormack, M; Valiquette, L; Montorsi, F; Graefen, M; Saad, F; Karakiewicz, P I

    2014-12-01

    Existing radical cystectomy (RC) perioperative mortality estimates may underestimate the contemporary rates due to more advanced age, more baseline comorbidities and potentially broader inclusion criteria for RC, relative to past criteria. Within the most recent Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database we identified clinically non-metastatic, muscle-invasive (T2-T4a) urothelial carcinoma of the urinary bladder (UCUB) patients, who underwent RC between 1991 and 2009. Mortality at 30- and 90-day after RC was quantified. Multivariable logistic regression analyses tested predictors of 90-day mortality. Within 5207 assessable RC patients 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 5.2 and 10.6%, respectively. According to age 65-69, 70-79 and ≥ 80 years, 90-day mortality rates were 6.4, 10.1 and 14.8% (p < 0.001). Additionally, 90-day mortality rates increased with increasing Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI, 0, 1, 2 and ≥ 3): 6.3, 10.3, 12.6 and 15.9% (p < 0.001). 90-day mortality rate in unmarried patients was 13.0 vs. 9.3% in married individuals (p < 0.001). In multivariable logistic regression analyses, advanced age, higher CCI, low socioeconomic status, unmarried status and non organ-confined stage were independent predictors of 90-day mortality (all p < 0.05). The contemporary SEER-Medicare derived 90-day mortality rates are substantially higher than previously reported estimates from centers of excellence, and even exceed previous SEER reports. More advanced age, higher CCI score, and other patient characteristics that distinguish the current population from others account for these differences. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen,a novel acaricide, in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Toshinori; Ikemi, Naoki; Takeuchi, Yukiko; Ebino, Koichi; Kojima, Sayuri; Chiba, Yuko; Nakashima, Nobuaki; Kawakatsu, Hisao; Saka, Machiko; Harada, Takanori

    2012-02-01

    Cyflumetofen is a novel acaricide which is highly active against phytophagous mites. As a part of safety assessment, a repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity study of cyflumetofen was conducted in Fischer (F344/DuCrj) rats of both sexes. Technical grade cyflumetofen was administered in feed to groups of 10 males and 10 females at dose levels of 0, 100, 300, 1,000, and 3,000 ppm. Prothrombin time was prolonged in males at 3,000 ppm and plasma globulin levels were decreased in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. At necropsy, enlarged and whitish adrenals were observed in females at 3,000 ppm. There were statistically significant increases in relative liver weight (ratio to body weight) in males and relative adrenal weight in females in the 1,000 ppm group; increased relative liver and kidney weights in both sexes at 3,000 ppm, and increased absolute and relative weights of adrenals in females at 3,000 ppm. Increased absolute liver weight was also noted in males at 3,000 ppm. Histopathologically, at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm males had diffuse vacuolation and females had diffuse hypertrophy of adrenal cortical cells. In addition, vacuolation of ovarian interstitial gland cells was noted in females at 1,000 and 3,000 ppm. There were no treatment-related changes in any parameters for either sex in other dose groups. Based on these results, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of cyflumetofen was judged to be 300 ppm for both sexes (16.5 mg/kg/day for males and 19.0 mg/kg/day for females).

  9. 90-day postoperative mortality is a legitimate measure of hepatopancreatobiliary surgical quality

    PubMed Central

    Mise, Yoshihiro; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Parker, Nathan H.; Conrad, Claudius; Aloia, Thomas A.; Lee, Jeffery E.; Fleming, Jason B.; Katz, Matthew H. G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the legitimacy of 90-day mortality as a measure of hepatopancreatobiliary quality. Summary Background Data The 90-day mortality rate has been increasingly but not universally reported after hepatopancreatobiliary surgery. The legitimacy of this definition as a measure of surgical quality has not been evaluated. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the causes of all deaths that occurred within 365 postoperative days in patients undergoing hepatectomy (n = 2811) and/or pancreatectomy (n = 1092) from January 1997 through December 2012. The rates of surgery-related, disease-related, and overall mortality within 30 days, within 30 days or during the index hospitalization, within 90 days, and within 180 days following surgery were calculated. Results Seventy-nine (3%) surgery-related deaths and 92 (3%) disease-related deaths occurred within 365 days after hepatectomy. Twenty (2%) surgery-related deaths and 112 (10%) disease-related deaths occurred within 365 days after pancreatectomy. The overall mortality rates at 99 day and 118 days optimally reflected surgery-related mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, respectively. The 90-day overall mortality rate was a less sensitive but equivalently specific measure of surgery-related death. Conclusions and Relevance The 99-day and 118-day definitions of postoperative mortality optimally reflected surgery-related mortality following hepatobiliary and pancreatic operations, respectively. However, among commonly reported metrics, the 90-day overall mortality rate represents a legitimate measure of surgical quality. PMID:25590497

  10. A Risk Model to Predict 90-Day Mortality among Patients Undergoing Hepatic Resection

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Omar; Pulitano, Carlo; Firoozmand, Amin; Dodson, Rebecca; Wolfgang, Christopher L; Choti, Michael A; Aldrighetti, Luca; Pawlik, Timothy M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Reliable criteria to predict mortality after hepatectomy remain poorly defined. We sought to identify factors associated with 90-day mortality, as well as validate the “50-50” and peak bilirubin of >7 mg/dL prediction rules for mortality after liver resection. In addition, we propose a novel integer-based score for 90-day mortality using a large cohort of patients. STUDY DESIGN Data from 2,056 patients who underwent liver resection at 2 major hepatobiliary centers between 1990 and 2011 were identified. Perioperative laboratory data, as well as surgical and postoperative details, were analyzed to identify factors associated with liver-related 90-day death. RESULTS Indications for liver resection included colorectal metastasis (39%), hepatocellular carcinoma (19%), benign mass (17%), or noncolorectal metastasis (14%). Most patients had normal underlying liver parenchyma (71%) and resection involved ≥3 segments (36%). Overall morbidity and mortality were 19% and 2%, respectively. Only 1 patient fulfilled the 50-50 criteria; this patient survived and was discharged on day 8. Twenty patients had a peak bilirubin concentration >7 mg/dL and 5 died within 90 days; the sensitivity and spec-ificity of the >7-mg/dL rule were 25% and 99.3%, respectively, but overall accuracy was poor (area under the curve 0.574). Factors associated with 90-day mortality included international normalized ratio (odds ratio = 11.87), bilirubin (odds ratio = 1.16), and serum creatinine (odds ratio = 1.87) on postoperative day 3, as well as grade of postoperative complications (odds ratio = 5.08; all p < 0.05). Integer values were assigned to each factor to develop a model that predicted 90-day mortality (area under the curve 0.89). A score of ≥11 points had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.3% and 98.8%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The 50-50 and bilirubin >7-mg/dL rules were not accurate in predicting 90-day mortality. Rather, a composite integer-based risk score based on

  11. Alcoholic hepatitis histological score has high accuracy to predict 90-day mortality and response to steroids.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Patrícia; Silva, Marco; Rodrigues, Susana; Lopes, Joanne; Lopes, Susana; Macedo, Guilherme

    2016-06-01

    A histological classification system (AHHS) has been recently proposed to predict 90-day mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). We analyzed the spectrum of histological features in patients with AH and assessed the ability of AHHS for predicting both response to steroids and 90-day mortality. Retrospective study of patients admitted to our tertiary centre between 2010 and 2014 with biopsy-proven AH. Histological features were analyzed and AHHS value was calculated. Kaplan-Meyer curves were calculated to assess the ability of AHHS to predict response to steroids and 90-day mortality. We included 34 patients (70.6% men, mean age 48.5±8.9 years). Transjugular liver biopsy was performed 3.5±2.9 days after admission. Presence of bilirubinostasis (p=0.049), degree of bilirubinostasis (p<0.001), absence of megamitochondria (p<0.001) and degree of polymorphonuclear infiltration (p=0.018) were significantly associated with higher mortality at 90 days. Patients who responded to steroids had a significantly lower AHHS value than non-responders (5.4±0.9 vs 8.1±1.1, p=0.003). AAHS value was significantly higher in patients who died compared to patients who survived at 90 days (9.0±0.7 vs 5.0±0.9, p<0.001). AHHS predicted response to steroids [AUROC 0.90 (CI95% 0.742-1.000), p=0.004] and 90-day mortality [AUROC 1.0 (CI95% 1.0-1.0), p<0.001] with high accuracy. In this cohort of patients, presence and degree of bilirubinostasis, absence of megamitochondria and degree of PMN infiltration were significantly associated with 90-day mortality. AHHS had a high accuracy for predicting response to steroids and 90-day mortality in this cohort of patients. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Feeding preferences of the immature stages of three western north American ixodid ticks (Acari) for avian, reptilian, or rodent hosts.

    PubMed

    Slowik, Ted J; Lane, Robert S

    2009-01-01

    Larval and nymphal Ixodes pacificus Cooley and Kohls, I. (Ixodes) jellisoni Cooley and Kohls, and Dermacentor occidentalis Marx were tested for host preference when simultaneously presented with a deer mouse (Peromyscus maniculatus Wagner), California kangaroo rat (Dipodomys californicus Merriam), western fence lizard (Sceloporus occidentalis Baird and Girard), and California towhee (Pipilo crissalis Vigors) in an experimental apparatus. Differences were observed in the preferences among the three species and between life stages. More larvae of all species approached and contacted hosts than did nymphs. Subadult I. pacificus entered all host-containing chambers in the highest numbers and remained on lizards most often after contact. Subadult I. jellisoni entered and remained in the chambers containing kangaroo rats, while rejecting mice, lizards, and birds as hosts. Subadult D. occidentalis most frequently entered rodent-containing chambers and contacted these hosts. After overnight exposure to all nonavian hosts, only I. pacificus parasitized and fed successfully on all three animals. I. jellisoni fed only on kangaroo rats and D. occidentalis fed only on rodents. Molting success ranged from approximately 66 to 95% among tick species and stages. We concluded that, under laboratory conditions, I. pacificus larvae and nymphs prefer western fence lizards, but also will parasitize rodents. Dermacentor occidentalis immatures use deer mice and kangaroo rats similarly, whereas I. jellisoni subadults exclusively parasitize kangaroo rats. California towhees are considerably less attractive as hosts for these three ticks. These host preferences are consistent with what is known about the natural feeding habits of all three ticks.

  13. A subchronic 90-day oral rat toxicity study and in vitro genotoxicity studies with a conjugated linoleic acid product.

    PubMed

    O'Hagan, S; Menzel, A

    2003-12-01

    Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is the term given to a group of positional and geometric isomers of the essential fatty acid linoleic acid. CLA is found naturally in foods such as dairy and meat products. CLA is reported to have a number of beneficial effects including anticarcinogenic activity. However, safety data are limited. Clarinol G80 is a commercial preparation containing equal amounts of the 9cis,11trans and 10trans,12cis CLA isomers in the form of glycerides. In order to support the safety-in-use of Clarinol G80 as an ingredient in food, the preparation was tested in two in vitro mutagenicity assays, an Ames test and an in vitro cytogenetics assay, and a 90-day repeat-dose oral toxicity rat study. Clarinol G80 was non-mutagenic in both in vitro assays. In the 90-day study, Clarinol G80 produced hepatocellular hypertrophy in female rats at the highest dose level (15% w/w). This effect was an adaptive effect in response to feeding high levels of Clarinol G80 in the diet and was reversible upon withdrawal of test material. An increase in plasma insulin levels was also observed female rats fed 15% w/w Clarinol G80 but there was no effect on plasma glucose levels. A No Observed Adverse Effect Level of 2433 mg/kg bw/day for male and 2728 mg/kg bw/day female rats was identified in the study.

  14. 26 CFR 54.9815-2708 - Prohibition on waiting periods that exceed 90 days.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. 54.9815-2708 Section 54.9815-2708 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... on waiting periods that exceed 90 days. (a) General rule. A group health plan, and a health insurance issuer offering group health insurance coverage, must not apply any waiting period that exceeds 90...

  15. Minimally invasive and open gallbladder cancer resections: 30- vs 90-day mortality.

    PubMed

    Goussous, Naeem; Hosseini, Motahar; Sill, Anne M; Cunningham, Steven C

    2017-08-15

    Minimally invasive surgery is increasingly used for gallbladder cancer resection. Postoperative mortality at 30 days is low, but 90-day mortality is underreported. Using National Cancer Database (1998-2012), all resection patients were included. Thirty- and 90-day mortality rates were compared. A total of 36 067 patients were identified, 19 139 (53%) of whom underwent resection. Median age was 71 years and 70.7% were female. Ninety-day mortality following surgical resection was 2.3-fold higher than 30-mortality (17.1% vs 7.4%). There was a statistically significant increase in 30- and 90-day mortality with poorly differentiated tumors, presence of lymphovascular invasion, tumor stage, incomplete surgical resection and low-volume centers (P<0.001 for all). Even for the 1885 patients who underwent minimally invasive resection between 2010 and 2012, the 90-day mortality was 2.8-fold higher than the 30-day mortality (12.0% vs 4.3%). Ninety-day mortality following gallbladder cancer resection is significantly higher than 30-day mortality. Postoperative mortality is associated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, tumor stage, type and completeness of surgical resection as well as type and volume of facility. Copyright © 2017 The Editorial Board of Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Implications of the 90-day episode definition used for the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model

    PubMed Central

    Ellimoottil, Chad; Ryan, Andrew M.; Hou, Hechuan; Dupree, James M.; Hallstrom, Brian; Miller, David C.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Under the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement (CJR) model, hospitals are held accountable for nearly all Medicare payments that occur during the initial hospitalization through 90-days post-discharge (i.e., episode of care). It is unknown whether unrelated expenditures resulting from this “broad” episode definition will impact participating hospital’s average 90-day episode payments. Objective To compare the CJR program’s broad episode definition to a clinically-narrow episode definition Design We identified Medicare claims for patients in Michigan who underwent joint replacement from 2011 through 2013. Using specifications from the CJR model and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare payment measure, we constructed episodes of care and calculated 90-day episode payments. We then compared hospitals’ average 90-day episode payments using the two episode definitions and fit linear regression models to understand whether payment differences were associated with specific hospital characteristics (average CMS-HCC risk score, rural hospital status, joint replacement volume, percentage of Medicaid discharges, teaching hospital status, number of beds, percentage of joint replacements performed on African American patients and median income of the hospital’s county). Setting All Michigan hospitals located in metropolitan statistical areas Participants Medicare beneficiaries Main Outcome and Measure(s) The correlation and difference between average 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR model episode definition and the clinically-narrow Hospital Compare episode definition. Results We identified 23,251 joint replacement episodes. 90-day episode payments using the broad CJR episode definition ranged from $17,349 to $29,465 (mean: $22,122, standard deviation: $2,600). Episode payments were slightly lower (mean: $21,670) when the Hospital Compare episode definition was used. Both methods were strongly correlated (r=0.99, p<0.001). The average

  17. A 90-Day Tenofovir Reservoir Intravaginal Ring for Mucosal HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd J.; Clark, Meredith R.; Albright, Theodore H.; Nebeker, Joel S.; Tuitupou, Anthony L.; Clark, Justin T.; Fabian, Judit; McCabe, R. Tyler; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir (TFV) recently demonstrated 39% protection against HIV infection in women. We designed and evaluated a novel reservoir TFV intravaginal ring (IVR) to potentially improve product effectiveness by providing a more controlled and sustained vaginal dose to maintain cervicovaginal concentrations. Polyurethane tubing of various hydrophilicities was filled with a high-density TFV/glycerol/water semisolid paste and then end-sealed to create IVRs. In vitro, TFV release increased with polyurethane hydrophilicity, with 35 weight percent water-swelling polyurethane IVRs achieving an approximately 10-mg/day release for 90 days with mechanical stiffness similar to that of the commercially available NuvaRing. This design was evaluated in two 90-day in vivo sheep studies for TFV pharmacokinetics and safety. Overall, TFV vaginal tissue, vaginal fluid, and plasma levels were relatively time independent over the 90-day duration at approximately 104 ng/g, 106 ng/g, and 101 ng/ml, respectively, near or exceeding the highest observed concentrations in a TFV 1% gel control group. TFV vaginal fluid concentrations were approximately 1,000-fold greater than levels shown to provide significant protection in women using the TFV 1% gel. There were no toxicological findings following placebo and TFV IVR treatment for 28 or 90 days, although slight to moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates in the vaginal epithelia were observed in these animals compared to naïve animals. In summary, the controlled release of TFV from this reservoir IVR provided elevated sheep vaginal concentrations for 90 days to merit its further evaluation as an HIV prophylactic. PMID:23006751

  18. [Clinical profile and 90-day mortality in centenarian patients attended in emergency departments].

    PubMed

    Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Fernández-Alonso, Cesáreo; Hormigo, Ana Isabel; Jiménez-Díaz, Gregorio; Roiz, Honan; Bermejo-Boixareu, Cristina; Rodríguez-Salazar, Jaime; Fernández Pérez, Cristina; Gil-Gregorio, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    To determine the clinical profile and to develop a model to predict 90-day mortality in centenarian patients attended in emergency departments (ED). This was an observational, retrospective, multicentre cohort study including patients >99years attended in 5 ED in the Community of Madrid from January to December 2012. Demographic variables were recorded, as well as, comorbidities, cognitive, functional, social basal status, geriatric syndromes, acute episode, and hospital and social resources use, and 90-day mortality. The study included 209patients aged 101years (SD 1.7) of whom 161 (77.0%) were female. Sixty four (32.5%) had severe comorbidity (Charlson index≥3), 101 (49.8%) on multiple medication, 100 (52.6%) had cognitive impairment, 82 (42.3%) had severe functional dependence, 85 (40.7%) were institutionalised, and 190 (94.5%) had a geriatric syndrome. Dyspnoea (26.8%), followed by falls (12.4%) were the most common causes of attendance. One hundred and eighteen (56.5%) were admitted, and 58 out of 174 (33.3%) died in the first 90days. The model to predict 90-day overall mortality included male sex (OR 2.42 95% CI=0.97-6.04; P=.059), emergency care in the previous 3months (OR 4.08 95% CI=1.26-13.16; P=.019) and the hospitalization by index event (OR 8.63 95% CI=3.25-22.9; P<.001) and this model had an area under ROC curve of 0.776 (95% CI=0.70-0.85; P<.001). Centenarian patients attended in ED had a significant frailty and one in three cases died in the first 90days after being attended, and this was associated with male sex, emergency care in the previous 3months, and hospitalisation. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Community pharmacy and mail order cost and utilization for 90-day maintenance medication prescriptions.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Nikhil; Duncan, Ian; Rubinstein, Elan; Ahmed, Tamim; Pegus, Cheryl

    2012-04-01

    Pharmacy benefit management (PBM) companies promote mail order programs that typically dispense 90-day quantities of maintenance medications, marketing this feature as a key cost containment strategy to address plan sponsors' rising prescription drug expenditures. In recent years, community pharmacies have introduced 90-day programs that provide similar cost advantages, while allowing these prescriptions to be dispensed at the same pharmacies that patients frequent for 30-day quantities. To compare utilization rates and corresponding costs associated with obtaining 90-day prescriptions at community and mail order pharmacies for payers that offer equivalent benefits in different 90-day dispensing channels. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional investigation using pharmacy claims and eligibility data from employer group clients of a large PBM between January 2008 and September 2010. We excluded the following client types: government, third-party administrators, schools, hospitals, 340B (federal drug pricing), employers in Puerto Rico, and miscellaneous clients for which the PBM provided billing services (e.g., the pharmacy's loyalty card program members). All employer groups in the sample offered 90-day community pharmacy and mail order dispensing and received benefits management services, such as formulary management and mail order pharmacy, from the PBM. We further limited the sample to employer groups that offered equivalent benefits for community pharmacy and mail order, defined as groups in which the mean and median copayments per claim for community and mail order pharmacy, by tier, differed by no more than 5%. Enrollees in the sample were required to have a minimum of 6 months of eligibility in each calendar year but were not required to have filled a prescription in any year. We evaluated pharmacy costs and utilization for a market basket of 14 frequently dispensed therapeutic classes of maintenance medications. The proportional share of claims for

  20. Ivermectin as a Rodent Feed-Through Insecticide for Control of Immature Sand Flies (Diptera: Psychodidae)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    humidity and is protected from extreme temperatures . Adult sand flies live in close proximity to sources of blood (from the rodents living within the... temperature for 7 days and then were stored at 270uC until used. In each experiment, the body weight and daily food intake of hamsters in the 4 diet groups were...LN, Mamigonova RI, Sabatov EA. 1983. Use of D-20 aerosol insecticide smoke pots in controlling burrow sandflies . Med Parazitol Parazit Bolezni 4:78

  1. Post-dispersal seed removal by ground-feeding rodents in tropical peatlands, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Blackham, Grace V.; Corlett, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are being rapidly converted to agriculture or degraded into non-forest vegetation. Although large areas have been abandoned, there is little evidence for subsequent forest recovery. As part of a study of forest degradation and recovery, we used seed removal experiments and rodent surveys to investigate the potential role of post-dispersal seed predation in limiting the regeneration of woody plants. Two 14-day seed removal trials were done in deforested and forested peatland habitat in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seeds of Nephelium lappaceum, Syzygium muelleri, Artocarpus heterophyllus (all animal-dispersed) and Combretocarpus rotundatus (wind-dispersed) were tested. Significantly more seeds (82.8%) were removed in forest than non-forest (38.1%) and Combretocarpus had the lowest removal in both habitats. Most handled seeds were eaten in situ and little caching was observed. Six species of rodents were captured in forest and five in non-forest. The most trapped taxa were three Maxomys spp. in forest (85.5% of individuals) and Rattus tiomanicus in non-forest (74.8%). Camera traps confirmed that rodents were responsible for seed removal. Seed predation in deforested areas, which have a much lower seed rain than forest, may contribute to the low density and diversity of regenerating forest. PMID:26369444

  2. Post-dispersal seed removal by ground-feeding rodents in tropical peatlands, Central Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Blackham, Grace V; Corlett, Richard T

    2015-09-15

    Forested tropical peatlands in Southeast Asia are being rapidly converted to agriculture or degraded into non-forest vegetation. Although large areas have been abandoned, there is little evidence for subsequent forest recovery. As part of a study of forest degradation and recovery, we used seed removal experiments and rodent surveys to investigate the potential role of post-dispersal seed predation in limiting the regeneration of woody plants. Two 14-day seed removal trials were done in deforested and forested peatland habitat in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Seeds of Nephelium lappaceum, Syzygium muelleri, Artocarpus heterophyllus (all animal-dispersed) and Combretocarpus rotundatus (wind-dispersed) were tested. Significantly more seeds (82.8%) were removed in forest than non-forest (38.1%) and Combretocarpus had the lowest removal in both habitats. Most handled seeds were eaten in situ and little caching was observed. Six species of rodents were captured in forest and five in non-forest. The most trapped taxa were three Maxomys spp. in forest (85.5% of individuals) and Rattus tiomanicus in non-forest (74.8%). Camera traps confirmed that rodents were responsible for seed removal. Seed predation in deforested areas, which have a much lower seed rain than forest, may contribute to the low density and diversity of regenerating forest.

  3. Subchronic 90-day oral (Gavage) toxicity study of a Luo Han Guo mogroside extract in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Xiaojian, S; Ronggan, L; Yuxian, W; Zhunian, T; Shouji, G; Heimbach, J

    2006-12-01

    A combined 28-day and 90-day oral (Gavage) study was conducted in male and female dogs to investigate the safety of PureLo, a non-caloric sweetener derived from the Chinese fruit Luo Han Guo, which achieves its sweetness from the presence of triterpene glycosides known as mogrosides. Three dogs of each sex were administered 10 mL/kg bw/day of either an aqueous solution providing 3000 mg/kg bw/day of PureLo or distilled water for either 28 days or 90 days. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. There were no significant adverse effects on any of these measures. Based on the lack of toxicological effects in the study, the NOAEL for PureLo is 3000 mg/kg bw/day when administered to dogs by Gavage for 90 consecutive days.

  4. Assessment of the interaction of age and sex on 90-day outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    James, Michael L; Langefeld, Carl D; Sekar, Padmini; Moomaw, Charles J; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Worrall, Bradford B; Sheth, Kevin N; Martini, Sharyl R; Osborne, Jennifer; Woo, Daniel

    2017-09-05

    Because age affects hormonal production differently in women compared with men, we sought to define sex and age interactions across a multiracial/ethnic population after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) to uncover evidence that loss of gonadal hormone production would result in loss of the known neuroprotective effects of gonadal hormones. Clinical and radiographic data from participants in the Ethnic/Racial Variations of Intracerebral Hemorrhage study and the Genetic and Environmental Risk Factors for Hemorrhagic Stroke study prior to December 2013 were used. Relationships among sex, age, and outcome after ICH in 616 non-Hispanic black, 590 Hispanic, and 868 non-Hispanic white participants were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression analysis. Poor outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score ≥3 at 90 days after ICH. Sex differences were found in multiple variables among the racial/ethnic groups, including age at onset, premorbid neurologic status, and neurologic outcome after ICH. Overall, no sex-age interaction effect was found for mortality (p = 0.183) or modified Rankin Scale score (p = 0.378) at 90 days after ICH. In racial/ethnic subgroups, only the non-Hispanic black cohort provided possible evidence of a sex-age interaction on 90-day modified Rankin Scale score (p = 0.003). Unlike in ischemic stroke, there was no evidence that patient sex modified the effect of age on 90-day outcomes after ICH in a large multiracial/ethnic population. Future studies should evaluate biological reasons for these differences between stroke subtypes. NCT01202864. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  5. Preoperative risk score predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection in a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Ming; Yin, Wen-Yao; Su, Yu-Chieh; Wei, Chang-Kao; Lee, Cheng-Hung; Juang, Shiun-Yang; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chen, Jin-Cherng; Lee, Ching-Chih

    2014-09-01

    The impact of important preexisting comorbidities, such as liver and renal disease, on the outcome of liver resection remains unclear. Identification of patients at risk of mortality will aid in improving preoperative preparations. The purpose of this study is to develop and validate a population-based score based on available preoperative and predictable parameters predicting 90-day mortality after liver resection using data from a hepatitis endemic country.We identified 13,159 patients who underwent liver resection between 2002 and 2006 in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In a randomly selected half of the total patients, multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to develop a prediction score for estimating the risk of 90-day mortality by patient demographics, preoperative liver disease and comorbidities, indication for surgery, and procedure type. The score was validated with the remaining half of the patients.Overall 90-day mortality was 3.9%. Predictive characteristics included in the model were age, preexisting cirrhosis-related complications, ischemic heart disease, heart failure, cerebrovascular disease, renal disease, malignancy, and procedure type. Four risk groups were stratified by mortality scores of 1.1%, 2.2%, 7.7%, and 15%. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications were the strongest predictors. The score discriminated well in both the derivation and validation sets with c-statistics of 0.75 and 0.75, respectively.This population-based score could identify patients at risk of 90-day mortality before liver resection. Preexisting renal disease and cirrhosis-related complications had the strongest influence on mortality. This score enables preoperative risk stratification, decision-making, quality assessment, and counseling for individual patients.

  6. Clinical Outcomes and 90-Day Costs Following Hemiarthroplasty or Total Hip Arthroplasty for Hip Fracture.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Christine I; Vose, Joshua G; Nunley, Ryan M

    2017-09-01

    In the era of bundled payments, many hospitals are responsible for costs from admission through 90 days postdischarge. Although bundled episodes for hip fracture will have a separate target price for the bundle, little is known about the 90-day resource use burden for this patient population. Using Medicare 100% Standard Analytic Files (2010-2014), we identified patients undergoing hemiarthroplasty or total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients were aged 65 and older with admitting diagnosis of closed hip fracture, no concurrent fractures of the lower limb, and no history of hip surgery in the prior 12 months baseline. Continuous Medicare-only enrollment was required. Complications, resource use, and mortality from admission through 90 days following discharge (follow-up) were summarized. Four cohorts met selection criteria for analysis: (1) hemiarthroplasty diagnosis-related group (DRG) 469 (N = 19,634), (2) hemiarthroplasty DRG 470 (N = 77,744), (3) THA DRG 469 (N = 1686), and (4) THA DRG 470 (N = 9314). All-cause mortality during the study period was 51.6%, 29.5%, 48.1%, and 24.9% with mean 90-day costs of $28,952, $19,243, $29,763, and $18,561, respectively. Most of the patients waited 1 day from admission to surgery (41%-51%). Incidence of an all-cause complication was approximately 70% in each DRG 469 cohort and 14%-16% in each DRG 470 cohort. This study confirms patients with hip fracture are a costly subpopulation. Tailored care pathways to minimize post-acute care resource use are warranted for these patients. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Are Barbed Sutures Associated With 90-day Reoperation Rates After Primary TKA?

    PubMed

    Austin, Daniel C; Keeney, Benjamin J; Dempsey, Brendan E; Koenig, Karl M

    2017-08-11

    Studies have suggested that barbed sutures for wound closure in TKAs are an acceptable alternative to standard methods. However others have observed a higher risk of wound-related complications with barbed sutures. (1) Do 90-day TKA reoperation rates differ between patients undergoing a barbed suture arthrotomy closure compared with a traditional interrupted closure? (2) Do the 90-day reoperation rates of wound-related, deep infection, and arthrotomy failure complications differ between barbed suture and traditional closures? A retrospective analysis of a longitudinally maintained institutional primary TKA database was conducted on all TKAs performed between April 2011 and September 2015. We compared 884 primary TKAs, where the arthrotomy was closed with a barbed suture, with 1598 primary TKAs closed with the standard interrupted suture. After barbed sutures were introduced at our institution in 2012, the majority of surgeons gradually switched to barbed suture closures, with many using them exclusively by the end of the data collection period. We confirmed in-person followups and available data past 90 days for 97.4% (1556 of 1598) of the knees in patients with standard sutures and 94.8% (838 of 884) of the knees in patients with barbed sutures. Our primary endpoint was all-cause 90-day reoperation; our secondary endpoints considered: wound-related reoperation, as defined by previous studies; deep infection per Musculoskeletal Infection Society guidelines; and arthrotomy failure, defined intraoperatively as an opening or dehiscence through the previous arthrotomy closure. T tests and chi-square analyses were used to determine differences between the suture cohorts, and bivariate logistic regression was used to determine associations with our 90-day reoperation outcomes. With the numbers available, there was no association between suture type and 90-day all-cause reoperation (odds ratio [OR], 1.70; 95% CI, 0.82-3.53; p = 0.156). Suture type was not associated with

  8. A 90-Day Toxicology Study of Meat from Genetically Modified Sheep Overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566

  9. A 90-day toxicology study of meat from genetically modified sheep overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Hai; Wang, Zhixian; Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals.

  10. Multisite Study of an Implanted Continuous Glucose Sensor Over 90 Days in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Dehennis, Andrew; Mortellaro, Mark A.; Ioacara, Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), which enables real-time glucose display and trend information as well as real-time alarms, can improve glycemic control and quality of life in patients with diabetes mellitus. Previous reports have described strategies to extend the useable lifetime of a single sensor from 1-2 weeks to 28 days. The present multisite study describes the characterization of a sensing platform achieving 90 days of continuous use for a single, fully implanted sensor. Method: The Senseonics CGM system is composed of a long-term implantable glucose sensor and a wearable smart transmitter. Study subjects underwent subcutaneous implantation of sensors in the upper arm. Eight-hour clinic sessions were performed every 14 days, during which sensor glucose values were compared against venous blood lab reference measurements collected every 15 minutes using mean absolute relative differences (MARDs). Results: All subjects (mean ± standard deviation age: 43.5 ± 11.0 years; with 10 sensors inserted in men and 14 in women) had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Most (22 of 24) sensors reported glucose values for the entire 90 days. The MARD value was 11.4 ± 2.7% (range, 8.1-19.5%) for reference glucose values between 40-400 mg/dl. There was no significant difference in MARD throughout the 90-day study (P = .31). No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: The Senseonics CGM, composed of an implantable sensor, external smart transmitter, and smartphone app, is the first system that uses a single sensor for continuous display of accurate glucose values for 3 months. PMID:26224762

  11. Which Hospital and Clinical Factors Drive 30- and 90-Day Readmission After TKA?

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Adler, Edward M; Kolisek, Frank R; Manley, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the hospital, clinical, and patient factors associated with inpatient readmission after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the Medicare population and to understand the primary reasons for readmission. The Medicare 100% national hospital claims database was used to identify 952,593 older patients (65+) with a primary TKA in 3848 hospitals between 2010 and 2013. A multilevel logistic regression analysis with a clustered data structure was used to investigate the risk of all-cause 30- and 90-day readmission, incorporating hospital, clinical, and patient factors. At 30 days, readmission ranged from 0% to 22% (median, 4.9%), whereas at 90 days, readmission ranged from 0% to 32% (median, 8.6%). Geographic census region, hospital procedure volume, rural hospital location, and nonprofit ownership were the only significant hospital factors among those we studied. Evaluation of clinical factors showed use of a perioperative transfusion was associated with 13% greater risk; patients discharged to home had 25% lower risk; and surgeon volume and length of stay were also significant. These effect sizes were at least comparable to patient factors, such as age, gender, comorbidities, and socioeconomic status. The top 5 most frequently reported primary reasons for 30- or 90-day readmission in TKA were surgery and medical related: wound infection, deep infection, atrial fibrillation, cellulitis and abscess of leg, or pulmonary embolism. The results of this study support further optimization of anti-infection measures, both intraoperative and postoperative, to reduce the broad variation in hospital readmissions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Medicare inpatient and 90-day postdischarge adverse outcomes in carotid artery surgery.

    PubMed

    Fry, Donald E; Pine, Michael; Locke, David; Reband, Agnes; Torres, Zeke; Pine, Gregory

    2015-10-01

    Longitudinal, risk-adjusted measurement of outcomes of carotid artery (CA) surgery is necessary for the evaluation of quality performance and for the assessment of strategies of quality improvement. Patients from quality coding hospitals who underwent CA surgery and met procedural and diagnostic coding requirements in the Medicare Inpatient Limited Data Set from 2009 to 2011 were used to design logistic prediction models for the Adverse Outcomes (AOs) of inpatient deaths, 3-sigma prolonged length-of-stay outliers (prLOS) among live discharges, 90-day post-discharge deaths without readmission (PD-90), and 90-day post-discharge readmissions (ReAdm-90). A total of 653 quality coding hospitals had 54,183 CA surgery cases. There were 122 inpatient deaths (0.23%) and 3,337 (6.2%) prLOS. After discharge, there were 258 patients that were PD-90 and 9,804 patients (18.1 % of live discharges) were readmitted. Among all readmissions, 1,592 (13.3%) were judged to be totally unrelated to the index operation. A total of 495 patients died during readmission to the hospital. The rate of total adverse outcome was 22.6% with all ReAdm-90 cases counted. In CA surgery, more AOs occur in the 90 days after discharge than during the inpatient period of care. ReAdm-90 remains the major cause for AOs and represents the greatest opportunity for improvement in the care of CA surgery patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Human exploration of space: A review of NASA's 90-day study and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stever, H. Guyford; Cannon, Robert H., Jr.; Gavin, Joseph G.; Kerrebrock, Jack L.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Levinthal, Elliott C.; Mar, James W.; Mcelroy, John H.; Mcruer, Duane T.; Merrell, William J., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The National Research Council (NRC) examines the NASA Report of the 90-Day Study on Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, and alternative concepts. Included in this paper, prepared for the National Space Council, are the answers to a challenging set of questions posed by the Vice President. Concerns addressed include: the appropriate pace, the scope of human exploration, the level of long-term support required, the technology development available and needed, the feasibility of long-duration human spaceflight in a low-gravity environment, scientific objectives, and other considerations such as costs and risks.

  14. Effect of 90-day continuous exposure to methylisobutylketone on dogs, monkeys and rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macewen, J. D.; Vernot, E. H.; Haun, C. C.

    1971-01-01

    Continuous exposure of rats, dogs and monkeys to 410 mg/cu M methylisobutylketone vapor (MIBK) was conducted to evaluate the provisional spacecraft exposure limit of 20 ppm established by the Space Science Board in 1968. The exposure, conducted in a simulated space cabin environment, did not produce any measurable changes in dogs or monkeys. Rats developed hyaline droplet nephrosis within 2 weeks of exposure which was reversible upon removal from the MIBK even after 90 days. The data obtained indicated that the 60-minute emergency exposure limit of 100 ppm and the 90- and 1000-day provisional limits as established by the Space Science Board contain a wide margin of safety.

  15. Factors associated with 90-day death after emergency department discharge for atrial fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Atzema, Clare L; Austin, Peter C; Chong, Alice S; Dorian, Paul

    2013-05-01

    More than 10% of patients treated in the emergency department (ED) for atrial fibrillation die within a year of the visit. We sought to describe the post-ED care of an older population of atrial fibrillation patients who were discharged home from the ED and to assess patient characteristics and processes of care associated with risk of death within 90 days of discharge. This retrospective cohort analysis included patients aged 65 years or older with a primary ED diagnosis of atrial fibrillation who were treated at all nonpediatric EDs in the province of Ontario, Canada, between April 2007 and March 2010. Only the index emergency visit for each patient was included, and patients admitted to the hospital were excluded. We evaluated the association of postdischarge outpatient care and medications, ED cardioversion, and site volumes of atrial fibrillation patients with adjusted hazard of 90-day death. Among 12,772 qualifying index ED visits, there were 417 (3.3%; 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.0% to 3.6%) deaths within 90 days of the visit. Patients with no follow-up care had a significantly increased hazard of death (hazard ratio [HR] 2.27; 95% CI 1.50 to 3.43) relative to those who consulted a family physician, as did patients prescribed a calcium-channel blocker (HR 1.55; 95% CI 1.15 to 2.09) relative to a β-blocker. A filled warfarin prescription was associated with a lower hazard of death (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.51 to 0.95). Higher site volumes (HR 0.66; 95% CI 0.41 to 1.08), cardioversion (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.42 to 1.15), and follow-up care by a specialist only (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.51 to 1.12) were not associated with 90-day mortality. Among older atrial fibrillation patients discharged from the ED in the province of Ontario, lack of follow-up care had the strongest association with subsequent mortality. If validated, these results suggest that as proportionately more of these patients are discharged from EDs in future, the focus should go beyond ED care itself to the

  16. A 90-day safety study of genetically modified rice expressing rhIGF-1 protein in C57BL/6J rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Maoxue; Xie, Tingting; Cheng, Wenke; Qian, Lili; Yang, Shulin; Yang, Daichang; Cui, Wentao; Li, Kui

    2012-06-01

    Genetically modified plants expressing disease resistance traits offer new treatment strategies for human diseases, but at the same time present a challenge in terms of food safety assessment. The present 90-day feeding study was designed to assess the safety of transgenic rice expressing the recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-1 (rhIGF-1) compared to its parental wild rice. Male and female C57BL/6J rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet with 20% transgenic rhIGF-1 rice or 20% parental rice for 90 days. This corresponds to a mean daily rhIGF-1 protein intake of approximately 217.6 mg/kg body weight based on the average feed consumption. In the animal study a range of biological, biochemical, clinical, microbiological and pathological parameters were examined and several significant differences were observed between groups, but none of the effects were considered to be adverse. In conclusion, no adverse or toxic effects on C57BL/6J rats were observed in the design used in this 90-day study. These results will provide valuable information for the safety assessment of genetically modified food crops.

  17. Persistent inequalities in 90-day colon cancer mortality: an English cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fowler, H; Belot, A; Njagi, E N; Luque-Fernandez, M A; Maringe, C; Quaresma, M; Kajiwara, M; Rachet, B

    2017-08-31

    Variation in colon cancer mortality occurring shortly after diagnosis is widely reported between socio-economic status (SES) groups: we investigated the role of different prognostic factors in explaining variation in 90-day mortality. National cancer registry data were linked with national clinical audit data and Hospital Episode Statistics records for 69 769 adults diagnosed with colon cancer in England between January 2010 and March 2013. By gender, logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of SES, age and stage at diagnosis, comorbidity and surgical treatment on probability of death within 90 days from diagnosis. Multiple imputations accounted for missing stage. We predicted conditional probabilities by prognostic factor patterns and estimated the effect of SES (deprivation) from the difference between deprivation-specific average predicted probabilities. Ninety-day probability of death rose with increasing deprivation, even after accounting for the main prognostic factors. When setting the deprivation level to the least deprived group for all patients and keeping all other prognostic factors as observed, the differences between deprivation-specific averaged predicted probabilities of death were greatly reduced but persisted. Additional analysis suggested stage and treatment as potential contributors towards some of these inequalities. Further examination of delayed diagnosis, access to treatment and post-operative care by deprivation group may provide additional insights into understanding deprivation disparities in mortality.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 31 August 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.295 www.bjcancer.com.

  18. Safety assessment of vitacoxib: Acute and 90-day sub-chronic oral toxicity studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianzhong; Sun, Feifei; Tang, Shusheng; Zhang, Suxia; Lv, Pengyue; Li, Jing; Cao, Xingyuan

    2017-02-24

    Vitacoxib, is a newly developed coxibs NSAID (selective inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2). To date, no experimental data have been published concerning its safety for use as an additive in the human diet. In the present study, we assessed the acute and sub-chronic toxicity of vitacoxib administered by gavage. The acute toxicity tests in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and ICR mice demonstrated that vitacoxib at a dose of 5000 mg/kg BW failed to alter any of the parameters studied. In the 90-day sub-chronic toxicity test, vitacoxib was administered to SD rats at the doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, and 60 mg/kg BW. The results demonstrated that there were no significant differences for most indexes of sub-chronic toxicity throughout the experiment at the dose of 5-20 mg/kg BW, indicating no apparent dose-dependent. However, there were significant histopathology changes in the liver and kidney, and alterations in some biochemical parameters in the 60 mg/kg BW group. Based on these findings, the gavage LD50 was determined to be > 5000 mg/kg in SD rats and ICR mice, and the 90-day gavage no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of vitacoxib was considered to be 20 mg/kg BW under the present study conditions.

  19. The vector tick Ixodes ricinus feeding on an arboreal rodent-the edible dormouse Glis glis.

    PubMed

    Fietz, Joanna; Langer, Franz; Havenstein, Nadine; Matuschka, Franz-Rainer; Richter, Dania

    2016-04-01

    The reservoir competence and long life expectancy of edible dormice, Glis glis, suggest that they serve as efficient reservoir hosts for Lyme disease (LD) spirochetes. Their arboreality, however, may reduce the probability to encounter sufficient questing Ixodes ricinus ticks to acquire and perpetuate LD spirochetes. To define the potential role of this small arboreal hibernator in the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes, we examined their rate and density of infestation with subadult ticks throughout the season of activity. Of the 1081 edible dormice that we captured at five study sites in Southern Germany and inspected for ticks at 2946 capture occasions, 26 % were infested with at least one and as many as 26 subadult ticks on their ear pinnae. The distribution of ticks feeding on edible dormice was highly aggregated. Although only few individuals harbored nymphal ticks soon after their emergence from hibernation, the rate of nymphal infestation increased steadily throughout the season and reached about 35 % in September. Dormice inhabiting a site with few conspecifics seemed more likely to be infested by numerous ticks, particularly nymphs, than those individuals living in densely populated sites. Male dormice were more likely to be parasitized by numerous nymphs than were females, independent of their age and body mass. Our observation that season, population density, and sex affect the rates of ticks feeding on edible dormice suggests that the contribution of edible dormice to the transmission cycle of LD spirochetes depends mainly on their ranging behavior and level of activity.

  20. Drivers of Payment Variation in 90-Day Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Episodes.

    PubMed

    Guduguntla, Vinay; Syrjamaki, John D; Ellimoottil, Chad; Miller, David C; Prager, Richard L; Norton, Edward C; Theurer, Patricia; Likosky, Donald S; Dupree, James M

    2017-08-23

    Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is scheduled to become a mandatory Medicare bundled payment program in January 2018. A contemporary understanding of 90-day CABG episode payments and their drivers is necessary to inform health policy, hospital strategy, and clinical quality improvement activities. Furthermore, insight into current CABG payments and their variation is important for understanding the potential effects of bundled payment models in cardiac care. To examine CABG payment variation and its drivers. This retrospective cohort study used Medicare and private payer claims to identify patients who underwent nonemergent CABG surgery from January 1, 2012, through October 31, 2015. Ninety-day price-standardized, risk-adjusted, total episode payments were calculated for each patient, and hospitals were divided into quartiles based on the mean total episode payments of their patients. Payments were then subdivided into 4 components (index hospitalization, professional, postacute care, and readmission payments) and compared across hospital quartiles. Seventy-six hospitals in Michigan representing a diverse set of geographies and practice environments were included. Ninety-day CABG episode payments. A total of 5910 patients undergoing nonemergent CABG surgery were identified at 33 of the 76 hospitals; of these, 4344 (73.5%) were men and mean (SD) age was 68.0 (9.3) years. At the patient level, risk-adjusted, 90-day total episode payments for CABG varied from $11 723 to $356 850. At the hospital level, the highest payment quartile of hospitals had a mean total episode payment of $54 399 compared with $45 487 for the lowest payment quartile (16.4% difference, P < .001). The highest payment quartile hospitals compared with the lowest payment quartile hospitals had 14.6% higher index hospitalization payments ($34 992 vs $30 531, P < .001), 33.9% higher professional payments ($8060 vs $6021, P < .001), 29.6% higher postacute care payments

  1. Intravenous pamidronate prevents femoral bone loss and renal stone formation during 90-day bed rest.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Yukiko; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Koh; Sekiguchi, Chiharu; Fukunaga, Masao; Kohri, Kenjiro; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Matsumoto, Toshio; Nakamura, Toshitaka

    2004-11-01

    Long-term bed rest has potential risks of bone loss and renal stone formation. We examined the effects of resistive exercise and intravenous pamidronate on BMD, bone turnover, urinary calcium, and renal stone formation in 25 healthy males during 90-day bed rest. Pamidronate prevented femoral bone loss and renal stone formation, but resistive exercise showed little effects. Long-term bed rest increases the risks of bone loss and urinary stone formation. Resistive exercise increases bone formation, and bisphosphonates reduce bone resorption. However, the effects of muscle exercise and bisphosphonates have not been examined side-by-side. The objectives of this study are to compare the effects of pamidronate with resistive exercise on BMD and renal stone formation during prolonged bed rest. Twenty-five male white volunteers, 26-45 years of age, were randomly assigned to the control (n = 9), exercise (n = 9), and pamidronate (n = 7) groups and underwent 90-day 6 degrees head-down tilt bed rest. Exercise group performed squats and heel raises on a flywheel device for 30 minutes every 3 days. Pamidronate (60 mg) was administered intravenously 14 days before bed rest. BMD of the head, forearm, lumbar spine, and proximal femur; biochemical bone markers; calcium (Ca) metabolism; and abdominal radiographs were examined during 90 days of bed rest and 360 days of reloading. In controls, proximal femoral BMD decreased, and bone resorption markers and urinary Ca increased during bed rest, along with development of renal stones in two of nine subjects. Resistive exercise increased bone formation but was unable to prevent femoral BMD decrease and increases in bone resorption and urinary Ca during bed rest, with formation of renal stones in four of nine subjects. Pamidronate maintained femoral BMD, reduced bone resorption and urinary Ca, and completely prevented renal stone formation. Resistive exercise increased bone formation but could not reduce bone resorption and the risk of

  2. 76 FR 47133 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding and 12-Month Determination on a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding and notice of 12-month determination. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce our...

  3. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  4. 76 FR 47123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune Beetles as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list six sand...

  5. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  6. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  7. Thirty-day and 90-day hospital readmission after outpatient upper extremity hemodialysis access creation.

    PubMed

    Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Shah, Nishant K; Peacock, Matthew R; Tahhan, Georges; Kalish, Jeffrey A; Rybin, Denis; Eslami, Mohammad H; Farber, Alik

    2017-05-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease have multiple comorbidities and are at increased risk for postoperative complications and resource utilization. Our goal was to determine the rate and causes of 30-day and 90-day hospital readmissions after the creation of outpatient hemodialysis access. We retrospectively reviewed all outpatient upper extremity hemodialysis access creations performed at our medical center from 2008 to 2015. Readmission was defined as any inpatient status admission ≤30 and 90 days. Reasons for such admissions were analyzed, and multivariate analyses assessed risk factors. We identified 537 patients (60% male). Average age was 59 years. Access type included radiocephalic (4.5%), brachiocephalic (50.7%), brachiobasilic (22.5%), and prosthetic (20%) arteriovenous fistulas. The 90-day mortality rate was 0.7%. Postoperative hospital readmission rates were 25.5% at 30 days and 47.7% at 90 days. Reasons for admission were access related in 10.9% and dialysis catheter related in 6.9%. Other reasons for admission included shortness of breath/volume overload (15.8%), gastrointestinal (11.9%), cardiac/chest pain (10.9%), unrelated infectious causes (11.9%), failure to thrive (5%), altered mental status (4%), electrolyte abnormalities (3%), and musculoskeletal (2.5%). Preoperative predictors of all cause 30-day readmission included dementia (odds ratio [OR], 5.76; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.34-24.8; P = .018), hypertension (OR, 3.92; 95% CI, 1.07-14.4; P = .039), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.01-4.76; P = .046), and current smoking (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.32-3.47; P = .002). Predictors of all cause 90-day readmission were hepatic insufficiency (OR, 6.08; 95% CI, 1.2-30.8; P = .029), hypertension (OR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.36-8.65; P = .009), black race (OR, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.48-4.14; P = .001), Hispanic ethnicity (OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.01-4.11; P = .046), and obesity (OR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.02-2.19; P = .039). Predictors of

  8. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Seung-Young; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Seo, Heung-Sik; Shin, Sung-Sup; Kim, Seon-Ju; Meang, Eun-Ho; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Beom-Jun; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity and establish the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and target organ(s) of negatively charged colloidal silica particles of different sizes, ie, SiO2 (EN20(-)) (20 nm) or SiO2 (EN100(-)) 2(100 nm), administered by gavage in Sprague-Dawley rats. After verification of the physicochemical properties of the SiO2 particles to be tested, a preliminary dose range-finding study and 90-day repeated dose study were conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline. Based on the results of the 14-day dose range-finding study, a high dose was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg, and middle and low doses were set at 1,000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the 90-day toxicity study, there were no animal deaths in relation to administration of SiO2 particles of either size. In addition, no treatment-related clinical changes or histopathological findings were observed in any of the experimental groups. Moreover, no difference in toxic effects from chronic exposure to SiO2 (EN20(-))(20 nm) or SiO2 (EN100(-)) (100 nm) was observed. The results of this study indicate that the NOAEL for SiO2 (EN20(-)) and SiO2 (EN100(-)) would most likely be 2,000 mg/kg, and no target organ was identified in rats of either sex.

  9. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  10. Monocyte count at onset predicts poststroke outcomes during a 90-day follow-up.

    PubMed

    Liberale, Luca; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Bonaventura, Aldo; Casetta, Ilaria; Seraceni, Silva; Trentini, Alessandro; Padroni, Marina; Dallegri, Franco; Fainardi, Enrico; Carbone, Federico

    2017-10-01

    Acute ischaemic stroke (AIS) triggers both systemic and neurovascular inflammation, influencing poststroke recovery. In smokers with AIS, inflammation might be further upregulated, increasing ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Here, the predictive value of leucocyte and adhesion molecules levels on poststroke outcomes was investigated. A total of 89 patients with AIS (n = 30 smokers and n = 59 nonsmokers) were recruited and evaluated 1, 7 and 90 days after the onset to assess stroke severity by the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score as well as clinical recovery at 90 days by the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). Lesion volume was assessed by noncontrast computed tomography. Haematological parameters, blood chemistry and soluble adhesion molecules were measured. Smokers experienced a more severe stroke and at a younger age with respect to nonsmokers, moreover, they had higher circulating levels of monocytes, neutrophils and soluble adhesion molecules. Baseline monocytes positively correlated with stroke severity and disability across all time points in the overall cohort. No correlation was shown between adhesion molecules and poststroke outcomes. A monocyte count >0·63 × 10(9) /L predicted worse stroke severity (defined as NIHSS ≥5) at day 90 independently of age, hypertension, thrombolysis and active smoking in the overall cohort. Similarly, a monocyte count >0·64 × 10(9) /L predicted poor neurological recovery at day 90 (defined as mRS > 2). Smoker had more severe AIS and higher leucocytes and adhesion molecule levels. In the overall cohort, monocyte count was an independent predictor of worse poststroke outcome. Although larger trials are needed, monocyte count might be a cheap prognostic parameter in AIS. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  11. Hospital, Patient, and Clinical Factors Influence 30- and 90-Day Readmission After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Adler, Edward M; Kolisek, Frank R; Manley, Michael T

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the hospital, clinical, and patient factors associated with inpatient readmission after total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the Medicare population and to understand the primary reasons for readmission. The Medicare 100% national hospital claims database was used to identify 442,333 older patients (65+) with a primary THA in 3730 hospitals between 2010 and 2013. A multilevel logistic regression analysis with a clustered data structure was used to investigate the risk of all-cause 30- and 90-day readmission, incorporating hospital, clinical, and patient factors. At 30 days, 5.8% (median) of the patients were readmitted, whereas at 90 days, 10.5% (median) were readmitted. Geographic census region, hospital procedure volume, and nonprofit ownership were the only significant hospital factors among those we studied. Overall, clinical factors explained more of the variation in readmission rates than general hospital factors. Use of a perioperative transfusion was associated with 14% greater risk, patients discharged to home had 28% lower risk, and surgeon volume and length of stay were also significant risk factors. The top 5 most frequently reported primary reasons for 30-day readmission in THA were procedure related: dislocation (5.9%), deep infection (5.1%), wound infection (4.8%), periprosthetic fracture (4.4%), or hematoma (3.4%). These findings support further optimization of the delivery of care-both intraoperative and postoperative-to reduce the broad variation in hospital readmissions. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The PEARL score predicts 90-day readmission or death after hospitalisation for acute exacerbation of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Echevarria, C; Steer, J; Heslop-Marshall, K; Stenton, S C; Hughes, R; Wijesinghe, M; Harrison, R N; Steen, N; Simpson, A J; Gibson, G J; Bourke, S C

    2017-01-01

    Background One in three patients hospitalised due to acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is readmitted within 90 days. No tool has been developed specifically in this population to predict readmission or death. Clinicians are unable to identify patients at particular risk, yet resources to prevent readmission are allocated based on clinical judgement. Methods In participating hospitals, consecutive admissions of patients with AECOPD were identified by screening wards and reviewing coding records. A tool to predict 90-day readmission or death without readmission was developed in two hospitals (the derivation cohort) and validated in: (a) the same hospitals at a later timeframe (internal validation cohort) and (b) four further UK hospitals (external validation cohort). Performance was compared with ADO, BODEX, CODEX, DOSE and LACE scores. Results Of 2417 patients, 936 were readmitted or died within 90 days of discharge. The five independent variables in the final model were: Previous admissions, eMRCD score, Age, Right-sided heart failure and Left-sided heart failure (PEARL). The PEARL score was consistently discriminative and accurate with a c-statistic of 0.73, 0.68 and 0.70 in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. Higher PEARL scores were associated with a shorter time to readmission. Conclusions The PEARL score is a simple tool that can effectively stratify patients' risk of 90-day readmission or death, which could help guide readmission avoidance strategies within the clinical and research setting. It is superior to other scores that have been used in this population. Trial registration number UKCRN ID 14214. PMID:28235886

  13. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  14. A 90-day safety study in Sprague-Dawley rats fed milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF) derived from transgenic cloned cattle.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cui; Wang, Jian Wu; Huang, Kun Lun; He, XiaoYun; Chen, Xiu Ping; Sun, Hong; Yu, Tian; Che, Hui Lian

    2011-10-01

    Transgenic cloned animals expressing beneficial human nutritional traits offer a new strategy for large-scale production of some kinds of functional substances. In some cases, the required safety testing for genetically modified (GM) foods do not seem appropriate for human food safety, though regulations do not seem to provide alternatives. A 90-day rat feeding study is the core study for the safety assessment of GM foods. The test material in this 90-day study was prepared nonfat milk powder containing recombinant human lactoferrin (rhLF), which was expressed in transgenic cloned cattle. Groups of 10 male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were given a nutritionally balanced purified diet containing 7.5, 15, or 30% transgenic or conventional milk powder for 90 days. A commercial AIN93G diet was used as an additional control group. Clinical, biological, and pathological parameters were compared between groups. The only significant effect of treatment was higher mean ferritin and Fe(+) concentrations for both male and female rats fed the transgenic milk powder diets, as compared to rats fed nontransgenic milk diets or the commercial diet. The results of the present study are consistent with previous research, which indicates that milk powder containing rhLF derived from healthy transgenic cloned cattle is as safe as conventional milk powder.

  15. HMX: Analysis in Plasma Obtained after 90 Day Toxicity Studies with Rats and Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-31

    from Rathburn * Chemicals Limited, Scotland. Dichloromethane was of AnalaR grade (BDH) and was distilled at IRI prior to use. Animal Diet During the...course of the study a laboratory Rodent Diet (BP Nutrition (Modified) Expanded Ground Maintenance Diet ) was available to the animals ad libitum. A...typical analysis for this diet is presented in Appendix 2. . QEquipment high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was performed on a systera

  16. Evaluation of platelet lymphocyte ratio and 90-day mortality in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Praneel; Law, Stephanie; Sriram, Krishna B

    2017-06-01

    Acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) have high mortality and health care costs. The platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) is a marker of inflammation and has been reported to be elevated in patients with AECOPD compared to stable state. In this study, we sought to evaluate the association of the PLR in patients with AECOPD with 90-day mortality. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients admitted to our institution with a primary diagnosis of AECOPD between January 2014 and July 2014. Blood test results on admission were recorded. The primary outcomes were 90-day mortality. One hundred and eighty-one AECOPD patients were considered for the study. Death had occurred in 16 (9%) patients within 90 days of hospital discharge. Univariable analysis identified age, haemoglobin, neutrophil count, and urea level, neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and PLR as being associated with increased 90-day mortality. Multivariable logistic regression analysis variables demonstrated that only PLR (P=0.03) was significantly associated with death at 90 days. Receiver operator characteristic analysis identified PLR ≥235 had a sensitivity of 63% and specificity of 74% in predicting 90-day mortality. PLR was ≥235 was also associated with worse survival (days) [mean ± standard deviation (SD): PLR ≥235 vs. PLR <235: 512±358 vs. 626±346, P=0.004]. A PLR ≥235 was significantly associated with 90-day mortality, which may provide prognostic guidance to clinicians.

  17. Safety assessment of dietary bamboo charcoal powder: a 90-day subchronic oral toxicity and mutagenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Zhenchao, Jia; Yuting, Zhong; Jiuming, Yan; Yedan, Lu; Yang, Song; Jinyao, Chen; Lishi, Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Vegetable carbon has been used as food additive in EU (E153) and China for many years; however, no experimental data have been available on its dietary safety. This study was designed to evaluate the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of bamboo charcoal powder (BCP). In the study of subchronic oral toxicity, BCP was administered orally at doses of 2.81, 5.62, and 11.24 g/kg BW for 90 days to SD rats. Additional satellite groups from the control group and high dose group were observed for a 28-day recovery period. At the end of the treatment and recovery periods, animals were sacrificed, and their organs were weighed and blood samples were collected. The toxicological endpoints observed included clinical signs, food consumption, body and organ weights, hematological and biochemical parameters, macroscopic and microscopic examinations. The results showed no significant differences between the BCP treated groups and control group. The genotoxicity of BCP was assessed with the Salmonella typhimurium mutagenicity assay (Ames test) and a combination of comet assay and mammalian erythrocyte micronucleus protocol. The results did not reveal any genotoxicity of BCP. Based on our study, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for BCP is 11.24 g/kg BW/day.

  18. In Vivo Evaluation of a Pneumatic Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Device for up to 90 Day Support.

    PubMed

    Conger, Jeff L; Grace, Brian W; Van Noy, Kelsey L; Handy, Kelly M; Costas, Gil G; Rodriguez-Sierra, Carlos A; Trejo, Alejandro; Pinzon, Javier; Cohn, William E

    In a previous study, we showed that the Vitalmex Extracorporeal Ventricular Assist Device-Pneumatic (EVAD-P)-a low-cost, pneumatically actuated, pulsatile blood pump-is easy to implant and safe for short-term in vivo support (30 ± 5 days). In the current study, we included additional 30 day experiments and assessed the safety and durability of the EVAD-P for up to 90 days of support. Using the same surgical procedure as in the previous study, we implanted the device into 14 healthy sheep. Group I subjects (n = 7) were evaluated for up to 30 days, and group II (n = 2) and group III (n = 5) subjects were evaluated for up to 49 and 93 days, respectively. After a system redesign, two of the five sheep in group III reached the scheduled end-point without device-related problems at a fixed beat rate of 56 bpm, a stroke volume (SV) of 58.0 ± 2.3 ml, and a flow of 3.5 ± 0.2 L/min. This study shows that the EVAD-P can provide safe pulsatile mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for up to 93 days. To further confirm that the system can consistently provide MCS for this duration, additional studies are recommended.

  19. Subchronic toxicity study of yttrium nitrate by 90-day repeated oral exposure in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Mei; Yu, Zhou; Zhao, Zeng-Ming; Jia, Li; Fang, Hai-Qin; Zhang, Ting-Fen; Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Shu, Yu-Lei; He, Jun; Peng, Hui; Li, Li-Zhong; Zhao, Jun; Jia, Xu-Dong; Peng, Shuang-Qing

    2017-09-01

    Concerns regarding the adverse effects of long-term exposure to low levels of rare earth elements (REEs) from foods on human health have arisen in recent years. Nevertheless, no official acceptable daily intake (ADI) has yet been proposed for either total REEs or individual REE. In accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) testing guideline, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of yttrium, a representative heavy REE with higher contaminated level in foods in China, to achieve a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) which is a critical basis for the establishment of an ADI. Yttrium nitrate was orally administered to rats at doses of 0, 10, 30 and 90 mg/kg/day for 90 days followed by a recovery period of 4 weeks. The following toxicity indices were measured: mortality, clinical signs, daily food consumption and weekly body weight; urinalysis, hematology, blood coagulation, clinical biochemistry and histopathology at the end of administration and recovery periods. No toxicologically significant changes were found in any yttrium-treated group as compared to the concurrent control group. Under the present experimental condition, the NOAEL in rats was thus set at 90 mg/kg for yttrium nitrate, i.e. 29.1 mg/kg for yttrium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  1. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  2. Association of hospital volume with conditional 90-day mortality after cystectomy: an analysis of the National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Matthew E; Mallin, Katherine; Weaver, Mark A; Palis, Bryan; Stewart, Andrew; Winchester, David P; Milowsky, Matthew I

    2014-07-01

    To examine the association of hospital volume and 90-day mortality after cystectomy, conditional on survival for 30 days. The National Cancer Data Base was used to evaluate 30- and 90-day mortality for 35,055 patients who underwent cystectomy for bladder cancer at one of 1118 hospitals. Patient data were aggregated into hospital volume categories based on the mean annual number of procedures (low-volume hospital: <10 procedures; intermediate-volume hospital: 10-19 procedures; high-volume hospital: ≥20 procedures). Associations between mortality and clinical, demographic and hospital characteristics were analysed using hierarchical logistic regression models. To assess the association between hospital volume and 90-day mortality independently of shorter-term mortality, 90-day mortality conditional on 30-day survival was assessed in the multivariate modelling. Unadjusted 30- and 90-day mortality rates were 2.7 and 7.2% overall, 1.9 and 5.7% among high-volume hospitals, and 3.2 and 8.0% among low-volume hospitals, respectively. Compared with high-volume hospitals, the adjusted risks among low-volume hospitals (odds ratio [95% CI]) of 30- and 90-day mortality, conditional on having survived for 30 days, from the hierarchical models were 1.5 (1.3-1.9), and 1.2 (1.0-1.4), respectively. A low hospital volume was associated with greater 30- and 90-day mortality. These data support the need for further research to better understand the relatively high mortality rates seen between 30 and 90 days, which are high and less variable across hospital volume strata. The stronger association between volume and 30-day mortality suggests that quality-reporting efforts should focus on shorter-term outcomes. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  3. Trichloromelamine 14-Day Range Finding and 90-Day Subchronic Studies in Rats. 3 August 1988 - 17 January 1989. Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-13

    COSATI CODES 10. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on reverne if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Trichloroemelamine, toxicity , 14-Day...90-Day 19, ABSTRACT (Conamnue on revers if necessary and identify by block number) The subchronic study examined the toxicity of the food service...observed adverse effect level in the 90-day study was 30 mg/kg/day. Trichloromelamine should be considered moderately toxic when ingested acutely

  4. Predictors of 30- and 90-day readmission following craniotomy for malignant brain tumors: analysis of nationwide data.

    PubMed

    Donoho, Daniel A; Wen, Timothy; Babadjouni, Robin M; Schwartzman, William; Buchanan, Ian A; Cen, Steven Y; Zada, Gabriel; Mack, William J; Attenello, Frank J

    2017-10-07

    Hospital readmissions are a major contributor to increased health care costs and are associated with worse patient outcomes after neurosurgery. We used the newly released Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD) to describe the association between patient, hospital and payer factors with 30- and 90-day readmission following craniotomy for malignant brain tumor. All adult inpatients undergoing craniotomy for primary and secondary malignant brain tumors in the NRD from 2013 to 2014 were included. We identified all cause readmissions within 30- and 90-days following craniotomy for tumor, excluding scheduled chemotherapeutic procedures. We used univariate and multivariate models to identify patient, hospital and administrative factors associated with readmission. We identified 27,717 admissions for brain tumor craniotomy in 2013-2014, with 3343 (13.2%) 30-day and 5271 (25.7%) 90-day readmissions. In multivariate analysis, patients with Medicaid and Medicare were more likely to be readmitted at 30- and 90-days compared to privately insured patients. Patients with two or more comorbidities were more likely to be readmitted at 30- and 90-days, and patients discharged to skilled nursing facilities or home health care were associated with increased 90-day readmission rates. Finally, hospital procedural volume above the 75th percentile was associated with decreased 90-day readmission rates. Patients treated at high volume hospitals are less likely to be readmitted at 90-days. Insurance type, non-routine discharge and patient comorbidities are predictors of postoperative non-scheduled readmission. Further studies may elucidate potentially modifiable risk factors when attempting to improve outcomes and reduce cost associated with brain tumor surgery.

  5. Doubling of 30-Day Mortality by 90 Days After Esophagectomy: A Critical Measure of Outcomes for Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    In, Haejin; Palis, Bryan E; Merkow, Ryan P; Posner, Mitchell C; Ferguson, Mark K; Winchester, David P; Pezzi, Christopher M

    2016-02-01

    Our objectives were to (1) compare 30- and 90-day mortality rates after esophagectomy, (2) compare drivers of 30- and 90-day mortality, and (3) examine whether 90-day mortality affects hospital rankings. Operative mortality has traditionally been assessed at 30 days. Ninety-day mortality has been suggested as a more appropriate indicator of quality, particularly after complex cancer surgery. Esophagectomies for nonmetastatic esophageal cancer patients diagnosed between 2007 and 2011 were identified in the National Cancer Data Base. Mortality rates were examined by patient demographics, tumor characteristics, and hospital procedural volume. Risk-adjusted hierarchical logistic regression models examined hospital performance for mortality. A total of 15,796 esophagectomy patients at 977 hospitals were available for analysis. Ninety-day overall mortality was more than double the 30-day mortality (8.9% vs 4.2%; P < 0.0001). In multivariate analysis, while both 30- and 90-day mortality were associated with patient factors such as age, comorbidity, and hospital volume, only 90-day mortality was influenced by tumor- and management-related variables such as stage, tumor location, and receipt of neoadjuvant therapy. Hospital performance was examined as top 10%, middle 10% to 90%, and lowest 10% as ranked using risk-adjusted odds of mortality. There was moderate correlation between ranking based on 30- and 90-day mortality [weighted κ = 0.45 (95% confidence interval, 0.39-0.52)]. Compared with 30-day mortality rankings, nearly 20% of hospitals changed their ranking category when 90-day mortality rankings were used. Examination of 90-day mortality after esophagectomy reflects cancer patient management decisions and may provide actionable targets for quality improvement.

  6. Postoperative mortality 90 days after robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy and retropubic radical prostatectomy: a nationwide population-based study.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Johan; Folkvaljon, Yasin; Cole, Alexander; Carlsson, Stefan; Robinson, David; Loeb, Stacy; Stattin, Pär; Akre, Olof

    2016-08-01

    To assess 90-day postoperative mortality after robot-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (RARP) and retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP) using nationwide population-based registry data. We conducted a cohort study using the National Prostate Cancer Register of Sweden, including 22 344 men with localized prostate cancer of clinical stage T1-T3, whose prostate-specific antigen levels were <50 μg/mL and who had undergone primary radical prostatectomy in the period 1998-2012. Vital status was ascertained through the Total Population Register. The rates for 90-day postoperative mortality were analysed using logistic regression analysis, and comparisons of 90-day mortality with the background population were made using standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Of the 14 820 men who underwent RRP, 29 (0.20%) died, and of the 7 524 men who underwent RARP, 10 (0.13%) died. Mortality in the cohort during the 90-day postoperative period was lower than in an age-matched background population: SMR 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39-0.75). There was no statistically significant difference in 90-day mortality according to surgical method: RARP vs RRP odds ratio (OR) 1.14; 95% CI 0.46-2.81. Postoperative 90-day mortality decreased over time: 2008-2012 vs 1998-2007 OR 0.44; 95% CI 0.21-0.95, mainly because of lower mortality after RARP. The 90-day postoperative mortality rates were low after RARP and RRP and there was no statistically significant difference between the methods. Given the long life expectancy among men with low- and intermediate-risk prostate cancer, very low postoperative mortality is a prerequisite for RP, which was fulfilled by both RRP and RARP. The selection of healthy men for RP is highlighted by the lower 90-day mortality after RP compared with the background population. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on faecal microflora of rats during 90 day supplementation.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Liu, Haiyan; Lu, Jiao; Su, Chunyuan; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-08-30

    Many animal studies have been performed on products with the Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin-encoding gene (Bt products), but less have focused on its effects on intestinal microflora owing to difficulties in culturing. This 90 day study was designed to assess unintended effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice (GMR) on selected intestinal bacteria (Lactobacillus group, Bifidobacterium genus, Escherichia coli subgroup, Enterococcus genus and Clostridium perfringens) of rats by the real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. During the whole experiment, no statistically significant differences in the numbers of specific bacteria and total bacteria were found between the GMR group and its parental group. At all stages of the experiment the two main probiotics (Lactobacillus group and Bifidobacterium genus) in faeces accounted for 11-23% of the total bacteria, whereas the conditional pathogens (E. coli subgroup, Enterococcus genus and C. perfringens) made up less than 1% of the total bacteria. B/E (log(10) copies of Bifidobacterium genome g(-1) faeces/log(10) copies of E. coli genome g(-1) faeces) ratios from 1.19 to 1.34 were obtained. Furthermore, significant correlations (P < 0.01) between the real-time PCR method and the plate count method were found, with r values ranging from 0.60 to 0.75. No adverse effects on the numbers of specific bacteria in rat faeces were observed as a result of GMR feeding. The real-time PCR method is recommended in further studies on the composition and dynamics of the intestinal bacteria community for better safety assessment of GM materials. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. [Kooroo color: 90-day dietary toxicity study in F344 rats].

    PubMed

    Sekita, Kiyoshi; Umemura, Takashi; Saito, Minoru; Ogawa, Yukio; Ueno, Katsunori; Kaneko, Toyozo; Uchida, Osayuki; Matsushima, Yuko; Kawasaki, Yasushi; Inoue, Tohru

    2002-06-01

    A subchronic toxicity study on kooroo color was conducted using F344 rats of both genders. Kooroo color is an extract of yam root, Dioscorea matudai Hayata, of which the major components are known to be flavonoid pigments. Use of kooroo as a food color is permitted by the Food Sanitation Law in Japan, but the chronic toxicity has not been evaluated in the literature. Rats were fed the product of kooroo color (PKC) at doses of 0.5%, 1.50%, and 5.0% in basal powder diet, while control groups received PKC-free basal diet, for ninety days. A vehicle control given propylene glycol (PG) alone, at the same dosage that the 5.0% group received, was included, because PKC used in this study contained ca. 80 percent PG, used as an extractant during the manufacturing processes. Daily observation of general behavior, and weekly measurement of body weight as well as food consumption were performed. Hematological, serum biochemical and anatomopathological examinations were conducted at the end of administration. No abnormalities ascribable to the treatment with PKC or PG were noted in any examination in this study. Hence, dietary intake of 5.0% of PKC, i.e., 2,993 mg/kg/day for males, and 3,376 mg/kg/day for females, as a mean daily intake for 90 days, had no observable adverse effect in F344 rats. Therefore, kooroo color has no significant general toxicity, and its toxicity, if any, is of a very low order.

  9. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally.

  10. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  11. Evaluation of toxicity of green tea catechins with 90-day dietary administration to F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Takami, S; Imai, T; Hasumura, M; Cho, Y-M; Onose, J; Hirose, M

    2008-06-01

    Green tea catechins (GTC), polyphenols extracted from the stalks and leaves of Camellia sinensis, are found in the different types of tea beverages and as antioxidant additives to many foods, snacks, fats and fatty oils. As a part of their safety assessment, subchronic toxicity was investigated in male and female F344 rats with dietary administration at concentrations of 0 (control), 0.3%, 1.25% and 5.0% for 90 days. The average daily intakes of GTC in each group were 180, 764 and 3525mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for males, and 189, 820 and 3542mg/kg body weight/day, respectively for females. No mortality or obvious clinical signs were observed throughout the experimental period but body weights were reduced from week 1 to the end of the experiment in 5.0% males. In serum biochemistry, alanine transaminase and alkaline phosphatase in 5.0% males and females and aspartate transaminase in 5.0% females were increased, together with the relative liver weights in both sexes receiving 5.0%. Although decreases were evident for total cholesterol in 0.3-5.0% males and triglycerides in 1.25% and 5.0% males and 5.0% females, these changes were not considered to be adverse. Hematology and histopathological observation revealed no GTC-related toxicological changes. Based on above findings, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of GTC was estimated to be 1.25% (764mg/kg body weight/day for males and 820mg/kg body weight/day for females).

  12. High-intensity flywheel exercise and recovery of atrophy after 90 days bed--rest.

    PubMed

    Belavý, Daniel L; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    To investigate differential muscle atrophy during bed-rest, the impact of a high-intensity concentric-eccentric (flywheel) resistance exercise countermeasure and muscle recovery after bed-rest. Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent 90 dayshead-down tilt bed-rest. Volume of individual lower-limb muscles was measured via MRI before, twice during and four times up to 1 year after bed-rest. Subjects were either inactive (n=16) or performed flywheel exercise every third day of bed-rest (n=9). Functional performance was assessed via countermovement jump. On 'intent-to-treat' analysis, flywheel prevented atrophy in the vasti (p<0.001) and reduced atrophy in the hip adductor/extensor adductor magnus (p=0.001) and ankle dorsiflexors/toe flexors (soleus (p<0.001), gastrocnemius medialis (p<0.001), gastrocnemius lateralis (p=0.02), and tibialis posterior with flexor digitorum longus (p=0.04)). Flywheel exercise was not effective for the hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius, peroneals and anterior tibial muscles. Muscle atrophy in vasti, soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and adductor magnus correlated with losses in countermovement jump performance. Muscle volume recovered within 90 days after bed-rest, however long-term after bed-rest, the inactive subjects only showed significantly increased muscle volume versus prebed-rest in a number of muscles including soleus (+4.3%), gastrocnemius medialis (+3.9%) and semimembranosus (+4.3%). This was not associated with greater countermovement jump performance. The exercise countermeasure was effective in preventing or reducing atrophy in the vasti, adductor magnus and ankle dorsiflexors/toe flexors but not the hamstrings, medial thigh muscles or peroneals and dorsiflexor muscles. NCT00311571; results.

  13. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  14. A-90 Day Gavage Safety Assessment of Boswellia serrata in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pooja; Chacko, K. Mathai; Aggarwal, M. L.; Bhat, Binu; Khandal, R. K.; Sultana, Sarwat; Kuruvilla, Binu T.

    2012-01-01

    The present study deals with the evaluation and assessment of the safety/toxic potential of Boswellia serrata, a well known Ayurvedic herb used to treat disorders of digestive system, respiratory ailments and bone related diseases. A repeated dose oral (90 days) toxicity study of Boswellia serrata was carried out. For this, 10 rats of each sex were treated with the Boswellia serrata at three different doses i.e. 100, 500 and 1000 mg/kg B. wt. /day. As a control, 10 rats of each sex were treated with corn oil only which was the vehicle. Two groups consisting of five male and five female rats were kept as control recovery and high dose recovery group which were treated with the vehicle (corn oil) and the Boswellia serrata at the dose of 1000 mg/kg B. wt. Animals of control recovery and high dose recovery groups were further observed for 28 days without any treatment. From this study, it was found that the rats treated with high dose of the Boswellia serrata gained their body weight with much less rate than that of the control group. However, during the recovery period, the loss in body weight gain as observed during the study period exhibits a reversible effect on the metabolic activity and recovered. The results also indicate that Boswellia serrata is relatively safe in rat up to the dose of 500 mg/kg B.wt. as no adverse impact on health factors was observed. Thus, the No observed adverse effect level is 500 mg/kg B. wt. PMID:23293466

  15. 90-Day oral toxicity study of D-tagatose in rats.

    PubMed

    Kruger, C L; Whittaker, M H; Frankos, V H; Trimmer, G W

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a ketohexose, tastes like sugar and is useful as a low-calorie sweetener. To assess D-tagatose's safety, an oral 90-day toxicity study was conducted on male and female Crl:CDBR rats at dietary doses of 5, 10, 15, and 20% D-tagatose. One control group (dietary control) received only lab chow; a second control group received 20% cellulose/fructose in the diet. There were no treatment-related effects at 5% D-tagatose in the diet. At higher doses, treatment-related effects included transient soft stools in male and female animals from the 15 and 20% dose groups. This was anticipated as a result of the osmotic effect of a large dose of relatively undigested sugar and was not considered a toxic effect. All treatment groups gained weight over the study period; however, mean body weights were statistically significantly decreased in the 15 and 20% dose-group males and the 20% dose-group females at selected intervals compared to dietary control animals. No significant reduction in mean food consumption was noted in the treatment groups compared to the dietary control. Statistically significantly increased relative liver weights were noted in male and female animals from the 10, 15, and 20% dose groups compared to the dietary control. No gross pathological findings correlated with these increased liver weights. Minimal hepatocellular hypertrophy was observed in male and female animals from the 15 and 20% dose groups. An independent review of the liver slides concluded that histomorphologic changes associated with D-tagatose were restricted hepatocyte hypertrophy and hepatocyte glycogen accumulation. Therefore, it was concluded that increased liver weights and minimal hypertrophy were the result of adaptation to the high dietary levels (greater than 5% in the diet) of D-tagatose. No adverse effects were seen at 5% D-tagatose in the diet. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  16. Precipitating factors and 90-day outcome of acute heart failure: a report from the intercontinental GREAT registry.

    PubMed

    Arrigo, Mattia; Gayat, Etienne; Parenica, Jiri; Ishihara, Shiro; Zhang, Jian; Choi, Dong-Ju; Park, Jin Joo; Alhabib, Khalid F; Sato, Naoki; Miro, Oscar; Maggioni, Aldo P; Zhang, Yuhui; Spinar, Jindrich; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Iwashyna, Theodore J; Mebazaa, Alexandre

    2017-02-01

    Several clinical conditions may precipitate acute heart failure (AHF) and influence clinical outcome. In this study we hypothesized that precipitating factors are independently associated with 90-day risk of death in AHF. The study population consisted of 15 828 AHF patients from Europe and Asia. The primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality according to identified precipitating factors of AHF [acute coronary syndrome (ACS), infection, atrial fibrillation (AF), hypertension, and non-compliance]. Mortality at 90 days was 15.8%. AHF precipitated by ACS or by infection showed increased 90-day risk of death compared with AHF without identified precipitants [hazard ratio (HR) 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.44-1.97, P < 0.001; and HR 1.51, 95% CI 1.18-1.92, P = 0.001), while AHF precipitated by AF showed lower 90-day risk of death (HR 0.56, 95% CI 0.42-0.75, P < 0.001), after multivariable adjustment. The risk of death in AHF precipitated by ACS was the highest during the first week after admission, while in AHF precipitated by infection the risk of death had a delayed peak at week 3. In AHF precipitated by AF, a trend toward reduced risk of death during the first weeks was shown. At weeks 5-6, AHF precipitated by ACS, infection, or AF showed similar risk of death to that of AHF without identified precipitants. Precipitating factors are independently associated with 90-day mortality in AHF. AHF precipitated by ACS or infection is independently associated with higher, while AHF precipitated by AF is associated with lower 90-day risk of death. © 2016 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2016 European Society of Cardiology.

  17. Decade-Long Trends in the Frequency of 90-Day Rehospitalizations After Hospital Discharge for Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Han-Yang; Tisminetzky, Mayra; Yarzebski, Jorge; Gore, Joel M; Goldberg, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    There are limited data available describing relatively contemporary trends in 90-day rehospitalizations in patients who survive hospitalization after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in a community setting. We examined decade-long (2001 to 2011) trends in, and factors associated with, 90-day rehospitalizations in patients discharged from 3 central Massachusetts (MA) hospitals after AMI. Residents of the Worcester, MA, metropolitan area discharged after AMI from 3 central MA hospitals on a biennial basis from 2001 to 2011 comprised the study population (n = 4,810). The average age of this population was 69 years, 42% were women, and 92% were white. From 2001 to 2011, 30.0% of patients were rehospitalized within 90 days after hospital discharge, and 38% of 90-day rehospitalizations occurred after the first month after hospital discharge. Crude 90-day rehospitalization rates decreased from 31.5% in 2001/2003 to 27.3% in 2009/2011. After adjusting for several sociodemographic characteristics, co-morbidities, and in-hospital factors, there was a reduced risk of being rehospitalized within 90 days after hospital discharge in 2009/2011 compared with 2001/2003 (risk ratio = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.77 to 0.98); this trend was slightly attenuated (risk ratio = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.79 to 1.02) after further adjustment for hospital treatment practices. Female sex, having several previously diagnosed co-morbidities, an increased hospital stay, and the in-hospital development of atrial fibrillation, cardiogenic shock, and heart failure were significantly associated with an increased risk of being rehospitalized. In conclusion, the likelihood of subsequent 90-day rehospitalizations remained frequent, and we did not observe a significant decrease in these rates during the years under study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  19. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Griffis, L C; Twerdok, L E; Francke-Carroll, S; Biles, R W; Schroeder, R E; Bolte, H; Faust, H; Hall, W C; Rojko, J

    2010-01-01

    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat. In contrast, only minimal MLN changes are seen in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat with no changes in the liver. In this study, the response of female F-344 and S-D rats was compared after 90days dietary treatment with 0%, 0.2% or 2% LMPW. Effects in the F-344 rats were significantly greater than in the S-D rats: increased liver and splenic weights and inflammatory changes (hepatic microgranulomas) in these tissues were observed only in the F-344 rats. Microgranulomas in the MLNs were observed in both strains but the effects were substantially greater in the F-344 rats. Cellular markers of inflammation were examined in a subset of rats from each group using immunohistochemical staining. An increase in staining for CD3 (T-cells), CD8a (suppresser/cytotoxic T-cells) and CD4 (helper T-cells) correlated with an increase in lymphoid cells in the livers of treated F-344 rats. The majority of macrophages in the hepatic microgranulomas of treated F-344 rats were negative for the ED2 marker, indicating a likely origin from non-resident macrophages. Electron microscopy showed Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in treated F-344 rats. However, lysozyme staining (indicating activation of epithelioid macrophages) decreased with increasing granuloma size. Non-ED2 expressing cells may have been recruited but not sufficiently activated to be lysozyme positive. Inflammatory changes in the cardiac mitral valve noted in previous studies of LMPW were also seen in the F-344 rats in this study but not in the S-D rats. Chemical analysis showed that MHC accumulated in livers from treated F-344 but not S-D rats and the concentration was more than 2-fold greater in MLNs from the F-344 than from the S-D rats. The F-344 appears to be more immunologically sensitive to

  20. Evolution of Blood Lactate and 90-Day Mortality in Septic Shock. A Post Hoc Analysis of the FINNAKI Study.

    PubMed

    Varis, Elina; Pettilä, Ville; Poukkanen, Meri; Jakob, Stephan M; Karlsson, Sari; Perner, Anders; Takala, Jukka; Wilkman, Erika

    2017-05-01

    Hyperlactatemia predicts mortality in patients with sepsis and septic shock, and its normalization is a potential treatment goal. We investigated the association of blood lactate and its changes over time with 90-day mortality in septic shock. We performed a post hoc analysis of 513 septic shock patients with admission blood lactate measurements in the prospective, observational, multicenter FINNAKI study. Repetitive lactate measurements were available in 496 patients for analyses of change in lactate values during intensive care unit stay.The 90-day mortality for all patients was 33.3%. Patients with admission lactate >2 mmol/L had higher 90-day mortality than those with admission lactate ≤2 mmol/L (43.4% vs. 22.6%, P < 0.001). Patients with persistent hyperlactatemia (>2 mmol/L) at ≥72 h had higher 90-day mortality compared with those with a lactate value of ≤2.0 mmol/L (52.0% vs. 24.3%, P < 0.001). Time-weighted mean lactate values were higher in non-survivors than in survivors, (median [IQR] 2.05 [1.38-4.22] mmol/L vs. 1.29 [0.98-1.77] mmol/L, P < 0.001). Time to normalization of lactate was comparable for 90-day non-survivors and survivors (median [IQR] 17.0 [3.5-43.5] vs. 15.0 [5.0-35.0] h, P = 0.67). In separate models, time-weighted mean lactate, lactate value at ≥72 h, and hyperlactatemia at ≥72 h were independently associated with 90-day mortality, but admission lactate and time to normalization of lactate were not. These findings may inform future clinical trials using combined surrogate endpoints for mortality in septic shock patients.

  1. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2012-0072: 4500030113] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... species to, or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... had had portions of their genome deliberately spliced with genes from another species...

  2. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal Register...

  3. 76 FR 20302 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Chinook Salmon AGENCY: National Marine... a petition to list the Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Upper Klamath and Trinity... actions may be warranted. We will conduct a status review of the Chinook salmon in the Upper Klamath...

  4. 75 FR 52928 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of 90-Day Finding for a Petition to List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ...; Notice of 90-Day Finding for a Petition to List Georgia Basin Populations of China Rockfish and Tiger...) received a petition to list Georgia Basin populations of China rockfish (Sebastes nebulosus) and tiger... and tiger rockfish should be submitted to Chief, Protected Resources Division, NMFS, 1201 NE Lloyd...

  5. 75 FR 48914 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Tiger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... on a Petition to Delist the Tiger (Panthera tigris) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to remove the tiger (Panthera tigris) from the List of Endangered... information that becomes available concerning the status of the tiger or threats to it or its habitat at any...

  6. 76 FR 54423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan... listing all chimpanzees as endangered may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we...

  7. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding..., or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. A... communities, resulting in the successional replacement of Pinus albicaulis by more shade-tolerant species...

  8. 77 FR 32922 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Wildlife and Plants at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants) (Lists). We amend the Lists by... nesting substrate, protection from predators, and shade from the desert sun. It also uses upland...

  9. 78 FR 29100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Dusky Shark as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Dusky Shark as Threatened or Endangered Under... shark (Carcharhinus obscurus) range-wide or, in the alternative, the Northwest Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico population of the dusky shark as a threatened or endangered distinct population segment (DPS...

  10. 76 FR 67401 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... 54423) a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the...

  11. 75 FR 13441 - Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver for the Distribution of Anhydrous Ammonia in Agricultural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 395 Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver for... Federal hours- of-service (HOS) regulations for the transportation of anhydrous ammonia from any distribution point to a local farm retailer or to the ultimate consumer, and from a local farm retailer to the...

  12. The First 90 Days Following Release from Jail: Findings from the Recovery Management Checkups for Women Offenders (RMCWO) Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Christy K.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives 1) To examine the impact of monthly Recovery Management Checkups (RMC) vs. control in the first 90 days post-release from jail on receipt of community-based substance abuse treatment, and 2) To explore the impact of RMC, treatment, and abstinence on HIV risk behaviors and recidivism. Methods Of the 480 women randomized, 100% completed the intake and release interviews, and over 90% completed the 30-, 60-, and 90-day post-release interviews. Of the 915 times women assigned to RMC were interviewed (at release, 30, 69 and 90 days post release), 885 (97%) times they attended linkage meetings, 429 (47%) times they were identified as in need of substance abuse treatment, 271 (30%) times they agreed to go to treatment, 149 (16%) times they showed to the treatment intake, and 48 (5%) times they stayed in treatment at least two weeks. Results During the 90 days following release from jail, women in the RMC condition (vs. control) were significantly more likely to return to treatment sooner and to participate in substance abuse treatment. Women who received any treatment were significantly more likely than those who did not to be abstinent from any alcohol or other drugs. Those who were abstinent were significantly more likely to avoid HIV risk behaviors and recidivism. Conclusions These results demonstrate the feasibility of conducting monthly Recovery Management Checkups with women offenders post-release and provide support for the effectiveness of using RMC to successfully link women offenders to treatment. PMID:22542465

  13. 76 FR 55638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Snowy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Kansas; the southern Texas coast into northeast Mexico; and the central Mexican plateau) (AOU 1957, pp... of plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife...

  14. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... the 1973 Act, published in May 1974 (USDI 1974). A third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l... ``any species or subspecies of fish and wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate...

  15. 75 FR 1744 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 475...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... number, you need not resubmit it. For more information about the species, background, and our finding... Finding on a Petition to List 475 Species in the Southwestern United States as Threatened or Endangered... Service, announced a 90-day finding on 192 species from a petition to list 475 species in the Southwest...

  16. 77 FR 58084 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings... two petitions to remove the U.S. captive-bred and U.S. captive populations of three antelope species... information indicating that delisting the U.S. captive animals or U.S. captive-bred members of these species...

  17. 76 FR 7820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Texas Pipefish as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a... suggests an extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to... extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly discussing...

  18. 78 FR 10601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 44 Species of Corals as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range, and... information itself suggests an extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding... issue faces extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly...

  19. 76 FR 15947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Caribbean...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ..., or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of... suggests an extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to... extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly discussing the...

  20. 76 FR 31592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; Notice of 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Goliath...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ..., or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of... itself suggests an extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a... extinction risk that is cause for concern; this may be indicated in information expressly discussing the...

  1. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. What Factors are Associated With 90-day Episode-of-care Payments for Younger Patients With Total Joint Arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Pathak, Shweta; Ganduglia, Cecilia M; Awad, Samir S; Chan, Wenyaw; Swint, John M; Morgan, Robert O

    2017-07-13

    Total joint arthroplasty (TJA) has been identified as a procedure with substantial variations in inpatient and postacute care payments. Most studies in this area have focused primarily on the Medicare population and rarely have characterized the younger commercially insured populations. Understanding the inpatient and postdischarge care service-component differences across 90-day episodes of care and factors associated with payments for younger patients is crucial for successful implementation of bundled payments in TJA in non-Medicare populations. (1) To assess the mean total payment for a 90-day primary TJA episode, including the proportion attributable to postdischarge care, and (2) to evaluate the role of procedure, patient, and hospital-level factors associated with 90-day episode-of-care payments in a non-Medicare patient population younger than 65 years. Claims data for 2008 to 2013 from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Texas were obtained for primary TJAs. A total of 11,131 procedures were examined by aggregating payments for the index hospital stay and any postacute care including rehabilitation services and unplanned readmissions during the 90-day postdischarge followup period. A three-level hierarchical model was developed to determine procedure-, patient-, and hospital-level factors associated with 90-day episode-of-care payments. The mean total payment for a 90-day episode for TJA was USD 47,700 adjusted to 2013 USD. Only 14% of 90-day episode payments in our population was attributable to postdischarge-care services, which is substantially lower than the percentage estimated in the Medicare population. A prolonged length of stay (rate ratio [RR], 1.19; 95% CI, 1.15-1.23; p ≤ 0.001), any 90-day unplanned readmission (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.57-1.71; p ≤ 0.001), computer-assisted surgery (RR, 1.031; 95% CI, 1.004-1.059; p ≤ 0.05), initial home discharge with home health component (RR, 1.029; 95% CI, 1.013-1.046; p ≤ 0.001), and very high patient morbidity

  3. A Novel Nociceptin Receptor Antagonist LY2940094 Inhibits Excessive Feeding Behavior in Rodents: A Possible Mechanism for the Treatment of Binge Eating Disorder.

    PubMed

    Statnick, Michael A; Chen, Yanyun; Ansonoff, Michael; Witkin, Jeffrey M; Rorick-Kehn, Linda; Suter, Todd M; Song, Min; Hu, Charlie; Lafuente, Celia; Jiménez, Alma; Benito, Ana; Diaz, Nuria; Martínez-Grau, Maria Angeles; Toledo, Miguel A; Pintar, John E

    2016-02-01

    Nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ), a 17 amino acid peptide, is the endogenous ligand of the ORL1/nociceptin-opioid-peptide (NOP) receptor. N/OFQ appears to regulate a variety of physiologic functions including stimulating feeding behavior. Recently, a new class of thienospiro-piperidine-based NOP antagonists was described. One of these molecules, LY2940094 has been identified as a potent and selective NOP antagonist that exhibited activity in the central nervous system. Herein, we examined the effects of LY2940094 on feeding in a variety of behavioral models. Fasting-induced feeding was inhibited by LY2940094 in mice, an effect that was absent in NOP receptor knockout mice. Moreover, NOP receptor knockout mice exhibited a baseline phenotype of reduced fasting-induced feeding, relative to wild-type littermate controls. In lean rats, LY2940094 inhibited the overconsumption of a palatable high-energy diet, reducing caloric intake to control chow levels. In dietary-induced obese rats, LY2940094 inhibited feeding and body weight regain induced by a 30% daily caloric restriction. Last, in dietary-induced obese mice, LY2940094 decreased 24-hour intake of a high-energy diet made freely available. These are the first data demonstrating that a systemically administered NOP receptor antagonist can reduce feeding behavior and body weight in rodents. Moreover, the hypophagic effect of LY2940094 is NOP receptor dependent and not due to off-target or aversive effects. Thus, LY2940094 may be useful in treating disorders of appetitive behavior such as binge eating disorder, food choice, and overeating, which lead to obesity and its associated medical complications and morbidity.

  4. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  5. 76 FR 59835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that for 374 of the 404 species, the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing......

  6. Prognostic Abilities and Quality Assessment of Models for the Prediction of 90-Day Mortality in Liver Transplant Waiting List Patients.

    PubMed

    Saldaña, Ricardo Salinas; Schrem, Harald; Barthold, Marc; Kaltenborn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-score and diverse variants are widely used for prognosis on liver transplant waiting-lists. 818 consecutive patients on the liver transplant waiting-list included to calculate the MELD, MESO Index, MELD-Na, UKELD, iMELD, refitMELD, refitMELD-Na, upMELD and PELD-scores. Prognostic abilities for 90-day mortality were investigated applying Receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Independent risk factors for 90-day mortality were identified with multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. Methodological quality of the underlying development studies was assessed with a systematic assessment tool. 74 patients (9%) died on the liver transplant waiting list within 90 days after listing. All but one scores, refitMELD-Na, had acceptable prognostic performance with areas under the ROC-curves (AUROCs)>0.700. The iMELD performed best (AUROC = 0.798). In pediatric cases, the PELD-score just failed to reach the acceptable threshold with an AUROC = 0.699. All scores reached a mean quality score of 72.3%. Highest quality scores could be achieved by the UKELD and PELD-scores. Studies specifically lack statistical validity and model evaluation. Inferior quality assessment of prognostic models does not necessarily imply inferior prognostic abilities. The iMELD might be a more reliable tool representing urgency of transplantation than the MELD-score. PELD-score is assumedly not accurate enough to allow graft allocation decision in pediatric liver transplantation.

  7. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol.

    PubMed

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S; Skinner, Eila C

    2017-01-27

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant.

  8. Prognostic Abilities and Quality Assessment of Models for the Prediction of 90-Day Mortality in Liver Transplant Waiting List Patients

    PubMed Central

    Barthold, Marc; Kaltenborn, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background Model of end-stage liver disease (MELD)-score and diverse variants are widely used for prognosis on liver transplant waiting-lists. Methods 818 consecutive patients on the liver transplant waiting-list included to calculate the MELD, MESO Index, MELD-Na, UKELD, iMELD, refitMELD, refitMELD-Na, upMELD and PELD-scores. Prognostic abilities for 90-day mortality were investigated applying Receiver-operating-characteristic-curve analysis. Independent risk factors for 90-day mortality were identified with multivariable binary logistic regression modelling. Methodological quality of the underlying development studies was assessed with a systematic assessment tool. Results 74 patients (9%) died on the liver transplant waiting list within 90 days after listing. All but one scores, refitMELD-Na, had acceptable prognostic performance with areas under the ROC-curves (AUROCs)>0.700. The iMELD performed best (AUROC = 0.798). In pediatric cases, the PELD-score just failed to reach the acceptable threshold with an AUROC = 0.699. All scores reached a mean quality score of 72.3%. Highest quality scores could be achieved by the UKELD and PELD-scores. Studies specifically lack statistical validity and model evaluation. Conclusions Inferior quality assessment of prognostic models does not necessarily imply inferior prognostic abilities. The iMELD might be a more reliable tool representing urgency of transplantation than the MELD-score. PELD-score is assumedly not accurate enough to allow graft allocation decision in pediatric liver transplantation. PMID:28129338

  9. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werley, Michael S.; Kirkpatrick, Dan J.; Oldham, Michael J.; Jerome, Ann M.; Langston, Timothy B.; Lilly, Patrick D.; Smith, Donna C.; Mckinney, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1–4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  10. Readmission Rate and Causes at 90-Day after Radical Cystectomy in Patients on Early Recovery after Surgery Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Altobelli, Emanuela; Buscarini, Maurizio; Gill, Harcharan S.; Skinner, Eila C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Radical cystectomy (RC) is associated with high risk of early and late perioperative complications, and readmissions. The Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) protocol has been applied to RC showing decreased hospital stay without increased morbidity. Objective: To evaluate the specific causes of hospital readmissions in RC patients treated before and after adoption of an ERAS protocol at our institution. Methods: We retrospectively evaluated the outcome of 207 RC patients on ERAS protocol at the Stanford University Hospital from January 2012 to December 2014. We focused on early (30-day) and late (90-day) postoperative readmission rate and causes. Results were compared with a pre-ERAS consecutive series of 177 RC patients from January 2009 to December 2011. Results: In the post-ERAS time period a total of 56 patients were readmitted, 41 within the first 30 days after surgery (20%) and 15 within the following 60 days (7%). Fever, often associated with dehydration, was the most common reason for presentation to the hospital, accounting for 57% of all readmissions. At 90 days infection accounted for 53% of readmissions. Of all the patients readmitted during the first 90 days after surgery, 32 had positive urine cultures, mostly caused by Enterococcus faecalis isolated in 18 (56%). Readmission rates did not increase since the introduction of the ERAS protocol, with an incidence of 27% in the post-ERAS group versus 30% in the pre-ERAS group. Conclusions: Despite accurate adherence to most recent perioperative antibiotic guidelines, the incidence of readmissions after RC due to infection still remains significant. PMID:28149935

  11. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  12. Outcomes Over 90-Day Episodes of Care in Medicare Fee-for-Service Beneficiaries Receiving Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Addie; Lin, Yu-Li; Graham, James E; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J

    2017-09-01

    In an effort to improve quality and reduce costs, payments are being increasingly tied to value through alternative payment models, such as episode-based payments. The objective of this study was to better understand the pattern and variation in outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries receiving lower extremity joint arthroplasty over 90-day episodes of care. Observed rates of mortality, complications, and readmissions were calculated over 90-day episodes of care among Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries who received elective knee arthroplasty and elective or nonelective hip arthroplasty procedures in 2013-2014 (N = 640,021). Post-acute care utilization of skilled nursing and inpatient rehabilitation facilities was collected from Medicare files. Mortality rates over 90 days were 0.4% (knee arthroplasty), 0.5% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 13.4% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Complication rates were 2.1% (knee arthroplasty), 3.0% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 8.5% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Inpatient rehabilitation facility utilization rates were 6.0% (knee arthroplasty), 6.7% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 23.5% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Skilled nursing facility utilization rates were 33.9% (knee arthroplasty), 33.4% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 72.1% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Readmission rates were 6.3% (knee arthroplasty), 7.0% (elective hip arthroplasty), and 19.2% (nonelective hip arthroplasty). Patients' age and clinical characteristics yielded consistent patterns across all outcomes. Outcomes in our national cohort of Medicare beneficiaries receiving lower extremity joint arthroplasties varied across procedure types and patient characteristics. Future research examining trends in access to care, resource use, and care quality over bundled episodes will be important for addressing the challenges of value-based payment reform. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs.

  14. Safety assessment of EPA-rich oil produced from yeast: Results of a 90-day subchronic toxicity study.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, Susan A; Belcher, Leigh A; Sykes, Greg P; Frame, Steven R; Mukerji, Pushkor; Gillies, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    The safety of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) oil produced from genetically modified Yarrowia lipolytica yeast was evaluated following 90 days of exposure. Groups of rats received 0 (olive oil), 98, 488, or 976 mg EPA/kg/day, or GRAS fish oil or deionized water by oral gavage. Rats were evaluated for in-life, neurobehavioral, anatomic and clinical pathology parameters. Lower serum cholesterol (total and non-HDL) was observed in Medium and High EPA and fish oil groups. Lower HDL was observed in High EPA and fish oil males, only at early time points. Liver weights were increased in High EPA and Medium EPA (female only) groups with no associated clinical or microscopic pathology findings. Nasal lesions, attributed to oil in the nasal cavity, were observed in High and Medium EPA and fish oil groups. No other effects were attributed to test oil exposure. Exposure to EPA oil for 90 days produced no effects at 98 mg EPA/kg/day and no adverse effects at doses up to 976 mg EPA/kg/day. The safety profile of EPA oil was comparable to that of GRAS fish oil. These results support the use of EPA oil produced from yeast as a safe source for use in dietary supplements. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The development and succession of microbial communities in 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Bojie; Su, Qiang; Xie, Beizhen; Qin, Youcai; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for permanent astrobase life-support artificial closed ecosystem, is an artificial ecosystem which consists of plant cultivation, animal breeding and waste treatment units. It has been used to carry out a 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three crew members. Apparently, it’s hard to prevent the growth of microorganisms in such closed ecosystem for their strong adaptive capacity. Original microorganisms in the cabin, microbes in the course of loads delivery and the autologous microorganism by crew members and animals themselves are all the main source of the interior microorganisms, which may grow and regenerate in air, water and plants. Therefore, if these microorganisms could not be effectively monitored and controlled, it may cause microbial contamination and even lead to the unsteadiness of the whole closed ecosystem. In this study, the development and succession of the microbial communities of air, water system, plant system, and key facilities surfaces in Lunar Palace 1 were continuously monitored and analyzed by using plate counting method and molecular biological method during the 90-day experiment. The results were quite useful for the controlling of internal microorganisms and the safe operation of the whole system, and could also reveal the succession rules of microorganisms in an artificial closed ecosystem.

  16. Lower limb and portal veins echography for predicting risk of thrombosis during a 90-day bed rest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arbeille, P. A.; Kerbeci, P.; Porcher, M.; Audebert, P.; Mohty, D.

    2005-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the main leg, Portal, Jugular veins, and cardiac chambers during a long term head down bedrest (90 days). The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter- measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Method: Internal Saphenous, Common/Superficial Femoral, Popliteal, Posterior Tibial, Gastrocnemian, Portal Jugular veins and Cardiac chambers were investigated by echography. Results: The echographies were performed at HDBR day 28, 60 and 85. All veins and cardiac chambers, on all subjects showed a lumen dark (no structure inside) and were perfectly compressible under the probe pressure except cardiac chambers and Portal vein anatomically not compressible. Conclusion: (a) There was no sign of venous flow stagnation nor venous thrombosis on any subjects at any time during the 90 days in bedrest. (b) There was no difference between the control and the exercise subjects (c) The Cardiac chambers were found normal but the Jugular veins were enlarged at the end of the HDBR.

  17. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity and mass balance study of corn starch fiber in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Crincoli, Christine M; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Rihner, Marisa O; Lambert, Elizabeth A; Greeley, Melanie A; Godsey, Justin; Eapen, Alex K; van de Ligt, Jennifer L G

    2016-11-01

    The potential toxicity of corn starch fiber was assessed and compared to polydextrose, a commonly used bulking agent with a long history of safe use in the food supply. Groups of male and female Crl:CD(SD) rats were fed 0 (control), 1,000, 3,000, or 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day corn starch fiber in the diet for 90 days. The polydextrose reference article was offered on a comparable regimen at 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Following a single gavage dose of [(14)C]-corn starch fiber on study day 13 or 90, the mass balance of the test article was assessed by analysis of excreta samples collected from 0 to 168 h post-dose. There were no toxicologically or biologically relevant findings in any of the test article-treated groups. The few minor differences observed between the corn starch fiber and polydextrose exposed groups were considered to be due to normal biological variation. Following [(14)C]-corn starch fiber dosing, nearly complete excretion of the administered dose occurred over 168 h post-dosing, with the majority excreted in the feces. The dietary no-observed-adverse-effect level of corn starch fiber after 90 days was 10,000 mg/kg-bw/day. Similar toxicity profiles for corn starch fiber and polydextrose were observed due to the structural and compositional similarities of these materials.

  18. Changes in HIV risk behavior among injecting drug users: the impact of 21 versus 90 days of methadone detoxification.

    PubMed

    Iguchi, M Y; Bux, D A; Lidz, V; French, J F; Baxter, R C; Platt, J J

    1996-12-01

    To evaluate the hypothesis that long-term methadone detoxification would produce greater HIV risk reduction among injecting drug users (IDU) than short-term detoxification. Random assignment to 21 or 90 days of free detoxification. Storefront offices in two cities, with referrals to outpatient methadone detoxification. Out-of-treatment IDU (n = 1803), recruited through street outreach and word of mouth, between April 1990 and March 1991. Of these, 62.6% were successfully located for 6-month follow-up. Self-reported drug injection and sexual practices at baseline and follow-up. Substantial reductions in risk behavior were observed at follow-up. Substantial percentages of subjects reported less frequent drug injection (54%), use of shooting galleries (85%), needle-sharing (67%), and number of sex partners (73%), and more frequent use of bleach to disinfect needles (67%) and condom use (31%). There were no significant differences in behavioral change between 21 and 90-day treatment, and subjects who entered treatment did not report significantly greater risk reduction than untreated subjects. Discriminant analyses showed a marginal effect for duration of treatment on risk reduction, although results were inconsistent. Large scale behavioral risk reduction appears to be occurring in this population regardless of treatment condition. In minimal service methadone detoxification, subjects treated under a longer-term detoxification protocol demonstrated no greater risk reduction than those receiving short-term detoxification.

  19. Evaluation of Juvenile Hormone Analogues as Rodent Feed-Through Insecticides for Control of Immature Phlebotomine Sandflies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    association in many parts of the Middle East, control of the transmission of the agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis may also be possible. Key ...transform from fourth-instar larvae into pupa -form larvae before dying (Fig. 1). These larvae developed normally as second-, third- and fourth-instar larvae...but became an intermediate form between larva and pupa after they ceased feeding and cleared their guts. Pupa -form larvae survived for several days

  20. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  1. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation.

    PubMed

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-09-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  2. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    NASA is contemplating sending humans to Mars and to the moon for further exploration. Volcanic ashes from Arizona and Hawaii with mineral properties similar to those of lunar and Martian soils, respectively, are used to simulate lunar and Martian environments for instrument testing. Martian soil is highly oxidative; this property is not found in Earth's volcanic ashes. NASA is concerned about the health risk from potential exposure of workers in the test facilities. Fine lunar soil simulant (LSS), Martian soil simulant (MSS), titanium dioxide, or quartz in saline was intratracheally instilled into groups of 4 mice (C57BL/6J) at 0.1 mg/mouse (low dose, LD) or 1 mg/mouse (high dose, HD). Separate groups of mice were exposed to ozone (0.5 ppm for 3 h) prior to MSS instillation. Lungs were harvested for histopathological examination 7 or 90 days after the single dust treatment. The lungs of the LSS-LD groups showed no evidence of inflammation, edema, or fibrosis; clumps of particles and an increased number of macrophages were visible after 7 days but not 90 days. In the LSS-HD-7d group, the lungs showed mild to moderate alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The LSS-HD-90d group showed signs of mild chronic pulmonary inflammation, septal thickening, and some fibrosis. Foci of particle-laden macrophages (PLMs) were still visible. Lung lesions in the MSS-LD-7d group were similar to those observed in the LSS-HD-7d group. The MSS-LD-90d group had PLMs and scattered foci of mild fibrosis in the lungs. The MSS-HD-7d group showed large foci of PLMs, intra-alveolar debris, mild-to-moderate focal alveolitis, and perivascular and peribronchiolar inflammation. The MSS-HD-90d group showed focal chronic mild-to-moderate alveolitis and fibrosis. The findings in the O(3)-MSS-HD-90d group included widespread intra-alveolar debris, focal moderate alveolitis, and fibrosis. Lung lesions in the MSS groups were more severe with the ozone pretreatment. The effects of

  3. Visual motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90 day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1972-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long-duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in space station simulator for 90 days. A tracking test battery was administered during the above experiment. The battery included a clinical test (critical instability task) related to the subject's dynamic time delay, and a conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The comprehensive data base on human operator tracking behavior obtained in this study demonstrate that sophisticated visual-motor response properties can be efficiently and reliably measured over extended periods of time.

  4. Analysis of fungal type isolates taken from a 90-day manned test of an advanced regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sofios, M.; Swatek, F. E.

    1972-01-01

    Fungal-like cultures isolated before, during, and after the 90-day test from samples of space station simulator (SSS) atmosphere, surfaces, subsystem componets, and crew dermal sites were identified to genus. Out of the original 525 isolates, approximately 80% were classified as bacteria. Laboratory methods (culture media, moisturization, and incubation temperatures) favored the recovery of medically significant bacteria rather than fungi. Therefore, fungal isolates were mostly, nonfastidious types which are ubiquitous in soil and air and commonly contaminate laboratory cultures of pathogens. Predominant isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Pullularia, Rhodotorula, and various yeasts. No instances of fungal proliferation were observed; test data reflect the survival of environmental types indigenous to the SSS pretests.

  5. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  6. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  7. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean.

  8. Muscle Mass Loss Is a Potential Predictor of 90-Day Mortality in Older Adults with Aspiration Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Keisuke; Akagi, Junji

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between loss of muscle mass and aspiration pneumonia (AP). Prospective observational cohort. Acute geriatric hospital. Individuals admitted to the hospital for AP (N = 151; mean age 85.9; 49.7% male). Appendicular skeletal muscle index (ASMI; appendicular skeletal muscle mass divided by height squared) was used to evaluate muscle mass. Data on age, sex, body mass index, Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form score, Barthel Index score, Charlson Comorbidity Index score, and pneumonia severity (Japanese version of the CURB-65 (C (confusion), U (blood urea nitrogen ≥20 mg/dL), R (respiratory rate ≥30 breaths/min), B (systolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≤60 mmHg), 65 (aged ≥65) severity score (A-DROP)) were obtained. Outcomes included 30- and 90-day mortality. Mild, moderate, severe, and extremely severe AP were observed in 1.3%, 70.2%, 25.8%, and 2.6% of participants, respectively. On Kaplan-Meier analysis, participants in the lowest ASMI quartile for each sex were more likely to die than those in the other quartiles (log-lank test P = .005). Multivariate logistic analyses showed that ASMI and A-DROP were independent predictors of 90-day mortality; only A-DROP was a significant predictor of 30-day mortality (P < .001). Cox regression analysis also showed that the first ASMI quartile was independently associated with mortality (hazard ratio = 2.19; 95% confidence interval = 1.06-4.52; P = .03). Low muscle mass is a potential predictor of long-term mortality in individuals with AP. Prospectively preventing muscle mass deterioration may be beneficial for recovery from AP in older adults. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  9. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed.

  10. Bone-anchored annular closure following lumbar discectomy reduces risk of complications and reoperations within 90 days of discharge.

    PubMed

    Klassen, Peter Douglas; Bernstein, Derek Thomas; Köhler, Hans-Peter; Arts, Mark P; Weiner, Bradley; Miller, Larry E; Thomé, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate perioperative complications of lumbar discectomy with or without bone-anchored annular closure device (ACD) implant in patients at high risk of recurrent disc herniation. This was a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial that compared outcomes of lumbar discectomy with or without additional placement of an ACD. Patients presented with imaging evidence of lumbar disc herniation and radicular pain that was unresponsive to conservative care. Randomization occurred intraoperatively following discectomy completion and confirmation of annular defect width ≥6 mm. Main outcomes included serious adverse events (SAEs) from any cause, device- or procedure-related SAEs, and reoperations at the index level. The perioperative period included all outcomes occurring between the day of surgery and 90 days following hospital discharge. Analyses were performed on a modified intention-to-treat population consisting of 272 patients treated with ACD and 278 patients treated with lumbar discectomy only (controls). Mean patient age was 44 years, 59% were men, and mean body mass index was 26 kg/m(2). Baseline patient characteristics and operative outcomes were comparable between groups. The risks of all-cause SAE (9.7% vs 16.3%, p=0.056), device- or procedure-related SAE (4.5% vs 10.2%, p=0.02), and index-level reoperation (1.9% vs 5.4%, p=0.03) were lower with ACD vs controls. In multivariable logistic regression, control group assignment and female gender were independently associated with higher risk of device- or procedure-related SAE and index-level reoperation, respectively. In patients undergoing lumbar discectomy to treat symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation, adjunctive placement of an ACD reduces the risk for perioperative complications occurring through 90 days following hospital discharge.

  11. Bone-anchored annular closure following lumbar discectomy reduces risk of complications and reoperations within 90 days of discharge

    PubMed Central

    Klassen, Peter Douglas; Bernstein, Derek Thomas; Köhler, Hans-Peter; Arts, Mark P; Weiner, Bradley; Miller, Larry E; Thomé, Claudius

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate perioperative complications of lumbar discectomy with or without bone-anchored annular closure device (ACD) implant in patients at high risk of recurrent disc herniation. Methods This was a post hoc analysis of a randomized controlled trial that compared outcomes of lumbar discectomy with or without additional placement of an ACD. Patients presented with imaging evidence of lumbar disc herniation and radicular pain that was unresponsive to conservative care. Randomization occurred intraoperatively following discectomy completion and confirmation of annular defect width ≥6 mm. Main outcomes included serious adverse events (SAEs) from any cause, device- or procedure-related SAEs, and reoperations at the index level. The perioperative period included all outcomes occurring between the day of surgery and 90 days following hospital discharge. Results Analyses were performed on a modified intention-to-treat population consisting of 272 patients treated with ACD and 278 patients treated with lumbar discectomy only (controls). Mean patient age was 44 years, 59% were men, and mean body mass index was 26 kg/m2. Baseline patient characteristics and operative outcomes were comparable between groups. The risks of all-cause SAE (9.7% vs 16.3%, p=0.056), device- or procedure-related SAE (4.5% vs 10.2%, p=0.02), and index-level reoperation (1.9% vs 5.4%, p=0.03) were lower with ACD vs controls. In multivariable logistic regression, control group assignment and female gender were independently associated with higher risk of device- or procedure-related SAE and index-level reoperation, respectively. Conclusion In patients undergoing lumbar discectomy to treat symptomatic intervertebral disc herniation, adjunctive placement of an ACD reduces the risk for perioperative complications occurring through 90 days following hospital discharge. PMID:28894388

  12. Evaluation of 90 day repeated dose oral toxicity and reproductive/developmental toxicity of 3'-hydroxypterostilbene in experimental animals

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Muhammed; Bani, Sarang; Natarajan, Sankaran; Pandey, Anjali; S, Naveed

    2017-01-01

    3'-Hydroxypterostilbene (3'-HPT) is one of the active constituents of Sphaerophysa salsula and Pterocarpus marsupium. Despite many proposed therapeutic applications, the safety profile of 3'-HPT has not been established. The present work investigated 90 day repeated oral dose and reproductive (developmental) toxicity of 3'-HPT as a test substance in rats as per OECD guidelines. 90 day toxicity was conducted in sixty Sprague Dawley rats of each sex (120 rats), grouped into six dosage groups of 0 (control), 0 (control recovery), 20 (low dose), 80 (mid dose), 200 (high dose) and 200 (high dose recovery) mg/kg bwt/day (body weight/day) respectively. For the reproductive toxicity study forty Wistar rats of each sex (80 rats) divided into four dosage groups received 0 (vehicle control), 20 (low dose), 100 (mid dose) and 200 (high dose) mg/kg bwt/day of 3'-HPT respectively for a period of two weeks while pre-mating, mating, on the day before sacrifice, in females during pregnancy and four days of lactation period. Results showed no significant differences in body weight, food intake, absolute organ weight, haematology, with no adverse effects (toxicity) on biochemical values nor any abnormal clinical signs or behavioural changes were observed in any of the control/treatment groups, including reproductive and developmental parameters, gross and histopathological changes. In conclusion, the results suggested a No-Observed-Adverse-Effect-Level (NOAEL) of 200 mg/kg bwt/day in rats after oral administration, implying 3'-HPT did not exhibit any toxicity under the study conditions employed. PMID:28257483

  13. Imaging and Baseline Predictors of Cognitive Performance in Minor Ischemic Stroke and Patients With Transient Ischemic Attack at 90 Days.

    PubMed

    Mandzia, Jennifer L; Smith, Eric E; Horton, Myles; Hanly, Patrick; Barber, Philip A; Godzwon, Catherine; Donaldson, Emily; Asdaghi, Negar; Patel, Shiel; Coutts, Shelagh B

    2016-03-01

    Few studies have examined predictors of cognitive impairment after minor ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). We examined clinical and imaging features associated with worse cognitive performance at 90 days. TIA or patients with minor stroke underwent neuropsychological testing 90 days post event. Z scores were calculated for cognitive tests, and then grouped into domains of executive function (EF), psychomotor processing speed (PS), and memory. White matter hyperintensity and diffusion-weighted imaging volumes were measured on baseline magnetic resonance imaging. Ninety-day outcomes included modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score. Ninety-two patients were included, 76% male, 54% TIA, and mean age 65.1±12.0. Sixty-four percent were diffusion-weighted imaging positive. Median domain z scores were not significantly different from published norms (P>0.05): memory -0.03, EF -0.12, and PS -0.05. Patient performance ≥1 SD below normal was 20% on memory, 16% on PS, and 17% on EF. Cognitive scores did not differ by diagnosis (stroke versus TIA), stroke pathogenesis, presence of obstructive sleep apnea, and diffusion-weighted imaging or white matter hyperintensity volumes. In multivariable analyses, lower EF was associated with previous cortical infarct on magnetic resonance imaging (P=0.03), mRS score of >1; P=0.0003 and depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥16; P=0.03). Lower PS scores were associated with previous cortical infarct (P=0.02), acute bilateral positive diffusion-weighted imaging (P=0.02), mRS score of >1 (P=0.003), and CES-D ≥16 (P=0.03). Despite average-range cognitive performance in this TIA and population with minor stroke, we found associations of EF and PS with evidence of previous stroke, postevent disability, and depression. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. A functional variant in the 3'-UTR of VEGF predicts the 90-day outcome of ischemic stroke in Chinese patients.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Bai, Yun; Jin, Lei; Weng, Yingfeng; Wang, Yujie; Wu, Hui; Li, Xia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shengyue

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays critical roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, which are associated with post-stroke functional recovery. However, the effects of the VEGFA polymorphisms on the outcome of ischemic stroke (IS) have been rarely reported. We therefore investigated the associations of +936C/T variant (rs3025039) with the susceptibilities and the 90-day outcomes from 494 IS patients and 337 healthy controls in Chinese population through the establishment of logistic multivariate regression model. Stroke severity at admission and outcome of 90 days were respectively assessed according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. The analysis showed that there were no significant associations of the rs3025039 genotypes with the susceptibility (P = 0.229) and the severity (P = 0.734). However, when we divided the 308 IS patients into two groups according to the different outcomes, we found that the rs3025039 TC+TT genotype significantly increased the risk of poor recovery [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18-3.37]. Interestingly, we observed another 3'UTR variant, +1451C/T (rs3025040), exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1.0) with +936C/T and was located in a predicted microRNA-binding site. The rs3025040 T allele significantly decreased the luciferase activities in four cell lines, which indicated a potential disruption of the miRNA-mRNA interaction that would result in lower VEGF expression levels. Our data suggested that the +936C/T variants significantly increased the risk of poorer stroke outcome by affecting the bindings of miR-199a and miR-199b to VEGF mRNA at the rs30250340 polymorphic site.

  15. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Au, Tu C; MacPhail, Robert; Hardas, Sarita S; Butterfield, D Allan; Sultana, Rukhsana; Goodman, Michael; Tseng, Michael T; Dan, Mo; Haghnazar, Hamed; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Nanoceria is used as a catalyst in diesel fuel, as an abrasive in printed circuit manufacture, and is being pursued as an antioxidant therapeutic. Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria administration. An ~5% aqueous dispersion of citrate-stabilized 30 nm ceria, synthesized and characterized in-house, or vehicle, was iv infused into rats terminated 1, 7, 30, or 90 days later. Cageside observations were obtained daily, body weight weekly. Daily urinary and fecal cerium outputs were quantified for 2 weeks. Nine organs were weighed and samples collected from 14 tissues/organs/systems, blood and cerebrospinal fluid for cerium determination. Histology and oxidative stress were assessed. Less than 1% of the nanoceria was excreted in the first 2 weeks, 98% in feces. Body weight gain was initially impaired. Spleen weight was significantly increased in some ceria-treated groups, associated with abnormalities. Ceria was primarily retained in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. There was little decrease of ceria in any tissue over the 90 days. Granulomas were observed in the liver. Time-dependent oxidative stress changes were seen in the liver and spleen. Nanoscale ceria was persistently retained by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, associated with adverse changes. The results support concern about the long-term fate and adverse effects of inert nanoscale metal oxides that distribute throughout the body, are persistently retained, and produce adverse changes.

  16. 77 FR 27403 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...) Habitat requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy throughout its... importance for ecological conservation (water quality, habitat, and wildlife), safety (wildfires), and the...

  17. Physico-chemical properties of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract and its effect on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Schmidt, Robert E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2004-05-01

    Garcinia cambogia-derived (-)-hydroxycitric acid (HCA) is a popular and natural supplement for weight management. HCA is a competitive inhibitor of the enzyme ATP citrate lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of citrate and coenzyme A to oxaloacetate and acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl CoA) in the cytosol. Acetyl CoA is used in the synthesis of fatty acids, cholesterol and triglycerides, and in the synthesis of acetylcholine in the central nervous system. Studies have demonstrated the efficacy of a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia (HCA-SX, Super CitriMax) in weight management. Results have shown that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, enhances serotonin release and availability in the brain cortex, normalizes lipid profiles, and lowers serum leptin levels in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity, as well as Ames bacterial reverse mutation studies and mouse lymphoma tests have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no detailed long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other HCA extract has been previously assessed. We evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, selected organ weights, hepatic lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation, hematology and clinical chemistry over a period of 90 days. Furthermore, a 90-day histopathological evaluation was conducted. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX of feed intake and were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The body weight and selected organ weights were assessed and correlated as a % of body weight and brain weight at 90 days of treatment. A significant reduction in body weight was observed in treated rats as compared to control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats, while no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation was observed as compared to the control

  18. Dose- and time-dependent effects of a novel (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation and histopathological data over a period of 90 days.

    PubMed

    Shara, Michael; Ohia, Sunny E; Yasmin, Taharat; Zardetto-Smith, Andrea; Kincaid, Anthony; Bagchi, Manashi; Chatterjee, Archana; Bagchi, Debasis; Stohs, Sidney J

    2003-12-01

    (-)-Hydroxycitric acid (HCA), a natural extract from the dried fruit rind of Garcinia cambogia (family Guttiferae), is a popular supplement for weight management. The dried fruit rind has been used for centuries as a condiment in Southeastern Asia to make food more filling and satisfying. A significant number of studies highlight the efficacy of Super CitriMax (HCA-SX, a novel 60% calcium-potassium salt of HCA derived from Garcinia cambogia) in weight management. These studies also demonstrate that HCA-SX promotes fat oxidation, inhibits ATP-citrate lyase (a building block for fat synthesis), and lowers the level of leptin in obese subjects. Acute oral, acute dermal, primary dermal irritation and primary eye irritation toxicity studies have demonstrated the safety of HCA-SX. However, no long-term safety of HCA-SX or any other (-)-hydroxycitric acid extract has been previously assessed. In this study, we have evaluated the dose- and time-dependent effects of HCA-SX in Sprague-Dawley rats on body weight, hepatic and testicular lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a % of body weight and brain weight, and histopathological changes over a period of 90 days. The animals were treated with 0, 0.2, 2.0 and 5.0% HCA-SX as feed intake and the animals were sacrificed on 30, 60 or 90 days of treatment. The feed and water intake were assessed and correlated with the reduction in body weight. HCA-SX supplementation demonstrated a reduction in body weight in both male and female rats over a period of 90 days as compared to the corresponding control animals. An advancing age-induced marginal increase in hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in both male and female rats as compared to the corresponding control animals. However, no such difference in hepatic DNA fragmentation and testicular lipid peroxidation and DNA fragmentation was observed. Furthermore, liver and testis weight, expressed as such and as a percentage of body

  19. 90 Days toxicological assessment of hydroethanolic leaf extract of Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. and Schult. (Convolvulaceae) in rats.

    PubMed

    Akindele, Abidemi J; Unachukwu, Emeka G; Osiagwu, Daniel D

    2015-11-04

    Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulacae), commonly known as "morning glory" is found across West Africa. Preparations of the plant are used traditionally for the treatment of diverse ailments including diabetes, neuralgia, arthritic pain and stomach ache. This study was designed to assess the safety profile of the hydroethanolic leaf extract of I. asarifolia through a 90-day subchronic toxicity study in rats. I. asarifolia was administered p.o. at doses of 40, 200 and 1000mg/kg to separate groups of rats for 90 days. Distilled water was given p.o. to rats in the control group. Some set of rats in each group were left for additional 30 days without administration of the extract for reversibility study. Animals were weighed weekly and relevant parameters were assayed at the end of the main and reversibility study periods. There was no significant change (p>0.05) in the body weight of rats, and food and water intake in I. asarifolia treated groups compared with control. I. asarifolia (40-1000 mg/kg) significantly but reversibly reduced (p<0.05, 0.001) sperm motility and count. The extract did not generally cause significant change (p>0.05) in the weight of vital organs and haematological parameters except in the case of reversible reduction in the level of haemoglobin and red blood cell count (p<0.01; 40 mg/kg). The level of biochemical parameters and electrolytes were not significantly changed (p>0.05) except for the reversible reduction in the level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST; p<0.0001; 200 and 1000 mg/kg) and increase in the level of Na(+) (p<0.01; 200 mg/kg). The level of kidney reduced glutathione (GSH) was reversibly increased (p<0.01; 1000 mg/kg) while the level of enzymatic and non-enzymatic in vivo antioxidants was generally comparable and not significantly different (p>0.05) from control in respect of all other vital organs. Histological presentations were generally normal in respect of the liver, kidneys, brain, heart, lungs, pancreas, spleen and testes

  20. Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): Construction and Validation of an Open-source Device for Measuring Food Intake in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Katrina P; Ali, Mohamed A; O'Neal, Timothy J; Szczot, Ilona; Licholai, Julia A; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2017-02-21

    Food intake measurements are essential for many research studies. Here, we provide a detailed description of a novel solution for measuring food intake in mice: the Feeding Experimentation Device (FED). FED is an open-source system that was designed to facilitate flexibility in food intake studies. Due to its compact and battery powered design, FED can be placed within standard home cages or other experimental equipment. Food intake measurements can also be synchronized with other equipment in real-time via FED's transistor-transistor logic (TTL) digital output, or in post-acquisition processing as FED timestamps every event with a real-time clock. When in use, a food pellet sits within FED's food well where it is monitored via an infrared beam. When the pellet is removed by the mouse, FED logs the timestamp onto its internal secure digital (SD) card and dispenses another pellet. FED can run for up to 5 days before it is necessary to charge the battery and refill the pellet hopper, minimizing human interference in data collection. Assembly of FED requires minimal engineering background, and off-the-shelf materials and electronics were prioritized in its construction. We also provide scripts for analysis of food intake and meal patterns. Finally, FED is open-source and all design and construction files are online, to facilitate modifications and improvements by other researchers.

  1. Rodent Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Strategies for rodent control in crop fields, threshing yards, and rural residential areas are presented together with an operational plan for implementing a program for rodent control at the national level. Training personnel in rodent control procedures and procedures for educating the public in the necessity for control are covered. (EC)

  2. Rodent Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Journal of Adult Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Strategies for rodent control in crop fields, threshing yards, and rural residential areas are presented together with an operational plan for implementing a program for rodent control at the national level. Training personnel in rodent control procedures and procedures for educating the public in the necessity for control are covered. (EC)

  3. Seventeen Ketogenic steroids excretion in crewmen in a 90-day manned test of an advanced regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, D. J.; Wamsley, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Seventeen KGS (17-Ketogenic steroids) and Na/K were determined in 19 urine specimens collected by each of 4 crewmen during the 90-day test. The specimens represented 10% aliquots of 24-hour collections stored frozen onboard the simulator until passthrough. Electrolytes were analyzed immediately after sample passthrough while the steroids were determined post-test on aliquots of the original sample held at 203 K. Steroid data was corrected for body weight and also for analytical variation in the laboratory urine pool control. Long-term nonspecific responses to low-level stress appear to be reflected by the individual and group mean 17-KGS excretion patterns. The first 39 and the last 20 days of the test were significantly different--and presumably more stressful to the crew--than the period from days 39 to 67. Reduction of adrenocortical function during the mid-test phase is attributed to either an adaptation to chronic or intermittent stress or was the result of an actual reduction in the operational demands of the test during this time. Most remarkable of the metabolic findings is the prevalance of high Na/K ratios and an abrupt peak on day 74 for all 4 crewmen.

  4. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list either the Eastern population or the Southern Rocky Mountain (SRM) population of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) as a distinct population segment (DPS) that is endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the Eastern population of the boreal toad as a DPS may be warranted. We did not find substantial information that listing the SRM population of the boreal toad as a DPS may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we are initiating a review of the status of the Eastern population to determine if listing it as a DPS is warranted. To ensure that this status review is comprehensive, we are requesting scientific and commercial data and other information regarding the potential DPS. Based on the status review, we will issue a 12-month finding on the petition, which will address whether the petitioned action is warranted, as provided in the Act.

  5. Anatomical sector analysis of load-bearing tibial bone structure during 90-day bed rest and 1-year recovery.

    PubMed

    Cervinka, Tomas; Rittweger, Jörn; Hyttinen, Jari; Felsenberg, Dieter; Sievänen, Harri

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the bone response to long bed rest-related immobility and during subsequent recovery differed at anatomically different sectors of tibial epiphysis and diaphysis. For this study, peripheral quantitative tomographic (pQCT) scans obtained from a previous 90-day 'Long Term Bed Rest' intervention were preprocessed with a new method based on statistical approach and re-analysed sector-wise. The pQCT was performed on 25 young healthy males twice before the bed rest, after the bed rest and after 1-year follow-up. All men underwent a strict bed rest intervention, and in addition, seven of them received pamidronate treatment and nine did flywheel exercises as countermeasures against disuse-related bone loss. Clearly, 3-9% sector-specific losses in trabecular density were observed at the tibial epiphysis on average. Similarly, cortical density decreased in a sector-specific way being the largest at the anterior sector of tibial diaphysis. During recovery, the bed rest-induced bone losses were practically restored and no consistent sector-specific modulation was observed in any subgroup. It is concluded that the sector-specific analysis of bone cross-sections has potential to reveal skeletal responses to various interventions that cannot be inferred from the average analysis of the whole bone cross-section. This approach is considered also useful for evaluating the bone responses from the biomechanical point of view.

  6. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  7. Investigating the 90-day oscillations using ground-based, satellite and TIME-GCM model simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Taylor, M.; Hagan, M. E.; Pautet, P. D.; Pugmire, J. R.; Pendleton, W. R., Jr.; Russell, J. M., III

    2016-12-01

    The Andes Lidar Observatory (ALO) is an upper atmospheric observatory located high in the Andes mountain range at Cerro Pachón, Chile (30.3°S, 70.7°W, 2530 m). The Utah State University (USU) Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (MTM) was deployed in August, 2009 collocated with a Na wind/temperature lidar and a meteor wind radar from University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) as well as other optical instrumentation. In this presentation, we focus on the characteristics of a unique 90-day oscillation identified in the first 18 months in both the mesospheric wind and temperature data from ALO. This event appeared to be long-lived but transient, with similar amplitude to the AO and SAO at this location. Additional mesospheric temperature data from nearby El Leoncito Observatory (31.8°S, 69.3°W), Argentina also showed the same oscillation. The existence and extent of this oscillation are being further examined using SABER/TIMED temperature. The National Center for Atmosphere Research (NCAR) Thermosphere-ionosphere-mesosphere-electrodynamics general circulation model (TIME-GCM) simulation of 2009/10 results are utilized to investigate the possible source of this event and the spatial structures are compared with the results from the SABER temperature data.

  8. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  9. 76 FR 40868 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range... County, Mississippi. Shuey (1993) reported on the phylogeny (the history of the evolution of a species...

  10. 76 FR 62259 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... instars feed on filamentous algae (Nielsen 1948, as cited in Pescador et al. 2004), as well as diatoms and... as diatoms and other algae (Wiggins, 1996a, as cited in Pescador et al. 2004). Most microcaddisflies...

  11. 76 FR 31903 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Reclassify the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ..., including: (a) Habitat requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy on... Act. We are requesting information (see Information Solicited) on the taxonomy of both subspecies to...

  12. 77 FR 75091 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range... significance under the DPS policy on the basis of its importance to the taxon to which it belongs. This...

  13. Results of a 90-day toxicity study on 1,2,3- and 1,1,2-trichloropropane administered via the drinking water.

    PubMed

    Villeneuve, D C; Chu, I; Secours, V E; Coté, M G; Plaa, G L; Valli, V E

    1985-12-01

    Trichloropropanes have been identified as environmental contaminants in sediments of the Great Lakes region of North America. Since these chemicals had the potential to find their way into drinking water, a 90-day feeding study was carried out in order to determine their subchronic toxicity. Groups of 10 male and 10 female weanling Sprague-Dawley rats were supplied drinking water ad libitum, containing 1,2,3- or 1,1,2-trichloropropane at concentrations of 1, 10, 100 or 1000 mg/L for 13 weeks. Emulphor (0.5%) was used to solubilize the chemicals. At the end of the study, the animals were killed and examined for gross and microscopic changes. Heart, liver, brain, kidney and spleen were excised and weighed. Blood was collected and subjected to a comprehensive hematological analysis. Serum was collected and profiled for changes in 12 biochemical parameters and a portion of liver was used to determined mixed function oxidase activity. Although three animals died during the study, their deaths could not be related to treatment. Decreased growth rate was observed in both sexes of the group receiving 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. There was an increase in liver, kidney and brain weights (relative to body weight) in rats of both sexes fed 1000 mg/L 1,2,3-trichloropropane. Fatty livers were observed in some of the treated animals but a clear dose-relationship was not evident. An elevation in serum cholesterol was observed in female rats fed the highest dose of 1,2,3-trichloropropane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. High-intensity flywheel exercise and recovery of atrophy after 90 days bed-­rest­

    PubMed Central

    Ohshima, Hiroshi; Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Aims To investigate differential muscle atrophy during bed-rest, the impact of a high-intensity concentric-eccentric (flywheel) resistance exercise countermeasure and muscle recovery after bed-rest. Methods Twenty-five healthy male subjects underwent 90 dayshead-down tilt bed-rest. Volume of individual lower-limb muscles was measured via MRI before, twice during and four times up to 1 year after bed-rest. Subjects were either inactive (n=16) or performed flywheel exercise every third day of bed-rest (n=9). Functional performance was assessed via countermovement jump. Results On ‘intent-to-treat’ analysis, flywheel prevented atrophy in the vasti (p<0.001) and reduced atrophy in the hip adductor/extensor adductor magnus (p=0.001) and ankle dorsiflexors/toe flexors (soleus (p<0.001), gastrocnemius medialis (p<0.001), gastrocnemius lateralis (p=0.02), and tibialis posterior with flexor digitorum longus (p=0.04)). Flywheel exercise was not effective for the hamstrings, gracilis, sartorius, peroneals and anterior tibial muscles. Muscle atrophy in vasti, soleus, gastrocnemius medialis, gastrocnemius lateralis and adductor magnus correlated with losses in countermovement jump performance. Muscle volume recovered within 90 days after bed-rest, however long-term after bed-rest, the inactive subjects only showed significantly increased muscle volume versus prebed-rest in a number of muscles including soleus (+4.3%), gastrocnemius medialis (+3.9%) and semimembranosus (+4.3%). This was not associated with greater countermovement jump performance. Conclusion The exercise countermeasure was effective in preventing or reducing atrophy in the vasti, adductor magnus and ankle dorsiflexors/toe flexors but not the hamstrings, medial thigh muscles or peroneals and dorsiflexor muscles. Trial registration number NCT00311571; results. PMID:28761699

  15. A 90-day study of subchronic oral toxicity of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Shin, Sung-Sup; Meang, Eun Ho; Hong, Jeong-sup; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Jong-Yun; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The widespread use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications has prompted growing concern regarding their potential toxicity and impact on human health. This study therefore investigated the subchronic, systemic oral toxicity and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(−)) NPs in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods The high-dose NP level was set at 500 mg/kg of bodyweight, and the mid- and low-dose levels were set at 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were observed during a 14-day recovery period after the last NP administration for the persistence or reduction of any adverse effects. Toxicokinetic and distribution studies were also conducted to determine the systemic distribution of the NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. However, ZnOSM20(−) NPs (500 mg/kg) induced changes in the levels of anemia-related factors, prompted acinar cell apoptosis and ductular hyperplasia, stimulated periductular lymphoid cell infiltration and excessive salivation, and increased the numbers of regenerative acinar cells in the pancreas. In addition, stomach lesions were seen at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, and retinal atrophy was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg. The Zn concentration was dose-dependently increased in the liver, kidney, intestines, and plasma, but not in other organs investigated. Conclusion A ZnOSM20(−) NP NOAEL could not be established from the current results, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was 125 mg/kg. Furthermore, the NPs were associated with a number of undesirable systemic actions. Thus, their use in humans must be approached with caution. PMID:25565828

  16. Effects from a 90-day inhalation toxicity study with cerium oxide and barium sulfate nanoparticles in rats.

    PubMed

    Schwotzer, Daniela; Ernst, Heinrich; Schaudien, Dirk; Kock, Heiko; Pohlmann, Gerhard; Dasenbrock, Clemens; Creutzenberg, Otto

    2017-07-12

    Nanomaterials like cerium oxide and barium sulfate are frequently processed in industrial and consumer products and exposure of humans and other organisms is likely. Generally less information is given on health effects and toxicity, especially regarding long-term exposure to low nanoparticle doses. Since inhalation is still the major route of uptake the present study focused on pulmonary effects of CeO2NM-212 (0.1, 0.3, 1.0, 3.0 mg/m(3)) and BaSO4NM-220 nanoparticles (50.0 mg/m(3)) in a 90-day exposure setup. To define particle-related effects and potential mechanisms of action, observations in histopathology, bronchoalveolar lavage and immunohistochemistry were linked to pulmonary deposition and clearance rates. This further allows evaluation of potential overload related effects. Lung burden values increased with increasing nanoparticle dose levels and ongoing exposure. At higher doses, cerium clearance was impaired, suggesting lung overload. Barium elimination was extremely rapid and without any signs of overload. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid analysis and histopathology revealed lung tissue inflammation with increasing severity and post-exposure persistency for CeO2. Also, marker levels for genotoxicity and cell proliferation were significantly increased. BaSO4 showed less inflammation or persistency of effects and particularly affected the nasal cavity. CeO2 nanoparticles penetrate the alveolar space and affect the respiratory tract after inhalation mainly in terms of inflammation. Effects at low dose levels and post-exposure persistency suggest potential long-term effects and a notable relevance for human health. The generated data might be useful to improve nanoparticle risk assessment and threshold value generation. Mechanistic investigations at conditions of non-overload and absent inflammation should be further investigated in future studies.

  17. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n–6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P.; DeMichele, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague–Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n–6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  19. Comparison of 90-day re-admission rates between open retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), laparoscopic RP (LRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP).

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Kelle, Joseph J; Huang, Chao-Yuan; Chen, Yi-Hua; Lin, Herng-Ching

    2012-12-01

    Study Type--Therapy (case series) Level of Evidence 4. What's known on the subject? and What does the study add? With the increased use of laparoscopic radical prostatectomy (LRP) and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP), a growing number of publications have sought to compare these more advanced techniques to retropubic RP (RRP). Many studies have found RALP and LRP to be associated with lower blood loss, postoperative pain, and hospital stay when compared with RRP. The present study showed that, after adjusting for potential confounders, patients undergoing RALP had a lower risk of 90-day re-admission than patients undergoing RRP. However, there was no significant difference in the odds of being re-admitted ≤ 90 days after RP between patients undergoing a LRP and RRP. • To examine the risk of 90-day re-admission among patients undergoing retropubic radical prostatectomy (RRP), laparoscopic RP (LRP), and robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy (RALP) in Taiwan. • We identified 2741 hospitalised patients who underwent a RP. Of these 2741 cases, 1773 patients underwent RRP, 694 LRP, and 274 RALP. • We performed a conditional (fixed-effect) logistic regression model to explore the odds of 90-day re-admission from RP among patients undergoing RRP, LRP, and RALP. • In all, 257 of the 2741 (9.4%) sampled subjects were re-admitted ≤ 90 days of the index RP. • Patients undergoing a RALP had a significantly lower incidence rate of 90-day re-admission than patients undergoing a RRP or LRP (3.6% vs 10.7% vs 8.2%, P < 0.001). • Compared with patients undergoing a RRP, the odds ratio (OR) of 90-day re-admission for patients undergoing a RALP was only 0.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.19-0.68) after adjusting for patient age, geographic region, year of surgery, Charlson Co-morbidity Index score, and surgeon age and the number of RP cases/year. • However, there was no significant difference in the odds of being re-admitted ≤ 90 days of RP

  20. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  1. The Effects of Long-Term Feeding of Rodent Food Bars on Lipid Peroxidation And Antioxidant Enzyme Levels In Fisher Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramirez, Joel; Zirkle-Yoshida, M.; Piert, S.; Barrett, J.; Yul, D.; Dalton, B.; Girten, B.

    2001-01-01

    A specialized rodent food bar diet has been developed and utilized successfully for short-duration shuttle missions. Recent tests conducted in preparation for experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS) indicated that long-term food bar feeding for three months induced hyperlipidemia in rats. This study examined oxidative stress status in livers of these same animals. Spectrophotometric analysis of 79 Fischer rat livers (40 female and 39 male) for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was conducted using Bioxytech LPO-587(TM) assay kit and SOD-525(Tm) assay kit, respectively. The treatment groups consisted of 20 male CHOW and 19 male FOOD BAR rats and 20 female CHOW and 20 female FOOD BAR rats. Statistical analysis to compare differences between groups was performed by standard analysis of variance procedures. The male FOOD BAR group LPO mean (3.6 +/- 0.2 mmol/g) was significantly (p less than or equal to 0.05) greater than that of the male CHOW group (2.1 +/-0.1 mmol/g). Moreover the female FOOD BAR group LPO mean (2.9 +/-0.1 mmol/g) was also significantly greater than the female CHOW group mean (2.2 +/-0.1 mmol/g). The mean values for SOD in both male and female groups showed no significant differences between CHOW and FOOD BAR groups. These results show that LPO levels were significantly higher in both the male and female FOOD BAR groups compared to CHOW groups and that there was no concomitant increase in SOD levels across the group. In addition, males showed a greater difference than females in terms of LPO levels. These findings suggest a need for further investigation into the use of the current food bar formulation for long-term experiments such as those planned for the ISS.

  2. 75 FR 22063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-day Finding on a Petition to List the Mohave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ...) The species' biology, range, and population trends, including: (a) Habitat requirements for feeding... occurrence and extent/ severity of predation by coyotes, house cats, common ravens, domestic dogs, and feral... biology of the Mohave ground squirrel, and the current status and distribution of the species. It...

  3. 78 FR 41716 - Hours of Service; Limited 90-Day Waiver From the 30-Minute Rest Break Requirement for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... livestock industry raised concerns about the risks to the health of animals from rising temperatures inside... forecasts for above-normal temperatures for July, August and September 2013. The industry requested relief... Federation; American Feed Industry Association; American Meat Institute; Livestock Marketing...

  4. 77 FR 1900 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Humboldt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ... requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range... (CBD and EPIC 2010, p. 6). The petition indicates that if marten taxonomy is changed in the near future... Taxonomy and Distribution section, below). The petition indicates, however, that because recent genetics...

  5. 75 FR 32728 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List van Rossem's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...) Habitat requirements for feeding, breeding, and sheltering; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and... scientific body responsible for standardizing North American avian taxonomy, recognized the vanrossemi..., p. 188), who critically reviewed the taxonomy of subspecies presented in their book on the birds of...

  6. The 90-day mortality after pancreatectomy for cancer is double the 30-day mortality: more than 20,000 resections from the national cancer data base.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Richard S; Pezzi, Christopher M; Mallin, Katherine; Loomis, Ashley M; Winchester, David P

    2014-12-01

    Operative mortality traditionally has been defined as the rate within 30 days or during the initial hospitalization, and studies that established the volume-outcome relationship for pancreatectomy used similar definitions. Pancreatectomies reported to the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) during 2007-2010 were examined for 30- and 90-day mortality. Unadjusted mortality rates were compared by type of resection, stage, comorbidities, and average annual hospital volume. Hierarchical logistic regression models generated risk-adjusted odds ratios for 30- and 90-day mortality. After 21,482 pancreatectomies, the unadjusted 30-day mortality rate was 3.7 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 3.4-3.9 %), which doubled at 90 days to 7.4 % (95 % CI 7.0-7.8). The unadjusted and risk-adjusted mortality rates were higher at 30 days with increasing age, increasing stage, male gender, lower income, low hospital volume, resections other than distal pancreatectomy, Medicare or Medicaid insurance coverage, residence in a Southern census division, history of prior cancer, and multiple comorbidities. The lowest-volume hospitals (<5 per year) performed 19 % of the pancreatectomies, with a risk-adjusted odds ratios for mortality that were 4.2 times higher (95 % CI 3.1-5.8) at 30 days and remained 1.9 times higher (95 % CI 1.5-2.3) at 30-90 days compared with hospitals that had high volumes (≥40 per year). Mortality rates within 90 days after pancreatic resection are double those at 30 days. The volume-outcome relationship persists in the NCDB. Reporting mortality rates 90 days after pancreatectomy is important. Hospitals should be aware of their annual volume and mortality rates 30 and 90 days after pancreatectomy and should benchmark the use of high-volume hospitals.

  7. Calf venous volume during stand-test after a 90-day bed-rest study with or without exercise countermeasure

    PubMed Central

    de Chantemèle, Eric Belin; Pascaud, Ludovic; Custaud, Marc-Antoine; Capri, Arnaud; Louisy, Francis; Ferretti, Guido; Gharib, Claude; Arbeille, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    The objectives to determine both the contribution to orthostatic intolerance (OI) of calf venous volume during a stand-test, and the effects of a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure on both vein response to orthostatic test and OI, after 90-day head-down tilt bed-rest (HDT). The subjects consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n = 9) and an exercise countermeasure group (CM-gr, n = 9). Calf volume and vein cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed by plethysmography and echography during pre- and post-HDT stand-tests. From supine to standing (post-HDT), the tibial and gastronemius vein CSA increased significantly in intolerant subjects (tibial vein, +122% from pre-HDT; gastronemius veins, +145%; P < 0.05) whereas it did not in tolerant subjects. Intolerant subjects tended to have a higher increase in calf filling volume than tolerant subjects, in both sitting and standing positions. The countermeasure did not reduce OI. Absolute calf volume decreased similarly in both groups. Tibial and gastrocnemius vein CSA at rest did not change during HDT in either group. During the post-HDT stand-test, the calf filling volume increased more in the CM-gr than in the Co-gr both in the sitting (+1.3 ± 5.1%, vs.–7.3 ± 4.3%; P < 0.05) and the standing positions (+56.1 ± 23.7%vs.+1.6 ± 9.6%; P < 0.05). The volume ejected by the muscle venous pump increased only in the CM-gr (+38.3 ± 21.8%). This study showed that intolerant subjects had a higher increase in vein CSA in the standing position and a tendency to present a higher calf filling volume in the sitting and standing positions. It also showed that a combined eccentric–concentric resistance exercise countermeasure had no effects on either post-HDT OI or on the venous parameters related to it. PMID:15331681

  8. Toxicological evaluation of potassium perfluorobutanesulfonate in a 90-day oral gavage study with Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lieder, Paul H; Chang, Shu-Ching; York, Raymond G; Butenhoff, John L

    2009-01-08

    Perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) is a surfactant and degradation product of substances synthesized using perfluorobutanesulfonyl fluoride. A 90-day rat oral gavage study has been conducted with potassium PFBS (K+PFBS). Rats were dosed with K+PFBS at doses of 60, 200, and 600mg/kg-day body weight. The following endpoints were evaluated: clinical observations, food consumption, body weight, gross and microscopic pathology, clinical chemistry, and hematology. In addition, functional observation battery and motor activity assessments were made. Histological examination included tissues in control and 600 mg/kg-day groups. Additional histological examinations were performed on nasal cavities and turbinates, stomachs, and kidneys in the 60 and 200 mg/kg-day groups. No treatment-related mortality, body weight, or neurological effects were noted. Chromorhinorrhea (perioral) and urine-stained abdominal fur were observed in males at 600mg/kg-day. Red blood cell counts, hemoglobin, and hematocrit values were reduced in males receiving 200 and 600mg/kg-day; however, there were no adverse histopathological findings in bone marrow. Total protein and albumin were lower in females at 600mg/kg-day. There were no significant changes in clinical chemistry in either sex. All rats appeared normal at sacrifice. Microscopic changes were observed only at the highest dose in the stomach. These changes consisted of hyperplasia with some necrosis of the mucosa with some squamous metaplasia. These effects likely were due to a cumulative direct irritation effect resulting from oral dosing with K+PFBS. Histopathological changes were also observed in the kidneys. The changes observed were minimal-to-mild hyperplasia of the epithelial cells of the medullary and papillary tubules and the ducts in the inner medullary region. There were no corresponding changes in kidney weights. Clinical chemistry parameters related to kidney function were unchanged. These kidney findings are likely due to a

  9. First report of 90-day support of 2 calves with a continuous-flow total artificial heart.

    PubMed

    Karimov, Jamshid H; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A R; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-09-01

    The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamic parameters, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure, 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure, 17 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure-left atrial pressure difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; and pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three animals with recent CFTAH implantation recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last 2 were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to human surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulating 90 Days of Wind and Tidally Driven Hydrodynamics from the Deep Ocean into the South Atlantic Bight Estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacopoulos, P.; Hagen, S. C.

    2010-12-01

    A high-resolution shallow water equations model was used to provide boundary conditions in support of studying sedimentation changes due to navigational channel deepening of the St. Johns River. The model domain included the lower ~150 km of the St. Johns and Nassau Rivers together with the adjacent tidal marsh and the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway. The finite element mesh consisted of element sizes of 50 - 150 m for the local region of interest. Tidal forcing was applied on the open boundary located along the 60° west meridian in the western North Atlantic Ocean. Model parameterization, via spatially variable Manning’s roughness, utilized physically based geospatial data and no calibration (tuning) was performed. Simultaneous with the deep-ocean tidal forcing, we applied state-of-the-art modeled winds over the entire domain, which supplied surface stresses to the shallow water equations model for a 90-day time period, May 1 - July 31, 2009. This time period offered an interesting and challenging record to simulate because of a sea level anomaly that persisted through June and July 2009. There was also a storm event local to the study area that occurred in May 2009. Three offshore gaging stations provided continuous water level and current measurements. Six additional gaging stations provided continuous water level measurements within the St. Johns and Nassau Rivers. A final gaging station measured daily flows in the main navigational channel of the St. Johns River. All data were processed and used to validate the shallow water equations model. The validation results suggest that meteorological forcing plays a major role with respect to streamflow in the St. Johns River. Output from the shallow water equations model was then analyzed. The analysis demonstrates the tendency of daily flows in the St. Johns and Nassau Rivers to be ebb-dominated because of the large hydrological input. The tidal residual is also shown to contribute to the ebb dominance of the St

  11. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Snell, Chelsea; Bernheim, Aude; Bergé, Jean-Baptiste; Kuntz, Marcel; Pascal, Gérard; Paris, Alain; Ricroch, Agnès E

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to collect data concerning the effects of diets containing GM maize, potato, soybean, rice, or triticale on animal health. We examined 12 long-term studies (of more than 90 days, up to 2 years in duration) and 12 multigenerational studies (from 2 to 5 generations). We referenced the 90-day studies on GM feed for which long-term or multigenerational study data were available. Many parameters have been examined using biochemical analyses, histological examination of specific organs, hematology and the detection of transgenic DNA. The statistical findings and methods have been considered from each study. Results from all the 24 studies do not suggest any health hazards and, in general, there were no statistically significant differences within parameters observed. However, some small differences were observed, though these fell within the normal variation range of the considered parameter and thus had no biological or toxicological significance. If required, a 90-day feeding study performed in rodents, according to the OECD Test Guideline, is generally considered sufficient in order to evaluate the health effects of GM feed. The studies reviewed present evidence to show that GM plants are nutritionally equivalent to their non-GM counterparts and can be safely used in food and feed.

  12. Risk rtPA: An iOS mobile application based on TURN for predicting 90-day outcome after IV thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Asuzu, David; Nystrӧm, Karin; Schindler, Joseph; Wira, Charles; Greer, David; Halliday, Janet; Sheth, Kevin N

    2016-03-01

    We recently developed Thrombolysis risk Using mRS and NIHSS (TURN), a simple score using only prestroke mRS scores and admission NIHSS scores to predict 90-day outcome after IV thrombolysis in ischemic stroke patients. Our purpose was to develop and test a mobile application for utilization of TURN at the bedside. We developed Risk rtPA, an iOS mobile application based on TURN for prediction of 90-day excellent and severe outcome after IV thrombolysis. Excellent outcome was defined as 90-day mRS≤1. Severe outcome was defined as 90-day mRS≥5. Predictors for excellent and severe outcome were calculated using the inverse logit of -TURN and TURN respectively. We retrospectively validated our mobile application using data from 303 patients who received IV rt-PA during the NINDS rt-PA trial. Sensitivity and specificity analyses were performed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Prediction of excellent and severe outcome using Risk rtPA followed an S-shaped curve as expected. We confirmed this finding using data from the NINDS trial. Cutoffs selected after ROC analysis predicted severe outcome with sensitivity of 94.4% and specificity of 52.2%, and excellent outcome with specificity of 83.9% and sensitivity of 61.2%. The Risk rtPA mobile application predicted 90-day excellent and severe outcome in most clinically relevant cases. This mobile application brings the TURN score to the bedside for prediction of 90-day outcome in ischemic stroke patients being evaluated for IV thrombolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vancomycin MIC Does Not Predict 90-Day Mortality, Readmission, or Recurrence in a Prospective Cohort of Adults with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Clemenzi-Allen, Angelo; Gahbauer, Alice; Deck, Daniel; Imp, Brandon; Vittinghoff, Eric; Chambers, Henry F.; Doernberg, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) is a tremendous health burden. Previous studies examining the association of vancomycin MIC and outcomes in patients with SAB have been inconclusive. This study evaluated the association between vancomycin MICs and 30- or 90-day mortality in individuals with SAB. This was a prospective cohort study of adults presenting from 2008 to 2013 with a first episode of SAB. Subjects were identified by an infection surveillance system. The main predictor was vancomycin MIC by MicroScan. The primary outcomes were death at 30 and 90 days, and secondary outcomes included recurrence, readmission, or a composite of death, recurrence, and readmission at 30 and 90 days. Covariates included methicillin susceptibility, demographics, illness severity, comorbidities, infectious source, and antibiotic use. Cox proportional-hazards models with propensity score adjustment were used to estimate 30- and 90-day outcomes. Of 429 unique first episodes of SAB, 11 were excluded, leaving 418 individuals for analysis. Eighty-three (19.9%) participants had a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml. In the propensity-adjusted Cox model, a vancomycin MIC of 2 μg/ml compared to <2 μg/ml was not associated with a greater hazard of mortality or composite outcome of mortality, readmission, and recurrence at either 30 days (hazard ratios [HRs] of 0.86 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 0.41, 1.80] [P = 0.70] and 0.94 [95% CI, 0.55, 1.58] [P = 0.80], respectively) or 90 days (HRs of 0.91 [95% CI, 0.49, 1.69] [P = 0.77] and 0.69 [95% CI, 0.46, 1.04] [P = 0.08], respectively) after SAB diagnosis. In a prospective cohort of patients with SAB, vancomycin MIC was not associated with 30- or 90-day mortality or a composite of mortality, disease recurrence, or hospital readmission. PMID:27324762

  14. Re-assessment of 30-, 60- and 90-day mortality rates in non-metastatic prostate cancer patients treated either with radical prostatectomy or radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Jens; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Bianchi, Marco; Sun, Maxine; Rink, Michael; Tian, Zhe; Meskawi, Malek; Trinh, Quoc-Dien; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Perrotte, Paul; Chun, Felix K.-H.; Graefen, Markus; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: It is customary to consider deaths that occur within 90 days of surgery as caused by that surgery. However, such practice may overestimate the true short-term mortality rates after radical prostatectomy (RP). Indeed, treatment-unrelated events might affect short-term mortality rates. We assess RP-specific excess short-term mortality. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis of a population-based cohort of 59 010 patients (RP = 28 281 and external beam radiation therapy [EBRT] as reference group, n = 30 729) who were treated between 1998 and 2005 for non-metastatic prostate cancer. Using univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses, we assessed the rates of 30-, 60- and 90-day mortality after either RP or EBRT. Results: Within the cohort, 30-, 60- and 90-day mortality rates were 0.2, 0.5 and 0.6%, and 0.1, 0.4 and 0.6% for RP and EBRT patients, respectively. This resulted in overall 30-, 60, and 90- day mortality differences of 0.1, 0.1 and 0%, respectively. After stratification according to age and Charlson comorbidity index (CCI), the magnitude of these differences increased up to 3.2% in favour of EBRT in patients aged >75 years with CCI ≥2. In multivariable analysis, rates of 30-, 60- and 90- day mortality were 5.2-, 1.8- and 1.3-fold higher after RP than EBRT, respectively. Our study is limited by its non-randomized design. Conclusion: Overall, absolute short-term mortality rates after RP are comparable to those of EBRT. The difference decreases over time: 90 days <60 days <30 days. Nonetheless, their magnitude is far from trivial in the elderly and sickest patients. PMID:24554978

  15. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  16. The FER rs4957796 TT genotype is associated with unfavorable 90-day survival in Caucasian patients with severe ARDS due to pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Hinz, José; Büttner, Benedikt; Kriesel, Fabian; Steinau, Maximilian; Frederik Popov, Aron; Ghadimi, Michael; Beissbarth, Tim; Tzvetkov, Mladen; Bergmann, Ingo; Mansur, Ashham

    2017-08-29

    A recent genome-wide association study showed that a genetic variant within the FER gene is associated with survival in patients with sepsis due to pneumonia. Because severe pneumonia is the main cause of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), we aimed to investigate the effect of the FER polymorphism rs4957796 on the 90-day survival in patients with ARDS due to pneumonia. An assessment of a prospectively collected cohort of 441 patients with ARDS admitted to three intensive care units at the University Medical Centre identified 274 patients with ARDS due to pneumonia. The 90-day mortality risk was recorded as the primary outcome parameter. Sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores and organ support-free days were used as the secondary variables. FER rs4957796 TT-homozygous patients were compared with C-allele carriers. The survival analysis revealed a higher 90-day mortality risk among T homozygotes than among C-allele carriers (p = 0.0144) exclusively in patients with severe ARDS due to pneumonia. The FER rs4957796 TT genotype remained a significant covariate for the 90-day mortality risk in the multivariate analysis (hazard ratio, 4.62; 95% CI, 1.58-13.50; p = 0.0050). In conclusion, FER rs4957796 might act as a prognostic variable for survival in patients with severe ARDS due to pneumonia.

  17. Results of post-test psychological examinations of the crewmen from the 90-day manned test of an advanced regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seeman, J. S.; Macfarlane, T. G.

    1972-01-01

    The following material presents the results of two temporally remote administrations of an identical projective personality assessment device (Rorschach Inkblot) using crew members aboard the 90-day test. The first administration took place during preselection crew psychodiagnostic testing in the period extending from mid-December 1969 through mid-January 1970. Second administration took place in late May and early June, 1971, approximately one year after termination of the test. During the 90-day program duration, the subjects participated in the crew training program, were selected and served as onboard crew during the 90-day test. The testing was undertaken in order to determine the character and extent of change (if any) in basic personality dynamics accompanying or caused by participation in the 90-day test program. Results indicate that significant personality changes occurred in three of the four onboard crew members. A detailed discussion of the results is provided. Objective scores which served as the basis for the discussion are presented in the Appendix.

  18. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C of...

  19. Predictors of 90-day readmission among patients with acute severe hypertension. The cross-sectional observational Studying the Treatment of Acute hyperTension (STAT) study.

    PubMed

    Gore, Joel M; Peterson, Eric; Amin, Alpesh; Anderson, Frederick A; Dasta, Joseph F; Levy, Phillip D; O'Neil, Brian J; Sung, Gene Yong; Varon, Joseph; Wyman, Allison; Granger, Christopher B

    2010-09-01

    Acute severe hypertension can be a life-threatening emergency. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of rehospitalization for patients with acute severe hypertension and to identify clinical predictors of 90-day rehospitalization. In this observational cross-sectional study, consecutive patients were identified retrospectively (January 2007 to April 2008) through uniform data query of hospital pharmacy databases in 25 hospitals in the United States. Eligible patients were > or =18 years old, had systolic blood pressure >180 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure >110 mm Hg, and had received intravenous antihypertensive therapy within 24 hours of presentation. Data were collected on patient demographics, medical history, laboratory findings, antihypertensive therapies, resource utilization, hospital-associated events, readmission within 90 days of hospital discharge, and death up to 6 months following the index hospitalization. The 90-day readmission rate was 35% (354/1,009) of patients discharged home alive and with known readmission status; 41% (144/354) were readmitted more than once. Of these 354 patients, readmission was for acute severe hypertension in 29% (n = 101). Eighteen (1.9%) patients died between hospital discharge and 90 days. Factors associated with readmission for hypertension included previous hospitalization for acute severe hypertension, history of drug abuse, and presenting with seizures or shortness of breath. Patients with an admitting diagnosis of hypertension were 94% more likely to be readmitted. More than one third of patients discharged home after hospitalization for severe hypertension were rehospitalized at least once within 90 days, more than one quarter for acute severe hypertension. Further studies are warranted to determine the impact of other variables on readmission rates and clinical outcomes in this population. 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Safety and nutritional assessment of GM plants and derived food and feed: the role of animal feeding trials.

    PubMed

    2008-03-01

    , broilers, lactating dairy cows, and fish, comparing the in vivo bioavailability of nutrients from a range of GM plants with their near isogenic counterpart and commercial varieties, showed that they were comparable with those for near isogenic non-GM lines and commercial varieties. In Section 3 toxicological in vivo, in silico, and in vitro test methods are discussed which may be applied for the safety and nutritional assessment of specific compounds present in food and feed or of whole food and feed derived from GM plants. Moreover the purpose, potential and limitations of the 90-day rodent feeding trial for the safety and nutritional testing of whole food and feed have been examined. Methods for single and repeated dose toxicity testing, reproductive and developmental toxicity testing and immunotoxicity testing, as described in OECD guideline tests for single well-defined chemicals are discussed and considered to be adequate for the safety testing of single substances including new products in GM food and feed. Various in silico and in vitro methods may contribute to the safety assessment of GM plant derived food and feed and components thereof, like (i) in silico searches for sequence homology and/or structural similarity of novel proteins or their degradation products to known toxic or allergenic proteins, (ii) simulated gastric and intestinal fluids in order to study the digestive stability of newly expressed proteins and in vitro systems for analysis of the stability of the novel protein under heat or other processing conditions, and (iii) in vitro genotoxicity test methods that screen for point mutations, chromosomal aberrations and DNA damage/repair. The current performance of the safety assessment of whole foods is mainly based on the protocols for low-molecular-weight chemicals such as pharmaceuticals, industrial chemicals, pesticides, food additives and contaminants. However without adaptation, these protocols have limitations for testing of whole food and feed

  1. 90-day Readmission after Lumbar Spinal Fusion Surgery in New York State between 2005 and 2014-A 10-year Analysis of a Statewide Cohort.

    PubMed

    Baaj, Ali A; Lang, Gernot; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Avila, Mauricio J; Mao, Jialin; Sedrakyan, Art

    2017-04-24

    Retrospective cohort study. To assess 90-day readmission and evaluate risk factors associated with readmission after lumbar fusion in New York State. Readmission is becoming an important metric for quality and efficiency of healthcare. Readmission and its predictors following spine surgery are overall poorly understood and limited evidence is available specifically in lumbar fusion. The New York Statewide Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPACRS) was utilized to capture patients undergoing lumbar fusion from 2005-2014. Temporal trend of 90-day readmission was assessed using Cochran-Armitage test. Logistic regression was used to examine predictors associated with 90-day readmission. There were 86,869 patients included in this cohort study. The overall 90-day readmission rate was 24.8%. On a multivariable analysis model, age (OR comparing ≥75 versus <35 years: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.13-1.35), sex (OR female to male: 1.19 (1.15-1.23)), race (OR African American to white: 1.60 (1.52-1.69)), insurance (OR Medicaid to Medicare: 1.42 (1.33-1.53)), procedure (OR comparing thoracolumbar fusion, combined (ICD-9: 81.04) to posterior lumbar interbody fusion / transforaminal lumbar spinal fusion (ICD-9: 81.08): 2.10 (1.49-2.97)), number of operated spinal levels (OR comparing 4-8 vertebrae to 2-3 vertebrae: 2.39 (2.07-2.77)), health service area ((HSA); OR comparing PA to Finger Lakes: 0.67 (0.61-0.73)), and comorbidity, i.e. coronary artery disease (OR: 1.26 (1.19-1.33)) were significantly associated with 90-day readmission. Direction of the odds ratios for these factors were consistent after stratification by procedure type. Age, sex, race, insurance, procedure, number of operated spinal levels, HSA, and comorbidities are major risk factors for 90-day readmission. Our study allows risk calculation to determine high risk patients before undergoing spinal fusion surgery in order to prevent early readmission, improve quality of care and reduce health care expenditures. 3.

  2. Fto immunoreactivity is widespread in the rodent brain and abundant in feeding-related sites, but the number of Fto-positive cells is not affected by changes in energy balance.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Pawel K; Radomska, Katarzyna J; Ghimire, Kedar; Klockars, Anica; Ingman, Caroline; Olszewska, Agnieszka M; Fredriksson, Robert; Levine, Allen S; Schiöth, Helgi B

    2011-05-03

    A single nucleotide polymorphism in the FTO gene is associated with obesity in humans. Evidence gathered in animals mainly relates energy homeostasis to the central FTO mRNA levels, but our knowledge of the Fto protein distribution and regulation is limited. Fto, a demethylase and transcriptional coactivator, is thought to regulate expression of other genes. Herein, we examined Fto immunoreactivity (IR) in the mouse and rat brain with emphasis on sites governing energy balance. We also studied whether energy status affects central Fto IR. We report that Fto IR, limited to nuclear profiles, is widespread in the brain, in- and outside feeding circuits; it shows a very similar distribution in feeding-related sites in mice and rats. Several areas regulating energy homeostasis display enhanced intensity of Fto staining: the arcuate, paraventricular, supraoptic, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, and dorsal vagal complex. Some regions mediating feeding reward, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, have ample Fto IR. We found that differences in energy status between rats fed ad libitum, deprived or refed following deprivation, did not affect the number of Fto-positive nuclei in 10 sites governing consumption for energy or reward. We conclude that Fto IR, widespread in the rodent brain, is particularly abundant in feeding circuits, but the number of Fto-positive neurons is unaffected by changes in energy balance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prior statin use and 90-day mortality in Gram-negative and Gram-positive bloodstream infection: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Mehl, A; Harthug, S; Lydersen, S; Paulsen, J; Åsvold, B O; Solligård, E; Damås, J K; Edna, T-H

    2015-03-01

    In several studies on patients with bloodstream infection (BSI), prior use of statins has been associated with improved survival. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria alert the innate immune system in different ways. We, therefore, studied whether the relation between prior statin use and 90-day total mortality differed between Gram-positive and Gram-negative BSI. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 1,408 adults with BSI admitted to Levanger Hospital between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2011. Data on the use of statins and other medications at admission, comorbidities, functional status, treatment, and outcome were obtained from the patients' hospital records. The relation of statin use with 90-day mortality differed between Gram-negative and Gram-positive BSI (p-value for interaction 0.01). Among patients with Gram-negative BSI, statin users had significantly lower 90-day total mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.42, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.23-0.75, p = 0.003]. The association remained essentially unchanged after adjusting for the effect of sex, age, functional status before the infection, and underlying diseases that were considered confounders (adjusted OR 0.38, 95 % CI 0.20-0.72, p = 0.003). A similar analysis of patients with Gram-positive BSI showed no association of statin use with mortality (adjusted OR 1.22, 95 % CI 0.69-2.17, p = 0.49). The present study suggests that prior statin use is associated with a lower 90-day total mortality in Gram-negative BSI, but not in Gram-positive BSI.

  4. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury.

  5. After Pancreatectomy, the “90 Days from Surgery” Definition Is Superior to the “30 Days from Discharge” Definition for Capture of Clinically Relevant Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Mise, Yoshihiro; Day, Ryan W; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas; Brudvik, Kristoffer W; Schwarz, Lilian; Prakash, Laura; Parker, Nathan H; Katz, Matthew H G; Conrad, Claudius; Lee, Jeffrey E; Fleming, Jason B; Aloia, Thomas A

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies by different authors have reported their readmission rates after pancreatectomy as either “30 days from discharge” or “90 days from surgery.” The objective of this study was to determine which of these definitions captures the most surgery-related complications. A prospectively maintained database at a high volume center was queried to identify all individuals who underwent pancreatectomy between 2000 and 2012 for any diagnosis. The data was analyzed at 30 days after discharge and 90 days after operation. The optimal timing for complication reporting was defined as the time point that maximized the capture of surgery-related readmissions and direct major surgical complications while minimizing the capture of disease (cancer)-related readmissions. There were 1123 patients included during the study time period. The median age was 63 years old, and 55.6% were male. Operations included 833 (74.2%) pancreaticoduodenectomies, 257 (22.9%) distal pancreatectomies, 18 (1.6%) total pancreatectomies, and 15 (1.3%) central pancreatectomies. Surgery-related readmissions occurred in 248 (22%) individuals, while readmission related to malignant disease progression occurred in 25 (2%) individuals. The 30 days from discharge definition captured 184 surgery-related readmissions and 1 disease-related readmission (sensitivity 0.74, specificity 0.96). The 90 days from surgery definition captured 215 surgery-related readmissions and 1 disease-related readmission (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.96). Major surgical complication was the only independent factor associated with readmission not captured by the 30 days from discharge definition (p = 0.002, HR 3.94, 95% CI 1.44–12.22). The 90 days from surgery definition was superior to the 30 days from discharge definition, especially with regards to readmission related to major surgical complications.

  6. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF THE SEALING ABILITY OF TWO ENDODONTIC SEALERS IN ROOT CANALS EXPOSED TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT FOR 45 AND 90 DAYS

    PubMed Central

    Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Vanni, José Roberto; Della Bona, Álvaro; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Porto, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill) in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12). After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm) was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification). The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05). Group E90 (2.03±0.94) showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (p<0.001). None of the sealers, in both study conditions, were able to prevent dye leakage. PMID:19089029

  7. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  8. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  9. A combined subchronic (90-day) toxicity and neurotoxicity study of a single-cell source of docosahexaenoic acid triglyceride (DHASCO oil).

    PubMed

    Arterburn, L M; Boswell, K D; Koskelo, E; Kassner, S L; Kelly, C; Kyle, D J

    2000-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a 22-carbon long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid of the omega-3 family, is a major structural component of neural membranes and is a particularly important nutrient during infant development. New safe and well-defined sources of DHA are required for infant formula fortification and dietary supplementation. DHASCO oil is an algal-derived triglyceride containing 40-50% DHA. Previous studies have shown that DHASCO oil is neither mutagenic nor toxic in acute or 28-day subchronic tests. To further establish the safety of this oil, a 90-day subchronic toxicity study in rats which included haematology, clinical chemistry, pathology and ophthalmologic, neurobehavioural and neuropathological assessments, using doses of 0.5 and 1.25g/kg body weight/day was performed. There were no treatment-related adverse effects in any of the parameters measured at either dose. Based on these results, the no-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for DHASCO oil under the conditions of this study corresponds to the highest dose level. The DHA in the DHASCO oil was bioavailable, resulting in significant elevations in the levels of this fatty acid in liver, heart and brain after 90 days of administration. In conclusion, this 90-day subchronic toxicity study provides additional evidence that DHASCO oil is a safe and bioavailable source of dietary DHA.

  10. STS-90 Day 04 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this forth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue work with the Escher Staircase Behavior Testing of Adult Rats experiment. This is the first of two behavior testing sessions with the adult rats being used for this experiment. The rats will have a 'hyper drive' unit placed on their head which has recording electrodes made of microscopic wires that are positioned in the brain to record activity in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is that portion of the brain used to develop spatial maps to help us navigate from one place to the other. With the 'hyper drive' units in place, the rats will then be put through a maze or on a track. While the rat is maneuvering on the maze or track, the cell activity of the hippocampus will be measured and recorded.

  11. STS-90 Day 09 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-90 mission, the sleep period of the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk, is interrupted due to problems with equipment that removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. Because of this, Columbia's crew went to bed about two hours later than scheduled.

  12. STS-90 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue to conduct both human and animal research experiments in the Spacelab module. During the morning, the payload crew members Linnehan, Williams, Buckey and Pawelczyk performs transfer activities with the Animal Enclosure Module, setting up the General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and operations with the ball catch experiment. In the afternoon, their attention will be on injections and dissections of some of the research animals and an objects recognition test.

  13. STS-90 Day 15 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fifteeth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk turns its attention to dexterity tests and dissections of rats neonates and the ball-catch experiment. Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialist Jim Pawelczyk will dissect the newborn rats. The dexterity test will test the response of young rats as they are tilted and turned while walking and climbing on a special apparatus with various surfaces. Later, all four payload crew members will repeat the ball-catch experiment. This experiment studies the ability of the central nervous system to accept and interpret new stimuli in space. The astronauts have performed this test at various points in the mission so scientists can compare their responses as their bodies adapt to weightlessness.

  14. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  15. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  16. STS-90 Day 09 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this ninth day of the STS-90 mission, the sleep period of the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk, is interrupted due to problems with equipment that removes carbon dioxide from the cabin atmosphere. Because of this, Columbia's crew went to bed about two hours later than scheduled.

  17. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  18. MELD-Na as a prognostic indicator of 30- and 90-day mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease after creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation.

  19. Percutaneous reduction of mitral valve regurgitation using the MitraClip system - immediate and 90-day follow-up of 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Kübler, Piotr; Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, Dorota; Telichowski, Artur; Witkowski, Tomasz; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A; Ponikowski, Piotr; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of hemodynamically significant valvular heart diseases has been the domain of cardiac surgery for decades. However, a promising novel method is the MitraClip system, involving percutaneous connection of insufficient valve leaflets with special cobalt-chrome clips. Our study presents clinical characteristics, course of treatment with the MitraClip system, and immediate and 90-day clinical and echocardiographic follow-up of the first 3 patients treated in our institution. Subsequently, based on data from the literature and our own experience, the current position around the world, and the target group of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment using the MitraClip system, are discussed.

  20. Examining the nootropic effects of a special extract of Bacopa monniera on human cognitive functioning: 90 day double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Stough, Con; Downey, Luke A; Lloyd, Jenny; Silber, Beata; Redman, Stephanie; Hutchison, Chris; Wesnes, Keith; Nathan, Pradeep J

    2008-12-01

    While Ayurvedic medicine has touted the cognitive enhancing effects of Bacopa monniera for centuries, there is a need for double-blind placebo-controlled investigations. One hundred and seven healthy participants were recruited for this double-blind placebo-controlled independent group design investigation. Sixty-two participants completed the study with 80% treatment compliance. Neuropsychological testing using the Cognitive Drug Research cognitive assessment system was conducted at baseline and after 90 days of treatment with a special extract of Bacopa monniera (2 x 150 mg KeenMind) or placebo. The Bacopa monniera product significantly improved performance on the 'Working Memory' factor, more specifically spatial working memory accuracy. The number of false-positives recorded in the Rapid visual information processing task was also reduced for the Bacopa monniera group following the treatment period. The current study provides support for the two other published studies reporting cognitive enhancing effects in healthy humans after a 90 day administration of the Bacopa monniera extract. Further studies are required to ascertain the effective dosage range, the time required to attain therapeutic levels and the effects over a longer term of administration.

  1. Tolerability of tapentadol immediate release in patients with lower back pain or osteoarthritis of the hip or knee over 90 days: a randomized, double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Hale, Martin; Upmalis, David; Okamoto, Akiko; Lange, Claudia; Rauschkolb, Christine

    2009-05-01

    Tapentadol is a novel, centrally acting analgesic with two mechanisms of action, mu-opioid receptor agonism and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition, in a single molecule. This phase III, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled study evaluated the tolerability of tapentadol immediate release (IR) and oxycodone IR for low back pain or osteoarthritis pain (hip or knee), using flexible dosing over 90 days. Patients (N = 878) were randomly assigned (4:1 ratio) to receive tapentadol IR (50 or 100 mg, q4-6h, p.o.) or oxycodone IR (10 or 15 mg, q4-6h, p.o.). Tapentadol IR was evaluated for tolerability over 90 days, tolerability relative to oxycodone IR, withdrawal symptoms, and pain intensity. This study was not placebo-controlled, which limited efficacy evaluations. In total, 849 intent-to-treat patients received tapentadol IR (n = 679) or oxycodone IR (n = 170), and among these, 391 patients (57.6%) in the tapentadol IR group and 86 patients (50.6%) in the oxycodone IR group completed the study. Gastrointestinal events, including nausea (18.4% vs 29.4%), vomiting (16.9% vs 30.0%), and constipation (12.8% vs 27.1%), were reported by 44.2% of patients receiving tapentadol IR and 63.5% of patients receiving oxycodone IR, respectively. Nervous system events, including dizziness (18.1% vs 17.1%), headache (11.5% vs 10.0%), and somnolence (10.2% vs 9.4%), were reported by 36.7% of patients receiving tapentadol and 37.1% of patients receiving oxycodone, respectively. Odds ratios (tapentadol:oxycodone) showed that the incidences of somnolence and dizziness were similar; however, nausea, vomiting, and constipation were significantly less likely with tapentadol IR compared with oxycodone IR. The pattern of withdrawal symptoms suggests that drug tapering may not be necessary after tapentadol IR treatment of this duration. Pain intensity measurements showed similar efficacy for tapentadol and oxycodone. During this 90-day study, tapentadol IR was associated with improved

  2. Changes in medication regimen complexity and the risk for 90-day hospital readmission and/or emergency department visits in U.S. Veterans with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yam, Felix K; Lew, Tiffany; Eraly, Satish A; Lin, Hsiang-Wen; Hirsch, Jan D; Devor, Michelle

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) hospitalization is associated with multiple medication modifications. These modifications often increase medication regimen complexity and may increase the risk of readmission and/or emergency department (ED) visit. To determine the association between changes in medication regimen complexity (MRC) during hospitalization of patients with heart failure and the risk of readmission or ED visit at 90 days. Secondary objectives include examining the association between changes in MRC and time to readmission as well as the relationship between number of medications and MRC. This was a retrospective cohort study that included U.S. Veterans hospitalized with heart failure. MRC was quantified using the medication regimen complexity index (MRCI). The change in MRCI was the difference between admission MRCI and discharge MRCI recorded during the index hospitalization. Demographic and clinical data were collected to characterize the study population. Patient data for up to one year after discharge was recorded to identify hospital readmissions and ED visits. A total of 174 patients were included in the analysis. Sixty-two patients (36%) were readmitted or had an ED visit at 90 days from the index hospitalization. The mean change (SD) in MRCI during the index hospitalization among the cohort was 4.7 (8.3). After multivariate logistic regression analysis, each unit increase in MRCI score was associated with a 4% lower odds of readmission or ED visit at 90 days but this finding was not statistically significant (OR 0.955; 95% CI 0.911-1.001). In the cox proportional hazard model, the median time to hospital readmission or ED visit was 214 days. Each unit increase in MRCI score was associated with a modest but non-significant increase in probability of survival from readmission or ED visit (HR 0.978; 95% CI 0.955, 1.001). Changes in medication regimen complexity that occur during hospitalization may also be associated with optimization of medical therapy and do

  3. Rodent repellency

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWitt, J.B.; Welch, J.F.; Bellack, E.

    1950-01-01

    In the course of studies involving more than 2,500 chemical repellents, it has been found that certain groups of- compounds containing nitrogen or sulfur are repellent to rats under the , test conditions and it appears probable that some of these compounds might be used for the protection of packaged goods against rodent attacks. Additional tests to determine optimum methods of application will be necessary before final evaluation of these compounds will be possible and extensive field trials will be required to establish the degree of protection which may be afforded by the use of these materials. Pending such final evaluation, it may be assumed that the results,to date offer a means of selecting the most promising types of'materials for further trial....On the basis of the test data, it appears that some amine derivative, such as a salt of some organic, acid, or a complex with trinitrobenzene or with a metallic salt of a dialkyl dithiocarbamic acid might offer promise of protection of packaging materials against rodent attacks....Protection might be obtained through the use of certain 'physical deterrents' such as plastics, waxes or drying oils.

  4. Percutaneous reduction of mitral valve regurgitation using the MitraClip system – immediate and 90-day follow-up of 3 cases

    PubMed Central

    Kustrzycka-Kratochwil, Dorota; Telichowski, Artur; Witkowski, Tomasz; Banasiak, Waldemar; Jankowska, Ewa A.; Ponikowski, Piotr; Reczuch, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Treatment of hemodynamically significant valvular heart diseases has been the domain of cardiac surgery for decades. However, a promising novel method is the MitraClip system, involving percutaneous connection of insufficient valve leaflets with special cobalt-chrome clips. Our study presents clinical characteristics, course of treatment with the MitraClip system, and immediate and 90-day clinical and echocardiographic follow-up of the first 3 patients treated in our institution. Subsequently, based on data from the literature and our own experience, the current position around the world, and the target group of patients who are most likely to benefit from treatment using the MitraClip system, are discussed. PMID:24570704

  5. Subtype selectivity of the novel nonpeptide neuropeptide Y Y1 receptor antagonist BIBO 3304 and its effect on feeding in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, H A; Engel, W; Eberlein, W; Rudolf, K; Doods, H N

    1998-01-01

    The novel Y1-selective argininamide derivative BIBO 3304 ((R)-N-[[4-(aminocarbonylaminomethyl)phenyl]methyl]-N2-(diphenylacetyl)-argininamide trifluoroacetate) has been synthesized and was examined for its subtype selectivity, its in vitro antagonistic properties and its food intake inhibitory properties.BIBO 3304 displayed subnanomolar affinity for both the human and the rat Y1 receptor (IC50 values 0.38±0.06 nM and 0.72±0.42 nM, respectively). The inactive enantiomer of BIBO 3304 (BIBO 3457) had low affinity for both the human and rat Y1 receptor subtype (IC50>1000 nM). BIBO 3304 showed low affinity for the human Y2 receptor, human and rat Y4 receptor as well as for the human and rat Y5 receptor (IC50 values >1000 nM).30 μg BIBO 3304 administered into the paraventricular nucleus inhibited the feeding response induced by 1 μg NPY as well as the hyperphagia induced by a 24 h fast implying a role for Y1 receptors in NPY mediated feeding. The inactive enantiomer had no effect.BIBO 3304 inhibits neither the galanin nor the noradrenaline induced orexigenic response, but it blocked feeding behaviour elicited by both [Leu31, Pro34]NPY and NPY (3–36) suggesting an interplay between different NPY receptor subtypes in feeding behavior.The present study reveals that BIBO 3304 is a subtype selective nonpeptide antagonist with subnanomolar affinity for the Y1 receptor subtype that significantly inhibits food intake induced by application of NPY or by fasting. PMID:9806339

  6. Prognostic Value of Inflammatory and Cardiovascular Biomarkers for Prediction of 90-Day All-Cause Mortality after Acute Ischemic Stroke-Results from the Linz Stroke Unit Study.

    PubMed

    Dieplinger, Benjamin; Bocksrucker, Christof; Egger, Margot; Eggers, Christian; Haltmayer, Meinhard; Mueller, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Early outcome prediction after acute ischemic stroke is of great interest. The aim of our study was to evaluate the prognostic value of blood biomarkers in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We measured interleukin-6 (IL-6), d-dimer, amino-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and soluble ST2 plasma concentrations within 24 h after admission to our stroke unit in 721 consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients. End point was 90-day all-cause mortality. During follow-up 81 patients died (11%). In univariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses with the biochemical markers dichotomized according to median values, all baseline blood biomarkers were strong prognostic markers. However, in the multivariate analysis after adjustment for several clinical variables and the NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), only NIHSS >3 [risk ratio (RR) 7.87, 95% CI, 3.61-17.16; P < 0.001], IL-6 > 7 pg/mL (RR 4.09, 95% CI, 2.02-8.29; P < 0.001), and NT-proBNP >447 ng/L (RR 4.88, 95% CI, 2.41-9.88; P < 0.001) remained independent predictors. Using a simple multimarker approach combining these 3 complementary markers, we demonstrated that patients with increased NIHSS, IL-6, and NT-proBNP had the poorest outcome with a mortality rate of 38%, whereas no patient with negative readings for all 3 markers died during follow-up. In this large cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke, IL-6 and NT-proBNP at admission were strong and independent prognostic markers for 90-day all-cause mortality, and provided complementary prognostic information to the routinely used stroke severity score NIHSS. © 2017 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or 'minor' stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes.

    PubMed

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.

  8. A functional variant in the 3ˈ-UTR of VEGF predicts the 90-day outcome of ischemic stroke in Chinese patients

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lei; Weng, Yingfeng; Wang, Yujie; Wu, Hui; Li, Xia; Huang, Ying; Wang, Shengyue

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays critical roles in angiogenesis and vasculogenesis, which are associated with post-stroke functional recovery. However, the effects of the VEGFA polymorphisms on the outcome of ischemic stroke (IS) have been rarely reported. We therefore investigated the associations of +936C/T variant (rs3025039) with the susceptibilities and the 90-day outcomes from 494 IS patients and 337 healthy controls in Chinese population through the establishment of logistic multivariate regression model. Stroke severity at admission and outcome of 90 days were respectively assessed according to the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and the modified Rankin Scale. The analysis showed that there were no significant associations of the rs3025039 genotypes with the susceptibility (P = 0.229) and the severity (P = 0.734). However, when we divided the 308 IS patients into two groups according to the different outcomes, we found that the rs3025039 TC+TT genotype significantly increased the risk of poor recovery [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 1.99; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.18–3.37]. Interestingly, we observed another 3ˈUTR variant, +1451C/T (rs3025040), exhibited strong linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 1.0) with +936C/T and was located in a predicted microRNA-binding site. The rs3025040 T allele significantly decreased the luciferase activities in four cell lines, which indicated a potential disruption of the miRNA-mRNA interaction that would result in lower VEGF expression levels. Our data suggested that the +936C/T variants significantly increased the risk of poorer stroke outcome by affecting the bindings of miR-199a and miR-199b to VEGF mRNA at the rs30250340 polymorphic site. PMID:28234972

  9. The Association Between Hospital Length of Stay and 90-Day Readmission Risk for Femoral Neck Fracture Patients: Within a Total Joint Arthroplasty Bundled Payment Initiative.

    PubMed

    Kester, Benjamin S; Williams, Jarrett; Bosco, Joseph A; Slover, James D; Iorio, Richard; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2016-12-01

    Hip arthroplasty is increasingly performed as a treatment for femoral neck fractures (FNFs). However, these cases have higher complication rates than elective total hip arthroplasties (THAs). The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services has created the Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement model to increase the value of patient care. This model risk stratifies FNF patients in an attempt to appropriately allocate resources, but the formula has not been disclosed. The goal of this study was to ascertain if patients with FNFs have different readmission rates compared to patients undergoing elective THA so that the resource utilization can be assessed. We analyzed all patients undergoing THA at our institution during a 21-month period. Patients classified by a diagnosis-related group of 469 or 470 were included. Multivariate and survival analyses were performed to determine risk of 90-day readmission. Patients admitted for FNFs were older, had higher body mass indices, longer lengths of stay, and were more likely to be discharged to inpatient facilities than patients who underwent elective THA. Increased American Society of Anesthesiologists scores and FNF were also independent risk factors for 90-day readmission, and these patient were more likely to be readmitted during the latter 60 days following admission. Results suggest that patients who undergo an arthroplasty following urgent or emergent FNFs have inferior outcomes to those receiving an arthroplasty for a diagnosis of arthritis. Fracture patients should either be risk stratified to allow appropriate resource allocation or be excluded from alternative payment initiatives such as Comprehensive Care for Joint Replacement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Secondary prevention lifestyle interventions initiated within 90 days after TIA or ‘minor’ stroke: a systematic review and meta-analysis of rehabilitation programmes

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Neil; Kee, Frank; Cardwell, Christopher; Tully, Mark A; Donnelly, Michael; Cupples, Margaret E

    2017-01-01

    Background Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or ‘minor’ stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. Aim To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke. Also, to categorise the specific behaviour change techniques used. Design and setting The review identified randomised controlled trials by searching the Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid EMBASE, Web of Science, EBSCO CINAHL and Ovid PsycINFO. Method Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts for eligibility (programmes initiated within 90 days of event; outcomes reported for TIA/minor stroke) and extracted relevant data from appraised studies; a meta-analysis was used to synthesise the results. Results A total of 31 potentially eligible papers were identified and four studies, comprising 774 patients post-TIA or minor stroke, met the inclusion criteria; two had poor methodological quality. Individual studies reported increased aerobic capacity but meta-analysis found no significant change in resting and peak systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, aerobic capacity, falls, or mortality. The main behaviour change techniques were goal setting and instructions about how to perform given behaviours. Conclusion There is limited evidence of the effectiveness of early post-TIA rehabilitation programmes with preventive lifestyle interventions. Further robust randomised controlled trials of comprehensive rehabilitation programmes that promote secondary prevention and lifestyle modification immediately after a TIA are needed. PMID:27919935

  11. Vertical jump performance after 90 days bed rest with and without flywheel resistive exercise, including a 180 days follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Felsenberg, Dieter; Maganaris, Constantinos; Ferretti, José Luis

    2007-07-01

    Muscle atrophy and neuromuscular de-conditioning occur in response to space flight and bed-rest. In this study, we investigated the efficacy of flywheel training to conserve jumping power and height during 90 days bed rest. Twenty-four young healthy men underwent strict bed-rest (-6 degrees head down tilt) for 90 days. Eight participants were assigned to a flywheel group (FW) and 16 to a control group (Ctrl). The ground reaction force was measured during vertical jump tests twice during baseline data collection, and on day 4, 7, 14, 90 and 180 of recovery. In half of the participants, jump tests were also performed within minutes after re-ambulation and on four more occasions during the first 2 days of recovery. Jump height was reduced from 40.6 cm (SD 6.1 cm) during the first baseline measurement to 27.6 cm (SD 5.6 cm) on day 4 of recovery in Ctrl, but only from 38.6 cm (SD 3.9 cm) to 34.4 cm (SD 6.5 cm) in FW (P < 0.001). At the same time, peak power was reduced from 47.4 W/kg (SD 8.0 W/kg) to 34.5 W/kg in Ctrl, but only from 46.2 W/kg (6.0 W/kg) to 42.2 W/kg SD 4.6 W/kg) in FW (P < 0.001). Jump height and peak power were completely recovered after 163 and 140 days in Ctrl, respectively, and after 72 and 18 days in FW (regression analysis). In conclusion, flywheel exercise could effectively offset neuromuscular de-conditioning during bed-rest, and led to full recovery at an earlier stage. These findings nourish the hope that adequate training paradigms can fully sustain neuromuscular function under microgravity conditions.

  12. Effects of oral phosphatidic acid feeding with or without whey protein on muscle protein synthesis and anabolic signaling in rodent skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Mobley, C Brooks; Hornberger, Troy A; Fox, Carlton D; Healy, James C; Ferguson, Brian S; Lowery, Ryan P; McNally, Rachel M; Lockwood, Christopher M; Stout, Jeffrey R; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a diacyl-glycerophospholipid that acts as a signaling molecule in numerous cellular processes. Recently, PA has been proposed to stimulate skeletal muscle protein accretion, but mechanistic studies are lacking. Furthermore, it is unknown whether co-ingesting PA with other leucine-containing ingredients can enhance intramuscular anabolic signaling mechanisms. Thus, the purpose of this study was to examine if oral PA feeding acutely increases anabolic signaling markers and muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in gastrocnemius with and without whey protein concentrate (WPC). Overnight fasted male Wistar rats (~250 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: control (CON, n = 6-13), PA (29 mg; n = 8), WPC (197 mg; n = 8), or PA + WPC (n = 8). Three hours post-feeding, gastrocnemius muscle was removed for markers of Akt-mTOR signaling, gene expression patterns related to skeletal muscle mass regulation and metabolism, and MPS analysis via the SUnSET method. Compared to CON rats, PA, WPC and PA + WPC resulted in a significant elevation in the phosphorylation of mTOR (Ser2481) and rps6 (Ser235/236) (p < 0.05) in the gastrocnemius though there were no differences between the supplemented groups. MPS levels in the gastrocnemius were significantly (p < 0.05) elevated in WPC versus CON rats, and tended to be elevated in PA versus CON rats (p = 0.08), though MPS was less in PA + WPC versus WPC rats (p < 0.05) in spite of robust increases in mTOR pathway activity markers in the former group. C2C12 myoblast data agreed with the in vivo data herein showing that PA increased MPS levels 51% (p < 0.001) phosphorylated p70s6k (Thr389) levels 67% (p < 0.001). Our results are the first in vivo evidence to demonstrate that PA tends to increases MPS 3 h post-feeding, though PA may delay WPC-mediated MPS kinetics within a 3 h post-feeding window.

  13. Increased Level of Interleukin 6 Associates With Increased 90-day and 1-year Mortality in Patients With End-stage Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Remmler, Johannes; Schneider, Christoph; Treuner-Kaueroff, Theresa; Bartels, Michael; Seehofer, Daniel; Scholz, Markus; Berg, Thomas; Kaiser, Thorsten

    2017-09-14

    Organ allocation for liver transplantation is based on prognosis, using the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) or MELD-Na score. These scores do not consider systemic inflammation and septic complications. Blood level of C-reactive protein (CRP), in addition to the MELD score, associates with mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease, whereas levels of interleukin 6 (IL6) have not been systematically studied. We performed a retrospective observational cohort study of 474 patients with end-stage liver disease (63.5% male; median age, 56.9 years), evaluated for liver transplantation in Germany, with at least 1 year of follow up. Data were collected on blood levels of CRP, IL6, and white blood cell count (WBC). Findings were analyzed in relation to mortality and compared with patients' model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores and MELD-Na scores. For survival analysis, the cohort was divided into quartiles of IL6, CRP, and WBC levels, as well as MELD scores. Log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to compare the groups, and area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values were calculated. Blood levels of IL6 and MELD scores associated with mortality: none of the patients with levels of IL6 below the first quartile (below 5.3 pg/ml) died within 1 year. In contrast, 67.7% of the patients in the highest quartile of IL6 level (37.0 pg/ml or more) died within 1 year. MELD score also correlated with mortality: among patients with MELD scores below 8.7, 0.9% died within 1 year, whereas in patients with MELD scores of 18.0 or more, 67.4% died within 1 year. The predictive value of level of IL6 (AUROC, 0.940) was higher than level of CRP (AUROC, 0.866) (P=.009) or WBC (AUROC, 0.773) (P<.001) for 90-day mortality. MELD scores associated with 90-day mortality (AUROC, 0.933) (P=.756) as did MELD-Na score (AUROC, 0.946) (P=.771). Level of IL6 associated with 1-year mortality (AUROC, 0.916) to a greater extent

  14. Frailty is a predictive factor of readmission within 90 days of hospitalization for acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Bernabeu-Mora, Roberto; García-Guillamón, Gloria; Valera-Novella, Elisa; Giménez-Giménez, Luz M; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc

    2017-10-01

    Readmission after hospital discharge is common in patients with acute exacerbations (AE) of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although frailty predicts hospital readmission in patients with chronic nonpulmonary diseases, no multidimensional frailty measures have been validated to stratify the risk for patients with COPD. The aim of this study was to explore multidimensional frailty as a potential risk factor for readmission due to a new exacerbation episode during the 90 days after hospitalization for AE-COPD and to test whether frailty could improve the identification of patients at high risk of readmission. We hypothesized that patients with moderate-to-severe frailty would be at greater risk for readmission within that period of follow up. A secondary aim was to test whether frailty could improve the accuracy with which to discriminate patients with a high risk of readmission. Our investigation was part of a wider study protocol with additional aims on the same study population. Frailty, demographics, and disease-related factors were measured prospectively in 102 patients during hospitalization for AE-COPD. Some of the baseline data reported were collected as part of a previously study. Readmission data were obtained on the basis of the discharge summary from patients' electronic files by a researcher blinded to the measurements made in the previous hospitalization. The association between frailty and readmission was assessed using bivariate analyses and multivariate logistic regression models. Whether frailty better identifies patients at high risk for readmission was evaluated by area under the receiver operator curve (AUC). Severely frail patients were much more likely to be readmitted than nonfrail patients (45% versus 18%). After adjusting for age and relevant disease-related factors in a final multivariate model, severe frailty remained an independent risk factor for 90-day readmission (odds ratio = 5.19; 95% confidence interval: 1

  15. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  16. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ju; Lee, Taek-Jin; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, EunHo; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Hong, Seung-Guk; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(+)) nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM20(+) NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with control in both 500 mg/kg groups. Total protein and albumin levels were decreased significantly in both sexes in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. Histopathological studies revealed acinar cell apoptosis in the pancreas, inflammation and edema in stomach mucosa, and retinal atrophy of the eye in the 500 mg/kg group. Conclusion There were significant parameter changes in terms of anemia in the hematological and blood chemical analyses in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. The significant toxic change was observed to be below 125 mg/kg, so the no-observed-adverse-effect level was not determined, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 125 mg/kg in both sexes and the target organs were found to be the pancreas, eye, and stomach. PMID:25565829

  17. National Early Warning Score (NEWS) as an emergency department predictor of disease severity and 90-day survival in the acutely dyspneic patient - a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Bilben, Bente; Grandal, Linda; Søvik, Signe

    2016-06-02

    National Early Warning Score (NEWS) was designed to detect deteriorating patients in hospital wards, specifically those at increased risk of ICU admission, cardiac arrest, or death within 24 h. NEWS is not validated for use in Emergency Departments (ED), but emerging data suggest it may be useful. A criticism of NEWS is that patients with chronic poor oxygenation, e.g. severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), will have elevated NEWS also in the absence of acute deterioration, possibly reducing the predictive power of NEWS in this subgroup. We wanted to prospectively evaluate the usefulness of NEWS in unselected adult patients emergently presenting in a Norwegian ED with respiratory distress as main symptom. In respiratory distressed patients, NEWS was calculated on ED arrival, after 2-4 h, and the next day. Manchester Triage Scale (MTS) category, age, gender, comorbidity (ASA score), ICU-admission, ventilatory support, and discharge diagnoses were noted. Survival status was tracked for >90 days through the Population Registry. Data are medians (25-75th percentiles). Factors predicting 90-day survival were analysed with multiple logistic regression. We included 246 patients; 71 years old (60-80), 89 % home-dwelling, 74 % ASA 3-4, 72 % MTS 1-2, 88 % admitted to hospital. NEWS on arrival was 5 (3-7). NEWS correlated closely with MTS category and maximum in-hospital level of care (ED, ward, high-dependency unit, ICU). Sixteen patients died in-hospital, 26 died after discharge within 90 days. Controlled for age, ASA score, and COPD, a higher NEWS on ED arrival predicted poorer 90-day survival. Increased NEWS also correlated with decreased 30-day- and in-hospital survival and a decreased probability for home-dwelling patients to be discharged directly home. In respiratory distressed patients, NEWS on ED arrival correlated closely with triage category and need of ICU admission and predicted long-term out-of-hospital survival controlled for age

  18. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  19. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome.

  20. Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Cao, Sishuo; Xu, Wentao; Luo, YunBo; He, Xiaoyun; Yuan, Yanfang; Ran, Wenjun; Liang, Lixing; Huang, Kunlun

    2011-07-01

    Rice is one of the most important staple foods in the world. The Cry2A gene was inserted into the rice genome to help the plant combat insects. As the unintended effects of the genetically modified (GM) organisms are the most important barriers to the promotion of GM organisms, we have carried out a useful exploration to establish a new in vivo evaluation model for genetically modified foods by metabonomics methods. In this study, the rats were fed for 90 days with the GM and NON-GM rice diets. The changes in metabolites of the urine were detected using (1)H-NMR. The metabonomics were analyzed to see whether the GM rice can induce the metabolite changes in the rats' urine when compared with the NON-GM rice group. The multivariate analysis and ANOVA were used to determine the differences and the significance of differences respectively, and eventually we concluded that these differences did not have a biological significance. The conclusion of the metabonomics was comparable with that from the traditional method. As a non-invasive and dynamic monitoring method, metabonomics will be a new way of assessing the food safety of GM foods.

  1. Levonorgestrel butanoate intramuscular injection does not reliably suppress ovulation for 90 days in obese and normal-BMI women: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Edelman, Alison B; Cherala, Ganesh; Li, Hong; Pau, Francis; Blithe, Diana L; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2017-01-01

    We performed a pilot evaluation of a new formulation of levonorgestrel butanoate (LB) designed to be a long-acting injectable (6 months) contraceptive to determine pharmacodynamic end points in normal-body mass index (BMI) and obese women. Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and normal-BMI, otherwise healthy, women received a single intramuscular injection of LB after ovulation was confirmed in a baseline cycle. The primary outcome was return of ovulation in days. A total of 14 women enrolled and completed the study [normal BMI n=9, median BMI 22.7kg/m(2) (range 19.4-25.8); obese n=5, median BMI 35.7kg/m(2) (30.1-39.2)]. The first 6 subjects (normal BMI=4/9, obese BMI=2/5) received 40 mg of LB, and the remaining 8 received 20 mg. All women except one returned to ovulation prior to 6 months. Return to ovulation occurred earlier in the obese group; 3/5 obese and 0/9 normal BMI subjects returned to ovulation within 90 days (p=.03). No serious adverse events were reported during the study. Return to ovulation was earlier than 6 months in both BMI groups but more so in the obese BMI group. Since return of ovulation was earlier than expected for this LB injectable formulation, additional steps are needed to develop a preparation suitable as a longer-lasting product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A 90 day safety assessment of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab/1Ac protein using an aquatic animal model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao-Jun; Chen, Yi; Li, Yun-He; Wang, Jia-Mei; Ding, Jia-Tong; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Peng, Yu-Fa

    2015-04-15

    In fields of transgenic Bt rice, frogs are exposed to Bt proteins through consumption of both target and nontarget insects. In the present study, we assessed the risk posed by transgenic rice expressing a Cry1Ab/1Ac fusion protein (Huahui 1, HH1) on the development of Xenopus laevis. For 90 days, froglets were fed a diet with 30% HH1 rice, 30% parental rice (Minghui 63, MH63), or no rice as a control. Body weight and length were measured every 15 days. After sacrificing the froglets, we performed a range of biological, clinical, and pathological assessments. No significant differences were found in body weight (on day 90: 27.7 ± 2.17, 27.4 ± 2.40, and 27.9 ± 1.67 g for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), body length (on day 90: 60.2 ± 1.55, 59.3 ± 2.33, and 59.7 ± 1.64 mm for HH1, MH63, and control, respectively), animal behavior, organ weight, liver and kidney function, or the microstructure of some tissues between the froglets fed on the HH1-containing diet and those fed on the MH63-containing or control diets. This indicates that frog development was not adversely affected by dietary intake of Cry1Ab/1Ac protein.

  4. A 90-day repeated dose oral (gavage) toxicity study of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) in rats (with functional observational battery and motor activity determinations).

    PubMed

    Chengelis, Christopher P; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie B; Radovsky, Ann; Shinohara, Motoki

    2009-06-01

    Possible toxic effects of perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were evaluated when administered orally by gavage to rats at levels up to 200mg/kg/day for 90 days. Lower body weight gains were noted in the 10, 50 and 200mg/kg/day group males (not dose-responsive) throughout dosing. Other changes included lower red blood cell parameters, higher reticulocyte counts and lower globulin in the 200mg/kg/day group males and females, higher liver enzymes in males at 50 and 200mg/kg/day, lower total protein and higher albumin/globulin ratio, and lower cholesterol, calcium in males at 200mg/kg/day. Minimal centrilobular hepatocellular hypertrophy was present in 200mg/kg/day group males and correlated with higher liver weights and slightly higher peroxisome beta oxidation activity at the end of the dosing period. Based on liver histopathology and liver weight changes, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for oral administration was 50mg/kg/day for males and 200mg/kg/day for females.

  5. Oxidative stress induced by lead, cadmium and arsenic mixtures: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Bruce A; Whittaker, Margaret H; Lipsky, Mike; Wang, Gensheng; Chen, Xue-Qing

    2004-10-01

    Humans are frequently exposed to combinations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and Arsenic (As) but there is a paucity of actual data on the molecular effects of these agents at low dose levels. The present factorial design studies were undertaken in rats to examine the effects of these agents at LOEL dose levels on a number of molecular parameters of oxidative stress in hematopoietic and renal organ systems following oral exposure in drinking water at 30, 90 and 180 day time points. Results of these studies demonstrated dynamic, time-dependent alterations in both molecular targets and inducible oxidative stress protective systems in target cell populations. In general, cellular protective systems, which protected against oxidative damage at the 90 day time point, appeared to be finite such that molecular manifestations of oxidative stress became statistically significant at the 180 day time point for several of the combination exposure groups. These data demonstrate the importance of duration of exposure in assessing the toxic potential of Pb, Cd and As mixtures at low dose levels.

  6. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, 90-day Study of Emixustat HCL in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U.; Novack, Roger L.; Csaky, Karl G.; Richmond, Preston P.; Birch, David G.; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of emixustat hydrochloride (ACU-4429), a novel visual cycle modulator, in subjects with geographic atrophy (GA) associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to oral emixustat (2, 5, 7, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 90 days. Recovery of rod photoreceptor sensitivity following a photobleach was measured by electroretinography. Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and ophthalmic examinations. Results Seventy-two subjects (54 emixustat, 18 placebo) were evaluated. Emixustat suppressed rod photoreceptor sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression plateaued by Day 14, and was reversible within 7-14 days after drug cessation. No systemic AEs of concern were noted. Dose-related ocular AEs (chromatopsia, 57% emixustat vs. 17% placebo; and delayed dark adaptation, 48% emixustat vs. 6% placebo) were mild to moderate, and the majority resolved on study or within 7-14 days after study drug cessation. Conclusions In this phase II study, emixustat produced a dose-dependent, reversible effect on rod function, and an ocular AE profile that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. These results support further testing of emixustat for the treatment of GA associated with dry AMD. PMID:25932553

  7. Assessment of the reporting of quality and outcome measures in hepatic resections: a call for 90-day reporting in all hepatectomy series

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E; Ohlendorf, Joanna M; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the current state of quality and outcomes measures being reported for hepatic resections in the recent literature. Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for English language articles published between 1 January 2002 and 30 April 2013. Two examiners reviewed each article and relevant citations for appropriateness of inclusion, which excluded papers of liver donor hepatic resections, repeat hepatectomies or meta-analyses. Data were extracted and summarized by two examiners for analysis. Results Fifty-five studies were identified with suitable reporting to assess peri-operative mortality in hepatic resections. In only 35% (19/55) of the studies was the follow-up time explicitly stated, and in 47% (26/55) of studies peri-operative mortality was limited to in-hospital or 30 days. The time period in which complications were captured was not explicitly stated in 19 out of 28 studies. The remaining studies only captured complications within 30 days of the index operation (8/28). There was a paucity of quality literature addressing truly patient-centred outcomes. Conclusion Quality outcomes after a hepatic resection are inconsistently reported in the literature. Quality outcome studies for a hepatectomy should report mortality and morbidity at a minimum of 90 days after surgery. PMID:26228262

  8. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption.

  9. Costs for Childhood and Adolescent Cancer, 90 Days Prediagnosis and 1 Year Postdiagnosis: A Population-Based Study in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Claire; Bremner, Karen E; Liu, Ning; Greenberg, Mark L; Nathan, Paul C; McBride, Mary L; Krahn, Murray D

    2017-03-01

    Childhood and adolescent cancers are uncommon, but they have important economic and health impacts on patients, families, and health care systems. Few studies have measured the economic burden of care for childhood and adolescent cancers. To estimate costs of cancer care in population-based cohorts of children and adolescents from the public payer perspective. We identified patients with cancer, aged 91 days to 19 years, diagnosed from 1995 to 2009 using cancer registry data, and matched each to three noncancer controls. Using linked administrative health care records, we estimated total and net resource-specific costs (in 2012 Canadian dollars) during 90 days prediagnosis and 1 year postdiagnosis. Children (≤14 years old) numbered 4,396: 36% had leukemia, 21% central nervous system tumors, 10% lymphoma, and 33% other cancers. Adolescents (15-19 years old) numbered 2,329: 28.9% had lymphoma. Bone and soft tissue sarcoma, germ cell tumor, and thyroid carcinoma each comprised 12% to 13%. Mean net prediagnosis costs were $5,810 and $1,127 and mean net postdiagnosis costs were $136,413 and $62,326 for children and adolescents, respectively; the highest were for leukemia ($157,764 for children and $172,034 for adolescents). In both cohorts, costs were much higher for patients who died within 1 year of diagnosis. Inpatient hospitalization represented 69% to 74% of postdiagnosis costs. Treating children with cancer is costly, more costly than treating adolescents or adults. Substantial survival gains in children mean that treatment may still be very cost-effective. Comprehensive age-specific population-based cost estimates are essential to reliably assess the cost-effectiveness of cancer care for children and adolescents, and measure health system performance. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Toxicity of the main electronic cigarette components, propylene glycol, glycerin, and nicotine, in Sprague-Dawley rats in a 90-day OECD inhalation study complemented by molecular endpoints.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Blaine; Titz, Bjoern; Kogel, Ulrike; Sharma, Danilal; Leroy, Patrice; Xiang, Yang; Vuillaume, Grégory; Lebrun, Stefan; Sciuscio, Davide; Ho, Jenny; Nury, Catherine; Guedj, Emmanuel; Elamin, Ashraf; Esposito, Marco; Krishnan, Subash; Schlage, Walter K; Veljkovic, Emilija; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Martin, Florian; Peitsch, Manuel C; Hoeng, Julia; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2017-09-05

    While the toxicity of the main constituents of electronic cigarette (ECIG) liquids, nicotine, propylene glycol (PG), and vegetable glycerin (VG), has been assessed individually in separate studies, limited data on the inhalation toxicity of them is available when in mixtures. In this 90-day subchronic inhalation study, Sprague-Dawley rats were nose-only exposed to filtered air, nebulized vehicle (saline), or three concentrations of PG/VG mixtures, with and without nicotine. Standard toxicological endpoints were complemented by molecular analyses using transcriptomics, proteomics, and lipidomics. Compared with vehicle exposure, the PG/VG aerosols showed only very limited biological effects with no signs of toxicity. Addition of nicotine to the PG/VG aerosols resulted in effects in line with nicotine effects observed in previous studies, including up-regulation of xenobiotic enzymes (Cyp1a1/Fmo3) in the lung and metabolic effects, such as reduced serum lipid concentrations and expression changes of hepatic metabolic enzymes. No toxicologically relevant effects of PG/VG aerosols (up to 1.520  mg PG/L + 1.890 mg VG/L) were observed, and no adverse effects for PG/VG/nicotine were observed up to 438/544/6.6 mg/kg/day. This study demonstrates how complementary systems toxicology analyses can reveal, even in the absence of observable adverse effects, subtoxic and adaptive responses to pharmacologically active compounds such as nicotine. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type II) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    A two-phase Dose Range findng study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type II, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150micron GBII/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75micron GBII/Kg/day), and a vehicle control . Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11 -1 2 weeks of age into four treatment groups (1 2 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rat/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  12. Toxicity studies on Agents GB and GD (Phase 2): 90-day subchronic study of GB (Sarin, Type I) in CD rats. Final report, Jul 85-Aug 91

    SciTech Connect

    Bucci, T.J.; Parker, R.M.; Crowell, J.A.; Thurman, J.D.; Gosnell, P.A.

    1991-08-01

    A two-phase Dose Range finding study and a 90-Day Subchronic study were conducted in CD rats using the organophosphate ester Sarin (Agent GB, Type I, CAS Number 107-44-8). The highest dose level without lethality in the second phase of the range finding study was designated the maximum tolerated dose (MTD). The doses selected for the subchronic study were the MTD (300 micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/2 (150, micron GBI/Kg/day), MTD/4 (75 micron GBI/Kg/day), and a vehicle control (O micron /Kg/day). Forty-eight male and forty-eight female CD rats were randomly allocated at 11-12 weeks of age into four treatment groups (12 per sex per group). The animals were gavaged Monday through Friday for 13 weeks and euthanized with carbon dioxide at the beginning of the fourteenth week. Animals were observed daily for clinical signs of toxicity and were weighed weekly. The rats were bled (6 rats/sex/dose) during weeks -1, 1, 3, 7, and at necropsy. Necropsy examination was performed on all animals. Microscopic evaluation was performed on all high-dose and control animals, and on those tissues of lower dose animals that were abnormal at necropsy. All gross lesions and all animals dying or removed early received histological examination. A cause of death or morbidity for animals removed before the end of the study, determined from histopathological examination, was established in four of the eight cases. There were several statistically significant effects in the clinical chemistry and hematology data. These effects were scattered among the treatment groups and were not numerous enough to develop a pattern of organ toxicity.

  13. Muscle atrophy and bone loss after 90 days' bed rest and the effects of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate: results from the LTBR study.

    PubMed

    Rittweger, Jörn; Frost, Harold M; Schiessl, Hans; Ohshima, Hiroshi; Alkner, Björn; Tesch, Per; Felsenberg, Dieter

    2005-06-01

    Muscle atrophy and bone loss pose substantial problems for long-term space flight and in clinical immobilization. We therefore tested the efficacy of flywheel resistive exercise and pamidronate to counteract such losses. Twenty five young healthy males underwent strict bed rest with -6 degrees head-down tilt for 90 days. Subjects were randomized into an exercise group that practiced resistive exercise with a 'flywheel' (FW) device every 2-3 days, a pamidronate group (Pam) that received 60 mg pamidronate i.v. 14 days prior to bed rest and a control group (Ctrl) that received none of these countermeasures. During the study, Ca(++) and protein intake were controlled. Peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) was used to assess bone mineral content (BMC) and muscle cross sectional area (mCSA) of calf and forearm. Measurements were taken twice during baseline data collection, after 28 and after 89 days bed rest, and after 14 days recovery. On the same days, urinary Pyridinoline excretion and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, Ca(++) and PTH were measured. Pre-study exercise habits were assessed through the Freiburg questionnaire. Losses in calf mCSA were significantly reduced in FW (Ctrl: -25.6% +/- 2.5% Pam: -25.6% +/- 3.7%, FW: -17.3% +/- 2.7%), but not in the forearm mCSA (Ctrl: -6.4% +/- 4.33%, Pam: -7.7% +/- 4.1%, FW: -7.6% +/- 3.3%). Both diaphyseal and epiphyseal BMC losses of the tibia were mitigated in Pam and FW as compared to Ctrl, although this was significant only at the diaphysis. Inter-individual variability was significantly greater for changes in BMC than in mCSA, and correlation of BMC losses was poor among different locations of the tibia. A significant positive correlation was found between change in tibia epiphyseal BMC and serum cortisol levels. These findings suggest that both countermeasures are only partly effective to preserve BMC (FW and Pam) and mCSA (FW) of the lower leg during bed rest. The partial efficacy of flywheel exercise

  14. Rodents And Other Gnawers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information about rodents and lagomorphs, including definitions and the characteristics of these animals. Contains teaching activities such as "Habitats for Hoppers,""Cartoon Gnawers," and "The Great Rodent Expedition." Reproducible handouts for two of the activities are provided. (TW)

  15. 21 CFR 515.20 - Approval of medicated feed mill license applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Approval of medicated feed mill license... SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS MEDICATED FEED MILL LICENSE Administrative Actions on Licenses § 515.20 Approval of medicated feed mill license applications. Within 90 days after an...

  16. Rodent Research-1 Validation of Rodent Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, Ruth; Beegle, Janet

    2013-01-01

    To achieve novel science objectives, validation of a rodent habitat on ISS will enable - In-flight analyses during long duration spaceflight- Use of genetically altered animals- Application of modern analytical techniques (e.g. genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics)

  17. Report of an Expert Panel on the reanalysis by of a 90-day study conducted by Monsanto in support of the safety of a genetically modified corn variety (MON 863).

    PubMed

    Doull, J; Gaylor, D; Greim, H A; Lovell, D P; Lynch, B; Munro, I C

    2007-11-01

    MON 863, a genetically engineered corn variety that contains the gene for modified Bacillus thuringiensis Cry3Bb1 protein to protect against corn rootworm, was tested in a 90-day toxicity study as part of the process to gain regulatory approval. This study was reanalyzed by Séralini et al. who contended that the study showed possible hepatorenal effects of MON 863. An Expert Panel was convened to assess the original study results as analyzed by the Monsanto Company and the reanalysis conducted by Séralini et al. The Expert Panel concludes that the Séralini et al. reanalysis provided no evidence to indicate that MON 863 was associated with adverse effects in the 90-day rat study. In each case, statistical findings reported by both Monsanto and Séralini et al. were considered to be unrelated to treatment or of no biological or clinical importance because they failed to demonstrate a dose-response relationship, reproducibility over time, association with other relevant changes (e.g., histopathology), occurrence in both sexes, difference outside the normal range of variation, or biological plausibility with respect to cause-and-effect. The Séralini et al. reanalysis does not advance any new scientific data to indicate that MON 863 caused adverse effects in the 90-day rat study.

  18. Gustatory and homeostatic functions of the rodent parabrachial nucleus.

    PubMed

    de Araujo, Ivan E

    2009-07-01

    Previous studies demonstrate that lesions to the rodent parabrachial nucleus (PBN) disrupt the formation of gustatory-postingestive associations, while preserving gustatory and viscerosensory functions. This suggests that the rodent PBN functions essentially as an integrative circuit, supporting the conditioning of tastants to postingestive factors. In the case of primates, however, anatomical studies have failed to demonstrate gustatory projections from medullary nuclei to PBN. It should therefore be inferred that the primate PBN lacks the associative functions assigned to its rodent counterpart. Moreover, the ability of rodent midbrain dopaminergic systems to respond to the activation of palatable tastants depends on the integrity of the gustatory PBN. However, recent studies demonstrate that caloric palatable compounds do not require taste signaling to produce elevated brain dopamine levels. This raises the possibility that, in rodents, PBN neurons are important for the detection of postingestive effects of nutrients that occur independently of gustatory input. If confirmed, such function would assign non-associative roles to the rodent PBN, approximating its functional organization to its primate counterpart. We are currently testing this possibility by monitoring the behavioral responses to caloric glucose solutions in sweet-blind mice having sustained bilateral lesions to the PBN. Preliminary results indicate that the rodent PBN regulates nutrient intake even when no gustatory inputs are involved. This favors the assignment of non-gustatory, homeostatic functions to the rodent PBN during feeding, a concept that brings an additional perspective on the rodent versus primate functional discrepancy associated with the anatomy of this pontine nucleus.

  19. Eating nanomaterials: cruelty-free and safe? the EFSA guidance on risk assessment of nanomaterials in food and feed.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Ursula G

    2011-12-01

    Nanomaterials are increasingly being added to food handling and packaging materials, or directly, to human food and animal feed. To ensure the safety of such engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), in May 2011, the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) published a guidance document on Risk assessment of the application of nanoscience and nanotechnologies in the food and feed chain. It states that risk assessment should be performed by following a step-wise procedure. Whenever human or animal exposure to nanomaterials is expected, the general hazard characterisation scheme requests information from in vitro genotoxicity, toxicokinetic and repeated dose 90-day oral toxicity studies in rodents. Numerous prevailing uncertainties with regard to nanomaterial characterisation and their hazard and risk assessment are addressed in the guidance document. This article discusses the impact of these knowledge gaps on meeting the goal of ensuring human safety. The EFSA's guidance on the risk assessment of ENMs in food and animal feed is taken as an example for discussion, from the point of view of animal welfare, on what level of uncertainty should be considered acceptable for human safety assessment of products with non-medical applications, and whether animal testing should be considered ethically acceptable for such products.

  20. Squadron Command: The First 90 Days

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    In his book —A Mans‘ Search for Meaning,“ Victor E. Frankl says the primary motivation in life is man‘s search for meaning. He goes on to say —man... Frankl , Man‘s Search For Meaning; An Introduction To Logotherapy , 3rd ed., (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1984), 105. 4 Frederick Herzberg, The Motivation...Robert C. Ginnett, and Richard L. Hughes. Leadership: Enhancing the Lessons of Experience. Boston: Irwin/McGraw-Hill, 1999. Frankl , Victor E

  1. Garrison Command: The First 90 Days

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    energy. The deputy commanding general of IMCOM has taken a more direct approach by e - mailing his DCG Bi- Weekly Update to region directors, commanders...nagging issues and concerns that capture their attention and energy. The deputy commanding general of IMCOM has taken a more direct approach by e ... mailing his DCG Bi- Weekly Update to region directors, commanders, and staff for special areas of emphasis. A more traditional source is represented by

  2. Assessment of the safety of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin: reverse mutation assay, acute and 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity in rats, and acute no-effect level for diarrhea in humans.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Yuko; Kishimoto, Yuka; Tagami, Hiroyuki; Kanahori, Sumiko

    2013-01-01

    A series of safety assessments were performed on hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin prepared by converting the reducing terminal glucose of resistant maltodextrin into sorbitol. The reverse mutation assay did not show mutagenicity. Acute and 90-day subchronic oral toxicity studies in rats showed no death was observed in any groups, including the group receiving the highest single dose of 10 g/kg body weight or the highest dose of 5 g/kg body weight per day for 90 days. Mucous or watery stools were observed in the hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin treatment group on the acute study, which were transient and were associated with the osmotic pressure caused by intake of the high concentrations. Subchronic study showed dose-dependent increases in the weights of cecum alone, cecal contents alone, and cecum with cecal contents as well as hypertrophy of the cecal mucosal epithelium, which are considered to be common physiological responses after intake of indigestible carbohydrates. These results indicated that the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin was 10 g/kg body weight or more on the acute oral toxicity study and 5.0 g/kg body weight/day or more on the 90-day subchronic repeated oral toxicity study in rats. Further study performed in healthy adult humans showed that the acute no-effect level of hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin for diarrhea was 0.8 g/kg body weight for men and more than 1.0 g/kg body weight for women. The results of the current safety assessment studies suggest that hydrogenated resistant maltodextrin is safe for human consumption.

  3. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset: An update.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J

    2017-09-15

    A previous retrospective analysis of substances in the ECHA CHEM database concluded that, for industrial chemicals with a 'low (sub)acute toxicity profile', further testing in the 90-day study is unlikely to change this profile (Taylor et al., 2014). We have further tested this hypothesis by assessing the outcome of substances with testing proposals for which a prediction was made in that paper that the NOAEL based on the 90-day study would be 1000 mg/kg bw/d. Indeed, for seven out of ten substances for which data was available, the profile was shown to be held. For three substances, the reduced NOAEL was explained by renal effects in the rats, two of which had been seen in the 28-day study but had been dismissed by the study submitter. We conclude that the low toxicity profile will be even more protective if the NOEL is used from the 28-day study and an independent expert view is taken of the human relevance of any effects reported in the 28-day study. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The largest fossil rodent

    PubMed Central

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R. Ernesto

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000 kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene–Pleistocene (4–2 Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities. PMID:18198140

  5. The largest fossil rodent.

    PubMed

    Rinderknecht, Andrés; Blanco, R Ernesto

    2008-04-22

    The discovery of an exceptionally well-preserved skull permits the description of the new South American fossil species of the rodent, Josephoartigasia monesi sp. nov. (family: Dinomyidae; Rodentia: Hystricognathi: Caviomorpha). This species with estimated body mass of nearly 1000kg is the largest yet recorded. The skull sheds new light on the anatomy of the extinct giant rodents of the Dinomyidae, which are known mostly from isolated teeth and incomplete mandible remains. The fossil derives from San José Formation, Uruguay, usually assigned to the Pliocene-Pleistocene (4-2Myr ago), and the proposed palaeoenvironment where this rodent lived was characterized as an estuarine or deltaic system with forest communities.

  6. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Harris, Mark A.; Haws, Laurie C.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC{sub 50} values < 10 mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation. Highlights: ► Mouse small intestine gene expression is highly responsive to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. ► Cr(VI) elicits more differential gene expression after 7 days of exposure than 90 days of exposure. ► Oral exposure to Cr(VI) leads to

  7. Scatter-Hoarding Rodents Prefer Slightly Astringent Food

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo; Chen, Jin

    2011-01-01

    The mutualistic interaction between scatter-hoarding rodents and their seed plants is highly complex yet poorly understood. Plants may benefit from the seed dispersal behavior of rodents, as long as seed consumption is minimized. In parallel, rodents may maximize foraging efficiency and cache high-quality resources for future consumption. Defensive compounds, such as tannins, are thought to be a major mechanism for plant control over rodent behavior. However, previous studies, using naturally occurring seeds, have not provided conclusive evidence supporting this hypothesis. Here, we test the importance of tannin concentrations on the scatter-hoarding behavior of rodents by using an artificial seed system. We combined feeding trials and field observations to examine the overall impact of seed tannin concentrations on rodent behavior and health. We found that rodents favored seeds with an intermediate amount of tannin (∼5%) in the field. Meanwhile, in rodents that were fed a diet with different tannin content, only diets with high tannin content (25%, 15%, and 10%) caused a significant negative influence on rodent survival and health. Significant differences were not found among treatments with tannin levels of 0–5%. In contrast to many existing studies, our results clearly demonstrate that scatter-hoarding rodents prefer slightly ‘astringent’ food. In the co-evolutionary arms race between plants and animals, our results suggest that while tannins may play a significant role in reducing general predation levels by the faunal community, they have no precise control over the behavior of their mutualistic partner. Instead, the two partners appear to have reached an evolutionary point where both parties receive adequate benefits, with the year-to-year outcome being dependent on a wide range of factors beyond the control of either partner. PMID:22046284

  8. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kopec, Anna K; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L; Zacharewski, Timothy R; Proctor, Deborah M; Harris, Mark A; Haws, Laurie C; Thompson, Chad M

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose-response modeling identified >80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose-response curves with EC(50) values ranging from 10 to 100mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC(50) values <10mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation.

  9. Microdialysis in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Zapata, Agustin; Chefer, Vladimir I.; Shippenberg, Toni S.

    2010-01-01

    Microdialysis is an in vivo sampling technique that permits the quantification of various substances (e.g., neurotransmitters, peptides, electrolytes) in blood and tissue. It is also used to infuse substances into the brain and spinal cord. This unit describes methods for the construction and stereotaxic implantation of microdialysis probes into discrete brain regions of the rat and mouse. Procedures for the conduct of conventional and quantitative microdialysis experiments in the awake and anesthetized rodent are also provided. PMID:19340813

  10. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 6: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects of a mentholated version compared with mentholated and non-mentholated cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Alberto; Lebrun, Stefan; Kogel, Ulrike; Ho, Jenny; Tan, Wei Teck; Titz, Bjoern; Leroy, Patrice; Vuillaume, Gregory; Bera, Monali; Martin, Florian; Rodrigo, Gregory; Esposito, Marco; Dempsey, Ruth; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The toxicity of a mentholated version of the Tobacco Heating System (THS2.2M), a candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), was characterized in a 90-day OECD inhalation study. Differential gene and protein expression analysis of nasal epithelium and lung tissue was also performed to record exposure effects at the molecular level. Rats were exposed to filtered air (sham), to THS2.2M (at 15, 23 and 50 μg nicotine/l), to two mentholated reference cigarettes (MRC) (at 23 μg nicotine/l), or to the 3R4F reference cigarette (at 23 μg nicotine/l). MRCs were designed to meet 3R4F specifications. Test atmosphere analyses demonstrated that aldehydes were reduced by 75%-90% and carbon monoxide by 98% in THS2.2M aerosol compared with MRC smoke; aerosol uptake was confirmed by carboxyhemoglobin and menthol concentrations in blood, and by the quantities of urinary nicotine metabolites. Systemic toxicity and alterations in the respiratory tract were significantly lower in THS2.2M-exposed rats compared with MRC and 3R4F. Pulmonary inflammation and the magnitude of the changes in gene and protein expression were also dramatically lower after THS2.2M exposure compared with MRCs and 3R4F. No menthol-related effects were observed after MRC mainstream smoke-exposure compared with 3R4F.

  11. Rodent models of sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Davis, Eric M; O'Donnell, Christopher P

    2013-09-15

    Rodent models of sleep apnea have long been used to provide novel insight into the generation and predisposition to apneas as well as to characterize the impact of sleep apnea on cardiovascular, metabolic, and psychological health in humans. Given the significant body of work utilizing rodent models in the field of sleep apnea, the aims of this review are three-fold: first, to review the use of rodents as natural models of sleep apnea; second, to provide an overview of the experimental interventions employed in rodents to simulate sleep apnea; third, to discuss the refinement of rodent models to further our understanding of breathing abnormalities that occur during sleep. Given mounting evidence that sleep apnea impairs cognitive function, reduces quality of life, and exacerbates the course of multiple chronic diseases, rodent models will remain a high priority as a tool to interrogate both the pathophysiology and sequelae of breathing related abnormalities during sleep and to improve approaches to diagnosis and therapy.

  12. Geomagnetic field detection in rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Olcese, J.; Reuss, S.; Semm, P.

    1988-01-01

    In addition to behavioral evidence for the detection of earth-strength magnetic fields (MF) by rodents, recent investigations have revealed that electrophysiological and biochemical responses to MF occur in the pineal organ and retina of rodents. In addition, ferrimagnetic deposits have been identified in the ethmoidal regions of the rodent skull. These findings point to a new sensory phenomenon, which interfaces with many fields of biology, including neuroscience, psychophysics, behavioral ecology, chronobiology and sensory physiology.

  13. Rodent carcinogens: Setting priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Gold, L.S.; Slone, T.H.; Stern, B.R.; Manley, N.B.; Ames, B.N. )

    1992-10-09

    The human diet contains an enormous background of natural chemicals, such as plant pesticides and the products of cooking, that have not been a focus of carcinogenicity testing. A broadened perspective that includes these natural chemicals is necessary. A comparison of possible hazards for 80 daily exposures to rodent carcinogens from a variety of sources is presented, using an index (HERP) that relates human exposure to carcinogenic potency in rodents. A similar ordering would be expected with the use of standard risk assessment methodology for the same human exposure values. Results indicate that, when viewed against the large background of naturally occurring carcinogens in typical portions of common foods, the residues of synthetic pesticides or environmental pollutants rank low. A similar result is obtained in a separate comparison of 32 average daily exposures to natural pesticides and synthetic pesticides residues in the diet. Although the findings do not indicate that these natural dietary carcinogens are important in human cancer, they cast doubt on the relative importance for human cancer of low-dose exposures to synthetic chemicals.

  14. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2. Part 4: 90-day OECD 413 rat inhalation study with systems toxicology endpoints demonstrates reduced exposure effects compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Wong, Ee Tsin; Kogel, Ulrike; Veljkovic, Emilija; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Boue, Stephanie; Vuillaume, Gregory; Leroy, Patrice; Guedj, Emmanuel; Rodrigo, Gregory; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C; Vanscheeuwijck, Patrick

    2016-11-30

    The objective of the study was to characterize the toxicity from sub-chronic inhalation of test atmospheres from the candidate modified risk tobacco product (MRTP), Tobacco Heating System version 2.2 (THS2.2), and to compare it with that of the 3R4F reference cigarette. A 90-day nose-only inhalation study on Sprague-Dawley rats was performed, combining classical and systems toxicology approaches. Reduction in respiratory minute volume, degree of lung inflammation, and histopathological findings in the respiratory tract organs were significantly less pronounced in THS2.2-exposed groups compared with 3R4F-exposed groups. Transcriptomics data obtained from nasal epithelium and lung parenchyma showed concentration-dependent differential gene expression following 3R4F exposure that was less pronounced in the THS2.2-exposed groups. Molecular network analysis showed that inflammatory processes were the most affected by 3R4F, while the extent of THS2.2 impact was much lower. Most other toxicological endpoints evaluated did not show exposure-related effects. Where findings were observed, the effects were similar in 3R4F- and THS2.2-exposed animals. In summary, toxicological changes observed in the respiratory tract organs of THS2.2 aerosol-exposed rats were much less pronounced than in 3R4F-exposed rats while other toxicological endpoints either showed no exposure-related effects or were comparable to what was observed in the 3R4F-exposed rats.

  15. Aquaporins in desert rodent physiology.

    PubMed

    Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2015-08-01

    Desert rodents face a sizeable challenge in maintaining salt and water homeostasis due to their life in an arid environment. A number of their organ systems exhibit functional characteristics that limit water loss above that which occurs in non-desert species under similar conditions. These systems include renal, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, nasal, and skin epithelia. The desert rodent kidney preserves body water by producing a highly concentrated urine that reaches a maximum osmolality nearly three times that of the common laboratory rat. The precise mechanism by which urine is concentrated in any mammal is unknown. Insights into the process may be more apparent in species that produce highly concentrated urine. Aquaporin water channels play a fundamental role in water transport in several desert rodent organ systems. The role of aquaporins in facilitating highly effective water preservation in desert rodents is only beginning to be explored. The organ systems of desert rodents and their associated AQPs are described.

  16. Comparison of effects of natural or artificial rodent diet on etoposide absorption in rats.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y L; Huang, J D

    1999-01-01

    The oral administration of etoposide has erratic absorption and low bioavailability. P-glycoprotein (Pgp) located in the intestinal brush-border membrane may pump out orally absorbed etoposide and thus decrease etoposide's absorption. Since flavonoids are abundant in food, we speculated that the common natural rodent diet may contain some flavonoid-related constituents which influence etoposide absorption. We therefore compared the absorption of etoposide's in the everted gut sacs of rats pretreated for 30 minutes with two different diets, natural rodent diet or artificial rodent diet. The effect of quercetin, one of the plant derived flavonoids with Pgp modulating activity, on etoposide's absorption was also compared. The addition of natural rodent diet or quercetin increased etoposide's absorption in everted sacs of jejunum or ileum, in comparison to those added with artificial rodent diet. The enhancing effect of quercetin was compatible with the effect of natural rodent diet in the jejunum and was higher in the ileum. These in vitro data supported the hypothesis that certain dietary components, possibly flavonoid-related compounds, may influence Pgp's function in intestine and thus increase etoposide's absorption. However, when fed with natural rodent diet for one week, a lower enhancing effect on absorption was observed. This may be due to the metabolism of the ingredients with modulating activity to their inactive forms, thus reducing the effect of natural rodent diet on etoposide absorption. The results proved that feeding rats with natural or artificial rodent diet had no obvious effect on etoposide absorption in vivo.

  17. The allometry of rodent intestines.

    PubMed

    Lovegrove, Barry G

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the allometry of the small intestine, caecum, colon and large intestine of rodents (n = 51) using a phylogenetically informed approach. Strong phylogenetic signal was detected in the data for the caecum, colon and large intestine, but not for the small intestine. Most of the phylogenetic signal could be attributed to clade effects associated with herbivorous versus omnivorous rodents. The herbivorous rodents have longer caecums, colons and large intestines, but their small intestines, with the exception of the desert otomyine rodents, are no different to those of omnivorous rodents. Desert otomyine rodents have significantly shorter small intestines than all other rodents, reflecting a possible habitat effect and providing a partial explanation for the low basal metabolic rates of small desert mammals. However, the desert otomyines do not have shorter colons or large intestines, challenging claims for adaptation to water retention in arid environments. Data for the Arvicolidae revealed significantly larger caecums and colons, and hence longer large intestines, with no compensatory reduction in the length of the small intestine, which may explain how the smallest mammalian herbivores manage to meet the demands of a very high mass-specific metabolic rate. This study provides phylogenetically corrected allometries suitable for future prediction testing.

  18. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents.

  19. Rodent Empathy and Affective Neuroscience

    PubMed Central

    Panksepp, Jules B.; Lahvis, Garet P.

    2011-01-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. This indicates that rodent behavioral models can be developed in an attempt to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that in the future they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp’s theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences. PMID:21672550

  20. Rodent empathy and affective neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Panksepp, Jules B; Lahvis, Garet P

    2011-10-01

    In the past few years, several experimental studies have suggested that empathy occurs in the social lives of rodents. Thus, rodent behavioral models can now be developed to elucidate the mechanistic substrates of empathy at levels that have heretofore been unavailable. For example, the finding that mice from certain inbred strains express behavioral and physiological responses to conspecific distress, while others do not, underscores that the genetic underpinnings of empathy are specifiable and that they could be harnessed to develop new therapies for human psychosocial impairments. However, the advent of rodent models of empathy is met at the outset with a number of theoretical and semantic problems that are similar to those previously confronted by studies of empathy in humans. The distinct underlying components of empathy must be differentiated from one another and from lay usage of the term. The primary goal of this paper is to review a set of seminal studies that are directly relevant to developing a concept of empathy in rodents. We first consider some of the psychological phenomena that have been associated with empathy, and within this context, we consider the component processes, or endophenotypes of rodent empathy. We then review a series of recent experimental studies that demonstrate the capability of rodents to detect and respond to the affective state of their social partners. We focus primarily on experiments that examine how rodents share affective experiences of fear, but we also highlight how similar types of experimental paradigms can be utilized to evaluate the possibility that rodents share positive affective experiences. Taken together, these studies were inspired by Jaak Panksepp's theory that all mammals are capable of felt affective experiences.

  1. The ethics of rodent control.

    PubMed

    Meerburg, Bastiaan G; Brom, Frans W A; Kijlstra, Aize

    2008-12-01

    Because western societies generally see animals as objects of moral concern, demands have been made on the way they are treated, e.g. during animal experimentation. In the case of rodent pests, however, inhumane control methods are often applied. This inconsistency in the human-animal relationship requires clarification. This paper analyses the criteria that must be met when judging the use of animals during experiments, and investigates whether these can be applied in rodent control. This is important, because, until now, animal welfare has been less of an issue in pest control: effectiveness, hygiene and cost efficiency have been leading principles. Two options are available to solve the inconsistency: the first is to abandon the criteria used in animal experimentation; the second is to apply these criteria to both animal experimentation and rodent control. This latter option implies that rodent control methods should not lead to intense pain or discomfort, and any discomfort should have a short duration and should allow escaped rodents to lead a natural life. Adherence to this option will, however, require a shift in the design of rodent control methods: effectiveness will no longer be the leading principle. It will have to share its position with animal welfare and humaneness.

  2. Effect of cellooligosaccharide or synbiotic feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves.

    PubMed

    Hasunuma, Toshiya; Kawashima, Kenji; Nakayama, Hirofumi; Murakami, Toshiaki; Kanagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Takashige; Akiyama, Kiyoshi; Yasuda, Kenji; Terada, Fuminori; Kushibiki, Shiro

    2011-08-01

    We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134(T) (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n = 16), SB feeding group (n = 18), and control group (n = 18). Body weight at 90 days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90 days of age were greater (P < 0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P < 0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90 days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB.

  3. Prediction of rodent nongenotoxic carcinogenesis: evaluation of biochemical and tissue changes in rodents following exposure to nine nongenotoxic NTP carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Elcombe, Clifford R; Odum, Jenny; Foster, John R; Stone, Susan; Hasmall, Susan; Soames, Anthony R; Kimber, Ian; Ashby, John

    2002-04-01

    We studied nine presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogens, as defined by the U.S. National Toxicology Program (NTP), to determine their ability to induce acute or subacute biochemical and tissue changes that may act as useful predictors of nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. The chemicals selected included six liver carcinogens (two of which are peroxisome proliferators), three thyroid gland carcinogens, and four kidney carcinogens. We administered the chemicals (diethylhexyl phthalate, cinnamyl anthranilate, chlorendic acid, 1,4-dichlorobenzene, monuron, ethylene thiourea, diethyl thiourea, trimethyl thiourea, and d-limonene to the same strains of mice and rats used in the original NTP bioassays (nine chemicals to rats and seven to mice). Selected tissues (liver, thyroid gland, and kidney) were collected from groups of animals at 7, 28, and 90 days for evaluation. Tissue changes selected for study were monitored for all of the test groups, irrespective of the specificity of the carcinogenic responses observed in those tissues. This allowed us to assess both the carcinogen specificity and the carcinogen sensitivity of the events being monitored. We studied relative weight, cell labeling indices, and pathologic changes such as hypertrophy in all tissues; a range of cytochrome P450 enzymes and palmitoyl coenzyme A oxidase in the liver; changes in the levels of plasma total triiodothyronine, total thyroxine, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) as markers of thyroid gland function; and hyaline droplet formation, tubular basophilia, and the formation of granular casts in the kidney. There were no single measurements that alerted specifically to the carcinogenicity of the agents to the rodent liver, thyroid gland, or kidney. However, in the majority of cases, the chemical induction of cancer in a tissue was preceded by a range of biochemical/morphologic changes, most of which were moderately specific for a carcinogenic outcome, and some of which were highly specific for

  4. The role of rodents in the ecology of Ixodes ricinus and associated pathogens in Central and Eastern Europe.

    PubMed

    Mihalca, Andrei D; Sándor, Attila D

    2013-01-01

    Rodents comprise more species than any other mammal order. Most rodents are considered keystone species in their ecological communities, hence the survival of many other species in the ecosystem depend on them. From medical point of view, this is particularly important for rodent-dependent pathogens. In the particular case of tick-borne diseases, rodents are important as hosts for vector ticks and as reservoir hosts (Lyme borreliosis, human granulocytic anaplasmosis, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Tick-borne relapsing fevers, tick-borne rickettsioses, babesiosis). Community and population ecology of rodents was shown to be correlated with disease ecology in the case of many tick-borne diseases. In Eastern Europe, several adult hard-tick species use rodents as their principal hosts: Ixodes apronophorus, I. crenulatus, I. laguri, I. redikorzevi, I. trianguliceps. However, the majority of ticks feeding on rodents are immature stages of ticks which as adults are parasitic on larger mammals. Larvae and nymphs of Ixodes ricinus, the most abundant and medically important tick from Europe, are commonly found on rodents. This is particularly important, as many rodents are synanthropic and, together with other micromammals and birds are often the only available natural hosts for ticks in urban environments. This work reviews the correlated ecology of rodents and I. ricinus.

  5. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  6. Effects of deer density on tick infestation of rodents and the hazard of tick-borne encephalitis. I: empirical assessment.

    PubMed

    Cagnacci, F; Bolzoni, L; Rosà, R; Carpi, G; Hauffe, H C; Valent, M; Tagliapietra, V; Kazimirova, M; Koci, J; Stanko, M; Lukan, M; Henttonen, H; Rizzoli, A

    2012-04-01

    Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is endemic to eastern and central Europe with broad temporal and spatial variation in infection risk. Although many studies have focused on understanding the environmental and socio-economic factors affecting exposure of humans to TBE, comparatively little research has been devoted to assessing the underlying ecological mechanisms of TBE occurrence in enzootic cycles, and therefore TBE hazard. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the main ungulate tick hosts on the pattern of tick infestation in rodents and TBE occurrence in rodents and questing adult ticks. In this empirical study, we considered three areas where endemic human TBE occurs and three control sites having no reported human TBE cases. In these six sites located in Italy and Slovakia, we assessed deer density using the pellet group count-plot sampling technique, collected questing ticks, live-trapped rodents (primarily Apodemus flavicollis and Myodes glareolus) and counted ticks feeding on rodents. Both rodents and questing ticks were screened for TBE infection. TBE infection in ticks and rodents was positively associated with the number of co-feeding ticks on rodents and negatively correlated with deer density. We hypothesise that the negative relationship between deer density and TBE occurrence on a local scale (defined by the minimum overlapping area of host species) could be attributed to deer (incompetent hosts) diverting questing ticks from rodents (competent hosts), know as the 'dilution effect hypothesis'. We observed that, after an initial increase, the number of ticks feeding on rodents reached a peak for an intermediate value of estimated deer density and then decreased. Therefore, while at a regional scale, tick host availability has already been shown to be directly correlated with TBE distribution, our results suggest that the interactions between deer, rodents and ticks are much more complex on a local scale, supporting the possibility of a

  7. Evaluation of the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar for rodent spaceflight experiments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Liittschwager, Kurt; Herrera, Anna M; Hill, Esther L; Girten, Beverly; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra; Vasques, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    Selection of an appropriate diet for rodent spaceflight experiments is critical and may have significant effects on mission results. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) rodent food bar (RFB) was reformulated and designated as the nutrient-upgraded RFB (NuRFB). The objectives of this study were to determine whether the NuRFB nutrient formulation meets the 1995 National Research Council (NRC) nutrient recommendations and whether the NuRFB can be used for short-term (45-d) and long-term (90-d) spaceflight experiments. Nutrient and moisture analyses of the NuRFB were performed. Young (age 13-14 wk) male Sprague-Dawley rats (n=16/group) were individually caged and fed a diet treatment consisting of 1) NuRFB, 2) RFB, or 3) modified AIN-93G containing 4% instead of the 7% fat for 45- or 90-d. At the end of the study, organs were weighted, and serum clinical chemistry indicators of organ function and hematologic measurements were determined. Chemical analysis of the diet ingredients showed that the NuRFB met the 1995 NRC nutrient recommendations for rats. Subsequent animal feeding studies showed that NuRFB was comparable to RFB and modified AIN-93G for supporting rat growth and body weight maintenance. In addition, the safety of the NuRFB for use as a spaceflight diet was indicated by the absence of changes in organ weight or function. Based on the study results, the NuRFB performed similarly to the RFB and met the criteria necessary for short-term and long-term rodent spaceflight experiments. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Guide to Commensal Rodent Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    slaughterhouses. Pigs have been shown to contract trichinosis from infected rat feces in their food. i. Tapeworms - Hymenolepis nana and H. dimanuta...are two of the intestinal parasites transmitted to man by food that has been contaminated with tapeworm - bearing rodent feces. j. Tetanus - The wound

  9. Allometric disparity in rodent evolution

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Laura A B

    2013-01-01

    In this study, allometric trajectories for 51 rodent species, comprising equal representatives from each of the major clades (Ctenohystrica, Muroidea, Sciuridae), are compared in a multivariate morphospace (=allometric space) to quantify magnitudes of disparity in cranial growth. Variability in allometric trajectory patterns was compared to measures of adult disparity in each clade, and dietary habit among the examined species, which together encapsulated an ecomorphological breadth. Results indicate that the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents is characterized by different features in sciurids compared with muroids and Ctenohystrica. Sciuridae was found to have a reduced magnitude of inter-trajectory change and growth patterns with less variation in allometric coefficient values among members. In contrast, a greater magnitude of difference between trajectories and an increased variation in allometric coefficient values was evident for both Ctenohystrica and muroids. Ctenohystrica and muroids achieved considerably higher adult disparities than sciurids, suggesting that conservatism in allometric trajectory modification may constrain morphological diversity in rodents. The results provide support for a role of ecology (dietary habit) in the evolution of allometric trajectories in rodents. PMID:23610638

  10. Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads

    PubMed Central

    Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M.; Monadjem, Ara; McCleery, Robert; Belmain, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Using domestic predators such as cats to control rodent pest problems around farms and homesteads is common across the world. However, practical scientific evidence on the impact of such biological control in agricultural settings is often lacking. We tested whether the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs in rural homesteads would affect the foraging behaviour of pest rodents. We estimated giving up densities (GUDs) from established feeding patches and estimated relative rodent activity using tracking tiles at 40 homesteads across four agricultural communities. We found that the presence of cats and dogs at the same homestead significantly reduced activity and increased GUDs (i.e. increased perception of foraging cost) of pest rodent species. However, if only cats or dogs alone were present at the homestead there was no observed difference in rodent foraging activity in comparison to homesteads with no cats or dogs. Our results suggest that pest rodent activity can be discouraged through the presence of domestic predators. When different types of predator are present together they likely create a heightened landscape of fear for foraging rodents. PMID:28158266

  11. Domestic cats and dogs create a landscape of fear for pest rodents around rural homesteads.

    PubMed

    Mahlaba, Themb'alilahlwa A M; Monadjem, Ara; McCleery, Robert; Belmain, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Using domestic predators such as cats to control rodent pest problems around farms and homesteads is common across the world. However, practical scientific evidence on the impact of such biological control in agricultural settings is often lacking. We tested whether the presence of domestic cats and/or dogs in rural homesteads would affect the foraging behaviour of pest rodents. We estimated giving up densities (GUDs) from established feeding patches and estimated relative rodent activity using tracking tiles at 40 homesteads across four agricultural communities. We found that the presence of cats and dogs at the same homestead significantly reduced activity and increased GUDs (i.e. increased perception of foraging cost) of pest rodent species. However, if only cats or dogs alone were present at the homestead there was no observed difference in rodent foraging activity in comparison to homesteads with no cats or dogs. Our results suggest that pest rodent activity can be discouraged through the presence of domestic predators. When different types of predator are present together they likely create a heightened landscape of fear for foraging rodents.

  12. Post-harvest impacts of rodents in Myanmar; how much rice do they eat and damage?

    PubMed

    Htwe, Nyo Me; Singleton, Grant R; Maw, Pyai Phyo

    2017-02-01

    We undertook studies on post-harvest losses by rodents in two townships in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar. Farmers harvest their monsoon rice crop and then stack it on levee banks to await threshing 4-6 weeks later. After threshing and drying, paddy rice is stored in granaries. The amount of grain stored in burrows was collected 4 weeks after harvest by excavating burrows. In grain stores, we quantified the weight of grain consumed by rodents for 3-6 months post-harvest. The dominant species in the field were Bandicota bengalensis and B. indica, whereas in grain stores the dominant species were Rattus rattus and R. exulans. The mean grain stored by rodents in burrows was 1.49 ± 0.9 kg burrow(-1) in 2013 and 1.41 ± 0.7 kg burrow(-1) in 2014. The mean loss of grain in granaries was higher in Daik U (14% in 2013, 4% in 2014) than in Maubin (8.2% in 2013, 1.2% in 2014). The total amount of grain lost to rodents during piling and storing could feed households for 1.6-4 months. Post-harvest losses of grain is a significant food security issue for smallholder farmers in Myanmar. Community rodent management and better rodent-proofing of granaries are recommended to reduce losses caused by rodents. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  14. Nutritional Evaluation of NASA's Rodent Food Bar Diet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Joyce E.; Yu, Diane S.; Dalton, Bonnie P.

    2000-01-01

    Tests are being conducted on NASA's rodent Food Bar in preparation for long-term use as the rat and mouse diet aboard the International Space Station. Nutritional analyses are performed after the bars are manufactured and then repeated periodically to determine nutritional stability. The primary factors analyzed are protein, ash, fat, fiber, moisture, amino acids, fatty acids, and minerals. Nutrient levels are compared to values published in the National Research Council's dietary requirements for rodents, and also to those contained in several commonly used commercial rodent lab diets. The Food Bar is manufactured from a powdered diet to which moisture is added as it is processed through an extruder. The bars are dipped into potassium sorbate, vacuum-sealed, and irradiated. In order to determine nutrient changes during extrusion and irradiation, the powdered diet, the non-irradiated bars, and the irradiated bars are all analyzed. We have observed lower values for some nutrients (iodine, vitamin K, and iron) in the Food Bars compared with NRC requirements. Many nutrients in the Food Bars are contained at a higher level than levels in the NRC requirements. An additional factor we are investigating is the 26% moisture level in the Food Bars, which drops to about 15% within a week, compared to a stable 10% moisture in many standard lab chow diets. In addition to the nutritional analyses, the food bar is being fed to several strains of rats and mice, and feeding study and necropsy results are being observed (Barrett et al, unpublished data). Information from the nutritional analyses and from the rodent studies will enable us to recommend the formulation that will most adequately meet the rodent Food Bar requirements for long-term use aboard the Space Station.

  15. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control....

  16. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  17. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  18. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  19. 21 CFR 1250.96 - Rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rodent control. 1250.96 Section 1250.96 Food and... SANITATION Sanitation Facilities and Conditions on Vessels § 1250.96 Rodent control. Vessels shall be... of rodent control. ...

  20. Rodent Oncology: Diseases, Diagnostics, and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Hocker, Samuel E; Eshar, David; Wouda, Raelene M

    2017-01-01

    Cancer incidence in rodent species varies dramatically from a common occurrence in mice and rats to just a limited number of documented cases in chinchillas and degus. This article summarizes common tumors, both benign and malignant, that have been reported to occur in rodents. Outlined are clinical signs, diagnostics, and treatments that have been described for rodents presenting with specific neoplasms.

  1. Rodent nutrition: digestive comparisons of 4 common rodent species.

    PubMed

    Grant, Kerrin

    2014-09-01

    This article summarizes the literature regarding digestive strategies and captive diets of common rodent pocket pets. A comparison is made between the 2 suborders in which chinchillas, guinea pigs, hamsters, and gerbils occur, highlighting digestive anatomy and dietary adaptations. Recommended captive diets are provided, as well as common nutritionally related health issues that may be presented to veterinary clinics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Rodent models of cerebral ischemia

    SciTech Connect

    Ginsberg, M.D.; Busto, R. )

    1989-12-01

    The use of physiologically regulated, reproducible animal models is crucial to the study of ischemic brain injury--both the mechanisms governing its occurrence and potential therapeutic strategies. Several laboratory rodent species (notably rats and gerbils), which are readily available at relatively low cost, are highly suitable for the investigation of cerebral ischemia and have been widely employed for this purpose. We critically examine and summarize several rodent models of transient global ischemia, resulting in selective neuronal injury within vulnerable brain regions, and focal ischemia, typically giving rise to localized brain infarction. We explore the utility of individual models and emphasize the necessity for meticulous experimental control of those variables that modulate the severity of ischemic brain injury.169 references.

  3. Identifying Rodent Hantavirus Reservoirs, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Bisordi, Ivani; Levis, Silvana; Garcia, Jorge; Pereira, Luiz E.; Souza, Renato P.; Sugahara, Teresa K.N.; Pini, Noemi; Enria, Delia; Souza, Luiza T.M.

    2004-01-01

    We describe the genetic analysis of samples from hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) patients from southern and southeastern states of Brazil and rodents captured at the presumed site of infection of these patients. A total of 65 samples that were antibody-positive for Sin Nombre or Laguna Negra virus by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were processed by nested reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) by using several primer combinations in the M and S genome segments. PCR products were amplified and sequenced from samples from 11 HPS patient and 7 rodent samples. Phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequence differences showed the cocirculation of Araraquara and Juquitiba-like viruses, previously characterized from humans. Our genetic data indicate that Araraquara virus is associated with Bolomys lasiurus (hairy-tailed Bolo mouse) and the Juquitiba-like virus is associated with Oligoryzomys nigripes (black-footed pigmy rice rat). PMID:15663849

  4. Preclinical imaging anesthesia in rodents.

    PubMed

    Vesce, Giancarlo; Micieli, Fabiana; Chiavaccini, Ludovica

    2017-03-01

    Despite the outstanding progress achieved by preclinical imaging science, laboratory animal anesthesia remains quite stationary. Ninety percent of preclinical imaging studies are carried on small rodents (mice and rats) anesthetized by outdated injectable and/or inhalation agents. A need for imaging awake (conscious) animals is questionably registered mainly for brain research, for phMRI and for accomplishing pain and analgesia studies. A need for improving current rodent anesthesia protocols and for enforcing the 3Rs paradigm is sought. Patient monitoring throughout the procedure and recovery phases, as well as vital parameter's data must be recorded in basic consciousness states and during imaging sessions. A multidrug approach is suggested to overcome the limits of monoanesthesia and well-timed physiological data are required to ground findings and to interpret imaging data.

  5. Rodent consumption in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S

    2014-09-01

    Rodents are important reservoirs of rodent-borne infections worldwide, including Southeast Asia and Northeast Thailand (Isaan), where rodent consumption may be a source of rodent-borne diseases. The behavior of consuming rodents is related to a population's traditions, knowledge, cultural, and household contexts, among other factors. This cross-sectional survey was conducted in Khon Kaen Province, Thailand during November-December 2011. It aimed to elicit information about rodent consumption among residents of this province, and to identify factors associated with rodent consumption there. Multiple logistic regression analysis indicated that male gender, large family size, and use of rainwater as the main source of drinking water were positively associated with reported rodent consumption in this province, while having proper knowledge/attitudes towards animal-borne disease was negatively associated. These results provide evidence-base information for further studies, such as participatory ac- tion research, to further explore how people interact with rodents in different contexts. Further research is also needed to characterize risk of zoonotic diseases in relation to rodent consumption.

  6. Leishmania infantum in wild rodents: reservoirs or just irrelevant incidental hosts?

    PubMed

    Navea-Pérez, H M; Díaz-Sáez, V; Corpas-López, V; Merino-Espinosa, G; Morillas-Márquez, F; Martín-Sánchez, J

    2015-06-01

    Wild rodents constitute a very large biomass of potential reservoirs for Leishmania spp. Therefore, an epidemiological study was carried out in a well-known focus of canine leishmaniasis from southern Spain, with the objective of detecting and characterizing Leishmania infantum infection in wild rodents. Blood, liver, spleen, bone marrow, and skin from 37 rodents (24 Apodemus sylvaticus, 9 Rattus rattus, and 4 Mus musculus) were analyzed by optical microscopy, culture, and two different polymerase chain reactions. L. infantum DNA was found in 27% (10 out of 37) of the trapped rodents, in a variety of tissues: bone marrow, spleen, or healthy skin (ear lobe). High prevalences of L. infantum infection were found in the three investigated rodent species. The presence of other trypanosomatids was also evidenced. These rodent species are abundant, widely distributed in Europe, and have a long enough lifespan to overcome the low sandfly activity season. They live in a suitable habitat for sandflies and serve as blood sources for these insects, which can become infected when induced to feed on Leishmania-infected animals. Whether they are reservoirs or just irrelevant incidental hosts, it is clear that the epidemiology of L. infantum is more complex than previously thought, and so is its control. The classic epidemiological cycle dog-sandfly-human is turning into a network of animal species that collaborate with the dog in the maintenance of the parasite under natural conditions and probably showing local differences.

  7. Nutritional adequacy and quality control of rodent diets.

    PubMed

    Newberne, P M; Fox, J G

    1980-04-01

    One of the most often neglected variables in experimental investigations using rodents is the diet. Recent observations that diets can influence the response of a rodent to the drug, chemical or other factors under study, with biased interpretation of results, have drawn great interest. In order to be assured that the biologic response observed is a reflection of the material or condition under study, it is imperative that the diet provide essential nutrients in the proper proportions and that contaminants be kept to a minimum. Quality control is the key to these requirements; rodent diets can provide adequate nutrition, free of significant contamination. The diets which can be provided vary according to the degree of refinements; the three major types are (1) natural product, (2) semipurified and (3) chemically defined diets. Natural product diets may be open or closed formula, depending on the amount of information that the label reveals. Guaranteed analyses of proximate nutrients are provided but are of little use in assessing the nutrient value of the formulation. The National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council publications on laboratory animal nutrient requirements should be available to all investigators using experimental animals to help them evaluate the nutritional adequacy of the diets they use. Rats and mice may be considered together under some circumstances relative to crude dietary needs, but the Syrian golden hamster should be treated separately for purposes of diet. This species appears to digest foods more like a ruminant. An ideal diet for rodents is not on the horizon because of variable needs relative to different types of research and holding. Storage and shelf life of rodent diets also play important roles in providing adequate nutrition. Variations in moisture, temperature and exposure to other chemicals can affect the quality of the feed and research results. In addition, a number of chemical and biological contaminants have been

  8. Enteral feedings.

    PubMed

    Chernoff, R

    1980-01-01

    The benefits, equipment used, commercially available sources, and the indications and techniques for administration of enteral nutrients are reviewed. In many malabsorption states, enteral feeding is preferable and parenteral nutrients are seldom indicated. Transitional enteral nutrient support usually is indicated after parenteral nutrient therapy. Enteral tube-feeding formulas should be matched to the patient's needs; formulas using blenderized natural foods or intact isolated nutrients are appropriate for patients with intact gastrointestinal tracts. Patients should be monitored for glucosuria and hyperglycemia, bloating, nausea, dehydration, and renal, hepatic and hematologic status. Formula dilution, and a reduced flow rate or use of continuous-drip feeding, will reduce the incidence of osmotic diarrhea. The effectiveness, low cost and low potential for serious complications make enteral feeding preferable to parenteral nutrient therapy for many patients.

  9. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels, cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system...

  10. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels, cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system...

  11. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels, cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system...

  12. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), pituitary, peripheral nerve (sciatic or tibial, preferably in close proximity to the muscle), spinal cord (three levels, cervical, mid-thoracic and lumbar), eyes (retina, optic nerve). (C) Glandular system...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system... measured. Measurements of addtional enzymes (of hepatic or other origin) and bile acids, may also be useful...) If excessive early deaths or other problems occur in the high exposure group compromising the...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system effects, including tremors... measured. Measurements of additional enzymes (of hepatic or other origin) and bile acids, may also be... problems occur in the high dose group compromising the significance of the data, the next dose level must...

  15. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  16. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... membranes, respiratory and circulatory effects, autonomic effects such as salivation, central nervous system...) Thyroids. (D) Respiratory system. (1) Trachea. (2) Lung. (3) Pharynx. (4) Larynx. (5) Nose. (E..., whatever its size, shape, and density. It is used to predict where in the respiratory tract such...

  19. 90-Day Inhalation Toxicity Study of FT Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-08-01

    conducted when animals were weighed. The observations that could be related to the exposure regimen included pelage alopecia and nasal discharge in...the study. In the male rats, the clinical observations noted were pelage alopecia in 9 of 10 rats after 4 weeks of exposure, and 1 rat after 5...procedure (Section 4.16), alopecia was noted in some males (2/10) around the forelimbs in the control group, and alopecia was observed around the nose

  20. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  1. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... experimental animals to a chemical by inhalation for part (approximately 10%) of a life span. (d) Limit test... concentrations might not be necessary. (e) Test procedures—(1) Animal selection—(i) Species and strain. A.... Testing should be started with young healthy animals as soon as possible after weaning and acclimatization...

  2. Prospects for biological control of rodent populations*

    PubMed Central

    Wodzicki, Kazimierz

    1973-01-01

    Pathogens and predatory animals are the main agents used for the biological control of rodents. The pathogens that have been used are of the genus Salmonella; none is rodent-specific and all can cause severe infection in man and domestic animals. Furthermore, rodents frequently develop immunity to, and become carriers of, these organisms, and there is little to commend their use, except in lightly populated areas where control is infrequently applied. The relationships of five predator species with their rodent prey have been examined. The monitor lizard, mongoose, and ferret were for different reasons found to be unsatisfactory, and there is not yet sufficient evidence to warrant further releases of the Japanese weasel. Domestic and feral cats control rodents well in some situations but only after some other agent has removed a large part of the rodent population. PMID:4587482

  3. Prediction of rodent carcinogenicity for 30 chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.

    1996-10-01

    Predictions of carcinogenic activity are made for 30 chemicals currently being assessed for rodent carcinogenicity by the U.S. National Toxicology Program. The predictions are based upon the chemical structure, the anticipated or reported mutagenicity, and the reported sub-chronic toxicity of each chemical. It is predicted that 13 chemicals will be noncarcinogenic to rodents, that 7 will be genotoxic carcinogens, and that 10 may show some evidence of presumed nongenotoxic rodent carcinogenesis. 3 refs., 1 fig.

  4. Tactile learning in rodents: Neurobiology and neuropharmacology.

    PubMed

    Roohbakhsh, Ali; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Arababadi, Mohammad Kazemi; Ayoobi, Fateme; Fatemi, Iman; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Mohammad-Zadeh, Mohammad

    2016-02-15

    Animal models of learning and memory have been the subject of considerable research. Rodents such as mice and rats are nocturnal animals with poor vision, and their survival depends on their sense of touch. Recent reports have shown that whisker somatosensation is the main channel through which rodents collect and process environmental information. This review describes tactile learning in rodents from a neurobiological and neuropharmacological perspective, and how this is involved in memory-related processes.

  5. Auditing laboratory rodent biosecurity programs.

    PubMed

    Porter, William P; Horn, Mandy J; Cooper, Dale M; Klein, Hilton J

    2013-10-22

    A rodent biosecurity program that includes periodic evaluation of procedures used in an institution's vivarium can be used to ensure that best practices are in place to prevent a microbial pathogen outbreak. As a result of an ongoing comprehensive biosecurity review within their North American and European production facilities, the authors developed a novel biosecurity auditing process and worksheet that could be useful in other animal care and use operations. The authors encourage other institutions to consider initiating similar audits of their biosecurity programs to protect the health of their laboratory animals.

  6. Breast-Feeding Twins: Making Feedings Manageable

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast-feed more than one baby? Here's help breast-feeding twins or other multiples, from getting positioned and ensuring an adequate milk supply to combining breast-feeding and formula-feeding. By Mayo Clinic Staff If ...

  7. Evidence-Based Advances in Rodent Medicine.

    PubMed

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2017-09-01

    The number of exotic companion pet rodents seen in veterinary practices is growing very rapidly. According to the American Veterinary Medical Association's surveys, more than 2,093,000 pet rodents were kept in US households in 2007 and in 2012 it was more than 2,349,000 animals. This article summarizes the most important evidence-based knowledge in exotic pet rodents (diagnostics of the hyperadrenocorticism in guinea pigs, pituitary tumors in rats, urolithiasis in guinea pigs, use of itopride as prokinetics, use of deslorelin acetate in rodents, cause of dental disease, and prevention of mammary gland tumors in rats). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Mycobacteriosis in the rabbit and rodent.

    PubMed

    McClure, Diane E

    2012-01-01

    Spontaneous mycobacteriosis is rare in rabbits and rodents with the exception of the pygmy rabbit, and there are only a handful of reported cases involving other rodents. Mycobacterium avium complex was the most commonly identified organism in reports of spontaneous mycobacteriosis involving rabbits and rodents. The resistance of rabbits and rodents to mycobacterial disease has been useful in understanding the disease in humans and other animals. Preventing or controlling Mycobacterium sp transmission from wildlife to domestic animals will require collaboration between agriculture, wildlife, environmental, and political entities. Understanding the ecology and epidemiology of mycobacteria is needed for better worldwide management of tuberculosis.

  9. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  10. Urban resident attitudes toward rodents, rodent control products, and environmental effects

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent control in urban areas can result in the inadvertent mortality of non-target species (e.g., bobcats). However, there is little detailed information about rodent control practices of urban residents. Our objective was to evaluate urban rodent control behaviors in two area...

  11. The Miocene rodents of Serbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markovic, Z.

    2009-04-01

    During the Miocene period a group of shallow lakes was created in depressions at the territory of present-day Serbia. This caused the present wide distribution of lacustrine sediments, which occasionally alternate with the alluvial and marsh sediments. The remains of large mammals are relatively common, while the remains of small mammals used to be known only from two localities - Mala Miliva and Sibnica. The method of sediment sieving, used during the last decade, led to discovery of 6 new localities with remains of fossil vertebrates - Sibnica 1, Vračevići, village Lazarevac, Bele Vode, Brajkovac and Tavnik. Most of the fossil material is represented by osteological and odontological remains of small mammals. The best represented group of small mammals at each of the localities was the rodents. According to the odontological material presence was proven for 35 rodent species from 6 families. MN zonation was determined according to structure of associations. The geological age of fossil-bearing sediments was determined by using the method of correlation with the sites in Europe and Turkey.

  12. Rodent models for human diseases.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Thierry F

    2015-07-15

    One of the factors limiting the translation of knowledge from preclinical studies to the clinic has been the limitations of in vivo diseases models. Except in the case of highly controlled and regulated clinical trials, geneticists and scientists do not use humans for their experimental investigations because of the obvious risk to life. Instead, they use various animal, fungal, bacterial, and plant species as model organisms for their studies. Amongst these model organisms, rodent models are the most used due to the easiness for the experiments and the possibility to modify genetically these model animals. Nevertheless, due to the fact that animal models typically do not contract the same genetic diseases as people, so scientists must alter their genomes to induce human disease states and to know what kind of mutation causes the disease. In this brief review, we will discuss the interests of rodent models that have been developed to simulate human pathologies, focusing in models that employ xenografts and genetic modification. Within the framework of genetically engineered mouse (GEM) models, we will review some of the current genetic strategies for modeling diseases.

  13. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) in Rodents.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marco Antonio; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Kaneshima, Edílson Nobuyoshi; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-01-01

    Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2) from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg · kg(-1). In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg · kg(-1)). In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered.

  14. Acute and Chronic Toxicity of an Aqueous Fraction of the Stem Bark of Stryphnodendron adstringens (Barbatimão) in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Marco Antonio; Palazzo de Mello, João Carlos; Kaneshima, Edílson Nobuyoshi; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias Filho, Benedito Prado; Audi, Elisabeth Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Stryphnodendron adstringens has a high tannin content and is used as an antiseptic and antimicrobial and in the treatment of leucorrhea, gonorrhea, wound healing, and gastritis. The present study evaluated the toxic effects of the heptamer prodelphinidin (F2) from the stem bark of S. adstringens in rodents. In the acute toxicity test, the mice that received oral doses exhibited reversible effects, with an LD50 of 3.015 mg · kg−1. In the chronic toxicity test at 90 days, Wistar rats were treated with different doses of F2 (10, 100, and 200 mg · kg−1). In the biochemical, hematological, and histopathological examinations and open-field test, the different dose groups did not exhibit significant differences compared with controls. The present results indicate that F2 from the stem bark of S. adstringens caused no toxicity with acute and chronic oral treatment in rodents at the doses administered. PMID:23970938

  15. Hantavirus Prevention: Cleanup of Rodent Contamination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Hantaviruses in the Americas may cause human disease involving the lungs, hence the name " hantavirus pulmonary syndrome" (HPS). Since May 1993, a...humans are also found in other rodents, but the number of cases stemming from these hantaviruses is small when compared to SNV. Hantavirus is shed in... HANTAVIRUS PREVENTION: CLEANUP OF RODENT CONTAMINATION Technical Information Paper 18-001-0306

  16. Rodent-vegetation relationships in southeastern Montana

    Treesearch

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Hansen; Richard M.

    1985-01-01

    Plant communities of southeastern Montana were surveyed for rodents over a two year period. Deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) were the most abundant rodent species found on the study area. Prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster), meadow voles (M. pennsylvanicus), sagebrush voles (Lagurus curtatus...

  17. Multi-trophic interactions driving the transmission cycle of Borrelia afzelii between Ixodes ricinus and rodents: a review.

    PubMed

    van Duijvendijk, Gilian; Sprong, Hein; Takken, Willem

    2015-12-18

    The tick Ixodes ricinus is the main vector of the spirochaete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, the causal agent of Lyme borreliosis, in the western Palearctic. Rodents are the reservoir host of B. afzelii, which can be transmitted to I. ricinus larvae during a blood meal. The infected engorged larvae moult into infected nymphs, which can transmit the spirochaetes to rodents and humans. Interestingly, even though only about 1% of the larvae develop into a borreliae-infected nymph, the enzootic borreliae lifecycle can persist. The development from larva to infected nymph is a key aspect in this lifecycle, influencing the density of infected nymphs and thereby Lyme borreliosis risk. The density of infected nymphs varies temporally and geographically and is influenced by multi-trophic (tick-host-borreliae) interactions. For example, blood feeding success of ticks and spirochaete transmission success differ between rodent species and host-finding success appears to be affected by a B. afzelii infection in both the rodent and the tick. In this paper, we review the major interactions between I. ricinus, rodents and B. afzelii that influence this development, with the aim to elucidate the critical factors that determine the epidemiological risk of Lyme borreliosis. The effects of the tick, rodent and B. afzelii on larval host finding, larval blood feeding, spirochaete transmission from rodent to larva and development from larva to nymph are discussed. Nymphal host finding, nymphal blood feeding and spirochaete transmission from nymph to rodent are the final steps to complete the enzootic B. afzelii lifecycle and are included in the review. It is concluded that rodent density, rodent infection prevalence, and tick burden are the major factors affecting the development from larva to infected nymph and that these interact with each other. We suggest that the B. afzelii lifecycle is dependent on the aggregation of ticks among rodents, which is manipulated by the pathogen

  18. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  19. Breast Feeding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Children's Centre, Paris (France).

    This set of documents consists of English, French, and Spanish translations of four pamphlets on breast-feeding. The pamphlets provide information designed for lay persons, academics and professionals, health personnel and educators, and policy-makers. The contents cover health-related differences between breast and bottle milk; patterns of…

  20. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  1. Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney

    PubMed Central

    Romaniuk, Andrzej A.; Shepherd, Alexandra N.; Clarke, David V.; Sheridan, Alison J.; Fraser, Sheena; Bartosiewicz, László

    2016-01-01

    Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet. Here we compare the accumulation pattern of rodent remains from four locations within and adjacent to the renowned Neolithic site of Skara Brae, Orkney, showing that those within the settlement itself were the result of deliberate human activity. The accumulation and nature of burnt bones, incorporated over an extended period within deposits of household waste, indicate that rodents were used as a nutritional resource and may have been the subject of early pest control. We, therefore, provide the first evidence for the exploitation or control of rodents by the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe. PMID:27853568

  2. Rodents: food or pests in Neolithic Orkney.

    PubMed

    Romaniuk, Andrzej A; Shepherd, Alexandra N; Clarke, David V; Sheridan, Alison J; Fraser, Sheena; Bartosiewicz, László; Herman, Jeremy S

    2016-10-01

    Rodents have important effects on contemporary human societies, sometimes providing a source of food but more often as agricultural pests, or as vectors and reservoirs of disease. Skeletal remains of rodents are commonly found in archaeological assemblages from around the world, highlighting their potential importance to ancient human populations. However, there are few studies of the interactions between people and rodents at such sites and most of these are confined to locations where rodents have formed a part of the recent diet. Here we compare the accumulation pattern of rodent remains from four locations within and adjacent to the renowned Neolithic site of Skara Brae, Orkney, showing that those within the settlement itself were the result of deliberate human activity. The accumulation and nature of burnt bones, incorporated over an extended period within deposits of household waste, indicate that rodents were used as a nutritional resource and may have been the subject of early pest control. We, therefore, provide the first evidence for the exploitation or control of rodents by the Neolithic inhabitants of Europe.

  3. Responses of nocturnal rodents to shrub encroachment in Banni grasslands, Gujarat, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayadevan, A.

    2016-12-01

    Shrub encroachment is one of the greatest threats to grasslands globally. These woodlands can strongly influence the behaviour of small mammals adapted to more open habitats, which rely on high visibility for early detection of predators. In semi-arid grasslands, rodents are considered keystone species. Although shrub encroachment is known to negatively affect rodent assemblages, its impact on the foraging behaviour of rodents, which is known to vary in response to risky situations, is unknown. Understanding whether shrub encroachment alters such antipredator behaviour is important as antipredator behaviour can alter the distribution, abundance and ultimately, survival of prey species. In this study, I explored the effects of shrub encroachment on the foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodent communities in the Banni grasslands, India. I examined foraging behaviour, quantified using the giving-up density (GUD) framework and the number of rodent crossings around food patches, in two habitats that differed in the extent of shrub encroachment. Under the GUD framework, the amount of food left behind by a forager in a food patch reflects the costs of feeding at the patch. Higher GUDs imply higher foraging costs. I also investigated how removal of an invasive woody plant, Prosopis juliflora would affect foraging behaviour of nocturnal rodents. High shrub encroachment was associated with higher foraging costs (higher GUDs) and lower activity than the sparsely wooded habitat, likely due to low visibility in the densely wooded habitat. The dense habitat also supported a higher richness and relative abundance of generalist rodents than the sparse habitat, likely due to the increased heterogeneity of the habitat. The tree removal experiment revealed that rodents had lower GUDs (i.e., low foraging costs) after the event of tree cutting. This may be due to the reduction of cover in the habitat, leading to higher visibility and lower predation risk. My results suggest that shrub

  4. Use of the dog as non-rodent test species in the safety testing schedule associated with the registration of crop and plant protection products (pesticides): present status.

    PubMed

    Box, Rainer J; Spielmann, Horst

    2005-11-01

    The results from a survey of the expert information that is publicly accessible on the use of the dog as test species during the regulatory evaluation of agricultural chemicals and pesticides are reported. Methods that are being used or considered in order to reduce the number of dogs used for this purpose are described. Regulatory evaluation aims at establishing threshold values for safe human exposure; it is based on no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOELs) determined in animal studies. Current regulations require testing in two species, a rodent species (usually rat or mouse), and a non-rodent species (usually the dog). Subchronic (90-day) and chronic (12-month) repeated-dose feeding studies must be routinely conducted in dogs. This report first focuses on the results from a retrospective study analysing data on 216 pesticides kept on record by the Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung, BfR (German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment), the competent regulatory authority in Germany. The study was sponsored and coordinated by SET, the German Foundation for the Promotion of Research on Replacement and Complementary Methods to Reduce Animal Testing (Stiftung zur Förderung der Erforschung von Ersatz-und Ergänzungsmethoden zur Einschränkung von Tierversuchen, Mainz) and conducted by the BfR. Since the data submitted for registration of a product is the property of the manufacturer, the study could only proceed with the collaboration of the German Association of Manufacturers of Agricultural Chemicals (Industrieverband Agrar, IVA). To ensure confidentiality, designated codes were used instead of the compounds' proper names when the study was published. The results support two major conclusions. The use of the dog for the testing of pesticides is indeed necessary because the dog has proved to be the most sensitive species for about 15% of the compounds examined. However, chronic studies are only of limited value since they only provide essential information that

  5. Does acquired resistance of rodent hosts affect metabolic rate of fleas?

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Irina S; Ghazaryan, Lusine; Krasnov, Boris R; Degen, A Allan

    2009-07-01

    We studied whether (a) previous infestation of a rodent host with fleas and (b) the reproductive effort of fleas affect the rate of CO(2) emission in two flea species, host-specific Parapulex chephrenis and host-opportunistic Xenopsylla ramesis when feeding on their typical and atypical rodent hosts. We measured the rate of CO(2) emission in preovipositing and ovipositing female fleas fed on either pristine or previously infested Acomys cahirinus (typical host of P. chephrenis) and Dipodillus dasyurus (typical host of X. ramesis). When P. chephrenis fed on a typical host, its mass-specific rate of CO(2) emission was not affected by previous infestation of a host, whereas when this flea fed on the atypical host, its rate of CO(2) emission was higher when a host was previously infested. This was manifested, however, mainly during the oviposition period. The rate of CO(2) emission by X. ramesis feeding on pristine hosts was significantly lower than in conspecifics feeding on previously infested hosts, independent of host species. Both flea species feeding on their typical hosts emitted CO(2) at similar mass-specific rates during preoviposition and oviposition, except for P. chephrenis feeding on D. dasyurus, which increased its rate during oviposition. There was no effect of the number of eggs produced per female on the rate of CO(2) emission during oviposition.

  6. Rodent species as natural reservoirs of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in different habitats of Ixodes ricinus in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Gassner, Fedor; Takken, Willem; Plas, Carin Lombaers-van der; Kastelein, Pieter; Hoetmer, Arno J; Holdinga, Maarten; van Overbeek, Leonard S

    2013-09-01

    Rodents are natural reservoirs for human pathogenic spirochaetes of the Borrelia burgdorferi complex [B. burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.)], and the pathogens are transmitted by Ixodes ricinus ticks to humans in The Netherlands. B. burgdorferi s.l. infection prevalence in questing ticks, rodents, and ticks feeding on these rodents, all sampled within the same short time span of five days in three different areas in The Netherlands, were compared in order to establish the relationship between ticks, reservoir hosts, and B. burgdorferi s.l. Questing nymphs were found in all 3 areas and numbers differed per area and even per site within areas. Infection prevalence in questing nymphs ranged between 0 and 20%. Apodemus sylvaticus and Myodes glareolus were the dominant rodents captured, and their numbers differed per area. Infection prevalence, determined by ear biopsies, ranged between 0 and 33.3% for both rodent species. Larvae were most frequently found feeding on these rodents, and their Borrelia infection prevalence ranged between 0 and 6.3% (A. sylvaticus) and between 0 and 29.4% (M. glareolus). The burden of nymphs feeding on rodents was low and varied per area with only 2 of 42 nymphs infected. Comparisons made on the basis of infection prevalence indicated that there was no clear relationship between rodents and questing nymphs when sampled within the same short time span. However, a possible relationship was present when questing ticks were sampled over longer periods in time (months) within or near the same areas (range of infection prevalence between 3.7 and 39.4). Confounding factors thus play a role in the interaction between rodents, ticks, and B. burgdorferi s.l., and it is very likely that other reservoir host species are responsible for the observed fluctuations. It is concluded that the local variations in rodent-Borrelia-tick interactions only partially explain the Lyme borreliosis risk in the sites studied and that other ecological determinants, notably

  7. Morphology captures diet and locomotor types in rodents

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Diana O.; Schweizer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the functional meaning of morphological features, we need to relate what we know about morphology and ecology in a meaningful, quantitative framework. Closely related species usually share more phenotypic features than distant ones, but close relatives do not necessarily have the same ecologies. Rodents are the most diverse group of living mammals, with impressive ecomorphological diversification. We used museum collections and ecological literature to gather data on morphology, diet and locomotion for 208 species of rodents from different bioregions to investigate how morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness are associated with ecology. After considering differences in body size and shared evolutionary history, we find that unrelated species with similar ecologies can be characterized by a well-defined suite of morphological features. Our results validate the hypothesized ecological relevance of the chosen traits. These cranial, dental and external (e.g. ears) characters predicted diet and locomotion and showed consistent differences among species with different feeding and substrate use strategies. We conclude that when ecological characters do not show strong phylogenetic patterns, we cannot simply assume that close relatives are ecologically similar. Museum specimens are valuable records of species' phenotypes and with the characters proposed here, morphology can reflect functional similarity, an important component of community ecology and macroevolution. PMID:28280593

  8. Morphology captures diet and locomotor types in rodents.

    PubMed

    Verde Arregoitia, Luis D; Fisher, Diana O; Schweizer, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    To understand the functional meaning of morphological features, we need to relate what we know about morphology and ecology in a meaningful, quantitative framework. Closely related species usually share more phenotypic features than distant ones, but close relatives do not necessarily have the same ecologies. Rodents are the most diverse group of living mammals, with impressive ecomorphological diversification. We used museum collections and ecological literature to gather data on morphology, diet and locomotion for 208 species of rodents from different bioregions to investigate how morphological similarity and phylogenetic relatedness are associated with ecology. After considering differences in body size and shared evolutionary history, we find that unrelated species with similar ecologies can be characterized by a well-defined suite of morphological features. Our results validate the hypothesized ecological relevance of the chosen traits. These cranial, dental and external (e.g. ears) characters predicted diet and locomotion and showed consistent differences among species with different feeding and substrate use strategies. We conclude that when ecological characters do not show strong phylogenetic patterns, we cannot simply assume that close relatives are ecologically similar. Museum specimens are valuable records of species' phenotypes and with the characters proposed here, morphology can reflect functional similarity, an important component of community ecology and macroevolution.

  9. Efficiency of three anti-coagulant rodenticides on commensal rodents.

    PubMed

    Mikhail, M W; Kamilia; Allam, A M; Soliman, M I

    2007-08-01

    Susceptibiliy level to bromadilone, difencoum and coumtertraly anticoagulants were studied in different species of Norway rat Rattus norvegicus and roof rat Rattus rattus trapped from El-Qualyobia Governorate in which the anticoagulant rodenticides were used to control rodents for long periods in some rural regions at Qualyobia. Complete mortality was showed for both species and sex within a standard feeding period (6 days) indicated to be susceptible to the three anticoagulant rodenticides. The bait eaten and corresponding active ingredient showed a noticeable more intake for R. rattus than R. norvegicus for the three compounds. The time to death showed highest mean values for R. rattus comparison to R. norvegicus. Difencoum recorded highest values of time to death compare with bromadilone and coumatetralyl.

  10. Can rodents conceive hyperbolic spaces?

    PubMed Central

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Troiani, Francesca; Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The grid cells discovered in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex have been proposed to provide a metric for Euclidean space, possibly even hardwired in the embryo. Yet, one class of models describing the formation of grid unit selectivity is entirely based on developmental self-organization, and as such it predicts that the metric it expresses should reflect the environment to which the animal has adapted. We show that, according to self-organizing models, if raised in a non-Euclidean hyperbolic cage rats should be able to form hyperbolic grids. For a given range of grid spacing relative to the radius of negative curvature of the hyperbolic surface, such grids are predicted to appear as multi-peaked firing maps, in which each peak has seven neighbours instead of the Euclidean six, a prediction that can be tested in experiments. We thus demonstrate that a useful universal neuronal metric, in the sense of a multi-scale ruler and compass that remain unaltered when changing environments, can be extended to other than the standard Euclidean plane. PMID:25948611

  11. Can rodents conceive hyperbolic spaces?

    PubMed

    Urdapilleta, Eugenio; Troiani, Francesca; Stella, Federico; Treves, Alessandro

    2015-06-06

    The grid cells discovered in the rodent medial entorhinal cortex have been proposed to provide a metric for Euclidean space, possibly even hardwired in the embryo. Yet, one class of models describing the formation of grid unit selectivity is entirely based on developmental self-organization, and as such it predicts that the metric it expresses should reflect the environment to which the animal has adapted. We show that, according to self-organizing models, if raised in a non-Euclidean hyperbolic cage rats should be able to form hyperbolic grids. For a given range of grid spacing relative to the radius of negative curvature of the hyperbolic surface, such grids are predicted to appear as multi-peaked firing maps, in which each peak has seven neighbours instead of the Euclidean six, a prediction that can be tested in experiments. We thus demonstrate that a useful universal neuronal metric, in the sense of a multi-scale ruler and compass that remain unaltered when changing environments, can be extended to other than the standard Euclidean plane.

  12. Modeling panic disorder in rodents.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Fabrício A; Gobira, Pedro H; Viana, Thércia G; Vicente, Maria A; Zangrossi, Hélio; Graeff, Frederico G

    2013-10-01

    Panic disorder (PD) is a subtype of anxiety disorder in which the core phenomenon is the spontaneous occurrence of panic attacks. Although studies with laboratory animals have been instrumental for the understanding of its neurobiology and treatment, few review articles have focused on the validity of the currently used animal models for studying this psychopathology. Therefore, the aim of the present paper is to discuss the strengths and limits of these models in terms of face, construct and predictive validity. Based on the hypothesis that panic attacks are related to defensive responses elicited by proximal threat, most animal models measure the escape responses induced by specific stimuli. Some apply electrical or chemical stimulation to brain regions proposed to modulate fear and panic responses, such as the dorsal periaqueductal grey or the medial hypothalamus. Other models focus on the behavioural consequences caused by the exposure of rodents to ultrasound or natural predators. Finally, the elevated T-maze associates a one-way escape response from an open arm with panic attacks. Despite some limitations, animal models are essential for a better understanding of the neurobiology and pharmacology of PD and for discovering more effective treatments.

  13. Emergency and critical care of rodents.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Michelle G; Graham, Jennifer E

    2007-05-01

    Rodents may be presented on an emergency basis with various conditions causing debilitation and disease. Common causes of emergent presentations include trauma, respiratory disease, dental disease, gastrointestinal disease, reproductive disorders, and urinary tract obstruction. Emergency treatment should always include immediate stabilization of the patient until the patient is able to tolerate diagnostic testing and additional therapeutics. Rodent patients benefit from supportive care, including thermal, fluid, and nutritional support. Administration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, antibiotics, and analgesics through various routes is also appropriate. This article presents an overview of emergency medicine in rodents, including emergency procedures, handling and restraint, triage and patient assessment, sample collection, and supportive care procedures. The most common emergency presentations for rodents are also discussed.

  14. 40 CFR 161.340 - Toxicology data requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... feeding study (non-food pesticides)—12 months is usually sufficient. (C) Chronic nonrodent (i.e., dog... TGAI 81-7 Subchronic testing 90-day feeding studies—rodent and nonrodent (17) CR CR CR CR CR CR TGAI... CR CR CR CR CR CR TGAI TGAI 82-5 Chronic testing Chronic feeding—2 spp. rodent and nonrodent (9), (13...

  15. Rodents as potential couriers for bioterrorism agents.

    PubMed

    Lõhmus, Mare; Janse, Ingmar; van de Goot, Frank; van Rotterdam, Bart J

    2013-09-01

    Many pathogens that can cause major public health, economic, and social damage are relatively easily accessible and could be used as biological weapons. Wildlife is a natural reservoir for many potential bioterrorism agents, and, as history has shown, eliminating a pathogen that has dispersed among wild fauna can be extremely challenging. Since a number of wild rodent species live close to humans, rodents constitute a vector for pathogens to circulate among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans. This article reviews the possible consequences of a deliberate spread of rodentborne pathogens. It is relatively easy to infect wild rodents with certain pathogens or to release infected rodents, and the action would be difficult to trace. Rodents can also function as reservoirs for diseases that have been spread during a bioterrorism attack and cause recurring disease outbreaks. As rats and mice are common in both urban and rural settlements, deliberately released rodentborne infections have the capacity to spread very rapidly. The majority of pathogens that are listed as potential agents of bioterrorism by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases exploit rodents as vectors or reservoirs. In addition to zoonotic diseases, deliberately released rodentborne epizootics can have serious economic consequences for society, for example, in the area of international trade restrictions. The ability to rapidly detect introduced diseases and effectively communicate with the public in crisis situations enables a quick response and is essential for successful and cost-effective disease control.

  16. Oxidative and nutrient stability of a standard rodent spaceflight diet during long-term storage.

    PubMed

    Sun, Gwo-Shing; Tou, Janet C; Reiss-Bubenheim, Debra A; Hill, Esther L; Liittschwager, Kurt W; Girten, Beverly E; Pena-Yewkukhiw, Eugenia

    2012-09-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's standard spaceflight diet for rodents is the nutrient-upgraded rodent food bar (NuRFB). The shelf life of the NuRFB needs to be determined in order to avoid malnutrition of rodents and confounding of research results resulting from nutritional deficiency. The authors compared the oxidative and nutrient stability of NuRFBs stored at either ambient temperature (26 °C) or at refrigeration temperature (4 °C) for use in long-term rodent feeding experiments. After 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months (mo) of storage, lipid oxidation, fatty acid composition and amounts of specific vitamins and amino acids in NuRFBs were analyzed. No oxidative rancidity developed in NuRFBs stored at 4 °C for up to 12 mo, but NuRFBs stored at 26 °C for 6 mo developed oxidative rancidity and had reduced amounts of γ-linolenic acid (18:3n-6). Despite loss of vitamin E, vitamin A and thiamin after storage at 26 °C for 12 mo, vitamin levels in NuRFBs remained at or above the levels recommended for optimal rodent health. The amino acid profile of NuRFBs was unaffected by storage at 4 °C or 26 °C for 12 mo. The results suggest that NuRFBs stored at 4 °C for up to 12 mo and NuRFBs stored at 26 °C for up to 6 mo provide suitable nutrition for rodents in long-term experiments.

  17. Orthopox virus infections in Eurasian wild rodents.

    PubMed

    Kinnunen, Paula M; Henttonen, Heikki; Hoffmann, Bernd; Kallio, Eva R; Korthase, Christian; Laakkonen, Juha; Niemimaa, Jukka; Palva, Airi; Schlegel, Mathias; Ali, Hanan Sheikh; Suominen, Paula; Ulrich, Rainer G; Vaheri, Antti; Vapalahti, Olli

    2011-08-01

    The genus Orthopoxvirus includes variola (smallpox) virus and zoonotic cowpox virus (CPXV). All orthopoxviruses (OPV) are serologically cross-reactive and cross-protective, and after the cessation of smallpox vaccination, CPXV and other OPV infections represent an emerging threat to human health. In this respect CPXV, with its reservoir in asymptomatically infected wild rodents, is of special importance. In Europe, clinical cowpox has been diagnosed in both humans and animals. The main objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of OPV infections in wild rodents in different parts of Eurasia and to compare the performance of three real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods in detecting OPV DNA in wildlife samples. We investigated 962 wild rodents from Northern Europe (Finland), Central Europe (Germany), and Northern Asia (Siberia, Russia) for the presence of OPV antibodies. According to a CPXV antigen-based immunofluorescence assay, animals from 13 of the 17 locations (76%) showed antibodies. Mean seroprevalence was 33% in Finland (variation between locations 0%-69%), 32% in Germany (0%-43%), and 3.2% (0%-15%) in Siberia. We further screened tissue samples from 513 of the rodents for OPV DNA using up to three real-time PCRs. Three rodents from two German and one Finnish location were OPV DNA positive. The amplicons were 96% to 100% identical to available CPXV sequences. Further, we demonstrated OPV infections as far east as the Baikal region and occurring in hamster and two other rodent species, ones previously unnoticed as possible reservoir hosts. Based on serological and PCR findings, Eurasian wild rodents are frequently but nonpersistently infected with OPVs. Results from three real-time PCR methods were highly concordant. This study extends the geographic range and wildlife species diversity in which OPV (or CPXV) viruses are naturally circulating.

  18. Population cycles in small rodents.

    PubMed

    Krebs, C J; Gaines, M S; Keller, B L; Myers, J H; Tamarin, R H

    1973-01-05

    We conclude that population fluctuations in Microtus in southern Indiana are produced by a syndrome of changes in birth and death rates similar to that found in other species of voles and lemmings. The mechanisms which cause the changes in birth and death rates are demolished by fencing the population so that no dispersal can occur. Dispersal thus seems critical for population regulation in Microtus. Because most dispersal occurs during the increase phase of the population cycle and there is little dispersal during the decline phase, dispersal is not directly related to population density. Hence the quality of dispersing animals must be important, and we have found one case of increased dispersal tendency by one genotype. The failure of population regulation of Microtus in enclosed areas requires an explanation by any hypothesis attempting to explain population cycles in small rodents. It might be suggested that the fence changed the predation pressure on the enclosed populations. However, the fence was only 2 feet (0.6 meter) high and did not stop the entrance of foxes, weasels, shrews, or avian predators. A striking feature was that the habitat in the enclosures quickly recovered from complete devastation by the start of the spring growing season. Obviously the habitat and food quality were sufficient to support Microtus populations of abnormally high densities, and recovery of the habitat was sufficiently quick that the introduction of new animals to these enclosed areas resulted in another population explosion. Finally, hypotheses of population regulation by social stress must account for the finding that Microtus can exist at densities several times greater than normal without "stress" taking an obvious toll. We hypothesize that the prevention of dispersal changes the quality of the populations in the enclosures in comparison to those outside the fence. Voles forced to remain in an overcrowded fenced population do not suffer high mortality rates and continue

  19. First report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in rodents in Finland.

    PubMed

    Kallio, Eva R; Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J; Bown, Kevin J; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C

    2014-06-01

    Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens.

  20. First Report of Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti in Rodents in Finland

    PubMed Central

    Begon, Michael; Birtles, Richard J.; Bown, Kevin J.; Koskela, Esa; Mappes, Tapio; Watts, Phillip C.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tick-borne diseases pose an increasingly important public health problem in Europe. Rodents are the reservoir host for many tick-transmitted pathogens, including Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia microti, which can cause human granulocytic anaplasmosis and babesiosis, respectively. To estimate the presence of these pathogens in rodents in Finland, we examined blood samples from 151 bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and demonstrate, for the first time, that A. phagocytophilum and B. microti commonly infect bank voles (in 22% and 40% of animals, respectively) in Finland. Sequence analysis of a fragment of 18S rRNA showed that the B. microti strain isolated was identical to the Munich strain, which is considered to be nonzoonotic. The A. phagocytophilum strain (based on a fragment of the msp4 gene) was identical to one found earlier in rodents in the United Kingdom that is transmitted by the tick Ixodes trianguliceps, all the life stages of which feed on small mammals. The infection probability of B. microti in the bank voles was the greater the older the individual was, and males were more often infected than females. A. phagocytophilum infection probability first increased and then decreased with the age of individual without any difference between sexes. While these pathogens presumably pose a limited zoonotic risk to humans in Finland, they might have important interactions with other rodent pathogens and therefore affect infection dynamics of, for example, zoonotic pathogens. PMID:24848684

  1. The potential importance of nut removal by rodents from Australian macadamia orchards.

    PubMed

    Elmouttie, David; Wilson, John

    2005-10-01

    Extensive crop damage due to rodents, predominantly the black rat (Rattus rattus) is a major concern to both the Hawaiian and Australian macadamia industries. Within Australian systems, indicated the importance of adjacent non-crop habitats in the damage process with damage being directly related to the size and temporal stability of these habitats. It was also suggested that the current estimates of crop loss might be underestimates as R. rattus may remove nuts into adjacent non-crop habitats, however, the economic significance of nut removal was not investigated. This study has determined that the crop loss due to nut removal is equivalent to the crop loss due to in-crop feeding within the first row of the orchard, with nuts being removed and consumed under the cover provided by weedy adjacent habitats. Previous studies (White et al.,1997; Horskins et al.,1998; White et al.,1998) investigating the impact of rodents on crop damage have ignored the nut removal component of the damage process and hence rodents have a far greater impact on the Australian macadamia industry than previously suggested. This study also indicates that the cost-benefit of habitat manipulation as a rodent management strategy is much greater than that suggested by . Habitat manipulation is not only a cost-effective means of damage control but is also sustainable, having none of the potentially adverse public health and environmental effects of continual rodenticide use.

  2. Behavioral and mechanistic insight into rodent empathy.

    PubMed

    Sivaselvachandran, Sivaani; Acland, Erinn L; Abdallah, Salsabil; Martin, Loren J

    2016-06-14

    Empathy is a psychological construct that allows individuals to understand and share the emotions of others. The ability to share emotional states relies on basic social mechanisms, such as mimicry and emotional contagion, which are considered building blocks for empathy. Mimicking another's emotional or physical state is essential for successful social interactions and is found in a number of animal species. For the current review we focus on emotional state sharing in rodents, a core feature of empathy that is often measured using pain and fear as proxies; we also discuss prosociality in rodents. The evidence for empathy in rodents shows that rats and mice consistently imitate arousal states and behaviors of conspecifics and will even sacrifice personal gain to relieve the distress of a conspecific. These behaviors support basic processes that are crucial for the survival of individual animals and give us insight into the neural mechanisms that govern empathy-related behaviors.

  3. Endoparasites of Wild Rodents in Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Nateghpour, Mehdi; Motevalli-Haghi, Afsaneh; Akbarzadeh, Kamran; Akhavan, Amir Ahmad; Mohebali, Mehdi; Mobedi, Iraj; Farivar, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to collect wild rodents for endoparasites determination in some parts of Sistan and Baluchistan Province, southeastern Iran nearby Pakistan and Afghanistan countries. Methods: A total of 100 wild rodents were captured alive with cage traps. Various samples were collected from blood and feces, also impression smear prepared from different organs. The samples were prepared by formalin-ether or stained with Giemsa, after that were examined under microscope. Results: All the caught rodents (47 Tatera indica, 44 Meriones hurriana, 5 Gerbilus nanus and 4 Meriones libycus) were studied for endoparasites emphasizing to their zoonotic aspects. Endoparasites including Spirurida, Hymenolepis diminuta, Hymenolepis nana feraterna, Trichuris trichiura, Skerjabino taenia, Trichostrongylus spp, Entamoeba muris, Chilomastix mesnili and Leishmania spp were parasitologically identified. Conclusion: Among 9 genera or species of the identified parasites at least 5 of them have zoonotic and public health importance. PMID:26114139

  4. The MAM rodent model of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lodge, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Rodent models of human disease are essential to obtain a better understanding of disease pathology, the mechanism of action underlying conventional treatments, as well as for the generation of novel therapeutic approaches. There are a number of rodent models of schizophrenia based on either genetic manipulations, acute or sub-chronic drug administration, or developmental disturbances. The prenatal methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) rodent model is a developmental disruption model gaining increased attention because it displays a number of histological, neurophysiological and behavioral deficits analogous to those observed in schizophrenia patients. This unit describes the procedures required to safely induce the MAM phenotype in rats. In addition, we describe a simple behavioral procedure, amphetamine-induced hyper-locomotion, which can be utilized to verify the MAM phenotype. PMID:23559309

  5. [Application of genetic diversity in the researches on rodents].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Yang, Chun-Wen; Xu, Yan-Chun; Jin, Zhi-Min; Ma, Jian-Zhang

    2014-02-01

    Genetic diversity is the base of the species diversity and ecosystem diversity, and also the foundation for biological evolution and species differentiation. Furthermore, genetic diversity is important evidence for evaluation of biological resources of nature. The genetic diversity data from a wide variety of rodents have many complex applications. We summarized the application of rodent prevention, the origin and differentiation including evolutionary history of rodents, the potential adaptation of rodents, the dynamics of population and regulatory mechanisms, and the conservation biology of rodents. Researches in the future should focus on the systematic study on the relationships between population dynamics and genetic diversity, and long-term monitoring of genetic diversity of rodents.

  6. Understanding arid environments using fossil rodent middens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, S.; Betancourt, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    American rodent middens have made a more dramatic contribution to understanding past environments and the development of ecological theory than Australian rodent middens. This relates to differences in the natural environment, the landscape histories, the scale and scientific approaches of the researchers. The comparison demonstrates: the power of synoptic perspectives; the value of thorough macrofossil identification in midden analysis and its potential advance in Australia where pollen has dominated analyses, the value of herbaria and reference collections; the potential of environmental databases; the importance of scientific history and 'critical research mass' and; finally, the opportunistic nature of palaeoecological research. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  7. Arctic Small Rodents Have Diverse Diets and Flexible Food Selection

    PubMed Central

    Soininen, Eeva M.; Ravolainen, Virve T.; Bråthen, Kari Anne; Yoccoz, Nigel G.; Gielly, Ludovic; Ims, Rolf A.

    2013-01-01

    The ecology of small rodent food selection is poorly understood, as mammalian herbivore food selection theory has mainly been developed by studying ungulates. Especially, the effect of food availability on food selection in natural habitats where a range of food items are available is unknown. We studied diets and selectivity of grey-sided voles (Myodes rufocanus) and tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus), key herbivores in European tundra ecosystems, using DNA metabarcoding, a novel method enabling taxonomically detailed diet studies. In order to cover the range of food availabilities present in the wild, we employed a large-scale study design for sampling data on food availability and vole diets. Both vole species had ingested a range of plant species and selected particularly forbs and grasses. Grey-sided voles also selected ericoid shrubs and tundra voles willows. Availability of a food item rarely affected its utilization directly, although seasonal changes of diets and selection suggest that these are positively correlated with availability. Moreover, diets and selectivity were affected by availability of alternative food items. These results show that the focal sub-arctic voles have diverse diets and flexible food preferences and rarely compensate low availability of a food item with increased searching effort. Diet diversity itself is likely to be an important trait and has previously been underrated owing to methodological constraints. We suggest that the roles of alternative food item availability and search time limitations for small rodent feeding ecology should be investigated. Nomenclature Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF), Vascular plants. Available at: http://nhm2.uio.no/paf/, accessed 15.6.2012. PMID:23826371

  8. Identifying fast-onset antidepressants using rodent models.

    PubMed

    Ramaker, M J; Dulawa, S C

    2017-05-01

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and a major contributor to the burden of suicide. A major limitation of classical antidepressants is that 2-4 weeks of continuous treatment is required to elicit therapeutic effects, prolonging the period of depression, disability and suicide risk. Therefore, the development of fast-onset antidepressants is crucial. Preclinical identification of fast-onset antidepressants requires animal models that can accurately predict the delay to therapeutic onset. Although several well-validated assay models exist that predict antidepressant potential, few thoroughly tested animal models exist that can detect therapeutic onset. In this review, we discuss and assess the validity of seven rodent models currently used to assess antidepressant onset: olfactory bulbectomy, chronic mild stress, chronic forced swim test, novelty-induced hypophagia (NIH), novelty-suppressed feeding (NSF), social defeat stress, and learned helplessness. We review the effects of classical antidepressants in these models, as well as six treatments that possess fast-onset antidepressant effects in the clinic: electroconvulsive shock therapy, sleep deprivation, ketamine, scopolamine, GLYX-13 and pindolol used in conjunction with classical antidepressants. We also discuss the effects of several compounds that have yet to be tested in humans but have fast-onset antidepressant-like effects in one or more of these antidepressant onset sensitive models. These compounds include selective serotonin (5-HT)2C receptor antagonists, a 5-HT4 receptor agonist, a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist, NMDA receptor antagonists, a TREK-1 receptor antagonist, mGluR antagonists and (2R,6R)-HNK. Finally, we provide recommendations for identifying fast-onset antidepressants using rodent behavioral models and molecular approaches.

  9. Evaluation of the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2). Part 5: microRNA expression from a 90-day rat inhalation study indicates that exposure to THS2.2 aerosol causes reduced effects on lung tissue compared with cigarette smoke.

    PubMed

    Sewer, Alain; Kogel, Ulrike; Talikka, Marja; Wong, Ee Tsin; Martin, Florian; Xiang, Yang; Guedj, Emmanuel; Ivanov, Nikolai V; Hoeng, Julia; Peitsch, Manuel C

    2016-11-30

    Modified-risk tobacco products (MRTP) are designed to reduce the individual risk of tobacco-related disease as well as population harm compared to smoking cigarettes. Experimental proof of their benefit needs to be provided at multiple levels in research fields. Here, we examined microRNA (miRNA) levels in the lungs of rats exposed to a candidate modified-risk tobacco product, the Tobacco Heating System 2.2 (THS2.2) in a 90-day OECD TG-413 inhalation study. Our aim was to assess the miRNA response to THS2.2 aerosol compared with the response to combustible cigarettes (CC) smoke from the reference cigarette 3R4F. CC smoke exposure, but not THS2.2 aerosol exposure, caused global miRNA downregulation, which may be explained by the interference of CC smoke constituents with the miRNA processing machinery. Upregulation of specific miRNA species, such as miR-146a/b and miR-182, indicated that they are causal elements in the inflammatory response in CC-exposed lungs, but they were reduced after THS2.2 aerosol exposure. Transforming transcriptomic data into protein activity based on corresponding downstream gene expression, we identified potential mechanisms for miR-146a/b and miR-182 that were activated by CC smoke but not by THS2.2 aerosol and possibly involved in the regulation of those miRNAs. The inclusion of miRNA profiling in systems toxicology approaches increases the mechanistic understanding of the complex exposure responses.

  10. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  11. Options for Dealing With Rodent Infestations

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    After removing sources of food and water and shelter, your next options are rodent traps and poisons (rodenticides). Rat or mouse traps may be lethal (snap traps) or live (cage-type), and poison baits must be placed in tamper-resistant bait stations.

  12. Rodent Depredation -- A Direct Seeding Problem

    Treesearch

    O. Gordon Langdon; William P. LeGrande

    1965-01-01

    Foresters have known for a long time that seed-eating rodents, birds, and insects must be circumvented before direct seeding can be successful. Advances have been made in reducing losses in the direct seeding of pine by the use of chemical repellents, and in several areas of the South recommended concentrations have been satisfactory. Direct seeding is now on an...

  13. Object Recognition Memory and the Rodent Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadbent, Nicola J.; Gaskin, Stephane; Squire, Larry R.; Clark, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    In rodents, the novel object recognition task (NOR) has become a benchmark task for assessing recognition memory. Yet, despite its widespread use, a consensus has not developed about which brain structures are important for task performance. We assessed both the anterograde and retrograde effects of hippocampal lesions on performance in the NOR…

  14. Conjunctival lymphoid follicles in new world rodents.

    PubMed

    Astley, Roger A; Chodosh, James; Caire, William; Wilson, Gregory M

    2007-09-01

    We report for the first time, the detection of conjunctival lymphoid follicles (CLF) in the eyes of New World rodents. CLF were found in 7 of the 15 species examined, 6 of the 10 genera, and in at least one individual in four families of rodents. These follicles are dense collections of leukocytes in the conjunctival substantia propria with a thinned overlying epithelium lacking in goblet cells. Although the precise location of CLF within the conjunctiva varied from species to species, all CLF were found in the fornix of the conjunctival sac. In general, size and complexity of CLF varied with the size of the eye; the larger the eye, the larger and more complex the CLF. Our findings also reveal that some species of New World rodents, like the majority of Old World rodents examined in this and previous studies might lack CLF. However, until larger samples are examined, this is difficult to state with certainty. Consequently, the presence/absence of CLF at this point might not be informative for phylogenetic comparisons. Our findings also suggest the deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, might serve as a useful model species for studying ocular infections and immunology of the eye.

  15. Rodent Cage Allocation | Center for Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    CCR Animal Cage Allocation Principles - 2017 Rodent cage allocations for each principal investigator (PI) are based on: Animal study design and justification BSC Recommendations Package for new tenure track or tenured investigator Average cage usage in previous fiscal years Note: The allocations largely reflect PI requirements for standard mouse caging.

  16. Methods for measuring populations of arboreal rodents.

    Treesearch

    Andrew B. Carey; Brian L. Biswell; Joseph W. Witt

    1991-01-01

    Three arboreal rodents are sensitive indicators of forest ecosystem function in the Pacific Northwest. The northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) is mycophagous, cavity-nesting, and a major prey of the spotted owl (Strix occidentalis). The red tree vole (Phenacomys longicaudus) is restricted to trees...

  17. Seed preferences by rodents in the agri-environment and implications for biological weed control.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Christina; Türke, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Post-dispersal seed predation and endozoochorous seed dispersal are two antagonistic processes in relation to plant recruitment, but rely on similar preconditions such as feeding behavior of seed consumers and seed traits. In agricultural landscapes, rodents are considered important seed predators, thereby potentially providing regulating ecosystem services in terms of biological weed control. However, their potential to disperse seeds endozoochorously is largely unknown. We exposed seeds of arable plant species with different seed traits (seed weight, nutrient content) and different Red List status in an experimental rye field and assessed seed removal by rodents. In a complementary laboratory experiment, consumption rates, feeding preferences, and potential endozoochory by two vole species (Microtus arvalis and Myodes glareolus) were tested. Seed consumption by rodents after 24 h was 35% in the field and 90% in the laboratory. Both vole species preferred nutrient-rich over nutrient-poor seeds and M. glareolus further preferred light over heavy seeds and seeds of common over those of endangered plants. Endozoochory by voles could be neglected for all tested plant species as no seeds germinated, and only few intact seeds could be retrieved from feces. Synthesis and applications. Our results suggest that voles can provide regulating services in agricultural landscapes by depleting the seed shadow of weeds, rather than facilitating plant recruitment by endozoochory. In the laboratory, endangered arable plants were less preferred by voles than noxious weeds, and thus, our results provide implications for seed choice in restoration approaches. However, other factors such as seed and predator densities need to be taken into account to reliably predict the impact of rodents on the seed fate of arable plants.

  18. The comparative effectiveness of rodents and dung beetles as local seed dispersers in Mediterranean oak forests.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M; Verdú, José R; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  19. Post-dispersal predation and scatterhoarding of Dipteryx panamensis (Papilionaceae) seeds by rodents in Panama.

    PubMed

    Forget, Pierre-Michel

    1993-05-01

    In tropical rain forests of Central America, the canopy tree Dipteryx panamensis (Papilionaceae) fruits when overall fruit biomass is low for mammals. Flying and arboreal consumers feed on D. panamensis and drop seeds under the parent or disperse them farther away. Seeds on the ground attract many vertebrate seed-eaters, some of them potential secondary seed dispersers. The fate of seeds artificially distributed to simulate bat dispersal was studied in relation to fruitfall periodicity and the visiting frequency of diurnal rodents at Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama. The frequency of visits by agoutis is very high at the beginning of fruitfall, but in the area close (<50 m) to fruiting trees (Dipteryx-rich area) it declines throughout fruiting, whereas it remains unchanged farther (>50 m) away (Dipteryx-poor and Gustavia-rich area). Squirrels were usually observed in the Dipteryx-rich area. Along with intense post-dispersal seed predation by rodents in the Dipteryx-rich area, a significant proportion of seeds were cached by rodents in the Dipteryx-poor area. Post-dispersal seed predation rate was inversely related to hoarding rate. A significantly greater proportion of seeds was cached in March, especially more than 100 m from the nearest fruiting tree. This correlates with the mid-fruiting period, i.e. during the height of D. panamensis fruiting, when rodents seem to be temporarily satiated with the food supply at parent trees. Hoarding remained high toward April, i.e. late in the fruiting season of D. panamensis. Low survival of scatterhoarded seeds suggests that the alternative food supply over the animal's home-ranges in May-June 1990 was too low to promote survival of cached seeds. Seedlings are assumed to establish in the less-used area of the rodents' home-range when overall food supply is sufficient to satiate post-dispersal predators.

  20. Incorporating insect infestation into rodent seed dispersal: better if the larva is still inside.

    PubMed

    Perea, Ramón; López, David; San Miguel, Alfonso; Gil, Luis

    2012-11-01

    Many nutritious seeds are commonly attacked by insects which feed on the seed reserves. However, studies have not fully explored the ecological implications of insect infestation in animal seed dispersal and subsequent plant regeneration. Our question is whether the fact that an infested seed still contains the larva or not might increase/decrease the probability of being successfully dispersed by animals. This study examines the effects of weevil-infested seeds on the natural regeneration of a rodent-dispersed oak species. Rodents showed a high ability to discriminate between sound and infested seeds, even when the larva was still inside. As a result, rodents caused differential seed dispersal for sound and infested seeds by modifying multiple aspects of the dispersal process. We found that, for the same seed weight, infested acorns with a larva still inside can contribute to natural regeneration (0.7 % of seedlings in next summer), although in comparison to sound acorns they suffered higher predation rates by rodents (both partial and complete), were removed later from the ground (less preferred), cached less frequently, and dispersed to shorter distances, which reduced their potential to colonize new environments. However, infested seeds with exit holes are notably less preferred by rodents and, when dispersed, they are mostly deposited on the litter (uncached) with shorter dispersal distances and lower emergence success. Thus, the probability that larval-holed acorns will produce viable seedlings is extremely low (null in this study). Whether infested seeds still contain a larva or not clearly determines the probability of being successfully dispersed. Premature seed drop prolongs the presence of the larva inside the acorn after seed drop, and could be a possible mechanism to allow dispersal of infested seeds.

  1. The Comparative Effectiveness of Rodents and Dung Beetles as Local Seed Dispersers in Mediterranean Oak Forests

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Ramos, Ignacio M.; Verdú, José R.; Numa, Catherine; Marañón, Teodoro; Lobo, Jorge M.

    2013-01-01

    The process of seed dispersal of many animal-dispersed plants is frequently mediated by a small set of biotic agents. However, the contribution that each of these dispersers makes to the overall recruitment may differ largely, with important ecological and management implications for the population viability and dynamics of the species implied in these interactions. In this paper, we compared the relative contribution of two local guilds of scatter-hoarding animals with contrasting metabolic requirements and foraging behaviours (rodents and dung beetles) to the overall recruitment of two Quercus species co-occurring in the forests of southern Spain. For this purpose, we considered not only the quantity of dispersed seeds but also the quality of the seed dispersal process. The suitability for recruitment of the microhabitats where the seeds were deposited was evaluated in a multi-stage demographic approach. The highest rates of seed handling and predation occurred in those microhabitats located under shrubs, mostly due to the foraging activity of rodents. However, the probability of a seed being successfully cached was higher in microhabitats located beneath a tree canopy as a result of the feeding behaviour of beetles. Rodents and beetles showed remarkable differences in their effectiveness as local acorn dispersers. Quantitatively, rodents were much more important than beetles because they dispersed the vast majority of acorns. However, they were qualitatively less effective because they consumed a high proportion of them (over 95%), and seeds were mostly dispersed under shrubs, a less suitable microhabitat for short-term recruitment of the two oak species. Our findings demonstrate that certain species of dung beetles (such as Thorectes lusitanicus), despite being quantitatively less important than rodents, can act as effective local seed dispersers of Mediterranean oak species. Changes in the abundance of beetle populations could thus have profound implications

  2. Reconsidering the effects of tannin on seed dispersal by rodents: evidence from enclosure and field experiments with artificial seeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingming; Steele, Michael A; Yi, Xianfeng

    2013-11-01

    The question of how tannin affects feeding and hoarding preferences of rodents still remains poorly understood, in part, because it is difficult to control for other seed traits when considering the sole effect of tannin. Here, we constructed a series of artificial 'seeds' with different tannin levels, made from wheat flour, peanut powder and hydrolysable tannins, to determine the direct effects of tannin on both feeding and hoarding preferences. We first presented 'seeds' to individual rodents of two species (Tamias sibiricus and Apodemus peninsulae) confined in semi-natural enclosures and then monitored patterns of seed dispersal and consumption by free-ranging animals in a temperate forest in the Xiaoxing'an Mountains, Heilongjiang Province of China. Our results showed that small rodents displayed a significant preference for low-tannin 'seeds' for both consumption and caching in both captive and field experiments. Moreover, our two-year study consistently showed that tannin concentration was significantly and negatively correlated with the number of cached 'seeds' at both the individual and population levels. Seed size, compared with tannin concentrations, appeared to have little effect on dispersal distances and the number of 'seeds' cached. Low-tannin 'seeds' tended to be dispersed greater distances by rodents in the field than those with higher levels of tannin. These results failed to support those of previous reports indicating that acorns containing higher tannins are more likely to be cached by food hoarding animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Arenavirus Diversity and Phylogeography of Mastomys natalensis Rodents, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Obadare, Adeoba; Oyeyiola, Akinlabi; Igbokwe, Joseph; Fasogbon, Ayobami; Igbahenah, Felix; Ortsega, Daniel; Asogun, Danny; Umeh, Prince; Vakkai, Innocent; Abejegah, Chukwuyem; Pahlman, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Mastomys natalensis rodents are natural hosts for Lassa virus (LASV). Detection of LASV in 2 mitochondrial phylogroups of the rodent near the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria underlines the potential for LASV emergence in fresh phylogroups of this rodent. A Mobala-like sequence was also detected in eastern Nigeria. PMID:26982388

  4. Arenavirus Diversity and Phylogeography of Mastomys natalensis Rodents, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Olayemi, Ayodeji; Obadare, Adeoba; Oyeyiola, Akinlabi; Igbokwe, Joseph; Fasogbon, Ayobami; Igbahenah, Felix; Ortsega, Daniel; Asogun, Danny; Umeh, Prince; Vakkai, Innocent; Abejegah, Chukwuyem; Pahlman, Meike; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Günther, Stephan; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth

    2016-04-01

    Mastomys natalensis rodents are natural hosts for Lassa virus (LASV). Detection of LASV in 2 mitochondrial phylogroups of the rodent near the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria underlines the potential for LASV emergence in fresh phylogroups of this rodent. A Mobala-like sequence was also detected in eastern Nigeria.

  5. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  6. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  7. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  8. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  9. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  10. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  11. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  12. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  13. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  14. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  15. 7 CFR 58.247 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.247 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.247 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control program...

  16. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  17. 7 CFR 58.147 - Insect and rodent control program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Insect and rodent control program. 58.147 Section 58... Service 1 Operations and Operating Procedures § 58.147 Insect and rodent control program. In addition to... made responsible for the performance of a regularly scheduled insect and rodent control...

  18. 20 CFR 654.415 - Insect and rodent control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Insect and rodent control. 654.415 Section 654.415 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SPECIAL... Insect and rodent control. Housing and facilities shall be free of insects, rodents, and other vermin....

  19. Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): A flexible open-source device for measuring feeding behavior.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Katrina P; O'Neal, Timothy J; Bolonduro, Olurotimi A; White, Elecia; Kravitz, Alexxai V

    2016-07-15

    Measuring food intake in rodents is a conceptually simple yet labor-intensive and temporally-imprecise task. Most commonly, food is weighed manually, with an interval of hours or days between measurements. Commercial feeding monitors are excellent, but are costly and require specialized caging and equipment. We have developed the Feeding Experimentation Device (FED): a low-cost, open-source, home cage-compatible feeding system. FED utilizes an Arduino microcontroller and open-source software and hardware. FED dispenses a single food pellet into a food well where it is monitored by an infrared beam. When the mouse removes the pellet, FED logs the timestamp to a secure digital (SD) card and dispenses a new pellet into the well. Post-hoc analyses of pellet retrieval timestamps reveal high-resolution details about feeding behavior. FED is capable of accurately measuring food intake, identifying discrete trends during light and dark-cycle feeding. Additionally, we show the utility of FED for measuring increases in feeding resulting from optogenetic stimulation of agouti-related peptide neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. With a cost of ∼$350 per device, FED is >10× cheaper than commercially available feeding systems. FED is also self-contained, battery powered, and designed to be placed in standard colony rack cages, allowing for monitoring of true home cage feeding behavior. Moreover, FED is highly adaptable and can be synchronized with emerging techniques in neuroscience, such as optogenetics, as we demonstrate here. FED allows for accurate, precise monitoring of feeding behavior in a home cage setting. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. EPA OIG's RSS Feed

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA OIG's RSS Feed - The EPA OIG offers an XML news feed (RSS) covering all of our publications and news. To use our pre-made feed, click on the link below, copy the URL, then paste it into your prefferred feed reader.

  1. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents

    SciTech Connect

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton R.; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. -- Highlights: ► Mice and rats were dosed with black cohosh extract for 90 days starting at weaning. ► Hematological changes were consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia. ► Peripheral micronucleated red blood cell frequencies increased. ► Puberty was delayed 2.9 days in rats. ► No estrogenic/anti-estrogenic activity was seen in the uterotrophic assay.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of paramyxoviruses in Zambian wild rodents and shrews.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Michihito; Muleya, Walter; Ishii, Akihiro; Orba, Yasuko; Hang'ombe, Bernard M; Mweene, Aaron S; Moonga, Ladslav; Thomas, Yuka; Kimura, Takashi; Sawa, Hirofumi

    2014-02-01

    Rodents and shrews are known to harbour various viruses. Paramyxoviruses have been isolated from Asian and Australian rodents, but little is known about them in African rodents. Recently, previously unknown paramyxovirus sequences were found in South African rodents. To date, there have been no reports related to the presence and prevalence of paramyxoviruses in shrews. We found a high prevalence of paramyxoviruses in wild rodents and shrews from Zambia. Semi-nested reverse transcription-PCR assays were used to detect paramyxovirus RNA in 21 % (96/462) of specimens analysed. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that these viruses were novel paramyxoviruses and could be classified as morbillivirus- and henipavirus-related viruses, and previously identified rodent paramyxovirus-related viruses. Our findings suggest the circulation of previously unknown paramyxoviruses in African rodents and shrews, and provide new information regarding the geographical distribution and genetic diversity of paramyxoviruses.

  3. Gait analysis methods for rodent models of osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Brittany Y; Kloefkorn, Heidi E; Allen, Kyle D

    2014-10-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models.

  4. Gait Analysis Methods for Rodent Models of Osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Brittany Y.; Kloefkorn, Heidi E.; Allen, Kyle D.

    2014-01-01

    Patients with osteoarthritis (OA) primarily seek treatment due to pain and disability, yet the primary endpoints for rodent OA models tend to be histological measures of joint destruction. The discrepancy between clinical and preclinical evaluations is problematic, given that radiographic evidence of OA in humans does not always correlate to the severity of patient-reported symptoms. Recent advances in behavioral analyses have provided new methods to evaluate disease sequelae in rodents. Of particular relevance to rodent OA models are methods to assess rodent gait. While obvious differences exist between quadrupedal and bipedal gait sequences, the gait abnormalities seen in humans and in rodent OA models reflect similar compensatory behaviors that protect an injured limb from loading. The purpose of this review is to describe these compensations and current methods used to assess rodent gait characteristics, while detailing important considerations for the selection of gait analysis methods in rodent OA models. PMID:25160712

  5. Bats and Rodents Shape Mammalian Retroviral Phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jie; Tachedjian, Gilda; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-11-09

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. In this study, we target high quality Pol sequences from 7,994 Class I and 8,119 Class II ERVs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. By analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined ERV clades, we corroborate the previously published observation that rodents are more competent as originators of mammalian retroviruses and reveal that bats are more capable of receiving retroviruses from non-bat mammalian origins. The powerful retroviral hosting ability of bats is further supported by a detailed analysis revealing that the novel bat gammaretrovirus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retrovirus, likely originated from tree shrews. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of host-shaped mammalian retroviral evolution in general.

  6. Rodent models of TDP-43: Recent advances

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, William; Jeong, Yun Ha; Lin, Sophie; Ling, Jonathan; Price, Donald L.; Chiang, Po-Min; Wong, Philip C.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, missense mutations in the gene TARDBP encoding TDP-43 have been linked to familial ALS. The discovery of genes encoding these RNA binding proteins, such as TDP-43 and FUS/TLS, raised the notion that altered RNA metabolism is a major factor underlying the pathogenesis of ALS. To begin to unravel how mutations in TDP-43 cause dysfunction and death of motor neurons, investigators have employed both gain- and loss-of-function studies in rodent model systems. Here, we will summarize major findings from the initial sets of TDP-43 transgenic and knockout rodent models, identify their limitations, and point to future directions toward clarification of disease mechanism(s) and testing of therapeutic strategies that ultimately may lead to novel therapy for this devastating disease. PMID:22608070

  7. REVIEW: GENETIC MANIPULATION OF THE RODENT PLACENTA

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Stephen J.; Rumi, M.A. Karim; Soares, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The principal role of the placenta is the maintenance of pregnancy and promotion of fetal growth and viability. The use of transgenic rodents has greatly enhanced our understanding of placental development and function. However, embryonic lethality is often a confounding variable in determining whether a genetic modification adversely affected placental development. In these cases, it is beneficial to specifically manipulate the placental genome. The purpose of this review is to summarize available methodologies for specific genetic modification of the rodent placenta. By restricting genetic alterations to the trophoblast lineage, it is possible to gain a deeper understanding of placental development that perhaps will lead to gene-targeted therapies to rescue irregular placentation in transgenic animals or in women at high-risk for placenta-associated pregnancy complications. PMID:21256588

  8. Learning in the Rodent Motor Cortex.

    PubMed

    Peters, Andrew J; Liu, Haixin; Komiyama, Takaki

    2017-03-31

    The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning. This synaptic reorganization translates into changes in spiking activity, which appear to result in a modification and refinement of the relationship between motor cortical activity and movement. This review presents the progress that has been made using rodents to establish the motor cortex as an adaptive structure that supports motor learning. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 40 is July 8, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  9. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, Agnes M.; Lagakos, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male–female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:17539183

  10. Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Herzberg, A M; Lagakos, S W

    1992-01-01

    Cage allocation designs for rodent carcinogenicity experiments are discussed and presented with the goal of avoiding dosage group biases related to cage location. Considerations in selecting a cage design are first discussed in general terms. Specific designs are presented for use in experiments involving three, four, and five dose groups and with one, four, and five rodents per cage. Priorities for balancing treatment groups include horizontal position on shelf and shelf of rack, nearest neighbor balance, and male-female balance. It is proposed that these balance criteria be considered together with practical issues, such as the ability to accurately conform to a design and to determine a sensible and efficient design for each experiment. PMID:1295494

  11. Rodent reservoirs of future zoonotic diseases.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Schmidt, John Paul; Bowden, Sarah E; Drake, John M

    2015-06-02

    The increasing frequency of zoonotic disease events underscores a need to develop forecasting tools toward a more preemptive approach to outbreak investigation. We apply machine learning to data describing the traits and zoonotic pathogen diversity of the most speciose group of mammals, the rodents, which also comprise a disproportionate number of zoonotic disease reservoirs. Our models predict reservoir status in this group with over 90% accuracy, identifying species with high probabilities of harboring undiscovered zoonotic pathogens based on trait profiles that may serve as rules of thumb to distinguish reservoirs from nonreservoir species. Key predictors of zoonotic reservoirs include biogeographical properties, such as range size, as well as intrinsic host traits associated with lifetime reproductive output. Predicted hotspots of novel rodent reservoir diversity occur in the Middle East and Central Asia and the Midwestern United States.

  12. Genetic detection of hantaviruses in rodents, Albania.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna; Rogozi, Elton; Velo, Enkelejda; Papadimitriou, Evangelia; Bino, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    In order to have a first insight into the epidemiology of hantaviruses in Albania, 263 small mammals (248 rodents, 15 insectivores) were captured in 352 locations in 29 districts and tested for hantavirus infection. Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) was detected in 10 of 148 (6.7%) Apodemus flavicollis rodents. DOBV-positive A. flavicollis were detected in six districts (Diber, Korce, Kolonje, Librazhd, Pogradec, and Vlore). The obtained nucleotide sequences were highly similar to each other and to DOBV sequences from northwestern Greece. Understanding the epidemiology of hantaviruses and identifying the endemic foci enables the public health strategies to minimize the risk of human infection. J. Med. Virol. 88:1309-1313, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Anaplasma phagocytophilum from Rodents and Sheep, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Lin; Jiang, Jia-Fu; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Liu, Yun-Xi; Wu, Xiao-Ming; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Zhang, Pan-He; Bian, Chang-Ling; Dumler, J. Stephen; Yang, Hong; Zuo, Shu-Qing; Chu, Chen-Yi; Liu, Wei; Richardus, Jan H.; Habbema, J. Dik F.

    2010-01-01

    To characterize the strains of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in wild and domestic animals in China, we isolated the organism from rodents and sheep in northeastern China. We isolated 3 strains (2 from rodents and 1 from sick sheep) through propagation in BALB/c mice and then cell culture in HL60 cells. The 3 isolates were identified by Wright-Giemsa staining, immunofluorescence, and electronic microscopy and were characterized by sequence analyses of the 16S rRNA gene, partial citrate synthase gene, major surface protein 4 gene, and heat shock protein gene. The multiple sequences of the 3 isolates were identical to each other but different from all known strains from other countries. The public health and veterinary relevance of the isolates deserves further investigation. PMID:20409364

  14. MRI of neuronal plasticity in rodent models.

    PubMed

    Pelled, Galit

    2011-01-01

    Modifications in the behavior and architecture of neuronal networks are well documented to occur in association with learning and memory, as well as following injury. These plasticity mechanisms are crucial to ensure adequate processing of stimuli, and they also dictate the degree of recovery following peripheral or central nervous system injury. Nevertheless, the underlying neuronal mechanisms that determine the degree of plasticity of neuronal pathways are not fully understood. Recent developments in animal-dedicated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanners and related hardware afford a high spatial and temporal resolution, making functional MRI and manganese-enhanced MRI emerging tools for studying reorganization of neuronal pathways in rodent models. Many of the observed changes in neuronal functions in rodent's brains following injury discussed here agree with clinical human fMRI findings. This demonstrates that animal model imaging can have a significant clinical impact in the neuronal plasticity and rehabilitation arenas.

  15. Leptospira interrogans in Rodents from Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Plata-Luis, Josué; Foronda, Pilar; Martín-Alonso, Aaron; Feliu, Carlos; Alves, Joana; Gil, Horacio; Valladares, Basilio

    2016-11-01

    Leptospirosis is an important worldwide zoonotic disease that can infect both animals and humans. In most cases, leptospirosis is a nonspecific self-limiting illness, but some patients can develop a severe form with a high mortality. This study was carried out in Santiago Island, Cape Verde, in 2012-2013. A total of 62 wild rodents (Rattus rattus and Mus domesticus) were analyzed. The lipL32 gene, present only in pathogenic Leptospira spp., was amplified by PCR, and 16 samples were positive (25.8%). In both rodent species, Leptospira interrogans was identified. The results show the presence of pathogenic Leptospira in the three localities analyzed in Santiago. The presence of L. interrogans demonstrates a serious health risk for the population, since this species has been associated with the most severe form of leptospirosis, the Weil's disease in humans, a severe infection with jaundice, renal failure, and hemorrhage.

  16. Bats and Rodents Shape Mammalian Retroviral Phylogeny

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Jie; Tachedjian, Gilda; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) represent past retroviral infections and accordingly can provide an ideal framework to infer virus-host interaction over their evolutionary history. In this study, we target high quality Pol sequences from 7,994 Class I and 8,119 Class II ERVs from 69 mammalian genomes and surprisingly find that retroviruses harbored by bats and rodents combined occupy the major phylogenetic diversity of both classes. By analyzing transmission patterns of 30 well-defined ERV clades, we corroborate the previously published observation that rodents are more competent as originators of mammalian retroviruses and reveal that bats are more capable of receiving retroviruses from non-bat mammalian origins. The powerful retroviral hosting ability of bats is further supported by a detailed analysis revealing that the novel bat gammaretrovirus, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum retrovirus, likely originated from tree shrews. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of host-shaped mammalian retroviral evolution in general. PMID:26548564

  17. A systematic review of rodent pest research in Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming systems: Are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed

    Swanepoel, Lourens H; Swanepoel, Corrie M; Brown, Peter R; Eiseb, Seth J; Goodman, Steven M; Keith, Mark; Kirsten, Frikkie; Leirs, Herwig; Mahlaba, Themb'alilahlwa A M; Makundi, Rhodes H; Malebane, Phanuel; von Maltitz, Emil F; Massawe, Apia W; Monadjem, Ara; Mulungu, Loth S; Singleton, Grant R; Taylor, Peter J; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Belmain, Steven R

    2017-01-01

    Rodent pests are especially problematic in terms of agriculture and public health since they can inflict considerable economic damage associated with their abundance, diversity, generalist feeding habits and high reproductive rates. To quantify rodent pest impacts and identify trends in rodent pest research impacting on small-holder agriculture in the Afro-Malagasy region we did a systematic review of research outputs from 1910 to 2015, by developing an a priori defined set of criteria to allow for replication of the review process. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We reviewed 162 publications, and while rodent pest research was spatially distributed across Africa (32 countries, including Madagascar), there was a disparity in number of studies per country with research biased towards four countries (Tanzania [25%], Nigeria [9%], Ethiopia [9%], Kenya [8%]) accounting for 51% of all rodent pest research in the Afro-Malagasy region. There was a disparity in the research themes addressed by Tanzanian publications compared to publications from the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region where research in Tanzania had a much more applied focus (50%) compared to a more basic research approach (92%) in the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region. We found that pest rodents have a significant negative effect on the Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming communities. Crop losses varied between cropping stages, storage and crops and the highest losses occurred during early cropping stages (46% median loss during seedling stage) and the mature stage (15% median loss). There was a scarcity of studies investigating the effectiveness of various management actions on rodent pest damage and population abundance. Our analysis highlights that there are inadequate empirical studies focused on developing sustainable control methods for rodent pests and rodent pests in the Africa-Malagasy context is generally ignored as a research topic.

  18. A systematic review of rodent pest research in Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming systems: Are we asking the right questions?

    PubMed Central

    Swanepoel, Corrie M.; Brown, Peter R.; Eiseb, Seth J.; Goodman, Steven M.; Keith, Mark; Kirsten, Frikkie; Leirs, Herwig; Mahlaba, Themb’alilahlwa A. M.; Makundi, Rhodes H.; Malebane, Phanuel; von Maltitz, Emil F.; Massawe, Apia W.; Monadjem, Ara; Mulungu, Loth S.; Singleton, Grant R.; Taylor, Peter J.; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Belmain, Steven R.

    2017-01-01

    Rodent pests are especially problematic in terms of agriculture and public health since they can inflict considerable economic damage associated with their abundance, diversity, generalist feeding habits and high reproductive rates. To quantify rodent pest impacts and identify trends in rodent pest research impacting on small-holder agriculture in the Afro-Malagasy region we did a systematic review of research outputs from 1910 to 2015, by developing an a priori defined set of criteria to allow for replication of the review process. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We reviewed 162 publications, and while rodent pest research was spatially distributed across Africa (32 countries, including Madagascar), there was a disparity in number of studies per country with research biased towards four countries (Tanzania [25%], Nigeria [9%], Ethiopia [9%], Kenya [8%]) accounting for 51% of all rodent pest research in the Afro-Malagasy region. There was a disparity in the research themes addressed by Tanzanian publications compared to publications from the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region where research in Tanzania had a much more applied focus (50%) compared to a more basic research approach (92%) in the rest of the Afro-Malagasy region. We found that pest rodents have a significant negative effect on the Afro-Malagasy small-holder farming communities. Crop losses varied between cropping stages, storage and crops and the highest losses occurred during early cropping stages (46% median loss during seedling stage) and the mature stage (15% median loss). There was a scarcity of studies investigating the effectiveness of various management actions on rodent pest damage and population abundance. Our analysis highlights that there are inadequate empirical studies focused on developing sustainable control methods for rodent pests and rodent pests in the Africa-Malagasy context is generally ignored as a research topic. PMID

  19. Chemotherapy of Rodent Malaria. Part 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-01

    50,000) 88 3.4 Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in Anopheles stephensi. Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses (CPV) are identified by the production of...microsporidia or viruses , the presence of CPV was detected. Since this virus interferes radically with the transmission of rodent malaria, it was...80 28. SPN strain 83 29. P.y.niqeriensis NIG strain 86 30. P.y.yoelii 17X strain 87 3.4 Cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus in A.stephensi 89 4

  20. Evidence for Novel Hepaciviruses in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Jan Felix; Corman, Victor Max; Müller, Marcel Alexander; Lukashev, Alexander N.; Gmyl, Anatoly; Coutard, Bruno; Adam, Alexander; Ritz, Daniel; Leijten, Lonneke M.; van Riel, Debby; Kallies, Rene; Klose, Stefan M.; Gloza-Rausch, Florian; Binger, Tabea; Annan, Augustina; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Oppong, Samuel; Bourgarel, Mathieu; Rupp, Daniel; Hoffmann, Bernd; Schlegel, Mathias; Kümmerer, Beate M.; Krüger, Detlev H.; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas; Setién, Alvaro Aguilar; Cottontail, Veronika M.; Hemachudha, Thiravat; Wacharapluesadee, Supaporn; Osterrieder, Klaus; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Matthee, Sonja; Beer, Martin; Kuiken, Thijs; Reusken, Chantal; Leroy, Eric M.; Ulrich, Rainer G.; Drosten, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is among the most relevant causes of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Research is complicated by a lack of accessible small animal models. The systematic investigation of viruses of small mammals could guide efforts to establish such models, while providing insight into viral evolutionary biology. We have assembled the so-far largest collection of small-mammal samples from around the world, qualified to be screened for bloodborne viruses, including sera and organs from 4,770 rodents (41 species); and sera from 2,939 bats (51 species). Three highly divergent rodent hepacivirus clades were detected in 27 (1.8%) of 1,465 European bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and 10 (1.9%) of 518 South African four-striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio). Bats showed anti-HCV immunoblot reactivities but no virus detection, although the genetic relatedness suggested by the serologic results should have enabled RNA detection using the broadly reactive PCR assays developed for this study. 210 horses and 858 cats and dogs were tested, yielding further horse-associated hepaciviruses but none in dogs or cats. The rodent viruses were equidistant to HCV, exceeding by far the diversity of HCV and the canine/equine hepaciviruses taken together. Five full genomes were sequenced, representing all viral lineages. Salient genome features and distance criteria supported classification of all viruses as hepaciviruses. Quantitative RT-PCR, RNA in-situ hybridisation, and histopathology suggested hepatic tropism with liver inflammation resembling hepatitis C. Recombinant serology for two distinct hepacivirus lineages in 97 bank voles identified seroprevalence rates of 8.3 and 12.4%, respectively. Antibodies in bank vole sera neither cross-reacted with HCV, nor the heterologous bank vole hepacivirus. Co-occurrence of RNA and antibodies was found in 3 of 57 PCR-positive bank vole sera (5.3%). Our data enable new hypotheses regarding HCV evolution and encourage efforts to

  1. Spontaneous Type 2 Diabetic Rodent Models

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang-wei; Sun, Guang-dong; Sun, Jing; Liu, Shu-jun; Wang, Ji; Xu, Xiao-hong; Miao, Li-ning

    2013-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus, especially type 2 diabetes (T2DM), is one of the most common chronic diseases and continues to increase in numbers with large proportion of health care budget being used. Many animal models have been established in order to investigate the mechanisms and pathophysiologic progress of T2DM and find effective treatments for its complications. On the basis of their strains, features, advantages, and disadvantages, various types of animal models of T2DM can be divided into spontaneously diabetic models, artificially induced diabetic models, and transgenic/knockout diabetic models. Among these models, the spontaneous rodent models are used more frequently because many of them can closely describe the characteristic features of T2DM, especially obesity and insulin resistance. In this paper, we aim to investigate the current available spontaneous rodent models for T2DM with regard to their characteristic features, advantages, and disadvantages, and especially to describe appropriate selection and usefulness of different spontaneous rodent models in testing of various new antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23671868

  2. Geometric Morphometrics of Rodent Sperm Head Shape

    PubMed Central

    Varea Sánchez, María; Bastir, Markus; Roldan, Eduardo R. S.

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian spermatozoa, particularly those of rodent species, are extremely complex cells and differ greatly in form and dimensions. Thus, characterization of sperm size and, particularly, sperm shape represents a major challenge. No consensus exists on a method to objectively assess size and shape of spermatozoa. In this study we apply the principles of geometric morphometrics to analyze rodent sperm head morphology and compare them with two traditional morphometry methods, that is, measurements of linear dimensions and dimensions-derived parameters calculated using formulae employed in sperm morphometry assessments. Our results show that geometric morphometrics clearly identifies shape differences among rodent spermatozoa. It is also capable of discriminating between size and shape and to analyze these two variables separately. Thus, it provides an accurate method to assess sperm head shape. Furthermore, it can identify which sperm morphology traits differ between species, such as the protrusion or retraction of the base of the head, the orientation and relative position of the site of flagellum insertion, the degree of curvature of the hook, and other distinct anatomical features and appendices. We envisage that the use of geometric morphometrics may have a major impact on future studies focused on the characterization of sperm head formation, diversity of sperm head shape among species (and underlying evolutionary forces), the effects of reprotoxicants on changes in cell shape, and phenotyping of genetically-modified individuals. PMID:24312234

  3. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, F. Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  4. Repeated evolution of carnivory among Indo-Australian rodents.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Kevin C; Achmadi, Anang S; Esselstyn, Jacob A

    2016-03-01

    Convergent evolution, often observed in island archipelagos, provides compelling evidence for the importance of natural selection as a generator of species and ecological diversity. The Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA) is the world's largest island system and encompasses distinct biogeographic units, including the Asian (Sunda) and Australian (Sahul) continental shelves, which together bracket the oceanic archipelagos of the Philippines and Wallacea. Each of these biogeographic units houses numerous endemic rodents in the family Muridae. Carnivorous murids, that is those that feed on animals, have evolved independently in Sunda, Sulawesi (part of Wallacea), the Philippines, and Sahul, but the number of origins of carnivory among IAA murids is unknown. We conducted a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of carnivorous murids of the IAA, combined with estimates of ancestral states for broad diet categories (herbivore, omnivore, and carnivore) and geographic ranges. These analyses demonstrate that carnivory evolved independently four times after overwater colonization, including in situ origins on the Philippines, Sulawesi, and Sahul. In each biogeographic unit the origin of carnivory was followed by evolution of more specialized carnivorous ecomorphs such as vermivores, insectivores, and amphibious rats. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  5. PhenoWorld: a new paradigm to screen rodent behavior

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano-Carlos, M; Costa, P S; Russig, H; Sousa, N

    2014-01-01

    Modeling depression in animals has inherent complexities that are augmented by intrinsic difficulties to measure the characteristic features of the disorder. Herein, we describe the PhenoWorld (PhW), a new setting in which groups of six rats lived in an ethological enriched environment, and have their feeding, locomotor activity, sleeping and social behavior automatically monitored. A battery of emotional and cognitive tests was used to characterize the behavioral phenotype of animals living in the PhW and in standard conditions (in groups of six and two rats), after exposure to an unpredictable chronic mild stress paradigm (uCMS) and antidepressants. Data reveal that animals living in the PhW displayed similar, but more striking, behavioral differences when exposed to uCMS, such as increased behavioral despair shown in the forced swimming test, resting/sleep behavior disturbances and reduced social interactions. Moreover, several PhW-cage behaviors, such as spontaneous will to go for food or exercise in running wheels, proved to be sensitive indicators of depressive-like behavior. In summary, this new ethological enriched paradigm adds significant discriminative power to screen depressive-like behavior, in particularly rodent's hedonic behavior. PMID:26126181

  6. An Experimental Model for Resistance Exercise in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Humberto; Zanchi, Nelo Eidy; da Luz, Claudia Ribeiro; Chaves, Daniela Fojo Seixas; Lancha, Antonio Herbert

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an equipment and system of resistance exercise (RE), based on squat-type exercise for rodents, with control of training variables. We developed an operant conditioning system composed of sound, light and feeding devices that allowed optimized RE performance by the animal. With this system, it is not necessary to impose fasting or electric shock for the animal to perform the task proposed (muscle contraction). Furthermore, it is possible to perform muscle function tests in vivo within the context of the exercise proposed and control variables such as intensity, volume (sets and repetitions), and exercise session length, rest interval between sets and repetitions, and concentric strength. Based on the experiments conducted, we demonstrated that the model proposed is able to perform more specific control of other RE variables, especially rest interval between sets and repetitions, and encourages the animal to exercise through short-term energy restriction and “disturbing” stimulus that do not promote alterations in body weight. Therefore, despite experimental limitations, we believe that this RE apparatus is closer to the physiological context observed in humans. PMID:22496606

  7. Feeding underground: kinematics of feeding in caecilians.

    PubMed

    Herrel, Anthony; Measey, G John

    2012-11-01

    Caecilians are limbless amphibians that have evolved distinct cranial and postcranial specializations associated with a burrowing lifestyle. Observations on feeding behavior are rare and restricted to above-ground feeding in laboratory conditions. Here we report data on feeding in tunnels using both external video and X-ray recordings of caecilians feeding on invertebrate prey. Our data show feeding kinematics similar to those previously reported, including the pronounced neck bending observed during above-ground feeding. Our data illustrate, however, that caecilians may be much faster than previously suspected, with lunge speeds of up to 7 cm sec(-1). Although gape cycles are often slow (0.67 ± 0.29 sec), rapid jaw closure is observed during prey capture, with cycle times and jaw movement velocities similar to those observed in other terrestrial tetrapods. Finally, our data suggest that gape angles may be large (64.8 ± 18°) and that gape profiles are variable, often lacking distinct slow and fast opening and closing phases. These data illustrate the importance of recording naturalistic feeding behavior and shed light on how these animals are capable of capturing and processing prey in constrained underground environments. Additional data on species with divergent cranial morphologies would be needed to better understand the co-evolution between feeding, burrowing, and cranial design in caecilians.

  8. Poison-based commensal rodent control strategies in urban ecosystems: some evidence against sewer-baiting.

    PubMed

    Mughini Gras, Lapo; Patergnani, Matteo; Farina, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Sewers are historically considered the main reservoir for commensal rodents, posing threats to urban ecosystem health. Aboveground rodent signs are often assumed to give clues to high sewer infestation, which can chronically restock surface areas. Thus, current sewer-baiting programmes are mostly reactive, responding to increased surface infestation. Conversely, proactive sewer-baiting (regardless of infestation levels) is often disregarded because cost-effectiveness is not always addressed. We explored the extent to which the surface infestation is related to rodent feeding activity on sewer and surface baits by analysing a set of proactive bait records in Bologna city, Italy. Sewer bait intakes were significantly lower than surface ones, suggesting that proactive sewer-baiting is generally less effective. As surface infestation increased, probability of recording surface bait intake increased significantly but this was not reflected by increased sewer bait intake, suggesting that surface infestation is not always a reliable indicator of sewer infestation. This should discourage the use of reactive sewer-baiting as a routine strategy. Poison-based control programmes by themselves are scarcely predictable and strategically limited, and ideally they should be handled within an ecologically based integrated pest management approach for achieving satisfactory results.

  9. Rodents and risk in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam: seroprevalence of selected zoonotic viruses in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Van Cuong, Nguyen; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Vo Be, Hien; An, Nguyen Ngoc; Tue, Ngo Tri; Anh, Nguyet Lam; Anh, Pham Hong; Phuc, Nguyen The; Baker, Stephen; Voutilainen, Liina; Jääskeläinen, Anne; Huhtamo, Eili; Utriainen, Mira; Sironen, Tarja; Vaheri, Antti; Henttonen, Heikki; Vapalahti, Olli; Chaval, Yannick; Morand, Serge; Bryant, Juliet E

    2015-01-01

    In the Mekong Delta in southern Vietnam, rats are commonly traded in wet markets and sold live for food consumption. We investigated seroprevalence to selected groups of rodent-borne viruses among human populations with high levels of animal exposure and among co-located rodent populations. The indirect fluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to determine seropositivity to representative reference strains of hantaviruses (Dobrava virus [DOBV], Seoul virus [SEOV]), cowpox virus, arenaviruses (lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus [LCMV]), flaviviruses (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), and rodent parechoviruses (Ljungan virus), using sera from 245 humans living in Dong Thap Province and 275 rodents representing the five common rodent species sold in wet markets and present in peridomestic and farm settings. Combined seropositivity to DOBV and SEOV among the rodents and humans was 6.9% (19/275) and 3.7% (9/245), respectively; 1.1% (3/275) and 4.5% (11/245) to cowpox virus; 5.4% (15/275) and 47.3% (116/245) for TBEV; and exposure to Ljungan virus was 18.8% (46/245) in humans, but 0% in rodents. Very little seroreactivity was observed to LCMV in either rodents (1/275, 0.4%) or humans (2/245, 0.8%). Molecular screening of rodent liver tissues using consensus primers for flaviviruses did not yield any amplicons, whereas molecular screening of rodent lung tissues for hantavirus yielded one hantavirus sequence (SEOV). In summary, these results indicate low to moderate levels of endemic hantavirus circulation, possible circulation of a flavivirus in rodent reservoirs, and the first available data on human exposures to parechoviruses in Vietnam. Although the current evidence suggests only limited exposure of humans to known rodent-borne diseases, further research is warranted to assess public health implications of the rodent trade.

  10. Radionuclide transfer from feed to camel milk.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Al-Hamwi, A; Amin, Y; Safieh, M B; Zarkawi, M; Soukouti, A; Dayyoub, R; Voigt, G; Fesenko, S

    2014-06-01

    The transfer of (137)Cs, (85)Sr, (131)I, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U from feed to camel's milk was investigated in a pilot experiment with three lactating camels. For a period of 60 days, the animals were fed on spiked feed containing the studied radionuclides. They were subsequently returned to a contamination-free diet and monitored for another 90 days. The activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (85)Sr and (131)I in milk decreased with time and reached background levels after 20 days. Equilibrium transfer coefficients and biological half-lives were estimated and transfer coefficients were calculated as (8.1 ± 3.6) × 10(-4), (4.4 ± 1.6) × 10(-2), (7.8 ± 3.9) × 10(-4), (2.7 ± 3.5) × 10(-4), (1.8 ± 1.5) × 10(-4) and (7.0 ± 3.6) × 10(-3) d L(-1) for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, (210)Po, (210)Pb and (238)U, respectively. The biological half-lives were estimated to be 6.4, 4.2, 8.9, and 53.3 days for (85)Sr, (131)I, (137)Cs, and (238)U, respectively. Estimates of the half-lives were based on a one component model: it was found that the half-life values measured for artificial radionuclides were slightly shorter than those for natural radionuclides. The data obtained in the study are the first published experimental data on radionuclide transfer to camel milk.

  11. Leptospira and Rodents in Cambodia: Environmental Determinants of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Svilena; Herbreteau, Vincent; Blasdell, Kim; Chaval, Yannick; Buchy, Philippe; Guillard, Bertrand; Morand, Serge

    2012-01-01

    We investigated infection of rodents and shrews by Leptospira spp. in two localities of Cambodia (Veal Renh, Kaev Seima) and in four types of habitat (forests, non-flooded lands, lowland rain-fed paddy fields, houses) during the wet and the dry seasons. Habitat preference was common, and rodent and shrew species were found only in houses or in rain-fed paddy fields or in forests. Among 649 small mammals trapped belonging to 12 rodent species and 1 shrew species, 71 of 642 animals tested were carriers of Leptospira according to the 16S ribosomal RNA marker used. Rodent infection was higher in low-slope locations, corresponding to rain-fed paddy fields, especially in the rainy season and in Kaev Seima. Rodents (Rattus exulans) and shrews (Suncus murinus) inhabiting households showed significantly low levels of infections, whereas rodents living in and near to forests (shrubby wasteland, orchards) showed high levels of infection. PMID:22665613

  12. Bartonella infection in rodents and their flea ectoparasites: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Krasnov, Boris; Morick, Danny; Gottlieb, Yuval; Khokhlova, Irina S; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies worldwide have reported a high prevalence and a great diversity of Bartonella species, both in rodents and their flea parasites. The interaction among Bartonella, wild rodents, and fleas reflects a high degree of adaptation among these organisms. Vertical and horizontal efficient Bartonella transmission pathways within flea communities and from fleas to rodents have been documented in competence studies, suggesting that fleas are key players in the transmission of Bartonella to rodents. Exploration of the ecological traits of rodents and their fleas may shed light on the mechanisms used by bartonellae to become established in these organisms. The present review explores the interrelations within the Bartonella-rodent-flea system. The role of the latter two components is emphasized.

  13. Acorn mast drives long-term dynamics of rodent and songbird populations.

    PubMed

    Clotfelter, Ethan D; Pedersen, Amy B; Cranford, Jack A; Ram, Nilam; Snajdr, Eric A; Nolan, Val; Ketterson, Ellen D

    2007-12-01

    Resource pulses can have cascading effects on the dynamics of multiple trophic levels. Acorn mast is a pulsed resource in oak-dominated forests that has significant direct effects on acorn predators and indirect effects on their predators, prey, and pathogens. We evaluated changes in acorn mast, rodent abundance, raptor abundance, and reproductive success of a ground-nesting songbird over a 24-year period (1980-2004) in the southern Appalachian Mountains in an effort to determine the relationships among the four trophic levels. In particular, we examined the following: acorn mast from red oaks (Quercus rubra) and white oaks (Q. alba), abundance of white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus) and deer mice (P. maniculatus), population estimates of seven raptor species from three feeding guilds, and nest failure and number of juveniles of dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis). Finally, we recorded seasonal temperature and precipitation to determine the effects of weather on each trophic level. We found that weather patterns had delayed effects of up to 3 years on these trophic interactions. Variation in acorn mast, the keystone resource in this community, was explained by weather conditions as far back as 2 years before the mast event. Acorn mast, in turn, was a strongly positive predictor of rodent abundance the following year, whereas spring and summer temperature and raptor abundance negatively affected rodent abundance. Dark-eyed junco nests were more likely to fail in years in which there were more rodents and raptors. Nest failure rate was a strong predictor of the number of juvenile juncos caught at the end of the summer. Our results improve our understanding of the complex ecological interactions in oak-dominated forests by illustrating the importance of abiotic and biotic factors at different trophic levels.

  14. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  15. Feeding Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulton, Suzanne; Sexton, David

    1996-01-01

    Presents a digest of basic developmental information about children's feeding skills and behaviors, and gives general feeding recommendations. Also addresses requirements for feeding children with developmental disabilities and chronic medical conditions for which adapted environments or monitored nutrient intake may be necessary. (ET)

  16. Caloric Restriction Study Design Limitations in Rodent and Nonhuman Primate Studies.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Kelli L; Kaiser, Tamzin; Peaden, Robert; Anson, R Michael; de Cabo, Rafael; Mattison, Julie A

    2017-06-13

    For a century, we have known that caloric restriction influences aging in many species. However, only recently it was firmly established that the effect is not entirely dependent on the calories provided. Instead, rodent and nonhuman primate models have shown that the rate of aging depends on other variables, including the macronutrient composition of the diet, the amount of time spent in the restricted state, age of onset, the gender and genetic background, and the particular feeding protocol for the control group. The field is further complicated when attempts are made to compare studies across different laboratories, which seemingly contradict each other. Here, we argue that some of the contradictory findings are most likely due to methodological differences. This review focuses on the four methodological differences identified in a recent comparative report from the National Institute on Aging and University of Wisconsin nonhuman primate studies, namely feeding regimen, diet composition, age of onset, and genetics. These factors, that may be influencing the effects of a calorie restriction intervention, are highlighted in the rodent model to draw parallels and elucidate findings reported in a higher species, nonhuman primates. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Expectations for transgenic rodent cancer bioassay models.

    PubMed

    Ashby, J

    2001-01-01

    The results of the present study have advanced dramatically the database on transgenic mouse abbreviated carcinogenicity bioassay models. As such, it will provide a secure foundation for future evaluations of these assays and for their eventual validation as models for the prediction of possible human carcinogens. Based upon the results derived from the present study, it is suggested that 5 areas require discussion as a prelude to the further evaluation of existing models and the future evaluation of new models. First, there is the need to agree a standard list of calibration chemicals to be studied and to derive agreement on optimal bioassay group sizes, statistical methods, and exposure periods. Second, general agreement must be reached regarding the classes/types of known rodent carcinogens so that it is acceptable for the new models to find negative, by implication, those rodent carcinogens considered not to pose a carcinogenic hazard to humans. Third, current understanding of mechanisms of carcinogenesis should be integrated into the evaluation of new bioassay models. Fourth, any changes made to the standard rodent carcinogenicity bioassay protocol will require compromises being made, and these should be commonly owned between interested parties in order to reduce the number of regional/agency-specific carcinogenicity testing schemes. Fifth, a mechanism needs to be developed by which assays can be adopted or rejected for use in the routine bioassay of chemicals. In the absence of such initiatives the increasing number of new bioassay models will come to exist along side of the standard 2-species bioassay, and this may potentially lead to confusion regarding the true future role of these assays.

  18. Retinal image quality in the rodent eye.

    PubMed

    Artal, P; Herreros de Tejada, P; Muñoz Tedó, C; Green, D G

    1998-01-01

    Many rodents do not see well. For a target to be resolved by a rat or a mouse, it must subtend a visual angle of a degree or more. It is commonly assumed that this poor spatial resolving capacity is due to neural rather than optical limitations, but the quality of the retinal image has not been well characterized in these animals. We have modified a double-pass apparatus, initially designed for the human eye, so it could be used with rodents to measure the modulation transfer function (MTF) of the eye's optics. That is, the double-pass retinal image of a monochromatic (lambda = 632.8 nm) point source was digitized with a CCD camera. From these double-pass measurements, the single-pass MTF was computed under a variety of conditions of focus and with different pupil sizes. Even with the eye in best focus, the image quality in both rats and mice is exceedingly poor. With a 1-mm pupil, for example, the MTF in the rat had an upper limit of about 2.5 cycles/deg, rather than the 28 cycles/deg one would obtain if the eye were a diffraction-limited system. These images are about 10 times worse than the comparable retinal images in the human eye. Using our measurements of the optics and the published behavioral and electrophysiological contrast sensitivity functions (CSFs) of rats, we have calculated the CSF that the rat would have if it had perfect rather than poor optics. We find, interestingly, that diffraction-limited optics would produce only slight improvement overall. That is, in spite of retinal images which are of very low quality, the upper limit of visual resolution in rodents is neurally determined. Rats and mice seem to have eyes in which the optics and retina/brain are well matched.

  19. Euthanasia using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Valentim, A M; Guedes, S R; Pereira, A M; Antunes, L M

    2016-08-01

    Several questions have been raised in recent years about the euthanasia of laboratory rodents. Euthanasia using inhaled agents is considered to be a suitable aesthetic method for use with a large number of animals simultaneously. Nevertheless, its aversive potential has been criticized in terms of animal welfare. The data available regarding the use of carbon dioxide (CO2), inhaled anaesthetics (such as isoflurane, sevoflurane, halothane and enflurane), as well as carbon monoxide and inert gases are discussed throughout this review. Euthanasia of fetuses and neonates is also addressed. A table listing currently available information to ease access to data regarding euthanasia techniques using gaseous agents in laboratory rodents was compiled. Regarding better animal welfare, there is currently insufficient evidence to advocate banning or replacing CO2 in the euthanasia of rodents; however, there are hints that alternative gases are more humane. The exposure to a volatile anaesthetic gas before loss of consciousness has been proposed by some scientific studies to minimize distress; however, the impact of such a measure is not clear. Areas of inconsistency within the euthanasia literature have been highlighted recently and stem from insufficient knowledge, especially regarding the advantages of the administration of isoflurane or sevoflurane over CO2, or other methods, before loss of consciousness. Alternative methods to minimize distress may include the development of techniques aimed at inducing death in the home cage of animals. Scientific outcomes have to be considered before choosing the most suitable euthanasia method to obtain the best results and accomplish the 3Rs (replacement, reduction and refinement).

  20. Klebsiella oxytoca: opportunistic infections in laboratory rodents.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Andre; Kirsch, Petra; Sahly, Hany; Fahey, Jim; Smoczek, Anna; Hedrich, Hans-Jürgen; Sundberg, John P

    2008-07-01

    Opportunistic pathogens have become increasingly relevant as the causative agents of clinical disease and pathological lesions in laboratory animals. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Klebsiella oxytoca as an opportunistic pathogen in laboratory rodents. Therefore, K. oxytoca-induced lesions were studied from 2004 to early 2006 in naturally infected rodent colonies maintained at The Jackson Laboratory (TJL), Bar Harbor, USA, the Animal Research Centre (Tierforschungszentrum, TFZ) of the University of Ulm, Germany and the Central Animal Facility (ZTM) of the Hannover Medical School, Germany. K. oxytoca infections were observed in substrains of C3H/HeJ mice, which carry the Tlr4(Lps-d) allele; in LEW.1AR1-iddm rats, the latter being prone to diabetes mellitus; in immunodeficient NMRI-Foxn1(nu) mice; and in mole voles, Ellobius lutescens. The main lesions observed were severe suppurative otitis media, urogenital tract infections and pneumonia. Bacteriological examination revealed K. oxytoca as monocultures in all cases. Clonality analysis performed on strains isolated at the ZTM and TFZ (serotyping, pulse field gel electrophoresis [PFGE], enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction, sequencing of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes) revealed that the majority of bacteria belonged to two clones, one in each facility, expressing the capsule type K55 (ZTM) or K72 (TFZ). Two strains, one isolated at the ZTM and one at the TFZ, showed different PFGE and ERIC pattern than all other isolates and both expressed capsule type K35. In conclusion, K. oxytoca is an opportunistic pathogen capable of inducing pathological lesions in different rodent species.

  1. Effect of deer density on tick infestation of rodents and the hazard of tick-borne encephalitis. II: population and infection models.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, L; Rosà, R; Cagnacci, F; Rizzoli, A

    2012-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis is an emerging vector-borne zoonotic disease reported in several European and Asiatic countries with complex transmission routes that involve various vertebrate host species other than a tick vector. Understanding and quantifying the contribution of the different hosts involved in the TBE virus cycle is crucial in estimating the threshold conditions for virus emergence and spread. Some hosts, such as rodents, act both as feeding hosts for ticks and reservoirs of the infection. Other species, such as deer, provide important sources of blood for feeding ticks but they do not support TBE virus transmission, acting instead as dead-end (i.e., incompetent) hosts. Here, we introduce an eco-epidemiological model to explore the dynamics of tick populations and TBE virus infection in relation to the density of two key hosts. In particular, our aim is to validate and interpret in a robust theoretical framework the empirical findings regarding the effect of deer density on tick infestation on rodents and thus TBE virus occurrence from selected European foci. Model results show hump-shaped relationships between deer density and both feeding ticks on rodents and the basic reproduction number for TBE virus. This suggests that deer may act as tick amplifiers, but may also divert tick bites from competent hosts, thus diluting pathogen transmission. However, our model shows that the mechanism responsible for the dilution effect is more complex than the simple reduction of tick burden on competent hosts. Indeed, while the number of feeding ticks on rodents may increase with deer density, the proportion of blood meals on competent compared with incompetent hosts may decrease, triggering a decline in infection. As a consequence, using simply the number of ticks per rodent as a predictor of TBE transmission potential could be misleading if competent hosts share habitats with incompetent hosts.

  2. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N.; la Fleur, Susanne E.

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity. PMID:28223912

  3. Diet-Induced Obesity and Circadian Disruption of Feeding Behavior.

    PubMed

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; Mendoza, Jorge; Garcia, Alexandra N; la Fleur, Susanne E

    2017-01-01

    Feeding behavior shows a rhythmic daily pattern, which in nocturnal rodents is observed mainly during the dark period. This rhythmicity is under the influence of the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the main biological clock. Nevertheless, various studies have shown that in rodent models of obesity, using high-energy diets, the general locomotor activity and feeding rhythms can be disrupted. Here, we review the data on the effects of diet-induced obesity (DIO) on locomotor activity and feeding patterns, as well as the effect on the brain sites within the neural circuitry involved in metabolic and rewarding feeding behavior. In general, DIO may alter locomotor activity by decreasing total activity. On the other hand, DIO largely alters eating patterns, producing increased overall ingestion and number of eating bouts that can extend to the resting period. Furthermore, within the hypothalamic areas, little effect has been reported on the molecular circadian mechanism in DIO animals with ad libitum hypercaloric diets and little or no data exist so far on its effects on the reward system areas. We further discuss the possibility of an uncoupling of metabolic and reward systems in DIO and highlight a gap of circadian and metabolic research that may help to better understand the implications of obesity.

  4. Rodent Habitat on ISS: Advances in Capability for Determining Spaceflight Effects on Mammalian Physiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Globus, R. K.; Choi, S.; Gong, C.; Leveson-Gower, D.; Ronca, A.; Taylor, E.; Beegle, J.

    2016-01-01

    Rodent research is a valuable essential tool for advancing biomedical discoveries in life sciences on Earth and in space. The National Research Counsel's Decadal survey (1) emphasized the importance of expanding NASAs life sciences research to perform long duration, rodent experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). To accomplish this objective, new flight hardware, operations, and science capabilities were developed at NASA ARC to support commercial and government-sponsored research. The flight phases of two separate spaceflight missions (Rodent Research-1 and Rodent Research-2) have been completed and new capabilities are in development. The first flight experiments carrying 20 mice were launched on Sept 21, 2014 in an unmanned Dragon Capsule, SpaceX4; Rodent Research-1 was dedicated to achieving both NASA validation and CASIS science objectives, while Rodent Reesearch-2 extended the period on orbit to 60 days. Groundbased control groups (housed in flight hardware or standard cages) were maintained in environmental chambers at Kennedy Space Center. Crewmembers previously trained in animal handling transferred mice from the Transporter into Habitats under simultaneous veterinary supervision by video streaming and were deemed healthy. Health and behavior of all mice on the ISS was monitored by video feed on a daily basis, and post-flight quantitative analyses of behavior were performed. The 10 mice from RR-1 Validation (16wk old, female C57Bl6/J) ambulated freely and actively throughout the Habitat, relying heavily on their forelimbs for locomotion. The first on-orbit dissections of mice were performed successfully, and high quality RNA (RIN values>9) and liver enzyme activities were obtained, validating the quality of sample recovery. Post-flight sample analysis revealed that body weights of FLT animals did not differ from ground controls (GC) housed in the same hardware, or vivarium controls (VIV) housed in standard cages. Organ weights analyzed post

  5. An Ethanolic Extract of Black Cohosh Causes Hematological Changes but Not Estrogenic Effects in Female Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C.; Witt, Kristine L.; Granville, Courtney A.; Hejtmancik, Milton; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A.; Ryan, Michael J.; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M.; Vallant, Molly K.; Stout, Matthew D.

    2012-01-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. PMID:22687605

  6. An ethanolic extract of black cohosh causes hematological changes but not estrogenic effects in female rodents.

    PubMed

    Mercado-Feliciano, Minerva; Cora, Michelle C; Witt, Kristine L; Granville, Courtney A; Hejtmancik, Milton R; Fomby, Laurene; Knostman, Katherine A; Ryan, Michael J; Newbold, Retha; Smith, Cynthia; Foster, Paul M; Vallant, Molly K; Stout, Matthew D

    2012-09-01

    Black cohosh rhizome (Actaea racemosa) is used as a remedy for pain and gynecological ailments; modern preparations are commonly sold as ethanolic extracts available as dietary supplements. Black cohosh was nominated to the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for toxicity testing due to its widespread use and lack of safety data. Several commercially available black cohosh extracts (BCE) were characterized by the NTP, and one with chemical composition closest to formulations available to consumers was used for all studies. Female B6C3F1/N mice and Wistar Han rats were given 0, 15 (rats only), 62.5 (mice only), 125, 250, 500, or 1000 mg/kg/day BCE by gavage for 90 days starting at weaning. BCE induced dose-dependent hematological changes consistent with a non-regenerative macrocytic anemia and increased frequencies of peripheral micronucleated red blood cells (RBC) in both species. Effects were more severe in mice, which had decreased RBC counts in all treatment groups and increased micronucleated RBC at doses above 125 mg/kg. Dose-dependent thymus and liver toxicity was observed in rats but not mice. No biologically significant effects were observed in other organs. Puberty was delayed 2.9 days at the highest treatment dose in rats; a similar magnitude delay in mice occurred in the 125 and 250 mg/kg groups but not at the higher doses. An additional uterotrophic assay conducted in mice exposed for 3 days to 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 and 500 mg/kg found no estrogenic or anti-estrogenic activity. These are the first studies to observe adverse effects of BCE in rodents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Feeding Practices and NEC

    PubMed Central

    Ramani, Manimaran

    2012-01-01

    Synopsis Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a multifactorial disorder that primarily affects premature infants. Human milk as compared to formula reduces the incidence of NEC. Feeding practices such as minimal enteral nutrition (versus complete fasting) before progressive advancement of feeds, early introduction of feeds (before day 4 of life as compared to later), and a more rapid advancement of feeds (30–35 ml/kg/day as compared to 15–20 ml/kg/day) do not increase the incidence of NEC in preterm infants. There is no evidence supporting continuous over intermittent tube feedings in preterm infants. In a feed-intolerant preterm infant without any other clinical and radiological evidence of NEC, minimal enteral nutrition rather than complete suspension of enteral feeding may be an alternative. Human milk-based fortifier as compared to bovine-based fortifier may reduce the incidence of NEC but additional studies are required. PMID:23415260

  8. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  9. 31 CFR 540.317 - Uranium feed; natural uranium feed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Uranium feed; natural uranium feed...) AGREEMENT ASSETS CONTROL REGULATIONS General Definitions § 540.317 Uranium feed; natural uranium feed. The term uranium feed or natural uranium feed means natural uranium in the form of UF6 suitable for uranium...

  10. Aberrant Alterations of Mitochondrial Factors Drp1 and Opa1 in the Brains of Scrapie Experiment Rodents.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao -Dong; Shi, Qi; Sun, Jing; Lv, Yan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Cao; Xiao, Kang; Zhou, Wei; Dong, Xiao-Ping

    2017-03-01

    The abnormal mitochondrial dynamics has been reported in the brains of some neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), but limitedly described in prion disease. Dynamin-related protein 1 (Drpl) and optic atrophy protein 1 (Opa1) are two essential elements for mitochondria fission and fusion. To evaluate possible changes of mitochondria dynamics during prion infection, the situations of brain Drp1 and Opa1 of scrapie strains 139A, ME7, and S15 mice, as well as 263K-infected hamsters, were analyzed. Significant decreases of brain Drp1 were observed in scrapie-infected rodents at terminal stage by Western blots and immunohistochemical assays, while the levels of Opa1 also showed declined tendency in the brains of scrapie-infected rodents. Immunofluorescent assays illustrated well localization of Drp1 or Opa1 within NeuN-positive cells. Moreover, the S-nitrosylated forms of Drp1significantly increased in the brain tissues of 139A- and ME7-infected mice at terminal stage. Dynamic analysis of Drp1 and SNO-Dpr1 in the brains collected at different time points within the incubation period of 139A-infected mice demonstrated that the whole Drp1 decreased at all tested samples, whereas the SNO-Drp1 remarkably increased in the sample of 90-day post-infection (dpi), reached to the peak in that of 120 dpi and dropped down but still maintained at higher level at the end of disease. The levels of apoptotic factors cleaved caspase 9, caspase 3, and Bax were also markedly increased in the brain tissues of the mice infected with agents 139A and ME7. Our data indicate a disorder of mitochondria dynamics in the brains of prion infection, largely depending on the abnormal alteration of brain Drp1.

  11. Control of Domestic Rats & Mice, Training Guide--Rodent Control Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bjornson, Bayard F.; And Others

    As one booklet in a series on rodent control, this training guide has been developed to assist administrators, rodent-control operators, and others responsible for rodent-control operations in the training of employees in this field. Topics covered include rodents and human welfare, description and habits of domestic rats and mice, rodent-borne…

  12. EVALUATION OF FEEDING BEHAVIOR AS AN INDICATOR OF PAIN IN SNAKES.

    PubMed

    James, Lauren E; Williams, Catherine J A; Bertelsen, Mads F; Wang, Tobias

    2017-03-01

    The necessity to prevent and manage pain in reptiles is becoming increasingly important, as their use in scientific research and popularity as exotic pets continues to rise. It was hypothesized that feeding behavior would provide an adequate indicator of pain perception in the ball python (Python regius). Normal feeding was defined the previous week, where a dead rodent was struck within 12 sec (n = 10). Eighteen pythons were randomly assigned to one of three treatments: anesthesia only (AO), chemical noxious stimulus (CS; capsaicin injection), or surgical noxious stimulus (SS; surgical incision). The time to strike was recorded 4 hr after the procedure and weekly during the subsequent 3 wk. Delayed feeding was observed in animals in the CS and SS groups, and normal feeding resumed after 1 and 3 wk, respectively. Spontaneous feeding remained uninterrupted for the AO group. These findings demonstrate feeding behavior as a potential model to assess pain in snakes.

  13. Changes in tau phosphorylation in hibernating rodents.

    PubMed

    León-Espinosa, Gonzalo; García, Esther; García-Escudero, Vega; Hernández, Félix; Defelipe, Javier; Avila, Jesús

    2013-07-01

    Tau is a cytoskeletal protein present mainly in the neurons of vertebrates. By comparing the sequence of tau molecule among different vertebrates, it was found that the variability of the N-terminal sequence in tau protein is higher than that of the C-terminal region. The N-terminal region is involved mainly in the binding of tau to cellular membranes, whereas the C-terminal region of the tau molecule contains the microtubule-binding sites. We have compared the sequence of Syrian hamster tau with the sequences of other hibernating and nonhibernating rodents and investigated how differences in the N-terminal region of tau could affect the phosphorylation level and tau binding to cell membranes. We also describe a change, in tau phosphorylation, on a casein kinase 1 (ck1)-dependent site that is found only in hibernating rodents. This ck1 site seems to play an important role in the regulation of tau binding to membranes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rodent models of treatment-resistant depression

    PubMed Central

    Caldarone, Barbara J.; Zachariou, Venetia; King, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Major depression is a prevalent and debilitating disorder and a substantial proportion of patients fail to reach remission following standard antidepressant pharmacological treatment. Limited efficacy with currently available antidepressant drugs highlights the need to develop more effective medications for treatment resistant patients and emphasizes the importance of developing better preclinical models that focus on treatment resistant populations. This review discusses methods to adapt and refine rodent behavioral models that are predictive of antidepressant efficacy to identify populations that show reduced responsiveness or are resistant to traditional antidepressants. Methods include separating antidepressant responders from non-responders, administering treatments that render animals resistant to traditional pharmacological treatments, and identifying genetic models that show antidepressant resistance. This review also examines pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments regimes that have been effective in refractory patients and how some of these approaches have been used to validate animal models of treatment-resistant depression. The goals in developing rodent models of treatment-resistant depression are to understand the neurobiological mechanisms involved in antidepressant resistance and to develop valid models to test novel therapies that would be effective in patients that do not respond to traditional monoaminergic antidepressants. PMID:25460020

  15. Masticatory (;superfast') myosin heavy chain and embryonic/atrial myosin light chain 1 in rodent jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Reiser, Peter J; Bicer, Sabahattin; Chen, Qun; Zhu, Ling; Quan, Ning

    2009-08-01

    Masticatory myosin is widely expressed among several vertebrate classes. Generally, the expression of masticatory myosin has been associated with high bite force for a carnivorous feeding style (including capturing/restraining live prey), breaking down tough plant material and defensive biting in different species. Masticatory myosin expression in the largest mammalian order, Rodentia, has not been reported. Several members of Rodentia consume large numbers of tree nuts that are encased in very hard shells, presumably requiring large forces to access the nutmeat. We, therefore, tested whether some rodent species express masticatory myosin in jaw-closing muscles. Myosin isoform expression in six Sciuridae species was examined, using protein gel electrophoresis, immunoblotting, mass spectrometry and RNA analysis. The results indicate that masticatory myosin is expressed in some Sciuridae species but not in other closely related species with similar diets but having different nut-opening strategies. We also discovered that the myosin light chain 1 isoform associated with masticatory myosin heavy chain, in the same four Sciuridae species, is the embryonic/atrial isoform. We conclude that rodent speciation did not completely eliminate masticatory myosin and that its persistent expression in some rodent species might be related to not only diet but also to feeding style.

  16. Seed predation and fruit damage of Solanum lycocarpum (Solanaceae) by rodents in the cerrado of central Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briani and, Denis C., Jr.; Guimarães, Paulo R.

    2007-01-01

    Although neotropical savannas and grasslands, collectively referred to as cerrado, are rich in seed-eating species of rodents, little is known about seed predation and its determinants in this habitat. In this study, we investigated seed predation and damage to fruits of the widespread shrub Solanum lycocarpum. In addition, the influence of two possible determinants (distance from the parental plant and total crop size) on the feeding behaviour of Oryzomys scotti (Rodentia, Sigmodontinae) was also examined. O. scotti were captured more frequently close to the shrubs or on shrub crops, indicating that these rodents were attracted to the shrubs and that seed predation was probably distance-dependent. Moreover, the proportion of damaged fruit on the plant decreased as the total crop size increased; consequently, more productive plants were attacked proportionally less by rodents. This pattern of fruit damage may reflect predator satiation caused by the consumption of a large amount of pulp. Alternatively, secondary metabolites in S. lycocarpum fruits may reduce the pulp consumption per feeding event, thereby limiting the number of fruits damaged.

  17. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR

    PubMed Central

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S.; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts. PMID:26196134

  18. Hunting, Food Preparation, and Consumption of Rodents in Lao PDR.

    PubMed

    Suwannarong, Kanokwan; Chapman, Robert S; Lantican, Cecile; Michaelides, Tula; Zimicki, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in 29 villages of Khamkeuth District in Bolikhamxay Province in the Lao PDR during March to May 2013. The study aimed to determine the characteristics associated with rodent consumption and related behaviors among different ethnic groups, ages, and genders. Five-hundred-eighty-four (584) males and females from 18-50 years of age participated in this study. Half of them were Hmong (292, 50%) while 152 respondents were Lao-Tai (26%) or other ethnic groups (140, 24%). Most of the respondents (79.5%) had farming as their main occupation. Prevalences of the studied outcomes were high: 39.9 for hunting or capturing rodents in the previous year, 77.7% for preparing rodents as food, and 86.3% for rodent consumption. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that likelihood of these types of rodent contact was more consistently associated with behavioral factors (gathering things from the forest and elsewhere, cultivation-related activities, and taking measures to prevent rodent-borne disease) than with socio-demographic, environmental, or cultural factors. The strongest associations were observed for gathering things; these associations were consistently positive and statistically significant. Although this study did not directly assess rodent-borne zoonosis risk, we believe that study findings raise concern that such risk may be substantial in the study area and other similar areas. Further epidemiological studies on the association between rodent-borne disease infection and rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption are recommended. Moreover, further studies are needed on the association between these potential exposure factors (i.e., rodent hunting, preparation for food, and consumption) and rodent-borne infections, especially among ethnic groups like the Hmong in Lao PDR and those in neighboring countries with similar socio-demographic, environmental, behavioral and cultural contexts.

  19. Automated monitoring and quantitative analysis of feeding behaviour in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Itskov, Pavel M; Moreira, José-Maria; Vinnik, Ekaterina; Lopes, Gonçalo; Safarik, Steve; Dickinson, Michael H; Ribeiro, Carlos

    2014-08-04

    Food ingestion is one of the defining behaviours of all animals, but its quantification and analysis remain challenging. This is especially the case for feeding behaviour in small, genetically tractable animals such as Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we present a method based on capacitive measurements, which allows the detailed, automated and high-throughput quantification of feeding behaviour. Using this method, we were able to measure the volume ingested in single sips of an individual, and monitor the absorption of food with high temporal resolution. We demonstrate that flies ingest food by rhythmically extending their proboscis with a frequency that is not modulated by the internal state of the animal. Instead, hunger and satiety homeostatically modulate the microstructure of feeding. These results highlight similarities of food intake regulation between insects, rodents, and humans, pointing to a common strategy in how the nervous systems of different animals control food intake.

  20. Hypothesis: smoking decreases breast feeding duration by suppressing prolactin secretion.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Babak; Riediger, Natalie D; Farrell, Sharla M; Uitz, Elisabeth; Moghadasian, Mohammed F

    2013-10-01

    A number of studies, including new data summarized here, conclude that breast feeding duration is lower in smoking mothers. Although some have suggested that this merely reflects poor health motivation in those prone to smoke, several lines of evidence support the view that chronic smoking does indeed compromise breast feeding by suppressing prolactin secretion and thereby lowering breast milk volume. Moreover, a recent clinical trial shows that an effective smoking cessation program can boost breast feeding duration in smokers. An analysis of pertinent rodents studies suggests that chronic nicotine administration boosts dopaminergic activity in the tuberoinfundibular tract which functions to inhibit prolactin release; this increase in dopaminergic activity, in turn, may reflect a nicotine-mediated suppression of hypothalamic opioid activity.