Science.gov

Sample records for 90-day study reliability

  1. 90-Day toxicity study of dichloroacetate in dogs.

    PubMed

    Cicmanec, J L; Condie, L W; Olson, G R; Wang, S R

    1991-08-01

    Male and female juvenile beagle dogs were dosed daily for 90 days with dichloroacetate (DCA). The compound was administered orally via gelatin capsules at doses of 0, 12.5, 39.5, and 72 mg/kg/day. Each dose group consisted of five males and five females. The dogs were observed clinically and blood samples were taken at 15-day intervals for hematologic and serum chemistry values. Decreased total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin levels were observed in mid- and high-dose dogs beginning at Day 30. Serum concentrations of LDH were elevated at Days 30 and 45 in females and at Day 75 in males treated with DCA at 72 mg/kg/day. One female of the high-dose group died at Day 50 and two high-dose males died at Days 51 and 74. Hindlimb partial paralysis was observed in many high-dose dogs. Vacuolization of myelinated white tracts of cerebrum, cerebellum, and/or spinal cord was observed in many high-dose dogs as well as some mid- and low-dose subjects. Degeneration of testicular germinal epithelium and syncytial giant cell formation was noted in males of all dose groups. Hepatic vacuolar change and chronic hepatitis appeared only in DCA-treated dogs. In addition, suppurative bronchopneumonia and chronic pancreatitis were noted in many high-dose and some middose subjects. A "no-adverse-effect level" was not determined in this study. PMID:1765225

  2. ACUTE, 14-DAY REPEATED DOSING, AND 90-DAY SUBCHRONIC TOXICITY STUDIES OF POTASSIUM PICLORAM (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Potassium picloram was administered either by gavage (acute studies) or in drinking water to male and female Sprague-Dawley derived rats (14-day and 90-day studies). The acute oral LD50 was 950 mg/kg (812-1120) for males and 686 mg/kg (599-786) for females. Depression, prostratio...

  3. Safety assessment of meat from transgenic cattle by 90-day feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shan; Li, Chen-Xi; Feng, Xiao-Lian; Wang, Hui-Ling; Liu, Hai-Bo; Zhi, Yuan; Geng, Gui-Ying; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Hai-Bin

    2013-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of meat derived from human lactoferrin gene-modified cattle in male and female Wistar rats. Rats were fed 5% or 10% transgenic meat diet, 5% or 10% conventional meat diet, or AIN93G diet for 90 days. During the study, body weight and food consumption were weighed weekly and clinical observations were conducted daily. At the end of the study, urinary examination, hematology and blood biochemistry examination, macroscopic and microscopic examinations were performed. There were no biologically significant differences in these factors between the rat groups fed transgenic meat diet and conventional meat diet. Therefore, the present 90-day rodent feeding study suggests that meat derived from the transgenic cattle is equivalent to meat from conventional cattle in use as dietary supplements. PMID:23583492

  4. Subchronic 90-day oral (Gavage) toxicity study of a Luo Han Guo mogroside extract in dogs.

    PubMed

    Qin, X; Xiaojian, S; Ronggan, L; Yuxian, W; Zhunian, T; Shouji, G; Heimbach, J

    2006-12-01

    A combined 28-day and 90-day oral (Gavage) study was conducted in male and female dogs to investigate the safety of PureLo, a non-caloric sweetener derived from the Chinese fruit Luo Han Guo, which achieves its sweetness from the presence of triterpene glycosides known as mogrosides. Three dogs of each sex were administered 10 mL/kg bw/day of either an aqueous solution providing 3000 mg/kg bw/day of PureLo or distilled water for either 28 days or 90 days. Measurements included clinical observations, body weight, food consumption, hematology, blood chemistry, urinalysis, gross necropsy, organ weight, and histopathology. There were no significant adverse effects on any of these measures. Based on the lack of toxicological effects in the study, the NOAEL for PureLo is 3000 mg/kg bw/day when administered to dogs by Gavage for 90 consecutive days. PMID:17011100

  5. 90-Day feeding and genotoxicity studies on a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil.

    PubMed

    Casterton, P L; Curry, L L; Lina, B A R; Wolterbeek, A P M; Kruger, C L

    2009-10-01

    The safety of a refined arachidonic acid-rich oil (RAO) was evaluated for reverse mutation, chromosome aberration and gene mutation, and in a 90-day Wistar rat feeding study with in utero exposure. The results of the genotoxicity assays were all negative. The in utero phase of the 90-day study involved dietary exposure to 0.5%, 1.5% and 5% RAO and two controls diets, a standard feed low-fat diet and a high-fat diet supplemented with 5% corn oil. This exposure covered four-weeks prior to mating, through mating, gestation and lactation until offspring (F(1)) weaning. A subsequent 90-day feeding study in the F(1) rats evaluated the same test and control diets. Statistically significant effects were seen for selected histopathology, clinical chemistry and organ weight endpoints; however, other than increased absolute and relative monocytes seen in both sexes of high-dose rats, the observations were not attributed to treatment for one or more reasons. Based on these findings, no adverse treatment-related effects for RAO were seen at up to 5% in the diet, equivalent to an overall average RAO intake of 3170 mg/kg bwt/day. These and similar findings for other refined ARA-rich oils establish a strong body of evidence for the safety of this RAO. PMID:19576260

  6. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study and reproductive toxicity studies on ACE-inhibiting lactotripeptide.

    PubMed

    Dent, M P; O'Hagan, S; Braun, W H; Schaetti, P; Marburger, A; Vogel, O

    2007-08-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing body of literature describing the antihypertensive effects of peptides produced from milk protein. The tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP), isolated from hydrolysed casein have been shown to lower blood pressure by inhibiting angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). This has led to the use of these tripeptides, collectively referred to as lactotripeptide (LTP) as ingredients of functional foods intended to help control blood pressure. A programme of studies including a 90-day repeat-dose oral gavage toxicity study in the rat and an embryo-fetal (pre-natal) development study in the rabbit was conducted to ensure the safety of this ACE-inhibiting ingredient. In addition, a non-standard pre- and post-natal development study in the rat was performed. This study included direct dosing of the neonates, and was designed specifically to investigate renal development and to ensure that the bioactive peptides were not associated with the same type of fetopathy exhibited by ACE inhibiting drugs. These studies showed that there were no adverse effects of treatment at the highest doses tested. PMID:17383063

  7. A 90-Day Subchronic Toxicity Study of Submerged Mycelial Culture of Cordyceps cicadae (Ascomycetes) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Lien; Yeh, Shu-Hsing; Lin, Ting-Wei; Chen, Chin-Chu; Chen, Chin-Shuh; Kuo, Chia-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Cordyceps cicadae is a parasitic fungus that hibernates inside a host (Cicada flammata Dist.) and then grows its fruiting body on the surface of the insect. The complete insect/fungus combination of C. cicadae has been widely applied in Chinese traditional medicine. Recent studies have demonstrated that the medicinal benefits of cultured mycelia are as effective as those found in the wild. However, toxicological information regarding the chronic consumption of C. cicadae mycelia culture is not available. This study was conducted to evaluate the possible toxicity arising from repeated exposure to freeze-dried submerged mycelial culture of C. cicadae for 90 days. A total of eighty 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups (10 males and 10 females in each group). C. cicadae was administered daily to animals by gavage at doses of 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg body weight for 90 days. No animal deaths occurred and no treatment-related clinical signs were observed during the study period. No statistical differences in body weight gain, relative organ weight, hematology, serum chemistry, and urinalysis were observed. Gross necropsy and histopathological findings indicated that there was no treatment-related abnormality. Based on the results, the no observed adverse effect level of C. cicadae whole broth is determined to be > 2000 mg/kg for male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The results of this study provides support for the use of C. cicadae fermentation product as a safe agent in functional food. PMID:26559863

  8. A 90 day chronic toxicity study of Nigerian herbal preparation DAS-77 in rats

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The herbal preparation DAS-77, used for the treatment of various ailments in Nigeria, contains the milled bark of Mangifera indica L. and root of Carica papaya L. Toxicological assessment of the preparation was carried out in this study. Methods In the acute toxicity study, DAS-77 was administered to mice p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses and i.p. at 250–3000 mg/kg. Mortality within 24 h was recorded. In the chronic toxicity study, rats were treated p.o. for 90 days at doses of 80, 400 (therapeutic dose, TD) and 2000 mg/kg. By 90 days, animals were sacrificed and blood samples collected for hematological and biochemical analysis. Organs were harvested for weight determination, antioxidants and histopathological assessments. Results DAS-77 did not produce any lethality administered p.o. up to 20 g/kg in divided doses but the i.p. LD50 was 1122.0 mg/kg. At TD, DAS-77 produced significant (p < 0.05) reductions in body weight, food intake and K+, and increases in ovary weight, neutrophils and HDL, which were reversible. Histopathological presentations were generally normal. Effects at the other doses were comparable to those at TD except for reversible increases in antioxidants in the liver, kidney and testes, and sperm abnormality, and reductions in liver enzymes, sperm motility and count. Conclusions Findings in this study revealed that DAS-77 is relatively safe with the potential for enhancing in vivo antioxidant activity. However, possibly reversible side-effects include electrolyte imbalance and sterility in males. PMID:22892317

  9. A 90-day oral (dietary) toxicity study of rebaudioside A in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Nikiforov, Andrey I; Eapen, Alex K

    2008-01-01

    Rebaudioside A is one of several glycosides found in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni (Compositae) stevia that has been identified as a potential sweetener. The present study (initiated in April 2006 and completed in October 2006) evaluated the safety of this sweetener when administered as a dietary admix at target exposure levels of 500, 1000, and 2000 mg/kg/day to Sprague-Dawley rats for 90 days. There were no treatment-related effects on the general condition and behavior of the animals as determined by clinical observations, functional observational battery, and locomotor activity assessments. Evaluation of clinical pathology parameters revealed no toxicologically relevant, treatment-related effects on hematology, serum chemistry, or urinalysis. Macroscopic and microscopic findings revealed no treatment-related effects on any organ evaluated. Lower mean body weight gains were noted in males in the 2000 mg/kg/day group throughout the study, which was considered to be test article related; however, given the small magnitude of the difference as compared to controls, this effect was not considered to be adverse. Results of this study clearly demonstrate that dietary administration of high concentrations of rebaudioside A for 90 consecutive days to Sprague-Dawley rats was not associated with any signs of toxicity. PMID:18293214

  10. 90-Day subchronic toxicity study of sodium molybdate dihydrate in rats.

    PubMed

    Murray, F Jay; Sullivan, Frank M; Tiwary, Asheesh K; Carey, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the subchronic toxicity of molybdenum (Mo) in Sprague-Dawley rats given sodium molybdate dihydrate in the diet for 90days at dose levels of 0, 5, 17 or 60mgMo/kgbw/day. The study complied with OECD Test Guideline (TG) 408, with additional examination of estrus cycles and sperm count, motility, and morphology from OECD TG 416. The overall no-observed-adverse-effect level was 17mgMo/kgbw/day, based on effects on body weight, body weight gain, food conversion efficiency and renal histopathology (females only) at 60mgMo/kgbw/day. No treatment-related adverse effects on reproductive organ weights or histopathology, estrus cycles or sperm parameters were observed at any dose level. No adverse effects were observed in the high dose animals after the 60-day recovery period, with the exception that male rats did not fully recover from reduced body weight. Serum blood, liver and kidney samples were analyzed for molybdenum, copper, zinc, manganese, iron, cobalt and selenium; high levels of molybdenum and copper were found in the serum, blood, liver and kidneys of rats treated with 60mgMo/kgbw/day. In conclusion, the LOAEL and NOAEL for molybdenum were determined to be 60 and 17mgMo/kgbw/day, respectively. PMID:24041747

  11. Toxicological evaluation of L-proline in a 90-day feeding study with Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tada, Y; Yano, N; Takahashi, H; Yuzawa, K; Ando, H; Kubo, Y; Nagasawa, A; Ohashi, N; Ogata, A; Nakae, D

    2010-10-01

    L-proline (L-Pro) is a non-essential amino acid, and has become widely used as supplements and health foods, recently. A subchronic oral toxicity study of L-Pro was conducted with groups of 10 male and 10 female Fischer 344 rats fed a powder diet containing 0%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% of L-Pro for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs and mortality were noted. We observed no clear treatment-related effects with regard to body weight, food intake or urinalysis data. The average daily water intakes of the treated female groups were significantly increased compared to the controls. The hematology (red blood cell parameter) and serum biochemistry (glucose, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine or uric acid) of the treated male and/or female groups were lower than those of the control groups. However, these changes were lacked dose-dependence, and no abnormalities were found in corresponding pathological findings. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for L-Pro was determined to be a dietary dose of 5.0% (2772.9 mg/kg body weight/day for males and 3009.3mg/kg body weight/day for females) under the present experimental conditions. PMID:20447433

  12. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys. PMID:23444337

  13. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  14. Zinc oxide nanoparticles: a 90-day repeated-dose dermal toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seo, Mu Yeb; Jung, Sung Kyu; Maeng, Eun Ho; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Taek-Jin; Jo, Ki-Yeon; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Lee, Beom Jun; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) works as a long-lasting, broad-spectrum physical sunblock, and can prevent skin cancer, sunburn, and photoaging. Nanosized ZnO particles are used often in sunscreens due to consumer preference over larger sizes, which appear opaque when dermally applied. Although the US Food and Drug Administration approved the use of nanoparticles (NPs) in sunscreens in 1999, there are ongoing safety concerns. The aim of this study was to evaluate the subchronic toxicity of ZnO NPs after dermal application according to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Test Guidelines 411 using Good Laboratory Practice. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight (one control, one vehicle control, three experimental, and three recovery) groups. Different concentrations of ZnO NPs were dermally applied to the rats in the experimental groups for 90 days. Clinical observations as well as weight and food consumption were measured and recorded daily. Hematology and biochemistry parameters were determined. Gross pathologic and histopathologic examinations were performed on selected tissues from all animals. Analyses of tissue were undertaken to determine target organ tissue distribution. There was no increased mortality in the experimental group. Although there was dose-dependent irritation at the site of application, there were no abnormal findings related to ZnO NPs in other organs. Increased concentrations of ZnO in the liver, small intestine, large intestine, and feces were thought to result from oral ingestion of ZnO NPs via licking. Penetration of ZnO NPs through the skin seemed to be limited via the dermal route. This study demonstrates that there was no observed adverse effect of ZnO NPs up to 1,000 mg/kg body weight when they are applied dermally. PMID:25565832

  15. Comparative 90-day dietary study of paraffin wax in Fischer-344 and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Griffis, L C; Twerdok, L E; Francke-Carroll, S; Biles, R W; Schroeder, R E; Bolte, H; Faust, H; Hall, W C; Rojko, J

    2010-01-01

    Highly refined mineral hydrocarbons (MHCs) such as low melting point paraffin wax (LMPW) and low viscosity white oils can cause inflammatory changes in the liver and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) of the Fischer-344 (F-344) rat. In contrast, only minimal MLN changes are seen in the Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rat with no changes in the liver. In this study, the response of female F-344 and S-D rats was compared after 90days dietary treatment with 0%, 0.2% or 2% LMPW. Effects in the F-344 rats were significantly greater than in the S-D rats: increased liver and splenic weights and inflammatory changes (hepatic microgranulomas) in these tissues were observed only in the F-344 rats. Microgranulomas in the MLNs were observed in both strains but the effects were substantially greater in the F-344 rats. Cellular markers of inflammation were examined in a subset of rats from each group using immunohistochemical staining. An increase in staining for CD3 (T-cells), CD8a (suppresser/cytotoxic T-cells) and CD4 (helper T-cells) correlated with an increase in lymphoid cells in the livers of treated F-344 rats. The majority of macrophages in the hepatic microgranulomas of treated F-344 rats were negative for the ED2 marker, indicating a likely origin from non-resident macrophages. Electron microscopy showed Kupffer cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia in treated F-344 rats. However, lysozyme staining (indicating activation of epithelioid macrophages) decreased with increasing granuloma size. Non-ED2 expressing cells may have been recruited but not sufficiently activated to be lysozyme positive. Inflammatory changes in the cardiac mitral valve noted in previous studies of LMPW were also seen in the F-344 rats in this study but not in the S-D rats. Chemical analysis showed that MHC accumulated in livers from treated F-344 but not S-D rats and the concentration was more than 2-fold greater in MLNs from the F-344 than from the S-D rats. The F-344 appears to be more immunologically sensitive to

  16. A 90-day dietary study on kappa carrageenan with emphasis on the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L; Nuber, David; Blakemore, William R; Harriman, Jay F; Cohen, Samuel M

    2007-01-01

    Groups of Fischer 344 rats (20/sex/group) received control or treated diets at levels of 0, 25,000 or 50,000 ppm kappa carrageenan with a molecular weight range (Mw) of 196,000-257,000 Da for 90 days. The Low Molecular Weight Tail (LMT) ranged between 1.9% and 12.0%<50 kDa (mean 7%) based on the results of a program initiated to develop a validated analytical method to measure the LMT. This is the first GLP dietary study in which carrageenan is characterized by percentage LMT. Clinical examinations were performed daily. Individual food consumption/body weight measurements were made weekly. Ophthalmic exam was conducted prior to and at the end of treatment. Hematology/serum chemistry and urinalysis evaluations were done at necropsy, as were organ weight determinations for adrenals, brain, heart, kidneys, liver, ovaries, spleen, testes and thyroid with parathyroids. Full histopathological evaluation of organs was conducted on the control and 50,000 ppm groups, including hematoxylin-eosin-stained cross sections of paraffin-embedded rolled colon. Clinical signs were limited to soft feces in high dose rats and to a lesser extent in low dose rats. There were no treatment-related effects on body weights, urinalysis, hematology or clinical chemistry parameters, or on organ weights or ophthalmic, macroscopic or microscopic findings. The gastrointestinal tract appeared normal in detailed histopathological evaluation using the Swiss roll technique. The NOAEL is 50,000 ppm in the diet (mean calculated test material consumption of 3394+/-706 mg/kg/day in males, 3867+/-647 mg/kg/day in females). The results of the study provide evidence that it is not necessary to characterize carrageenan by a specification for LMT (less than 5% below 50 kDa) as has been done in Commission Directive 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 (Commission Directive, 2004/45/EC of 16 April 2004 amending Directive 96/77/EC laying down specific purity criteria on food additives other than colors and sweeteners

  17. 90-Day Cycle Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Sandra; Takahashi, Sola

    2013-01-01

    90-Day Cycles are a disciplined and structured form of inquiry designed to produce and test knowledge syntheses, prototyped processes, or products in support of improvement work. With any type of activity, organizations inevitably encounter roadblocks to improving performance and outcomes. These barriers might include intractable problems at…

  18. Report of the 90-day study on human exploration of the Moon and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The basic mission sequence to achieve the President's goal is clear: begin with Space Station Freedom in the 1990's, return to the Moon to stay early in the Next century, and then journey to Mars. Five reference approaches are modeled building on past programs and recent studies to reflect wide-ranging strategies that incorporate varied program objectives, schedules, technologies, and resource availabilities. The reference approaches are (1) balance and speed; (2) the earliest possible landing on Mars; (3) reduce logistics from Earth; (4) schedule adapted to Space Station Freedom; and (5) reduced scales. The study and programmatic assessment have shown that the Human Exploration Initiative is indeed a feasible approach to achieving the President's goals. Several reasonable alternatives exist, but a long-range commitment and significant resources will be required. However, the value of the program and the benefits to the Nation are immeasurable.

  19. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats

    PubMed Central

    Werley, Michael S.; Kirkpatrick, Dan J.; Oldham, Michael J.; Jerome, Ann M.; Langston, Timothy B.; Lilly, Patrick D.; Smith, Donna C.; Mckinney, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1–4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  20. Toxicological assessment of a prototype e-cigaret device and three flavor formulations: a 90-day inhalation study in rats.

    PubMed

    Werley, Michael S; Kirkpatrick, Dan J; Oldham, Michael J; Jerome, Ann M; Langston, Timothy B; Lilly, Patrick D; Smith, Donna C; Mckinney, Willie J

    2016-01-01

    A prototype electronic cigaret device and three formulations were evaluated in a 90-day rat inhalation study followed by a 42-day recovery period. Animals were randomly assigned to groups for exposure to low-, mid- and high-dose levels of aerosols composed of vehicle (glycerin and propylene glycol mixture); vehicle and 2.0% nicotine; or vehicle, 2.0% nicotine and flavor mixture. Daily targeted aerosol total particulate matter (TPM) doses of 3.2, 9.6 and 32.0 mg/kg/day were achieved by exposure to 1 mg/L aerosol for 16, 48 and 160 min, respectively. Pre-study evaluations included indirect ophthalmoscopy, virology and bacteriological screening. Body weights, clinical observations and food consumption were monitored weekly. Plasma nicotine and cotinine and carboxyhemoglobin levels were measured at days 28 and 90. After days 28, 56 and 90, lung function measurements were obtained. Biological endpoints after 90-day exposure and 42-day recovery period included clinical pathology, urinalysis, bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) analysis, necropsy and histopathology. Treatment-related effects following 90 days of exposure included changes in body weight, food consumption and respiratory rate. Dose-related decreases in thymus and spleen weights, and increased BALF lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, alveolar macrophages, neutrophils and lung weights were observed. Histopathology evaluations revealed sporadic increases in nasal section 1-4 epithelial hyperplasia and vacuolization. Following the recovery period, effects in the nose and BALF were persistent while other effects were resolved. The no observed effect level based upon body weight decreases is considered to be the mid-dose level for each formulation, equivalent to a daily TPM exposure dose of approximately 9.6 mg/kg/day. PMID:26787428

  1. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study with sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) delivered to dogs via intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunmei; Li, Guisheng; Gao, Yonglin; Sun, Chengfeng; Wang, Xiaoyan

    2016-06-01

    Sodium formononetin-3'-sulphonate (Sul-F) is a water-soluble derivate of formononetin, and an increasing number of studies have shown that Sul-F not only possesses favorable water solubility but also exhibits good lipid-lowering and bioactivities. In the current study, the toxicity of Sul-F was evaluated in dogs after 90-day intravenous infusion. Dogs were treated with Sul-F at dose of 0, 33.3, 100, and 300 mg/kg, and observed for 90-day followed by 28-day recovery period. Weekly measurement of body weight, temperature and food consumption were conducted. Ophthalmoscopy, ECG examination, urinalysis, serum biochemistry and hematology examination were performed at pre-test, on days 45 and 90, and following by 28-day recovery period. Histological examination was performed on day 90 and 28-day recovery period. No mortality, ophthalmic abnormalities or treatment-related findings in body weight, clinical chemistry, hematology, and histopathological examination were detected. However, a white crystal (non-metabolic Sul-F), transient vomiting and recoverable vascular stimulation were observed in 300 mg/kg/day Sul-F treated dogs. Under the conditions, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Sul-F was 100 mg/kg in dogs. PMID:26924788

  2. Safety assessment of essential oil from Minthostachys verticillata (Griseb.) Epling (peperina): 90-days oral subchronic toxicity study in rats.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Franco Matías; Sabini, María Carola; Cariddi, Laura Noelia; Sabini, Liliana Inés; Mañas, Fernando; Cristofolini, Andrea; Bagnis, Guillermo; Gallucci, Mauro Nicolas; Cavaglieri, Lilia Renée

    2015-02-01

    Minthostachys verticillata (Lamiaceae), popularly known as peperina is largely used in popular medicine for its digestive, carminative, antispasmodic and antirheumatic properties. There are no reports of repeated exposure toxicity to guarantee their safety. The present study investigated the chemical composition, analyzed by GC-FID, and the 90-day toxicity and genotoxicity effect of M. verticillata essential oil (Mv-EO), using Wistar rats as test animals. The rats were divided into four groups (5 rats/sex/group) and Mv-EO was administered on diet at doses of 0, 1, 4 and 7 g/kg feed. The main components of Mv-EO were pulegone (64.65%) and menthone (23.92%). There was no mortality, adverse effects on general conditions or changes in body weight, food consumption and feed conversion efficiency throughout the study in male and female rats. Subchronic administration of Mv-EO did not alter the weights, morphological and histopathological analyses of liver, kidney and intestine. Genotoxicity was tested by micronucleus and comet assays. Mv-EO up to a concentration of 7 g/kg feed for 90 days did not exert a cyto-genotoxic effect on the bone marrow and cells blood of Wistar rats. These results suggest that Mv-EO appears to be safe and could be devoid of any toxic risk. PMID:25445298

  3. A 90-day study of three bruchid-resistant mung bean cultivars in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Ren, Guixing

    2015-02-01

    Mung bean has been traditionally and widely used as an edible and medicinal plant in the South and Southeast Asia. Bruchid resistance mung bean has more potential in commercial use, but scarcely been evaluated for safety through standard in vivo toxicological studies. In the present study, subchronic oral toxicity studies of bruchid-resistant mung bean were designed and conducted in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats for 90 days. During the subchronic oral toxicity study, no mortality and toxicologically significant changes in clinical signs, food consumption, opthalmoscopic examination, hematology, clinical biochemistry, macroscopic findings, organ weights and histopathological examination were noted in animal administered diet containing bruchid-resistant mung bean. These results demonstrated that bruchid resistant mung bean is as safe as conventional mung bean. PMID:25533792

  4. APPLYING EXPERIENCE SAMPLING METHODS TO PARTNER VIOLENCE RESEARCH: SAFETY AND FEASIBILITY IN A 90-DAY STUDY OF COMMUNITY WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Tami P.; Khondkaryan, Enna; Dos Santos, Nancy P.; Peters, Erica N.

    2011-01-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) rarely has been applied in studies of intimate partner violence (IPV) despite the benefits to be gained. Because ESM approaches and women who experience IPV present unique challenges for data collection an empirical question exists: is it safe and feasible to apply ESM to community women who currently are experiencing IPV? A 90-day, design-driven feasibility study examined daily telephone data collection, daily paper diaries, and monthly retrospective semi-structured interview methods among a community sample of 123 women currently experiencing IPV to study within-person relationships between IPV and substance use. Findings suggest that ESM is a promising method for collecting data among this population and can elucidate daily dynamics of victimization as well as associated behaviors and experiences. Lessons learned from the application of ESM to this population are also discussed. PMID:21307033

  5. A 90-Day Toxicology Study of Meat from Genetically Modified Sheep Overexpressing TLR4 in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Rui; Kan, Tongtong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xiaosheng; Zhang, Jinlong; Lian, Ling; Han, Hongbing; Lian, Zhengxing

    2015-01-01

    Genetic modification offers alternative strategies to traditional animal breeding. However, the food safety of genetically modified (GM) animals has attracted increasing levels of concern. In this study, we produced GM sheep overexpressing TLR4, and the transgene-positive offsprings (F1) were confirmed using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Southern blot. The expression of TLR4 was 2.5-fold compared with that of the wild-type (WT) sheep samples. During the 90-day safety study, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three different dietary concentrations (3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% wt/wt) of GM sheep meat, WT sheep meat or a commercial diet (CD). Blood samples from the rats were collected and analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, and then compared with hematological and biochemical reference ranges. Despite a few significant differences among the three groups in some parameters, all other values remained within the normal reference intervals and thus were not considered to be affected by the treatment. No adverse diet-related differences in body weights or relative organ weights were observed. Furthermore, no differences were observed in the gross necropsy findings or microscopic pathology of the rats whose diets contained the GM sheep meat compared with rats whose diets contained the WT sheep meat. Therefore, the present 90-day rat feeding study suggested that the meat of GM sheep overexpressing TLR4 had no adverse effect on Sprague-Dawley rats in comparison with WT sheep meat. These results provide valuable information regarding the safety assessment of meat derived from GM animals. PMID:25874566

  6. A 90-day toxicology study of high-amylose transgenic rice grain in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xing Hua; Dong, Ying; Xiao, Xiang; Wang, Yun; Xu, Yong; Xu, Bin; Shi, Wei Dong; Zhang, Yi; Zhu, Li Jia; Liu, Qiao Quan

    2011-12-01

    A transgenic rice line (TRS) with high amylose level has been developed by antisense RNA inhibition of starch branching enzymes. Compositional analysis of TRS demonstrated that the content of resistant starch (RS) was significantly higher compared to conventional non-transgenic rice. High level of RS is an important raw material in food industry and has various physiological effects for human health. In order to provide the reliable theory basis for field release of TRS rice, we evaluated the potential health effects of long-term consumption of the TRS. The 90-day toxicology feeding experiment was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats fed with diets containing 70% of either TRS rice flour, its near-isogenic rice flour or the control diet. The clinical performance variables (body weight, body weight gain and food consumption) were measured and pathological responses (hematological parameters and serum chemistry at the midterm and the completion of the experiment, urinalysis profile and serum sex hormone response at the completion of the experiment) were performed. Besides, clinical signs, relative organ weights and microscopic observations were also compared between TRS group and its near-isogenic rice group. The combined data indicates that high-amylose TRS grain is as safe as the conventional non-transgenic rice for rat consumption. PMID:21967780

  7. Toxicological evaluation of an Allium-based commercial product in a 90-day feeding study in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Mellado-García, P; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Moyano, R; Blanco, A; Jos, A; Cameán, A M

    2016-04-01

    Proallium AP(®) is a commercial Allium extract intended to be used in active food packaging as the antibacterial and antioxidant effects of some organosulfur compounds are well known. However, there is little information on its toxicity and the Scientific Committee on Food (UE) requires the safety assessment of substances used in food contact materials. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct for the first time a subchronic oral toxicity study of Proallium AP(®) with groups of 10 males and 10 females Sprague-Dawley rats fed a diet containing 0, 25, 100, 400 mg/kg/d for 90 days. No treatment-related clinical signs or mortality were noted. Besides, no treatment-related effects with regard to any of the toxicological biomarkers considered were observed, including biochemical, haematological and histopathology parameters. In conclusion, the non-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) for Proallium AP(®) in rats was determined to be a dietary dose of 400 mg/kg/d under the present experimental conditions, a value 500-fold higher than the exposure derived from its potential use in active packaging. PMID:26827789

  8. A 90-day subchronic feeding study of genetically modified rice expressing Cry1Ab protein in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Song, Huan; He, Xiaoyun; Zou, Shiying; Zhang, Teng; Luo, Yunbo; Huang, Kunlun; Zhu, Zhen; Xu, Wentao

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic rice line (mfb-MH86) expressing a synthetic cry1Ab gene can be protected against feeding damage from Lepidopteran insects, including Sesamia inferens, Chilo suppressalis, Tryporyza incertulas and Cnaphalocrocis medinalis. Rice flour from mfb-MH86 and its near-isogenic control MH86 was separately formulated into rodent diets at concentrations of 17.5, 35 and 70 % (w/w) for a 90-day feeding test with rats, and all of the diets were nutritionally balanced. In this study, the responses of rats fed diets containing mfb-MH86 were compared to those of rats fed flour from MH86. Overall health, body weight and food consumption were comparable between groups fed diets containing mfb-MH86 and MH86. Blood samples were collected prior to sacrifice and a few significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed in haematological and biochemical parameters between rats fed genetically modified (GM) and non-GM diets. However, the values of these parameters were within the normal ranges of values for rats of this age and sex, thus not considered treatment related. In addition, upon sacrifice a large number of organs were weighed, macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with only minor changes to report. In conclusion, these results demonstrated that no toxic effect was observed in the conditions of the experiment, based on the different parameters assessed. GM rice mfb-MH86 is as safe and nutritious as non-GM rice. PMID:25367203

  9. Two-hour methyl isocyanate inhalation and 90-day recovery study in B6C3F1 mice

    SciTech Connect

    Boorman, G.A.; Uraih, L.C.; Gupta, B.N.; Bucher, J.R.

    1987-06-01

    B6C3F1 mice were exposed by inhalation to 0, 3, 10, and 30 ppm methyl isocyanate for 2 hr followed by a 90-day recovery period. Sixteen of eight (20%) male mice in the 30 ppm group died following exposure. There were no other unscheduled deaths in the mice. Five mice/sex/group were examined at 2 hr or at 1, 3, 7, 14, 28, 49, or 91 days following exposure. Chemical-related changes were restricted to the respiratory system. At 30 ppm there were extensive necrosis and erosion of the respiratory and olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. Severe necrosis and epithelial erosion were also found in the trachea and main bronchi. Regeneration of the mucosal epithelium occurred rapidly in the nasal cavity and airways. In the turbinates, mild incomplete olfactory epithelial regeneration persisted to day 91 in the male mice. Intraluminal fibrotic projections covered by respiratory epithelium and bronchial fibrosis were found in the major airways of the 30 ppm male and female mice by day 7. The intraluminal fibrosis persisted to day 91. In males with severe bronchial fibrosis, chronic alveolitis and atelectasis were found. In mice exposed to 3 or 10 ppm, persistent pulmonary changes were not found. These studies indicate that methyl isocyanate inhalation at or near lethal concentrations can cause persistent fibrosis of the major bronchi in mice.

  10. Fluid overload is associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality in critically ill patients with renal replacement therapy: data from the prospective FINNAKI study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Positive fluid balance has been associated with an increased risk for mortality in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury with or without renal replacement therapy (RRT). Data on fluid accumulation prior to RRT initiation and mortality are limited. We aimed to study the association between fluid accumulation at RRT initiation and 90-day mortality. Methods We conducted a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in 17 Finnish intensive care units (ICUs) during a five-month period. We collected data on patient characteristics, RRT timing, and parameters at RRT initiation. We studied the association of parameters at RRT initiation, including fluid overload (defined as cumulative fluid accumulation > 10% of baseline weight) with 90-day mortality. Results We included 296 RRT-treated critically ill patients. Of 283 patients with complete data on fluid balance, 76 (26.9%) patients had fluid overload. The median (interquartile range) time from ICU admission to RRT initiation was 14 (3.3 to 41.5) hours. The 90-day mortality rate of the whole cohort was 116 of 296 (39.2%; 95% confidence interval 38.6 to 39.8%). The crude 90-day mortality of patients with or without fluid overload was 45 of 76 (59.2%) vs. 65 of 207 (31.4%), P < 0.001. In logistic regression, fluid overload was associated with an increased risk for 90-day mortality (odds ratio 2.6) after adjusting for disease severity, time of RRT initiation, initial RRT modality, and sepsis. Of the 168 survivors with data on RRT use at 90 days, 34 (18.9%, 95% CI 13.2 to 24.6%) were still dependent on RRT. Conclusions Patients with fluid overload at RRT initiation had twice as high crude 90-day mortality compared to those without. Fluid overload was associated with increased risk for 90-day mortality even after adjustments. PMID:23075459

  11. A 90-day study of subchronic oral toxicity of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Shin, Sung-Sup; Meang, Eun Ho; Hong, Jeong-sup; Park, Jong-Il; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Lee, Seung-Young; Jang, Dong-Hyouk; Lee, Jong-Yun; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The widespread use of nanoparticles (NPs) in industrial and biomedical applications has prompted growing concern regarding their potential toxicity and impact on human health. This study therefore investigated the subchronic, systemic oral toxicity and no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of 20 nm, negatively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(−)) NPs in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods The high-dose NP level was set at 500 mg/kg of bodyweight, and the mid- and low-dose levels were set at 250 and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were observed during a 14-day recovery period after the last NP administration for the persistence or reduction of any adverse effects. Toxicokinetic and distribution studies were also conducted to determine the systemic distribution of the NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. However, ZnOSM20(−) NPs (500 mg/kg) induced changes in the levels of anemia-related factors, prompted acinar cell apoptosis and ductular hyperplasia, stimulated periductular lymphoid cell infiltration and excessive salivation, and increased the numbers of regenerative acinar cells in the pancreas. In addition, stomach lesions were seen at 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg, and retinal atrophy was observed at 250 and 500 mg/kg. The Zn concentration was dose-dependently increased in the liver, kidney, intestines, and plasma, but not in other organs investigated. Conclusion A ZnOSM20(−) NP NOAEL could not be established from the current results, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was 125 mg/kg. Furthermore, the NPs were associated with a number of undesirable systemic actions. Thus, their use in humans must be approached with caution. PMID:25565828

  12. Toxicity studies on agent GA (Phase 2): 90 day subchronic study of GA (Tabun) in cd rats. Appendices. Final report, July 1985-August 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The purpose of the report is to provide essential toxicologic information on Tabun administration over a 90 day period. This toxicologic information may be used to adjust the maximum-tolerated dose for subsequent dominant-lethal and two-generation reproduction studies. The objectives were to determine the toxic effects of nerve agent exposure (e.g., target organs); and to determine the effects of nerve agent GA on sperm morphology and motility and vaginal cytology.

  13. Vitamin D deficiency at admission is not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock: Observational FINNAKI cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ala-Kokko, Tero I; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Nisula, Sara; Koskenkari, Juha; Liisanantti, Janne; Ohtonen, Pasi; Poukkanen, Meri; Laurila, Jouko J; Pettilä, Ville; Herzig, Karl-Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Low levels of vitamin D have been associated with increased mortality in patients that are critically ill. This study explored whether vitamin D levels were associated with 90-day mortality in severe sepsis or septic shock. Methods Plasma vitamin D levels were measured on admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) in a prospective multicentre observational study. Results 610 patients with severe sepsis were included; of these, 178 (29%) had septic shock. Vitamin D deficiency (<50 nmol/L) was present in 333 (55%) patients. The 90-day mortality did not differ among patients with or without vitamin D deficiency (28.3% vs. 28.5%, p = 0.789). Diabetes was more common among patients deficient compared to those not deficient in vitamin D (30% vs. 18%, p < 0.001). Hospital-acquired infections at admission were more prevalent in patients with a vitamin D deficiency (31% vs. 16%, p < 0.001). A multivariable adjusted Cox regression model showed that low vitamin D levels could not predict 90-day mortality (<50 nmol/L: hazard ratio (HR) 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72-1.36), p > 0.9; and <25 nmol/L: HR 0.44 (95% CI: 0.22-0.87), p = 0.018). Conclusions Vitamin D deficiency detected upon ICU admission was not associated with 90-day mortality in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. Key messages In severe sepsis and septic shock, a vitamin D deficiency upon ICU admission was not associated with increased mortality. Compared to patients with sufficient vitamin D, patients with deficient vitamin D more frequently exhibited diabetes, elevated C-reactive protein levels, and hospital-acquired infections upon ICU admission, and they more frequently developed acute kidney injury. PMID:26800186

  14. A 90-day toxicity study of the effects of petroleum middle distillates on the skin of C3H mice.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J J; McKee, R H; Phillips, R D; Plutnick, R T; Scala, R A; Ackerman, L J

    1990-01-01

    Petroleum middle distillates (PMDs) elicit skin tumors in mouse epidermal carcinogenesis studies. The response is characterized by a long latency with only a small percentage of animals developing tumors. Although the carcinogenic activity of certain other petroleum hydrocarbons largely depends upon the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), many PMDs contain relatively low concentrations of PAHs. PMDs are also irritating to mouse skin, and chronic irritation may be involved in the development of skin tumors. This study was conducted to investigate the patterns of cutaneous irritation elicited by topical application of PMDs having compositional differences. The three PMDs selected for study were a steam cracked gas oil (SCGO), a lightly refined paraffinic oil (LRPO), and a jet fuel (JF). Male C3H/HeNCr1BR mice (25/group) were treated topically (37.5 microliters 2x/week for 13 weeks) with 10%, 50% or 100% (undiluted) concentrations of each PMD. Catalytically cracked clarified oil (CCCO, 10%), a potent carcinogen to mouse skin, was also tested. The vehicle was a noncarcinogenic mineral oil with a viscosity of 90 SUS. Cutaneous changes were evaluated by gross observations and light microscopy. Cutaneous irritation was the only significant toxic response in this study. Neither the vehicle nor any of the 10% PMD concentrations produced significant cutaneous irritation. The 10% CCCO and 50% PMD treatments all elicited slight to moderate proliferative and inflammatory changes in mouse skin. Ulcers were also observed microscopically in mice treated with 10% CCCO and 50% SCGO. The 100% SCGO treatment produced evidence of necrosis on Days 1-7 but not later in the study despite continued treatment. In contrast, the irritating effects of 100% LRPO were not evident until 2-3 weeks of study, and at study completion were characterized by moderately severe inflammatory and proliferative changes. The effects of 100% JF were qualitatively similar to 100% LRPO but less

  15. A 90-Day Dietary Toxicity Study of Genetically Modified Rice T1C-1 Expressing Cry1C Protein in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xueming; Han, Fangting; Zhao, Kai; Xu, Yan; Wu, Xiao; Wang, Jinbin; Jiang, Lingxi; Shi, Wei

    2012-01-01

    In a 90-day study, Sprague Dawley rats were fed transgenic T1C-1 rice expressing Cry1C protein and were compared with rats fed non-transgenic parental rice Minghui 63 and rats fed a basal diet. No adverse effects on animal behavior or weight gain were observed during the study. Blood samples were collected and analyzed, and standard hematological and biochemical parameters were compared. A few of these parameters were found to be significantly different, but were within the normal reference intervals for rats of this breed and age, and were thus not considered to be treatment-related. Following sacrifice, a large number of organs were weighed, and macroscopic and histopathological examinations were performed with no changes reported. The aim of this study was to use a known animal model to determine the safety of the genetically modified (GM) rice T1C-1. The results showed no adverse or toxic effects due to T1C-1 rice when tested in this 90-day study. PMID:23300690

  16. Safety assessment of SDA soybean oil: results of a 28-day gavage study and a 90-day/one generation reproduction feeding study in rats.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Bruce G; Lemen, Joan K; Ahmed, Gulam; Miller, Kathleen D; Kirkpatrick, Jeannie; Fleeman, Tammye

    2008-12-01

    Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) in the diet reduce risk of cardiac mortality. Fish oils are a dietary source of LC-PUFAs (EPA, DHA) but intake is low in Western diets. Adding beneficial amounts of LC-PUFAs to foods is limited by their instability and potential to impart off-flavors. Stearidonic acid (SDA), a precursor of EPA in man, is more stable than EPA/DHA in food matrices. SDA is present in fish oils (0.5-4%) and in nutraceuticals (echium, borage oil). Genes for Delta6, Delta15 desaturases were introduced into soybeans that convert linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid to SDA (15-30% fatty acids). Since addition of SDA soybean oil into human foods increases SDA intake, toxicology studies were undertaken to assess its safety. In a 28-day pilot study, rats were gavaged with SDA soybean oil at dosages up to 3g/kg body weight/day; no treatment-related adverse effects were observed. A 90-day/one generation rat reproduction study was subsequently conducted where SDA soybean oil was added to diets to provide daily doses of 1.5 and 4 g/kg body weight. There were no treatment-related adverse effects on parental animals or on reproductive performance and progeny development. PMID:18804141

  17. Induction of multiple granulomas in the liver with severe hepatocyte damage by montan wax, a natural food additive, in a 90-day toxicity study in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Mico; Yamakawa, Keiko; Saoo, Kousuke; Matsuda, Yoko; Hosokawa, Kyoko; Takeuchi, Hijiri; Li, Jia-Qing; Zeng, Yu; Yokohira, Masanao; Imaida, Katsumi

    2008-02-01

    Montan wax is a mineral wax extracted from lignite type coal. It has been registered as a food additive in Japan though there have been no reports of toxicological evaluation, mainly due to the fact that it is considered a natural product. As part of a general safety assessment of montan wax, we have performed a 90-day toxicity study in Fisher 344 (F344) rats. Groups of 10 males and 10 females were given the material at dose levels of 0 (Group 1), 0.56 (Group 2), 1.67 (Group 3), or 5% (Group 4) in the diet for 90 days. During the experiment, there were no remarkable changes in general conditions and no deaths occurred in any group. On hematological examination, Hb, Ht, MCV and MCH were significantly decreased and WBC was significantly increased in all treated rats. On serum biochemical examination, AST and ALT were found to be elevated more than four fold in all treated groups as compared to the respective control group values in both sexes. Furthermore, relative organ weights for the liver, spleen, lung and kidneys were increased in all treated groups of both sexes. Histopathological examination revealed diffuse multiple granulomas in the livers with severe hepatocyte damage and lymphocytic infiltration. Granulomatous lesions were also apparent in the mesenteric lymph nodes in all treated males and females. These findings clearly demonstrate that montan wax, at doses of more than 0.56% in the diet, induces multiple granulomas with severe inflammation in the liver. Because pathological, hematological and serum biochemical changes were observed in the lowest dose group, a no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) could not be determined in the present study. PMID:17950973

  18. A 90-day study of sub-chronic oral toxicity of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hark-Soo; Kim, Seon-Ju; Lee, Taek-Jin; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, EunHo; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Hong, Seung-Guk; Sun, Yle-Shik; Kang, Jin Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Jeong, Jayoung; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Son, Woo-Chan; Park, Jae-Hak

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The study reported here was conducted to determine the systemic oral toxicity and to find the no-observed-adverse-effect level of 20 nm positively charged zinc oxide (ZnOSM20(+)) nanoparticles in Sprague Dawley rats for 90 days. Methods For the 90-day toxicity study, the high dose was set as 500 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and the middle and low dose were set to 250 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg, respectively. The rats were held for a 14-day recovery period after the last administration, to observe for the persistence or reduction of any toxic effects. A distributional study was also carried out for the systemic distribution of ZnOSM20(+) NPs. Results No rats died during the test period. There were no significant clinical changes due to the test article during the experimental period in functional assessment, body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmological testing, urine analysis, necropsy findings, or organ weights, but salivation was observed immediately after administration in both sexes. The total red blood cell count was increased, and hematocrit, albumin, mean cell volume, mean cell hemoglobin, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration were decreased significantly compared with control in both 500 mg/kg groups. Total protein and albumin levels were decreased significantly in both sexes in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. Histopathological studies revealed acinar cell apoptosis in the pancreas, inflammation and edema in stomach mucosa, and retinal atrophy of the eye in the 500 mg/kg group. Conclusion There were significant parameter changes in terms of anemia in the hematological and blood chemical analyses in the 250 and 500 mg/kg groups. The significant toxic change was observed to be below 125 mg/kg, so the no-observed-adverse-effect level was not determined, but the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level was considered to be 125 mg/kg in both sexes and the target organs were found to be the pancreas, eye, and stomach. PMID:25565829

  19. Phase II, Randomized, Placebo-controlled, 90-day Study of Emixustat HCL in Geographic Atrophy Associated with Dry Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dugel, Pravin U.; Novack, Roger L.; Csaky, Karl G.; Richmond, Preston P.; Birch, David G.; Kubota, Ryo

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study assessed the safety, tolerability, and pharmacodynamics of emixustat hydrochloride (ACU-4429), a novel visual cycle modulator, in subjects with geographic atrophy (GA) associated with dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods Subjects were randomly assigned to oral emixustat (2, 5, 7, or 10 mg once daily) or placebo (3:1 ratio) for 90 days. Recovery of rod photoreceptor sensitivity following a photobleach was measured by electroretinography. Safety evaluations included analysis of adverse events (AEs) and ophthalmic examinations. Results Seventy-two subjects (54 emixustat, 18 placebo) were evaluated. Emixustat suppressed rod photoreceptor sensitivity in a dose-dependent manner. Suppression plateaued by Day 14, and was reversible within 7-14 days after drug cessation. No systemic AEs of concern were noted. Dose-related ocular AEs (chromatopsia, 57% emixustat vs. 17% placebo; and delayed dark adaptation, 48% emixustat vs. 6% placebo) were mild to moderate, and the majority resolved on study or within 7-14 days after study drug cessation. Conclusions In this phase II study, emixustat produced a dose-dependent, reversible effect on rod function, and an ocular AE profile that is consistent with the proposed mechanism of action. These results support further testing of emixustat for the treatment of GA associated with dry AMD. PMID:25932553

  20. ADATSA Follow-Up Study of Extended Outpatient Care: A Comparison of 90 Days versus 180 Days of Outpatient Treatment for Clients of Washington State's Alcoholism and Drug Addiction Treatment and Support Act.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Der Hyde, Vincent A.; And Others

    This study was designed to compare outcomes for two groups of alcohol and substance abuse clients (N=230): a control group assigned to regular 90 days of outpatient treatment, and an experimental group assigned to 180 days of extended outpatient care. Outcomes were compared in the following nine categories: (1) relapse, measured as reported…

  1. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis(®)). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist's armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  2. Cariogram outcome after 90 days of oral treatment with Streptococcus salivarius M18 in children at high risk for dental caries: results of a randomized, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Di Pierro, Francesco; Zanvit, Alberto; Nobili, Piero; Risso, Paolo; Fornaini, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Cariogram is a well-recognized algorithm-based software program based on different caries-related risk factors and intended to aid clinicians in performing more objective and consistent dental caries risk assessments. This type of approach precedes the diagnosis of caries and allows the dentist to identify at-risk patients and then take appropriate preventive measures before caries develop further. One of the etiological factors favoring the development of dental caries is the mutans streptococci. These acidogenic dental plaque inhabitants can be effectively antagonized by the activity of bacteriocins released by the probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 (salivarius M18). Moreover, salivarius M18 after colonizing the human oral mucosa produces the enzymes dextranase and urease that are able to counteract plaque formation and saliva acidity, respectively. Seventy-six subjects at high risk of dental caries were randomized and then either treated or not treated for 90 days with an oral formulation containing the oral probiotic salivarius M18 (Carioblis®). The results indicate that the use of salivarius M18 increases the chances of avoiding new dental caries development in children, and its application could be proposed as a new tool in the dentist’s armory to be adopted in subjects considered at high risk on the basis of their Cariogram outcome. PMID:26491371

  3. Exposure to Pb, Cd, and As mixtures potentiates the production of oxidative stress precursors: 30-day, 90-day, and 180-day drinking water studies in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, Margaret H.; Wang, Gensheng; Chen Xueqing; Lipsky, Michael; Smith, Donald; Gwiazda, Roberto; Fowler, Bruce A.

    2011-07-15

    Exposure to chemical mixtures is a common and important determinant of toxicity and is of particular concern due to their appearance in sources of drinking water. Despite this, few in vivo mixture studies have been conducted to date to understand the health impact of chemical mixtures compared to single chemicals. Interactive effects of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and arsenic (As) were evaluated in 30-, 90-, and 180-day factorial design drinking water studies in rats designed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of such mixtures at individual component Lowest-Observed-Effect-Levels (LOELs) results in increased levels of the pro-oxidant delta aminolevulinic acid (ALA), iron, and copper. LOEL levels of Pb, Cd, and As mixtures resulted in the increased presence of mediators of oxidative stress such as ALA, copper, and iron. ALA increases were followed by statistically significant increases in kidney copper in the 90- and 180-day studies. Statistical evidence of interaction was identified for six biologically relevant variables: blood delta aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), kidney ALAD, urinary ALA, urinary iron, kidney iron, and kidney copper. The current investigations underscore the importance of considering interactive effects that common toxic agents such as Pb, Cd, and As may have upon one another at low-dose levels. The interactions between known toxic trace elements at biologically relevant concentrations shown here demonstrate a clear need to rigorously review methods by which national/international agencies assess health risks of chemicals, since exposures may commonly occur as complex mixtures.

  4. Safety evaluation of AB-LIFE(®) (Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 7527, 7528 and 7529): Antibiotic resistance and 90-day repeated-dose study in rats.

    PubMed

    Mukerji, Pushkor; Roper, Jason M; Stahl, Buffy; Smith, Amy B; Burns, Frank; Rae, Jessica Caverly; Yeung, Nicolas; Lyra, Anna; Svärd, Laura; Saarinen, Markku T; Alhoniemi, Esa; Ibarra, Alvin; Ouwehand, Arthur C

    2016-06-01

    AB-LIFE(®) is a probiotic product consisting of equal parts of three strains of Lactobacillus plantarum (CECT 7527, 7528, and 7529) blended with inert excipients. Whole genome sequencing was performed on each of the three strains. Antibiotic resistance was evaluated by genomic mining for resistance genes, and assessment for transferability. No risk of transfer potential was identified for any antibiotic resistance genes in the three strains. AB-LIFE(®) was evaluated for potential subchronic oral toxicity in rats, with dosages of 300 and 1000 mg/kg BW/day (equivalent to 5.55 × 10(10) and 1.85 × 10(11) CFU/kg BW/day). Survival of the three test strains through the gastrointestinal tract was supported by fecal analysis. No adverse effects were identified with respect to in-life parameters, clinical or anatomic pathology, translocation, or fecal chemical analyses. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) for AB-LIFE(®) in male and female rats was 1000 mg/kg BW/day (1.85 × 10(11) CFU of AB-LIFE(®)/kg BW/day), the highest dose level evaluated. These results, in conjunction with a previous acute toxicity study in rats, support the conclusion that AB-LIFE(®) is safe for human consumption. PMID:27016492

  5. A 90-day subchronic study of rats fed lean pork from genetically modified pigs with muscle-specific expression of recombinant follistatin.

    PubMed

    Zou, Shiying; Tang, Min; He, Xiaoyun; Cao, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Wentao; Liang, Zhihong; Huang, Kunlun

    2015-11-01

    Because cardiovascular disease incidence has rapidly increased in recent years, people are choosing relatively healthier diets with low animal fat. A transgenic pig with low fat and a high percentage of lean meat was created in 2011; this pig overexpresses the follistatin (FST) gene. To evaluate the safety of lean pork derived from genetically modified (GM) pigs, a subchronic oral toxicity study was conducted using Sprague-Dawley rats. GM pork and non-GM pork were incorporated into the diet at levels of 3.75%, 7.5%, and 15% (w/w), and the main nutrients of the various diets were subsequently balanced. The safety of GM pork was assessed by comparison of the toxicology response variables in Sprague-Dawley rats consuming diets containing GM pork with those consuming non-GM pork. No treatment-related adverse or toxic effects were observed based on an examination of the daily clinical signs, body weight, food consumption, hematology, serum biochemistry, and organ weight or based on gross and histopathological examination. The results demonstrate that GM pork is as safe for consumption as conventional pork. PMID:26363208

  6. Baroreflex Sensitivity Decreases During 90-Day Bed Rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stenger, M. B.; Arzeno, N. M.; Platts, S. H.

    2008-01-01

    Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) decreases during spaceflight and simulated spaceflight (head down bed rest [BR]). However, previous studies have only examined BRS in response to a limited blood pressure (BP) range or to a single sudden change in BP. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine BRS during 90 days of 6deg head-down tilt BR over a broad range of BP perturbations. METHODS: Nineteen normal volunteers (12M, 7F) were tested one day before BR, and then near BR days 30, 60 and 90. BP was pharmacologically altered by continuous infusions of phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP). Electrocardiogram and continuous BP were collected during 10 min of normal saline (NS), followed by increasing concentrations of PE (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8 and 1.6 micro-g/kg/min). After a 20 min break, NS was infused again for 10 min, followed by increasing concentrations of SNP (10 min each of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 micro-g/kg/min). Baroreceptor sensitivity was measured as the slope of a sequence of 3 or more beats in which the systolic BP and following R-R interval (RR) both increased or decreased. Spectral heart rate variability (HRV) and mean RR were analyzed using data from only the NS infusions. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to examine the effects of BR and gender. RESULTS: RR decreased (p<0.001) from pre- BR across BR days. High frequency in normalized units, a measure of parasympathetic activity, decreased with BR (p=0.027) and was lower (p=0.046) in men (0.39+/-0.02, mean+/-SEM) than women (0.48+/-0.02). The spontaneous baroreflex slope, our measure of BRS, increased with PE and decreased with SNP across BR (p<0.001). The percentage decrease in BRS from pre- to post-BR appeared to be larger in women (43.6+/-7.0%) than in men (31.3+/-3.9%, p=0.06). CONCLUSION: Parasympathetic activity and baroreflex sensitivity decrease during 90 days of BR, and BRS tends to diminish more in women than in men.

  7. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity. 799.9346 Section 799.9346 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION OF SPECIFIC CHEMICAL SUBSTANCE AND MIXTURE TESTING REQUIREMENTS Health Effects Test Guidelines...

  8. First Report of 90-Day Support of Two Calves with a Continuous-Flow Total Artificial Heart

    PubMed Central

    Karimov, Jamshid H.; Moazami, Nader; Kobayashi, Mariko; Sale, Shiva; Such, Kimberly; Byram, Nicole; Sunagawa, Gengo; Horvath, David; Gao, Shengqiang; Kuban, Barry; Golding, Leonard A.; Fukamachi, Kiyotaka

    2015-01-01

    Objective The Cleveland Clinic continuous-flow total artificial heart (CFTAH) is a compact, single-piece, valveless, pulsatile pump providing self-regulated hemodynamic output to left/right circulation. We evaluated chronic in vivo pump performance, physiologic and hemodynamic parameters, and biocompatibility of the CFTAH in a well-established calf model. Methods CFTAH pumps have been implanted in 17 calves total. Hemodynamics, pump performance, and device-related adverse events were evaluated during studies and at necropsy. Results In vivo experiments demonstrated good hemodynamic performance (pump flow, 7.3 ± 0.7 L/min; left atrial pressure [LAP], 16 ± 3 mm Hg; right atrial pressure [RAP], 17 ± 3 mm Hg; RAP-LAP difference, 1 ± 2 mm Hg; mean arterial pressure, 103 ± 7 mm Hg; arterial pulse pressure, 30 ± 11 mm Hg; pulmonary arterial pressure, 34 ± 5 mm Hg). The CFTAH has operated within design specifications and never failed. With ever-improving pump design, the implants have shown no chronic hemolysis. Three recent animals with the CFTAH recovered well, with no postoperative anticoagulation, during planned in vivo durations of 30, 90, and 90 days (last two were intended to be 90-day studies). All these longest-surviving cases showed good biocompatibility, with no thromboembolism in organs. Conclusions The current CFTAH has demonstrated reliable self-regulation of hemodynamic output and acceptable biocompatibility without anticoagulation throughout 90 days of chronic implantation in calves. Meeting these milestones is in accord with our strategy to achieve transfer of this unique technology to surgical practice, thus filling the urgent need for cardiac replacement devices as destination therapy. PMID:26173607

  9. A 90-Day Tenofovir Reservoir Intravaginal Ring for Mucosal HIV Prophylaxis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Todd J.; Clark, Meredith R.; Albright, Theodore H.; Nebeker, Joel S.; Tuitupou, Anthony L.; Clark, Justin T.; Fabian, Judit; McCabe, R. Tyler; Chandra, Neelima; Doncel, Gustavo F.; Friend, David R.

    2012-01-01

    A vaginal gel containing the antiretroviral tenofovir (TFV) recently demonstrated 39% protection against HIV infection in women. We designed and evaluated a novel reservoir TFV intravaginal ring (IVR) to potentially improve product effectiveness by providing a more controlled and sustained vaginal dose to maintain cervicovaginal concentrations. Polyurethane tubing of various hydrophilicities was filled with a high-density TFV/glycerol/water semisolid paste and then end-sealed to create IVRs. In vitro, TFV release increased with polyurethane hydrophilicity, with 35 weight percent water-swelling polyurethane IVRs achieving an approximately 10-mg/day release for 90 days with mechanical stiffness similar to that of the commercially available NuvaRing. This design was evaluated in two 90-day in vivo sheep studies for TFV pharmacokinetics and safety. Overall, TFV vaginal tissue, vaginal fluid, and plasma levels were relatively time independent over the 90-day duration at approximately 104 ng/g, 106 ng/g, and 101 ng/ml, respectively, near or exceeding the highest observed concentrations in a TFV 1% gel control group. TFV vaginal fluid concentrations were approximately 1,000-fold greater than levels shown to provide significant protection in women using the TFV 1% gel. There were no toxicological findings following placebo and TFV IVR treatment for 28 or 90 days, although slight to moderate increases in inflammatory infiltrates in the vaginal epithelia were observed in these animals compared to naïve animals. In summary, the controlled release of TFV from this reservoir IVR provided elevated sheep vaginal concentrations for 90 days to merit its further evaluation as an HIV prophylactic. PMID:23006751

  10. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Larry W.

    1989-01-01

    The longterm goal of this research is to identify or create a model for use in analyzing the reliability of flight control software. The immediate tasks addressed are the creation of data useful to the study of software reliability and production of results pertinent to software reliability through the analysis of existing reliability models and data. The completed data creation portion of this research consists of a Generic Checkout System (GCS) design document created in cooperation with NASA and Research Triangle Institute (RTI) experimenters. This will lead to design and code reviews with the resulting product being one of the versions used in the Terminal Descent Experiment being conducted by the Systems Validations Methods Branch (SVMB) of NASA/Langley. An appended paper details an investigation of the Jelinski-Moranda and Geometric models for software reliability. The models were given data from a process that they have correctly simulated and asked to make predictions about the reliability of that process. It was found that either model will usually fail to make good predictions. These problems were attributed to randomness in the data and replication of data was recommended.

  11. The impact of 90-day prescriptions on adherence at workplace pharmacies compared to traditional mail order.

    PubMed

    Patwardhan, Avinash; Davis, Jeffery; Murphy, Patricia; Khandelwal, Nikhil; Sherman, Bruce; Manfred, James

    2011-12-01

    This study evaluated adherence to medications used to treat chronic conditions for patients with 90-day prescriptions, comparing patients with access to workplace pharmacy services versus patients using mail order services. De-identified pharmacy claims data were used to compute medication possession ratio and gaps in therapy. Results were compared for patients who filled 90-day prescriptions at workplace pharmacies versus patients who filled 90-day prescriptions using mail order pharmacy services in a 1-year period. Statistical tests to assess between group differences were performed controlling for differences because of age, sex, number of select chronic conditions, number of unique medication therapeutic classes, and patient out-of-pocket cost per therapy day. Statistically significant differences were found between patients who filled their maintenance medications at the worksite compared to those who used mail-order pharmacy services. Patients filling prescriptions at a workplace pharmacy were 22% less likely to have a gap in therapy of over 30 days compared to similar patients using mail order services. Workplace pharmacy utilizers also had overall adherence rates 3.68% higher than patients who utilized mail order pharmacy services. Our analysis suggests that it may not be just the quantity of medication dispensed that impacts patients' adherence to their prescription medication, but a variety of other factors including pharmacist-patient interaction. Having a pharmacist on-site and available to patients with chronic considerations could provide added value. These results can aid employers and other stakeholders to decide which prescription benefits to offer their employees and members. PMID:22092153

  12. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... to the initiation of the study and periodically during the study. Statistically randomized samples...

  13. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... to the initiation of the study and periodically during the study. Statistically randomized samples...

  14. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the... to the initiation of the study and periodically during the study. Statistically randomized samples...

  15. The 90-day oral toxicity of d-psicose in male Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Tatsuhiro; Ishii, Reika; Shirai, Yoko

    2012-01-01

    d-Psicose is a rare sugar present in small quantities in natural products. In a previous study, we showed that d-psicose suppresses increase in plasma glucose and reduces body fat accumulation in rats. Based on acute toxicity testing in rats, d-psicose is classified as an ordinary substance (LD50 = 16 g/kg). Elucidating the effects of sub-chronic feeding of d-psicose in rats is essential before it can be utilized as a physiologically functional food. In this study, male Wistar rats (3 weeks old) were fed diets containing 3% d-psicose or sucrose for 90 days. The body weight gain and intra-abdominal adipose tissue weight did not differ between the sucrose and the d-psicose groups. The weights of the liver and kidneys were significantly higher in the d-psicose group than in the sucrose group. However, no gross pathological findings were evident at dietary doses of 3% d-psicose or were correlated with hypertrophy of the liver and kidney. In a clinical chemistry analysis, the erythrocyte and leukocyte courts were significantly higher in the d-psicose group, but that was not considered to be toxicologically significant. Therefore, the present study found no adverse effects of d-psicose in rats fed a diet containing 3% d-psicosefor 90 days. PMID:22448098

  16. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... concentration, white blood cell count, differential leukocyte count, platelet count, and a measure of clotting... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  17. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... concentration, white blood cell count, differential leukocyte count, platelet count, and a measure of clotting... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  18. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  19. 40 CFR 799.9346 - TSCA 90-day inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information shall be reported... equipment. The study shall be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR part 792—Good Laboratory...

  20. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  1. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  2. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home... ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Mobile Homes § 24.503 Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  3. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  4. 19 CFR Annex Viii-A to Part 351 - Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Schedule for 90-Day Sunset Reviews VIII Annex VIII-A to Part 351 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Pt. 351, Annex VIII-A Annex VIII-A to Part 351—Schedule for 90-Day...

  5. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. 24.503 Section 24.503 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  6. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. 24.503 Section 24.503 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  7. 49 CFR 24.503 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. 24.503 Section 24.503 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... Replacement housing payment for 90-day mobile home occupants. A displaced tenant or owner-occupant of a...

  8. Toxicity of colloidal silica nanoparticles administered orally for 90 days in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Seung-Young; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Seo, Heung-Sik; Shin, Sung-Sup; Kim, Seon-Ju; Meang, Eun-Ho; Park, Myeong-Kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Lee, Beom-Jun; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential toxicity and establish the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) and target organ(s) of negatively charged colloidal silica particles of different sizes, ie, SiO2EN20(−) (20 nm) or SiO2EN100(−) 2(100 nm), administered by gavage in Sprague-Dawley rats. After verification of the physicochemical properties of the SiO2 particles to be tested, a preliminary dose range-finding study and 90-day repeated dose study were conducted according to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline. Based on the results of the 14-day dose range-finding study, a high dose was determined to be 2,000 mg/kg, and middle and low doses were set at 1,000 and 500 mg/kg, respectively. In the 90-day toxicity study, there were no animal deaths in relation to administration of SiO2 particles of either size. In addition, no treatment-related clinical changes or histopathological findings were observed in any of the experimental groups. Moreover, no difference in toxic effects from chronic exposure to SiO2EN20(−)(20 nm) or SiO2EN100(−) (100 nm) was observed. The results of this study indicate that the NOAEL for SiO2EN20(−) and SiO2 EN100(−) would most likely be 2,000 mg/kg, and no target organ was identified in rats of either sex. PMID:25565827

  9. Parametric Mass Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James P.

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) systems are designed based upon having redundant systems with replaceable orbital replacement units (ORUs). These ORUs are designed to be swapped out fairly quickly, but some are very large, and some are made up of many components. When an ORU fails, it is replaced on orbit with a spare; the failed unit is sometimes returned to Earth to be serviced and re-launched. Such a system is not feasible for a 500+ day long-duration mission beyond low Earth orbit. The components that make up these ORUs have mixed reliabilities. Components that make up the most mass-such as computer housings, pump casings, and the silicon board of PCBs-typically are the most reliable. Meanwhile components that tend to fail the earliest-such as seals or gaskets-typically have a small mass. To better understand the problem, my project is to create a parametric model that relates both the mass of ORUs to reliability, as well as the mass of ORU subcomponents to reliability.

  10. Co-morbidities and 90-day outcomes in hospitalized COPD exacerbations.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Christopher M; Stone, Robert A; Lowe, Derek; Pursey, Nancy A; Buckingham, Rhona J

    2011-10-01

    COPD exacerbations resulting in hospitalization are accompanied by high mortality and morbidity. The contribution of specific co-morbidities to acute outcomes is not known in detail: existing studies have used either administrative data or small clinical cohorts and have provided conflicting results. Identification of co-existent diseases that affect outcomes provides opportunities to address these conditions proactively and improve overall COPD care. Cases were identified prospectively on admission then underwent retrospective case note audit to collect data including co-morbidities on up to 60 unselected consecutive acute COPD admissions between March and May in each hospital participating in the 2008 UK National COPD audit. Outcomes recorded were death in hospital, length of stay, and death and readmission at 90 days after index admission. 232 hospitals collected data on 9716 patients, mean age 73, 50% male, mean FEV1 42% predicted. Prevalence of co-morbidities were associated with increased age but better FEV1 and ex-smoker status and with worse outcomes for all four measures. Hospital mortality risk was increased with cor pulmonale, left ventricular failure, neurological conditions and non-respiratory malignancies whilst 90 day death was also increased by lung cancer and arrhythmias. Ischaemic and other heart diseases were important factors in readmission. This study demonstrates that co-morbidities adversely affect a range of short-term patient outcomes related to acute admission to hospital with exacerbations of COPD. Recognition of relevant accompanying diseases at admission provides an opportunity for specific interventions that may improve short-term prognosis. PMID:21864116

  11. Software reliability studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoppa, Mary Ann; Wilson, Larry W.

    1994-01-01

    There are many software reliability models which try to predict future performance of software based on data generated by the debugging process. Our research has shown that by improving the quality of the data one can greatly improve the predictions. We are working on methodologies which control some of the randomness inherent in the standard data generation processes in order to improve the accuracy of predictions. Our contribution is twofold in that we describe an experimental methodology using a data structure called the debugging graph and apply this methodology to assess the robustness of existing models. The debugging graph is used to analyze the effects of various fault recovery orders on the predictive accuracy of several well-known software reliability algorithms. We found that, along a particular debugging path in the graph, the predictive performance of different models can vary greatly. Similarly, just because a model 'fits' a given path's data well does not guarantee that the model would perform well on a different path. Further we observed bug interactions and noted their potential effects on the predictive process. We saw that not only do different faults fail at different rates, but that those rates can be affected by the particular debugging stage at which the rates are evaluated. Based on our experiment, we conjecture that the accuracy of a reliability prediction is affected by the fault recovery order as well as by fault interaction.

  12. Preliminary assessment of the relative toxicity of 1,5-diazido-3-nitrazapentane 90-day dermal application male and female rabbits study number 75-51-y809-90, May 1990 - June 1992. Phase 2. Final report, May 1990-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Haight, E.A.; Harvey, J.G.; Beall, P.

    1992-06-01

    A 90-day application of DANPE has the potential to cause testicular hypospermatogenesis in male rabbits and an apparent inhibition of mature ovarian follicles formation in female rabbits. A no-observed-adverse-effect-level was not achieved in the male rabbits but was achieved in female rabbits at 27.3 mg/kg dose level.... 1,5-Diazido-3-Nitrazapentane, Dermal, Approximate Lethal Dose (ALD), Testicular hypospermatogenesis, Ovarian follicle No-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL).

  13. Ferrite logic reliability study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, J. A.; Clark, C. B.

    1973-01-01

    Development and use of digital circuits called all-magnetic logic are reported. In these circuits the magnetic elements and their windings comprise the active circuit devices in the logic portion of a system. The ferrite logic device belongs to the all-magnetic class of logic circuits. The FLO device is novel in that it makes use of a dual or bimaterial ferrite composition in one physical ceramic body. This bimaterial feature, coupled with its potential for relatively high speed operation, makes it attractive for high reliability applications. (Maximum speed of operation approximately 50 kHz.)

  14. Readmission After Robot-assisted Radical Cystectomy: Outcomes and Predictors at 90-Day Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Al-Daghmin, Ali; Aboumohamed, Ahmed; Din, Rakeeba; Khan, Aabroo; Raza, Syed Johar; Sztorc, Jenna; Mehedint, Diana; Sharif, Mohammad; Shi, Yi; Wilding, Gregory; Guru, Khurshid A.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize the outcomes and predictors of readmission after robot-assisted radical cystectomy (RARC) during early (30-day) and late (31–90–day) postoperative periods. METHODS We retrospectively evaluated our prospectively maintained RARC quality assurance database of 272 consecutive patients operated between 2005 and 2012. We evaluated the relationship of readmission with perioperative outcomes and examined possible predictors during the postoperative period. RESULTS Overall 30- and 90-day mortality was 0.7% and 4.8%, respectively, with 25.5% patients readmitted within 90 days after RARC (61% of them were readmitted within 30 days and 39% were readmitted between 31–90 days postoperatively). Infection-related problems were the most common cause of readmission during early and late periods. Overall operative time and obesity were significantly associated with readmission (P = .034 and .033, respectively). Body mass index and female gender were independent predictors of 90-day readmission (P = .004 and .014, respectively). Having any type of complication correlated with 90-day readmission (P = .0045); meanwhile, when complications were graded on the basis of Clavien grading system, only grade 1–2 complications statistically correlated with readmission (P = .046). Four patients needed reoperation (2 patients in early “for appendicitis and adhesive small bowel obstruction” and 2 in late “for ureteroenteric stricture” readmission); meanwhile, 6 patients needed percutaneous procedures (4 patients in early “1 for anastomotic leak and 3 for pelvic collections” and 2 “for pelvic collections and ureterocutaneous fistula” in late readmission). CONCLUSION The rate of readmission within 90 days after RARC is significant. Female gender and body mass index are independent predictors of readmission. Outcomes at 90 days provide more thorough results, essential to proper patient counseling. PMID:24468509

  15. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  16. Evaluation of silica nanoparticle toxicity after topical exposure for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Hwa Jung; Seong, Nak-won; So, Byoung Joon; Seo, Heung-sik; Kim, Jun-ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Park, Myeong-kyu; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Yu-Ri; Cho, Kyu-Bong; Seo, Mu Yeb; Kim, Meyoung-Kon; Maeng, Eun Ho; Son, Sang Wook

    2014-01-01

    Silica is a very common material that can be found in both crystalline and amorphous forms. Well-known toxicities of the lung can occur after exposure to the crystalline form of silica. However, the toxicities of the amorphous form of silica have not been thoroughly studied. The majority of in vivo studies of amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) were performed using an inhalation exposure method. Since silica NPs can be commonly administered through the skin, a study of dermal silica toxicity was necessary to determine any harmful effects from dermal exposures. The present study focused on the results of systemic toxicity after applying 20 nm colloidal silica NPs on rat skin for 90 days, in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development test guideline 411 with a good laboratory practice system. Unlike the inhalation route or gastrointestinal route, the contact of silica NPs through skin did not result in any toxicity or any change in internal organs up to a dose of 2,000 mg/kg in rats. PMID:25565831

  17. Influences of northward propagating 25-90-day and quasi-biweekly oscillations on eastern China summer rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiepeng; Wen, Zhiping; Wu, Renguang; Chen, Zesheng; Zhao, Ping

    2015-07-01

    The present study reveals that rainfall anomalies associated with the 25-90-day (quasi-biweekly) tropical convective activity propagates northward (northwestward) into northern China (the Yangtze River). Enhanced rainfall over southern China results directly from enhanced convection propagating northward from the South China Sea (SCS)-western north Pacific (WNP), strengthened northward water vapor transport and intensified upper-level divergence. The anomalous anticyclone over SCS-WNP, which is induced by local lower sea surface temperature, provides a favorable condition for transporting more moisture to southern China. Stronger subtropical westerly jet and South Asia high strengthen upper-level divergence. The northward propagating 25-90-day oscillation over eastern China reaches farther north than the quasi-biweekly oscillation (QBWO). The intensity of QBWO in summer rainfall has significantly strengthened over southern China after 1993 but not for the 25-90-day oscillation. This is mainly contributed by an interdecadal increase in rainfall over southern China and the Yangtze River Basin in the wet phases of QBWO. The interdecadal enhancement of rainfall associated with the QBWO is attributed to three factors. One is lower tropospheric convergence caused by anomalous anticyclone over the WNP and anomalous cyclone over Korean Peninsula and Japan. The second is upper tropospheric divergence resulting from strengthening of subtropical westerly jet and the South Asia high. The last is enhanced ascent over South China through meridional vertical circulation.

  18. A 90-Day Oral Toxicological Evaluation of the Methylurate Purine Alkaloid Theacrine

    PubMed Central

    Hirka, Gábor; Glávits, Róbert; Palmer, Philip A.; Endres, John R.; Pasics Szakonyiné, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    A 90-day repeated-dose oral toxicological evaluation was conducted according to GLP and OECD guidelines on the methylurate purine alkaloid theacrine, which is found naturally in certain plants. Four groups of Hsd.Brl.Han Wistar rats (ten/sex/group) were administered theacrine by gavage doses of 0 (vehicle only), 180, 300, and 375 mg/kg bw/day. Two females and one male in the 300 and 375 mg/kg bw/day groups, respectively, died during the study. Histological examination revealed centrilobular hepatocellular necrosis as the probable cause of death. In 375 mg/kg bw/day males, slight reductions in body weight development, food consumption, and feed efficiency, decreased weight of the testes and epididymides and decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides, and decreased amount of prostatic secretions were detected at the end of the three months. At 300 mg/kg bw/day, slight decreases in the weights of the testes and epididymides, along with decreased intensity of spermatogenesis in the testes, and lack or decreased amount of mature spermatozoa in the epididymides were detected in male animals. The NOAEL was considered to be 180 mg/kg bw/day, as at this dose there were no toxicologically relevant treatment-related findings in male or female animals.

  19. SUBCHRONIC 90-DAY TOXICITY OF DICHLOROACETIC AND TRICHLORACETIC ACID IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with either dichloroacetic acid (DCA) or trichloroacetic acid (TCA) in the drinking water at levels of 0, 50, 500 and 5000 ppm for a period of 90 days to determine the toxicities associated with subchronic exposure. ll animals were sacrificed...

  20. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. 24.402 Section 24.402 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION... classified as “low income” by the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Annual Survey of...

  1. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants. 24.402 Section 24.402 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM RELOCATION ASSISTANCE AND REAL PROPERTY ACQUISITION FOR FEDERAL AND FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS Replacement...

  2. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations... or she moves from the displacement dwelling; or (ii) For an owner-occupant, the later of: (A) The date he or she receives final payment for the displacement dwelling, or in the case of...

  3. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations... or she moves from the displacement dwelling; or (ii) For an owner-occupant, the later of: (A) The date he or she receives final payment for the displacement dwelling, or in the case of...

  4. 49 CFR 24.402 - Replacement housing payment for 90-day occupants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... occupied the displacement dwelling for at least 90 days immediately prior to the initiation of negotiations... or she moves from the displacement dwelling; or (ii) For an owner-occupant, the later of: (A) The date he or she receives final payment for the displacement dwelling, or in the case of...

  5. Intra- and Inter-Patient Symptom Variability in Fibromyalgia: Results of a 90-Day Assessment.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Loren; Vincent, Ann; McAllister, Samantha J; Whipple, Mary

    2015-06-01

    Symptoms of fibromyalgia (FM)--chronic widespread pain, fatigue, unrefreshing sleep, dyscognition etcetera--present with varying degrees of severity in different individuals; however, studies reporting daily estimates of variability of symptoms are sparse. Given the limited literature on the stability and variability of FM symptoms, the purpose of the present study was to determine the feasibility of daily visual analogue, self-report measures to assess daily variability and time trends in core FM symptoms. Ten female patients completed daily assessments of common FM symptoms (pain, fatigue, anxiety, depression, stress, cognitive dysfunction, unrefreshing sleep and lightheadedness) for approximately 90 days. The completion rate was excellent (89.6%). The results demonstrated that average symptom intensity differs markedly across the different symptoms that were measured. Unrefreshing sleep, fatigue and pain are clearly higher in intensity than other symptoms and are followed by memory problems, stress, anxiety and depression. There is also notable average intra-individual change across time (10-15 points on a 100-point scale). Average symptom intensity does not appear to be related to the amount of symptom change within individuals. The results of the present study confirm that intensive longitudinal study, using comprehensive symptom assessment in patients with FM, is both possible and informative, in the sense that a rich description of the daily experience of living with FM can be obtained. Future work, utilizing larger samples, will offer the opportunity to investigate better the causes, consequences and correlates of the daily ups and downs of key symptoms that compromise quality of life in patients with FM. PMID:25408116

  6. 12 CFR 220.117 - Exception to 90-day rule in special cash account.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the language and intent of the above-quoted exception in § 220.4(c)(8), until it has been honored by... substantially the same as language found in section 4(f) of Regulation T as originally promulgated in 1934. The language of the subject exception to the 90-day rule of § 220.4(c)(8), i.e., the exception based...

  7. The development and succession of microbial communities in 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yi; Liu, Hong; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Bojie; Su, Qiang; Xie, Beizhen; Qin, Youcai; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    Lunar Palace 1, as an integrative experiment facility for permanent astrobase life-support artificial closed ecosystem, is an artificial ecosystem which consists of plant cultivation, animal breeding and waste treatment units. It has been used to carry out a 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three crew members. Apparently, it’s hard to prevent the growth of microorganisms in such closed ecosystem for their strong adaptive capacity. Original microorganisms in the cabin, microbes in the course of loads delivery and the autologous microorganism by crew members and animals themselves are all the main source of the interior microorganisms, which may grow and regenerate in air, water and plants. Therefore, if these microorganisms could not be effectively monitored and controlled, it may cause microbial contamination and even lead to the unsteadiness of the whole closed ecosystem. In this study, the development and succession of the microbial communities of air, water system, plant system, and key facilities surfaces in Lunar Palace 1 were continuously monitored and analyzed by using plate counting method and molecular biological method during the 90-day experiment. The results were quite useful for the controlling of internal microorganisms and the safe operation of the whole system, and could also reveal the succession rules of microorganisms in an artificial closed ecosystem.

  8. 76 FR 12683 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Texas Kangaroo Rat as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the...

  9. 75 FR 19925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... 90-day finding (56 FR 1159) indicating that the fisher in the Pacific States is a distinct population... habitat needs, population size and trends, and demographic parameters (56 FR 1159). On December 29,...

  10. 76 FR 23256 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Arapahoe...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... published two 90-day findings, on January 6, 2009 (74 FR 419), and February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6122). The February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6122), 90-day finding concluded that the petition did not present substantial..., as critical habitat for the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) (68 FR 37275)....

  11. 77 FR 9618 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Thermophilic Ostracod as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  12. 78 FR 72622 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 11 Tarantula...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of petition finding and initiation of status review. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on...

  13. The added value of the 90-day repeated dose oral toxicity test for industrial chemicals with a low (sub)acute toxicity profile in a high quality dataset.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Katy; Andrew, David J; Rego, Laura

    2014-08-01

    A survey conducted on the EU Notification of New Substances (NONS) database suggested that for industrial chemicals with a profile of low toxicity in (sub)acute toxicity tests there is little added value to the conduct of the 90-day repeated dose study. Avoiding unnecessary animal testing is a central aim of the EU REACH chemicals legislation; therefore we sought to verify the profile using additional data. The OECD's eChemPortal was searched for substances that had both a 28-day and a 90-day study and their robust study summaries were then examined from the ECHA CHEM database. Out of 182 substances with high quality 28-day and 90-day study results, only 18 reported no toxicity of any kind in the (sub)acute tests. However, for 16 of these there were also no reported signs of toxicity at or close to the limit dose (1000mg/kgbw/d) in the 90-day study. Restricting the 'low (sub)acute toxicity in a high quality dataset' profile to general industrial chemicals of no known biological activity, whilst allowing irritant substances, increases the data set and improves the prediction to 95% (20 substances out of 21 substances). The low toxicity profile appears to be of low prevalence within industrial chemicals (10-15%), nevertheless, avoidance of the conduct of a redundant 90-day study for this proportion of the remaining REACH phase-in substances would avoid the use of nearly 50,000 animals and save industry 50million Euros, with no impact on the assessment of human health. PMID:24768988

  14. Program operational summary: Operational 90 day manned test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J. K.; Wamsley, J. R.; Bonura, M. S.; Seeman, J. S.

    1972-01-01

    An operational 90-day manned test of a regenerative life support system was successfully completed. This test was performed with a crew of four carefully selected and trained men in a space station simulator (SSS) which had a two gas atmosphere maintained at a total pressure of 68.9, 10 psia, and composed of oxygen at a partial pressure of 3.05 psia with nitrogen as the diluent. The test was planned to provide data on regenerative life support subsystems and on integrated system operations in a closed ecology, similar to that of a space station. All crew equipment and expendables were stored onboard at the start of the mission to eliminate the need for pass-in operations. The significant accomplishments of the test, some of the pertinent test results, some of the problem areas, and conclusions are presented.

  15. Ultrastructural response of rat lung to 90 days' exposure to oxygen at 450 mm Hg

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    Young Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 100% oxygen at 450 mm Hg in constant environment capsules for 90 days. Lung tissue examined by electron microscopy revealed a number of changes, many similar to those observed after exposure to oxygen at 760 mm Hg for shorter periods of time. Alterations in vesicle size and number and in mitochondrial matrix and cristae appear in both the endothelial and epithelial cells. Blebbing and rarefication of cytoplasm occur in both cell layers of the alveolo-capillary wall. Also seen are fluid in the basement membrane, platelets in the capillaries, and alveolar fluid and debris. All of these alterations occur at 1 atm exposure. However, after exposure to 450 mm Hg the changes are not as widespread nor as destructive as they are at the higher pressure.

  16. Training plan for the 1164 {lt}90-day non-radioactive hazardous waste storage building

    SciTech Connect

    Demarest, J.L., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    In accordance with Washington Administrative Code (WAC), Chapter 173- 303, `Dangerous Waste Regulations,` a written training plan is required for a {lt}90-day accumulation area. WAC 173-303-200, `Accumulating Dangerous Waste On-site,` requires compliance with WAC- 173-303-330, Personnel Training. This training plan complies with WAC 173-303-330. This training plan, including the names of personnel in Table 1, may be given to a regulatory agency inspector upon request provided that this plan is cleared for public release. Training records associated with personnel identified in this plan are not be given to an outside regulatory agency inspector unless prior approval by the specific individual is obtained. Training records requests by regulatory agency inspectors without the individual`s approval are to be processed via a Freedom of Information Act request through the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office.

  17. Pulmonary toxicity of simulated lunar and Martian dusts in mice: I. Histopathology 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Cowper, Shawn; Balis, John; Muro-Cacho, Carlos

    2002-01-01

    O(3) and MSS coexposure appeared to be more than additive. Results for the TiO(2) and quartz controls were consistent with the known pulmonary toxicity of these compounds. The overall severity of lung injury was TiO(2) < LSS < MSS < O(3) + MSS < quartz. Except for TiO(2), the increased duration of dust presence in the lung from 7 to 90 days transformed the acute inflammatory response to a chronic inflammatory lesion. This study showed that LSS and MSS are more hazardous in the lungs than nuisance dusts.

  18. Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment for 90-days in a Closed Integrative Experimental Facility LUNAR PALACE 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong

    A 90-day bioregenerative life support experiment with three-member crew was carried out in the closed integrative experimental facility, LUNAR PALACE 1 regenerating basic living necessities and disposing wastes to provide life support for crew. It was composed of higher plant module, animal module, and waste treatment module. The higher plant module included wheat, chufa, pea, carrot and green leafy vegetables, with aim to satisfy requirement of 60% plant food and 100% O2 and water for crew. The yellow mealworm was selected as animal module to provide partial animal protein for crew, and reared on plant inedible biomass. The higher plant and yellow mealworm were both cultivated and harvested in the conveyor-type manner. The partial plant inedible biomass and human feces were mixed and co- fermented in the waste treatment module for preparation of soil-like substrate by bioconversion, maintaining gas balance and increasing closure degree. Meanwhile, in the waste treatment module, the water and partial nitrogen from human urine were recovered by physical-chemical means. Circulation of O2 and water as well as food supply from crops cultivated in the LUNAR PALACE 1 were investigated and calculated, and simultaneously gas exchange, mass flow among different components and system closure degree were also analyzed, respectively. Furthermore, the system robustness with respect to internal variation was tested and evaluated by sensitivity analysis of the aggregative index consisting of key performance indicators like crop yield, gaseous equilibrium concentration, microbial community composition, biogenic elements dynamics, etc., and comprehensively evaluating the operating state, to number change of crew from 2 to 4 during the 90-day closed experiment period.

  19. Toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles: a report of 90-day repeated oral administration in Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Park, Jong-Il; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, Eun-Ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Yun, Hyo-In; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used commercially in health and fitness fields, but information about the toxicity and mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of NPs is still very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect(s) of 100 nm negatively (ZnOAE100[−]) or positively (ZnOAE100[+]) charged zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs administered by gavage in Sprague Dawley rats, to establish a no observed adverse effect level, and to identify target organ(s). After verification of the primary particle size, morphology, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential of each test article, we performed a 90-day study according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 408. For the 90-day study, the high dose was set at 500 mg/kg and the middle and low doses were set at 125 mg/kg and 31.25 mg/kg, respectively. Both ZnO NPs had significant changes in hematological and blood biochemical analysis, which could correlate with anemia-related parameters, in the 500 mg/kg groups of both sexes. Histopathological examination showed significant adverse effects (by both test articles) in the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland tissues, but the particle charge did not affect the tendency or the degree of the lesions. We speculate that this inflammatory damage might result from continuous irritation caused by both test articles. Therefore, the target organs for both ZnOAE100(−) and ZnOAE100(+) are considered to be the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland. Also, the no observed adverse effect level for both test articles was identified as 31.25 mg/kg for both sexes, because the adverse effects were observed at all doses greater than 125 mg/kg. PMID:25565830

  20. Toxicity of 100 nm zinc oxide nanoparticles: a report of 90-day repeated oral administration in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Ri; Park, Jong-Il; Lee, Eun Jeong; Park, Sung Ha; Seong, Nak-won; Kim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Geon-Yong; Meang, Eun-Ho; Hong, Jeong-Sup; Kim, Su-Hyon; Koh, Sang-Bum; Kim, Min-Seok; Kim, Cheol-Su; Kim, Soo-Ki; Son, Sang Wook; Seo, Young Rok; Kang, Boo Hyon; Han, Beom Seok; An, Seong Soo A; Yun, Hyo-In; Kim, Meyoung-Kon

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are used commercially in health and fitness fields, but information about the toxicity and mechanisms underlying the toxic effects of NPs is still very limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the toxic effect(s) of 100 nm negatively (ZnO(AE100[-])) or positively (ZnO(AE100[+])) charged zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs administered by gavage in Sprague Dawley rats, to establish a no observed adverse effect level, and to identify target organ(s). After verification of the primary particle size, morphology, hydrodynamic size, and zeta potential of each test article, we performed a 90-day study according to Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development test guideline 408. For the 90-day study, the high dose was set at 500 mg/kg and the middle and low doses were set at 125 mg/kg and 31.25 mg/kg, respectively. Both ZnO NPs had significant changes in hematological and blood biochemical analysis, which could correlate with anemia-related parameters, in the 500 mg/kg groups of both sexes. Histopathological examination showed significant adverse effects (by both test articles) in the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland tissues, but the particle charge did not affect the tendency or the degree of the lesions. We speculate that this inflammatory damage might result from continuous irritation caused by both test articles. Therefore, the target organs for both ZnO(AE100(-)) and ZnO(AE100(+)) are considered to be the stomach, pancreas, eye, and prostate gland. Also, the no observed adverse effect level for both test articles was identified as 31.25 mg/kg for both sexes, because the adverse effects were observed at all doses greater than 125 mg/kg. PMID:25565830

  1. Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratio: A Novel Prognostic Factor for Prediction of 90-day Outcomes in Critically Ill Patients With Diabetic Ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wen-Yue; Lin, Shi-Gang; Wang, Li-Ren; Fang, Chen-Chen; Lin, Yi-Qian; Braddock, Martin; Zhu, Gui-Qi; Zhang, Zhongheng; Zheng, Ming-Hua; Shen, Fei-Xia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) is a life-threatening acute complication of diabetes mellitus and the novel systemic inflammation marker platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be associated with clinical outcome in patients with DKA. This study aimed to investigate the utility of PLR in predicting 90-day clinical outcomes in patients with DKA. Patient data exacted from the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC II) database was analyzed. A cutoff value for PLR of 267.67 was determined using Youden index (P < 0.05) and used to categorize subjects into a high PLR group and a low PLR group. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for DKA were calculated across PLR. Clinical outcomes in our study were defined as intensive care unit (ICU) 90-day readmission and all-cause mortality. A total of 278 ICU admissions were enrolled and stratified by cutoff value of PLR. The incidence of readmission and mortality was 17.8% in the high PLR group, significantly higher than 7.4% in the low PLR group. In the multivariable model, after adjusting for known confounding variables including clinical parameters, comorbidities, laboratory parameters, the HRs for DKA were 2.573 (95% CI 1.239-5.345; P = 0.011), 2.648 (95% CI 1.269-5.527; P = 0.009), and 2.650 (95% CI 1.114-6.306; P = 0.028), respectively. The Kaplan-Meier survival curve showed that a high PLR level was associated with a higher risk for 90-day outcomes in patients with DKA. The authors report that higher PLR presents a higher risk for 90-day incidence of readmission and mortality in patients with DKA. It appears to be a novel independent predictor of 90-day outcomes in critically ill DKA patients in ICU units. PMID:26825908

  2. The Model for End-stage Liver Disease accurately predicts 90-day liver transplant wait-list mortality in Atlantic Canada

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, Paul Douglas; Quan, Hude; Doig, Christopher James; Dixon, Elijah; Molinari, Michele

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the generalizability of the predictions for 90-day mortality generated by Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) and the serum sodium augmented MELD (MELDNa) to Atlantic Canadian adults with end-stage liver disease awaiting liver transplantation (LT). METHODS: The predictive accuracy of the MELD and the MELDNa was evaluated by measurement of the discrimination and calibration of the respective models’ estimates for the occurrence of 90-day mortality in a consecutive cohort of LT candidates accrued over a five-year period. Accuracy of discrimination was measured by the area under the ROC curves. Calibration accuracy was evaluated by comparing the observed and model-estimated incidences of 90-day wait-list failure for the total cohort and within quantiles of risk. RESULTS: The area under the ROC curve for the MELD was 0.887 (95% CI 0.705 to 0.978) – consistent with very good accuracy of discrimination. The area under the ROC curve for the MELDNa was 0.848 (95% CI 0.681 to 0.965). The observed incidence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the validation cohort was 7.9%, which was not significantly different from the MELD estimate of 6.6% (95% CI 4.9% to 8.4%; P=0.177) or the MELDNa estimate of 5.8% (95% CI 3.5% to 8.0%; P=0.065). Global goodness-of-fit testing found no evidence of significant lack of fit for either model (Hosmer-Lemeshow χ2 [df=3] for MELD 2.941, P=0.401; for MELDNa 2.895, P=0.414). CONCLUSION: Both the MELD and the MELDNa accurately predicted the occurrence of 90-day wait-list mortality in the study cohort and, therefore, are generalizable to Atlantic Canadians with end-stage liver disease awaiting LT. PMID:21876856

  3. 78 FR 10601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 44 Species of Corals as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-14

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC209 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day... Species Act AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... temperature, availability of hard substrate, currents and sediment load, and seawater chemistry...

  4. 77 FR 43799 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Gila...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-26

    ... Regional Office. On December 16, 2009 (74 FR 66866), we published a partial 90-day finding on the petition... and, therefore, less habitat available. Increased siltation may be due to historical overgrazing...

  5. Petroleum prices and profits in the 90 days following the invasion of Kuwait

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    For the third in the past 20 years the world has experienced an interruption in the flow of oil from the Persian Gulf. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, and shut down of Kuwait oil production capacity followed by the United Nations boycott of Iraqi oil removed 8 percent of the world's oil supply. The result was a sharp increase in the process of crude oil and petroleum products. These events raised numerous questions about the performance of energy markets and energy firms. This report supplies a first answer for some of those questions. At the time this report was prepared the invasion has been in effect for 90 days. Not all the data is available to fully answer every question. Some issues can only be completely resolved after more time has passed in which the invasion and its effects have had an opportunity to be fully assimilated. This report was specifically requested by W. Henson Moore, Deputy Secretary of Energy as a way of supplying the American public with what could be said about the current situation. Rumors abound and mixconceptions have proliferated. This report strives to give a proper perspective on some of the more vexing issues which the invasion produced. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has addressed many questions in this report. By the way of summary these are the 10 most most frequently asked questions and EIA's quick answers. The page references tell the reader where to look in the report for further explanation. These are not the only issues addressed and EIA hopes that readers will be able to satisfy their curiosity about their own questions within the pages of this report.

  6. Recent Trends in the Dispensing of 90-Day-Supply Prescriptions at Retail Pharmacies: Implications for Improved Convenience and Access

    PubMed Central

    Liberman, Joshua N.; Girdish, Charmaine

    2011-01-01

    Background Mail-service pharmacies offer consumers the convenience of prescriptions filled with a 90-day supply of medication. Unlike mail-service pharmacies, retail pharmacies traditionally dispensed maintenance medication prescriptions with a 30-day supply. However, the retail landscape changed in May 2008 with Walmart's announcement of an extension of its $4 Prescription Program to include 90-day-supply prescriptions. Objective To evaluate recent changes in access to and use of 90-day-supply maintenance medications dispensed via retail pharmacy. Summary As of the first quarter of 2007, the proportion of retail-dispensed maintenance medications with a 90-day supply (compared with all maintenance prescriptions dispensed) among Medicare Part D plans, self-insured employers, and private health plans was 5.1%, 5.1%, and 5.0%, respectively. As of December 2009, this ratio had risen to 8.0% for Medicare plans and 8.1% for commercial health plans; the ratio among employers had risen more modestly to 6.1%. Of particular interest and importance, the proportion increased similarly for brand and for generic medications. Conclusion There has been substantial growth in 90-day prescriptions dispensed via retail pharmacy, a trend that is likely to continue as more insurance providers adopt compatible benefit designs. It is important to continue monitoring these trends and to identify opportunities to rigorously evaluate their impact on medication adherence and healthcare costs. PMID:25126341

  7. Effects of furan on male rat reproduction parameters in a 90-day gavage study.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Gerard M; Taylor, Marnie; Bourque, Christine; Curran, Ivan; Gurofsky, Susan; Gill, Santokh

    2014-07-01

    Furan is produced in foods during processing and preservation techniques that involve heat treatment. Previously, we reported that furan-exposed rats exhibited dose-dependent gross and histological changes in liver which correlated with changes in liver serum enzymes ALT, AST and ALP. Here we report the effects of furan on the male reproductive system. There were no histological or weight changes in the reproductive organs. Serum testosterone levels were increased in a dose-dependent manner whereas serum LH was decreased. There were no changes in 17-OHase, 3β-HSD and 17β-HSD activities or serum FSH. Furan did not alter mRNA expression levels for the LH receptor or Tspo but in contrast, mRNA levels of StAR were increased in all doses of furan. The mRNA for the cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (Cyp11a1) was increased by furan at the high dose, as was the level of intratesticular testosterone. We conclude that subchronic furan exposure affects testicular steroidogenesis. PMID:24632374

  8. IN VIVO EVALUATION OF THE SEALING ABILITY OF TWO ENDODONTIC SEALERS IN ROOT CANALS EXPOSED TO THE ORAL ENVIRONMENT FOR 45 AND 90 DAYS

    PubMed Central

    Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli; Vanni, José Roberto; Della Bona, Álvaro; de Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Porto, Sérgio

    2006-01-01

    This in vivo study evaluated the sealing ability of a resin-based sealer (AH Plus) and a zinc oxide-eugenol sealer (Endofill) in dogs' teeth, exposed to the oral environment for 45 and 90 days. Forty eight lower incisors from 8 dogs were endodonticaly treated. A stratified randomization determined the sealer use in each root canal. All canals were filled using the lateral condensation technique. The excess filling material at the cervical portion of the root canal was sectioned, leaving a 10-mm obturation length inside the canal. Teeth were provisionally sealed with glass ionomer cement for 24 h and the canals were exposed to the oral environment for either 45 or 90 days. Therefore, the experimental groups were as follows: A45- AH Plus for 45 days; A90- AH Plus for 90 days; E45- Endofill for 45 days; and E90- Endofill for 90 days (n=12). After the experimental period, the dogs were killed and the lower jaw was removed. The incisors were extracted and the roots were covered with two coats of nail varnish. The teeth were immersed in India ink for 96 h and submitted to diaphanization. Dye leakage (in mm) was measured using stereomicroscopy (10x magnification). The results were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey test for multiple comparisons (á = 0.05). Group E90 (2.03±0.94) showed significantly higher mean leakage value than all other groups (p<0.001). None of the sealers, in both study conditions, were able to prevent dye leakage. PMID:19089029

  9. Effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-Day Bed Rest on Postural Control in Men and Women

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteves, Julie; Taylor, Laura C.; Vanya, Robert D.; Dean, S. Lance; Wood, Scott J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Head-down-tilt bed rest (HDT) has been used as a safe gr ound-based analog to mimic and develop countermeasures for the physiological effects of spaceflight, including decrements in postural stability. The purpose of this investigation was to characterize the effects of 30-, 60-, and 90-day bed rest on postural control in men and women. METHODS Twenty-nine subjects (18M,11F) underwent 13 days of ambula tory acclimatization and were placed in 6? HDT for 30 (n=12), 60 (n=8), or 90 (n=9) days, followed by 14 days of ambulatory recovery. Computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) was used to assess changes in sensory and motor components of postural control, and recovery after HDT. Sensory Organization Tests (SOTs) objectively evaluate one?s ability to effectively use or suppress visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive information for postural control. Stability during the SOTs was assessed using peak-to-peak sway and convergence toward stability limits to derive an equilibrium score. Motor Control Tests (MCTs) evaluate one?s ability to recover from unexpected support surface perturbations, with performance determined by center-of-pressure path length. Whole-body kinematic data were collected to determine body-sway strategy used to maintain stability during each condition. Baselines were determined pre-HDT. Recovery was tracked post-HDT on days 0, 1, 2, and 4. RESULTS Immediately after HDT, subjects showed decreased performance on most SOTs, primarily on sway-referenced support conditions, typically returning to baseline levels within 4 days. MCT performance was not significantly affected. There were no significant gender or duration differences in performance. Kinematic data revealed a tendency to use ankle strategy to maintain an upright stance during most SOT conditions. Interestingly, six subjects (2M,4F) experienced orthostatic intolerance and were unable to complete day 0 testing. CONCLUSION HDT mimics some un loading mechanisms of spaceflight and

  10. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  11. 76 FR 10299 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... completed a 90-day finding on August 15, 2007 (72 FR 45717). Based upon the information available at that... FR 54707), for the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and a 12-month finding published on September 22, 2010, for the plant Agave eggersiana (75 FR 57720), we have focused on wild populations in...

  12. 77 FR 59582 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To List the Northeastern Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ...We, NMFS, announce a 90-day finding on two petitions received to list the northeastern Pacific Ocean population of great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias) as a threatened or endangered distinct population segment (DPS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and to designate critical habitat concurrently with the listing. We find that the petitions and information in our files present......

  13. 78 FR 69376 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 19 Species and 3...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ...We (NMFS) announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list 19 species and 3 subpopulations of sharks as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted for 9 species: Centrophorus harrissoni, Isogomphodon oxyrhynchus, Mustelus fasciatus,......

  14. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal...

  15. 78 FR 23533 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Wood Bison

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... February 8, 2011 (76 FR ] 6734). Please refer to that document for the complete listing history. Here we... Wildlife, which was published in the Federal Register on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491). In 1974, the first list... of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). In a 90-day finding published on November 25, 1998 (63 FR 65164),...

  16. 77 FR 47583 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Desert...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list desert massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus edwardsii), a rattlesnake found in the southwestern United States, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial......

  17. 77 FR 55458 - Endangered and Threatened Species; 90-Day Finding on Petition To Delist the Southern Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ... these petitions was published on October 7, 2011 (76 FR 62375) and a second negative 90-day finding for the fourth petition was published on January 11, 2012 (77 FR 1668). The new petition largely..., changes in salmon landings over the past 1-2 decades, and increases in Pacific Ocean water temperature....

  18. 75 FR 42059 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Giant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... that listing the GPE may be warranted (72 FR 57273). On January 24, 2008, the petitioners filed a... presented a threat (72 FR 57273). The 2009 petition includes a letter of support from Samuel W. James... educational purposes as a potential threat to the GPE. In our October 9, 2007, 90-day finding (72 FR 57273)...

  19. 77 FR 1900 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Humboldt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Humboldt marten (Martes americana humboldtensis) as endangered or threatened and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that......

  20. 78 FR 66675 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Multiple Species of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... purposes of listing, delisting, and reclassifying a species under the ESA (``DPS Policy''; 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). A species, subspecies, or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction... extinction risk of concern for the species at issue. To make a 90-day finding on a petition to list a...

  1. 78 FR 57611 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Alabama Shad as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... In 1997, we added Alabama shad to our Candidate Species List (62 FR 37562; July 14, 1997). At that... (49 FR 38900; October 1, 1984). In 2004, we created the Species of Concern list (69 FR 19975; April 15... published a negative 90-day finding in the Federal Register (76 FR 9320) stating that the petition did...

  2. 78 FR 29098 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Iliamna Lake Seals as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... Vertebrate Population Segments under the ESA (DPS Policy, 61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). This policy... species under the ESA (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). The policy established two criteria that must be met... Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Iliamna Lake Seals as a Threatened or...

  3. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service..., announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Bay Springs salamander (Plethodon ainsworthi) as... Springs salamander or its habitat at any time. DATES: The finding announced in this document was made...

  4. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... a notice of a 90-day finding for the petition in the Federal Register on July 22, 1994 (59 FR 37439... warranted but precluded by other higher priority actions (60 FR 15281). At that time, a listing priority..., 2005 (70 FR 24870). On October 7, 2002, as part of an agreement regarding multiple species, the...

  5. 75 FR 13068 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Berry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Berry Cave salamander (Gyrinophilus gulolineatus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing this species may be warranted. Therefore, with the......

  6. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Phoenix dactylifera `Sphinx' (sphinx date palm) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that the petition does not present substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that the petitioned action may be warranted. We find that......

  7. 75 FR 51969 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list Calopogon oklahomensis (Oklahoma grass pink orchid) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the plant species, C.......

  8. 75 FR 13720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Striped...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the striped newt (Notophthalmus perstriatus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the striped newt may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of......

  9. 77 FR 4973 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-01

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the San Bernardino flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus californicus) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information......

  10. 77 FR 27403 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the eastern diamondback rattlesnake (Crotalus adamanteus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the......

  11. 76 FR 60431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ..., 2005, the Service issued a 90-day finding (70 FR 38849), which found that the petition presented... threatened or ] endangered was not warranted (72 FR 4967). Species Information This section is a summary of the species information presented in the Service's 2007 12-month finding (72 FR 4967),...

  12. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-01-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  13. Effects of 90-Day Feeding of Transgenic Maize BT799 on the Reproductive System in Male Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qian-ying; He, Li-xia; Zhu, Han; Shang, Jun-li; Zhu, Ling-yan; Wang, Jun-bo; Li, Yong

    2015-12-01

    BT799 is a genetically modified (GM) maize plant that expresses the Cry1Ac gene from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). The Cry1Ac gene was introduced into maize line Zhen58 to encode the Bt crystal protein and thus produce insect-resistant maize BT799. Expression of Bt protein in planta confers resistance to Lepidopteran pests and corn rootworms. The present study was designed to investigate any potential effects of BT799 on the reproductive system of male rats and evaluate the nutritional value of diets containing BT799 maize grain in a 90-day subchronic rodent feeding study. Male Wistar rats were fed with diets containing BT799 maize flours or made from its near isogenic control (Zhen58) at a concentration of 84.7%, nutritionally equal to the standard AIN-93G diet. Another blank control group of male rats were treated with commercial AIN-93G diet. No significant differences in body weight, hematology and serum chemistry results were observed between rats fed with the diets containing transgenic BT799, Zhen58 and the control in this 13-week feeding study. Results of serum hormone levels, sperm parameters and relative organ/body weights indicated no treatment-related side effects on the reproductive system of male rats. In addition, no diet-related changes were found in necropsy and histopathology examinations. Based on results of the current study, we did not find any differences in the parameters tested in our study of the reproductive system of male rats between BT799 and Zhen58 or the control. PMID:26633453

  14. Herd-level risk factors for infectious diseases in Swedish dairy calves aged 0-90 days.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G K; Svensson, E C; Oltenacu, P A

    2005-05-10

    The effect of environmental factors and management routines on the risk of diarrhoea, respiratory disease and other infectious diseases was investigated in 3081 heifer calves 0-90 days old in 122 Swedish dairy herds. The farmers kept records on cases of diseases in their heifer calves and in addition, project veterinarians clinically examined all calves every 2-3 months. At each visit, the veterinarians also measured the ammonia concentration and relative air humidity in the housing facilities for the calves. The cleanliness of the animals and their environment was recorded as a measure of the hygienic status of the farm. The presence or absence of draught (i.e. wind velocity>0.5 m/s) was recorded twice during the study period. The effect of these factors, as well as the placing of the calf pens, the nature of the pen walls, air volume per animal, management factors (such as the status of the caretaker and feeding routines) and presence or absence of a bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infection in the herd, was evaluated by means of a two-level variance component logistic model. The placing of calf pens along an outer wall was significantly associated with the risk of diarrhoea (odds ratio (OR): 1.92, P<0.01). The risk for respiratory disease was significantly associated with an ammonia concentration below 6 ppm (OR: 0.42, P<0.05) while the odds ratio for moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds was significantly associated with a BVDV infection in the herd (OR: 2.39, P<0.05) and draught (OR: 3.7, P<0.02). Absence of draught was significantly associated with the risk for infectious diseases other than diarrhoea and respiratory disease (OR: 0.42, P<0.01). PMID:15820112

  15. Visual-motor response of crewmen during a simulated 90-day space mission as measured by the critical task battery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allen, R. W.; Jex, H. R.

    1973-01-01

    In order to test various components of a regenerative life support system and to obtain data on the physiological and psychological effects of long duration exposure to confinement in a space station atmosphere, four carefully screened young men were sealed in a space station simulator for 90 days and administered a tracking test battery. The battery included a clinical test (Critical Instability Task) designed to measure a subject's dynamic time delay, and a more conventional steady tracking task, during which dynamic response (describing functions) and performance measures were obtained. Good correlation was noted between the clinical critical instability scores and more detailed tracking parameters such as dynamic time delay and gain-crossover frequency. The levels of each parameter span the range observed with professional pilots and astronaut candidates tested previously. The chamber environment caused no significant decrement on the average crewman's dynamic response behavior, and the subjects continued to improve slightly in their tracking skills during the 90-day confinement period.

  16. 76 FR 9309 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the sand verbena moth, Copablepharon fuscum, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Based on our review, we find the petition presents substantial information indicating that listing the sand verbena moth may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this......

  17. 76 FR 36049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Utah...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Utah population of the Gila monster (Heloderma suspectum) as an endangered or a threatened distinct population segment (DPS) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition does not present......

  18. 77 FR 39666 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Maytenus cymosa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the Maytenus cymosa (Caribbean mayten), a tree, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on our review, we find that the petition does not present substantial information indicating that listing M. cymosa may......

  19. Flight control electronics reliability/maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dade, W. W.; Edwards, R. H.; Katt, G. T.; Mcclellan, K. L.; Shomber, H. A.

    1977-01-01

    Collection and analysis of data are reported that concern the reliability and maintenance experience of flight control system electronics currently in use on passenger carrying jet aircraft. Two airlines B-747 airplane fleets were analyzed to assess the component reliability, system functional reliability, and achieved availability of the CAT II configuration flight control system. Also assessed were the costs generated by this system in the categories of spare equipment, schedule irregularity, and line and shop maintenance. The results indicate that although there is a marked difference in the geographic location and route pattern between the airlines studied, there is a close similarity in the reliability and the maintenance costs associated with the flight control electronics.

  20. MELD-Na as a prognostic indicator of 30- and 90-day mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease after creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation. PMID:26111072

  1. Dam-related effects on heart girth at birth, morbidity and growth rate from birth to 90 days of age in Swedish dairy calves.

    PubMed

    Lundborg, G K; Oltenacu, P A; Maizon, D O; Svensson, E C; Liberg, P G A

    2003-08-01

    We investigated the effects of dam-related factors (such as calving performance, milk leakage, diseases, milk production, and somatic-cell count (SCC)) on heart girth at birth and the incidence risk of diarrhoea and respiratory disease during the first 90 days in Swedish dairy calves. The effects of these dam-related factors and environmental and management-related (but not dietary) factors on the calves' growth rate during the first 90 days of life also were analysed. The study used nearly 3,000 heifer calves born in 1998 on 122 farms in the south-west of Sweden. Individual health records were kept by the farmers and visiting project veterinarians. The calf's heart girth was measured at birth and weaning. We used generalised linear mixed models for the size of the calf at birth and growth rate. Variables associated with the heart girth at birth were breed, calving performance, mastitis in the dam in the last 49 days before calving, milk production and parity. Variables associated with the growth rate were breed, calving performance, disease in the calf during its first 90 days of life, heart girth at birth, and housing of calves. The effect of the dam on the relative risk of diarrhoea and/or respiratory disease in the calf was evaluated by a generalised linear mixed model with a logit link. Morbidity in the dam during late pregnancy, retained placenta and SCC were associated with the relative risk of respiratory disease in the calf. None of the explanatory variables (other then breed) was associated with the relative risk of diarrhoea. PMID:12900157

  2. Predictors of 30-Day Mortality and 90-Day Functional Recovery after Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage : Hospital Based Multivariate Analysis in 585 Patients

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to identify independent predictors of mortality and functional recovery in patients with primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) and to improve functional outcome in these patients. Methods Data were collected retrospectively on 585 patients with supratentorial PICH admitted to the Stroke Unit at our hospital between 1st January 2004 and the 31st July 2008. Using multivariate logistic regression analysis, the associations between all selected variables and 30-day mortality and 90-day functional recoveries after PICH was evaluated. Results Ninety-day functional recovery was achieved in 29.1% of the 585 patients and 30-day mortality in 15.9%. Age (OR=7.384, p=0.000), limb weakness (OR=6.927, p=0.000), and hematoma volume (OR=5.293, p=0.000) were found to be powerful predictors of 90-day functional recovery. Furthermore, initial consciousness (OR=3.013, p=0.014) hematoma location (lobar, OR=2.653, p=0.003), ventricular extension of blood (OR=2.077, p=0.013), leukocytosis (OR=2.048, p=0.008), alcohol intake (drinker, OR=1.927, p=0.023), and increased serum aminotransferase (OR=1.892, p=0.035) were found to be independent predictors of 90-day functional recovery after PICH. On the other hand, a pupillary abnormality (OR=4.532, p=0.000) and initial unconsciousness (OR=3.362, p=0.000) were found to be independent predictors of 30-day mortality after PICH. Conclusion The predictors of mortality and functional recovery after PICH identified during this analysis may assist during clinical decision-making, when advising patients or family members about the prognosis of PICH and when planning intervention trials. PMID:19609417

  3. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part...

  4. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part...

  5. From goat colostrum to milk: physical, chemical, and immune evolution from partum to 90 days postpartum.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Macías, D; Moreno-Indias, I; Castro, N; Morales-Delanuez, A; Argüello, A

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the study of the changes originated in the milk from partum until d 90 of lactation. Ten multiparous Majorera goats, bred carefully under animal health standards, with a litter size of 2 kids (the average in this breed is 1.83 prolificacy) and similar gestation length (149 ± 1 d) were used. Goat kids were removed from their dams to avoid interferences with the study. Compositional content (fat, protein, and lactose) were measured, as well as some other properties, including pH, density, titratable acidity, ethanol stability, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count. Moreover, immunity molecules (IgG, IgA, and IgM concentrations and chitotriosidase activity) received great attention. Fat and protein content were higher in the first days postpartum, whereas lactose content was lower. Density, titratable acidity, rennet clotting time, and somatic cell count decreased throughout the lactation period, whereas pH and ethanol stability increased. Relative to the immunological parameters, each measured parameter obtained its maximum level at d 0, showing the first milking as the choice to provide immunity to the newborn kids. On the other hand, this study might be used to establish what the best use is: processing or kid feeding. PMID:24183682

  6. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 792—Good.... Statistically randomized samples of the mixture should be analyzed to ensure that proper mixing,...

  7. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 792—Good.... Statistically randomized samples of the mixture should be analyzed to ensure that proper mixing,...

  8. 40 CFR 799.9310 - TSCA 90-day oral toxicity in rodents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J, the following specific information must be reported: (i... performance of laboratory equipment. The study must be conducted in compliance with 40 CFR Part 792—Good.... Statistically randomized samples of the mixture should be analyzed to ensure that proper mixing,...

  9. Toxicity of Carbon Nanotubes in the Lungs of Mice 7 and 90 Days After Intratracheal Instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes have many potential applications in the electronic, computer, and aerospace industries. Because unprocessed nanotubes could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods, and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were each intratracheally instilled once with 0,0.1 or 0.5 mg of nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control, and killed for histopathological study 7 d or 90 d after the treatment. All nanotube products induced epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7 -d groups. These lesions persisted and were worse in the 90-d groups. We found that, if nanotubes reach the lung, they can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  10. Training and certification program of the operating staff for a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Prior to beginning a 90-day test of a regenerative life support system, a need was identified for a training and certification program to qualify an operating staff for conducting the test. The staff was responsible for operating and maintaining the test facility, monitoring and ensuring crew safety, and implementing procedures to ensure effective mission performance with good data collection and analysis. The training program was designed to ensure that each operating staff member was capable of performing his assigned function and was sufficiently cross-trained to serve at certain other positions on a contingency basis. Complicating the training program were budget and schedule limitations, and the high level of sophistication of test systems.

  11. Dietary and Food Processing for a 90-day Bioregenerative Life Support Experiment in the Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhiruo; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    A 4-day cycle dietary menu was developed to meet the requirements of balanced diet of the crew within the 90-day closed experiment of bioregenerative life support in the Lunar Palace 1. The menu consisted of items prepared from crops and insect grown inside the system, as well as prestored food. Dairy recipe was composed of breads, vegetables, meats and soups, which provided about 2900 kcal per crew member per day. During food processing, to maximize nutrient recovery and minimize waste production, the whole wheat grains and chufa nuts were milled. Further, the carrot leaves and yellow mealworms were used as salad materials and bread ingredients, respectively. The sensory acceptability of the dishes in the menu was evaluated by flavor, texture, and appearance. Our results show that all dishes in the 4-day cycle menu were highly acceptable, which satisfies nutritional requirement of the crew members in the closed habitation.

  12. [Ophthalmoscopic observations of ocular fundus in colony-born cynomolgus monkeys aged from 0 day to 90 days].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, M T; Narita, H; Tanaka, Y; Cho, F; Fukui, M

    1984-04-01

    Apparently healthy 242 colony-born cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) aged from 0 day to 90 days were examined for the findings of ocular fundus by using ophthalmoscope. One drop of mixed solution of 0.5% tropicamide and 0.5% phenylephrine hydrochloride was instilled into each eye of the monkey. Then, those monkeys were anesthetized with ketamine-HC1 at the dose level of 10mg/kg B. W. Regular and fluorescein photographs were taken with Kowa RC-II ophthalmoscope-camera by using daylight typed color film. Following findings were obtained in each age class: Retinal color was salmon pink with 0 to 3-days-old neonates, salmon pink and blue to green with 7 days to 14-days-old animals and blue to green with 60-days to 90-days-old monkeys. As regards optic disc, 0- to 14-days-old animals were observed to be light orange in color, and the infant aged more than 28-days showed orange color. Retinal arteries and veins were lightly reddish in color with every age class. Macular color was salmon pink in 0-day-old cases, slightly dark in 3-days-old neonates and very dark after 14-days of age. Lightly retinal reflex was noted in 0- and 7-days-old animals. The reflex was observable in 14-days-old animals without any case of exception. Retinal hemorrhages were recorded in 22 (67%) of 36 neonates born in natural condition and 10 (33%) of 30 neonates born by cesarean section. These findings will be useful as the criteria for ophthalmoscopic observations of the cynomolgus monkeys as laboratory use. PMID:6468512

  13. Distribution, elimination, and biopersistence to 90 days of a systemically introduced 30 nm ceria-engineered nanomaterial in rats.

    PubMed

    Yokel, Robert A; Au, Tu C; MacPhail, Robert; Hardas, Sarita S; Butterfield, D Allan; Sultana, Rukhsana; Goodman, Michael; Tseng, Michael T; Dan, Mo; Haghnazar, Hamed; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A

    2012-05-01

    Nanoceria is used as a catalyst in diesel fuel, as an abrasive in printed circuit manufacture, and is being pursued as an antioxidant therapeutic. Our objective is to extend previous findings showing that there were no reductions of cerium in organs of the mononuclear phagocyte (reticuloendothelial) system up to 30 days after a single nanoscale ceria administration. An ~5% aqueous dispersion of citrate-stabilized 30 nm ceria, synthesized and characterized in-house, or vehicle, was iv infused into rats terminated 1, 7, 30, or 90 days later. Cageside observations were obtained daily, body weight weekly. Daily urinary and fecal cerium outputs were quantified for 2 weeks. Nine organs were weighed and samples collected from 14 tissues/organs/systems, blood and cerebrospinal fluid for cerium determination. Histology and oxidative stress were assessed. Less than 1% of the nanoceria was excreted in the first 2 weeks, 98% in feces. Body weight gain was initially impaired. Spleen weight was significantly increased in some ceria-treated groups, associated with abnormalities. Ceria was primarily retained in the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. There was little decrease of ceria in any tissue over the 90 days. Granulomas were observed in the liver. Time-dependent oxidative stress changes were seen in the liver and spleen. Nanoscale ceria was persistently retained by organs of the mononuclear phagocyte system, associated with adverse changes. The results support concern about the long-term fate and adverse effects of inert nanoscale metal oxides that distribute throughout the body, are persistently retained, and produce adverse changes. PMID:22367688

  14. A preliminary study: validity and reliability of Turkish translation of migraine disability assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire in Turkish patients with chronic tension type headache.

    PubMed

    Gedikoglu, Umit; Ucler, Serap; Inan, Levent E; Coskun, Ozlem; Tunc, Tugba

    2006-11-01

    We have tested Turkish version of the Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire in patients with tension type headache. Thirty-two patients who had a tension type headache were included. Turkish version of the MIDAS questionnaire was applied to all patients. Additionally, the patients were asked to keep a 90-day diary. The day diary and the MIDAS questionnaire were compared at the end of the study period. We found that cronbach's alpha 0.82 and had good reliability. Our findings suggest that the MIDAS questionnaire that was originally designed for patients with migraine may be used in patients with chronic tension type headache. PMID:17000534

  15. An estimate of equatorial wave energy flux at 9- to 90-day periods in the Central Pacific

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eriksen, Charles C.; Richman, James G.

    1988-01-01

    Deep fluctuations in current along the equator in the Central Pacific are dominated by coherent structures which correspond closely to narrow-band propagating equatorial waves. Currents were measured roughly at 1500 and 3000 m depths at five moorings between 144 and 148 deg W from January 1981 to March 1983, as part of the Pacific Equatorial Ocean Dynamics program. In each frequency band resolved, a single complex empirical orthogonal function accounts for half to three quarters of the observed variance in either zonal or meridional current. Dispersion for equatorial first meridional Rossby and Rossby gravity waves is consistent with the observed vertical-zonal coherence structure. The observations indicate that energy flux is westward and downward in long first meridional mode Rossby waves at periods 45 days and longer, and eastward and downward in short first meridional mode Rossby waves and Rossby-gravity waves at periods 30 days and shorter. A local minimum in energy flux occurs at periods corresponding to a maximum in upper-ocean meridional current energy contributed by tropical instability waves. Total vertical flux across the 9- to 90-day period range is 2.5 kW/m.

  16. A Reliability Induction and Reliability Generalization Study of the Cage Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, Alan L.; Caruso, John C.

    2004-01-01

    The CAGE is a commonly used alcohol screening instrument. Although considerable work has been done on the validity of CAGE scores, relatively little information is available on their reliability. Reliability induction and generalization studies were performed for the CAGE. Of the 259 studies available for analysis, only 19 (7.3%) contained…

  17. Score Reliability: A Retrospective Look Back at 12 Years of Reliability Generalization Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vacha-Haase, Tammi; Thompson, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The present study was conducted to characterize (a) the features of the thousands of primary reports synthesized in 47 reliability generalization (RG) measurement meta-analysis studies and (b) typical methodological practice within the RG literature to date. With respect to the treatment of score reliability in the literature, in an astounding…

  18. A Reliability Generalization Study of the Geriatric Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kieffer, Kevin M.; Reese, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization study of the Geriatric Depression Scale (T. Brink and others, 1982). Results from this investigation of 338 studies shows that the average score reliability across studies was 0.8482 and identifies the most important predictors of score reliability. (SLD)

  19. Reliability Studies for Fatigue-Crack Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christner, B. K.; Rummel, W. D.; Knadler, J.

    1985-01-01

    Reusable test panels available to assess reliability of techniques that use fluorescent penetrant to detect fatigue cracks. Ultrasonic cleaning method developed for removing penetrant from panels prior to reuse.

  20. Assessment of the reporting of quality and outcome measures in hepatic resections: a call for 90-day reporting in all hepatectomy series

    PubMed Central

    Egger, Michael E; Ohlendorf, Joanna M; Scoggins, Charles R; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to assess the current state of quality and outcomes measures being reported for hepatic resections in the recent literature. Methods Medline and PubMed databases were searched for English language articles published between 1 January 2002 and 30 April 2013. Two examiners reviewed each article and relevant citations for appropriateness of inclusion, which excluded papers of liver donor hepatic resections, repeat hepatectomies or meta-analyses. Data were extracted and summarized by two examiners for analysis. Results Fifty-five studies were identified with suitable reporting to assess peri-operative mortality in hepatic resections. In only 35% (19/55) of the studies was the follow-up time explicitly stated, and in 47% (26/55) of studies peri-operative mortality was limited to in-hospital or 30 days. The time period in which complications were captured was not explicitly stated in 19 out of 28 studies. The remaining studies only captured complications within 30 days of the index operation (8/28). There was a paucity of quality literature addressing truly patient-centred outcomes. Conclusion Quality outcomes after a hepatic resection are inconsistently reported in the literature. Quality outcome studies for a hepatectomy should report mortality and morbidity at a minimum of 90 days after surgery. PMID:26228262

  1. Evaluation of 90-day Repeated Dose Oral Toxicity, Glycometabolism, Learning and Memory Ability, and Related Enzyme of Chromium Malate Supplementation in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Weiwei; Wu, Huiyu; Li, Qian; Zhou, Zhaoxiang; Chen, Yao; Zhao, Ting; Feng, Yun; Mao, Guanghua; Li, Fang; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2015-11-01

    Our previous study showed that chromium malate improved the regulation of blood glucose in mice with alloxan-induced diabetes. The present study was designed to evaluate the 90-day oral toxicity of chromium malate in Sprague-Dawley rats. The present study inspected the effect of chromium malate on glycometabolism, glycometabolism-related enzymes, lipid metabolism, and learning and memory ability in metabolically healthy Sprague-Dawley rats. The results showed that all rats survived and pathological, toxic, feces, and urine changes were not observed. Chromium malate did not cause measurable damage on liver, brain, and kidney. The fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, insulin resistance index, C-peptide, hepatic glycogen, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glucokinase, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglyceride levels of normal rats in chromium malate groups had no significant change when compared with control group and chromium picolinate group under physiologically relevant conditions. The serum and organ content of Cr in chromium malate groups had no significant change compared with control group. No significant changes were found in morris water maze test and superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and true choline esterase (TChE) activity. The results indicated that supplementation with chromium malate did not cause measurable toxicity and has no obvious effect on glycometabolism and related enzymes, learning and memory ability, and related enzymes and lipid metabolism of female and male rats. The results of this study suggest that chromium malate is safe for human consumption. PMID:25900579

  2. Less incidence of coronary artery disease in general anesthesia compared to spinal-epidural anesthesia after total knee replacement: 90-day follow-up period by a population-based dataset.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jui-Yang; Lin, Hui-Wen

    2015-07-01

    Total knee replacement (TKR) is an effective and safe procedure. However, large-scale study to compare the incidence of coronary artery disease (CAD) after spinal or epidural anesthesia (SA-EA) or general anesthesia (GA) for TKR has not ever been conducted. To do so, we studied a population-based dataset from the Taiwan National Health Research Institute and hypothesized that the incidence of CAD might be different with regional than with general anesthesia. The risk of CAD-related events during a 90-day follow-up period among patients who received TKR under SA-EA or GA was evaluated in the present study. A total of 1500 patients from the Taiwan National Health Insurance claims database who underwent TKR from January 1, 2004, to December 31, 2006, were allocated into two groups. Group 1 included 1012 patients who received SA-EA during TKR procedure. Group 2 included 488 patients who received GA during this procedure. The number of patients who developed CAD during the 90-day follow-up period was 31 (3.1 %) in group 1 and 6 (1.2 %) in group 2. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis of IHD-free cumulative survival rate during the 90-day follow-up period for patients who underwent TKR was significantly lower in group 1 than in group 2. The hazard ratio for the occurrence of CAD was 2.80 (95 % CI 1.16-6.78), and the hazard was higher for patients who received SA-EA than for patients who received GA after adjusted potential confounding factors. After the performance of TKR, patients had a potentially increased risk for CAD in SA-EA compared to GA during the 90-day follow-up period. PMID:25761988

  3. Collagen content in the vastus lateralis and the soleus muscle following a 90-day bed rest period with or without resistance exercises

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Schjerling, Peter; Tesch, Per; Stål, Per; Langberg, Henning

    2015-01-01

    Summary Introduction spaceflight seems associated with deterioration of the function of the skeletal muscles. Since muscle collagen is critical for muscle function, an improved understanding of the content of the muscle collagen during long-term inactivity seems important. Bed-rest with in-bed resistance training serves as a proxy for the conditions in space. Therefore, ground-based studies may improve the understanding of the consequences of long-term inactivity. Purpose the purpose is to compare the change in collagen protein in the vastus lateralis (VL) and the soleus (SOL) muscle amongst persons exposed to a 90-day bed rest with or without resistance exercise. Methods an explorative analysis was completed based on data from a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention group (BRE, SOL n=4, VL n=8) performed supine-based squat exercises, whereas the controls (BE, SOL n=6, VL n=12) remained inactive during follow-up. Muscle biopsies from vastus lateralis and soleus were taken at baseline (pre) and after 90-days’ follow-up (post). Muscle collagen (μg collagen/mg protein) was quantified. Two-way repeated measurements ANOVA was used to compare the interaction between the intervention (BRE/BR) and time (pre/post) for each muscle. Results the collagen content of VL was similar between pre and post in the BRE group (−3.8 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −22.0; 14.4], p=0.68) while it rose amongst individuals in the BR group (14.9 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −0.01; 29.7], p=0.05). The difference of 18.66 [95% CI: −6.5; 43.9] between BRE and BR across time was, however, not significant (p=0.14). No significant reduction in SOL muscle collagen content was observed from pre to post in the BR group (−9.3 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −24.9; 6.4], p=0.25) or in the BRE group (−6.5 μg collagen/mg protein [95% CI: −25.6; 12.6], p=0.50). There was no difference in the effect of BR versus BRE over time (mean difference −2.78 μg collagen

  4. Evaluation of the 90-day inhalation toxicity of petroleum and oil shale JP-5 jet fuel. Technical report, July 1977-July 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Gaworski, C.L.; MacEwen, J.D.; Vernot, E.H.; Haun, C.C.; Leahy, H.F.

    1985-04-01

    Subchronic 90-day inhalation studies were conducted to compare the toxicity of Petroleum and Oil Shale derived JP-5 jet fuel. Beagle dogs, Fischer 344 rats, and C57BL/6 mice were continuously exposed to JP-5 at concentrations of 150 mg/m cum and 750 mg/cum 3. Unexposed control groups were also maintained. All dogs and a portion of each rodent group were sacrificed and examined at exposure termination. Remaining rodents were held for observation up to 21 months postexposure. The most significant exposure related effect occurred in male rats, where JP-5 produced nephropathy characterized by hyaline droplets, necrosis, and intratubular casts. Accentuated tubular degeneration and medullary mineralization were noted in exposed rats held for long-term postexposure observation. Female rats were free of significant JP-5 related renal damage. Consistent with the pathologic changes in male rats exposed to 750 mg/cu m 3 were increased kidney weight and increased serum creatinine and BUN levels. Reduced body weight gains also occurred in male rats exposed to JP-5. No pathologic lesions were observed in dogs exposed to JP-5. Hepatocellular vacuolization and fatty change occurred in mice exposed to JP-5 from either source and in rats exposed to Shale JP-5. The results of this study suggest that there are no substantial differences between Petroleum and Shale JP-5.

  5. Safety assessment of freeze-dried powdered Tenebrio molitor larvae (yellow mealworm) as novel food source: Evaluation of 90-day toxicity in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Han, So-Ri; Lee, Byoung-Seok; Jung, Kyung-Jin; Yu, Hee-Jin; Yun, Eun-Young; Hwang, Jae Sam; Moon, Kyoung-Sik

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide demand for novel food source has grown and edible insects are a promising food sources for humans. Tenebrio molitor, as known as yellow mealworm, has advantages of being rich in protein, and easy to raise as a novel food source. The objective of this study was to evaluate subchronic toxicity, including potential hypersensitivity, of freeze-dried powdered T. molitor larvae (fdTML) in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. The fdTML was administered orally once daily at dose levels of 0, 300, 1000 and 3000 mg/kg/day for 90 days. A toxicological assessment was performed, which included mortality, clinical signs, body and organ weights, food consumption, ophthalmology, urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, gross findings, histopathologic examination and allergic reaction. There were no fdTML- related findings in clinical signs, urinalysis, hematology and serum chemistry, gross examination, histopathologic examination or allergic reaction. In conclusion, the No Observed Adverse Effect Level (NOAEL) for fdTML was determined to be in excess of 3000 mg/kg/day in both sexes of rats under the experimental conditions of this study. PMID:26993751

  6. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  7. Long life reliability thermal control systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Killen, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results of a program undertaken to conceptually design and evaluate a passive, high reliability, long life thermal control system for space station application are presented. The program consisted of four steps: (1) investigate and select potential thermal system elements; (2) conceive, evaluate and select a thermal control system using these elements; (3) conduct a verification test of a prototype segment of the selected system; and (4) evaluate the utilization of waste heat from the power supply. The result of this project is a conceptual thermal control system design which employs heat pipes as primary components, both for heat transport and temperature control. The system, its evaluation, and the test results are described.

  8. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  9. 7 CFR Appendix B to Subpart C of... - FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FSA-2510, Notice of Availability of Loan Servicing to Borrowers Who Are 90 Days Past Due B Appendix B to Subpart C of Part 766 Agriculture Regulations of the... LOAN SERVICING-SPECIAL Loan Servicing Programs Pt. 766, Subpt. C, App. B Appendix B to Subpart C...

  10. Measuring eating disorder attitudes and behaviors: a reliability generalization study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although score reliability is a sample-dependent characteristic, researchers often only report reliability estimates from previous studies as justification for employing particular questionnaires in their research. The present study followed reliability generalization procedures to determine the mean score reliability of the Eating Disorder Inventory and its most commonly employed subscales (Drive for Thinness, Bulimia, and Body Dissatisfaction) and the Eating Attitudes Test as a way to better identify those characteristics that might impact score reliability. Methods Published studies that used these measures were coded based on their reporting of reliability information and additional study characteristics that might influence score reliability. Results Score reliability estimates were included in 26.15% of studies using the EDI and 36.28% of studies using the EAT. Mean Cronbach’s alphas for the EDI (total score = .91; subscales = .75 to .89), EAT-40 (total score = .81) and EAT-26 (total score = .86; subscales = .56 to .80) suggested variability in estimated internal consistency. Whereas some EDI subscales exhibited higher score reliability in clinical eating disorder samples than in nonclinical samples, other subscales did not exhibit these differences. Score reliability information for the EAT was primarily reported for nonclinical samples, making it difficult to characterize the effect of type of sample on these measures. However, there was a tendency for mean score reliability to be higher in the adult (vs. adolescent) samples and in female (vs. male) samples. Conclusions Overall, this study highlights the importance of assessing and reporting internal consistency during every test administration because reliability is affected by characteristics of the participants being examined. PMID:24764530

  11. Modifications of azoxymethane-induced carcinogenesis and 90-day oral toxicities of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone as a radiolytic product of stearic acid in F344 rats

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Makoto; Todoriki, Setsuko; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Hafez, Ezar; Takasu, Chie; Uehara, Hisanori; Yamakage, Kohji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kozo; Furuta, Masakazu; Izumi, Keisuke

    2015-01-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity test in rats was performed to evaluate the toxicity of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB), a unique radiolytic product of stearic acid. Six-week-old male and female F344 rats (n=15/group) were given 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 12, 60 and 300 ppm in a powder diet for 13 weeks. Slight dose-dependent increases in serum total protein and albumin in male rats were found, but these changes were not considered to be a toxic effect. The fasting, but not non-fasting, blood glucose levels of the male rats in the 300 ppm group and female rats in the 60 and 300 ppm groups were lower than those of the controls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed dose-dependent accumulation of 2-tDCB in adipose tissue, notably in males. Next, we performed an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced two-stage carcinogenesis study. After injection of 6-week-old male F344 rats (n=30/group) once a week for 3 weeks, the animals received 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 250 ppm in a powder diet for 25 weeks. The incidences of colon tumors for the 2-tDCB dosages were 34%, 45%, 40% and 37%, respectively, and were not statistically significant. These data suggest that 2-tDCB shows no toxic or tumor-modifying effects under the present conditions, and that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for 2-tDCB is 300 ppm in both sexes, equivalent to 15.5 mg/kg b.w./day in males and 16.5 mg/kg b.w./day in females. PMID:26028819

  12. Modifications of azoxymethane-induced carcinogenesis and 90-day oral toxicities of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone as a radiolytic product of stearic acid in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Sato, Makoto; Todoriki, Setsuko; Takahashi, Tetsuyuki; Hafez, Ezar; Takasu, Chie; Uehara, Hisanori; Yamakage, Kohji; Kondo, Takashi; Matsumoto, Kozo; Furuta, Masakazu; Izumi, Keisuke

    2015-04-01

    A 90-day oral toxicity test in rats was performed to evaluate the toxicity of 2-tetradecylcyclobutanone (2-tDCB), a unique radiolytic product of stearic acid. Six-week-old male and female F344 rats (n=15/group) were given 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 12, 60 and 300 ppm in a powder diet for 13 weeks. Slight dose-dependent increases in serum total protein and albumin in male rats were found, but these changes were not considered to be a toxic effect. The fasting, but not non-fasting, blood glucose levels of the male rats in the 300 ppm group and female rats in the 60 and 300 ppm groups were lower than those of the controls. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed dose-dependent accumulation of 2-tDCB in adipose tissue, notably in males. Next, we performed an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced two-stage carcinogenesis study. After injection of 6-week-old male F344 rats (n=30/group) once a week for 3 weeks, the animals received 2-tDCB at concentrations of 0, 10, 50 and 250 ppm in a powder diet for 25 weeks. The incidences of colon tumors for the 2-tDCB dosages were 34%, 45%, 40% and 37%, respectively, and were not statistically significant. These data suggest that 2-tDCB shows no toxic or tumor-modifying effects under the present conditions, and that the no-observed-adverse-effect level for 2-tDCB is 300 ppm in both sexes, equivalent to 15.5 mg/kg b.w./day in males and 16.5 mg/kg b.w./day in females. PMID:26028819

  13. The 747 primary flight control systems reliability and maintenance study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The major operational characteristics of the 747 Primary Flight Control Systems (PFCS) are described. Results of reliability analysis for separate control functions are presented. The analysis makes use of a NASA computer program which calculates reliability of redundant systems. Costs for maintaining the 747 PFCS in airline service are assessed. The reliabilities and cost will provide a baseline for use in trade studies of future flight control system design.

  14. A New Tissue Resonator Indenter Device and Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ming; Zu, Jean W.; Hariri, Alireza

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of tissue mechanical properties is widely required by medical applications, such as disease diagnostics, surgery operation, simulation, planning, and training. A new portable device, called Tissue Resonator Indenter Device (TRID), has been developed for measurement of regional viscoelastic properties of soft tissues at the Bio-instrument and Biomechanics Lab of the University of Toronto. As a device for soft tissue properties in-vivo measurements, the reliability of TRID is crucial. This paper presents TRID’s working principle and the experimental study of TRID’s reliability with respect to inter-reliability, intra-reliability, and the indenter misalignment effect as well. PMID:22346623

  15. 29 CFR 37.80 - What happens if a recipient fails to issue a Notice of Final Action within 90 days of the date on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true What happens if a recipient fails to issue a Notice of Final Action within 90 days of the date on which a complaint was filed? 37.80 Section 37.80 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION AND EQUAL OPPORTUNITY PROVISIONS OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT OF 1998...

  16. 29 CFR 37.79 - If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true If, before the 90-day period has expired, a recipient issues a Notice of Final Action with which the complainant is dissatisfied, how long does the complainant have to file a complaint with the Director? 37.79 Section 37.79 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor IMPLEMENTATION OF THE NONDISCRIMINATION...

  17. Spent Nuclear Fuel Transport Reliability Study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jy-An John; Wang, Hong; Jiang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    This conference paper was orignated and shorten from the following publisehd PTS documents: 1. Jy-An Wang, Hao Jiang, and Hong Wang, Dynamic Deformation Simulation of Spent Nuclear Fuel Assembly and CIRFT Deformation Sensor Stability Investigation, ORNL/SPR-2015/662, November 2015. 2. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Mechanical Fatigue Testing of High-Burnup Fuel for Transportation Applications, NUREG/CR-7198, ORNL/TM-2014/214, May 2015. 3. Jy-An Wang, Hong Wang, Hao Jiang, Yong Yan, Bruce Bevard, Spent Nuclear Fuel Vibration Integrity Study 16332, WM2016 Conference, March 6 10, 2016, Phoenix, Arizona.

  18. Sensitivity Study for Long Term Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Allan L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper illustrates using Markov models to establish system and maintenance requirements for small electronic controllers where the goal is a high probability of continuous service for a long period of time. The system and maintenance items considered are quality of components, various degrees of simple redundancy, redundancy with reconfiguration, diagnostic levels, periodic maintenance, and preventive maintenance. Markov models permit a quantitative investigation with comparison and contrast. An element of special interest is the use of conditional probability to study the combination of imperfect diagnostics and periodic maintenance.

  19. Reliability studies of Integrated Modular Engine system designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the reliability of Integrated Modular Engine (IME) concepts. Comparisons were made between networked IME systems and non-networked discrete systems using expander cycle configurations. Both redundant and non-redundant systems were analyzed. Binomial approximation and Markov analysis techniques were employed to evaluate total system reliability. In addition, Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA), Preliminary Hazard Analyses (PHA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) were performed to allow detailed evaluation of the IME concept. A discussion of these system reliability concepts is also presented.

  20. Reliability studies of integrated modular engine system designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1993-01-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the reliability of Integrated Modular Engine (IME) concepts. Comparisons were made between networked IME systems and non-networked discrete systems using expander cycle configurations. Both redundant and non-redundant systems were analyzed. Binomial approximation and Markov analysis techniques were employed to evaluate total system reliability. In addition, Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA), Preliminary Hazard Analyses (PHA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) were performed to allow detailed evaluation of the IME concept. A discussion of these system reliability concepts is also presented.

  1. Reliability studies of Integrated Modular Engine system designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1993-06-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the reliability of Integrated Modular Engine (IME) concepts. Comparisons were made between networked IME systems and non-networked discrete systems using expander cycle configurations. Both redundant and non-redundant systems were analyzed. Binomial approximation and Markov analysis techniques were employed to evaluate total system reliability. In addition, Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA), Preliminary Hazard Analyses (PHA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) were performed to allow detailed evaluation of the IME concept. A discussion of these system reliability concepts is also presented.

  2. Reliability studies of integrated modular engine system designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Terry L.; Rapp, Douglas C.

    1993-06-01

    A study was performed to evaluate the reliability of Integrated Modular Engine (IME) concepts. Comparisons were made between networked IME systems and non-networked discrete systems using expander cycle configurations. Both redundant and non-redundant systems were analyzed. Binomial approximation and Markov analysis techniques were employed to evaluate total system reliability. In addition, Failure Modes and Effects Analyses (FMEA), Preliminary Hazard Analyses (PHA), and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) were performed to allow detailed evaluation of the IME concept. A discussion of these system reliability concepts is also presented.

  3. 75 FR 23654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Hermes Copper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Hermes copper (71 FR 44966) or Thorne's hairstreak butterflies (71 FR 44980) was warranted. (For a... (75 FR 17062) concluding that listing Thorne's hairstreak butterfly may be warranted. This notice... finding (71 FR 44966, August 8, 2006) is limited to Marschalek and Deutschman's (2008) study of the...

  4. Comparison of growth, serum biochemistries and n-6 fatty acid metabolism in rats fed diets supplemented with high-gamma-linolenic acid safflower oil or borage oil for 90 days.

    PubMed

    Tso, Patrick; Caldwell, Jody; Lee, Dana; Boivin, Gregory P; DeMichele, Stephen J

    2012-06-01

    Recently, steps have been taken to further developments toward increasing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) concentration and lowering costs in plant seed oils using transgenic technology. Through identification and expression of a fungal delta-6 desaturase gene in the high linoleic acid safflower plant, the seeds from this genetic transformation produce oil with >40% GLA (high GLA safflower oil (HGSO)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of feeding HGSO to a generally recognized as safe source of GLA, borage oil, in a 90 day safety study in rats. Weanling male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a semi-synthetic, fat free, pelleted diet (AIN93G) supplemented with a 10% (wt/wt) oil blend containing HGSO or borage oil, with equivalent GLA levels. Results demonstrated that feeding diets containing HGSO or borage oil for 90 days had similar biologic effects with regard to growth characteristics, body composition, behavior, organ weight and histology, and parameters of hematology and serum biochemistries in both sexes. Metabolism of the primary n-6 fatty acids in plasma and organ phospholipids was similar, despite minor changes in females. We conclude that HGSO is biologically equivalent to borage oil and provides a safe alternative source of GLA in the diet. PMID:22265940

  5. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  6. Effects of genetically modified T2A-1 rice on the GI health of rats after 90-day supplement.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanfang; Xu, Wentao; He, Xiaoyun; Liu, Haiyan; Cao, Sishuo; Qi, Xiaozhe; Huang, Kunlun; Luo, Yunbo

    2013-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal toxin (Bt) rice will be commercialized as a main food source. Traditional safety assessments on genetically modified products pay little attention on gastrointestinal (GI) health. More data about GI health of Bt rice must be provided to dispel public' doubts about the potential effects on human health. We constructed an improved safety assessment animal model using a basic subchronic toxicity experiment, measuring a range of parameters including microflora composition, intestinal permeability, epithelial structure, fecal enzymes, bacterial activity, and intestinal immunity. Significant differences were found between rice-fed groups and AIN93G-fed control groups in several parameters, whereas no differences were observed between genetically modified and non-genetically modified groups. No adverse effects were found on GI health resulting from genetically modified T2A-1 rice. In conclusion, this study may offer a systematic safety assessment model for GM material with respect to the effects on GI health. PMID:23752350

  7. Pulmonary toxicity of single-wall carbon nanotubes in mice 7 and 90 days after intratracheal instillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Chiu-Wing; James, John T.; McCluskey, Richard; Hunter, Robert L.

    2004-01-01

    Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and several microns long, but they often pack tightly together to form rods or ropes of microscopic sizes. Carbon nanotubes possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and have many potential applications in the electronics, computer, and aerospace industries. Unprocessed nanotubes are very light and could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs. Because the toxicity of nanotubes in the lung is not known, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 0, 0.1, or 0.5 mg of carbon nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control and euthanized 7 d or 90 d after the single treatment for histopathological study of the lungs. All nanotube products induced dose-dependent epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7-d groups. These lesions persisted and were more pronounced in the 90-d groups; the lungs of some animals also revealed peribronchial inflammation and necrosis that had extended into the alveolar septa. The lungs of mice treated with carbon black were normal, whereas those treated with high-dose quartz revealed mild to moderate inflammation. These results show that, for the test conditions described here and on an equal-weight basis, if carbon nanotubes reach the lungs, they are much more toxic than carbon black and can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

  8. Human Rights Attitude Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ercan, Recep; Yaman, Tugba; Demir, Selcuk Besir

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a valid and reliable attitude scale having quality psychometric features that can measure secondary school students' attitudes towards human rights. The study group of the research is comprised by 710 6th, 7th and 8th grade students who study at 4 secondary schools in the centre of Sivas. The study group…

  9. Test of Creative Imagination: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundogan, Aysun; Ari, Meziyet; Gonen, Mubeccel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate validity and reliability of the test of creative imagination. This study was conducted with the participation of 1000 children, aged between 9-14 and were studying in six primary schools in the city center of Denizli Province, chosen by cluster ratio sampling. In the study, it was revealed that the…

  10. Growth of Holstein calves from birth to 90 days: the influence of dietary zinc and BLAD status.

    PubMed

    Arrayet, J L; Oberbauer, A M; Famula, T R; Garnett, I; Oltjen, J W; Imhoof, J; Kehrli, M E; Graham, T W

    2002-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to describe Holstein neonatal growth and development as influenced by dietary zinc supplementation and the CD18 genotype, both of which may affect immune competence. Holstein calves (n = 421), after being fed colostrum, were brought to a calf facility, randomly assigned to one of four zinc supplementation groups (control at 40 mg Zn/kg DM or the control diet supplemented with an additional 60 mg Zn/kg DM provided as either zinc sulfate, zinc lysine, or zinc methionine), weighed, and measured for morphometric growth parameters. Measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 d. Calves were also genotyped for the presence of the mutant D128G CD18 allele, which, if present in two copies, causes bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Zinc supplementation above 40 mg Zn/kg DM, regardless of the chemical form, did not accelerate growth (P > 0.25). Further, overall calf growth performance was not suppressed or improved (P > 0.4) in calves heterozygous at the CD18 locus relative to calves homozygous for the normal CD18 allele, although genotype negatively affected some morphometric measurements (P < 0.05). Using these data, quadratic models of early growth were generated as a preliminary step to develop growth criteria that will allow producers, veterinarians, and animal scientists to identify poor growth performance early in neonatal life. Such criteria provide the basis for tools to improve economic performance. PMID:11890391

  11. Bioaccumulation and locomotor effects of manganese sulfate in Sprague-Dawley rats following subchronic (90 days) inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Tapin, Danielle; Kennedy, Greg; Lambert, Jean; Zayed, Joseph . E-mail: joseph.zayed@umontreal.ca

    2006-03-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic compound that was introduced as an antiknock additive to replace lead in unleaded fuel. The combustion of MMT results in the emission of fine Mn particulates mainly in the form of manganese sulfate and manganese phosphate. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of subchronic exposure to Mn sulfate in different tissues, on locomotor activity, on neuropathology, and on blood serum biochemical parameters. A control group and three groups of 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed 6-h/day, 5 days/week for 13 consecutive weeks at 30, 300, or 3000 {mu}g/m{sup 3} Mn sulfate. Locomotor activity was measured during 36 h using an Auto-Track System. Blood and the following tissues were collected and analyzed for manganese content by neutron activation analysis: olfactory bulb, globus pallidus, caudate/putamen, cerebellum, frontal cortex, liver, lung, testis, and kidney. Neuronal cell counts were obtained for the caudate/putamen and the globus pallidus and clinical biochemistry was assessed. Manganese concentrations were increased in blood, kidney, lung, and testis and in all brain regions in the 3000 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group. Significant differences were also noted in the 300 {mu}g/m{sup 3} exposure group. Neuronal cell counts for the globus pallidus were significantly different between the two highest exposed groups and the controls. Locomotor activity for all exposure concentrations and resting time for the middle and highest concentrations for the two night resting periods were significantly increased. Total ambulatory count was decreased significantly for all exposure concentrations. Biochemical profiles also presented significant differences. No body weight loss was observed between all groups. These results suggest that neurotoxicity could occur at low exposure levels of Mn sulfate, one of the main combustion products of MMT.

  12. STS-90 Day 11 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this eleventh day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk once again take part in an experiment aimed at exploring the influence of gravity on blood pressure. The lower body negative pressure test places a stress on the cardiovascular system similar to that experienced when standing in Earth's gravity. Pawelczyk also takes part in the Valsalva test, which stimulates the pressure receptors in the neck and chest and measures those responses. Both Buckey and Pawelzyk participate as subjects and as operators in tests of the autonomic nervous system. All four science crew members conduct tests of their pulmonary systems as well as additional runs in a rotating chair to measure the response of their eyes and inner ears in maintaining balance in a weightless environment.

  13. STS-90 Day 06 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this sixth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk are back on the job full-time as they begin the day six of on-orbit research on the human nervous system. Additional work with the Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) equipment which is collecting data on the crew's breathing patterns and blood concentrations of oxygen and carbon dioxide also takes place.

  14. STS-90 Day 14 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this fourteenth day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk focus on the efforts of Neurolab's Neuronal Plasticity Team to better understand how the adult nervous system adapts to the new environment of space. Columbia's science crew -- Mission Specialists Rick Linnehan and Dave Williams and Payload Specialists Jay Buckey and Jim Pawelczyk -- perform the second and final in-flight dissections of the adult male rats on board. The crew euthanizes and dissects nine rats and remove the vestibular or balance organs of the inner ear; the cerebellum, the part of the brain critical for maintaining balance and for processing information from the limbs so they can be moved smoothly; and the cerebrum, one part of which controls automatic functions such as body temperature regulation and the body's internal clock, and the cortical region that controls cognitive functions such as thinking. The first dissection, which was performed on the second day of the flight, went extremely well, according to Neurolab scientists.

  15. STS-90 Day 03 Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    On this third day of the STS-90 mission, the flight crew, Cmdr. Richard A. Searfoss, Pilot Scott D. Altman, and Mission Specialists Richard M. Linnehan, Dafydd Rhys Williams and Kathryn P. Hire, and Payload Specialists Jay C. Buckey and James A. Pawelczyk continue to conduct both human and animal research experiments in the Spacelab module. During the morning, the payload crew members Linnehan, Williams, Buckey and Pawelczyk performs transfer activities with the Animal Enclosure Module, setting up the General Purpose Work Station (GPWS) and operations with the ball catch experiment. In the afternoon, their attention will be on injections and dissections of some of the research animals and an objects recognition test.

  16. Reliability study of the NiH2 strain gage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Glenn C.; Rash, Donald E., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes a joint study by Gates Aerospace Batteries (GAB) and the Reliability Analysis Center (RAC). This study characterizes the reliability and robustness of the temperature compensated strain gages currently specified for sensing of internal pressure of NiH2 cells. These strain gages are characterized as fully encapsulated, metallic foil grids with known resistance that varies with deformation. The measurable deformation, when typically installed on the hemispherical portion of a NiH2 cell, is proportional to the material stresses as generated by internal cell pressures. The internal pressure sensed in this manner is calibrated to indicate the state-of-charge for the cell. This study analyzes and assesses both robustness and reliability for the basic design of the strain gage, the installation of the strain gage, and the circuitry involved.

  17. Developing the Educational Belief Scale: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yilmaz, Kursad; Altinkurt, Yahya; Cokluk, Omay

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a valid and reliable scale that can be used in determining educational beliefs of teachers and prospective teachers. After studies such as scale expert views and the evaluation of intelligibility, the measure is administered to a sample consisting of 154 teachers and 305 prospective teachers with a total number…

  18. An empirical study of flight control software reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. R.; Pierce, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a laboratory experiment in flight control software reliability are reported. The experiment tests a small sample of implementations of a pitch axis control law for a PA28 aircraft with over 14 million pitch commands with varying levels of additive input and feedback noise. The testing which uses the method of n-version programming for error detection surfaced four software faults in one implementation of the control law. The small number of detected faults precluded the conduct of the error burst analyses. The pitch axis problem provides data for use in constructing a model in the prediction of the reliability of software in systems with feedback. The study is undertaken to find means to perform reliability evaluations of flight control software.

  19. Thermal Reliability Study of Bypass Diodes in Photovoltaic Modules (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Wohlgemuth, J.; Kurtz, S.

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents the result of high-temperature durability and thermal cycling testing and analysis for the selected diodes to study the detail of the thermal design and relative long-term reliability of the bypass diodes used to limit the detrimental effects of module hot-spot susceptibility.

  20. Reflective Thinking Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basol, Gulsah; Evin Gencel, Ilke

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt Reflective Thinking Scale to Turkish and investigate its validity and reliability over a Turkish university students' sample. Reflective Thinking Scale (RTS) is a 5 point Likert scale (ranging from 1 corresponding Agree Completely, 3 to Neutral, and 5 to Not Agree Completely), purposed to measure…

  1. Monte Carlo Approach for Reliability Estimations in Generalizability Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    A Monte Carlo approach is proposed, using the Statistical Analysis System (SAS) programming language, for estimating reliability coefficients in generalizability theory studies. Test scores are generated by a probabilistic model that considers the probability for a person with a given ability score to answer an item with a given difficulty…

  2. DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the study was to present a tool useful to water utilities that not only could analyze historical distribution system reliability data, but also provide a flexible and expandable mechanism for record-keeping enabling overall management of water work's facilities and...

  3. Research Measures for Dyscalculia: A Validity and Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiman, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate a measure of dyscalculia to determine its validity and reliability. It also tested use of the instrument with seventh graders and ascertained where errors attributed to dyscalculia were also present in an average sample of seventh graders. Results varied. (MNS)

  4. Genome-wide gene expression effects in B6C3F1 mouse intestinal epithelia following 7 and 90 days of exposure to hexavalent chromium in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Kopec, Anna K.; Kim, Suntae; Forgacs, Agnes L.; Zacharewski, Timothy R.; Proctor, Deborah M.; Harris, Mark A.; Haws, Laurie C.; Thompson, Chad M.

    2012-02-15

    Chronic administration of high doses of hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] as sodium dichromate dihydrate (SDD) elicits alimentary cancers in mice. To further elucidate key events underlying tumor formation, a 90-day drinking water study was conducted in B6C3F1 mice. Differential gene expression was examined in duodenal and jejunal epithelial samples following 7 or 90 days of exposure to 0, 0.3, 4, 14, 60, 170 or 520 mg/L SDD in drinking water. Genome-wide microarray analyses identified 6562 duodenal and 4448 jejunal unique differentially expressed genes at day 8, and 4630 and 4845 unique changes, respectively, in the duodenum and jejunum at day 91. Comparative analysis identified significant overlap in duodenal and jejunal differential gene expression. Automated dose–response modeling identified > 80% of the differentially expressed genes exhibited sigmoidal dose–response curves with EC{sub 50} values ranging from 10 to 100 mg/L SDD. Only 16 genes satisfying the dose-dependent differential expression criteria had EC{sub 50} values < 10 mg/L SDD, 3 of which were regulated by Nrf2, suggesting oxidative stress in response to SDD at low concentrations. Analyses of differentially expressed genes identified over-represented functions associated with oxidative stress, cell cycle, lipid metabolism, and immune responses consistent with the reported effects on redox status and histopathology at corresponding SDD drinking water concentrations. Collectively, these data are consistent with a mode of action involving oxidative stress and cytotoxicity as early key events. This suggests that the tumorigenic effects of chronic Cr(VI) oral exposure likely require chronic tissue damage and compensatory epithelial cell proliferation. Highlights: ► Mouse small intestine gene expression is highly responsive to hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. ► Cr(VI) elicits more differential gene expression after 7 days of exposure than 90 days of exposure. ► Oral exposure to Cr(VI) leads to

  5. Passive System Reliability Analysis: A Study on the Isolation Condenser

    SciTech Connect

    Burgazzi, Luciano

    2002-07-15

    This paper deals with the reliability assessment of passive systems that have been developed in recent years by suppliers, industries, utilities, and research organizations, aimed at plant safety improvement and substantial simplification in its implementation. The present study concerns the passive decay heat removal systems that use, for the most part, a condenser immersed in a cooling pool. The focus of the paper is a reliability study of the isolation condenser system foreseen for advanced boiling water reactors (BWRs) for the removal of the excess sensible and core decay heat from the BWR by natural circulation. Furthermore, an approach aimed at the thermal-hydraulic performance assessment (i.e., the natural circulation failure evaluation) from the probability point of view is given. The study is not plant-specific-related but pertains to the conceptual design of the foregoing system.

  6. Effect of complications within 90 days on patient-reported outcomes 3 months and 12 months following elective surgery for lumbar degenerative disease.

    PubMed

    Chotai, Silky; Parker, Scott L; Sivaganesan, Ahilan; Sielatycki, J Alex; Asher, Anthony L; McGirt, Matthew J; Devin, Clinton J

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT There is a paradigm shift toward rewarding providers for quality rather than volume. Complications appear to occur at a fairly consistent frequency in large aggregate data sets. Understanding how complications affect long-term patient-reported outcomes (PROs) following degenerative lumbar surgery is vital. The authors hypothesized that 90-day complications would adversely affect long-term PROs. METHODS Nine hundred six consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery for degenerative lumbar disease over a period of 4 years were enrolled into a prospective longitudinal registry. The following PROs were recorded at baseline and 12-month follow-up: Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, numeric rating scales for back and leg pain, quality of life (EQ-5D scores), general physical and mental health (SF-12 Physical Component Summary [PCS] and Mental Component Summary [MCS] scores) and responses to the North American Spine Society (NASS) satisfaction questionnaire. Previously published minimum clinically important difference (MCID) threshold were used to define meaningful improvement. Complications were divided into major (surgicalsite infection, hardware failure, new neurological deficit, pulmonary embolism, hematoma and myocardial infarction) and minor (urinary tract infection, pneumonia, and deep venous thrombosis). RESULTS Complications developed within 90 days of surgery in 13% (118) of the patients (major in 12% [108] and minor in 8% [68]). The mean improvement in ODI scores, EQ-5D scores, SF-12 PCS scores, and satisfaction at 3 months after surgery was significantly less in the patients with complications than in those who did not have major complications (ODI: 13.5 ± 21.2 vs 21.7 ± 19, < 0.0001; EQ-5D: 0.17 ± 0.25 vs 0.23 ± 0.23, p = 0.04; SF-12 PCS: 8.6 ± 13.3 vs 13.0 ± 11.9, 0.001; and satisfaction: 76% vs 90%, p = 0.002). At 12 months after surgery, the patients with major complications had higher ODI scores than those without complications (29.1

  7. The retrograde limb of internal mammary vessels as reliable recipient vessels in DIEP flap breast reconstruction: a clinical and radiological study.

    PubMed

    Salgarello, Marzia; Visconti, Giuseppe; Barone-Adesi, Liliana; Cina, Alessandro

    2015-04-01

    For many microsurgeons, antegrade internal mammary vessels (AIMVs) represent the recipients of choice in autogenous breast reconstruction. For the past few years, the retrograde internal mammary vessels (RIMVs) have been demonstrated to be a further reliable option when needed, according to many papers focusing more on the vein than on the artery. Besides the clinical evidence, the hemodynamic features of the retrograde system have been very seldom analyzed.In this article, we report our clinical experience with deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP) flaps anastomosed to RIMVs, along with a perioperative radiological follow-up to study RIMVs' hemodynamics and to further support the reliability of the retrograde system with particular focus on the retrograde internal mammary artery.Prospective, preoperative, and postoperative (3 days, 21 days, and 3 months, respectively) color Doppler sonographies of the internal mammary artery (IMA) and DIEPs have been performed to collect the velocity of flow (v) and resistive index (RI) data. Twenty-two patients agreed to undergo this protocol, of which 10 unipedicle flaps were anastomosed to AIMVs ("control" group), 10 bipedicle DIEPs to both AIMVs and RIMVs ("study" group), and 2 DIEPs anastomosed to retrograde internal mammary artery and antegrade internal mammary vein (not statistically analyzed for their paucity). Student t test was performed to compare the "control" and "study" groups.All the flaps survived, and no re-exploration was needed. Internal mammary artery and perforators v showed similar but speculate trend, whereas IMA and perforators RI looked stable during that time. Significant differences have been found in the "study" group for IMA v at 3-day period, for perforator v at 21- and 90-day periods, and for perforator RI at 90-day period, without any clinical implication for flap viability.Retrograde internal mammary vessels can be considered reliable vessels for both arterial flap input and venous flap

  8. In vivo genotoxicity evaluation of lung cells from Fischer 344 rats following 28 days of inhalation exposure to MWCNTs, plus 28 days and 90 days post-exposure.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Sik; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Choi, Byung Gil; Ryu, Hyeon Yeol; Song, Kyung Seuk; Shin, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jong Seong; Hwang, Joo Hwan; Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Gun Ho; Jeon, Kisoo; Ahn, Kang Ho; Yu, Il Je

    2014-03-01

    Despite their useful physico-chemical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) continue to cause concern over occupational and human health due to their structural similarity to asbestos. Thus, to evaluate the toxic and genotoxic effect of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on lung cells in vivo, eight-week-old rats were divided into four groups (each group = 25 animals), a fresh air control (0 mg/m(3)), low (0.17 mg/m(3)), middle (0.49 mg/m(3)), and high (0.96 mg/m(3)) dose group, and exposed to MWCNTs via nose-only inhalation 6 h per day, 5 days per week for 28 days. The count median length and geometric standard deviation for the MWCNTs determined by TEM were 330.18 and 1.72 nm, respectively, and the MWCNT diameters ranged from 10 to 15 nm. Lung cells were isolated from five male and five female rats in each group on day 0, day 28 (only from males) and day 90 following the 28-day exposure. The total number of animals used was 15 male and 10 female rats for each concentration group. To determine the genotoxicity of the MWCNTs, a single cell gel electrophoresis assay (Comet assay) was conducted on the rat lung cells. As a result of the exposure, the olive tail moments were found to be significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the male and female rats from all the exposed groups when compared with the fresh air control. In addition, the high-dose exposed male and middle and high-dose exposed female rats retained DNA damage, even 90 days post-exposure (p < 0.05). To investigate the mode of genotoxicity, the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and inflammatory cytokine levels (TNF-α, TGF- β, IL-1, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12 and IFN-γ) were also measured. For the male rats, the H2O2 levels were significantly higher in the middle (0 days post-exposure) and high- (0 days and 28 days post-exposure) dose groups (p < 0.05). Conversely, the female rats showed no changes in the H2O2 levels. The inflammatory cytokine levels in the

  9. Impact of Device Scaling on Deep Sub-micron Transistor Reliability: A Study of Reliability Trends using SRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Mark; Huang, Bing; Qin, Jin; Gur, Zvi; Talmor, Michael; Chen, Yuan; Heidecker, Jason; Nguyen, Duc; Bernstein, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    As microelectronics are scaled in to the deep sub-micron regime, users of advanced technology CMOS, particularly in high-reliability applications, should reassess how scaling effects impact long-term reliability. An experimental based reliability study of industrial grade SRAMs, consisting of three different technology nodes, is proposed to substantiate current acceleration models for temperature and voltage life-stress relationships. This reliability study utilizes step-stress techniques to evaluate memory technologies (0.25mum, 0.15mum, and 0.13mum) embedded in many of today's high-reliability space/aerospace applications. Two acceleration modeling approaches are presented to relate experimental FIT calculations to Mfr's qualification data.

  10. Reliability and availability studies in the RIA driver linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lessner, E. S.; Ostroumov, P. N.; Physics

    2005-01-01

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA) facility will include various complex systems and must provide radioactive beams to many users simultaneously. The availability of radioactive beams for most experiments at the fully-commissioned facility should be as high as possible within design cost limitations. To make a realistic estimate of the achievable reliability a detailed analysis is required. The RIA driver linac is a complex machine containing a large number of superconducting (SC) resonators and capable of accelerating multiple-charge-state beams [1]. At the pre-CDR stage of the design it is essential to identify critical facility subsystem failures that can prevent the driver linac from operating. The reliability and availability of the driver linac were studied using expert information and data from operating machines such as ATLAS, APS, JLab, and LANL. Availability studies are performed with a Monte-Carlo simulation code previously applied to availability assessments of the NLC facility [2] and the results used to identify subsystem failures that most affect the availability and reliability of the RIA driver, and guide design iterations and component specifications to address identified problems.

  11. A reliability study of instrument air system design options

    SciTech Connect

    Guey, C.; Skelley, W. ); Gilbert, L.; Anoba, R.; Stutzke, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The existing instrument air system at Turkey Point station uses mobile diesel-driven air compressors. Although these diesel compressors have performed their function well, they represent a maintenance and financial burden requiring engineering review. An engineering evaluation is ongoing to develop several feasible conceptual design options to upgrade the instrument air systems. This phase-1 study was performed to assess the reliability of the various proposed design options. A phase-2 study will be conducted later to determine the core damage frequency for a selected option.

  12. Morbidity in Swedish dairy calves from birth to 90 days of age and individual calf-level risk factors for infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Svensson, Catarina; Lundborg, Karin; Emanuelson, Ulf; Olsson, Sven-Ove

    2003-05-15

    The health of 3081 heifer calves born in 122 dairy herds in the south-west of Sweden from 1 January to 31 December, 1998, was monitored from birth until 90 days of age. The calves were kept either in individual pens (n=2167), in group pens, with 3-8 calves to a pen and manual feeding of milk (n=440), in group pens with 6-30 calves per pen and an automatic milk-feeding system (n=431), or with their dams (n=43). Disease incidence was recorded by farmers and project veterinarians, who clinically examined the calves and auscultated their lungs every 2-3 months. A disease was graded as 'severe' if the general loss of condition or of appetite in the calf continued for >2 days or if the animal suffered severe weight loss due to the disease. The effects of season, breed, housing, and type of colostrum feeding, and time, place and supervision of calving on the incidences of diarrhea, severe diarrhea, respiratory disease, other infectious disease and moderately to severely increased respiratory sounds, were analyzed by logistic-regression models (with herd as a random effect). The total morbidity rate was 0.081 cases per calf-month at risk. Incidence rates of arthritis, diarrhea, omphalophlebitis, respiratory disease and ringworm were 0.002, 0.035, 0.005, 0.025 and 0.009 cases per calf-months at risk, respectively. The odds ratios for diarrhea and severe diarrhea were increased in Swedish Red and Whites (OR: 1.6, 2.3) and in calves that received colostrum from first-lactation cows (OR: 1.3-1.8), and for severe diarrhea in calves born in summer or that received colostrum through suckling (OR: 1.7, 1.8). The odds ratios for respiratory disease and increased respiratory sounds were increased in calves housed in large-group pens with an automatic milk-feeding system (OR: 2.2, 2.8). Supervision of calving was associated with a decreased odds ratio for respiratory disease (OR: 0.7) and birth in individual maternity pen or tie stalls with a decreased odds ratio for increased

  13. System-reliability studies for wave-energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, J. M.; Din, S.; Mytton, M. G.; Shore, N. L.; Stansfield, H. B.

    1980-06-01

    A study is reported that is being undertaken in the United Kingdom to determine means of developing the potential of the large wave-energy resource around the coast, in particular, that to the west facing the Atlantic. It is shown that derivation of the mean annual energy to be expected involved knowledge, not only of the wave climates, conversion efficiency characteristics of the proposed devices and of the power transmission system, but also of factors reflecting the availability overall. Attention is given to a simplified approach to the quantifying of reliability for each stage of the process. An appropriate method of analysis is established and a summary of the results obtained is given.

  14. [The "Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST)": initial validation and reliability studies].

    PubMed

    Schmidgen, H; Hoell, T; Regard, M; Landis, T; Rudolf, K H; Berzewski, H; Brock, M

    1994-01-01

    Medical examinations only insufficiently measure cognitive impairment in neurological and neurosurgical patients. Due to costs an personnel shortages, adequate neuropsychological test methods are typically bypassed. Indeed, the very size and methodological problems of current tests impede their application in clinical practice. To resolve this dissatisfying state of affairs, we have developed a standardized, scored form of initial neuropsychological examination. The Neuropsychological Screening Test (NST) comprises 45 items, is easy to handle, and can be conducted in 15-20 min. The NST measures psychic performance along functional parameters such as orientation in place and time, primary and secondary language, visuospatial ability, attention, and memory skills. We have assessed the validity and reliability of the NST in a prospective study. 129 neurosurgical patients (60% malignant or benign cerebral tumors, 21% vascular malformations with and without subarachnoid hemorrhage, 6% traumatic brain injury, 3% hydrocephalus, 10% others) and 52 control subjects were included in the study. The difference in average total NST-scores was highly significant for the two groups (t = -7.84, DF = 177.93, p < .001). In addition, two chronologically separate subsamples of NCH patients (N = 81) and controls (N = 35) were tested using the Mini-Mental State (MMS). The correlation between total NST-score and MMS results was r = .49 (p < .001). Cross-tabulation was used to set a cut-off score, by means of which 80% of the neurosurgical patients were identified as true positive and 74% of the controls as true negative. A 24-hour retest confirmed the NST as reliable to .85 (p < .001).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7887046

  15. Performance Evaluation of Occupational Therapy Students: A Reliability Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polatajko, Helene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Two occupational therapists rated 13 students after 1-week placements, using the Performance Evaluation of Occupational Therapy Students (PEOTS). The instrument had good interrater reliability but test-retest reliability was difficult to evaluate. Preliminary findings support the use of PEOTS as an evaluation tool. (JOW)

  16. Fatigue case study and reliability analyses for wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, H.J.; Veers, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    Modern wind turbines are fatigue critical machines used to produce electrical power. To insure long term, reliable operation, their structure must be optimized if they are to be economically viable. The fatigue and reliability projects in Sandia`s Wind Energy Program are developing the analysis tools required to accomplish these design requirements. The first section of the paper formulates the fatigue analysis of a wind turbine using a cumulative damage technique. The second section uses reliability analysis for quantifying the uncertainties and the inherent randomness associated with turbine performance and the prediction of service lifetimes. Both research areas are highlighted with typical results.

  17. Reliability study of an emerging fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, David A.; Rossati, Lyric M.; Fritz, Nathan K.; Cournoyer, Michael E.; Granzow, Howard N.

    2015-02-07

    Self-contained fire extinguishers are a robust, reliable and minimally invasive means of fire suppression for gloveboxes. Plutonium gloveboxes are known to present harsh environmental conditions for polymer materials, these include radiation damage and chemical exposure, both of which tend to degrade the lifetime of engineered polymer components. The primary component of interest in self-contained fire extinguishers is the nylon 6-6 machined tube that comprises the main body of the system.Thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of nylon 6-6 for use in plutonium glovebox applications has been carried out. Data has been generated regarding property degradation leading to poor, or reduced, engineering performance of nylon 6-6 components. In this study, nylon 6-6 tensile specimens conforming to the casing of self-contained fire extinguisher systems have been exposed to hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric acids. This information was used to predict the performance of a load bearing engineering component comprised of nylon 6-6 and designed to operate in a consistent manner over a specified time period. The study provides a fundamental understanding of the engineering performance of the fire suppression system and the effects of environmental degradation due to acid exposure on engineering performance. Data generated help identify the limitations of self-contained fire extinguishers. No critical areas of concern for plutonium glovebox applications of nylon 6-6 have been identified when considering exposure to mineral acid.

  18. Reliability study of an emerging fire suppression system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Miller, David A.; Rossati, Lyric M.; Fritz, Nathan K.; Cournoyer, Michael E.; Granzow, Howard N.

    2015-02-07

    Self-contained fire extinguishers are a robust, reliable and minimally invasive means of fire suppression for gloveboxes. Plutonium gloveboxes are known to present harsh environmental conditions for polymer materials, these include radiation damage and chemical exposure, both of which tend to degrade the lifetime of engineered polymer components. The primary component of interest in self-contained fire extinguishers is the nylon 6-6 machined tube that comprises the main body of the system.Thermo-mechanical modeling and characterization of nylon 6-6 for use in plutonium glovebox applications has been carried out. Data has been generated regarding property degradation leading to poor, or reduced, engineering performancemore » of nylon 6-6 components. In this study, nylon 6-6 tensile specimens conforming to the casing of self-contained fire extinguisher systems have been exposed to hydrochloric, nitric, and sulfuric acids. This information was used to predict the performance of a load bearing engineering component comprised of nylon 6-6 and designed to operate in a consistent manner over a specified time period. The study provides a fundamental understanding of the engineering performance of the fire suppression system and the effects of environmental degradation due to acid exposure on engineering performance. Data generated help identify the limitations of self-contained fire extinguishers. No critical areas of concern for plutonium glovebox applications of nylon 6-6 have been identified when considering exposure to mineral acid.« less

  19. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Hacker, Neville F; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  20. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  1. The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR): A Reliability Generalization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Andrew; Bagger, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    The Balanced Inventory of Desirable Responding (BIDR) is one of the most widely used social desirability scales. The authors conducted a reliability generalization study to examine the typical reliability coefficients of BIDR scores and explored factors that explained the variability of reliability estimates across studies. The results indicated…

  2. Environmental education curriculum evaluation questionnaire: A reliability and validity study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minner, Daphne Diane

    The intention of this research project was to bridge the gap between social science research and application to the environmental domain through the development of a theoretically derived instrument designed to give educators a template by which to evaluate environmental education curricula. The theoretical base for instrument development was provided by several developmental theories such as Piaget's theory of cognitive development, Developmental Systems Theory, Life-span Perspective, as well as curriculum research within the area of environmental education. This theoretical base fueled the generation of a list of components which were then translated into a questionnaire with specific questions relevant to the environmental education domain. The specific research question for this project is: Can a valid assessment instrument based largely on human development and education theory be developed that reliably discriminates high, moderate, and low quality in environmental education curricula? The types of analyses conducted to answer this question were interrater reliability (percent agreement, Cohen's Kappa coefficient, Pearson's Product-Moment correlation coefficient), test-retest reliability (percent agreement, correlation), and criterion-related validity (correlation). Face validity and content validity were also assessed through thorough reviews. Overall results indicate that 29% of the questions on the questionnaire demonstrated a high level of interrater reliability and 43% of the questions demonstrated a moderate level of interrater reliability. Seventy-one percent of the questions demonstrated a high test-retest reliability and 5% a moderate level. Fifty-five percent of the questions on the questionnaire were reliable (high or moderate) both across time and raters. Only eight questions (8%) did not show either interrater or test-retest reliability. The global overall rating of high, medium, or low quality was reliable across both coders and time, indicating

  3. The investigation of supply chain's reliability measure: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taghizadeh, Houshang; Hafezi, Ehsan

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, using supply chain operational reference, the reliability evaluation of available relationships in supply chain is investigated. For this purpose, in the first step, the chain under investigation is divided into several stages including first and second suppliers, initial and final customers, and the producing company. Based on the formed relationships between these stages, the supply chain system is then broken down into different subsystem parts. The formed relationships between the stages are based on the transportation of the orders between stages. Paying attention to the system elements' location, which can be in one of the five forms of series namely parallel, series/parallel, parallel/series, or their combinations, we determine the structure of relationships in the divided subsystems. According to reliability evaluation scales on the three levels of supply chain, the reliability of each chain is then calculated. Finally, using the formulas of calculating the reliability in combined systems, the reliability of each system and ultimately the whole system is investigated.

  4. Preliminary study of the reliability of imaging charge coupled devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, J. R.; Borenstein, M. D.; Homan, R. A.; Johnson, D. L.; Wilson, D. D.; Young, V. F.

    1978-01-01

    Imaging CCDs are capable of low light level response and high signal-to-noise ratios. In space applications they offer the user the ability to achieve extremely high resolution imaging with minimum circuitry in the photo sensor array. This work relates the CCD121H Fairchild device to the fundamentals of CCDs and the representative technologies. Several failure modes are described, construction is analyzed and test results are reported. In addition, the relationship of the device reliability to packaging principles is analyzed and test data presented. Finally, a test program is defined for more general reliability evaluation of CCDs.

  5. The Impact Analysis of Psychological Reliability of Population Pilot Study for Selection of Particular Reliable Multi-Choice Item Test in Foreign Language Research Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fazeli, Seyed Hossein

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of research described in the current study is the psychological reliability, its importance, application, and more to investigate on the impact analysis of psychological reliability of population pilot study for selection of particular reliable multi-choice item test in foreign language research work. The population for subject…

  6. Long life high reliability thermal control systems study data handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollon, T. R., Jr.; Carpitella, M. J.

    1971-01-01

    The development of thermal control systems with high reliability and long service life is discussed. Various passive and semi-active thermal control systems which have been installed on space vehicles are described. The properties of the various coatings are presented in tabular form.

  7. Methodology for a reliability study on photovoltaic modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desombre, A.

    It is found that an assessment of the reliability of photovoltaic solar modules involves an analysis of the stresses encountered in use and of the failure mechanisms that depend on the design and manufacture of the module. It is stressed that research must be carried out on acceleration tests and on calculating acceleration factors for each method of manufacture and each environmental parameter.

  8. Photomultiplier tube reliability study for the HEAO program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, C.

    1974-01-01

    Results concerning the research on photomultiplier tubes required for the HEAO program are reported. The general specifications are discussed for providing a series of tests for helping the operational reliability of its application, and for permitting comparison of performance of similar types, from various manufacturers.

  9. Reliability study on the via of dual damascene copper interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Won-Chong

    In this dissertation, reliability of the via of dual damascene Cu interconnects was investigated using electromigration (EM) early failure, high temperature storage (HTS), and via-to-line biased temperature stressing (BTS). The major causes of EM early failures were observed to be reduced thickness and rough surface of the Ta diffusion barrier at via sidewalls. EM voids were observed at the interface of Cu/Ta barrier at the via sidewall where Ta was very thin while no voids were found at the interface in trench lines where Ta was thicker. The preferential void formation suggests that the very thin Ta diffusion barrier was defective. It seems that defects of the interface of Cu/thin Ta diffusion barrier accelerated diffusion of Cu at the via sidewall, leading to EM via voiding. In addition, rough surfaces of Ta diffusion barriers at the via sidewall induced EM early failures by fast void movement from the cathode end down to the via bottom. It was postulated that process-induced defects related with rough surfaces of non-intact Ta which was deposited on plasma-damaged low k were the main cause of the strong mode-induced early failure. Both intrinsic and extrinsic SM behaviors were investigated. The intrinsic SM was the typical stressmigration behavior governed by two opposing factors: diffusivity of Cu and tensile stress of interconnects. The extrinsic SM mode was different from the intrinsic SM in that the failure rate was exponential with temperature without exhibiting a peak rate at a certain temperature. According to atomic number contrast of TEM micrographs and core loss and low loss nano-beam EELS analyses, the extrinsic SM was the result of oxidation of the Ta diffusion barrier. Via failures caused by Cu out-diffusion through the Ta diffusion barrier at the via sidewall were studied in terms of via-to-line BTS and Cu oxidation. Unlike normal BTS failures due to Cu diffusion along the dielectric/capping layer interface, the weak Ta diffusion barrier at the via

  10. Studies relevant to the design of reliable automotive electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Hua

    This dissertation describes three independent studies related to the design of reliable automotive electronics. The topics covered are: the estimation of the radiated emissions from power bus structures, EM propagation of tire pressure monitoring systems (TPMS), and examinations of corrosion-induced faults in a connector. The first chapter describes a method for estimating the maximum possible radiated emissions from a printed circuit board power bus. An analysis based on a lossy cavity model is performed to determine the maximum possible radiated field corresponding to a given power bus noise voltage. A closed-form expression relating the maximum power bus noise voltage to the radiation peaks is then derived. This expression is solved in reverse to determine the minimum power bus voltage necessary to generate a radiated field and can be applied to measured values of power bus noise voltage to determine whether radiation directly from the power bus is potentially the emissions source. The second chapter identifies transmission parameters from a rotating tire and the vehicle body's effect on tire sensor transmission and propagation; relates these effects to receiver antenna packaging requirements; and then, based on these results, proposes the antenna design of employing car body as a part. In the new proposed TPMS design, a 20mm x 5mm loop antenna with a 40mm x 10mm slot beneath it is added to capture the surface currents of the car body and block the current path to increase the current density around the loop antenna. The simulation results show that this design exhibits a propagation factor 150 times larger than the traditional design. The third chapter investigates the effects of different contaminants (salt, oil, grease) on the shunt resistance between pins of a cable connector. The test results show that salt-induced corrosion and moisture may cause intermittent shunting resistances capable of affecting the normal operation of automotive systems. One

  11. Reliability and availability analysis for robot subsystem in automotive assembly plant: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudzin, A. F.; Majid, M. A. A.

    2015-12-01

    The automotive assembly plant in a manufacturing environment consists of conveying systems and robots. Robots with high reliability will ensure no interruption during production. This study is to analyze the individual robot reliability compared to reliability of robots subsystem in series configuration. Availability was computed based on individual robots breakdown data. Failures due to robots breakdown often occurred during the operations. Actual maintenance data for a period of seven years were used for the analysis. Incorporation of failures rate and mean time between failures yield the reliability computation with the assumption of constant failure rate. Result from the analysis based on 5000 operating hours indicated reliability of series configuration of robots in a subsystem decreased to 2.8% in comparison to 38% reliability of the individual robot with the lowest reliability. The calculated lowest availability of the robots is 99.41%. The robot with the lowest reliability and availability should be considered for replacement.

  12. Reliability study of refractory gate gallium arsenide MESFETS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, J. C. W.; Portnoy, W. M.

    1981-01-01

    Refractory gate MESFET's were fabricated as an alternative to aluminum gate devices, which have been found to be unreliable as RF power amplifiers. In order to determine the reliability of the new structures, statistics of failure and information about mechanisms of failure in refractory gate MESFET's are given. Test transistors were stressed under conditions of high temperature and forward gate current to enhance failure. Results of work at 150 C and 275 C are reported.

  13. The REPAS Study: Reliability Evaluation of Passive Safety Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Bianchi, F.; Burgazzi, L.; D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.

    2002-07-01

    The strategy of approach to the problem moves from the consideration that a passive system should be theoretically more reliable than an active one. In fact it does not need any external input or energy to operate and it relies only upon natural physical laws (e.g. gravity, natural circulation, internally stored energy, etc.) and/or 'intelligent' use of the energy inherently available in the system (e.g. chemical reaction, decay heat, etc.). Nevertheless the passive system may fail its mission not only as a consequence of classical mechanical failure of components, but also for deviation from the expected behaviour, due to physical phenomena mainly related to thermal-hydraulics or due to different boundary and initial conditions. The main sources of physical failure are identified and a probability of occurrence is assigned. The reliability analysis is performed on a passive system which operates in two-phase, natural circulation. The selected system is a loop including a heat source and a heat sink where the condensation occurs. The system behavior under different configurations has been simulated via best-estimate code (Relap5 mod3.2). The results are shown and can be treated in such a way to give qualitative and quantitative information on the system reliability. Main routes of development of the methodology are also depicted. (authors)

  14. Study of vertical breakwater reliability based on copulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Sheng; Li, Jingjing; Li, Xue; Wei, Yong

    2016-04-01

    The reliability of a vertical breakwater is calculated using direct integration methods based on joint density functions. The horizontal and uplifting wave forces on the vertical breakwater can be well fitted by the lognormal and the Gumbel distributions, respectively. The joint distribution of the horizontal and uplifting wave forces is analyzed using different probabilistic distributions, including the bivariate logistic Gumbel distribution, the bivariate lognormal distribution, and three bivariate Archimedean copulas functions constructed with different marginal distributions simultaneously. We use the fully nested copulas to construct multivariate distributions taking into account related variables. Different goodness fitting tests are carried out to determine the best bivariate copula model for wave forces on a vertical breakwater. We show that a bivariate model constructed by Frank copula gives the best reliability analysis, using marginal distributions of Gumbel and lognormal to account for uplifting pressure and horizontal wave force on a vertical breakwater, respectively. The results show that failure probability of the vertical breakwater calculated by multivariate density function is comparable to those by the Joint Committee on Structural Safety methods. As copulas are suitable for constructing a bivariate or multivariate joint distribution, they have great potential in reliability analysis for other coastal structures.

  15. Nuclear electric propulsion operational reliability and crew safety study: NEP systems/modeling report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karns, James

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this study was to establish the initial quantitative reliability bounds for nuclear electric propulsion systems in a manned Mars mission required to ensure crew safety and mission success. Finding the reliability bounds involves balancing top-down (mission driven) requirements and bottom-up (technology driven) capabilities. In seeking this balance we hope to accomplish the following: (1) provide design insights into the achievability of the baseline design in terms of reliability requirements, given the existing technology base; (2) suggest alternative design approaches which might enhance reliability and crew safety; and (3) indicate what technology areas require significant research and development to achieve the reliability objectives.

  16. The "RG Sausage's" Missing Ingredients: Investigating the Validity of Reliability Generalization Study Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Jeanine; Kromrey, Jeffrey D.

    The purpose of this study was to examine the potential impact of selected methodological factors on the validity of conclusions from reliability generalization (RG) studies. The study focused on four factors; (1) missing data in the primary studies; (2) transformation of sample reliability estimates; (3) use of sample weights for estimating mean…

  17. Study of turboprop systems reliability and maintenance costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The overall reliability and maintenance costs (R&MC's) of past and current turboprop systems were examined. Maintenance cost drivers were found to be scheduled overhaul (40%), lack of modularity particularly in the propeller and reduction gearbox, and lack of inherent durability (reliability) of some parts. Comparisons were made between the 501-D13/54H60 turboprop system and the widely used JT8D turbofan. It was found that the total maintenance cost per flight hour of the turboprop was 75% higher than that of the JT8D turbofan. Part of this difference was due to propeller and gearbox costs being higher than those of the fan and reverser, but most of the difference was in the engine core where the older technology turboprop core maintenance costs were nearly 70 percent higher than for the turbofan. The estimated maintenance cost of both the advanced turboprop and advanced turbofan were less than the JT8D. The conclusion was that an advanced turboprop and an advanced turbofan, using similar cores, will have very competitive maintenance costs per flight hour.

  18. A study of DSN traveling wave maser system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, R.; Wiggins, C. P.

    1984-08-01

    Reliability and availability characteristics of the DSN traveling wave maser (TWM) Assemblies are reported for the years 1981 through 1983, the charcteristics determined are: mean time between failures (MTBF) - 1200 hours; mean time to restore service (MTTRS) - 2.5 hours; and availability - 99.83%. The TWM MTBF is very good as compared to other DSN subsystems and assemblies. The TWM MTTRS is currently about three times as long as the average of other DSN subsystems. The dominant cause of TWM failures is contamination of the helium gas in the closed cycle refrigerators. Station configurations that do not provide TWM redundancy are subject to reception outages for long periods of time. Recommendations are made to improve the TWM Assembly availability characteristics for future mission support operations.

  19. Final report for CCS cross-layer reliability visioning study

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, Heather M; Dehon, Andre; Carter, Nicj

    2010-12-20

    The geometric rate of improvement of transistor size and integrated circuit performance known as Moore's Law has been an engine of growth for our economy, enabling new products and services, creating new value and wealth, increasing safety, and removing menial tasks from our daily lives. Affordable, highly integrated components have enabled both life-saving technologies and rich entertainment applications. Anti-lock brakes, insulin monitors, and GPS-enabled emergency response systems save lives. Cell phones, internet appliances, virtual worlds, realistic video games, and mp3 players enrich our lives and connect us together. Over the past 40 years of silicon scaling, the increasing capabilities of inexpensive computation have transformed our society through automation and ubiquitous communications. Looking forward, increasing unpredictability threatens our ability to continue scaling integrated circuits at Moore's Law rates. As the transistors and wires that make up integrated circuits become smaller, they display both greater differences in behavior among devices designed to be identical and greater vulnerability to transient and permanent faults. Conventional design techniques expend energy to tolerate this unpredictability by adding safety margins to a circuit's operating voltage, clock frequency or charge stored per bit. However, the rising energy costs needed to compensate for increasing unpredictability are rapidly becoming unacceptable in today's environment where power consumption is often the limiting factor on integrated circuit performance and energy efficiency is a national concern. Reliability and energy consumption are both reaching key inflection points that, together, threaten to reduce or end the benefits of feature size reduction. To continue beneficial scaling, we must use a cross-layer, Jull-system-design approach to reliability. Unlike current systems, which charge every device a substantial energy tax in order to guarantee correct operation in

  20. An Approach to Studying the Reliability of Microgravity Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaggard, Michael; Morilak, Daniel P.

    1994-01-01

    The identification of key factors that influence the nonsuccess of experiments conducted under microgravity conditions will aid in the planning, design, and implementation of future space shuttle experiments, as well as other microgravity experiments (i.e., experiments conducted on the space station). Similarly, knowledge of the experiments' reliability will assist in forecasting the success of forthcoming experiments. Since a relatively large number of space shuttle experiments have been conducted to date, a substantial pool of data exists for assessing the possible causes or factors which influence experiment nonsuccesses. This report details the task being undertaken at NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) to measure the space shuttle experiments' nonsuccess trends and identify causes that significantly affect their performance. It addresses the activities associated with correlating experiment macro-factors with experiment nonsuccesses. The development and implementation of a microgravity database to be used for tracking and correlating experiment nonsuccess factors, as well as the criteria for measuring experiment success and nonsuccess, are also discussed.

  1. Repeated exposure toxicity of 2-ethyl-1,3-hexanediol by cutaneous applications to the rat for 9 and 90 days.

    PubMed

    Van Miller, J P; Losco, P E; Neptun, D A; Ballantyne, B

    1995-02-01

    2-Ethyl-1,3-hexanediol (EHD; CASRN 94-96-2), an industrial chemical and insect repellent, has a high potential for recurrent skin contact. Short-term (9 d) and subchronic (13 w) repeated epicutaneous contact studies were conducted to determine the potential for cumulative local skin irritation and systemic toxicity in Fischer 344 rats. Doses were 0.5, 2.0 or 4.0 ml/kg/d of undiluted EHD. There were no clinical signs and no treatment-related effects on hematology, clinical chemistry or histology of a large number of organs and tissues including the treated skin. The only effects where slight decreases in body weight gain for the high-dose males in the 9-d study and males and females of the high-dose group in the subchronic study; slight decreases in food consumption for females of all treatment groups in the subchronic study; and slight increases in relative liver weight for high-dose females in the 9-d study and high-dose males in the subchronic study, which is probably a compensatory hypertrophy for the metabolism of EHD. Thus, recurrent epicutaneous applications of undiluted EHD to the rat did not cause any local skin irritation or cumulative or organ-specific toxicity. PMID:7709587

  2. A STUDY OF PERSPECTIVE OF ROAD TRANSPORTATION RELIABILITY ON THE NETWORK LEVEL AND ITS EVALUATION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Sho-Ichiro

    In this paper, road transportation reliability on th e network level is considered . First, previous studies of connectivity reliability and vuln erability are reviewed. Next, stocha stic network equilibrium models, whose flows and travel times are stochastic, and simu lation techniques are classified, and their future works are pointed out. Th en, transportation policies and network design problems which increase or optimize the reliability are re viewed. Finally, a method of unified travel time and connectivity reliability assessment is proposed based on the review of this paper.

  3. Infection dynamics and clinical manifestations following experimental inoculation of gilts at 90 days of gestation with a low dose of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Jean Paul; Dee, Scott A.; Murtaugh, Michael P.; Rovira, Albert; Morrison, Robert B.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) vertical transmission is important to enhance the accuracy of monitoring protocols for endemically infected breeding herds. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of PRRSV within infected litters, to quantify viremia, and to identify specific attributes of infected individuals. Eight gilts were intramuscularly inoculated with 101 TCID50 of a mildly virulent PRRSV strain (MN-30100) at 90 d of gestation. All inoculated gilts transmitted the virus in utero. The proportion of PRRSV PCR-positive piglets and the level of viremia in the piglets were higher at 4 d of age than at birth or at weaning. No specific attributes were associated with PRRSV infection in the piglets. This is the first report, that we are aware of, documenting the efficient in utero transmission of an extremely low dose of a mildly virulent strain of PRRSV. The results support the sampling of piglets late during lactation as a tool to monitor PRRSV shedding from sow-herds. PMID:20046633

  4. A Cross-Cultural Study of the Reliability of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Joseph O.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of the Spanish translation of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory with a group of Puerto Rican students on the island and another on the mainlands. It was found to be reliable for both groups. (Author/BW)

  5. Study on the Validity and Reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çolakkadioglu, Oguzhan; Deniz, M. Engin

    2015-01-01

    This study is to analyze the validity and reliability of Melbourne Decision Making Questionnaire (MDMQ). The sample consisted of 650 university students. The structural validity of the MDMQ, as well as correlations among its sub-scales, measure-bound validity, internal consistency, item total correlations and test-retest reliability coefficients…

  6. Stability of the Reliability of LibQUAL+ (tm) Scores: A Reliability Generalization Meta-Analysis Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Bruce; Cook, Collen

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalization meta-analysis of subscale and total scale scores on the Web-administered LibQUAL+ (tm) (Cook and others, 2002), a measure of library service quality. Data for 18,161 participants from 43 universities show that score reliabilities are remarkably invariant across campuses and different over groups. (SLD)

  7. A Monte Carlo Simulation Study of the Reliability of Intraindividual Variability

    PubMed Central

    Estabrook, Ryne; Grimm, Kevin J.; Bowles, Ryan P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has seen intraindividual variability (IIV) become a useful technique to incorporate trial-to-trial variability into many types of psychological studies. IIV as measured by individual standard deviations (ISDs) has shown unique prediction to several types of positive and negative outcomes (Ram, Rabbit, Stollery, & Nesselroade, 2005). One unanswered question regarding measuring intraindividual variability is its reliability and the conditions under which optimal reliability is achieved. Monte Carlo simulation studies were conducted to determine the reliability of the ISD compared to the intraindividual mean. The results indicate that ISDs generally have poor reliability and are sensitive to insufficient measurement occasions, poor test reliability, and unfavorable amounts and distributions of variability in the population. Secondary analysis of psychological data shows that use of individual standard deviations in unfavorable conditions leads to a marked reduction in statistical power, although careful adherence to underlying statistical assumptions allows their use as a basic research tool. PMID:22268793

  8. SEQUENTIAL TESTING OF MEASUREMENT ERRORS IN INTER-RATER RELIABILITY STUDIES

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Mei; Liu, Aiyi; Chen, Zhen; Li, Zhaohai

    2014-01-01

    Inter-rater reliability is usually assessed by means of the intraclass correlation coefficient. Using two-way analysis of variance to model raters and subjects as random effects, we derive group sequential testing procedures for the design and analysis of reliability studies in which multiple raters evaluate multiple subjects. Compared with the conventional fixed sample procedures, the group sequential test has smaller average sample number. The performance of the proposed technique is examined using simulation studies and critical values are tabulated for a range of two-stage design parameters. The methods are exemplified using data from the Physician Reliability Study for diagnosis of endometriosis. PMID:25525316

  9. An Overview of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  10. Virtual Environment Interpersonal Trust Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usta, Ertugrul

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is in the process of interpersonal communication in virtual environments is available from the trust problem is to develop a measurement tool. Trust in the process of distance education today, and has been a factor to be investigated. People, who take distance education course, they could may remain within the process…

  11. An Overview Of NASA Automotive Component Reliability Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sampson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The results of NASAs studies into the appropriateness of using US Automotive electronic parts in NASA spaceflight systems will be presented. The first part of the presentation provides an overview of the United States Automotive Electronics Councils AECQ standardization program, the second part provides a summary of the results of NASAs procurement and testing experiences and other lessons learned along with preliminary test results.

  12. Book Reading Motivation Scale: Reliability and Validity Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katranci, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Book reading enhances the intellectual world of people. It is very important to know the factors that motivate children to read books as it will help to instill book reading habit in them. As such, the present study aims to develop a "Book Reading Motivation Scale" to determine elementary and secondary school students' reading…

  13. Evaluating the Reliability, Validity, and Usefulness of Education Cost Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Bruce D.

    2006-01-01

    Recent studies that purport to estimate the costs of constitutionally adequate education have been described as either a "gold standard" that should guide legislative school finance policy design and judicial evaluation, or as pure "alchemy." Methods for estimating the cost of constitutionally adequate education can be roughly divided into two…

  14. Lamp reliability studies for improved satellite rubidium frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frueholz, R. P.; Wun-Fogle, M.; Eckert, H. U.; Volk, C. H.; Jones, P. F.

    1982-01-01

    In response to the premature failure of Rb lamps used in Rb atomic clocks onboard NAVSTAR GPS satellites experimental and theoretical investigations into their failure mechanism were initiated. The primary goal of these studies is the development of an accelerated life test for future GPS lamps. The primary failure mechanism was identified as consumption of the lamp's Rb charge via direct interaction between Rb and the lamp's glass surface. The most effective parameters to accelerate the interaction between the Rb and the glass are felt to be RF excitation power and lamp temperature. Differential scanning calorimetry is used to monitor the consumption of Rb within a lamp as a function of operation time. This technique yielded base line Rb consumption data for GPS lamps operating under normal conditions.

  15. Reliability of Pubertal Self Assessment Method: An Iranian Study

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Ali; Noorian, Shahab; Fallah, Javad S.; Setoudeh, Arya; Sayarifard, Fatemeh; Abbasi, Farzaneh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This investigation aims to evaluate the validity of a Persian Tanner Stages Self-Assessment Questionnaire. Methods In this cross sectional study, 190 male students aged 8-16 years selected from three layers of different regions of Tehran (North, Central and South) were enrolled. A Persian questionnaire illustrated with Tanner stages of puberty (genital development and pubic hair distribution) was prepared. Children were asked to select the illustration that best described their pubertal development. Tanner status of the children was also estimated by an independent physician using physical examination. The degree of agreement between subjects’ judgments with assessments made by the rater was compared through the calculation of the weighted kappa statistic coefficient. Findings We found a substantial agreement between self-assessment of pubertal development made by the children and doctor's assessment of genital development (kappa=0.63, P<0.0001) and also the pubic hair distribution (kappa= 0.74, P<0.0001). Although a large proportion of subjects in G4 (89.2%) and G5 (85.7%) were capable of accurately or almost accurately identifying their own Tanner sexual stages, some degree of disagreement was observed in G3 Tanner stage (%46.9). Conclusion Self-assessment of puberty should be used very cautiously and may not be a substitute method for routine evaluation of pubertal state especially for early and mid pubertal groups. PMID:23795257

  16. Reliability analysis of idealized tunnel support system using probability-based methods with case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharouni-Nik, Morteza; Naeimi, Meysam; Ahadi, Sodayf; Alimoradi, Zahra

    2014-06-01

    In order to determine the overall safety of a tunnel support lining, a reliability-based approach is presented in this paper. Support elements in jointed rock tunnels are provided to control the ground movement caused by stress redistribution during the tunnel drive. Main support elements contribute to stability of the tunnel structure are recognized owing to identify various aspects of reliability and sustainability in the system. The selection of efficient support methods for rock tunneling is a key factor in order to reduce the number of problems during construction and maintain the project cost and time within the limited budget and planned schedule. This paper introduces a smart approach by which decision-makers will be able to find the overall reliability of tunnel support system before selecting the final scheme of the lining system. Due to this research focus, engineering reliability which is a branch of statistics and probability is being appropriately applied to the field and much effort has been made to use it in tunneling while investigating the reliability of the lining support system for the tunnel structure. Therefore, reliability analysis for evaluating the tunnel support performance is the main idea used in this research. Decomposition approaches are used for producing system block diagram and determining the failure probability of the whole system. Effectiveness of the proposed reliability model of tunnel lining together with the recommended approaches is examined using several case studies and the final value of reliability obtained for different designing scenarios. Considering the idea of linear correlation between safety factors and reliability parameters, the values of isolated reliabilities determined for different structural components of tunnel support system. In order to determine individual safety factors, finite element modeling is employed for different structural subsystems and the results of numerical analyses are obtained in

  17. A study of the longevity and operational reliability of Goddard Spacecraft, 1960-1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shockey, E. F.

    1981-01-01

    Compiled data regarding the design lives and lifetimes actually achieved by 104 orbiting satellites launched by the Goddard Spaceflight Center between the years 1960 and 1980 is analyzed. Historical trends over the entire 21 year period are reviewed, and the more recent data is subjected to an examination of several key parameters. An empirical reliability function is derived, and compared with various mathematical models. Data from related studies is also discussed. The results provide insight into the reliability history of Goddard spacecraft an guidance for estimating the reliability of future programs.

  18. Reliability of neuroanatomical measurements in a multisite longitudinal study of youth at risk for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Tyrone D; Sun, Frank; McEwen, Sarah Jacobson; Papademetris, Xenophon; He, George; van Erp, Theo G M; Jacobson, Aron; Bearden, Carrie E; Walker, Elaine; Hu, Xiaoping; Zhou, Lei; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi W; Cornblatt, Barbara; Olvet, Doreen M; Perkins, Diana; Belger, Aysenil; Cadenhead, Kristin; Tsuang, Ming; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Addington, Jean; Frayne, Richard; Woods, Scott W; McGlashan, Thomas H; Constable, R Todd; Qiu, Maolin; Mathalon, Daniel H; Thompson, Paul; Toga, Arthur W

    2014-05-01

    Multisite longitudinal neuroimaging designs are used to identify differential brain structural change associated with onset or progression of disease. The reliability of neuroanatomical measurements over time and across sites is a crucial aspect of power in such studies. Prior work has found that while within-site reliabilities of neuroanatomical measurements are excellent, between-site reliability is generally more modest. Factors that may increase between-site reliability include standardization of scanner platform and sequence parameters and correction for between-scanner variations in gradient nonlinearities. Factors that may improve both between- and within-site reliability include use of registration algorithms that account for individual differences in cortical patterning and shape. In this study 8 healthy volunteers were scanned twice on successive days at 8 sites participating in the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS). All sites employed 3 Tesla scanners and standardized acquisition parameters. Site accounted for 2 to 30% of the total variance in neuroanatomical measurements. However, site-related variations were trivial (<1%) among sites using the same scanner model and 12-channel coil or when correcting for between-scanner differences in gradient nonlinearity and scaling. Adjusting for individual differences in sulcal-gyral geometries yielded measurements with greater reliabilities than those obtained using an automated approach. Neuroimaging can be performed across multiple sites at the same level of reliability as at a single site, achieving within- and between-site reliabilities of 0.95 or greater for gray matter density in the majority of voxels in the prefrontal and temporal cortical surfaces as well as for the volumes of most subcortical structures. PMID:23982962

  19. Reliability-based structural optimization: A proposed analytical-experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroud, W. Jefferson; Nikolaidis, Efstratios

    1993-01-01

    An analytical and experimental study for assessing the potential of reliability-based structural optimization is proposed and described. In the study, competing designs obtained by deterministic and reliability-based optimization are compared. The experimental portion of the study is practical because the structure selected is a modular, actively and passively controlled truss that consists of many identical members, and because the competing designs are compared in terms of their dynamic performance and are not destroyed if failure occurs. The analytical portion of this study is illustrated on a 10-bar truss example. In the illustrative example, it is shown that reliability-based optimization can yield a design that is superior to an alternative design obtained by deterministic optimization. These analytical results provide motivation for the proposed study, which is underway.

  20. Expanding Reliability Generalization Methods with KR-21 Estimates: An RG Study of the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Ginny G.; White, Amy E.; Henson, Robin K.

    2002-01-01

    Conducted a reliability generalizability study on the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (CSEI; S. Coopersmith, 1967) to examine the variability of reliability estimates across studies and to identify study characteristics that may predict this variability. Results show that reliability for CSEI scores can vary considerably, especially at the…

  1. Curriculum Design Orientations Preference Scale of Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bas, Gokhan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a valid and reliable scale for preferences of teachers in regard of their curriculum design orientations. Because there was no scale development study similar to this one in Turkey, it was considered as an urgent need to develop such a scale in the study. The sample of the research consisted of 300…

  2. Reliability and validity of 6MWT for outpatients with schizophrenia: A preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Eluana; Bastos, Tânia; Probst, Michel; Ribeiro, José Carlos; Silva, Gustavo; Corredeira, Rui

    2016-03-30

    Although the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) has been widely used in patients with schizophrenia, there is a lack of scientific evidence about its reliability and validity in this population. The first goal of this study was to explore the test-retest reliability of the 6MWT and to identify the associated parameters that contribute to the variability of the distance walked during the 6MWT in outpatients with schizophrenia. The second goal was to assess the criterion validity of the 6MWT in men with schizophrenia. Fifty one outpatients with schizophrenia participated in the study. To test-retest reliability (men=39; women=12), participants performed the 6MWT twice within 3 days interval. To test criterion validity (men=13), peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) was measured on a treadmill. For the associated parameters with the distance walked (n=51), medications use, smoking behavior, body and bone composition, and physical activity levels were analyzed. No significant differences between the means of the two 6MWTs were found. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.94 indicating good reliability. 6MWT correlated significantly with VO2peak (r=0.67) indicating criterion validity. Height, body fat mass, smoking behavior and minutes of PA/week were significantly associated with the 6MWT. Results suggest that 6MWT shows good reliability for individuals with schizophrenia and good validity for the small sample of male participants in this study. PMID:26921049

  3. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Online Cooperative Learning Attitude Scale (OCLAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Korkmaz, Ozgen

    2012-01-01

    Determination of students' attitudes towards online cooperative learning is an important issue, which has not been studied adequately. In the literature, there are few scales to measure the attitude towards online cooperative learning for which validity and reliability have been proven. The main purpose of this study is to develop an attitude…

  4. Turkish Adaptation of the Mentorship Effectiveness Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yirci, Ramazan; Karakose, Turgut; Uygun, Harun; Ozdemir, Tuncay Yavuz

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to adapt the Mentoring Relationship Effectiveness Scale to Turkish, and to conduct validity and reliability tests regarding the scale. The study group consisted of 156 university science students receiving graduate education. Construct validity and factor structure of the scale was analyzed first through exploratory…

  5. Water Awareness Scale for Pre-Service Science Teachers: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filik Iscen, Cansu

    2015-01-01

    The role of teachers in the formation of environmentally sensitive behaviors in students is quite high. Thus, the water awareness of teachers, who represent role models for students, is rather important. The main purpose of this study is to identify the reliability and validity study outcomes of the Water Awareness Scale, which was developed to…

  6. The Depression Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet; Cetin, Bayram

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS). The sample of the study consisted of 590 university students, 121 English teachers and 136 emotionally disturbed individuals who sought treatment in various clinics and counseling centers. Factor loadings of the scale ranged…

  7. Developing a Scale for Innovation Management at Schools: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulbul, Tuncer

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a valid and reliable assessment tool for use in determining the competency beliefs of school administrators about innovation management. The scale applied to a study group of 216 school administrators, after work Centered on assessing intelligibility and specialized opinion. Exploratory and confirmatory…

  8. Cyber Victim and Bullying Scale: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cetin, Bayram; Yaman, Erkan; Peker, Adem

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a reliable and valid scale, which determines cyber victimization and bullying behaviors of high school students. Research group consisted of 404 students (250 male, 154 male) in Sakarya, in 2009-2010 academic years. In the study sample, mean age is 16.68. Content validity and face validity of the scale was…

  9. A Validity and Reliability Study of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erturan Ilker, Gökçe; Arslan, Yunus; Demirhan, Giyasettin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the validity and reliability of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ) for high school students. In total, 1605 students (829 girls, 776 boys, average age = 15.67 ± 1.19) from three different high schools in the central district of Ankara voluntarily participated in the study. The MSLQ was…

  10. The Scales of Psychological Well-Being: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akin, Ahmet

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Scales of Psychological Well-being (Ryff, 1989a). The sample of the study consists of 1214 university students. Results of language equivalency showed that correlations between the Turkish and English forms were 0.94 for autonomy, 0.97 for environmental mastery,…

  11. Characterizing Measurement Error in Test Scores across Studies: A Tutorial on Conducting "Reliability Generalization" Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henson, Robin K.; Thompson, Bruce

    Given the potential value of reliability generalization (RG) studies in the development of cumulative psychometric knowledge, the purpose of this paper is to provide a tutorial on how to conduct such studies and to serve as a guide for researchers wishing to use this methodology. After some brief comments on classical test theory, the paper…

  12. A Study of Reliability of Marking and Absolute Grading in Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdul Gafoor, K.; Jisha, P.

    2014-01-01

    Using a non-experimental comparative group design in a sample consisting of 100 English teachers randomly selected from 30 secondary schools of a district of Kerala and assigning fifty teachers to groups for marking and grading, this study compares inter and intra-individual reliability in marking and absolute grading. Studying (1) the in marking…

  13. Reliable Digit Span: A Systematic Review and Cross-Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Ryan W.; Twumasi-Ankrah, Philip; Baade, Lyle E.; Marshall, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Reliable Digit Span (RDS) is a heavily researched symptom validity test with a recent literature review yielding more than 20 studies ranging in dates from 1994 to 2011. Unfortunately, limitations within some of the research minimize clinical generalizability. This systematic review and cross-validation study was conducted to address these…

  14. A Validation and Reliability Study of Community Service Activities Scale in Turkey: A Social Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demir, Özden; Kaya, Halil Ibrahim; Tasdan, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the reliability and validity of Community Service Activities Scale (CSAS) developed by Demir, Kaya and Tasdan (2012) with a view to identify perceptions of Faculty of Education students regarding community service activities. The participants of the study are 313 randomly chosen students who attend six…

  15. Reliability, Structure, and Correlates of Learning and Study Strategies Inventory Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Janet G.

    2002-01-01

    Studied the reliability, structure, and criterion-related validity of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI; C. Weinstein, 1987) using data from 502 university students. Results suggest that the LASSI may not measure the postulated 10 scales typically used to report results. (SLD)

  16. A Validity and Reliability Study on the Development of the Values Scale in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dilmac, Bulent; Aricak, Osman Tolga; Cesur, Sevim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to examine the initial psychometric properties of the Values Scale for adults. While developing the first stage of the Values Scale, open-ended data on the values held by 216 university students were obtained. During the second stage, the validity and reliability studies of the 60-item Values Scale obtained by…

  17. The Bahasa Melayu version of the Nursing Stress Scale among nurses: a reliability study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Rosnawati, Muhamad Robat; Moe, Htay; Masilamani, Retneswari; Darus, A

    2010-10-01

    The Nursing Stress Scale (NSS) has been shown to be a valid and reliable instrument to assess occupational stressors among nurses. The NSS, which was previously used in the English version, was translated and back-translated into Bahasa Melayu. This study was conducted to assess the reliability of the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS among nurses for future studies in this country. The reliability of the NSS was assessed after its readministration to 30 nurses with a 2-week interval. The Spearman coefficient was calculated to assess its stability. The internal consistency was measured through 4 measures: Cronbach's α, Spearman-Brown, Guttman split-half, and standardized item α coefficients. The total response rate was 70%. Test-retest reliability showed remarkable stability (Spearman's ρ exceeded .70). All 4 measures of internal consistency among items indicated a satisfactory level (coefficients in the range of .68 to .87). In conclusion, the Bahasa Melayu version of the NSS is a reliable and useful instrument for measuring the possible stressors at the workplace among nurses. PMID:20930177

  18. Clinical Assessment of Scapular Positioning in Musicians: An Intertester Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Struyf, Filip; Nijs, Jo; De Coninck, Kris; Giunta, Marco; Mottram, Sarah; Meeusen, Romain

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Context: The reliability of the measurement of the distance between the posterior border of the acromion and the wall and the reliability of the modified lateral scapular slide test have not been studied. Overall, the reliability of the clinical tools used to assess scapular positioning has not been studied in musicians. Objective: To examine the intertester reliability of scapular observation and 2 clinical tests for the assessment of scapular positioning in musicians. Design: Intertester reliability study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Thirty healthy student musicians at a single university. Main Outcome Measure(s): Two assessors performed a standardized observation protocol, the measurement of the distance between the posterior border of the acromion and the wall, and the modified lateral scapular slide test. Each assessor was blinded to the other's findings. Results: The intertester reliability coefficients (κ) for the observation in relaxed position, during unloaded movement, and during loaded movement were 0.41, 0.63, and 0.36, respectively. The κ values for the observation of tilting and winging at rest were 0.48 and 0.42, respectively; during unloaded movement, the κ values were 0.52 and 0.78, respectively; and with a 1-kg load, the κ values were 0.24 and 0.50, respectively. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the measurement of the acromial distance was 0.72 in relaxed position and 0.75 with the participant actively retracting both shoulders. The ICCs for the modified lateral scapular slide test varied between 0.63 and 0.58. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that the modified lateral scapular slide test was not a reliable tool to assess scapular positioning in these participants. Our data indicated that scapular observation in the relaxed position and during unloaded abduction in the frontal plane was a reliable assessment tool. The reliability of the measurement of the distance

  19. [Study on the Reliability Assessment Method of Heavy Vehicle Gearbox Based on Spectrometric Analysis].

    PubMed

    Bao, Ke; Zhang, Zhong; Cao, Yuan-fu; Chen, Yi-jie

    2015-04-01

    Spectrometric oil analysis is of great importance for wear condition monitoring of gearbox. In this context, the contents of main elements compositions in the bench test of heavy vehicle gearbox are obtained by atomic emission spectrometric oil analysis first. Then correlation analysis of the test data and wearing mechanism analysis are carried out to get the metal element which could be used to describe the wearing and failure of the gearbox. The spectrometric data after filling/changing oil are corrected, and the laws of the contents of main elements compositions during tests are expressed as linear functions. After that, the reliability assessment is executed with considering the degradation law and discreteness of test data, in which the mean and standard deviation of normal distribution of spectrometric oil data at each time point are adopted. Finally, the influences of the threshold are discussed. It has been proved that the contents of metal element Cu, which is got by spectrometric oil analysis of different samples, could be used to assess the reliability of heavy vehicle gearbox. The reason is that the metal element Cu is closely related to the general wear state of gearbox, and is easy to be measured. When the threshold of Cu content is treated as a constant, bigger threshold means higher reliability at the same time, and the mean value of threshold has significant impact on the reliability assessment results as R > 0.9. When the threshold is treated as a random variable, bigger dispersion of threshold means smaller slope of reliability against time, and also means lower reliability of gearbox as R > 0.9 at the same time. In this study, the spectrometric oil analysis and probability statistics are used together for the reliability assessment of gear box, which extends the application range of spectrometric analysis. PMID:26197588

  20. Study of Optimal Perimetric Testing in Children (OPTIC): Feasibility, Reliability and Repeatability of Perimetry in Children

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dipesh E.; Cumberland, Phillippa M.; Walters, Bronwen C.; Russell-Eggitt, Isabelle; Rahi, Jugnoo S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate feasibility, reliability and repeatability of perimetry in children. Methods A prospective, observational study recruiting 154 children aged 5–15 years, without an ophthalmic condition that affects the visual field (controls), identified consecutively between May 2012 and November 2013 from hospital eye clinics. Perimetry was undertaken in a single sitting, with standardised protocols, in a randomised order using the Humphrey static (SITA 24–2 FAST), Goldmann and Octopus kinetic perimeters. Data collected included test duration, subjective experience and test quality (incorporating examiner ratings on comprehension of instructions, fatigue, response to visual and auditory stimuli, concentration and co-operation) to assess feasibility and reliability. Testing was repeated within 6 months to assess repeatability. Results Overall feasibility was very high (Goldmann=96.1%, Octopus=89% and Humphrey=100% completed the tests). Examiner rated reliability was ‘good’ in 125 (81.2%) children for Goldmann, 100 (64.9%) for Octopus and 98 (63.6%) for Humphrey perimetry. Goldmann perimetry was the most reliable method in children under 9 years of age. Reliability improved with increasing age (multinomial logistic regression (Goldmann, Octopus and Humphrey), p<0.001). No significant differences were found for any of the three test strategies when examining initial and follow-up data outputs (Bland-Altman plots, n=43), suggesting good test repeatability, although the sample size may preclude detection of a small learning effect. Conclusions Feasibility and reliability of formal perimetry in children improves with age. By the age of 9 years, all the strategies used here were highly feasible and reliable. Clinical assessment of the visual field is achievable in children as young as 5 years, and should be considered where visual field loss is suspected. Since Goldmann perimetry is the most effective strategy in children aged 5–8 years and this

  1. Reliability training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, Vincent R. (Editor); Malec, Henry A. (Editor); Dillard, Richard B.; Wong, Kam L.; Barber, Frank J.; Barina, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    Discussed here is failure physics, the study of how products, hardware, software, and systems fail and what can be done about it. The intent is to impart useful information, to extend the limits of production capability, and to assist in achieving low cost reliable products. A review of reliability for the years 1940 to 2000 is given. Next, a review of mathematics is given as well as a description of what elements contribute to product failures. Basic reliability theory and the disciplines that allow us to control and eliminate failures are elucidated.

  2. Ultrasonography for the assessment of the upper trapezius properties in healthy females: a reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Adigozali, Hakimeh; Shadmehr, Azadeh; Ebrahimi, Esmail; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Naderi, Farrokh

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background to date, an assessment of morphometric features, muscle stiffness and blood flow in the upper trapezius among healthy females at rest and contraction states has not been conducted. So, in the current research, the intra-rater reliability of ultrasonographic features of upper trapezius in healthy females was examined. Method in this study stiffness and thickness of the upper trapezius in rest and contraction states were measured by ultrasonography on 12 healthy female subjects (28.33±5.05 years old). Color Doppler imaging was used to assess muscle circulation in the rest state only. Every step and calculation of measurements was repeated 3 times with the same rater. Therefore, in total 36 measurements were done for each variable. Results according to the analysis, the value of intra class correlation coefficient (ICC) for total variables showed an excellent level of reliability. Thickness at contraction had maximum reliability (ICC= 0.993) and Minimum Diastolic Velocity had the lowest reliability (ICC=0.771). Conclusions the results of current research demonstrated that real time ultrasonography is a reliable method for measurement of various parameters of upper trapezius, including morphometric features, its stiffness and blood supply in non-symptomatic females. These mentioned variables can likely be used for objective assessment and provide numerical reference value for clinical plans. PMID:27331047

  3. Simulation and Reliability Study of Cu/Low-k Devices in Flip-chip Packages

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.-H.; Wilkerson, Brett; Uehling, Trent

    2004-12-08

    The package impact to the mechanical integrity of the low dielectric constant (low-k) dielectrics back end of the line (BEOL) structure has been proven to be significant in recent publications. This work reports a simulation study of the package-induced delamination in low-k structures by interfacial fracture mechanics combined with multi-scale finite element method. The numerical simulation is validated by reliability test results of low-k devices in different flip-chip package configurations. The modeling result is compared to reliability test data of low-k devices in organic, ceramic flip-chip packages, and good correlation is found. Feasibility of flip-chip packaging for low-k devices is demonstrated. The risk of low-k delamination on different package configurations is rated based on both reliability data and numerical simulations.

  4. Reliability of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Rotator Cuff: The ROW Study

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Nitin B.; Collins, Jamie; Newman, Joel S.; Katz, Jeffrey N.; Losina, Elena; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Physiatrists encounter patients with rotator cuff disorders and imaging is frequently an important component of their diagnostic assessment. However, there is paucity of literature on reliability of MRI assessment between shoulder specialists and musculoskeletal radiologists. Objective We assessed inter- and intra-rater reliability of MRI characteristics of the rotator cuff. Design Cross-sectional secondary analyses in a prospective cohort study Setting Academic tertiary care centers Patients Subjects with shoulder pain recruited from orthopedic and physiatry clinics Methods Two shoulder fellowship trained physicians (a physiatrist and a shoulder surgeon) jointly performed a blinded composite MRI review by consensus on 31 subjects with shoulder pain. Subsequently, MRI was reviewed by one fellowship trained musculoskeletal radiologist. Main Outcome Measures We calculated Cohen’s kappa coefficients and percent agreement among the two reviews (composite review of two shoulder specialists versus that of the musculoskeletal radiologist). Intra-rater reliability was assessed among the shoulder specialists by performing a repeat blinded composite MRI review. In addition to this repeat composite review, only one of the physiatry shoulder specialists performed an additional review. Results Inter-rater reliability (shoulder specialists versus musculoskeletal radiologist) was substantial for the presence or absence of tear (kappa=0.90; 95% CI=0.72, 1.00), tear-thickness (kappa=0.84;95% CI=0.70, 0.99), longitudinal size of tear (kappa=0.75;95% CI=0.44, 1.00), fatty infiltration (kappa=0.62; 95% CI=0.45, 0.79), and muscle atrophy (kappa=0.68; 95% CI=0.50, 0.86). There was only fair inter-rater reliability of transverse size of tear (kappa=0.20; 95% CI=0.00, 0.51). The kappa for intra-rater reliability was high for tear thickness (0.88; 95% CI=0.72, 1.00), longitudinal tear size (0.61; 95% CI=0.22, 0.99), fatty infiltration (0.89; 95% CI=0.80, 0.98), and muscle

  5. Digital Professional Portfolios of Preservice Teaching: An Initial Study of Score Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derham, Carol; DiPerna, James

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate initial evidence regarding the reliability and validity of scores from a digital professional portfolio (DPP) designed to assess the instructional competencies of preservice teachers. Data were collected from 30 preservice teachers during their intern teaching experience. Data were analyzed using a…

  6. Developing a Science Process Skills Test for Secondary Students: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feyzioglu, Burak; Demirdag, Baris; Akyildiz, Murat; Altun, Eralp

    2012-01-01

    Science process skills are claimed to enable an individual to improve their own life visions and give a scientific view/literacy as a standard of their understanding about the nature of science. The main purpose of this study was to develop a test for measuring a valid, reliable and practical test for Science Process Skills (SPS) in secondary…

  7. Studying Reliability of Open Ended Mathematics Items According to the Classical Test Theory and Generalizability Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, Nese; Gelbal, Selahattin

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the Classical test theory and generalizability theory were used for determination to reliability of scores obtained from measurement tool of mathematics success. 24 open-ended mathematics question of the TIMSS-1999 was applied to 203 students in 2007-spring semester. Internal consistency of scores was found as 0.92. For…

  8. Value-Eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arseven, Zeynep; Kiliç, Abdurrahman; Sahin, Seyma

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, it is aimed to develop a valid and reliable scale for determining value-eroding behaviors of teachers, hence their values of judgment. The items of the "Value-eroding Teacher Behaviors Scale" were designed in the form of 5-point likert type rating scale. The exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted to…

  9. Adaptation of Internet Addiction Scale in Azerbaijani Language: A Validity-Reliability and Prevalence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerimova, Melek; Gunuc, Selim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to adapt Gunuc and Kayri's (2010) "Internet Addiction Scale," with show validity and reliability for many various sampling groups, into the Azerbaijani language. Another objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of Internet addiction among Azerbaijani adolescents and youth, which…

  10. Validity and Reliability of Turkish Version of Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2: Results of Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Diken, Ozlem; Gilliam, James E.; Ardic, Avsar; Sweeney, Dwight

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to explore the validity and reliability of Turkish Version of the Gilliam Autism Rating Scale-2 (TV-GARS-2). Participants included 436 children diagnosed with autism (331 male and 105 female, mean of ages was 8.01 with SD = 3.77). Data were also collected from individuals diagnosed with intellectual…

  11. The Study of Factor Structure and Reliability of an Abbreviated School Climate Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Cody; Liu, Ying; Berkowitz, Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The concept of school climate has been an important variable in research on quality of school life and student learning. One of the challenges in such a research effort is to develop instruments that could effectively and efficiently measure the construct. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure and reliability of an…

  12. Harmonization Process and Reliability Assessment of Anthropometric Measurements in the Elderly EXERNET Multi-Centre Study

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Cabello, Alba; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Albers, Ulrike; Mata, Esmeralda; Rodriguez-Marroyo, Jose A.; Olivares, Pedro R.; Gusi, Narcis; Villa, Gerardo; Aznar, Susana; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Casajús, Jose A.; Ara, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Background The elderly EXERNET multi-centre study aims to collect normative anthropometric data for old functionally independent adults living in Spain. Purpose To describe the standardization process and reliability of the anthropometric measurements carried out in the pilot study and during the final workshop, examining both intra- and inter-rater errors for measurements. Materials and Methods A total of 98 elderly from five different regions participated in the intra-rater error assessment, and 10 different seniors living in the city of Toledo (Spain) participated in the inter-rater assessment. We examined both intra- and inter-rater errors for heights and circumferences. Results For height, intra-rater technical errors of measurement (TEMs) were smaller than 0.25 cm. For circumferences and knee height, TEMs were smaller than 1 cm, except for waist circumference in the city of Cáceres. Reliability for heights and circumferences was greater than 98% in all cases. Inter-rater TEMs were 0.61 cm for height, 0.75 cm for knee-height and ranged between 2.70 and 3.09 cm for the circumferences measured. Inter-rater reliabilities for anthropometric measurements were always higher than 90%. Conclusion The harmonization process, including the workshop and pilot study, guarantee the quality of the anthropometric measurements in the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study. High reliability and low TEM may be expected when assessing anthropometry in elderly population. PMID:22860013

  13. Bones, Boys, Bombs and Booze: An Exploratory Study of the Reliability of Marking Dissertations across Disciplines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettany-Saltikov, Josette; Kilinc, Stephanie; Stow, Karen

    2009-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of the University's Masters' level (M-level) generic assessment criteria when used by lecturers from different disciplines. A further aim was to evaluate if subject-specific knowledge was essential to marking these dissertations. Four senior lecturers from diverse disciplines…

  14. A Study of the Validity and Reliability of a Mathematics Lesson Attitude Scale and Student Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tezer, Murat; Ozcan, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes of the students towards mathematics lessons are very important in terms of their success and motivation. The purpose of this study is to develop a scale for the assessment of primary school students' attitudes towards mathematics courses in the 2nd and 3rd grades, to analyse its validity-reliability structure and to determine the…

  15. On the reliability of fungal materials used in studies on Ophiocordyceps sinensis.

    PubMed

    Dong, C-H; Yao, Y-J

    2011-08-01

    Ophiocordyceps sinensis (≡Cordyceps sinensis) is one of the best known traditional Chinese medicines, with great benefits to human health and huge economic value. The reliability of fungal materials used in studies of the species is particularly important because contradictory results have been found in various studies in the past decades. Examination of fungal materials specified in reports on O. sinensis showed great variation in both sources and culture conditions of living strains. To test the reliability of the materials used, experiments were carried out to study the effect of culture conditions on the growth of living strains of O. sinensis by using six reliable strains representing the major production regions of the fungus on the Tibetan Plateau. The results showed that O. sinensis is a slow-growing fungus at comparatively low temperature, and that temperature and growth period are crucial factors which can be verified by experiment. Analyses of fungal materials used in 152 papers on O. sinensis from PubMed since 1998 showed that 41 papers lacked detailed information on the fungal materials; 26 used natural products, 11 used artificially cultivated fruit bodies, and 80 used fermentation products from living strains. Of the latter category (using fermentation products), 64 of the papers were found to use unreliable (45) or uncertain (19) strains for fermentation products based on the temperature and growth period for O. sinensis strains verified in this study. Apart from the natural products of O. sinensis, which require scientific identification, a total of at least 116 papers (over three-quarters) used unreliable, uncertain or unspecified materials, including so-called cultivated fruit bodies which were apparently from other species. The reliability of materials or living strains used in studies on O. sinensis is discussed in this paper, and suggestions are made for use of reliable fungal materials in further studies of this fungus. PMID:20922458

  16. Reliability of an fMRI Paradigm for Emotional Processing in a Multisite Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Dylan G.; McEwen, Sarah C.; Forsyth, Jennifer K.; Haut, Kristen M.; Bearden, Carrie E.; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Bradley; Cadenhead, Kristin S.; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A.; Olvet, Doreen; Mathalon, Daniel H.; McGlashan, Thomas H.; Perkins, Diana O.; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J.; Thermenos, Heidi; Tsuang, Ming T.; van Erp, Theo G.M.; Walker, Elaine F.; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W.; Constable, Todd; Cannon, Tyrone D.

    2015-01-01

    Multisite neuroimaging studies can facilitate the investigation of brain-related changes in many contexts, including patient groups that are relatively rare in the general population. Though multisite studies have characterized the reliability of brain activation during working memory and motor functional magnetic resonance imaging tasks, emotion processing tasks, pertinent to many clinical populations, remain less explored. A traveling participants study was conducted with eight healthy volunteers scanned twice on consecutive days at each of the eight North American Longitudinal Prodrome Study sites. Tests derived from generalizability theory showed excellent reliability in the amygdala (Eρ2=0.82), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG;Eρ2=0.83), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC;Eρ2=0.76), insula (Eρ2=0.85), and fusiform gyrus (Eρ2=0.91) for maximum activation and fair to excellent reliability in the amygdala (Eρ2=0.44), IFG (Eρ2=0.48), ACC (Eρ2=0.55), insula (Eρ2=0.42), and fusiform gyrus (Eρ2=0.83) for mean activation across sites and test days. For the amygdala, habituation (Eρ2=0.71) was more stable than mean activation. In a second investigation, data from 111 healthy individuals across sites were aggregated in a voxelwise, quantitative meta-analysis. When compared with a mixed effects model controlling for site, both approaches identified robust activation in regions consistent with expected results based on prior single-site research. Overall, regions central to emotion processing showed strong reliability in the traveling participants study and robust activation in the aggregation study. These results support the reliability of blood oxygen level-dependent signal in emotion processing areas across different sites and scanners and may inform future efforts to increase efficiency and enhance knowledge of rare conditions in the population through multisite neuroimaging paradigms. PMID:25821147

  17. Conducting Real-Time Videofluoroscopic Swallow Study via Telepractice: A Preliminary Feasibility and Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Burns, Clare L; Ward, Elizabeth C; Hill, Anne J; Phillips, Nick; Porter, Linda

    2016-06-01

    A small number of studies have examined the feasibility of conducting videofluoroscopic swallow studies (VFSS) via telepractice. While the results have confirmed this potential, the systems tested to date have either reported issues that impacted the ability to analyze/interpret the VFSS recordings in real time, or they were not designed to enable real-time interpretation. Further system design is needed to establish a telepractice model that enables the VFSS assessment to be both guided and interpreted live in real time. The aim of this study was to test the feasibility and reliability of using a telepractice system to enable live VFSS assessment. Twenty adult patients underwent a VFSS assessment directed by a telepractice SLP with competency in VFSS located in another room of the hospital. The telepractice clinician led the sessions using a C20 Cisco TelePresence System. This was linked in real time via a secure telehealth network (at 4 megabits per second (Mbit/s)) to a C60 Cisco TelePresence System located in a fluoroscopy suite, connected to the digital fluoroscopy system. Levels of agreement were calculated between the telepractice clinician and a face-to-face clinician who simultaneously rated the VFSS in real time. High levels of agreement for swallowing parameters (range = 75-100 %; k = -0.34 to 1.0) and management decisions (range = 70-100 %, k = 0.64-1.0) were found. A post-session questionnaire revealed clinicians agreed that the telepractice system enabled successful remote assessment of VFSS. The findings support the potential to conduct live VFSS assessment via a telepractice model. PMID:26979971

  18. Measuring the Pain Area: An Intra- and Inter-Rater Reliability Study Using Image Analysis Software.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis, Felipe Jose Jandre; de Barros E Silva, Veronica; de Lucena, Raphaela Nunes; Mendes Cardoso, Bruno Alexandre; Nogueira, Leandro Calazans

    2016-01-01

    Pain drawings have frequently been used for clinical information and research. The aim of this study was to investigate intra- and inter-rater reliability of area measurements performed on pain drawings. Our secondary objective was to verify the reliability when using computers with different screen sizes, both with and without mouse hardware. Pain drawings were completed by patients with chronic neck pain or neck-shoulder-arm pain. Four independent examiners participated in the study. Examiners A and B used the same computer with a 16-inch screen and wired mouse hardware. Examiner C used a notebook with a 16-inch screen and no mouse hardware, and Examiner D used a computer with an 11.6-inch screen and a wireless mouse. Image measurements were obtained using GIMP and NIH ImageJ computer programs. The length of all the images was measured using GIMP software to a set scale in ImageJ. Thus, each marked area was encircled and the total surface area (cm(2) ) was calculated for each pain drawing measurement. A total of 117 areas were identified and 52 pain drawings were analyzed. The intrarater reliability between all examiners was high (ICC = 0.989). The inter-rater reliability was also high. No significant differences were observed when using different screen sizes or when using or not using the mouse hardware. This suggests that the precision of these measurements is acceptable for the use of this method as a measurement tool in clinical practice and research. PMID:25490926

  19. Reliability Generalization: "Lapsus Linguae"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Julie M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the proposed Reliability Generalization (RG) method for studying reliability. RG employs the application of meta-analytic techniques similar to those used in validity generalization studies to examine reliability coefficients. This study explains why RG does not provide a proper research method for the study of reliability,…

  20. Intra and inter-rater reliability study of pelvic floor muscle dynamometric measurements

    PubMed Central

    Martinho, Natalia M.; Marques, Joseane; Silva, Valéria R.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Carvalho, Leonardo C.; Botelho, Simone

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra and inter-rater reliability of pelvic floor muscle (PFM) dynamometric measurements for maximum and average strengths, as well as endurance. METHOD: A convenience sample of 18 nulliparous women, without any urogynecological complaints, aged between 19 and 31 (mean age of 25.4±3.9) participated in this study. They were evaluated using a pelvic floor dynamometer based on load cell technology. The dynamometric evaluations were repeated in three successive sessions: two on the same day with a rest period of 30 minutes between them, and the third on the following day. All participants were evaluated twice in each session; first by examiner 1 followed by examiner 2. The vaginal dynamometry data were analyzed using three parameters: maximum strength, average strength, and endurance. The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) was applied to estimate the PFM dynamometric measurement reliability, considering a good level as being above 0.75. RESULTS: The intra and inter-raters' analyses showed good reliability for maximum strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.95, and ICCinter-rater=0.96), average strength (ICCintra-rater1=0.96, ICCintra-rater2=0.94, and ICCinter-rater=0.97), and endurance (ICCintra-rater1=0.88, ICCintra-rater2=0.86, and ICCinter-rater=0.92) dynamometric measurements. CONCLUSIONS: The PFM dynamometric measurements showed good intra- and inter-rater reliability for maximum strength, average strength and endurance, which demonstrates that this is a reliable device that can be used in clinical practice. PMID:25993624

  1. Reliability Assessment and Robustness Study for Key Navigation Components using Belief Rule Based System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Yuan; Wang, Liuying; Chang, Leilei; Ling, Xiaodong; Sun, Nan

    2016-02-01

    The gyro device is the key navigation component for maritime tracking and control, and gyro shift is the key factor which influences the performance of the gyro device, which makes conducting the reliability analysis on the gyro device very important. For the gyro device reliability analysis, the residual life probability prediction plays an essential role although it requires a complex process adapted by existed studies. In this study the Belief Rule Base (BRB) system is applied to model the relationship between the time as the input and the residual life probability as the output. Two scenarios are designed to study the robustness of the proposed BRB prediction model. The comparative results show that the BRB prediction model performs better in Scenario II when new the referenced values are predictable.

  2. A study of the reliability of Stirling engines for distributed receiver systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.

    1988-11-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of existing and improved Stirling engine concepts for dispersed solar dish/electric applications in the 25--50 kW/sub e/ range. Five current kinematic Stirling engine designs have the capability to meet or exceed the 32% system efficiency goal of the DOE Solar Thermal Program. Experience with the Vanguard Solar-Dish/Stirling Engine module demonstrated that the 32% efficiency goal is realistic, but that improved Stirling engine reliability is necessary for successful implementation of dispersed solar power systems. A review of historical Stirling engine data illustrated that the three major reliability issues with kinematic Stirling engines are the piston-rod seals, engine hot parts and power control/drive systems. A specific kinematic engine concept that appears to have the potential for meeting the 50,000-hour operating lifetime requirement of solar power systems has a pressurized crankcase to reduce piston-rod seal problems, an indirectly heated hot-end section using heat pipes to smooth out temperature gradients in the heater tubes, and a variable-angle swashplate for power control. Further development efforts are required to establish reliability and validate performance goals of these engine concepts. 30 refs., 13 figs., 8 tabs.

  3. Reliability of Health-Related Physical Fitness Tests among Colombian Children and Adolescents: The FUPRECOL Study

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Rodrigues-Bezerra, Diogo; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Izquierdo, Mikel; Lobelo, Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence indicates that youth physical fitness levels are an important marker of lifestyle and cardio-metabolic health profiles and predict future risk of chronic diseases. The reliability physical fitness tests have not been explored in Latino-American youth population. This study’s aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in the Colombian health promotion “Fuprecol study”. Participants were 229 Colombian youth (boys n = 124 and girls n = 105) aged 9 to 17.9 years old. Five components of health-related physical fitness were measured: 1) morphological component: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, and body fat (%) via impedance; 2) musculoskeletal component: handgrip and standing long jump test; 3) motor component: speed/agility test (4x10 m shuttle run); 4) flexibility component (hamstring and lumbar extensibility, sit-and-reach test); 5) cardiorespiratory component: 20-meter shuttle-run test (SRT) to estimate maximal oxygen consumption. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week, except for the SRT which was performed only once. Intra-observer technical errors of measurement (TEMs) and inter-rater (reliability) were assessed in the morphological component. Reliability for the Musculoskeletal, motor and cardiorespiratory fitness components was examined using Bland–Altman tests. For the morphological component, TEMs were small and reliability was greater than 95% of all cases. For the musculoskeletal, motor, flexibility and cardiorespiratory components, we found adequate reliability patterns in terms of systematic errors (bias) and random error (95% limits of agreement). When the fitness assessments were performed twice, the systematic error was nearly 0 for all tests, except for the sit and reach (mean difference: -1.03% [95% CI = -4.35% to -2.28%]. The results from this study indicate that the

  4. Test-retest reliability of white matter structural brain networks: a multiband diffusion MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tengda; Duan, Fei; Liao, Xuhong; Dai, Zhengjia; Cao, Miao; He, Yong; Shu, Ni

    2015-01-01

    The multiband EPI sequence has been developed for the human connectome project to accelerate MRI data acquisition. However, no study has yet investigated the test-retest (TRT) reliability of the graph metrics of white matter (WM) structural brain networks constructed from this new sequence. Here, we employed a multiband diffusion MRI (dMRI) dataset with repeated scanning sessions and constructed both low- and high-resolution WM networks by volume- and surface-based parcellation methods. The reproducibility of network metrics and its dependence on type of construction procedures was assessed by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). We observed conserved topological architecture of WM structural networks constructed from the multiband dMRI data as previous findings from conventional dMRI. For the global network properties, the first order metrics were more reliable than second order metrics. Between two parcellation methods, networks with volume-based parcellation showed better reliability than surface-based parcellation, especially for the global metrics. Between different resolutions, the high-resolution network exhibited higher TRT performance than the low-resolution in terms of the global metrics with a large effect size, whereas the low-resolution performs better in terms of local (region and connection) properties with a relatively low effect size. Moreover, we identified that the association and primary cortices showed higher reproducibility than the paralimbic/limbic regions. The important hub regions and rich-club connections are more reliable than the non-hub regions and connections. Finally, we found WM networks from the multiband dMRI showed higher reproducibility compared with those from the conventional dMRI. Together, our results demonstrated the fair to good reliability of the WM structural brain networks from the multiband EPI sequence, suggesting its potential utility for exploring individual differences and for clinical applications. PMID

  5. Ultrasound assessment for grading structural tendon changes in supraspinatus tendinopathy: an inter-rater reliability study

    PubMed Central

    Hjarbaek, John; Eshoej, Henrik; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Vobbe, Jette; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the inter-rater reliability of measuring structural changes in the tendon of patients, clinically diagnosed with supraspinatus tendinopathy (cases) and healthy participants (controls), on ultrasound (US) images captured by standardised procedures. Methods A total of 40 participants (24 patients) were included for assessing inter-rater reliability of measurements of fibrillar disruption, neovascularity, as well as the number and total length of calcifications and tendon thickness. Linear weighted κ, intraclass correlation (ICC), SEM, limits of agreement (LOA) and minimal detectable change (MDC) were used to evaluate reliability. Results ‘Moderate—almost perfect’ κ was found for grading fibrillar disruption, neovascularity and number of calcifications (k 0.60–0.96). For total length of calcifications and tendon thickness, ICC was ‘excellent’ (0.85–0.90), with SEM(Agreement) ranging from 0.63 to 2.94 mm and MDC(group) ranging from 0.28 to 1.29 mm. In general, SEM, LOA and MDC showed larger variation for calcifications than for tendon thickness. Conclusions Inter-rater reliability was moderate to almost perfect when a standardised procedure was applied for measuring structural changes on captured US images and movie sequences of relevance for patients with supraspinatus tendinopathy. Future studies should test intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of the method in vivo for use in clinical practice, in addition to validation against a gold standard, such as MRI. Trial registration number NCT01984203; Pre-results. PMID:27221128

  6. Reliability study: raw and make-up water system, Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Peterman, S.M.; Wiehle, W.E.; Walder, A.; Houk, T.C.; West, R.M.

    1981-09-01

    A reliability study for determining the ability of the raw and make-up water system to provide reliable and adequate service through the year 2000 has been completed. This study includes an evaluation of the well fields, X-608 Raw Water Pump House, X-605 Booster Station Complex, X-611 Water Treatment Complex, and the associated piping. The raw and make-up water system is in good overall condition, but to maintain this condition, the reliability study team made the following recommendations: (1) increase well field capacity; (2) replace certain speed reducers at X-611; (3) repair deteriorated poles, crossarms, and accessories on F-2 and W-1 feeders; (4) stabilize the landslide in vicinity of the 48 in. raw water main; and (5) initiate further investigation, testing, or engineering studies to correct deficiencies in the supervisory control system between well fields, pump house, and X-611, determine if the 2400 volt underground cables to X-608A wells should be replaced.

  7. Computational study on reliability of sheath width measurement by the cutoff probe in low pressure plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D.-W.; You, S.-J.; Kim, J.-H.; Seong, D.-J.; Chang, H.-Y.; Oh, W.-Y.

    2015-11-01

    Recently, the technique for measurement of the sheath width by using the cutoff probe and its equivalent circuit model was proposed and conducted experimentally. In this study, we investigate the reliability of this technique based on the computational simulation. The simulation of three-dimensional Finite-Difference Time-Domain reproduces the transmission spectrum of the cutoff probe with an input parameter of sheath width. We measure the sheath width by using the circuit model and calculate the discrepancy between them under various input plasma densities and sheath widths. The results show the acceptable discrepancy under all of the conditions we studied (the largest discrepancy is about 45%). This indicates that the technique for measurement of sheath width around the floating tip of cutoff probe is robust and reliable. A shorter version of this contribution is due to be published in PoS at: 1st EPS conference on Plasma Diagnostics

  8. [Experimental studies of reliability of symbolic information perception from the aviation LCD panel].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A I; Lapa, V V; Davydov, V V; Riabinin, V A; Golosov, S Iu

    2014-01-01

    Results of tachistiscopic experiments on reliability of symbol recognition on LCD panel as a function of screen definition (640 x 480, 800 x 600 and 1024 x 768 pixels), angular size of a picture element (10, 15, 20 and 30 angular min) and luminance contrast (LC) with the background (0.2 to 1.4 standard units) are presented. The obtained quantitative relations indicate significance of the above parameters for recognition reliability. Symbols with the size of 30 angular min and LC of 0.5 were recognizable irrespective of screen definition in the study. Recognition of symbols 20 and 15 angular min of size was much dependent on screen definition and LC of symbols. For symbols of size 10 angular min and LC ≥ 1.0 the recognition probability did not exceed 0.59-0.7. PMID:25365875

  9. The Lateral Scapular Slide Test: A Reliability Study of Males with and without Shoulder Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Background Abnormal scapular movement or malposition is related to shoulder pathology. The lateral scapular slide test (LSST) is used to determine scapular position with the arm abducted in three positions. Objective The purpose of this study was to test the reliability of the LSST using a scoliometer. Methods Thirty-three male subjects (18 to 34 years) participated in this study. Group one (n=15) had shoulder pathology; Group two (n=18) did not have pathology. A test-retest, repeated measures design, with three experienced raters and the three positions of the LSST, was used to test the reliability of the LSST. All measurements in each position were taken bilaterally. Results Pearson Correlations for Position 1 and 2 ranged from .78 to .92 whereas position 3 ranged from .62 to .81. The ICC (2,2) ranged from .87 to .95 for positions 1 and 2. ICC (2,2) ranged from .70 to.82 for positions 3. Overall ICC (2,3) ranged from .83 to .96. The coefficients of determination ranged from .38 to .89. The SEM ranged from 3.00 to 8.26 mm, with the largest error found in position 3. Discussion and Conclusion The LSST can be reliable in screening scapular position. Although a large range of error exists in measurements as indicated by the standard error of the measurement, the LSST provides more objective measures than pure observation. PMID:21522226

  10. Scales for rating motor impairment in Parkinson's disease: studies of reliability and convergent validity.

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, L; Kennard, C; Crawford, T J; Day, S; Everitt, B S; Goodrich, S; Jones, F; Park, D M

    1991-01-01

    Study 1 examined the reliability of the ratings assigned to the performance of five sign-and-symptom items drawn from tests of motor impairment in Parkinson's disease. Patients with Parkinson's disease of varying severity performed gait, rising from chair, and hand function items. Video recordings of these performances were rated by a large sample of experienced and inexperienced neurologists and by psychology undergraduates, using a four point scale. Inter-rater reliability was moderately high, being higher for gait than hand function items. Clinical experience proved to have no systematic effect on ratings or their reliability. The idiosyncrasy of particular performances was a major source of unreliable ratings. Study 2 examined the intercorrelation of several standard rating scales, comprised of sign-and-symptom items as well as activities of daily living. The correlation between scales was high, ranging from 0.70 to 0.83, despite considerable differences in item composition. Inter-item correlations showed that the internal cohesion of the tests was high, especially for the self-care scale. Regression analysis showed that the relationship between the scales could be efficiently captured by a small selection of test items, allowing the construction of a much briefer test. PMID:2010754

  11. Validity and reliability of Turkish translation of Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire in patients with migraine.

    PubMed

    Gedikoglu, U; Coskun, O; Inan, L E; Ucler, S; Tunc, T; Emre, U

    2005-06-01

    The Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) questionnaire is a brief, self-administered questionnaire which is designed to quantify headache-related disability in a 3-month period. We have tested a Turkish version of the MIDAS questionnaire in 60 migraine patients. Sixty of the clinically diagnosed migraine headache sufferers were enrolled in a 90-day diary study and completed the MIDAS questionnaire in the first, 21st and the last day of the 90-day study. The scores taken from the diary and the scores of the MIDAS taken at different times were evaluated by the correlation tests of both Pearson and Spearman for each question and total scores. Cronbach's scores taken from the diary and taken from the test of the MIDAS which was applied at different times were evaluated. Pearson's correlation on the responses in the initial MIDAS questions was between 0.44 (reduced productivity in household chores) and 0.78 (missed work or school days). The correlation of the Spearman was similar to the Pearson values. As a result, we found that the overall score of the MIDAS has a good reliability and its internal consistency is also good (Cronbach's alpha 0.87). These findings support the use of the MIDAS questionnaire as a clinical and research tool on Turkish patients. PMID:15910570

  12. Reliability and validity of mobile teledermatology in HIV positive patients in Botswana: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Azfar, Rahat S; Lee, Robert A.; Castelo-Soccio, Leslie; Greenberg, Martin S.; Bilker, Warren B; Gelfand, Joel M; Kovarik, Carrie L

    2014-01-01

    Importance Mobile teledermatology may increase access to care. Objective To determine if mobile teledermatology in HIV positive patients in Gaborone, Botswana was reliable and produced valid consultations in comparison to face-to-face dermatology consultations. Design Cross-sectional study Setting Outpatient clinics and public inpatient settings in Botswana. Participants 76 HIV positive patients aged 18 years and up with a skin or mucosal complaint that had not been previously evaluated by a dermatologist. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) We calculated Cohen's kappa coefficient for diagnosis, diagnostic category and management for test-retest reliability and for inter-rater reliability. We also calculated sensitivity and specificity for each diagnosis. Results Cohen's kappa for test-retest reliability ranged from 0.47 (95% CI 0.35-0.59) to 0.78 (95% CI 0.67-0.88) for the primary diagnosis, 0.29 (95% CI 0.18-0.42) to 0.73 (95% CI 0.61-0.84) for diagnostic category, and 0.17 (95% CI -0.01-0.36) to 0.54 (95% CI 0.38-0.70) for management. Cohen's kappa for inter-rater reliability ranged from 0.41 (95% CI 0.31-0.52) to 0.51 (95% CI 0.41-0.61) for the primary diagnosis, from 0.22 (95% CI 0.14-0.31) to 0.43 (95% CI 0.34-0.53) for the diagnostic category for the primary diagnosis and from 0.08 (95% CI 0.02-0.15) to 0.12 (95% CI 0.01-0.23) for management. Sensitivity and specificity for the top ten diagnoses ranged from 0 to 0.88 and from 0.84 to 1 respectively. Conclusions and Relevance Our results suggest that while the use of mobile teledermatology technology in HIV-positive patients in Botswana has significant potential for improving access to care, additional work is needed to improve reliability and validity of this technology on a larger scale in this population. PMID:24622778

  13. Alternatives for Mixed-Effects Meta-Regression Models in the Reliability Generalization Approach: A Simulation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López-López, José Antonio; Botella, Juan; Sánchez-Meca, Julio; Marín-Martínez, Fulgencio

    2013-01-01

    Since heterogeneity between reliability coefficients is usually found in reliability generalization studies, moderator analyses constitute a crucial step for that meta-analytic approach. In this study, different procedures for conducting mixed-effects meta-regression analyses were compared. Specifically, four transformation methods for the…

  14. Reliability and validity study of Persian modified version of MUSIC (musculoskeletal intervention center) – Norrtalje questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Alipour, Akbar; Ghaffari, Mostafa; Jensen, Irene; Shariati, Batoul; Vingard, Eva

    2007-01-01

    Background Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major health problem in the world. Self-reported questionnaires are a known method for estimating the prevalence of MSDs among the population. One of the studies concerning MSDs and their relation to work-related physical and psychosocial factors, as well as non-work-related factors, is the MUSIC-Norrtalje study in Sweden. In this study, the research group developed a questionnaire, which has been validated during its development process and is now considered a well-known instrument. The aim of this study is to validate the Persian version of this questionnaire. Methods The first step was to establish two expert panel groups in Iran and Sweden. The Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method was used to detect questionnaire face and content validity. To detect questionnaire reliability, we used the test-retest method. Results Except for two items, all other questions that respondents had problems with in the focus group (20 of 297), had unclear translations; the ambiguity was related to the stem of the questions and the predicted answers were clear for the participants. The concepts of 'household/spare time' and 'physical activity in the workplace' were not understood by the participants of FGD; this has been solved by adding further descriptions to these phrases in the translation. In the test-retest study, the reliability coefficient was relatively high in most items (only 5 items out of 297 had an ICC or kappa below 0.7). Conclusion The findings from the present study provide evidence that the Persian version of the MUSIC questionnaire is a reliable and valid instrument. PMID:17764557

  15. Reliability physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuddihy, E. F.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Speakers whose topics relate to the reliability physics of solar arrays are listed and their topics briefly reviewed. Nine reports are reviewed ranging in subjects from studies of photothermal degradation in encapsulants and polymerizable ultraviolet stabilizers to interface bonding stability to electrochemical degradation of photovoltaic modules.

  16. Reliability study of Stirling engines for solar dish/heat engine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Holtz, R.E.; Uherka, K.L.

    1987-05-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the reliability of existing and improved Stirling engine concepts for dispersed solar dish-electric applications in the 25-50 kWe range. Five current kinematic Stirling engine designs have the capability to meet or exceed the 32% efficiency goal of the DOE Solar Thermal Program. A review of historical Stirling engine data illustrated that the three major reliability issues with kinematic Stirling engines are the piston-rod seals, engine hot parts (i.e., heater head, regenerator and cylinders) and power control/drive system. The most significant reliability issue associated with achieving the 50,000 hour operating life goal involves piston-rod seals. A specific kinematic engine concept that appears to have the potential for meeting the 50,000 hour operating lifetime requirement of solar power systems is the STM4-120 engine. This engine has a pressurized crankcase to reduce piston-rod seal problems, an indirect heat pipe hot-end section to smooth out temperature gradients in the heater tubes, and a variable angle swashplate for power control.

  17. A new tool for identifying children with motor problems: reliability and validity study.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Luba; Tlumek, Hila; Katz-Leurer, Michal; Peretz, Chava; Carmeli, Eli

    2014-05-01

    This study examined reliability and validity of the Zuk Assessment for diagnosis of motor problems and determined standardized scores in an Israeli population aged 5 to 6 years. For standardization, 156 children recruited from 13 Kindergartens of typically developing children were evaluated with the Zuk Assessment. Intrarater and interrater reliability were examined on 2 samples of 15 and 13 children, respectively. A total of 151 children referred for motor problems were examined with the Zuk and Movement Assessment Battery for Children assessment tools for validation of the Zuk Assessment. Findings showed that the Zuk total score had a normal distribution similar to that found in the literature identifying 5.1% (-2 standard deviations) and 12% (between -1 and -2 standard deviations) of children with motor-related problems. Reliability was indicated by high intraclass correlation scores both in intrarater (intraclass correlation = .89) and interrater (intraclass correlation = .95) paradigms. The Zuk assessment identified differences in subgroups, namely, typical, suspicious, and impaired, as found in the Movement Assessment Battery for Children, confirming the Zuk validity. PMID:24453151

  18. Validity and reliability study of the Turkish psychiatric nurses of job motivation scale.

    PubMed

    Engin, E; Cam, O

    2009-06-01

    This methodological study was planned to explore the validity and reliability of the evaluation scale for measuring the job motivation of nurses who work in psychiatric clinics. The sample was composed of 378 nurses who work in all psychiatric units or psychiatric hospitals located in Turkey's four large cities - Ankara, Istanbul, Izmir and Manisa. For testing reliability of 'job motivation scale', the internal consistency tests were executed with split scale analysis, Cronbach's alpha coefficient and item-total score correlation. For construct validity, factor analysis was used. For the first part of scale, Cronbach's alpha was determined to be 0.79. For the second part, Cronbach's alpha was 0.72. Factor analysis was performed in an attempt to establish validity and underlying associations between items in the scale. The first analysis produced nine eigenvalues (>1) and nine factors were extracted. The scree test indicated that a two-factor model would be suitable. The factor structure of the tool for measuring the job motivation of nurses who work in psychiatric clinics was parallel with motivation concepts. Validity and reliability levels of the scale for measuring the job motivation of nurses who work in psychiatric clinics were found to be sufficient in the Turkish population. PMID:19538603

  19. Reliability of on-site greywater treatment systems in Mediterranean and arid environments - a case study.

    PubMed

    Alfiya, Y; Gross, A; Sklarz, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-01

    On-site greywater (GW) treatment and reuse is gaining popularity. However, a main point of concern is that inadequate treatment of such water may lead to negative environmental and health effects. Maintenance of single-family home GW systems is usually performed by home owners with limited professional support. Therefore, unless GW systems are reliable, environmental and public health might be compromised. This study is aimed at investigating the reliability of on-site recirculated vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) in 20 single-family homes. In order to ensure reliability, the failure-tree approach was adopted during the design and construction of the systems. The performance of the systems was monitored for 1.5 years, by evaluating treated GW flow and quality, and by recording all malfunctions and maintenance work. Only 39 failures occurred during this period, of which four caused irrigation with impaired quality GW, while the rest led to no irrigation. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 305 days; two out of the 20 systems suffered from seven malfunctions (each), while nine systems did not fail at all. Thus, it can be postulated that if on-site GW treatment systems are designed with the right controls, and if scheduled (basic and relatively infrequent) maintenance is performed, GW reuse can be safe to the environment and human health. PMID:23508166

  20. Bootstrap study of genome-enabled prediction reliabilities using haplotype blocks across Nordic Red cattle breeds.

    PubMed

    Cuyabano, B C D; Su, G; Rosa, G J M; Lund, M S; Gianola, D

    2015-10-01

    This study compared the accuracy of genome-enabled prediction models using individual single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) or haplotype blocks as covariates when using either a single breed or a combined population of Nordic Red cattle. The main objective was to compare predictions of breeding values of complex traits using a combined training population with haplotype blocks, with predictions using a single breed as training population and individual SNP as predictors. To compare the prediction reliabilities, bootstrap samples were taken from the test data set. With the bootstrapped samples of prediction reliabilities, we built and graphed confidence ellipses to allow comparisons. Finally, measures of statistical distances were used to calculate the gain in predictive ability. Our analyses are innovative in the context of assessment of predictive models, allowing a better understanding of prediction reliabilities and providing a statistical basis to effectively calibrate whether one prediction scenario is indeed more accurate than another. An ANOVA indicated that use of haplotype blocks produced significant gains mainly when Bayesian mixture models were used but not when Bayesian BLUP was fitted to the data. Furthermore, when haplotype blocks were used to train prediction models in a combined Nordic Red cattle population, we obtained up to a statistically significant 5.5% average gain in prediction accuracy, over predictions using individual SNP and training the model with a single breed. PMID:26233439

  1. An initial reliability and validity study of the Interaction, Communication, and Literacy Skills Audit.

    PubMed

    El-Choueifati, Nisrine; Purcell, Alison; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Robert; Munro, Natalie

    2014-06-01

    Early childhood educators (ECEs) have an important role in promoting positive outcomes for children's language and literacy development. This paper reports the development of a new tool, The Interaction Communication and Literacy (ICL) Skills Audit, and pilots its reliability and validity. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was examined by three speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Five skill areas relating to ECE language and literacy practice were rated. The face and content validity of the ICL Skills Audit was examined by expert SLPs (n = 8) and expert ECEs (n = 4) via questionnaire. The overall intra-rater reliability for the ICL Skills Audit was excellent with percentage close agreement (PCA) of 91-94. Inter-rater agreement was PCA 68-80. Expert SLPs and ECEs agreed that the content was comprehensive and practical. Based on this preliminary study, the ICL Skills Audit appears to be a promising tool that can be used by SLPs and ECEs in collaboration to measure the skills of ECEs in the areas of language and literacy support. Future psychometric and outcome research on the revised ICL Skills Audit is warranted. PMID:24635410

  2. A Computational Study of Spike Time Reliability in Two Types of Threshold Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Spike time reliability (STR) refers to the phenomenon in which repetitive applications of a frozen copy of one stochastic signal to a neuron trigger spikes with reliable timing while a constant signal fails to do so. Observed and explored in numerous experimental and theoretical studies, STR is a complex dynamic phenomenon depending on the nature of external inputs as well as intrinsic properties of a neuron. The neuron under consideration could be either quiescent or spontaneously spiking in the absence of the external stimulus. Focusing on the situation in which the unstimulated neuron is quiescent but close to a switching point to oscillations, we numerically analyze STR treating each spike occurrence as a time localized event in a model neuron. We study both the averaged properties as well as individual features of spike-evoking epochs (SEEs). The effects of interactions between spikes is minimized by selecting signals that generate spikes with relatively long interspike intervals (ISIs). Under these conditions, the frequency content of the input signal has little impact on STR. We study two distinct cases, Type I in which the f–I relation (f for frequency, I for applied current) is continuous and Type II where the f–I relation exhibits a jump. STR in the two types shows a number of similar features and differ in some others. SEEs that are capable of triggering spikes show great variety in amplitude and time profile. On average, reliable spike timing is associated with an accelerated increase in the “action” of the signal as a threshold for spike generation is approached. Here, “action” is defined as the average amount of current delivered during a fixed time interval. When individual SEEs are studied, however, their time profiles are found important for triggering more precisely timed spikes. The SEEs that have a more favorable time profile are capable of triggering spikes with higher precision even at lower action levels. PMID:23945258

  3. Reliability and Validity Study of Clinical Ultrasound Imaging on Lateral Curvature of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Q.; Li, M.; Lou, Edmond H. M.; Wong, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Non-ionizing radiation imaging assessment has been advocated for the patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). As one of the radiation-free methods, ultrasound imaging has gained growing attention in scoliosis assessment over the past decade. The center of laminae (COL) method has been proposed to measure the spinal curvature in the coronal plane of ultrasound image. However, the reliability and validity of this ultrasound method have not been validated in the clinical setting. Objectives To evaluate the reliability and validity of clinical ultrasound imaging on lateral curvature measurements of AIS with their corresponding magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measurements. Methods Thirty curves (ranged 10.2°–68.2°) from sixteen patients with AIS were eligible for this study. The ultrasound scan was performed using a 3-D ultrasound unit within the same morning of MRI examination. Two researchers were involved in data collection of these two examinations. The COL method was used to measure the coronal curvature in ultrasound image, compared with the Cobb method in MRI. The intra- and inter-rater reliability of the COL method was evaluated by intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). The validity of this method was analyzed by paired Student’s t-test, Bland–Altman statistics and Pearson correlation coefficient. The level of significance was set as 0.05. Results The COL method showed high intra- and inter-rater reliabilities (both with ICC (2, K) >0.9, p<0.05) to measure the coronal curvature. Compared with Cobb method, COL method showed no significant difference (p<0.05) when measuring coronal curvature. Furthermore, Bland-Altman method demonstrated an agreement between these two methods, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r) was high (r>0.9, p<0.05). Conclusion The ultrasound imaging could provide a reliable and valid measurement of spinal curvature in the coronal plane using the COL method. Further research is needed to validate the

  4. Effect of formal specifications on program complexity and reliability: An experimental study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goel, Amrit L.; Sahoo, Swarupa N.

    1990-01-01

    The results are presented of an experimental study undertaken to assess the improvement in program quality by using formal specifications. Specifications in the Z notation were developed for a simple but realistic antimissile system. These specifications were then used to develop 2 versions in C by 2 programmers. Another set of 3 versions in Ada were independently developed from informal specifications in English. A comparison of the reliability and complexity of the resulting programs suggests the advantages of using formal specifications in terms of number of errors detected and fault avoidance.

  5. Common-Cause Failure Analysis for Reactor Protection System Reliability Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gentillon, C.; Rasmuson, D.; Eide, S.; Wierman, T.

    1999-08-01

    Analyses were performed of the safety-related performance of the reactor protection system (RPS) at U.S. Westinghouse and General Electric commercial reactors during the period 1984 through 1995. RPS operational data from these reactors were collected from the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System (NPRDS) and Licensee Event Reports (LER). The common-cause failure (CCF) modeling in the fault trees developed for these studies and the analysis and use of common-cause failure data were sophisticated, state-of-the-art efforts. The overall CCF effort helped to test and expand the limits of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's CCF methodology.

  6. Validity and reliability of the Japanese version of the Newest Vital Sign: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kogure, Takamichi; Sumitani, Masahiko; Suka, Machi; Ishikawa, Hirono; Odajima, Takeshi; Igarashi, Ataru; Kusama, Makiko; Okamoto, Masako; Sugimori, Hiroki; Kawahara, Kazuo

    2014-01-01

    Health literacy (HL) refers to the ability to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services, and is thus needed to make appropriate health decisions. The Newest Vital Sign (NVS) is comprised of 6 questions about an ice cream nutrition label and assesses HL numeracy skills. We developed a Japanese version of the NVS (NVS-J) and evaluated the validity and reliability of the NVS-J in patients with chronic pain. The translation of the original NVS into Japanese was achieved as per the published guidelines. An observational study was subsequently performed to evaluate the validity and reliability of the NVS-J in 43 Japanese patients suffering from chronic pain. Factor analysis with promax rotation, using the Kaiser criterion (eigenvalues ≥1.0), and a scree plot revealed that the main component of the NVS-J consists of three determinative factors, and each factor consists of two NVS-J items. The criterion-related validity of the total NVS-J score was significantly correlated with the total score of Ishikawa et al.'s self-rated HL Questionnaire, the clinical global assessment of comprehensive HL level, cognitive function, and the Brinkman index. In addition, Cronbach's coefficient for the total score of the NVS-J was adequate (alpha = 0.72). This study demonstrated that the NVS-J has good validity and reliability. Further, the NVS-J consists of three determinative factors: "basic numeracy ability," "complex numeracy ability," and "serious-minded ability." These three HL abilities comprise a 3-step hierarchical structure. Adequate HL should be promoted in chronic pain patients to enable coping, improve functioning, and increase activities of daily living (ADLs) and quality of life (QOL). PMID:24762459

  7. Quantifying the reliability of image replication studies: the image intraclass correlation coefficient (I2C2).

    PubMed

    Shou, H; Eloyan, A; Lee, S; Zipunnikov, V; Crainiceanu, A N; Nebel, N B; Caffo, B; Lindquist, M A; Crainiceanu, C M

    2013-12-01

    This article proposes the image intraclass correlation (I2C2) coefficient as a global measure of reliability for imaging studies. The I2C2 generalizes the classic intraclass correlation (ICC) coefficient to the case when the data of interest are images, thereby providing a measure that is both intuitive and convenient. Drawing a connection with classical measurement error models for replication experiments, the I2C2 can be computed quickly, even in high-dimensional imaging studies. A nonparametric bootstrap procedure is introduced to quantify the variability of the I2C2 estimator. Furthermore, a Monte Carlo permutation is utilized to test reproducibility versus a zero I2C2, representing complete lack of reproducibility. Methodologies are applied to three replication studies arising from different brain imaging modalities and settings: regional analysis of volumes in normalized space imaging for characterizing brain morphology, seed-voxel brain activation maps based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and fractional anisotropy in an area surrounding the corpus callosum via diffusion tensor imaging. Notably, resting-state fMRI brain activation maps are found to have low reliability, ranging from .2 to .4. Software and data are available to provide easy access to the proposed methods. PMID:24022791

  8. Web-Based Assessment of Mental Well-Being in Early Adolescence: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Christoph; Schultze-Lutter, Frauke

    2016-01-01

    Background The ever-increasing use of the Internet among adolescents represents an emerging opportunity for researchers to gain access to larger samples, which can be queried over several years longitudinally. Among adolescents, young adolescents (ages 11 to 13 years) are of particular interest to clinicians as this is a transitional stage, during which depressive and anxiety symptoms often emerge. However, it remains unclear whether these youngest adolescents can accurately answer questions about their mental well-being using a Web-based platform. Objective The aim of the study was to examine the accuracy of responses obtained from Web-based questionnaires by comparing Web-based with paper-and-pencil versions of depression and anxiety questionnaires. Methods The primary outcome was the score on the depression and anxiety questionnaires under two conditions: (1) paper-and-pencil and (2) Web-based versions. Twenty-eight adolescents (aged 11-13 years, mean age 12.78 years and SD 0.78; 18 females, 64%) were randomly assigned to complete either the paper-and-pencil or the Web-based questionnaire first. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to measure intrarater reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficients were calculated separately for depression (Children’s Depression Inventory, CDI) and anxiety (Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale, SCAS) questionnaires. Results On average, it took participants 17 minutes (SD 6) to answer 116 questions online. Intraclass correlation coefficient analysis revealed high intrarater reliability when comparing Web-based with paper-and-pencil responses for both CDI (ICC=.88; P<.001) and the SCAS (ICC=.95; P<.001). According to published criteria, both of these values are in the “almost perfect” category indicating the highest degree of reliability. Conclusions The results of the study show an excellent reliability of Web-based assessment in 11- to 13-year-old children as compared with the standard paper

  9. Reliability of team-based self-monitoring in critical events: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Teamwork is a critical component during critical events. Assessment is mandatory for remediation and to target training programmes for observed performance gaps. Methods The primary purpose was to test the feasibility of team-based self-monitoring of crisis resource management with a validated teamwork assessment tool. A secondary purpose was to assess item-specific reliability and content validity in order to develop a modified context-optimised assessment tool. We conducted a prospective, single-centre study to assess team-based self-monitoring of teamwork after in-situ inter-professional simulated critical events by comparison with an assessment by observers. The Mayo High Performance Teamwork Scale (MHPTS) was used as the assessment tool with evaluation of internal consistency, item-specific consensus estimates for agreement between participating teams and observers, and content validity. Results 105 participants and 58 observers completed the MHPTS after a total of 16 simulated critical events over 8 months. Summative internal consistency of the MHPTS calculated as Cronbach’s alpha was acceptable with 0.712 for observers and 0.710 for participants. Overall consensus estimates for dichotomous data (agreement/non-agreement) was 0.62 (Cohen’s kappa; IQ-range 0.31-0.87). 6/16 items had excellent (kappa > 0.8) and 3/16 good reliability (kappa > 0.6). Short questions concerning easy to observe behaviours were more likely to be reliable. The MHPTS was modified using a threshold for good reliability of kappa > 0.6. The result is a 9 item self-assessment tool (TeamMonitor) with a calculated median kappa of 0.86 (IQ-range: 0.67-1.0) and good content validity. Conclusions Team-based self-monitoring with the MHPTS to assess team performance during simulated critical events is feasible. A context-based modification of the tool is achievable with good internal consistency and content validity. Further studies are needed to investigate if team

  10. A study of lip prints and its reliability as a forensic tool

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Yogendra; Einstein, Arouquiaswamy; Gondhalekar, Rajesh; Verma, Anoop K.; George, Jiji; Chandra, Shaleen; Gupta, Shalini; Samadi, Fahad M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Lip prints, like fingerprints, are unique to an individual and can be easily recorded. Therefore, we compared direct and indirect lip print patterns in males and females of different age groups, studied the inter- and intraobserver bias in recording the data, and observed any changes in the lip print patterns over a period of time, thereby, assessing the reliability of lip prints as a forensic tool. Materials and Methods: Fifty females and 50 males in the age group of 15 to 35 years were selected for the study. Lips with any deformity or scars were not included. Lip prints were registered by direct and indirect methods and transferred to a preformed registration sheet. Direct method of lip print registration was repeated after a six-month interval. All the recorded data were analyzed statistically. Results: The predominant patterns were vertical and branched. More females showed the branched pattern and males revealed an equal prevalence of vertical and reticular patterns. There was an interobserver agreement, which was 95%, and there was no change in the lip prints over time. Indirect registration of lip prints correlated with direct method prints. Conclusion: Lip prints can be used as a reliable forensic tool, considering the consistency of lip prints over time and the accurate correlation of indirect prints to direct prints. PMID:26668449

  11. MRS (monitored retrievable storage) Systems Study Task 1 report: Waste management system reliability analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, L.L.; Myers, R.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is one of nine studies undertaken by contractors to the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), to provide a technical basis for re-evaluating the role of a monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. The study evaluates the relative reliabilities of systems with and without an MRS facility using current facility design bases. The principal finding of this report is that the MRS system has several operational advantages that enhance system reliability. These are: (1) the MRS system is likely to encounter fewer technical issues, (2) the MRS would assure adequate system surface storage capacity to accommodate repository construction and startup delays of up to five years or longer if the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act (NWPAA) were amended, (3) the system with an MRS has two federal acceptance facilities with parallel transportation routing and surface storage capacity, and (4) the MRS system would allow continued waste acceptance for up to a year after a major disruption of emplacement operations at the repository.

  12. Reliability of the step phase detection using inertial measurement units: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sessa, Salvatore; Zecca, Massimiliano; Bartolomeo, Luca; Takashima, Takamichi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi; Takanishi, Atsuo

    2015-04-01

    The use of inertial sensors for the gait event detection during a long-distance walking, for example, on different surfaces and with different walking patterns, is important to evaluate the human locomotion. Previous studies demonstrated that gyroscopes on the shank or foot are more reliable than accelerometers and magnetometers for the event detection in case of normal walking. However, these studies did not link the events with the temporal parameters used in the clinical practice; furthermore, they did not clearly verify the optimal position for the sensors depending on walking patterns and surface conditions. The event detection quality of the sensors is compared with video, used as ground truth, according to the parameters proposed by the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society. Additionally, the performance of the sensor on the foot is compared with the one on the shank. The comparison is performed considering both normal walking and deviations to the walking pattern, on different ground surfaces and with or without constraints on movements. The preliminary results show that the proposed methodology allows reliable detection of gait events, even in case of abnormal footfall and in slipping surface conditions, and that the optimal location to place the sensors is the shank. PMID:26609406

  13. Reliability of the sensory responder classification to learned flavor cues: a test-retest study.

    PubMed

    Tepper, B J; Farkas, B K

    1994-10-01

    Previous work from this laboratory has examined the extent to which learned associations between the flavor of food and the caloric consequences of food ingestion influence daily energy intake in humans. We have consistently identified a subset of subjects, called sensory responders, whose intakes were strongly guided by flavor cues. Sensory responders were identified on the basis of post hoc examination of energy intake patterns. The purpose of this study was to confirm the reliability of this classification scheme using a test-retest paradigm. Eighteen normal-weight, free-living adults participated in the study. Subjects were first fed a high-calorie lunch with distinctive flavors for 5 consecutive days then a low-calorie lunch with different distinctive flavors for an additional 5 days. Following this training, the flavors in the lunches were covertly switched. Subjects whose intakes were influenced by the change in the flavor cues were classified as sensory responders and those whose intakes were not influenced by the switch in the flavor cues were classified as sensory nonresponders. Subjects then repeated the protocol. All subjects who were classified as sensory responders at the end of the first trial were similarly classified at the end of the second trial, indicating that their initial responses were reliable. PMID:7800754

  14. Reliability of the step phase detection using inertial measurement units: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Salvatore; Zecca, Massimiliano; Bartolomeo, Luca; Takashima, Takamichi; Fujimoto, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    The use of inertial sensors for the gait event detection during a long-distance walking, for example, on different surfaces and with different walking patterns, is important to evaluate the human locomotion. Previous studies demonstrated that gyroscopes on the shank or foot are more reliable than accelerometers and magnetometers for the event detection in case of normal walking. However, these studies did not link the events with the temporal parameters used in the clinical practice; furthermore, they did not clearly verify the optimal position for the sensors depending on walking patterns and surface conditions. The event detection quality of the sensors is compared with video, used as ground truth, according to the parameters proposed by the Gait and Clinical Movement Analysis Society. Additionally, the performance of the sensor on the foot is compared with the one on the shank. The comparison is performed considering both normal walking and deviations to the walking pattern, on different ground surfaces and with or without constraints on movements. The preliminary results show that the proposed methodology allows reliable detection of gait events, even in case of abnormal footfall and in slipping surface conditions, and that the optimal location to place the sensors is the shank. PMID:26609406

  15. The Validity and Reliability of the Parent Fever Management Scale: A Study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Zyoud, Sa'ed H; Al-Jabi, Samah W; Nabulsi, Masa M; Tubaila, Mais F; Sweileh, Waleed M; Awang, Rahmat; Walsh, Anne

    2015-08-01

    Parental concern about childhood fever and consequent use of antipyretics is increasing. Little is known about childhood fever management among Arab parents. No scales to measure parents' fever management practices in Palestine are available. The aim of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the Parent Fever Management Scale (PFMS) using a sample of parents in Palestine. A standard "forward-backward" procedure was used to translate PFMS into Arabic language. It was then validated on a convenience sample of 402 parents between July and October 2012. Descriptive statistics were used, and instrument reliability was assessed for internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Validity was confirmed using convergent and known group validation. Applying the recommended scoring method, the median (interquartile range) score of the PFMS was 26 (23-30). Acceptable internal consistency was found (Cronbach's alpha = 0.733) and the test-retest reliability value was 0.92 (P < 0.001). The Chi squared (χ (2)) test showed a significant relationship between PFMS groups and frequent daily administration of antipyretic groups (χ (2) = 52.86; P < 0.001). The PFMS sensitivity and specificity were 77.67 and 57.75 %, respectively. The positive and negative predictive values were 67.89 and 32.11 %, respectively. The Arabic version of the PFMS is a reliable and valid measure and can be used as a useful tool for health professionals to identify parents' fever management practices. The Arabic version of the PFMS can be used to reduce unnecessary parental practices in fever management for a febrile child. PMID:24880253

  16. Application of an LC-MS/MS method for reliable determination of amodiaquine, N-desethylamodiaquine, artesunate and dihydroartemisinin in human plasma for a bioequivalence study in healthy Indian subjects.

    PubMed

    Rathod, Dhiraj M; Patel, Keyur R; Mistri, Hiren N; Jangid, Arvind G; Shrivastav, Pranav S; Sanyal, Mallika

    2016-05-30

    A sensitive and high throughput bioanalytical method has been developed for reliable determination of amodiaquine (AQ), N-desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), artesunate (AS) and dihydroartemisinin (DHA) in human plasma by LC-MS/MS. The method employs a solid phase extraction procedure without an evaporation step and with optimum use of organic solvents to circumvent degradation of artemisinin derivatives. The analytes and their deuterated internal standards (ISs) were analyzed on Hypersil Gold (100mm×4.6mm, 5μm) column using acetonitrile and 2.0mM ammonium formate (pH 2.50) in 80:20 (v/v) ratio as the mobile phase. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization interface was used to detect and quantify the analytes. The method was established over the concentration range of 0.250-30.0ng/mL, 1.50-180ng/mL, 2.00-600ng/mL and 5.00-1400ng/mL for AQ, DEAQ, AS and DHA respectively using 250μL human plasma. The intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision (% CV) across quality controls varied from 93.3-105.0% and 1.7-8.3 respectively for all the analytes. The stability was assessed in whole blood as well as in plasma samples under different conditions. All four analytes were stable in whole blood up to 2h on melting ice. The long term stability in plasma was ascertained up to 90 days. IS-normalized matrix factors ranged from 0.988-1.023 for all the analytes. The method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study using 50mg artesunate and 135mg amodiaquine fixed dose formulation in 14 healthy subjects. PMID:26930583

  17. Reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components, Part II: Case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yimin

    2015-06-01

    The reliability-based optimization, the reliability- based sensitivity analysis and robust design method are employed to propose an effective approach for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components in Part I. Applications of the method are further discussed for reliability-based robust optimization of vehicle components in this paper. Examples of axles, torsion bar, coil and composite springs are illustrated for numerical investigations. Results have shown the proposed method is an efficient method for reliability-based robust design optimization of vehicle components.

  18. Reliability and validity of the tritrac-R3D accelerometer during backpacking: a case study.

    PubMed

    DeVoe, D; Dalleck, L

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of the Tritrac-R3D accelerometer as a reliable and valid instrument in the quantification of physical activity while backpacking in the field and to evaluate heart-rate responses and oxygen consumption to assess the feasibility of using the Tritrac-R3D to estimate caloric expenditure. Two 7-day backpacking expeditions were conducted in two consecutive years by a single subject at Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The average hiking heart rate ranged front 60% to 77% HRmax during the expeditions. The average rate of estimated caloric cost ranged from 6.8 to 11.7 kcals x min.(-1) (equivalent to 408 to 702 kcals x hr.(-1)), indicating a relatively moderate to high level of exertion. The Tritrac had adequate consistency and reliability in the field between the two expeditions in recorded activity counts. The Tritrac underestimated caloric expenditure during backpacking with changes in terrain, and hiking speed contributed to even greater disparity in accuracy. PMID:11693704

  19. Studying the Effect of Deposition Conditions on the Performance and Reliability of MEMS Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Khaled; Moussa, Walied

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the reliability of a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)-based gas sensor has been investigated using Three Dimensional (3D) coupled multiphysics Finite Element (FE) analysis. The coupled field analysis involved a two-way sequential electrothermal fields coupling and a one-way sequential thermal-structural fields coupling. An automated substructuring code was developed to reduce the computational cost involved in simulating this complicated coupled multiphysics FE analysis by up to 76 percent. The substructured multiphysics model was then used to conduct a parametric study of the MEMS-based gas sensor performance in response to the variations expected in the thermal and mechanical characteristics of thin films layers composing the sensing MEMS device generated at various stages of the microfabrication process. Whenever possible, the appropriate deposition variables were correlated in the current work to the design parameters, with good accuracy, for optimum operation conditions of the gas sensor. This is used to establish a set of design rules, using linear and nonlinear empirical relations, which can be utilized in real-time at the design and development decision-making stages of similar gas sensors to enable the microfabrication of these sensors with reliable operation.

  20. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d’Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30th minute, at the 1st, 6th, 12th, 24th and 48th hour, and later (up to the 96th hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  1. Post-Mortem Corneal Thickness Measurements with a Portable Optical Coherence Tomography System: a Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Napoli, Pietro Emanuele; Nioi, Matteo; d'Aloja, Ernesto; Fossarello, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the repeatability and reproducibility of post-mortem central corneal thickness (CCT) measurements by using a real-time, portable optical coherence tomography (OCT) system on an animal model, and to prospectively evaluate the time-course of post-mortem changes in CCT. Forty-six ocular globes of sheep (Ovis aries) were analyzed with a portable spectral-domain OCT device by two operators at different postmortem intervals (PMIs) as follows: immediately (i.e. within 10 minutes), at the 30(th) minute, at the 1(st), 6(th), 12(th), 24(th) and 48(th) hour, and later (up to the 96(th) hour). The coefficient of repeatability ranged from 0.3% to 3.5%, and coefficients of reproducibility ranged from 0.2% to 3.7% in the central region of the cornea. The intraclass correlation coefficients were particularly high at different PMIs, thus confirming good measurement reliability with the portable OCT. The average CCT decreased immediately and then increased thereafter, with two peaks at 6 and 24 hours after death. Our results suggest that portable OCT is a reliable tool for monitoring CCT variations after death and may be useful in characterizing corneas before explantation, detecting quantitative variations during post-mortem corneal degeneration or assessing changes in CCT for forensic implications. PMID:27457021

  2. A reliability study of impairment and disability scales for myasthenia gravis patients.

    PubMed

    Romani, Alfredo; Piccolo, Giovanni; Bergamaschi, Roberto; Versino, Maurizio; Cosi, Vittorio

    2002-01-01

    The authors developed two scales to be adopted for the evaluation of myasthenia gravis (MG) patients. The first scale (MG impairment scale) is based on objective patient evaluation and on patients' responses to standardized questions relating to the functioning of specific muscle groups. It consists of 13 items exploring strength and 10 items exploring fatigability. The second scale (MG disability scale) evaluates disability in those everyday activities that are often impaired in MG patients. Test-retest reliability of each item and of the global score (sum of single item scores) was assessed by the weighted K statistic and by the intraclass correlation coefficient. Reliability was invariably 'substantial', and for single items 'almost perfect' for the MG impairment scale, and invariably 'almost perfect' for the MG disability scale. The internal structure of the MG impairment scale was explored by means of the principal component analysis. This analysis resulted in three main (rotated) factors, which loaded respectively onto 'ocular', 'spinal' and 'bulbar' functions. For these factors, we report factor score coefficients that can be used to compute single patients' scores, which in turn may be used in further analyses, particularly for follow-up studies. We also report the results of an analysis of the correlations between the two scales. The MG impairment and the MG disability scales are proposed for application in both clinical and research settings. PMID:12549719

  3. Scoping study on trends in the economic value of electricity reliability to the U.S. economy

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Koomey, Jonathan; Lehman, Bryan; Martin, Nathan; Mills, Evan; Webber, Carrie; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-06-01

    During the past three years, working with more than 150 organizations representing public and private stakeholders, EPRI has developed the Electricity Technology Roadmap. The Roadmap identifies several major strategic challenges that must be successfully addressed to ensure a sustainable future in which electricity continues to play an important role in economic growth. Articulation of these anticipated trends and challenges requires a detailed understanding of the role and importance of reliable electricity in different sectors of the economy. This report is intended to contribute to that understanding by analyzing key aspects of trends in the economic value of electricity reliability in the U.S. economy. We first present a review of recent literature on electricity reliability costs. Next, we describe three distinct end-use approaches for tracking trends in reliability needs: (1) an analysis of the electricity-use requirements of office equipment in different commercial sectors; (2) an examination of the use of aggregate statistical indicators of industrial electricity use and economic activity to identify high reliability-requirement customer market segments; and (3) a case study of cleanrooms, which is a cross-cutting market segment known to have high reliability requirements. Finally, we present insurance industry perspectives on electricity reliability as an example of a financial tool for addressing customers' reliability needs.

  4. RELIABILITY OF REPORTING ON LIFESTYLE AND AGRICULTURAL FACTORS BY A SAMPLE OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY FROM IOWA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Repeat interviews from 4,088 Iowa pesticide applicators participating in the Agricultural Health Study provided the opportunity to evaluate the reliability of self-reported information on pesticide use and various demographic and lifestyle factors. Self-completed questionnaire...

  5. Ultrasound assessment of transverse carpal ligament thickness: a validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhilei Liu; Li, Zong-Ming

    2012-06-01

    The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) forms the palmar boundary of the carpal tunnel and plays an important role in carpal tunnel mechanics. TCL hypertrophy has been observed for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and postulated as a potential etiologic factor. Ultrasound is particularly advantageous for TCL imaging because of its capability of detecting the interfaces between the TCL and other tissues. The purposes of this study were to develop an ultrasound based method to measure the TCL thickness and to test the validity and reliability of this method. Three operators conducted two sessions of ultrasound examination on eight cadaveric specimens and eight healthy volunteers. A custom script was used to calculate TCL thickness along the TCL length from the ultrasound images. The ultrasound based TCL thickness of the cadaveric specimens was compared with the dissection based TCL thickness for validation. The results showed Pearson's correlation coefficients of 0.867-0.928, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.726-0.865, a standard error of measurement of 0.02-0.07 mm and a minimal detectable difference of 0.05-0.15 mm. The high correlation coefficients and small errors indicate that the ultrasound based method is valid for measuring TCL thickness. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements showed excellent intraoperator and interoperator reliability with ICC values as 0.826-0.933 and 0.840-0.882, respectively. The ultrasound based TCL thickness was in the range of 0.93-2.34 (1.54 ± 0.33) mm and agreed well with previous studies. The ultrasound method developed in this study is a valuable tool to examine morphologic properties of healthy and pathologic TCLs. PMID:22502882

  6. Ultrasound Assessment of Transverse Carpal Ligament Thickness: A Validity and Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhilei Liu; Li, Zong-Ming

    2012-01-01

    The transverse carpal ligament (TCL) forms the palmar boundary of the carpal tunnel and plays an important role in carpal tunnel mechanics. TCL hypertrophy has been observed for individuals with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) and postulated as a potential etiological factor. Ultrasound is particularly advantageous for TCL imaging because of its capability of detecting the interfaces between the TCL and other tissues. The purposes of this study were to develop an ultrasound based method to measure the TCL thickness and to test the validity and reliability of this method. Three operators conducted two sessions of ultrasound examination on 8 cadaveric specimens and 8 healthy volunteers. A custom script was used to calculate TCL thickness along the TCL length from the ultrasound images. The ultrasound based TCL thickness of the cadaveric specimens was compared to the dissection based TCL thickness for validation. The results showed Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.867–0.928, intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values of 0.726–0.865, a standard error of measurement of 0.02–0.07 mm, and a minimal detectable difference of 0.05–0.15 mm. The high correlation coefficients and small errors indicate that the ultrasound based method is valid for measuring TCL thickness. Furthermore, ultrasound measurements showed excellent intra-operator and inter-operator reliability with ICC values as 0.826–0.933 and 0.840–0.882, respectively. The ultrasound based TCL thickness was in the range of 0.93–2.34 (1.54 ± 0.33) mm and agreed well with previous studies. The ultrasound method developed in this study is a valuable tool to examine morphological properties of healthy and pathological TCLs. PMID:22502882

  7. Lessons Learned on Benchmarking from the International Human Reliability Analysis Empirical Study

    SciTech Connect

    Ronald L. Boring; John A. Forester; Andreas Bye; Vinh N. Dang; Erasmia Lois

    2010-06-01

    The International Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) Empirical Study is a comparative benchmark of the prediction of HRA methods to the performance of nuclear power plant crews in a control room simulator. There are a number of unique aspects to the present study that distinguish it from previous HRA benchmarks, most notably the emphasis on a method-to-data comparison instead of a method-to-method comparison. This paper reviews seven lessons learned about HRA benchmarking from conducting the study: (1) the dual purposes of the study afforded by joining another HRA study; (2) the importance of comparing not only quantitative but also qualitative aspects of HRA; (3) consideration of both negative and positive drivers on crew performance; (4) a relatively large sample size of crews; (5) the use of multiple methods and scenarios to provide a well-rounded view of HRA performance; (6) the importance of clearly defined human failure events; and (7) the use of a common comparison language to “translate” the results of different HRA methods. These seven lessons learned highlight how the present study can serve as a useful template for future benchmarking studies.

  8. A reliability study on tin based lead free micro joint including intermetallic and void evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feyissa, Frezer Assefa

    In microelectronics soldering to Cu pad lead to formation of two intermetallic structures in the solder -pad interface. The growth of these layers is accompanied by microscopic voids that usually cause reliability concern in the industry. Therefore it is important to understand factors that contribute for the growth of IMC using various combination of reflow time, Sn thickness and aging temperature. Systematic study was conducted on Cu-Sn system to investigate the formation and growth of intermetallic compound (IMC) as well as voiding evolution for different solder thicknesses. The growth of the Cu6Sn5 IMC layer was found to be increasing as the Sn thicknesses increase after reflow while the Cu3Sn layer were decreasing under same conditions. Also after reflow and aging more voiding were shown to occur in the thin solder than thicker one.

  9. Method for a reliability study on photovoltaic modules Application for the qualification of cells and modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desombre, A.

    The different steps used to determine the reliability of a solar cell are described and their effectiveness in predictions of cell lifetime are discussed. Commercially acceptable solar cells must last an average of 20 yr in various climatic conditions and in different applications. Testing is performed after characterizing the stresses to which the cells will be exposed, including climatic, electrical, and mechanical factors. Cell failures can be either catastrophic, i.e., total functional cutoff, or drift failure, a gradual decrease in productivity. Accelerated stresses are applied to cells as a means of measuring the long-term behavior, and various module components are also exposed to conditions that simulate possible failure-producing mechanisms or combinations of agents, such as humidity leading to eventual output degradation from corrosion. Specific test configurations are necessary to study module and cell performance whenever the units are intended for installation in extreme climatic situations, e.g., jungles or deserts.

  10. Use of Melt Flow Rate Test in Reliability Study of Thermoplastic Encapsulation Materials in Photovoltaic Modules

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, J.; Miller, D.; Shah, Q.-U.-A. S. J.; Sakurai, K.; Kempe, M.; Tamizhmani, G.; Kurtz, S.

    2011-10-01

    Use of thermoplastic materials as encapsulants in photovoltaic (PV) modules presents a potential concern in terms of high temperature creep, which should be evaluated before thermoplastics are qualified for use in the field. Historically, the issue of creep has been avoided by using thermosetting polymers as encapsulants, such as crosslinked ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA). Because they lack crosslinked networks, however, thermoplastics may be subject to phase transitions and visco-elastic flow at the temperatures and mechanical stresses encountered by modules in the field, creating the potential for a number of reliability and safety issues. Thermoplastic materials investigated in this study include PV-grade uncured-EVA (without curing agents and therefore not crosslinked); polyvinyl butyral (PVB); thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU); and three polyolefins (PO), which have been proposed for use as PV encapsulation. Two approaches were used to evaluate the performance of these materials as encapsulants: module-level testing and a material-level testing.

  11. Validity and reliability of the critical care pain observation tool: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Keane, Kathleen Marie

    2013-12-01

    Critically ill patients are often not able to self-report the presence of pain. Currently there is no generally accepted assessment tool for this population. The Critical-Care Pain Observation Tool (CPOT) was developed for pain assessment of critically ill patients. The purpose of this study was to replicate the findings of the Gelinas et al. (2006) CPOT reference study and examine the interrater reliability (IRR), discriminant validity (DV), and criterion validity (CV) of the CPOT. This quantitative study used a repeated measures design with a convenience sample of 21 postoperative open heart surgery patients cared for in a tertiary-care teaching hospital. Testing for IRR in this sample showed a range of results resulting in fair to almost perfect IRR; the findings of this study suggest that the instrument's IRR is acceptable but variable. Testing for DV demonstrated a significant difference in mean scores between noxious (painful) and nonnoxious (nonpainful) procedures. Testing for CV showed a weak nonsignificant Spearman correlation of 0.26 (P < .312) between CPOT scores and patient self-report during repositioning after extubation. This replication study adds to four studies that have examined psychometric attributes of the instrument and contributes to the process of translating the use of this instrument to the clinical setting. PMID:24315275

  12. Reliability of brain volumes from multicenter MRI acquisition: a calibration study.

    PubMed

    Schnack, Hugo G; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E; Picchioni, Marco; Weisbrod, Matthias; Sauer, Heinrich; Cannon, Tyrone; Huttunen, Matti; Murray, Robin; Kahn, René S

    2004-08-01

    Multicenter studies can provide additional information over single center studies because of their increased statistical power. Because similar acquisition protocols are being used internationally for structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the human brain, volumetric MRI data studies seem suitable for this purpose. Possible systematic differences between sites should be avoided, however, particularly when subtle differences in tissue volume are being searched for, such as in neuropsychiatric diseases. In this calibration study, the brains of six healthy volunteers were (re)scanned with MR scanners from four different manufacturers at five different sites, using the local acquisition protocols. The images were segmented at a central reference site. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was determined for the whole brain, gray and white matter, cerebellum, and lateral and third ventricle volumes. When required, the processing algorithms were calibrated for each site. Calibration of the histogram analysis was needed for segmentation of total brain volume at one site and for gray and white matter volume at all sites. No (additional) calibration was needed for cerebellum and ventricle volumes. The ICCs were > or = 0.96 for total brain, > or = 0.92 for cerebellum, > or = 0.96 for lateral ventricle, > or = 0.21 for third ventricle, > or = 0.84 for gray matter, and > or = 0.78 for white matter volume. Calibration of segmentation procedures allows morphologic MRI data acquired at different research sites to be combined reliably in multicenter studies. PMID:15202109

  13. Validity and reliability of self-reported diabetes in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Andrea L C; Pankow, James S; Heiss, Gerardo; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2012-10-15

    The objective of this study was to assess the validity of prevalent and incident self-reported diabetes compared with multiple reference definitions and to assess the reliability (repeatability) of a self-reported diagnosis of diabetes. Data from 10,321 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study who attended visit 4 (1996-1998) were analyzed. Prevalent self-reported diabetes was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose and medication use obtained at visit 4. Incident self-reported diabetes was assessed during annual follow-up telephone calls and was compared with reference definitions defined by fasting glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and medication use obtained during an in-person visit attended by a subsample of participants (n = 1,738) in 2004-2005. The sensitivity of prevalent self-reported diabetes ranged from 58.5% to 70.8%, and specificity ranged from 95.6% to 96.8%, depending on the reference definition. Similarly, the sensitivity of incident self-reported diabetes ranged from 55.9% to 80.4%, and specificity ranged from 84.5% to 90.6%. Percent positive agreement of self-reported diabetes during 9 years of repeat assessments ranged from 92.7% to 95.4%. Both prevalent self-reported diabetes and incident self-reported diabetes were 84%-97% specific and 55%-80% sensitive as compared with reference definitions using glucose and medication criteria. Self-reported diabetes was >92% reliable over time. PMID:23013620

  14. Reliability of Current Biokinetic and Dosimetric Models for Radionuclides: A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Leggett, Richard Wayne; Eckerman, Keith F; Meck, Robert A.

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the results of a pilot study of the reliability of the biokinetic and dosimetric models currently used by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as predictors of dose per unit internal or external exposure to radionuclides. The study examines the feasibility of critically evaluating the accuracy of these models for a comprehensive set of radionuclides of concern to the NRC. Each critical evaluation would include: identification of discrepancies between the models and current databases; characterization of uncertainties in model predictions of dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; characterization of variability in dose per unit intake or unit external exposure; and evaluation of prospects for development of more accurate models. Uncertainty refers here to the level of knowledge of a central value for a population, and variability refers to quantitative differences between different members of a population. This pilot study provides a critical assessment of models for selected radionuclides representing different levels of knowledge of dose per unit exposure. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: (1) To optimize the use of available NRC resources, the full study should focus on radionuclides most frequently encountered in the workplace or environment. A list of 50 radionuclides is proposed. (2) The reliability of a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide (i.e., an estimate of dose per unit intake) may depend strongly on the specific application. Multiple characterizations of the uncertainty in a dose coefficient for inhalation or ingestion of a radionuclide may be needed for different forms of the radionuclide and different levels of information of that form available to the dose analyst. (3) A meaningful characterization of variability in dose per unit intake of a radionuclide requires detailed information on the biokinetics of the radionuclide and hence is not feasible for many infrequently

  15. A Reliability Study of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Christy K.; Roffe, Michael W.

    1978-01-01

    A consistent picture regarding the reliability of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities cannot be obtained from current literature. A clear understanding of the stability of the MSCA would be particularly useful in establishing and planning academic programs and this research attempts to provide such an estimate of reliability. (Author/RK)

  16. Feasibility and Reliability of Physical Fitness Tests in Older Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilgenkamp, Thessa I. M.; van Wijck, Ruud; Evenhuis, Heleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Physical fitness is relevant for wellbeing and health, but knowledge on the feasibility and reliability of instruments to measure physical fitness for older adults with intellectual disability is lacking. Methods: Feasibility and test-retest reliability of a physical fitness test battery (Box and Block Test, Response Time Test, walking…

  17. Assessment of musculoskeletal pain sensitivity and temporal summation by cuff pressure algometry: a reliability study.

    PubMed

    Graven-Nielsen, Thomas; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Finocchietti, Sara; Handberg, Gitte; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars

    2015-11-01

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain is linked with sensitization, and standardized methods for assessment are needed. This study investigated (1) the test-retest reliability of computer-controlled cuff-pressure algometry (pain thresholds and temporal pain summation) on the arm and leg and (2) conditioned pain modulation (CPM) assessed by cuff algometry. The influences of age and gender were evaluated. On 2 different days, cuff pain threshold (cPPT), cuff pain tolerance (cPTT), and temporal summation of pain (TSP) by visual analog scale scores to 10 repeated cuff stimulations at cPTT intensity, as well as pressure pain threshold with handheld pressure algometry, were assessed in 136 healthy subjects. In one session, cuff pain sensitivity was also assessed before and after cold pressor-induced CPM. Good-to-excellent intraclass correlations (0.60-0.90) were demonstrated for manual and cuff algometry, and no systematic bias between sessions was found for cPPT, cPTT, and TSP on the leg and for cPTT and TSP on the arm. Cuff pressure pain threshold and cPTT were higher in men compared with women (P < 0.05). Middle-aged subjects had higher pressure pain threshold, but lower cPPT and cPTT, compared with younger subjects (P < 0.05). Temporal summation of pain was increased in women compared with men (P < 0.05). Cuff algometry was sensitive to CPM demonstrated as increased cPPT and cPTT and reduced TSP (P < 0.05). Reliability and sensitivity of computer-controlled cuff algometry for pain assessment is comparable with manual pressure algometry and constitutes a user-independent method for assessment of pain. Difference in age-related pain sensitivity between manual and cuff algometry should be further investigated. PMID:26172551

  18. Reliability of intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls - a multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Baad-Hansen, L; Pigg, M; Yang, G; List, T; Svensson, P; Drangsholt, M

    2015-02-01

    The reliability of comprehensive intra-oral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic oro-facial pain. The aim of the present multicentre study was to examine test-retest and interexaminer reliability of intra-oral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five patients with AO and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intra-oral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on 1 day by two different examiners and once approximately 1 week later by one of the examiners). Intra-class correlation coefficients and kappa values for interexaminer and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardised intra-oral QST measures showed fair to excellent interexaminer (9-12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7-11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between patients with AO and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intra-oral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. PMID:25284726

  19. Reliability of intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) in patients with atypical odontalgia and healthy controls – a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    Baad-Hansen, Lene; Pigg, Maria; Yang, Guangju; List, Thomas; Svensson, Peter; Drangsholt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Summary The reliability of comprehensive intraoral quantitative sensory testing (QST) protocol has not been examined systematically in patients with chronic orofacial pain. The aim of the present multi-center study was to examine test-retest and inter-examiner reliability of intraoral QST measures in terms of absolute values and z-scores as well as within-session coefficients of variation (CV) values in patients with atypical odontalgia (AO) and healthy pain-free controls. Forty-five AO patients and 68 healthy controls were subjected to bilateral intraoral gingival QST and unilateral extratrigeminal QST (thenar) on three occasions (twice on one day by two different examiners and once approximately one week later by one of the examiners). Intraclass correlation coefficients and kappa values for inter-examiner and test-retest reliability were computed. Most of the standardized intraoral QST measures showed fair to excellent inter-examiner (9–12 of 13 measures) and test-retest (7–11 of 13 measures) reliability. Furthermore, no robust differences in reliability measures or within-session variability (CV) were detected between AO patients and the healthy reference group. These reliability results in chronic orofacial pain patients support earlier suggestions based on data from healthy subjects that intraoral QST is sufficiently reliable for use as a part of a comprehensive evaluation of patients with somatosensory disturbances or neuropathic pain in the trigeminal region. PMID:25284726

  20. Studying health-seeking behaviours: collecting reliable data, conducting comprehensive analysis.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Babar T; Haran, David; Hatcher, Juanita; Iqbal Azam, Syed

    2008-01-01

    There is certainly a growing need to justify the significance of studying health-seeking behaviours for designing advocacy campaigns, lobbying for a policy shift and convincing donors to invest in priority areas. Moreover, policymakers need to be encouraged to design evidence-based policies that take into account information relating to health-promoting, -seeking and -utilization behaviour and the factors determining these behaviours. This paper primarily covers the 'methodology' used in the study of health-seeking behaviours and determinants of health services utilization in a predominantly rural district of Pakistan. The paper substantiates that this methodology is comprehensive and reliable, and there is potential for replicating this in similar settings. The approach of Kroeger in his research on the study of health-seeking behaviours, particularly in developing countries, provides the most holistic framework for examining, analysing and interpreting factors and determinants of health-seeking behaviours and health services utilization in developing countries. This study endeavoured to validate Kroeger's framework in a Pakistani setting, exploring all the factors listed through mixed method research, and qualitative supplemented by representative quantitative enquiry. This approach has also helped in understanding the inter-relationship of various factors and drivers of health-seeking behaviours from all angles. PMID:17537278

  1. Health problem behaviors in Iranian adolescents: a study of cross-cultural adaptation, reliability, and validity

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Bonab, Bagher Ghobari; Zadeh, Davood Shojaei; Shokravi, Farkhondeh Amin; Tabatabaie, Mahmoud Ghazi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The main purpose of this study was to assess the factorial validity and reliability of the Iranian versions of the personality and behavior system scales (49 items) of the AHDQ (The Adolescent Health and Development Questionnaire) and interrelations among them based on Jessor’s PBT (Problem Behavior Theory). METHODS: A multi-staged approach was employed. The cross-cultural adaptation was performed according to the internationally recommended methodology, using the following guidelines: translation, back-translation, revision by a committee, and pretest. After modifying and identifying of the best items, a cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the psychometric properties of Persian version using calibration and validation samples of adolescents. Also 113 of them completed it again two weeks later for stability. RESULTS: The findings of the exploratory factor analysis suggested that the 7-factor solution with low self concept, emotional distress, general delinquency, cigarette, hookah, alcohol, and hard drugs use provided a better fitting model. The α range for these identified factors was 0.69 to 0.94, the ICC range was 0.73 to 0.93, and there was a significant difference in mean scores for these instruments in compare between the male normative and detention adolescents. The first and second-order measurement models testing found good model fit for the 7-factor model. CONCLUSIONS: Factor analyses provided support of existence internalizing and externalizing problem behavior syndrome. With those qualifications, this model can be applied for studies among Persian adolescents. PMID:21526075

  2. A reliability study of springback on the sheet metal forming process under probabilistic variation of prestrain and blank holder force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mrad, Hatem; Bouazara, Mohamed; Aryanpour, Gholamreza

    2013-08-01

    This work deals with a reliability assessment of springback problem during the sheet metal forming process. The effects of operative parameters and material properties, blank holder force and plastic prestrain, on springback are investigated. A generic reliability approach was developed to control springback. Subsequently, the Monte Carlo simulation technique in conjunction with the Latin hypercube sampling method was adopted to study the probabilistic springback. Finite element method based on implicit/explicit algorithms was used to model the springback problem. The proposed constitutive law for sheet metal takes into account the adaptation of plastic parameters of the hardening law for each prestrain level considered. Rackwitz-Fiessler algorithm is used to find reliability properties from response surfaces of chosen springback geometrical parameters. The obtained results were analyzed using a multi-state limit reliability functions based on geometry compensations.

  3. The Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire: reliability and validity study in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Soo, K L; Wan Abdul Manan, W M; Wan Suriati, W N

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the reliability and concurrent validity of the Bahasa Melayu version of the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ-M) by comparing it with the short form of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-S) and objectively measuring physical activity using a Yamax DigiWalker (Yamax, Tokyo, Japan) pedometer. A total of 100 adults aged between 20 and 58 years from Kelantan in Malaysia voluntarily participated in this study. The Wilcoxon signed-rank analysis showed no significant differences in 2-week test-retest scores for total metabolic equivalent∙minutes∙per week and 4 domains of the GPAQ-M. There was a low but significant relationship between time spent on total physical activity measured by the GPAQ-M and average steps per day recorded using the pedometer (r s = .265, P = .013). Significant correlations were also found between GPAQ-M and the IPAQ-S for varying levels of intensity during physical activities (r s = .309-.466, P < .01). PMID:22234832

  4. Environmental test bench for reliability studies: influence of the temperature on rf switches with metallic membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lafontan, Xavier; Le Touze, Christophe; Wenk, Beatrice; Kolesnik, Inna; Pressecq, Francis; Perez, Guy; Nicot, Jean-Marc; Dardalhon, Muriel; Rigo, Sebastien

    2002-04-01

    RF switches are believed to replace PIN diodes and MESFETs in numerous future RF applications. But most of the actual applications require high reliability and long lifetimes for their devices. As MEMS is a new technology, aging tests and qualification procedures have yet to be demonstrated. MEMSCAP and CNES are developing an environmental test bench for the study of RF switch failure modes. This paper focuses, in particular, on the influence of the temperature in metallic RF switches/ Actually, architectures, such as the metallic air bridge, the membrane switch and the dielectric switch, display good RF performances. We will show in this paper that most of today's switches are sensitive to buckling. In particular, a few tens of degrees Celsius are enough to create a deformation that drives the air bridge switch (in ON or OFF position) to fatal failure. The influence of tensile pre-stress is also studied since it increases the buckling critical temperature. However, the required pre-stress range will degrade significantly the actuation voltage. Finally, stress relaxation structures are believed to decrease the sensitivity to high temperature while keeping a reasonable actuation voltage.

  5. Fundamental Study on Rationalization of Maintenance Procedure based upon Reliability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kameda, Hideyuki; Yamashita, Koji

    We have developed the Reliability Analysis System for Protective Relays (RASPR), which is composed of a database for protective relay equipment and its failures, and reliability analysis part. The data for relay systems and their failures have been collected since fiscal 1997. In this paper, the following suggestion was made from the analysis of the reliability for protective relays; 1) Omission of interruption of automatic checking at fault doesn’t have an influence on the reliability such as the availability, 2) Improvement of the availability was cleared from the analysis of effect of shortening of the testing time required, 3) The extension of the periodic testing period could be possible if 70% of failures discovered in a periodic testing were detected by continuous monitoring.

  6. Seismic elastic-plastic time history analysis and reliability study of quayside container crane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Yulong; Li, Zengguang

    2010-06-01

    Quayside container crane is a kind of huge dimension steel structure, which is the major equipment used for handling container at modern ports. With the aim to validate the safety and reliability of the crane under seismic loads, besides conventional analysis, elastic-plastic time history analysis under rare seismic intensity is carried out. An ideal finite element (FEM) elastic-plastic mechanical model of the quayside container crane is presented by using ANSYS codes. Furthermore, according to elastic-plastic time history analysis theory, deformation, stress and damage pattern of the structure under rare seismic intensity are investigated. Based on the above analysis, the established reliability model according to the reliability theory, together with seismic reliability analysis based on Monte-Carlo simulation is applied to practical analysis. The results show that the overall structure of the quayside container crane is generally unstable under rare seismic intensity, and the structure needs to be reinforced.

  7. The Reliability and Validity of the Chinese Version of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI-C)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yip, Michael C. W.

    2013-01-01

    The Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI) is widely used in assessing students' learning and study strategies at both university and high school levels. The present study developed a Chinese version of LASSI (LASSI-C) and then further investigated the reliability, factor structure, and validity of LASSI-C scores, using a sample of…

  8. The B-747 flight control system maintenance and reliability data base for cost effectiveness tradeoff studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Primary and automatic flight controls are combined for a total flight control reliability and maintenance cost data base using information from two previous reports and additional cost data gathered from a major airline. A comparison of the current B-747 flight control system effects on reliability and operating cost with that of a B-747 designed for an active control wing load alleviation system is provided.

  9. The reliability of emplacement temperature estimates using palaeomagnetic methods: a case study from Santorini, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardot, Leon; McClelland, Elizabeth

    2000-10-01

    The mode of origin of volcaniclastic deposits can be difficult to determine from field constraints, and the palaeomagnetic technique of emplacement temperature (Te) determination provides a powerful discriminatory test for primary volcanic origin. This technique requires that the low-blocking-temperature (Tb) component of remanence in the direction of the Earth's field in inherited lithic clasts is of thermal origin and was acquired during transport and cooling in a hot pyroclastic flow; otherwise, the Te determination may be inaccurate. If the low-Tb component is not of thermal origin it may be a viscous remanent magnetization (VRM) or a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM). The acquisition of a VRM depends on the duration of exposure to an applied magnetic field, and thus the laboratory unblocking temperature (Tub) of a VRM of a certain age imposes a minimum Te that can be determined for that deposit. Palaeointensity experiments were carried out to assess the magnetic origin (pTRM, CRM, or a combination of both) of the low-Tb component in a number of samples from pyroclastic deposits from Santorini, Greece. Seven of the 24 samples used in these experiments passed the stringent tests for reliable palaointensity determination. These values demonstrated, for six of the samples, that the low-Tb component was of thermal origin and therefore that the estimate of Te was valid. In the other 17 samples, valuable information was gained about the characteristics of the magnetic alteration that occurred during the palaeointensity experiments, allowing assessment of the reliability of Te estimates in these cases. These cases showed that if a CRM is present it has a direction parallel to the applied field, and not parallel to the direction of the parent grain. They also show that, even if a CRM is present, it does not necessarily affect the estimate of Te. Two samples used in these experiments displayed curvature between their two components of magnetization. Data from this

  10. Assessment of Lower Limb Muscle Strength and Power Using Hand-Held and Fixed Dynamometry: A Reliability and Validity Study

    PubMed Central

    Perraton, Luke G.; Bower, Kelly J.; Adair, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Williams, Gavin P.; McGaw, Rebekah

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Hand-held dynamometry (HHD) has never previously been used to examine isometric muscle power. Rate of force development (RFD) is often used for muscle power assessment, however no consensus currently exists on the most appropriate method of calculation. The aim of this study was to examine the reliability of different algorithms for RFD calculation and to examine the intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability of HHD as well as the concurrent validity of HHD for the assessment of isometric lower limb muscle strength and power. Methods 30 healthy young adults (age: 23±5yrs, male: 15) were assessed on two sessions. Isometric muscle strength and power were measured using peak force and RFD respectively using two HHDs (Lafayette Model-01165 and Hoggan microFET2) and a criterion-reference KinCom dynamometer. Statistical analysis of reliability and validity comprised intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson correlations, concordance correlations, standard error of measurement, and minimal detectable change. Results Comparison of RFD methods revealed that a peak 200ms moving window algorithm provided optimal reliability results. Intra-rater, inter-rater, and inter-device reliability analysis of peak force and RFD revealed mostly good to excellent reliability (coefficients ≥ 0.70) for all muscle groups. Concurrent validity analysis showed moderate to excellent relationships between HHD and fixed dynamometry for the hip and knee (ICCs ≥ 0.70) for both peak force and RFD, with mostly poor to good results shown for the ankle muscles (ICCs = 0.31–0.79). Conclusions Hand-held dynamometry has good to excellent reliability and validity for most measures of isometric lower limb strength and power in a healthy population, particularly for proximal muscle groups. To aid implementation we have created freely available software to extract these variables from data stored on the Lafayette device. Future research should examine the reliability

  11. Thin teflon-like films for MEMS: Film properties and reliability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, B.K.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Brown, C.D.

    1998-07-01

    This work presents film properties and initial reliability studies for thin Teflon-like films applied to a unique test vehicle, the Sandia-designed and fabricated microengine. Results on microengines coated with the film show a factor of three improvement in their lifetime and an order of magnitude reduction in the coefficient of friction when compared to uncoated samples. Coefficients Of Friction (COF) of 0.07 for the Teflon-like film and 1.0 for uncoated samples are extracted from models which match the measured behavior of working microengines. These films, deposited form a plasma source, exhibit the ability to penetrate into very narrow, deep channels common to many MEMS devices. For as-deposited film, both the refractive index at 1.4 and the contact angle with water at 108{degree} show the film to be very similar to bulk Teflon PTFE. Film stability as a function of temperature has been examined using Fourier Transformation Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The film structure as observed by the fluorine-carbon (F-C) peak is stable up to 200 C, but starts decomposing above 250 C. Film composition has been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and is quite different for directly exposed surfaces compared with deep, narrow channels where the deposition process is diffusion limited.

  12. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused disasters around the world. To prevent losses by floods, levees have often been constructed in inundation-prone areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao First Levee in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered: the slope sliding failure of the levee and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variability of the in situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the change of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee could fail with slope sliding for all values of the water level difference. The results of levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could aid engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  13. Levee reliability analyses for various flood return periods - a case study in Southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, W.-C.; Yu, H.-W.; Weng, M.-C.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, heavy rainfall conditions have caused damages around the world. To prevent damages by floods, levees have often been constructed in prone-to-inundation areas. This study performed reliability analyses for the Chiuliao 1st Levee located in southern Taiwan. The failure-related parameters were the water level, the scouring depth, and the in-situ friction angle. Three major failure mechanisms were considered, including the slope sliding failure of the levee, and the sliding and overturning failures of the retaining wall. When the variabilities of the in-situ friction angle and the scouring depth are considered for various flood return periods, the variations of the factor of safety (FS) for the different failure mechanisms show that the retaining wall sliding and overturning failures are more sensitive to the variability of the friction angle. When the flood return period is greater than 2 years, the levee can undergo slope sliding failure for all values of the water level difference. The results for levee stability analysis considering the variability of different parameters could assist engineers in designing the levee cross sections, especially with potential failure mechanisms in mind.

  14. Reliability of the Clinical Dementia Rating with a traumatic brain injury population: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Webber, Dana; Collins, Melina; DeFilippis, Nick; Hill, Fiona

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the inter-rater reliability (IRR) of the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) for patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). The CDR is a commonly used rating of impairment, but there has been no research examining its utility in patients with TBI. It was hypothesized that the CDR would have good IRR when used with patients with TBI. Two hundred and fifty U.S. neuropsychologists were randomly selected from the National Academy of Neuropsychology's membership list and were mailed packets of information (e.g., CDR, patient vignette, mental status, neuropsychological test information, and history). Professionals were asked to complete the CDR for the described patient and return the information. IRR was calculated for the Global CDR score and each of the six CDR domains. Of those packets mailed, 53 were returned and completed as instructed (21.2% response rate). Clinician experience varied from 0 to 31 years. Global CDR score IRR was 73.6%. Domain IRRs were as follows: Orientation, 79.2%; Home and Hobbies, 71.7%; Personal Care, 71.7%; Memory, 56.6%; Judgment and Problem Solving, 49.1%; and Community Affairs, 54.7%. Results suggest the CDR Global score has acceptable IRR (>.70). Overall concordance (W = .527) among raters was significant with moderate-to-strong agreement. Further research to improve the utility of this instrument is discussed. PMID:23398000

  15. Systematic study of cell isolation from bovine nucleus pulposus: Improving cell yield and experiment reliability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juliana T Y; Cheung, Kenneth M C; Leung, Victor Y L

    2015-12-01

    Differences in matrix compositions in human nucleus pulposus (NP) clinical samples demand different cell isolation protocols for optimal results but there is no clear guide about this to date. Sub-optimal protocols may result in low cell yield, limited reliability of results or even failure of experiments. Cell yield, viability and attachment of cells isolated from bovine NP tissue with different protocols were estimated by cell counting, Trypan blue staining and cell culturing respectively. RNA was extracted from isolated cells and quantified by Nanodrop spectrometry and RT-qPCR. Higher collagenase concentration, longer digestion duration and pronase pre-treatment increased the cell yield. Cell viability remained high (<5% dead cells) even after 0.2% collagenase treatment for overnight. NP cells remained to have high ACAN, COL2A1, CDH2, KRT18, and KRT19 expression compared to muscle cells for different cell isolation conditions tested. Digestion by collagenase alone without the use of pronase could isolate cells from human degenerated NP tissue but clusters of cells were observed. We suggest the use of the disappearance of tissue as an indirect measure of cells released. This study provides a guide for researchers to decide the parameters involved in NP cell isolation for optimal outcome. PMID:26036782

  16. Study for Process Reliability Modeling and Controlling Method of Space Product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao; Zhao, Changjian; Jia, Shengwei; Hong, Dongpao; Zhang, Xiaosai

    2016-07-01

    The inner collection between process reliability and stable process of space product is analysed, and the model of controlling-detecting process parameters is built by multiple linear regression technology. Then the extremum and mean value of multivariable controlling parameters' expected value, which meet the requirement of process detecting parameters' stability, are used to predict each mean response and new response, and also prediction ellipsoid and joint confidence intervals of detecting parameters are got. Furthermore, three optimization problems based on genetic algorithm, which focused on controlling parameters' fluctuation interval, are studied. Finally, space product ferrite phase shifter's coating is explained correctness of the method as a typical case. Thus, the significant guarantee is provided for improving space products' quality. Key words: process stability; multivariable linear model; predict; control 1)The original controlling range of detecting parameters[λ1a,λ2b] can be simplified as [a,b] , when k=λ1/λ2=1 , the best fluctuation interval of controlling parameters must be got on the symmetric interval for the linear process and weakly nonlinear process. 2)It can be inferred that controlling range of detecting parameters is asymmetric interval when k>1 and k<1 , the best fluctuation interval of controlling parameters must be got on the asymmetric interval for the nonlinear process. A. When the objective function is that 'the product of controlling parameters' fluctuation range is largest', the optimization model is...

  17. Interrater Reliability of the Postoperative Epidural Fibrosis Classification: A Histopathologic Study in the Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Jirarattanaphochai, Kitti; Sumananont, Chat; Wittayapairoj, Kriangkrai; Sukhonthamarn, Kamolsak

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Agreement study. Purpose To validate the interrater reliability of the histopathological classification of the post-laminectomy epidural fibrosis in an animal model. Overview of Literature Epidural fibrosis is a common cause of failed back surgery syndrome. Many animal experiments have been developed to investigate the prevention of epidural fibrosis. One of the common outcome measurements is the epidural fibrous adherence grading, but the classification has not yet been validated. Methods Five identical sets of histopathological digital files of L5-L6 laminectomized adult Sprague-Dawley rats, representing various degrees of postoperative epidural fibrous adherence were randomized and evaluated by five independent assessors masked to the study processes. Epidural fibrosis was rated as grade 0 (no fibrosis), grade 1 (thin fibrous band), grade 2 (continuous fibrous adherence for less than two-thirds of the laminectomy area), or grade 3 (large fibrotic tissue for more than two-thirds of the laminectomy area). A statistical analysis was performed. Results Four hundred slides were independently evaluated by each assessor. The percent agreement and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) between each pair of assessors varied from 73.5% to 81.3% and from 0.81 to 0.86, respectively. The overall ICC was 0.83 (95% confidence interval, 0.81-0.86). Conclusions The postoperative epidural fibrosis classification showed almost perfect agreement among the assessors. This classification can be used in research involving the histopathology of postoperative epidural fibrosis; for example, for the development of preventions of postoperative epidural fibrosis or treatment in an animal model. PMID:26240719

  18. Extended field of view ultrasound imaging to evaluate Achilles tendon length and thickness: a reliability and validity study

    PubMed Central

    Silbernagel, Karin Gravare; Shelley, Kristen; Powell, Stephen; Varrecchia, Shaun

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Achilles tendon structural changes are common after injury and correlate with recovery of function. Having simple, inexpensive, yet valid and reliable measures of Achilles tendon structure are useful both in research and clinical. The purpose of this study was to perform reliability and validity measures of extended field of view (EFOV) ultrasound (US) imaging of the Achilles tendon. Methods eight cadavers (16 tendons) were used for the validation study to compare Achilles tendon length measurements from US images with actual measured length from dissected tendons. Nine healthy subjects (18 tendons) were included in the test-retest evaluation. Results the correlation between the US images and cadaveric measurements was excellent (ICC=0.895) for the length between calcaneus and the gastrocnemius and good (ICC=0.744) for the length between the calcaneus and the soleus. The between-limb reliability was excellent (ICC 0.886–0.940) for the tendon length measurements with standard error of measurements (SEM) of 0.64 cm for calcaneus to soleus and 0.67 cm for calcaneus to gastrocnemius. Between-day test-retest reliability was also excellent (ICC=0.898–0.944). Conclusion this study supports the use of EFOV US imaging as a reliable and valid method to determine Achilles tendon length and thickness, and using the uninjured limb for comparison. PMID:27331037

  19. Reliability of reports of childhood trauma in bipolar disorder: A test-retest study over 18 months.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Ciaran; Hanna, Donncha; Tumelty, Leo; Waldron, Daniel; Maguire, Chrissie; Mowlds, William; Meenagh, Ciaran; Mulholland, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the reliability of self-reported trauma histories in a population with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Previous studies in other populations suggest high reliability of trauma histories over time, and it was postulated that a similar high reliability would be demonstrated in this population. A total of 39 patients with a confirmed diagnosis (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition, criteria) were followed up and readministered the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire after 18 months. Cohen's kappa scores and intraclass correlations suggested reasonable test-retest reliability over the 18-month time period of the study for all types of childhood abuse, namely, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse and physical and emotional neglect. Intraclass correlations ranged from r = .50 (sexual abuse) to r = .96 (physical abuse). Cohen's kappas ranged from .44 (sexual abuse) to .76 (physical abuse). Retrospective reports of childhood trauma can be seen as reliable and are in keeping with results found with other mental health populations. PMID:26835747

  20. An Examination of Coach and Player Relationships According to the Adapted LMX 7 Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caliskan, Gokhan

    2015-01-01

    The current study aims to test the reliability and validity of the Leader-Member Exchange (LMX 7) scale with regard to coach--player relationships in sports settings. A total of 330 professional soccer players from the Turkish Super League as well as from the First and Second Leagues participated in this study. Factor analyses were performed to…

  1. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  2. The Reliability of Evidence Contained in the National Qualifications Framework Impact Study: A Critical Reflection--Research Article

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgs, Philip; Keevy, James

    2007-01-01

    This article reflects on the reliability of the evidence contained in the National Qualifications Framework Impact Study, a longitudinal comparative study conducted by the South African Qualifications Authority since 2002. In so doing, the veracity of evidence-based research in determining the impact of the South African Qualifications Framework…

  3. The Development of the Functional Literacy Experience Scale Based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) and Validity-Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Özenç, Emine Gül; Dogan, M. Cihangir

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to perform a validity-reliability test by developing the Functional Literacy Experience Scale based upon Ecological Theory (FLESBUET) for primary education students. The study group includes 209 fifth grade students at Sabri Taskin Primary School in the Kartal District of Istanbul, Turkey during the 2010-2011 academic year.…

  4. Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia for Heart Turkish Version Study: cross-cultural adaptation, exploratory factor analysis, and reliability

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Serap; Savci, Sema; Keskinoğlu, Pembe; Akdeniz, Bahri; Özpelit, Ebru; Özcan Kahraman, Buse; Karadibak, Didem; Sevinc, Can

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Individuals with cardiac problems avoid physical activity and exercise because they expect to feel shortness of breath, dizziness, or chest pain. Assessing kinesiophobia related to heart problems is important in terms of cardiac rehabilitation. The Tampa Scale of Kinesiophobia Swedish Version for the Heart (TSK-SV Heart) is reliable and has been validated for cardiac diseases in the Swedish population. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, parallel-form validity, and exploratory factor analysis of the TSK for the Heart Turkish Version (TSK Heart Turkish Version) for evaluating kinesiophobia in patients with heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. Methods This cross-sectional study involved translation, back translation, and cross-cultural adaptation (localization). Forty-three pulmonary arterial hypertension and 32 heart failure patients were evaluated using the TSK Heart Turkish Version. The 17-item scale, originally composed for the Swedish population, has four factors: perceived danger for heart problem, avoidance of exercise, fear of injury, and dysfunctional self. Cronbach’s alpha (internal consistency) and exploratory factor analysis were used to assess the questionnaire’s reliability. Results of the patients in the 6-minute walk test, International Physical Activity Questionnaire, and Nottingham Health Profile were analyzed by Pearson’s correlation analysis with the TSK Heart Turkish Version to indicate the convergent validity. Results Cronbach’s alpha for the TSK Heart Turkish Version was 0.75, indicating acceptable internal consistency. Although exploratory factor analysis showed a different subgroup distribution than the original questionnaire, the model was acceptable for the four-factor model hypothesis. Therefore, the questionnaire was rated as reliable. Conclusion These results supported the reliability of the TSK Heart Turkish Version. Since the acceptable four-factor model fits the subgroups and

  5. The spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds modulates bimodal audiovisual integration: An event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Yu, Hongtao; Wu, Yan; Gao, Ning

    2016-08-26

    The integration of multiple sensory inputs is essential for perception of the external world. The spatial factor is a fundamental property of multisensory audiovisual integration. Previous studies of the spatial constraints on bimodal audiovisual integration have mainly focused on the spatial congruity of audiovisual information. However, the effect of spatial reliability within audiovisual information on bimodal audiovisual integration remains unclear. In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the effect of spatial reliability of task-irrelevant sounds on audiovisual integration. Three relevant ERP components emerged: the first at 140-200ms over a wide central area, the second at 280-320ms over the fronto-central area, and a third at 380-440ms over the parieto-occipital area. Our results demonstrate that ERP amplitudes elicited by audiovisual stimuli with reliable spatial relationships are larger than those elicited by stimuli with inconsistent spatial relationships. In addition, we hypothesized that spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus enhances feedback projections to the primary visual cortex from multisensory integration regions. Overall, our findings suggest that the spatial linking of visual and auditory information depends on spatial reliability within an audiovisual stimulus and occurs at a relatively late stage of processing. PMID:27392755

  6. The revised Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale: a validity and reliability study.

    PubMed

    Hale, W D; Fiedler, L R; Cochran, C D

    1992-07-01

    The Generalized Expectancy for Success Scale (GESS; Fibel & Hale, 1978) was revised and assessed for reliability and validity. The revised version was administered to 199 college students along with other conceptually related measures, including the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Life Orientation Test, and Rotter's Internal-External Locus of Control Scale. One subsample of students also completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory, while another subsample performed a criterion-related task that involved risk taking. Item analysis yielded 25 items with correlations of .45 or higher with the total score. Results indicated high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. PMID:1517446

  7. On the Statistical Reliability of Seismic Waveform Tomography - a Crosshole Case Study in Anisotropic Crystalline Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greig, D. W.; Pratt, R. G.

    2013-12-01

    We study a crosshole seismic survey from the Voisey's Bay area in Newfoundland using traveltime tomography and waveform tomography, and we develop images of the seismic velocity of the subsurface. Our waveform tomography method incorporates one-dimensional elliptical anisotropy; anisotropic traveltime tomography is used to generate a starting model for both the velocity and the anisotropy according to the technique developed by Pratt and Chapman (1992). This approach allows us to largely satisfy the half-cycle criterion for waveform tomography, though there is some evidence of cycle-skipping at large offsets. The waveform data are separated into five full-coverage subsets, creating five complete, independent data sets for the same region. Waveform tomography is then performed using frequencies from 300 to 1400 Hz on each of the five data sets, resulting in five independent velocity models of the subsurface. The five models are averaged to generate a single representative model of the subsurface and an image of the population standard deviation is calculated to provide a measure of the variance of the five models. The population standard deviation between the models is in the range of about 100 m/s over most of the target zone. Areas of higher variance tend to suggest artifacts of the inversion. Areas of lower variance are regions in which we have greater confidence in the result. In this way the averaging of the five independent realizations acted as a filter, picking out those velocity features that are present in all models and smoothing out those found in only one or two. The introduction of the standard deviation as a tool to evaluate the results of waveform tomography provides valuable information on the reliability of the waveform tomography approach. Survey design for redundant full coverage will prove useful in future surveys.

  8. Is unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) a reliable model to study depression-induced neuroinflammation?

    PubMed

    Farooq, Rai Khalid; Isingrini, Elsa; Tanti, Arnaud; Le Guisquet, Anne-Marie; Arlicot, Nicolas; Minier, Frederic; Leman, Samuel; Chalon, Sylvie; Belzung, Catherine; Camus, Vincent

    2012-05-16

    Unipolar depression is one of the leading causes of disability. The pathophysiology of depression is poorly understood. Evidence suggests that inflammation is associated with depression. For instance, pro-inflammatory cytokines are found to be elevated in the peripheral blood of depressed subjects. Cytokine immunotherapy itself is known to induce depressive symptoms. While the epidemiological and biochemical relationship between inflammation and depression is strong, little is known about the possible existence of neuroinflammation in depression. The use of animal models of depression such as the Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS) has already contributed to the elucidation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of depression such as decreased neurogenesis and HPA axis alterations. We used this model to explore the association of depressive-like behavior in mice with changes in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, TNFα and IL-6 level as well as the neuroinflammation by quantifying CD11b expression in brain areas known to be involved in the pathophysiology of depression. These areas include the cerebral cortex, the nucleus accumbens, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, the caudate putamen, the amygdala and the hippocampus. The results indicate that microglial activation is significantly increased in the infralimbic, cingulate and medial orbital cortices, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, amygdala and hippocampus of the mouse brain as a function of UCMS, while levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines did not differ among the groups. This finding suggests that neuroinflammation occurs in depression and may be implicated in the subject's behavioral response. They also suggest that UCMS could be a potentially reliable model to study depression-induced neuroinflammation. PMID:22465167

  9. Search for reliable precursors: A case study of the seismic quiescence of the 2000 western Tottori prefecture earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2006-04-01

    How to search for reliable precursors is one of the key problems of the study on earthquake forecast. In this paper a method is presented to judge whether or not a precursor is reliable. Before a potential anomaly can be nominated as a reliable precursor, it should pass or be proved by the following tests or analyses: whether or not it is an artificial anomaly, whether or not it correlates with an investigated event, whether or not it is a random anomaly. As a case study, I have investigated the reliability of seismic quiescence for an M = 7.3 earthquake, which occurred in the western region of Tottori prefecture, Japan, on 6 October 2000. The earthquake data (1975-2000) of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) were used in this study. After analyzing the completeness of the catalog and removing aftershocks, a statistical method, which is called the RTL (region-time-length) algorithm and takes into account the information of magnitude, occurrence time and location of earthquakes, was applied to the above preprocessed earthquake data. A clear seismic quiescence anomaly was detected before the 2000 western Tottori prefecture earthquake. Close investigation indicated that the above anomaly is not due to artifacts of the selections of model parameters. After quantifying the anomaly and making statistical analysis over the whole investigated spatiotemporal domain, reasonable correlation between the above anomaly and the main shock in 2000 was recognized. The stochastic test using synthetic randomized catalogs showed the above anomaly is unlikely due to chance. Thus the above seismic quiescence anomaly before the 2000 main shock should be a significant and reliable precursor and the research method revealed in this study can enhance the reliability of precursors.

  10. Reliability and norms for the 10-item self-motivation inventory: The TIGER Study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Self-Motivation Inventory (SMI) has been shown to be a predictor of exercise dropout. The original SMI of 40 items has been shortened to 10 items and the psychometric qualities of the 10-item SMI are not known. To estimate the reliability of a 10-item SMI and develop norms for an ethnically dive...

  11. Educational Management Organizations as High Reliability Organizations: A Study of Victory's Philadelphia High School Reform Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David E.

    2013-01-01

    This executive position paper proposes recommendations for designing reform models between public and private sectors dedicated to improving school reform work in low performing urban high schools. It reviews scholarly research about for-profit educational management organizations, high reliability organizations, American high school reform, and…

  12. Estimating the Reliability of Single-Item Life Satisfaction Measures: Results from Four National Panel Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Richard E.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Life satisfaction is often assessed using single-item measures. However, estimating the reliability of these measures can be difficult because internal consistency coefficients cannot be calculated. Existing approaches use longitudinal data to isolate occasion-specific variance from variance that is either completely stable or variance that…

  13. A Laboratory Study on the Reliability Estimations of the Mini-CEX

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Lima, Alberto Alves; Conde, Diego; Costabel, Juan; Corso, Juan; Van der Vleuten, Cees

    2013-01-01

    Reliability estimations of workplace-based assessments with the mini-CEX are typically based on real-life data. Estimations are based on the assumption of local independence: the object of the measurement should not be influenced by the measurement itself and samples should be completely independent. This is difficult to achieve. Furthermore, the…

  14. Lifelong Learning Competence Scale (LLLCS): The Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uzunboylu, Huseyin; Hursen, Cigdem

    2011-01-01

    In this research our aim is to develop a scale for lifelong learning competences and investigate the validity and the reliability of the structure of the scale. The participants of this research are 300 secondary school teachers who are randomly selected. The findings on the scale's validity of the structure are computed by the method of factor…

  15. Assessing Academic Advising Outcomes Using Social Cognitive Theory: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlich, Richard J.; Russ-Eft, Darlene F.

    2012-01-01

    The validity and reliability of three instruments, the "Counselor Rubric for Gauging Student Understanding of Academic Planning," micro-analytic questions, and the "Student Survey for Understanding Academic Planning," all based on social cognitive theory, were tested as means to assess self-efficacy and self-regulated learning in college academic…

  16. Space Shuttle Rudder Speed Brake Actuator-A Case Study Probabilistic Fatigue Life and Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Savage, Michael; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Space Shuttle fleet was originally intended to have a life of 100 flights for each vehicle, lasting over a 10-year period, with minimal scheduled maintenance or inspection. The first space shuttle flight was that of the Space Shuttle Columbia (OV-102), launched April 12, 1981. The disaster that destroyed Columbia occurred on its 28th flight, February 1, 2003, nearly 22 years after its first launch. In order to minimize risk of losing another Space Shuttle, a probabilistic life and reliability analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle rudder/speed brake actuators to determine the number of flights the actuators could sustain. A life and reliability assessment of the actuator gears was performed in two stages: a contact stress fatigue model and a gear tooth bending fatigue model. For the contact stress analysis, the Lundberg-Palmgren bearing life theory was expanded to include gear-surface pitting for the actuator as a system. The mission spectrum of the Space Shuttle rudder/speed brake actuator was combined into equivalent effective hinge moment loads including an actuator input preload for the contact stress fatigue and tooth bending fatigue models. Gear system reliabilities are reported for both models and their combination. Reliability of the actuator bearings was analyzed separately, based on data provided by the actuator manufacturer. As a result of the analysis, the reliability of one half of a single actuator was calculated to be 98.6 percent for 12 flights. Accordingly, each actuator was subsequently limited to 12 flights before removal from service in the Space Shuttle.

  17. Universal Screening for Social-Emotional Competencies: A Study of the Reliability and Validity of the DESSA-Mini

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naglieri, Jack A.; LeBuffe, Paul; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability of the eight-item Devereux Student Strengths Assessment (DESSA)-mini and its validity in relation to the 72-item version DESSA. The sample included teacher ratings for 1,234 children in kindergarten through eighth grade who comprised the standardization sample. The median alpha reliability…

  18. Factor Validity and Reliability of the Self-Esteem Index: Finding Inconsistencies between Normative and Field Study Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Larry G.; King, Debra A.

    This study offers field estimates of the factor validity and internal consistency reliability of the Self-Esteem Index (SEI) using SEI data from 208 regular and special education students in grades 3, 4, and 5. Exploratory factor analytic results support the existence of four factors as anticipated; however, various inconsistencies are noted…

  19. The Six-Minute Walk Test for Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasuti, Gabriella; Stuart-Hill, Lynneth; Temple, Viviene A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT) has been used with clinical and healthy populations to assess functional capacity and cardiovascular fitness. The aim of this study was to determine the test-retest reliability of a modified-6MWT as well as concurrent validity of walk distance with peak oxygen uptake (VO[subscript 2] peak). Method:…

  20. Assessing the Measurement Properties of the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale: A Meta-Analysis of Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallinger, Phillip; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Chia-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Background: In a recent article, Hallinger (2011b) reviewed 135 empirical studies that had employed the Principal Instructional Management Rating Scale (PIMRS) over the prior three decades. The author concluded that the PIMRS appeared to have attained a consistent record of yielding reliable and valid data on principal instructional leadership.…

  1. A Validation Study of the Dutch Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form: Factor Structure, Reliability, and Known-Groups Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thombs, Brett D.; Bernstein, David P.; Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) has been translated into at least 10 different languages. The validity of translated versions of the CTQ-SF, however, has generally not been examined. The objective of this study was to investigate the factor structure, internal consistency reliability, and known-groups…

  2. Study of the Reliability of CCSS-Aligned Math Measures (2012 Research Version): Grades 6-8. Technical Report #1312

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Daniel; Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    In this technical report, we describe the results of a study of mathematics items written to align with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in grades 6-8. In each grade, CCSS items were organized into forms, and the reliability of these forms was evaluated along with an experimental form including items aligned with the National Council of…

  3. Reliability of new software in measuring cervical multifidus diameters and shoulder muscle strength in a synchronized way; an ultrasonographic study

    PubMed Central

    Rahnama, Leila; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Khalkhali-Zavieh, Minoo; Rahnama, Behnam; Noori-Kochi, Farhang

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the inter-session reliability of new software to measure the diameters of the cervical multifidus muscle (CMM), both at rest and during isometric contractions of the shoulder abductors in subjects with neck pain and in healthy individuals. METHOD: In the present study, the reliability of measuring the diameters of the CMM with the Sonosynch software was evaluated by using 24 participants, including 12 subjects with chronic neck pain and 12 healthy individuals. The anterior-posterior diameter (APD) and the lateral diameter (LD) of the CMM were measured in a resting state and then repeated during isometric contraction of the shoulder abductors. Measurements were taken on separate occasions 3 to 7 days apart in order to determine inter-session reliability. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), standard error of measurement (SEM), and smallest detectable difference (SDD) were used to evaluate the relative and absolute reliability, respectively. RESULTS: The Sonosynch software has shown to be highly reliable in measuring the diameters of the CMM both in healthy subjects and in those with neck pain. The ICCs 95% CI for APD ranged from 0.84 to 0.94 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.86 to 0.94 in healthy subjects. For LD, the ICC 95% CI ranged from 0.64 to 0.95 in subjects with neck pain and from 0.82 to 0.92 in healthy subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasonographic measurement of the diameters of the CMM using Sonosynch has proved to be reliable especially for APD in healthy subjects as well as subjects with neck pain. PMID:26443975

  4. Health measurement using the ICF: Test-retest reliability study of ICF codes and qualifiers in geriatric care

    PubMed Central

    Okochi, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Sakiko; Takahashi, Tai

    2005-01-01

    Background The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was published by the World Health Organization (WHO) to standardize descriptions of health and disability. Little is known about the reliability and clinical relevance of measurements using the ICF and its qualifiers. This study examines the test-retest reliability of ICF codes, and the rate of immeasurability in long-term care settings of the elderly to evaluate the clinical applicability of the ICF and its qualifiers, and the ICF checklist. Methods Reliability of 85 body function (BF) items and 152 activity and participation (AP) items of the ICF was studied using a test-retest procedure with a sample of 742 elderly persons from 59 institutional and at home care service centers. Test-retest reliability was estimated using the weighted kappa statistic. The clinical relevance of the ICF was estimated by calculating immeasurability rate. The effect of the measurement settings and evaluators' experience was analyzed by stratification of these variables. The properties of each item were evaluated using both the kappa statistic and immeasurability rate to assess the clinical applicability of WHO's ICF checklist in the elderly care setting. Results The median of the weighted kappa statistics of 85 BF and 152 AP items were 0.46 and 0.55 respectively. The reproducibility statistics improved when the measurements were performed by experienced evaluators. Some chapters such as genitourinary and reproductive functions in the BF domain and major life area in the AP domain contained more items with lower test-retest reliability measures and rated as immeasurable than in the other chapters. Some items in the ICF checklist were rated as unreliable and immeasurable. Conclusion The reliability of the ICF codes when measured with the current ICF qualifiers is relatively low. The result in increase in reliability according to evaluators' experience suggests proper education will have positive

  5. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: factor validity and reliability in a French sample of adolescents with Intellectual Disability.

    PubMed

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Bégarie, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were involved in two studies. In study 1, the content, phrasing and answering format of the CES-D were adapted for adolescents with ID. This instrument was renamed CES-D for ID (CES-D-ID) and two different versions based on two alternative answer scales (Likert and Likert-graphical) were developed and their psychometric properties were verified in study 2. The results provided support for the factor validity, reliability and invariance across gender and age of a 14-item version of the CES-D-ID based on a Likert-graphical answer scale. PMID:21530161

  6. Analysis of Shuttle Orbiter Reliability and Maintainability Data for Conceptual Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, W. D.; White, N. H.; Ebeling, C. E.

    1996-01-01

    In order to provide a basis for estimating the expected support required of new systems during their conceptual design phase, Langley Research Center has recently collected Shuttle Orbiter reliability and maintainability data from the various data base sources at Kennedy Space Center. This information was analyzed to provide benchmarks, trends, and distributions to aid in the analysis of new designs. This paper presents a summation of those results and an initial interpretation of the findings.

  7. Inter- and intraobserver reliability of the MTM-classification for proximal humeral fractures: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bahrs, Christian; Schmal, Hagen; Lingenfelter, Erich; Rolauffs, Bernd; Weise, Kuno; Dietz, Klaus; Helwig, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Background A precise modular topographic-morphological (MTM) classification for proximal humeral fractures may address current classification problems. The classification was developed to evaluate whether a very detailed classification exceeding the analysis of fractured parts may be a valuable tool. Methods Three observers classified plain radiographs of 22 fractures using both a simple version (fracture displacement, number of parts) and an extensive version (individual topographic fracture type and morphology) of the MTM classification. Kappa-statistics were used to determine reliability. Results An acceptable reliability was found for the simple version classifying fracture displacement and fractured main parts. Fair interobserver agreement was found for the extensive version with individual topographic fracture type and morphology. Conclusion Although the MTM-classification covers a wide spectrum of fracture types, our results indicate that the precise topographic and morphological description is not delivering reproducible results. Therefore, simplicity in fracture classification may be more useful than extensive approaches, which are not adequately reliable to address current classification problems. PMID:18279527

  8. Failure Analysis Study and Long-Term Reliability of Optical Assemblies with End-Face Damage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kichak, Robert A.; Ott, Melanie N.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Chuska, Richard F.; Greenwell, Christopher J.

    2008-01-01

    In June 2005, the NESC received a multi-faceted request to determine the long term reliability of fiber optic termini on the ISS that exhibited flaws not manufactured to best workmanship practices. There was a lack of data related to fiber optic workmanship as it affects the long term reliability of optical fiber assemblies in a harsh environment. A fiber optic defect analysis was requested which would find and/or create various types of chips, spalls, scratches, etc., that were identified by the ISS personnel. Once the defects and causes were identified the next step would be to perform long term reliability testing of similar assemblies with similar defects. The goal of the defect analysis would be for the defects to be observed and documented for deterioration of fiber optic performance. Though this report mostly discusses what has been determined as evidence of poor manufacturing processes, it also concludes the majority of the damage could have been avoided with a rigorous process in place.

  9. A case study of reliability ensemble averaging for terrestrial biosphere simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwalm, C. R.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Fisher, J. B.; Liu, J.; Bowman, K. W.; Block, G.; Sikka, M.

    2013-12-01

    Reliability ensemble averaging (REA) is a procedure used to derive a multi-model mean that is not based on 'one model - one vote'. Instead, REA is based on confronting each member of the ensemble with defined references to gauge model skill. These skill values are then transformed to weights or reliability factors. Here we apply REA to a 10-model ensemble to generate a net ecosystem exchange (NEE) prior for NASA's Carbon Monitoring System. The ensemble is taken from the Multi-Scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP), an excellent opportunity to derive and apply weighting procedures to terrestrial biosphere models (TBMs) due to its constrained protocol. All models use a standardized driver data suite and spinup conditions; only model structure is allowed to vary such that the weights are not confounded by other factors. We find there are few land grid cells (<1%) where 'one model - one vote' is appropriate. Reliability factors vary widely and display spatial relationships across models; some of these appear random whereas others correspond to ecoregions and ecotones. There is less change in weights through time; models are more consistent in time than space. Despite this clear departure from 'one model - one vote' global aggregates of the weighted NEE prior are in close agreement with the unweighted version.

  10. The reliability of in-home measures of height and weight in large cohort studies: Evidence from Add Health

    PubMed Central

    Hussey, Jon M.; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Whitsel, Eric A.; Richardson, Liana J.; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Tabor, Joyce W.; Entzel, Pamela P.; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2015-01-01

    Background With the emergence of obesity as a global health issue an increasing number of major demographic surveys are collecting measured anthropometric data. Yet little is known about the characteristics and reliability of these data. Objectives We evaluate the accuracy and reliability of anthropometric data collected in the home during Wave IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), compare our estimates to national standard, clinic-based estimates from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and, using both sources, provide a detailed anthropometric description of young adults in the United States. Methods The reliability of Add Health in-home anthropometric measures was estimated from repeat examinations of a random subsample of study participants. A digit preference analysis evaluated the quality of anthropometric data recorded by field interviewers. The adjusted odds of obesity and central obesity in Add Health vs. NHANES were estimated with logistic regression. Results Short-term reliabilities of in-home measures of height, weight, waist and arm circumference—as well as derived body mass index (BMI, kg/m2)—were excellent. Prevalence of obesity (37% vs. 29%) and central obesity (47% vs. 38%) was higher in Add Health than in NHANES while socio-demographic patterns of obesity and central obesity were comparable in the two studies. Conclusions Properly trained non-medical field interviewers can collect reliable anthropometric data in a nationwide, home visit study. This national cohort of young adults in the United States faces a high risk of early-onset chronic disease and premature mortality. PMID:26146486

  11. Inter-pulse Interval Affects the Size of Single-pulse TMS-induced Motor Evoked Potentials: A Reliability Study

    PubMed Central

    Vaseghi, Bita; Zoghi, Maryam; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Measuring the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) induced by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is an investigational technique to show the level of corticospinal excitability; however, some of the fundamental methodological aspects of TMS (such as the effects of inter-pulse intervals (IPI) on MEP size) are not fully understood, this issue raises concerns about the reliability of MEPs, especially in pre-test post-test studies. Methods: MEP size at short and long IPIs was assessed during two separate sessions. Inter- and intra-session reliability of MEP size also was assessed at both short and long IPIs. Results: The results indicated that long IPIs induced larger MEPs (P< 0.05) across all time points. The intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) indicated high intra- and inter-session reliability for short (0.87 to 0.96) and long (0.80 to 0.97) IPIs respectively. The amplitude of MEPs also had high intersession reliability for short (ICC=0.87) and long (ICC = 0.80) IPIs. Discussion: This study provides evidence that the length of IPIs determines the size of MEPs. As a result, it is recommended to add the length of IPI to the international checklist of considerations for TMS application.

  12. Test effectiveness study report: An analytical study of system test effectiveness and reliability growth of three commercial spacecraft programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldstein, J. F.

    1977-01-01

    Failure data from 16 commercial spacecraft were analyzed to evaluate failure trends, reliability growth, and effectiveness of tests. It was shown that the test programs were highly effective in ensuring a high level of in-orbit reliability. There was only a single catastrophic problem in 44 years of in-orbit operation on 12 spacecraft. The results also indicate that in-orbit failure rates are highly correlated with unit and systems test failure rates. The data suggest that test effectiveness estimates can be used to guide the content of a test program to ensure that in-orbit reliability goals are achieved.

  13. MAOD Determined in a Single Supramaximal Test: a Study on the Reliability and Effects of Supramaximal Intensities.

    PubMed

    Zagatto, A M; Bertuzzi, R; Miyagi, W E; Padulo, J; Papoti, M

    2016-08-01

    The main barrier to the wide use of maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) is the considerable time required to apply several sub- and supra-maximal exercise sessions. The main question of this study was whether the determination of MAOD using a single supramaximal exercise session (MAODALT) is valid and reliable in running. We investigated the effects of the supramaximal exercise intensity (A) and the reliability of a single supramaximal exercise session (B) to assess MAOD in treadmill running. For this aim 29 subjects participated in A & B studies with single allocation "A" (n=15) and "B" (n=14). The conventional MAOD and 8 MAODALT were determined in exhaustive efforts varying between 100-150% at an intensity associated with maximal oxygen uptake (i+V˙O2MAX). In B study 2 supramaximal efforts were applied to analyze the test-retest reliability. Non-significant differences were found between MAOD and the 8 values of MAODALT. Despite the MAOD being statistically correlated with the MAODALT 100% i+V˙O2MAX (0.490.59), MAODALT determined at 115% of i+V˙O2MAX (52.4±1.7 mL·kg(-1)) presented the higher correlation values (0.650.77) and concordance. In addition, the MAOD at 115% of i+V˙O2MAX presented high test-retest reliability. MAODALT determined at 115% of i+V˙O2MAX was a valid and reliable method to assess MAOD in running. PMID:27176893

  14. Assessing Households Preparedness for Earthquakes: An Exploratory Study in the Development of a Valid and Reliable Persian-version Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ardalan, Ali; Sohrabizadeh, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Iran is placed among countries suffering from the highest number of earthquake casualties. Household preparedness, as one component of risk reduction efforts, is often supported in quake-prone areas. In Iran, lack of a valid and reliable household preparedness tool was reported by previous disaster studies. This study is aimed to fill this gap by developing a valid and reliable tool for assessing household preparedness in the event of an earthquake. Methods: This survey was conducted through three phases including literature review and focus group discussions with the participation of eight key informants, validity measurements and reliability measurements. Field investigation was completed with the participation of 450 households within three provinces of Iran. Content validity, construct validity, the use of factor analysis; internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha coefficient, and test-retest reliability were carried out to develop the tool. Results: Based on the CVIs, ranging from 0.80 to 0.100, and exploratory factor analysis with factor loading of more than 0.5, all items were valid. The amount of Cronbach's alpha (0.7) and test-retest examination by Spearman correlations indicated that the scale was also reliable. The final instrument consisted of six categories and 18 questions including actions at the time of earthquakes, nonstructural safety, structural safety, hazard map, communications, drill, and safety skills. Conclusion: Using a Persian-version tool that is adjusted to the socio-cultural determinants and native language may result in more trustful information on earthquake preparedness. It is suggested that disaster managers and researchers apply this tool in their future household preparedness projects. Further research is needed to make effective policies and plans for transforming preparedness knowledge into behavior. PMID:26981326

  15. Reliability analysis using an exponential power model with bathtub-shaped failure rate function: a Bayes study.

    PubMed

    Shehla, Romana; Khan, Athar Ali

    2016-01-01

    Models with bathtub-shaped hazard function have been widely accepted in the field of reliability and medicine and are particularly useful in reliability related decision making and cost analysis. In this paper, the exponential power model capable of assuming increasing as well as bathtub-shape, is studied. This article makes a Bayesian study of the same model and simultaneously shows how posterior simulations based on Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms can be straightforward and routine in R. The study is carried out for complete as well as censored data, under the assumption of weakly-informative priors for the parameters. In addition to this, inference interest focuses on the posterior distribution of non-linear functions of the parameters. Also, the model has been extended to include continuous explanatory variables and R-codes are well illustrated. Two real data sets are considered for illustrative purposes. PMID:27462524

  16. Network challenges for cyber physical systems with tiny wireless devices: a case study on reliable pipeline condition monitoring.

    PubMed

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Khan, Muhammad Farhan; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-01-01

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed. PMID:25815444

  17. Network Challenges for Cyber Physical Systems with Tiny Wireless Devices: A Case Study on Reliable Pipeline Condition Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Salman; Qaisar, Saad Bin; Saeed, Husnain; Farhan Khan, Muhammad; Naeem, Muhammad; Anpalagan, Alagan

    2015-01-01

    The synergy of computational and physical network components leading to the Internet of Things, Data and Services has been made feasible by the use of Cyber Physical Systems (CPSs). CPS engineering promises to impact system condition monitoring for a diverse range of fields from healthcare, manufacturing, and transportation to aerospace and warfare. CPS for environment monitoring applications completely transforms human-to-human, human-to-machine and machine-to-machine interactions with the use of Internet Cloud. A recent trend is to gain assistance from mergers between virtual networking and physical actuation to reliably perform all conventional and complex sensing and communication tasks. Oil and gas pipeline monitoring provides a novel example of the benefits of CPS, providing a reliable remote monitoring platform to leverage environment, strategic and economic benefits. In this paper, we evaluate the applications and technical requirements for seamlessly integrating CPS with sensor network plane from a reliability perspective and review the strategies for communicating information between remote monitoring sites and the widely deployed sensor nodes. Related challenges and issues in network architecture design and relevant protocols are also provided with classification. This is supported by a case study on implementing reliable monitoring of oil and gas pipeline installations. Network parameters like node-discovery, node-mobility, data security, link connectivity, data aggregation, information knowledge discovery and quality of service provisioning have been reviewed. PMID:25815444

  18. MRI Measurements of Carotid Plaque in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study: Methods, Reliability and Descriptive Statistics

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Bruce A.; Astor, Brad C.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Swingen, Cory; Catellier, Diane

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To measure carotid plaque components using MRI and estimate reliability in the population-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Materials and Methods Contrast-enhanced high-resolution (0.51 × 0.58 × 2 mm3) MRI images were acquired through internal (ICA) and common carotid arteries (CCA) of 2066 ARIC participants at four sites. Sixty-one exams were repeated and 164 pairs had repeated interpretations. Plaque component thicknesses, areas and volumes over eight slices (1.6-cm segment) were measured. Intraplaque hemorrhage was recorded. Reliability was evaluated by intraclass correlations and κ statistics. Results There were 1769 successful MRI exams (mean age 71 years; 57% females; 81% white; 19% African-Americans). Repeat scan reliability was highest for CCA lumen area (0.94) and maximum wall thickness (0.89), ICA lumen area (0.89) and maximum wall thickness (0.77) and total wall volume (0.79), and lowest for small structures—core volume (0.30) and mean cap thickness (0.38). Overall reliability was primarily related to reader variability rather than scan acquisition. K’s for presence of core, calcification and hemorrhage were fair to good. White men had the thickest plaques (average maximum ICA wall thickness = 2.3 mm) and the most cores (34%). Conclusion The most important limiting factor for MRI measurements of plaque components is reader variability. Measurement error depends largely on the analyzed structure’s size. PMID:20099354

  19. Reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire in a sample of European adolescents - the HELENA study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Since stress is hypothesized to play a role in the etiology of obesity during adolescence, research on associations between adolescent stress and obesity-related parameters and behaviours is essential. Due to lack of a well-established recent stress checklist for use in European adolescents, the study investigated the reliability and validity of the Adolescent Stress Questionnaire (ASQ) for assessing perceived stress in European adolescents. Methods The ASQ was translated into the languages of the participating cities (Ghent, Stockholm, Vienna, Zaragoza, Pecs and Athens) and was implemented within the HELENA cross-sectional study. A total of 1140 European adolescents provided a valid ASQ, comprising 10 component scales, used for internal reliability (Cronbach α) and construct validity (confirmatory factor analysis or CFA). Contributions of socio-demographic (gender, age, pubertal stage, socio-economic status) characteristics to the ASQ score variances were investigated. Two-hundred adolescents also provided valid saliva samples for cortisol analysis to compare with the ASQ scores (criterion validity). Test-retest reliability was investigated using two ASQ assessments from 37 adolescents. Results Cronbach α-values of the ASQ scales (0.57 to 0.88) demonstrated a moderate internal reliability of the ASQ, and intraclass correlation coefficients (0.45 to 0.84) established an insufficient test-retest reliability of the ASQ. The adolescents' gender (girls had higher stress scores than boys) and pubertal stage (those in a post-pubertal development had higher stress scores than others) significantly contributed to the variance in ASQ scores, while their age and socio-economic status did not. CFA results showed that the original scale construct fitted moderately with the data in our European adolescent population. Only in boys, four out of 10 ASQ scale scores were a significant positive predictor for baseline wake-up salivary cortisol, suggesting a rather poor

  20. Chip-on-Board Technology 1996 Year-end Report (Design, Manufacturing, and Reliability Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Le, Binh Q.; Nhan, Elbert; Maurer, Richard H.; Lew, Ark L.; Lander, Juan R.

    1996-01-01

    The major impetus for flight qualifying Chip-On-Board (COB) packaging technology is the shift in emphasis for space missions to smaller, better, and cheaper spacecraft and satellites resulting from the NASA New Millenium initiative and similar requirements in DoD-sponsored programs. The most important benefit that can potentially be derived from miniaturizing spacecraft and satellites is the significant cost saving realizable if a smaller launch vehicle may be employed. Besides the program cost saving, there are several other advantages to building COB-based space hardware. First, once a well-controlled process is established, COB can be low cost compared to standard Multi-Chip Module (MCM) technology. This cost competitiveness is regarded as a result of the generally greater availability and lower cost of Known Good Die (KGD). Coupled with the elimination of the first level of packaging (chip package), compact, high-density circuit boards can be realized with Printed Wiring Boards (PWB) that can now be made with ever-decreasing feature size in line width and via hole. Since the COB packaging technique in this study is based mainly on populating bare dice on a suitable multi-layer laminate substrate which is not hermetically sealed, die coating for protection from the environment is required. In recent years, significant improvements have been made in die coating materials which further enhance the appeal of COB. Hysol epoxies, silicone, parylene and silicon nitride are desirable because of their compatible Thermal Coefficient of Expansion (TCE) and good moisture resistant capability. These die coating materials have all been used in the space and other industries with varying degrees of success. COB technology, specifically siliconnitride coated hardware, has been flown by Lockheed on the Polar satellite. In addition, DARPA has invested a substantial amount of resources on MCM and COB-related activities recently. With COB on the verge of becoming a dominant player

  1. Reliability study of a MEMS array under varying temperature and humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, Ganapathy; Ranganathan, Ranjith; Gale, Richard; Dallas, Tim

    2010-02-01

    In this work, we quantify and analyze the rate of accrual of stiction and mechanical fatigue in a MEMS micro-mirror device to understand its reliability under a set of controlled temperature and humidity splits. An accelerated aging system was employed by using a non-standard actuation procedure to more rapidly induce failure of the micro-mirrors. The array is hermetically packaged with a low surface energy self-assembled-monolayer (SAM) based anti-stiction coating, along with an encapsulated source of this anti-stiction coating that serves as a reservoir. Exposure of the micro-mirror array to the environmental conditions was made possible by drilling two 1 mm holes in the hermetic package. This enabled the retention of the encapsulated SAM source in the package which was vital to understanding the effects of SAM re-deposition on the surface in the operating environment. The fastest accrual of stiction was seen in the 90°C, 80% RH split with approximately 80% of the micro-mirrors failing within 4.4 × 109 cycles (10 hours) with 2.7×10-14 Joules of Stiction Equivalent Energy while the 60°C, 20% RH showed the least stiction accrual rate with less than 2% failure for 2.26×1012 cycles (1500 hours). The failure data obtained from the experiments were used to do a reliability analysis by utilizing the Weibull distribution.

  2. Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability test (CKCUES test): a reliability study in persons with and without shoulder impingement syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The Close Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUES test) is a low cost shoulder functional test that could be considered as a complementary and objective clinical outcome for shoulder performance evaluation. However, its reliability was tested only in recreational athletes’ males and there are no studies comparing scores between sedentary and active samples. The purpose was to examine inter and intrasession reliability of CKCUES Test for samples of sedentary male and female with (SIS), for samples of sedentary healthy male and female, and for male and female samples of healthy upper extremity sport specific recreational athletes. Other purpose was to compare scores within sedentary and within recreational athletes samples of same gender. Methods A sample of 108 subjects with and without SIS was recruited. Subjects were tested twice, seven days apart. Each subject performed four test repetitions, with 45 seconds of rest between them. The last three repetitions were averaged and used to statistical analysis. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient ICC2,1 was used to assess intrasession reliability of number of touches score and ICC2,3 was used to assess intersession reliability of number of touches, normalized score, and power score. Test scores within groups of same gender also were compared. Measurement error was determined by calculating the Standard Error of the Measurement (SEM) and Minimum detectable change (MDC) for all scores. Results The CKCUES Test showed excellent intersession reliability for scores in all samples. Results also showed excellent intrasession reliability of number of touches for all samples. Scores were greater in active compared to sedentary, with exception of power score. All scores were greater in active compared to sedentary and SIS males and females. SEM ranged from 1.45 to 2.76 touches (based on a 95% CI) and MDC ranged from 2.05 to 3.91(based on a 95% CI) in subjects with and without SIS. At least three touches

  3. Reliability of accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary behavior in school-aged children: a 12-country study

    PubMed Central

    Barreira, T V; Schuna, J M; Tudor-Locke, C; Chaput, J-P; Church, T S; Fogelholm, M; Hu, G; Kuriyan, R; Kurpad, A; Lambert, E V; Maher, C; Maia, J; Matsudo, V; Olds, T; Onywera, V; Sarmiento, O L; Standage, M; Tremblay, M S; Zhao, P; Katzmarzyk, P T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Focused on the accelerometer-determined physical activity and sedentary time metrics in 9–11-year-old children, we sought to determine the following: (i) number of days that are necessary to achieve reliable estimates (G⩾0.8); (ii) proportion of variance attributed to different facets (participants and days) of reliability estimates; and (iii) actual reliability of data as collected in The International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment (ISCOLE). Methods: The analytical sample consisted of 6025 children (55% girls) from sites in 12 countries. Physical activity and sedentary time metrics measures were assessed for up to 7 consecutive days for 24 h per day with a waist-worn ActiGraph GT3X+. Generalizability theory using R software was used to investigate the objectives i and ii. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were computed using SAS PROC GLM to inform objective iii. Results: The estimated minimum number of days required to achieve a reliability estimate of G⩾0.8 ranged from 5 to 9 for boys and 3 to 11 for girls for light physical activity (LPA); 5 to 9 and 3 to 10, for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); 5 to 10 and 4 to 10 for total activity counts; and 7 to 11 and 6 to 11 for sedentary time, respectively. For all variables investigated, the ‘participant' facet accounted for 30–50% of the variability, whereas the ‘days' facet accounted for ⩽5%, and the interaction (P × D) accounted for 50–70% of the variability. The actual reliability for boys in ISCOLE ranged from ICCs of 0.78 to 0.86, 0.73 to 0.85 and 0.72 to 0.86 for LPA, MVPA and total activity counts, respectively, and 0.67 to 0.79 for sedentary time. The corresponding values for girls were 0.80–0.88, 0.70–0.89, 0.74–0.86 and 0.64–0.80. Conclusions: It was rare that only 4 days from all participants would be enough to achieve desirable reliability estimates. However, asking participants to wear the device for 7 days and requiring

  4. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J,...

  5. 40 CFR 799.9325 - TSCA 90-day dermal toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, or gamma glutamyl transpeptidase) should also be... requirements specified under EPA Good Laboratory Practice Standards at 40 CFR part 792, subpart J,...

  6. Another Alternative: A 90-Day Contractual Detoxification Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Robert B.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    In May 1974, Fresno County's Narcotic Abuse Treatment Program began a 21-day outpatient methadone detoxification treatment modality. The purpose of this paper is to examine this alternative treatment modality, its characteristics, its therapeutic outcomes and the rationale for its use. (Author)

  7. Materials study for interfacial adhesion and reliability of microelectronics packaging structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xiang

    Multilayers and interfaces are ubiquitous in microelectronics devices, interconnect and packaging structures. Because of the differential thermal expansion of the dissimilar materials, thermal excursions from manufacturing processes and component operations cause thermal stresses which often drive delamination at various interfaces. As the interface integrity becomes the major concern of performance, yield, and reliability, the need to evaluate the fracture and delamination behavior of various interfaces increases. The present work focuses on a typical flip-chip-on-board (FCOB) packaging structure. The FCOB package utilizes a particulate filled liquid epoxy (underfill) to adhere the chip to the board for improved reliability of solder interconnections. However, underfill delamination from chip and/or board is most commonly observed in premature failure of flip-chip-on-board packages. The objectives of this work are to develop experimental and analysis techniques for quantifying the underfill interface fracture resistance, to identify interface adhesion and toughening mechanisms, and to develop a methodology for the reliability assessment of the interface integrity. Series of experiments and analyses are conducted to investigate the adhesion and fracture behaviors of the underfill/silicon and underfill/board interfaces. The experimental techniques for the interface fracture experiments are developed to produce the double-cantilever-beam (DCB) sandwich specimens and to establish a reproducible testing protocol. To extract the interfacial fracture energies, a closed-form solution is developed based on a beam-on-elastic-foundation model for DCB underfill/silicon specimens. A corrected beam theory model is adopted for DCB underfill/board specimens. A two-dimensional elastoplastic finite element analysis (FEA) model is also implemented to examine effects of mode-mixity, thermal/residual stresses, and underfill plasticity. The fracture energies of underfill/silicon and

  8. Reliability of electronic recording of waiting times in the emergency department: a prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Gorlicki, Judith; Raynal, Pierre-Alexis; Leleu, Agathe; Riou, Bruno; Ray, Patrick; Freund, Yonathan

    2015-10-01

    We aimed to evaluate the reliability of waiting times (WT) measures electronically retrieved. We prospectively collected true WT in four emergency departments during 20 predefined 2-h inclusion periods, and compared them with the electronically retrieved waiting time (ERWT). We assessed agreement with calculation of rate of outliers (difference exceeding 20 min), bias, and its 95% limits of agreements, and associated Bland and Altman plot. We analyzed 274 patients. The mean difference was -2 min (SD 13) between ERWT and true WT, with a 95% limits of agreements (-28 to 24 min). Bland and Altman plot showed a good agreement, and we report 7% of outliers. Using ERWT, 14 patients (5%) were misclassified as having their target WT exceeded or not. ERWT agree well with the true WT, although the significant rate of outlier and misclassification calls for caution in their interpretation. PMID:25564458

  9. Reliability-Based Design of a Safety-Critical Automation System: A Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Carol W.; Dunn, W.; Doty, L.; Frank, M. V.; Hulet, M.; Alvarez, Teresa (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In 1986, NASA funded a project to modernize the NASA Ames Research Center Unitary Plan Wind Tunnels, including the replacement of obsolescent controls with a modern, automated distributed control system (DCS). The project effort on this system included an independent safety analysis (ISA) of the automation system. The purpose of the ISA was to evaluate the completeness of the hazard analyses which had already been performed on the Modernization Project. The ISA approach followed a tailoring of the risk assessment approach widely used on existing nuclear power plants. The tailoring of the nuclear industry oriented risk assessment approach to the automation system and its role in reliability-based design of the automation system is the subject of this paper.

  10. Effect of system workload on operating system reliability - A study on IBM 3081

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iyer, R. K.; Rossetti, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of operating system failures on an IBM 3081 running VM/SP. Three broad categories of software failures are found: error handling, program control or logic, and hardware related; it is found that more than 25 percent of software failures occur in the hardware/software interface. Measurements show that results on software reliability cannot be considered representative unless the system workload is taken into account. The overall CPU execution rate, although measured to be close to 100 percent most of the time, is not found to correlate strongly with the occurrence of failures. Possible reasons for the observed workload failure dependency, based on detailed investigations of the failure data, are discussed.

  11. Thermomechanical Reliability Study of Benzocyclobutene Film in Wafer-Level Chip-Size Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, K.-O.

    2012-04-01

    A new wafer-level chip-scale package process for high-performance, low-cost packaging has been developed based on passivation with low dielectric constant. This process is simpler and shorter when using permanent photosensitive benzocyclobutene (BCB) compared with the conventional process. However, cracks nucleating on the BCB cause serious reliability problems. The major reasons for cracking of the BCB layer seem to be both thermal stress and a shortage of BCB cross-linking agent (cyclobutene). The stress was reduced by optimizing the thickness of the BCB layer and the underlying stress buffer layer. The BCB cracking resistance was improved by creating more cross-linking agent at the final curing process through modification of the photolithography processes.

  12. Reliability of fMRI for Studies of Language in Post-Stroke Aphasia Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Eaton, Kenneth P.; Szaflarski, Jerzy P.; Altaye, Mekibib; Ball, Angel L.; Kissela, Brett M.; Banks, Christi; Holland, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying change in brain activation patterns associated with post-stroke recovery and reorganization of language function over time requires accurate understanding of inter-scan and inter-subject variability. Here we report inter-scan variability measures for fMRI activation patterns associated with verb generation (VG) and semantic decision/tone decision (SDTD) tasks in 4 healthy controls and 4 aphasic left middle cerebral artery (LMCA) stroke subjects. A series of 10 fMRI scans was completed on a 4T Varian scanner for each task for each subject, except for one stroke subject who completed 5 and 6 scans for SDTD and VG, thus yielding 35 and 36 total stroke subject scans for SDTD and VG, respectively. Group composite and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) maps were computed across all subjects and trials for each task. The patterns of reliable activation for the VG and SDTD tasks correspond well to those regions typically activated by these tasks in healthy and aphasic subjects. ICCs for activation were consistently high (R0.05 ≈ 0.8) for individual tasks among both control and aphasic subjects. These voxel-wise measures of reliability highlight regions of low inter-scan variability within language circuitry for control and post-recovery stroke subjects. ICCs computed from the combination of the SDTD/VG data were markedly reduced for both control and aphasic subjects as compared with the ICCs for the individual tasks. These quantitative measures of inter-scan variability support the proposed use of these fMRI paradigms for longitudinal mapping of neural reorganization of language processing following left hemispheric insult. PMID:18411061

  13. Reliable coupling of orthodontic elements to mini-implants: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig, Björn; Zipprich, Holger; Gebel, Britta; Piller, Ben; Antoszewska, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the reliability of mechanical and adhesive methods of fixing rectangular wires in the cross-slot of a mini-implant. Materials and Methods: A twin-hooked wire element was placed and fixed in the slot of a mini-implant via a NiTi spring under tension, or by means of an adhesive. For the purpose of mechanical anchorage, the wire was crimped with a special crimping tool to increase its thickness and prevent it from slipping through the slot. Before applying the adhesive, there were four possible methods of preparation: Untreated Wire (Adh. 1); ROCATEC-Pre (Adh. 2); ROCATEC-PRE + Espe Sil (Adh. 3); ROCATEC-PRE + ROCATEC-PLUS + Espe Sil (Adh. 4). The mechanical fixing and two adhesive fixings were aged by means of temperature change (500 cycles). A Zwick universal testing machine was used to measure the maximum strength of the coupling. Results: In all tests, the untreated wire + adhesive withstood the lowest maximum load (Ø 3 N and 10.8 N respectively) and failed the aging test after a maximum of eight cycles. The wires in test group Adh. 4 withstood the highest maximum load (Ø 43.3 N; 41.5 N; 45.9 N after aging) in all tests. The average load withstood by the crimped ligature was 38.7 N. Conclusion: The adhesive method of fixation performs best when the rectangular wire is sand blasted and silanized before application. The mechanical coupling using the crimped ligature is reliable. PMID:24987620

  14. Feasibility study: Application of RCM techniques for substation maintenance at the Bonneville Power Administration. [Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM)

    SciTech Connect

    Purucker, S.L.; Tonn, B.E.; Goeltz, R.T.; James, R.D.; Kercel, S.; Rizy, D.T.; Simpson, M.L.; Van Dyke, J.W.

    1992-05-28

    This feasibility study examines reliability centered maintenance (RCM) as it applies to Bonneville Power Administrations (BPA) substation maintenance program. Reliability techniques are examined in evaluated. Existing BPA equipment maintenance procedures are documented. Equipment failure history is considered. Economic impacts are estimated. Various equipment instrumentation methods are reviewed. Based on this analysis a prototype system is proposed. The prototype will be implemented in two phases. Phase 1 is to be completed in 1992, it includes instrumenting one power transformer and one oil circuit breaker. Software development will focus on displaying data. Phase 2 is to be completed the following year. The remaining transformers and breakers will be instrumented during the second phase. Software development will focus on predictive maintenance techniques and maintenance decision support.

  15. Remote Assessment of Cognitive Function in Juvenile Neuronal Ceroid Lipofuscinosis (Batten disease): A Pilot Study of Feasibility and Reliability.

    PubMed

    Ragbeer, Shayne N; Augustine, Erika F; Mink, Jonathan W; Thatcher, Alyssa R; Vierhile, Amy E; Adams, Heather R

    2016-03-01

    Remote technology provides an opportunity to extend the reach of clinical care and research for pediatric rare disease. This pilot study evaluated the feasibility and reliability of neuropsychological evaluation, using remote audiovisual technology, in the assessment of children with juvenile Batten disease. Three children with Batten disease and 1 healthy sibling completed a standardized cognitive assessment. Results indicated high agreement between an in-person and a remote evaluator when comparing the subjects' cognitive test scores. This initial test of remote cognitive assessment suggests it is feasible and reliable in children with pediatric neurodegenerative disease, for whom disease burden may limit travel and access to expert care and/or clinical trials. PMID:26336202

  16. Do bipolar subjects' responses to personality questionnaires lack reliability? Evidence from the PsyCoLaus study.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Capel, Roland; Meier, Emanuele; Rudaz, Dominique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Castelao, Enrique; Preisig, Martin; Vandeleur, Caroline L

    2016-04-30

    Differences in personality scores between subjects with and without mood disorders might result from response biases rather than specific personality traits per se. The aim of this study was to compare subjects with bipolar disorders (BPD) to non-bipolar subjects in terms of response quality to the NEO-FFI. Using data from the population-based cohort study PsyCoLaus, subjects were compared in terms of responses to the NEO-FFI, and indices of response quality were calculated. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed and controlled for sociodemographic factors, depressive episodes, dysthymia, anxiety disorders and substance use disorders. Consistent with the literature, subjects with BPD had higher scores in neuroticism and openness, and lower scores in conscientiousness. However, significant differences were measured for response reliability and validity. In particular, the indices of response quality including response reliability were lower in subjects with BPD suggesting that bipolar subjects might have more difficulty in providing consistent answers throughout questionnaires. However, regression models resulted in small associations between mania/hypomania and response quality, and showed that differences in response quality were mainly attributable to correlates of BPD instead of the presence of mania/hypomania itself. The current findings suggest that bipolar subjects' responses to questionnaires are biased, making them less reliable. PMID:27086248

  17. Reliability and reactivity of the prefrontal hemodynamic responses in essential hypertension: a functional near infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Hercules; Bhambhani, Yagesh; Singhal, Anthony; Haennel, Robert; Warren, Sharon

    2015-10-01

    Prefrontal (PFC) cerebral vasoreactivity may be altered in hypertension but has not been studied during postural change and carbon dioxide (CO2) rebreathing. In this study, a dual procedure of 5% CO2 rebreathing with positional change (standing to supine and reverse) was performed on normotensive (N = 24) and essential hypertensive males (N = 16) (18-55 years) to assess reliability of PFC responses using functional near infrared spectroscopy. The groups (matched on age levels, N = 13) were also compared on their hemodynamic reactivity (change of oxyhemoglobin or total hemoglobin as a function of change in end tidal CO2). Test-retest reliability within one session and 7 days later was moderate to high (intraclass correlation coefficient = .63-.901) in both normotensive and hypertensive groups for all hemodynamic measures; whereas reliability of reactivity measures for oxyhemoglobin and total hemoglobin was moderate (intraclass correlation coefficient = .68-.762). Functional near infrared spectroscopy-measured PFC hemodynamic responses are highly reproducible in normotensive and adult essential hypertensive males. PMID:26329474

  18. Reliability and Validity Study of the Chamorro Assisted Gait Scale for People with Sprained Ankles, Walking with Forearm Crutches

    PubMed Central

    Ridao-Fernández, Carmen; Ojeda, Joaquín; Benítez-Lugo, Marisa; Sevillano, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to design and validate a functional assessment scale for assisted gait with forearm crutches (Chamorro Assisted Gait Scale—CHAGS) and to assess its reliability in people with sprained ankles. Design Thirty subjects who suffered from sprained ankle (anterior talofibular ligament first and second degree) were included in the study. A modified Delphi technique was used to obtain the content validity. The selected items were: pelvic and scapular girdle dissociation(1), deviation of Center of Gravity(2), crutch inclination(3), steps rhythm(4), symmetry of step length(5), cross support(6), simultaneous support of foot and crutch(7), forearm off(8), facing forward(9) and fluency(10). Two raters twice visualized the gait of the sample subjects which were recorded. The criterion-related validity was determined by correlation between CHAGS and Coding of eight criteria of qualitative gait analysis (Viel Coding). Internal consistency and inter and intra-rater reliability were also tested. Results CHAGS obtained a high and negative correlation with Viel Coding. We obtained a good internal consistency and the intra-class correlation coefficients oscillated between 0.97 and 0.99, while the minimal detectable changes were acceptable. Conclusion CHAGS scale is a valid and reliable tool for assessing assisted gait with crutches in people with sprained ankles to perform partial relief of lower limbs. PMID:27168236

  19. What makes an accurate and reliable subject-specific finite element model? A case study of an elephant femur.

    PubMed

    Panagiotopoulou, O; Wilshin, S D; Rayfield, E J; Shefelbine, S J; Hutchinson, J R

    2012-02-01

    Finite element modelling is well entrenched in comparative vertebrate biomechanics as a tool to assess the mechanical design of skeletal structures and to better comprehend the complex interaction of their form-function relationships. But what makes a reliable subject-specific finite element model? To approach this question, we here present a set of convergence and sensitivity analyses and a validation study as an example, for finite element analysis (FEA) in general, of ways to ensure a reliable model. We detail how choices of element size, type and material properties in FEA influence the results of simulations. We also present an empirical model for estimating heterogeneous material properties throughout an elephant femur (but of broad applicability to FEA). We then use an ex vivo experimental validation test of a cadaveric femur to check our FEA results and find that the heterogeneous model matches the experimental results extremely well, and far better than the homogeneous model. We emphasize how considering heterogeneous material properties in FEA may be critical, so this should become standard practice in comparative FEA studies along with convergence analyses, consideration of element size, type and experimental validation. These steps may be required to obtain accurate models and derive reliable conclusions from them. PMID:21752810

  20. Software Reliability 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, Dolores R.

    2003-01-01

    In FY01 we learned that hardware reliability models need substantial changes to account for differences in software, thus making software reliability measurements more effective, accurate, and easier to apply. These reliability models are generally based on familiar distributions or parametric methods. An obvious question is 'What new statistical and probability models can be developed using non-parametric and distribution-free methods instead of the traditional parametric method?" Two approaches to software reliability engineering appear somewhat promising. The first study, begin in FY01, is based in hardware reliability, a very well established science that has many aspects that can be applied to software. This research effort has investigated mathematical aspects of hardware reliability and has identified those applicable to software. Currently the research effort is applying and testing these approaches to software reliability measurement, These parametric models require much project data that may be difficult to apply and interpret. Projects at GSFC are often complex in both technology and schedules. Assessing and estimating reliability of the final system is extremely difficult when various subsystems are tested and completed long before others. Parametric and distribution free techniques may offer a new and accurate way of modeling failure time and other project data to provide earlier and more accurate estimates of system reliability.

  1. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendell, W. W.; Heydorn, R. P.

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Reliability studies on a kilowatt-class XeCl laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Thomas; Timmermans, John C.; Couperus, Jacob; van Goor, Frederik A.; Witteman, Wilhelmus J.

    1996-08-01

    At the NCLR an industrial 1 kW XeCl excimer laser, delivering 1 J at 1 kHz, is under development. Particular emphasis is on reliable long-term operation with moderate operational and maintenance costs. The design challenges can be grouped into characteristic operational time durations. The initial step to scale a single shot laser to a kilohertz device concerns the attainment of a sufficient clearing ratio in the active gas. Furthermore, the optical quality of the laser gas must be maintained also at high frequencies, which requires a low degree of turbulence in the gas flow and minimization of shock waves generated by the discharge. Laser operation for several hours primarily demands a thermal management of all active components. In addition the gas quality needs to be maintained, which concerns the chemical composition, the amount of impurities and occurrence of dust in the gas. Finally, continued laser action for billions of shots puts tight requirements on the lifetimes of the gas, the electrodes, the mirrors and the excitation system. These issues are largely determined by proper choice of materials but to a major part also by the conceptual layout of the laser. Therefore, a choice of technology is required which is very different from the spark-preionized charge transfer excitation predominantly found in commercially available excimer lasers.

  3. Renewable Resource Integration Project - Scoping Study of Strategic Transmission, Operations, and Reliability Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Budhraja, Vikram; Ballance, John; Dyer, Jim; Mobasheri, Fred; Eto, Joseph

    2008-07-01

    California is on a path to increase utilization of renewable resources. California will need to integrate approximately 30,000 megawatts (MW) of new renewable generation in the next 20 years. Renewable resources are typically located in remote locations, not near the load centers. Nearly two/thirds or 20,000 MW of new renewable resources needed are likely to be delivered to Los Angeles Basin transmission gateways. Integration of renewable resources requires interconnection to the power grid, expansion of the transmission system capability between the backbone power grid and transmission gateways, and increase in delivery capacity from transmission gateways to the local load centers. To scope the transmission, operations, and reliability issues for renewables integration, this research focused on the Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateways where most of new renewables are likely. Necessary actions for successful renewables integration include: (1) Expand Los Angeles Basin Area transmission gateway and nomogram limits by 10,000 to 20,000 MW; (2) Upgrade local transmission network for deliverability to load centers; (3) Secure additional storage, demand management, automatic load control, dynamic pricing, and other resources that meet regulation and ramping needed in real time operations; (4) Enhance local voltage support; and (5) Expand deliverability from Los Angeles to San Diego and Northern California.

  4. Lunar precursor missions for human exploration of Mars--III: studies of system reliability and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Mendell, W W; Heydorn, R P

    2004-01-01

    Discussions of future human expeditions into the solar system generally focus on whether the next explorers ought to go to the Moon or to Mars. The only mission scenario developed in any detail within NASA is an expedition to Mars with a 500-day stay at the surface. The technological capabilities and the operational experience base required for such a mission do not now exist nor has any self-consistent program plan been proposed to acquire them. In particular, the lack of an Abort-to-Earth capability implies that critical mission systems must perform reliably for 3 years or must be maintainable and repairable by the crew. As has been previously argued, a well-planned program of human exploration of the Moon would provide a context within which to develop the appropriate technologies because a lunar expedition incorporates many of the operational elements of a Mars expedition. Initial lunar expeditions can be carried out at scales consistent with the current experience base but can be expanded in any or all operational phases to produce an experience base necessary to successfully and safely conduct human exploration of Mars. PMID:15806749

  5. Reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index among institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala (India): A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Shekhawat, Kuldeep Singh; Chauhan, Arunima; Koshy, Anitha Ann; Rekha, P.; Kumar, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral health has a profound effect on the daily activities of geriatric group. India being a multilingual country, it is essential that instruments used to evaluate the quality of life is in local languages. However, the validation and translational aspect are important before involving a larger cohort of geriatrics. Aim: To assess the reliability of Malayalam version of Geriatric Oral Health Assessment Index (GOHAI-m). Settings and Design: Institutionalized elderly in Alleppey, Kerala, cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: The 12 items in GOHAI were translated into Malayalam using a back-translation technique. The comprehensibility of the Malayalam version was assessed by a pilot study. Fifty institutionalized elderly answered the questionnaire. Impact based on age and marital status was also assessed. Statistical Analysis: Independent sample t-test, Cronbach's alpha, test–retest reliability using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Results: The mean GOHAI-m scores were higher for elderly participants with slightly more impact on quality of life such as for biting or chewing food, and lower mean GOHAI-m scores indicated a positive impact on quality of life such as their self-conscious of oral health. Cronbach's alpha of 0.677 was reached with 12 items. Item 12 had a negative item-total correlation, −0.016, the deletion of Item-12 increased the item correlation to 0.7. Test–retest reliability of 0.65 for ICC indicated moderate stability. Females had more impact than males (P < 0.05). Age and marital status had no impact on their quality of life. Conclusion: The primary analysis of GOHAI-m indicated moderate stability. The elimination of negative items depends on the objectives of the study and/or after conducting a larger study keeping in view various parameters of the study. PMID:27307659

  6. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study

    PubMed Central

    TARTAGLIA, F.; GIULIANI, A.; SGUEGLIA, M.; PATRIZI, G.; DI ROCCO, G.; BLASI, S.; RUSSO, G.; TORTORELLI, G.; GIANNOTTI, D.; REDLER, A.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the “Sapienza” University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  7. Is ionized calcium a reliable predictor of hypocalcemia after total thyroidectomy? A before and after study.

    PubMed

    Tartaglia, F; Giuliani, A; Sgueglia, M; Patrizi, G; Di Rocco, G; Blasi, S; Russo, G; Tortorelli, G; Giannotti, D; Redler, A

    2014-01-01

    Wanting to find a way of identifying patients suitable for early discharge after thyroidectomy, we set out to establish whether ionized calcium concentration is a better predictor of post-surgical hypocalcemia than total serum calcium. Data were analyzed to establish whether serum ionized calcium concentrations are correlated with total serum calcium levels and symptomatic hypocalcemia after thyroidectomy. Sixty-two patients undergoing total thyroidectomy at the Department of Surgical Sciences of the "Sapienza" University of Rome, Italy, in 2010. Ionized calcium was measured before (day 0) and after surgery (days 1, 2 and 60) in all the patients. These measurements were compared with preoperative (day 0) and postoperative total serum calcium levels (days 1, 2 and 60). The preoperative ionized calcium levels differed from the ionized calcium levels recorded on days 1 and 2; this pattern was not observed for the total calcium concentrations. Conversely, total calcium on days I and II correlated significantly with the various ionized calcium measurements. The presence of parathyroid glands in the surgical specimen did not seem to affect suitability for discharge. The statistical analysis showed that ionized calcium measurements are more reliable than total calcium measurements in the immediate and long-term follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. Applying a 95% confidence interval we established reference values for both total serum calcium and ionized calcium, below which all patients develop postoperative symptomatic hypocalcemia. In conclusion, measurement of ionized calcium, as opposed to total calcium, should be strongly recommended in the immediate and longterm follow-up of total thyroidectomy patients. PMID:24690338

  8. The chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy outcome measures standardization study: from consensus to the first validity and reliability findings

    PubMed Central

    Cavaletti, G.; Cornblath, D. R.; Merkies, I. S. J.; Postma, T. J.; Rossi, E.; Frigeni, B.; Alberti, P.; Bruna, J.; Velasco, R.; Argyriou, A. A.; Kalofonos, H. P.; Psimaras, D.; Ricard, D.; Pace, A.; Galiè, E.; Briani, C.; Dalla Torre, C.; Faber, C. G.; Lalisang, R. I.; Boogerd, W.; Brandsma, D.; Koeppen, S.; Hense, J.; Storey, D.; Kerrigan, S.; Schenone, A.; Fabbri, S.; Valsecchi, M. G.; Mazzeo, A.; Pace, A.; Pessino, A.; Schenone, A.; Toscano, A.; Argyriou, A.A.; Brouwer, B.; Frigeni, B.; Piras, B.; Briani, C.; Dalla Torre, C.; Dominguez Gonzalez, C.; Faber, C. G.; Tomasello, C.; Binda, D.; Brandsma, D.; Cortinovis, D.; Psimaras, D.; Ricard, D.; Storey, D.; Cornblath, D.R.; Galiè, E.; Lindeck Pozza, E.; Rossi, E.; Vanhoutte, E.K.; Lanzani, F.; Pastorelli, F.; Altavilla, G.; Cavaletti, G.; Granata, G.; Kalofonos, H.P.; Ghignotti, I.; Merkies, I.S.J.; Bruna, J.; Hense, J.; Heimans, J.J.; Mattavelli, L.; Padua, L.; Reni, L.; Bakkers, M.; Boogerd, M.; Campagnolo, M.; Cazzaniga, M.; Eurelings, M.; Leandri, M.; Lucchetta, M.; Penas Prado, M.; Russo, M.; Valsecchi, M.G.; Piatti, M.L.; Alberti, P.; Bidoli, P.; Grant, R.; Plasmati, R.; Velasco, R.; Lalisang, R.I.; Meijer, R.J.; Fabbri, S.; Dorsey, S. G.; Galimberti, S.; Kerrigan, S.; Koeppen, S.; Postma, T.J.; Boogerd, W.; Grisold, W.

    2013-01-01

    Background Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) is a debilitating and dose-limiting complication of cancer treatment. Thus far, the impact of CIPN has not been studied in a systematic clinimetric manner. The objective of the study was to select outcome measures for CIPN evaluation and to establish their validity and reproducibility in a cross-sectional multicenter study. Patients and methods After literature review and a consensus meeting among experts, face/content validity were obtained for the following selected scales: the National Cancer Institute-Common Toxicity Criteria (NCI-CTC), the Total Neuropathy Score clinical version (TNSc), the modified Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) group sensory sumscore (mISS), the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) QLQ-C30, and CIPN20 quality-of-life measures. A total of 281 patients with stable CIPN were examined. Validity (correlation) and reliability studies were carried out. Results Good inter-/intra-observer scores were obtained for the TNSc, mISS, and NCI-CTC sensory/motor subscales. Test–retest values were also good for the EORTC QLQ-C30 and CIPN20. Acceptable validity scores were obtained through the correlation among the measures. Conclusion Good validity and reliability scores were demonstrated for the set of selected impairment and quality-of-life outcome measures in CIPN. Future studies are planned to investigate the responsiveness aspects of these measures. PMID:22910842

  9. Kinematics of fast cervical rotations in persons with chronic neck pain: a cross-sectional and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessment of sensorimotor function is useful for classification and treatment evaluation of neck pain disorders. Several studies have investigated various aspects of cervical motor functions. Most of these have involved slow or self-paced movements, while few have investigated fast cervical movements. Moreover, the reliability of assessment of fast cervical axial rotation has, to our knowledge, not been evaluated before. Methods Cervical kinematics was assessed during fast axial head rotations in 118 women with chronic nonspecific neck pain (NS) and compared to 49 healthy controls (CON). The relationship between cervical kinematics and symptoms, self-rated functioning and fear of movement was evaluated in the NS group. A sub-sample of 16 NS and 16 CON was re-tested after one week to assess the reliability of kinematic variables. Six cervical kinematic variables were calculated: peak speed, range of movement, conjunct movements and three variables related to the shape of the speed profile. Results Together, peak speed and conjunct movements had a sensitivity of 76% and a specificity of 78% in discriminating between NS and CON, of which the major part could be attributed to peak speed (NS: 226 ± 88 °/s and CON: 348 ± 92 °/s, p < 0.01). Peak speed was slower in NS compared to healthy controls and even slower in NS with comorbidity of low-back pain. Associations were found between reduced peak speed and self-rated difficulties with running, performing head movements, car driving, sleeping and pain. Peak speed showed reasonably high reliability, while the reliability for conjunct movements was poor. Conclusions Peak speed of fast cervical axial rotations is reduced in people with chronic neck pain, and even further reduced in subjects with concomitant low back pain. Fast cervical rotation test seems to be a reliable and valid tool for assessment of neck pain disorders on group level, while a rather large between subject variation and overlap between

  10. Validation and Reliability of a Smartphone Application for the International Prostate Symptom Score Questionnaire: A Randomized Repeated Measures Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Sung Ryul; Sun, Hwa Yeon; Ko, Young Myoung; Chun, Dong-Il; Yang, Won Jae

    2014-01-01

    Background Smartphone-based assessment may be a useful diagnostic and monitoring tool for patients. There have been many attempts to create a smartphone diagnostic tool for clinical use in various medical fields but few have demonstrated scientific validity. Objective The purpose of this study was to develop a smartphone application of the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and to demonstrate its validity and reliability. Methods From June 2012 to May 2013, a total of 1581 male participants (≥40 years old), with or without lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), visited our urology clinic via the health improvement center at Soonchunhyang University Hospital (Republic of Korea) and were enrolled in this study. A randomized repeated measures crossover design was employed using a smartphone application of the IPSS and the conventional paper form of the IPSS. Paired t test under a hypothesis of non-inferior trial was conducted. For the reliability test, the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was measured. Results The total score of the IPSS (P=.289) and each item of the IPSS (P=.157-1.000) showed no differences between the paper version and the smartphone version of the IPSS. The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups showed no differences between the two versions of the IPSS. A significant correlation was noted in the total group (ICC=.935, P<.001). The mild, moderate, and severe LUTS groups also showed significant correlations (ICC=.616, .549, and .548 respectively, all P<.001).There was selection bias in this study, as only participants who had smartphones could participate. Conclusions The validity and reliability of the smartphone application version were comparable to the conventional paper version of the IPSS. The smartphone application of the IPSS could be an effective method for measuring lower urinary tract symptoms. PMID:24513507

  11. Establishing the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression Scale in a UK student population: an online pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background It is thought that depressive disorders will be the second leading cause of disability worldwide by 2020. Recently, there is a steady increase in the number of university students diagnosed and treated as depression patients. It can be assumed that depression is a serious mental health problem for university students because it affects all age groups of the students either younger or older equally. The current study aims to establish the reliability and validity of the Zagazig Depression scale in a UK sample. Methods The study was a cross-sectional online survey. A sample of 133 out of 275 undergraduate students from a range of UK Universities in the academic year 2008-2009, aged 20.3 ± 6.3 years old were recruited. A modified back translated version of Zagazig Depression scale was used. In order to validate the Zagazig Depression scale, participants were asked to complete the Patient Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis includes Kappa analysis, Cronbach's alpha, Spearman's correlation analysis, and Confirmatory Factor analysis. Results Using the recommended cut-off of Zagazig Depression scale for possible minor depression it was found that 30.3% of the students have depression and higher percentage was identified according to the Patient Health Questionnaire (37.4%). Females were more depressed. The mean ZDS score was 8.3 ± 4.2. Rates of depression increase as students get older. The reliability of The ZDS was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha was .894). For validity, ZDS score was strongly associated with PHQ, with no significant difference (p-value > 0.05), with strong positive correlation (r = +.8, p-value < 0.01). Conclusion The strong, significant correlation between the PHQ and ZDS, along with high internal consistency of the ZDS as a whole provides evidence that ZDS is a reliable measure of depressive symptoms and is promising for the use of the translated ZDS in a large-scale cross-culture study. PMID:21143972

  12. Reliability and Validity of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) with Professional Nurses: Findings from a Multi-Study Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Squires, Janet E.; Hayduk, Leslie; Hutchinson, Alison M.; Mallick, Ranjeeta; Norton, Peter G.; Cummings, Greta G.; Estabrooks, Carole A.

    2015-01-01

    Although organizational context is central to evidence-based practice, underdeveloped measurement hindersitsassessment. The Alberta Context Tool, comprised of 59 items that tap10 modifiable contextual concepts, was developed to address this gap. The purpose of this study to examine the reliability and validity of scores obtained when the Alberta Context Tool is completed by professional nurses across different healthcare settings. Five separate studies (N = 2361 nurses across different care settings) comprised the study sample. Reliability and validity were assessed. Cronbach’s alpha exceeded 0.70 for9/10 Alberta Context Tool concepts. Item-total correlations exceeded acceptable standards for 56/59items. Confirmatory Factor Analysescoordinated acceptably with the Alberta Context Tool’s proposed latent structure. The mean values for each Alberta Context Tool concept increased from low to high levels of research utilization(as hypothesized) further supporting its validity. This study provides robust evidence forreliability and validity of scores obtained with the Alberta Context Tool when administered to professional nurses. PMID:26098857

  13. A study of low-cost reliable actuators for light aircraft. Part A: Chapters 1-8

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eijsink, H.; Rice, M.

    1978-01-01

    An analysis involving electro-mechanical, electro-pneumatic, and electro-hydraulic actuators was performed to study which are compatible for use in the primary and secondary flight controls of a single engine light aircraft. Actuator characteristics under investigation include cost, reliability, weight, force, volumetric requirements, power requirements, response characteristics and heat accumulation characteristics. The basic types of actuators were compared for performance characteristics in positioning a control surface model and then were mathematically evaluated in an aircraft to get the closed loop dynamic response characteristics. Conclusions were made as to the suitability of each actuator type for use in an aircraft.

  14. The Turkish Adaptation of the Friendship Qualities Scale: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erkan Atik, Zeynep; Cok, Figen; Esen Coban, Aysel; Dogan, Turkan; Guney Karaman, Neslihan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors have aimed to adapt the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS) in order to determine friendship relation levels among adolescents. A total of 603 high school students from Ankara Turkey, were selected using convenient sampling to participate in this study. During the course of this study, the FQS was first translated into…

  15. Reliability and Validity of Web-Based Portfolio Peer Assessment: A Case Study for a Senior High School's Students Taking Computer Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chi-Cheng; Tseng, Kuo-Hung; Chou, Pao-Nan; Chen, Yi-Hui

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the reliability and validity of Web-based portfolio peer assessment. Participants were 72 second-grade students from a senior high school taking a computer course. The results indicated that: 1) there was a lack of consistency across various student raters on a portfolio, or inter-rater reliability; 2) two-thirds of the raters…

  16. Reliability of Coding of the System for the Analysis of Classroom Communication (SACC). Center for the Study of Evaluation Working Paper Number Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Margaret Hubbard

    This study assesses the reliability of the System for the Analysis of Classroom Communication (SACC) devised to permit the gathering of data descriptive of classroom communication between teacher and pupils for evaluative purposes. The reliability used was called inter-observer agreement. The measure of inter-observer agreement used was the Scott…

  17. Development of the clinical learning evaluation questionnaire for undergraduate clinical education: factor structure, validity, and reliability study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teaching and learning of clinical skills for undergraduate medical students usually takes place during the clinical clerkship. Therefore, it is of vital importance to ensure the effectiveness of the rotations within this clerkship. The aims of this study were to develop an instrument that measures the effectiveness of the clinical learning environment, to determine its factor structure, and to find first evidence for the reliability and validity of the total scale and the different factors. Methods The Clinical Learning Evaluation Questionnaire (CLEQ) is an instrument, consisting of 40 items, which have been developed after consideration of the results of a qualitative study that investigated the important factors influencing clinical learning, both from the perspective of students, as well as teachers. Results of relevant literature that investigated this issue were also incorporated in the CLEQ. This instrument was administered to a sample of students (N = 182) from three medical colleges in Riyadh city, the capital of Saudi Arabia. The factor structure of the CLEQ (Principal component analysis, Oblimin rotation) and reliability of the factor scales (Cronbach’s α) were determined. Hypotheses concerning the correlations between the different factors were tested to investigate their convergent and divergent validity. Results One hundred and nine questionnaires were returned. The factor analysis yielded six factors: F1 Cases (8 items), F2 Authenticity of clinical experience (8 items), F3 Supervision (8 items), F4 Organization of the doctor-patient encounter (4 items), F5 Motivation to learn (5 items), and F6 Self awareness (4 items). The overall internal consistency (α) of the CLEQ was 0.88, and the reliabilities (Cronbach’s α) of the six factors varied from .60 to .86. Hypotheses concerning the correlations between the different factors were partly confirmed, which supported the convergent validity of the factors, but not their divergent

  18. Network reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1985-01-01

    Network control (or network management) functions are essential for efficient and reliable operation of a network. Some control functions are currently included as part of the Open System Interconnection model. For local area networks, it is widely recognized that there is a need for additional control functions, including fault isolation functions, monitoring functions, and configuration functions. These functions can be implemented in either a central or distributed manner. The Fiber Distributed Data Interface Medium Access Control and Station Management protocols provide an example of distributed implementation. Relative information is presented here in outline form.

  19. The Reading Essential Skill Screener--Preschool Version (RESS-P): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.

    2004-01-01

    Technical characteristics of the Reading Essential Skill Screener--Preschool Version (RESS-P) were studied using four independent samples of boys and girls aged 3-5 years. A decision efficiency study (N = 91) resulted in a total predictive value (TPV) of .85 when compared with the criterion of teacher report/judgment of emerging literacy at-risk…

  20. An Attitude Scale for Smart Board Use in Education: Validity and Reliability Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sad, Suleyman Nihat

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to develop an instrument to measure the attitudes of elementary students towards smart board (SB) use in education. A sequential exploratory mixed method was used. So the study started with a qualitative approach to establish the content and face validity of the scale, followed by a quantitative approach to test…

  1. Adaptation of Distributed Leadership Scale into Turkish: The Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersozlu, Alpay; Ulusoy, Tarik

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to adapt "Distributed Leadership Scale" originally developed by Davis into Turkish Language. A total of 386 participants including teachers employed in high schools in Tokat participated in the study. Explanatory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) were performed to test the…

  2. Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8: A Study of Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aypay, Ayse

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an "Elementary School Student Burnout Scale for Grades 6-8". The study group included 691 students out of 10 schools in Eskisehir. Both Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were conducted on the data (Burnout stem from school activities, burnout stem from family, feeling of…

  3. Validity and Reliability Studies on the Scale of the Reasons for Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yesil, Rustu

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a scale in order to determine the reasons why students delay academic tasks and the levels that they are affected from these reasons. The study group was composed of a total of 447 students from the faculty of education. The KMO value of this scale composed of 43 items collected under six factors was…

  4. Unethical Computer Using Behavior Scale: A Study of Reliability and Validity on Turkish University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namlu, Aysen Gurcan; Odabasi, Hatice Ferhan

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out in a Turkish university with 216 undergraduate students of computer technology as respondents. The study aimed to develop a scale (UECUBS) to determine the unethical computer use behavior. A factor analysis of the related items revealed that the factors were can be divided under five headings; intellectual property,…

  5. Ultrasound virtual endoscopy: Polyp detection and reliability of measurement in an in vitro study with pig intestine specimens

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-Ya; Chen, Li-Da; Cai, Hua-Song; Liang, Jin-Yu; Xu, Ming; Huang, Yang; Li, Wei; Feng, Shi-Ting; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Lu, Ming-De; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To present our initial experience regarding the feasibility of ultrasound virtual endoscopy (USVE) and its measurement reliability for polyp detection in an in vitro study using pig intestine specimens. METHODS: Six porcine intestine specimens containing 30 synthetic polyps underwent USVE, computed tomography colonography (CTC) and optical colonoscopy (OC) for polyp detection. The polyp measurement defined as the maximum polyp diameter on two-dimensional (2D) multiplanar reformatted (MPR) planes was obtained by USVE, and the absolute measurement error was analyzed using the direct measurement as the reference standard. RESULTS: USVE detected 29 (96.7%) of 30 polyps, remaining a 7-mm one missed. There was one false-positive finding. Twenty-six (89.7%) of 29 reconstructed images were clearly depicted, while 29 (96.7%) of 30 polyps were displayed on CTC with one false-negative finding. In OC, all the polyps were detected. The intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.876 (95%CI: 0.745-0.940) for measurements obtained with USVE. The pooled absolute measurement errors ± the standard deviations of the depicted polyps with actual sizes ≤ 5 mm, 6-9 mm, and ≥ 10 mm were 1.9 ± 0.8 mm, 0.9 ± 1.2 mm, and 1.0 ± 1.4 mm, respectively. CONCLUSION: USVE is reliable for polyp detection and measurement in in vitro study. PMID:27022217

  6. Attachment narratives in refugee children: interrater reliability and qualitative analysis in pilot findings from a two-site study.

    PubMed

    De Haene, Lucia; Dalgaard, Nina Thorup; Montgomery, Edith; Grietens, Hans; Verschueren, Karine

    2013-06-01

    Although forced migration research on refugee family functioning clearly points to the potential breakdown of parental availability and responsiveness in the context of cumulative migration stressors, studies exploring attachment security in refugee children are surprisingly lacking so far. The authors report their findings from a 2-site, small-scale administration of an attachment measure, adapted for use with refugee children aged between 4 and 9 years from a reliable and validated doll-play procedure. We evaluated interrater reliability and conducted a qualitative analysis of refugee children's narrative response to identify migration-specific representational markers of attachment quality. The level of agreement among 3 independent coders ranged between .54 to 1.00 for both study samples, providing initial psychometric evidence of the measure's value in assessing child attachment security in this population. The exploratory analysis of migration-related narrative markers pointed to specific parameters to be used in parent-child observational assessments in future validation of the attachment measure, such as parental withdrawal or trauma-communication within the parent-child dyad. PMID:23737300

  7. Reliability of nucleic acid amplification for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: an international collaborative quality control study among 30 laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Noordhoek, G T; van Embden, J D; Kolk, A H

    1996-01-01

    Nucleic acid amplification to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis in clinical specimens is increasingly used as a laboratory tool for the diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, the specificity and sensitivity of these tests may be questioned, and no standardized reagents for quality control assessment are available. To estimate the performance of amplification tests for routine diagnosis, we initiated an interlaboratory study involving 30 laboratories in 18 countries. We prepared blinded panels of 20 sputum samples containing no, 100, or 1,000 mycobacterial cells. Each laboratory was asked to detect M. tuberculosis by their routine method of nucleic acid amplification. Only five laboratories correctly identified the presence or absence of mycobacterial DNA in all 20 samples. Seven laboratories detected mycobacterial DNA in all positive samples, and 13 laboratories correctly reported the absence of DNA in the negative samples. Lack of specificity was more of a problem than lack of sensitivity. Reliability was not found to be associated with the use of any particular method. Reliable detection of M. tuberculosis in clinical samples by nucleic acid amplification techniques is possible, but many laboratories do not use adequate quality controls. This study underlines the need for good laboratory practice and reference reagents to monitor the performance of the whole assay, including pretreatment of clinical samples. PMID:8880513

  8. A confirmatory study of the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF*): factorial structure, reliability and sensitivity to change

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex syndrome that affects many aspects of the patients life and it is very difficult to evaluate in clinical practice. A recent study has developed the Combined Index of Severity of Fibromyalgia (ICAF), an instrument that evaluates diverse aspects of FM and offers five indices: emotional, physical, active coping, passive coping and total. The objective of this study is to confirm the structure of the ICAF, check its test-retest reliability, assess its sensitivity to change, and compare the results obtained in a sample of patients with fibromyalgia with another sample of healthy controls. Methods A total of 232 patients took part in the study, 228 women and 4 men, with a mean age of 47.73 years of age (SD = 8.61) and a time of disease evolution since diagnosis of 4.28 years (SD = 4.03). The patients from the FM group completed the ICAF. Between one and two weeks later, they again attended the clinic and complete the 59 items on the ICAF (retest) and immediately afterwards they began treatment (according to daily clinical practice criteria). A sample of healthy subjects was also studied as a control group: 110 people were included (106 women and 4 men) with a mean age of 46.01 years of age (SD = 9.35). The study was conducted in Spain. Results The results obtained suggest that the four-factor model obtained in the previous study adequately fits the data obtained in this study. The test-retest reliability and internal consistency were all significant and show a high degree of correlation for all the factors as well as in overall score. With the exception of the passive coping factor, all the other scores, including the overall score, were sensitive to change after the therapeutic intervention. The ICAF scores of the patients with fibromyalgia compared with those of the control group were markedly different. Conclusions The findings suggest that the ICAF is a valid, reliable, sensitive to change instrument with the added advantage

  9. Study of SEM induced current and voltage contrast modes to assess semiconductor reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beall, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the scanning electron microscopy study was to review the failure history of existing integrated circuit technologies to identify predominant failure mechanisms, and to evaluate the feasibility of their detection using SEM application techniques. The study investigated the effects of E-beam irradiation damage and contamination deposition rates; developed the necessary methods for applying the techniques to the detection of latent defects and weaknesses in integrated circuits; and made recommendations for applying the techniques.

  10. Reliability of functional magnetic resonance imaging activation during working memory in a multi-site study: analysis from the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Jennifer K; McEwen, Sarah C; Gee, Dylan G; Bearden, Carrie E; Addington, Jean; Goodyear, Brad; Cadenhead, Kristin S; Mirzakhanian, Heline; Cornblatt, Barbara A; Olvet, Doreen M; Mathalon, Daniel H; McGlashan, Thomas H; Perkins, Diana O; Belger, Aysenil; Seidman, Larry J; Thermenos, Heidi W; Tsuang, Ming T; van Erp, Theo G M; Walker, Elaine F; Hamann, Stephan; Woods, Scott W; Qiu, Maolin; Cannon, Tyrone D

    2014-08-15

    Multi-site neuroimaging studies offer an efficient means to study brain functioning in large samples of individuals with rare conditions; however, they present new challenges given that aggregating data across sites introduces additional variability into measures of interest. Assessing the reliability of brain activation across study sites and comparing statistical methods for pooling functional data are critical to ensuring the validity of aggregating data across sites. The current study used two samples of healthy individuals to assess the feasibility and reliability of aggregating multi-site functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from a Sternberg-style verbal working memory task. Participants were recruited as part of the North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS), which comprises eight fMRI scanning sites across the United States and Canada. In the first study sample (n=8), one participant from each home site traveled to each of the sites and was scanned while completing the task on two consecutive days. Reliability was examined using generalizability theory. Results indicated that blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal was reproducible across sites and was highly reliable, or generalizable, across scanning sites and testing days for core working memory ROIs (generalizability ICCs=0.81 for left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, 0.95 for left superior parietal cortex). In the second study sample (n=154), two statistical methods for aggregating fMRI data across sites for all healthy individuals recruited as control participants in the NAPLS study were compared. Control participants were scanned on one occasion at the site from which they were recruited. Results from the image-based meta-analysis (IBMA) method and mixed effects model with site covariance method both showed robust activation in expected regions (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor cortex, superior parietal cortex, inferior

  11. Systematic Review Shows Only Few Reliable Studies of Physical Activity Intervention in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Nara Michelle Moura; Leão, Arley Santos; Santos, Josivan Rosa; Monteiro, Glauber Rocha; dos Santos, Jorge Rollemberg; Thomazzi, Sara Maria; Silva, Roberto Jerônimo dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Several studies have pointed to the high prevalence of low levels of physical activity in adolescents, suggesting the need for more effective interventions for this group. The aim of this study was to present evidence of intervention programs for efficacy of physical activity for adolescents. Methods. Surveys in PubMed, SportDiscus, LiLacs, and SciELO databases were conducted using keywords to identify population, intervention, and outcome, as well as DeCS and MeSH terms in English, Portuguese, and Spanish, whenever appropriate. The review included observational studies with minimal intervention of six months, minimum sample size of 100 adolescents, written in any language, and those who have reached STROBE score greater than 70%. Results. Only seven studies met all inclusion criteria. Of these, five were pre- and postintervention and two had n > 2000 participants. Interventions were of several types, durations, and strategies for physical activity implementation. Behavior change was assessed in 43% of studies and three reported success in some way. Conclusion. Due to heterogeneity in their contents and methodologies, as well as the lack of jobs that accompany adolescents after the intervention period, one cannot draw conclusions about the actual effects of the intervention programs of physical activity on the behavior of young people. PMID:25152903

  12. Calibration and data collection protocols for reliable lattice parameter values in electron pair distribution function studies

    SciTech Connect

    Abeykoon, A. M. Milinda; Hu, Hefei; Wu, Lijun; Zhu, Yimei; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2015-01-30

    Different protocols for calibrating electron pair distribution function (ePDF) measurements are explored and described for quantitative studies on nanomaterials. It is found that the most accurate approach to determine the camera length is to use a standard calibration sample of Au nanoparticles from the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Different protocols for data collection are also explored, as are possible operational errors, to find the best approaches for accurate data collection for quantitative ePDF studies.

  13. HIV Laboratory Monitoring Reliably Identifies Persons Engaged in Care

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Bonnie B.; Hart, Rachel L.D.; Buchacz, Kate; Bozzette, Samuel A.; Wood, Kathy; Brooks, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Background Attendance at biannual medical encounters has been proposed as a minimum national standard for adequate engagement in HIV care. Using data from the HIV Outpatient Study, we analyzed how well dates of HIV-related laboratory testing correlated with attendance at biannual medical encounters. Methods HIV Outpatient Study is an open prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients receiving outpatient care in the United States. The data set included dates for laboratory measurements and medical encounters. We included patients with at least 1 HIV laboratory test (CD4 cell count or plasma HIV RNA viral load) during 2010–2011. An HIV laboratory test was defined as associated with a medical encounter if it occurred within 3 weeks of the encounter. We assessed the predictive value of HIV laboratory tests as a proxy for adequate engagement in clinical care, defined as having had ≥2 HIV laboratory tests within 1 year and performed >90 days apart. Results A total of 10,321 HIV laboratory tests were recorded from 2909 patients. Adequate engagement in clinical care based on medical encounters was 88.2% and 77.3% when based on laboratory tests. Using HIV laboratory tests to assess engagement had a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 86.0%, and positive and negative predictive values of 97.9% and 44.5%, respectively. Of the 22.7% classified as not engaged in care by the proxy measure, over half (55.5%) were actually engaged. Conclusions Using laboratory monitoring reliably classified persons as engaged in care. Of the 22.7% of patients classified as not engaged in care, most were actually engaged. PMID:25383710

  14. Reliability and Validity Study of a Sufi Personality Typology: The Enneagram.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Jerome; Walker, Ronald E.

    1983-01-01

    Examined a Sufi personality typology that describes nine life strategies depicted by a nine-sided figure called the enneagram. Devised an objective 135-item test instrument to differentiate the nine styles, and obtained positive results. Enneagram typology may have diagnostic, prognostic, and heuristic value for studying personality structure and…

  15. Developing an Attitude Scale for Cursive Handwriting: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karadag, Ruhan

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop an attitude scale for designating the attitudes of primary school pre-service teachers towards cursive handwriting. In the process of developing draft scale a 57-item draft scale on cursive handwriting has been formed. While developing the scale, related literature was searched, pre-service teachers'…

  16. Turkish Version of the Principals' Sense of Efficacy Scale: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isik, Ayse Negis; Derinbay, Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Problem Statement: Principals are known as important actors in effective schools. So it is important to know which variables influence principals' success. One of these predictors can be self-efficacy. However, there is very few research about principals' sense of efficacy. Purpose of the Study: The purpose of this research was to test the…

  17. Educational Technology Standards Scale (ETSS): A Study of Reliability and Validity for Turkish Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coklar, Ahmet Naci; Odabasi, Hatice Ferhan

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a scale, the Educational Technology Standards Scale (ETSS), to determine how effectively and appropriately preservice teachers use educational technologies. For the development of the scale, the internationally approved NETS[middle dot]T standards from 2000 were used. These NETS[middle dot]T standards were used for…

  18. The Moderation of Liberal Studies School Based Assessment Scores: How to Ensure Fairness and Reliability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Tao Wang

    2009-01-01

    As part of the ongoing education reform initiated by the Hong Kong Education Bureau (EDB), Liberal Studies will become a compulsory subject in senior secondary schools in 2009. It will be one of the core subjects all students must take, besides English, Chinese and Mathematics. Some of the objectives of the subject include cultivating critical…

  19. Using Mathematics in Teaching Science Self-Efficacy Scale--UMSSS: A Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Can, Bilge Taskin; Gunhan, Berna Canturk; Erdal, Sevinc Ongel

    2012-01-01

    In this study, an instrument, Using Mathematics in Science Self-efficacy Scale (UMSSS), was developed in order to determine preservice science teachers' self-efficacy toward the use of mathematics in their lessons. Data gathered from 250 preservice science teachers were used for Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis…

  20. Rating Performance Assessments of Students with Disabilities: A Study of Reliability and Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Martinez, Jose Felipe

    2010-01-01

    Inclusion of students with disabilities in district-wide and state assessments is mandated by federal regulations, and teachers sometimes play an important role in rating these students' work. In this study, trained teachers rated student proficiency in performance assessments in language arts and mathematics in third, fifth, and ninth grades. The…

  1. Adaptation of Social Interaction Practices for the Preschool Years into Turkish: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samur, Ayse Ozturk; Soydan, Sema

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to adapt SIPPY (social interaction practices for the preschool years) scale into Turkish. The SIPPY is a tool designed to assess teachers' judgments of the acceptability and feasibility, as well as their current use of literature-supported strategies for promoting the development of young children's social competence in…

  2. Adaptation of Economy Attitude Scale to Turkish Culture: Validity and Reliability Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alagoz, Bullent

    2015-01-01

    Economics affects us no matter what role we play in social life. Its foundation as a science was laid by the studies of Adam Smith, and since history it has become one of the disciplines accepted in university curriculums. Scarcity, opportunity costs and abandoning something in order to obtain another one are the core concepts of this discipline.…

  3. Test–retest reliability of self-reported diabetes diagnosis in the Norwegian Women and Cancer Study: A population-based longitudinal study (n =33,919)

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh, Mashhood Ahmed; Lund, Eiliv; Braaten, Tonje

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Self-reported information from questionnaires is frequently used in epidemiological studies, but few of these studies provide information on the reproducibility of individual items contained in the questionnaire. We studied the test–retest reliability of self-reported diabetes among 33,919 participants in Norwegian Women and Cancer Study. Methods: The test–retest reliability of self-reported type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was evaluated between three self-administered questionnaires (completed in 1991, 1998, and 2005 by Norwegian Women and Cancer participants) by kappa agreement. The time interval between the test–retest studies was ~7 and ~14 years. Sensitivity of the kappa agreement for type 1 and type 2 diabetes diagnoses was assessed. Subgroup analysis was performed to assess whether test–retest reliability varies with age, body mass index, physical activity, education, and smoking status. Results: The kappa agreement for both types of self-reported diabetes diagnoses combined was good (⩾0.65) for all three test–retest studies (1991–1998, 1991–2005, and 1998–2005). The kappa agreement for type 1 diabetes was good (⩾0.73) in the 1991–2005 and the 1998–2005 test–retest studies, and very good (0.83) in the 1991–1998 test–retest study. The kappa agreement for type 2 diabetes was moderate (0.57) in the 1991–2005 test–retest study and good (⩾0.66) in the 1991–1998 and 1998–2005 test–retest studies. The overall kappa agreement in the 1991–1998 test–retest study was stronger than in the 1991–2005 test–retest study and the 1998–2005 test–retest study. There was no clear pattern of inconsistency in the kappa agreements within different strata of age, BMI, physical activity, and smoking. The kappa agreement was strongest among the respondents with 17 or more years of education, while generally it was weaker among the least educated group. Conclusion: The test–retest reliability of the diabetes was

  4. Reliability of Task-Based fMRI for Preoperative Planning: A Test-Retest Study in Brain Tumor Patients and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Melanie A.; Churchill, Nathan W.; Cusimano, Michael D.; Schweizer, Tom A.; Das, Sunit; Graham, Simon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) continues to develop as a clinical tool for patients with brain cancer, offering data that may directly influence surgical decisions. Unfortunately, routine integration of preoperative fMRI has been limited by concerns about reliability. Many pertinent studies have been undertaken involving healthy controls, but work involving brain tumor patients has been limited. To develop fMRI fully as a clinical tool, it will be critical to examine these reliability issues among patients with brain tumors. The present work is the first to extensively characterize differences in activation map quality between brain tumor patients and healthy controls, including the effects of tumor grade and the chosen behavioral testing paradigm on reliability outcomes. Method Test-retest data were collected for a group of low-grade (n = 6) and high-grade glioma (n = 6) patients, and for matched healthy controls (n = 12), who performed motor and language tasks during a single fMRI session. Reliability was characterized by the spatial overlap and displacement of brain activity clusters, BOLD signal stability, and the laterality index. Significance testing was performed to assess differences in reliability between the patients and controls, and low-grade and high-grade patients; as well as between different fMRI testing paradigms. Results There were few significant differences in fMRI reliability measures between patients and controls. Reliability was significantly lower when comparing high-grade tumor patients to controls, or to low-grade tumor patients. The motor task produced more reliable activation patterns than the language tasks, as did the rhyming task in comparison to the phonemic fluency task. Conclusion In low-grade glioma patients, fMRI data are as reliable as healthy control subjects. For high-grade glioma patients, further investigation is required to determine the underlying causes of reduced reliability. To maximize

  5. The reliability studies of nano-engineered SiGe HBTs using Pelletron accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Prakash, A. P. Gnana Praveen, K. C.; Pushpa, N.; Cressler, John D.

    2015-05-15

    The effects of high energy ions on the electrical characteristics of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe HBTs) were studied in the total dose of ranging from 600 krad to 100 Mrad (Si). The two generations (50 GHz and 200 GHz) of SiGe HBTs were exposed to 50 MeV lithium, 75 MeV boron and 100 MeV oxygen ions. The electrical characteristics of SiGe HBTs were studied before and after irradiation. The SiGe HBTs were exposed to {sup 60}Co gamma radiation in the same total dose. The results are systematically compared in order to understand the interaction of ions and ionizing radiation with SiGe HBTs.

  6. Reliable reference gene selection for Cordyceps militaris gene expression studies under different developmental stages and media.

    PubMed

    Lian, Tiantian; Yang, Tao; Liu, Guijun; Sun, Junde; Dong, Caihong

    2014-07-01

    Cordyceps militaris is considered a model organism for the study of Cordyceps species, which are highly prized in traditional Chinese medicine. Gene expression analysis has become more popular and important in studies of this fungus. Reference gene validation under different experimental conditions is crucial for RT-qPCR analysis. In this study, eight candidate reference genes, actin, cox5, gpd, rpb1, tef1, try, tub, and ubi, were selected and their expression stability was evaluated in C. militaris samples using four algorithms, genorm, normfinder, bestkeeper, and the comparative ∆Ct method. Three sets of samples, five different developmental stages cultured in wheat medium and pupae, and all the samples pool were included. The results showed that rpb1 was the best reference gene during all developmental stages examined, while the most common reference genes, actin and tub, were not suitable internal controls. Cox5 also performed poorly and was less stable in our analysis. The ranks of ubi and gpd were inconsistent in different sample sets by different methods. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection at different developmental stages and also represent a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in C. militaris gene expression analysis. PMID:24953133

  7. Regional electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power and asymmetry in older adults: a study of short-term test–retest reliability

    PubMed Central

    Mathewson, Karen J.; Hashemi, Ali; Sheng, Bruce; Sekuler, Allison B.; Bennett, Patrick J.; Schmidt, Louis A.

    2015-01-01

    Although regional alpha power and asymmetry measures have been widely used as indices of individual differences in emotional processing and affective style in younger populations, there have been relatively few studies that have examined these measures in older adults. Here, we examined the short-term test–retest reliability of resting regional alpha power (7.5–12.5 Hz) and asymmetry in a sample of 38 active, community-dwelling older adults (M age = 71.2, SD = 6.5 years). Resting electroencephalogram recordings were made before and after a perceptual computer task. Pearson and intra-class correlations indicated acceptable test–retest reliability for alpha power and asymmetry measures in all regions. Interestingly, alpha asymmetry appeared to be less affected by the task than was alpha power. Findings suggest that alpha asymmetry may reflect more enduring, “trait-like” characteristics, while alpha power may reflect more “state-like” processes in older adults. PMID:26441639

  8. Scoring of the radiological picture of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia: a study to verify the reliability of the method

    PubMed Central

    Vanasek, Jiri; Koblizek, Vladimir; Novosad, Jakub; Elias, Pavel; Bartos, Vladimir; Sterclova, Martina

    2015-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a clinical form of usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP). Computed chest tomography (CT) has a fundamental role in the multidisciplinary diagnostics. However, it has not been verified if and how a subjective opinion of a radiologists or pneumologists can influence the assessment and overall diagnostic summary. Purpose To verify the reliability of the scoring system. Material and Methods Assessment of conformity of the radiological score of high-resolution CT (HRCT) of lungs in patients with IPF was performed by a group of radiologists and pneumologists. Personal data were blinded and the assessment was performed independently using the Dutka/Vasakova scoring system (modification of the Gay system). The final score of the single assessors was then evaluated by means of the paired Spearman’s correlation and analysis of the principal components. Results Two principal components explaining cumulatively a 62% or 73% variability of the assessment of the single assessors were extracted during the analysis. The groups did not differ both in terms of specialty and experience with the assessment of the HRCT findings. Conclusion According to our study, scoring of a radiological image using the Dutka/Vasakova system is a reliable method in the hands of experienced radiologists. Significant differences occur during the assessment performed by pneumologists especially during the evaluation of the alveolar changes. PMID:26600944

  9. Adaptation of the ToxRTool to Assess the Reliability of Toxicology Studies Conducted with Genetically Modified Crops and Implications for Future Safety Testing.

    PubMed

    Koch, Michael S; DeSesso, John M; Williams, Amy Lavin; Michalek, Suzanne; Hammond, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    To determine the reliability of food safety studies carried out in rodents with genetically modified (GM) crops, a Food Safety Study Reliability Tool (FSSRTool) was adapted from the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods' (ECVAM) ToxRTool. Reliability was defined as the inherent quality of the study with regard to use of standardized testing methodology, full documentation of experimental procedures and results, and the plausibility of the findings. Codex guidelines for GM crop safety evaluations indicate toxicology studies are not needed when comparability of the GM crop to its conventional counterpart has been demonstrated. This guidance notwithstanding, animal feeding studies have routinely been conducted with GM crops, but their conclusions on safety are not always consistent. To accurately evaluate potential risks from GM crops, risk assessors need clearly interpretable results from reliable studies. The development of the FSSRTool, which provides the user with a means of assessing the reliability of a toxicology study to inform risk assessment, is discussed. Its application to the body of literature on GM crop food safety studies demonstrates that reliable studies report no toxicologically relevant differences between rodents fed GM crops or their non-GM comparators. PMID:25208336

  10. How reliable are randomised controlled trials for studying the relationship between diet and disease? A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Temple, Norman J

    2016-08-01

    Large numbers of randomised controlled trials (RCT) have been carried out in order to investigate diet-disease relationships. This article examines eight sets of studies and compares the findings with those from epidemiological studies (cohort studies in seven of the cases). The studies cover the role of dietary factors in blood pressure, body weight, cancer and heart disease. In some cases, the findings from the two types of study are consistent, whereas in other cases the findings appear to be in conflict. A critical evaluation of this evidence suggests factors that may account for conflicting findings. Very often RCT recruit subjects with a history of the disease under study (or at high risk of it) and have a follow-up of only a few weeks or months. Cohort studies, in contrast, typically recruit healthy subjects and have a follow-up of 5-15 years. Owing to these differences, findings from RCT are not necessarily more reliable than those from well-designed prospective cohort studies. We cannot assume that the results of RCT can be freely applied beyond the specific features of the studies. PMID:27267302

  11. Weather and Climate on the Reliability of Enviromagnetic Studies of Tree Leaves in Air Pollution Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, D.; Rodríguez-Germade, I.; Mohamed Falcon, K. J.; Rubio, B.; Garcia, A.

    2014-12-01

    Monthly monitoring of the magnetic properties of Platanus hispanica tree leaves to assess atmospheric pollution in Madrid (Spain) and its suburban town of Pozuelo de Alarcon showed anthropogenic time-related klf enhancement of tree leaves. We established a significant correlation between metal concentration (leaching) in the leaves with Klf and IRM1T. This relationship was not as high as those found in other studies carried out on airborne dust, sediments and soils. Further analyses pointed out that local humidity played a dual roll, controlling availability of airborne lithogenic dust and the incorporation of trace metals in the leaf tissue, modulating the magnetic enhancement. Further to these findings, the comparison between cities of different climatic regimes showed that air humidity is the major factor controlling the interaction of the atmosphere and tree leaves, thus their magnetic properties. The relative influence of pollutants, lithogenic dust and biological effects depends not only on local meteorology but also on climate. Their influence should be most seriously considered to design methodological approaches that are appropriate to the environmental characteristics of each study area, if the magnetic properties of tree leaves are intended as an atmospheric pollution-monitoring tool.

  12. Is Leadership a Reliable Concept in Animals? An Empirical Study in the Horse

    PubMed Central

    Bourjade, Marie; Thierry, Bernard; Hausberger, Martine; Petit, Odile

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is commonly invoked when accounting for the coordination of group movements in animals, yet it remains loosely defined. In parallel, there is increased evidence of the sharing of group decisions by animals on the move. How leadership integrates within this recent framework on collective decision-making is unclear. Here, we question the occurrence of leadership in horses, a species in which this concept is of prevalent use. The relevance of the three main definitions of leadership – departing first, walking in front travel position, and eliciting the joining of mates – was tested on the collective movements of two semi-free ranging groups of Przewalski horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). We did not find any leader capable of driving most group movements or recruiting mates more quickly than others. Several group members often displayed pre-departure behaviours at the same time, and the simultaneous departure of several individuals was common. We conclude that the decision-making process was shared by several group members a group movement (i.e., partially shared consensus) and that the leadership concept did not help to depict individual departure and leading behaviour across movements in both study groups. Rather, the different proxies of leadership produced conflicting information about individual contributions to group coordination. This study discusses the implications of these findings for the field of coordination and decision-making research. PMID:26010442

  13. On Component Reliability and System Reliability for Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yuan; Gillespie, Amanda M.; Monaghan, Mark W.; Sampson, Michael J.; Hodson, Robert F.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is to address the basics, the limitations and the relationship between component reliability and system reliability through a study of flight computing architectures and related avionics components for NASA future missions. Component reliability analysis and system reliability analysis need to be evaluated at the same time, and the limitations of each analysis and the relationship between the two analyses need to be understood.

  14. On a simulation study for reliable and secured smart grid communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallapuram, Sriharsha; Moulema, Paul; Yu, Wei

    2015-05-01

    Demand response is one of key smart grid applications that aims to reduce power generation at peak hours and maintain a balance between supply and demand. With the support of communication networks, energy consumers can become active actors in the energy management process by adjusting or rescheduling their electricity usage during peak hours based on utilities pricing incentives. Nonetheless, the integration of communication networks expose the smart grid to cyber-attacks. In this paper, we developed a smart grid simulation test-bed and designed evaluation scenarios. By leveraging the capabilities of Matlab and ns-3 simulation tools, we conducted a simulation study to evaluate the impact of cyber-attacks on demand response application. Our data shows that cyber-attacks could seriously disrupt smart grid operations, thus confirming the need of secure and resilient communication networks for supporting smart grid operations.

  15. Relatively Permanent Pigmented or Vascular Skin Marks for Identification: A Pilot Reliability Study.

    PubMed

    Nurhudatiana, Arfika; Kong, Adams Wai-Kin; Craft, Noah; Tey, Hong Liang

    2016-01-01

    In child sexual exploitation offenses, the collected evidence images often show the skin of nonfacial body parts of the criminals and victims. For identification in this scenario, "relatively permanent pigmented or vascular skin marks," abbreviated as RPPVSM, were recently introduced as the basis for a novel biometric trait. This pilot study evaluated the interexaminer variability of RPPVSM identification. Four dermatology physicians were recruited to examine RPPVSM from 75 skin images collected from a total of 51 Caucasian and Asian subjects. The images were separated into 50 reference ("suspect") images and 25 evaluation ("evidence") images. The examiners were asked to perform identification by annotating RPPVSM in each of the 25 evaluation images and matching them with the reference images. The rate of misidentification was 0% while the mean rate at which examiners failed to find a match was 6%, indicating the potential of dermatology physicians performing the role of RPPVSM examiners. PMID:26234404

  16. Oxidization of squalene, a human skin lipid: a new and reliable marker of environmental pollution studies.

    PubMed

    Pham, D-M; Boussouira, B; Moyal, D; Nguyen, Q L

    2015-08-01

    A review of the oxidization of squalene, a specific human compound produced by the sebaceous gland, is proposed. Such chemical transformation induces important consequences at various levels. Squalene by-products, mostly under peroxidized forms, lead to comedogenesis, contribute to the development of inflammatory acne and possibly modify the skin relief (wrinkling). Experimental conditions of oxidation and/or photo-oxidation mechanisms are exposed, suggesting that they could possibly be bio-markers of atmospheric pollution upon skin. Ozone, long UVA rays, cigarette smoke… are shown powerful oxidizing agents of squalene. Some in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo testings are proposed as examples, aiming at studying ingredients or products capable of boosting or counteracting such chemical changes that, globally, bring adverse effects to various cutaneous compartments. PMID:25656265

  17. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S.

    1997-02-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.

  18. Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Kupperman, D.S.; Bakhtiari, S.

    1996-10-01

    As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.

  19. Is the astronomical forcing a reliable and unique pacemaker for climate? A conceptual model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Saedeleer, Bernard; Crucifix, Michel; Wieczorek, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that ice age cycles are paced by astronomical forcing, suggesting some kind of synchronisation phenomenon. Here, we identify the type of such synchronisation and explore systematically its uniqueness and robustness using a simple paleoclimate model akin to the van der Pol relaxation oscillator and dynamical system theory. As the insolation is quite a complex quasiperiodic signal involving different frequencies, the traditional concepts used to define synchronisation to periodic forcing are no longer applicable. Instead, we explore a different concept of generalised synchronisation in terms of (coexisting) synchronised solutions for the forced system, their basins of attraction and instabilities. We propose a clustering technique to compute the number of synchronised solutions, each of which corresponds to a different paleoclimate history. In this way, we uncover multistable synchronisation (reminiscent of phase- or frequency-locking to individual periodic components of astronomical forcing) at low forcing strength, and monostable or unique synchronisation at stronger forcing. In the multistable regime, different initial conditions may lead to different paleoclimate histories. To study their robustness, we analyse Lyapunov exponents that quantify the rate of convergence towards each synchronised solution (local stability), and basins of attraction that indicate critical levels of external perturbations (global stability). We find that even though synchronised solutions are stable on a long term, there exist short episodes of desynchronisation where nearby climate trajectories diverge temporarily (for about 50 kyr). As the attracting trajectory can sometimes lie close to the boundary of its basin of attraction, a small perturbation could quite easily make climate to jump between different histories, reducing the predictability. Our study brings new insight into paleoclimate dynamics and reveals a possibility for the climate system to wander

  20. Multidisciplinary System Reliability Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, Sankaran; Han, Song; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new methodology for estimating the reliability of engineering systems that encompass multiple disciplines. The methodology is formulated in the context of the NESSUS probabilistic structural analysis code, developed under the leadership of NASA Glenn Research Center. The NESSUS code has been successfully applied to the reliability estimation of a variety of structural engineering systems. This study examines whether the features of NESSUS could be used to investigate the reliability of systems in other disciplines such as heat transfer, fluid mechanics, electrical circuits etc., without considerable programming effort specific to each discipline. In this study, the mechanical equivalence between system behavior models in different disciplines are investigated to achieve this objective. A new methodology is presented for the analysis of heat transfer, fluid flow, and electrical circuit problems using the structural analysis routines within NESSUS, by utilizing the equivalence between the computational quantities in different disciplines. This technique is integrated with the fast probability integration and system reliability techniques within the NESSUS code, to successfully compute the system reliability of multidisciplinary systems. Traditional as well as progressive failure analysis methods for system reliability estimation are demonstrated, through a numerical example of a heat exchanger system involving failure modes in structural, heat transfer and fluid flow disciplines.