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Sample records for 90-min leo orbit

  1. Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Mall, U.; Böhnhardt, H.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea, M.; Lesur, V.; Häusler, B.; Hördt, A.; Eichentopf, K.; Hauber, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Köhler, U.; Kührt, E.; Michaelis, H.; Pauer, M.; Sohl, F.; Denk, T.; van Gasselt, S.

    2007-08-01

    The Moon is an integral part of the Earth-Moon system, it is a witness to more than 4.5 b. y. of solar system history, and it is the only planetary body except Earth for which we have samples from known locations. The Moon is our closest companion and can easily be reached from Earth at any time, even with a relatively modest financial budget. Consequently, the Moon was the first logical step in the exploration of our solar system before we pursued more distant targets such as Mars and beyond. The vast amount of knowledge gained from the Apollo and other lunar missions of the late 1960's and early 1970's demonstrates how valuable the Moon is for the understanding of our planetary system. Even today, the Moon remains an extremely interesting target scientifically and technologically, as ever since, new data have helped to address some of our questions about the Earth-Moon system, many questions remained. Therefore, returning to the Moon is the critical stepping-stone to further exploring our immediate planetary neighborhood. In this concept study, we present scientific and technological arguments for a national German lunar mission, the Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO). Numerous space-faring nations have realized and identified the unique opportunities related to lunar exploration and have planned missions to the Moon within the next few years. Among these missions, LEO will be unique, because it will globally explore the Moon in unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution. LEO will significantly improve our understanding of the lunar surface composition, surface ages, mineralogy, physical properties, interior, thermal history, gravity field, regolith structure, and magnetic field. The Lunar Explorations Orbiter will carry an entire suite of innovative, complementary technologies, including high-resolution camera systems, several spectrometers that cover previously unexplored parts of the electromagnetic spectrum over a broad range of wavelengths, microwave and

  2. Modeling of LEO orbital debris populations for ORDEM2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.; Stokely, C. L.; Whitlock, D.

    2009-03-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM2000, is in the process of being updated to a new version: ORDEM2008. The data-driven ORDEM covers a spectrum of object size from 10 μm to greater than 1 m, and ranging from LEO (low Earth orbit) to GEO (geosynchronous orbit) altitude regimes. ORDEM2008 centimeter-sized populations are statistically derived from Haystack and HAX (the Haystack Auxiliary) radar data, while micron-sized populations are estimated from shuttle impact records. Each of the model populations consists of a large number of orbits with specified orbital elements, the number of objects on each orbit (with corresponding uncertainty), and the size, type, and material assignment for each object. This paper describes the general methodology and procedure commonly used in the statistical inference of the ORDEM2008 LEO debris populations. Major steps in the population derivations include data analysis, reference-population construction, definition of model parameters in terms of reference populations, linking model parameters with data, seeking best estimates for the model parameters, uncertainty analysis, and assessment of the outcomes. To demonstrate the population-derivation process and to validate the Bayesian statistical model applied in the population derivations throughout, this paper uses illustrative examples for the special cases of large-size (>1 m, >32 cm, and >10 cm) populations that are tracked by SSN (the Space Surveillance Network) and also monitored by Haystack and HAX radars operating in a staring mode.

  3. An autonomous orbit determination method for MEO and LEO satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jin; Yu, Guobin; Zhong, Jie; Lin, Ling

    2014-09-01

    A reliable and secure navigation system and assured autonomous capability of satellite are in high demand in case of emergencies in space. This paper introduces a novel autonomous orbit determination method for Middle-Earth-Orbit and Low-Earth-Orbit (MEO and LEO) satellite by observing space objects whose orbits are known. Generally, the geodetic satellites, such as LAGEOS and ETALONS, can be selected as the space objects here. The precision CCD camera on tracking gimbal can make a series of photos of the objects and surrounding stars when MEO and LEO satellite encounters the space objects. Then the information processor processes images and attains sightings and angular observations of space objects. Several clusters of such angular observations are incorporated into a batch least squares filter to obtain an orbit determination solution. This paper describes basic principle and builds integrated mathematical model. The accuracy of this method is analyzed by means of computer simulation. Then a simulant experiment system is built, and the experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and effectiveness of this method. The experimental results show that this method can attain the accuracy of 150 meters with angular observations of 1 arcsecond system error.

  4. CBERS Satellites: Resonant Orbital Motions in LEO Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilhena de Moraes, Rodolpho; Sampaio, J. C.; da Silva Fernandes, S.; Wnuk, E.

    2013-05-01

    Abstract (2,250 Maximum Characters): The space between the Earth and the Moon has several artificial satellites and space debris in some resonance. Synchronous satellites in circular or elliptical orbits have been studied in literature, including the analysis of resonant orbits characterizing the dynamics of these satellites. In general, some resonant angles associated to the exact resonance are considered in the numerical integration, with the purpose to describe the resonance defined by the commensurability between the mean motion of the object and the Earth’s rotation angular velocity. However, the tesseral harmonics Jlm produce multiple resonances in the exact resonance and in the neighborhood of the exact resonance, and, some disturbances in the orbital motions of objects are not described. In this work, the TLE (Two-Line Elements) of the NORAD (North American Defense) are studied observing the resonant objects orbiting the Earth in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) region. Analyzing the cataloged objects, the CBERS satellites are studied observing resonance effects which compose your orbits. The time behavior of the orbital elements, resonant period and resonant angles are considered and possible regular and irregular motions are analyzed. About 60 space debris produced by the CBERS-1 satellite mission are studied analyzing the reentry of these objects in the Planet.

  5. Radiation environment at LEO orbits: MC simulation and experimental data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanini, Alba; Borla, Oscar; Damasso, Mario; Falzetta, Giuseppe

    The evaluations of the different components of the radiation environment in spacecraft, both in LEO orbits and in deep space is of great importance because the biological effect on humans and the risk for instrumentation strongly depends on the kind of radiation (high or low LET). That is important especially in view of long term manned or unmanned space missions, (mission to Mars, solar system exploration). The study of space radiation field is extremely complex and not completely solved till today. Given the complexity of the radiation field, an accurate dose evaluation should be considered an indispensable part of any space mission. Two simulation codes (MCNPX and GEANT4) have been used to assess the secondary radiation inside FO-TON M3 satellite and ISS. The energy spectra of primary radiation at LEO orbits have been modelled by using various tools (SPENVIS, OMERE, CREME96) considering separately Van Allen protons, the GCR protons and the GCR alpha particles. This data are used as input for the two MC codes and transported inside the spacecraft. The results of two calculation meth-ods have been compared. Moreover some experimental results previously obtained on FOTON M3 satellite by using TLD, Bubble dosimeter and LIULIN detector are considered to check the performances of the two codes. Finally the same experimental device are at present collecting data on the ISS (ASI experiment BIOKIS -nDOSE) and at the end of the mission the results will be compared with the calculation.

  6. In-Orbit Lifetime Prediction for LEO and HEO Based on Orbit Determination from TLE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agueda, A.; Aivar, L.; Tirado, J.; Dolado, J. C.

    2013-08-01

    Objects in Low-Earth Orbits (LEO) and Highly Elliptical Orbits (HEO) are subjected to decay and re-entry into the atmosphere due mainly to the drag force. While being this process the best solution to avoid the proliferation of debris in space and ensure the sustainability of future space activities, it implies a threat to the population on ground. Thus, the prediction of the in-orbit lifetime of an object and the evaluation of the risk on population and ground assets constitutes a crucial task. This paper will concentrate on the first of these tasks. Unfortunately the lifetime of an object in space is remarkably difficult to predict. This is mainly due to the dependence of the atmospheric drag on a number of uncertain elements such as the density profile and its dependence on the solar activity, the atmospheric conditions, the mass and surface area of the object (very difficult to evaluate), its uncontrolled attitude, etc. In this paper we will present a method for the prediction of this lifetime based on publicly available Two-Line Elements (TLEs) from the American USSTRATCOM's Joint Space Operations Center (JSpOC). TLEs constitute an excellent source to access routinely orbital information for thousands of objects even though of their reduced and unpredictable accuracy. Additionally, the implementation of the method on a CNES's Java-based tool will be presented. This tool (OPERA) is executed routinely at CNES to predict the orbital lifetime of a whole catalogue of objects.

  7. Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lion; abbrev. Leo, gen. Leonis; area 947 sq. deg.) A northern zodiacal constellation which lies between Cancer and Virgo, and culminates at midnight in early March. It represents the Nemean lion that, in Greek mythology, Hercules killed as the first of his 12 labors. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  8. Research on Long-Term Orbit Propagation for Space Debris in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Keke; Pang, Baojun; Xiao, Weike

    2013-08-01

    Space debris long-term orbit propagation is one of the main problems for the space debris environment models. The evolution of space debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) is determined by a complex interplay of different perturbations. The aim of this paper is to investigate the long-term effects of the most dominating perturbations: Earth geopotential effects, atmospheric drag, luni-solar perturbations and solar radiation pressure. The atmospheric drag is the major non-gravitational perturbation in LEO. This article provides an average method of numerical integration on one revolution for rotating and stationary atmosphere, and then one can make use of various atmospheric densities to calculate the orbital evolution. Using this method, we have analyzed the effects of rotating and stationary atmospheric drag perturbation on orbital lifetime. The results show the effects of solar activity and geomagnetic index on orbital evolution are obvious. The lifetime difference in rotating atmosphere is mostly depending on inclinations of space debris.

  9. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PROPER MOTION AND IMPLIED ORBIT

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Majewski, Steven R.

    2013-05-10

    We present the first absolute proper motion measurement of Leo I, based on two epochs of Hubble Space Telescope ACS/WFC images separated by {approx}5 years in time. The average shift of Leo I stars with respect to {approx}100 background galaxies implies a proper motion of ({mu}{sub W}, {mu}{sub N}) = (0.1140 {+-} 0.0295, -0.1256 {+-} 0.0293) mas yr{sup -1}. The implied Galactocentric velocity vector, corrected for the reflex motion of the Sun, has radial and tangential components V{sub rad} = 167.9 {+-} 2.8 km s{sup -1} and V{sub tan} = 101.0 {+-} 34.4 km s{sup -1}, respectively. We study the detailed orbital history of Leo I by solving its equations of motion backward in time for a range of plausible mass models for the Milky Way (MW) and its surrounding galaxies. Leo I entered the MW virial radius 2.33 {+-} 0.21 Gyr ago, most likely on its first infall. It had a pericentric approach 1.05 {+-} 0.09 Gyr ago at a Galactocentric distance of 91 {+-} 36 kpc. We associate these timescales with characteristic timescales in Leo I's star formation history, which shows an enhanced star formation activity {approx}2 Gyr ago and quenching {approx}1 Gyr ago. There is no indication from our calculations that other galaxies have significantly influenced Leo I's orbit, although there is a small probability that it may have interacted with either Ursa Minor or Leo II within the last {approx}1 Gyr. For most plausible MW masses, the observed velocity implies that Leo I is bound to the MW. However, it may not be appropriate to include it in models of the MW satellite population that assume dynamical equilibrium, given its recent infall. Solution of the complete (non-radial) timing equations for the Leo I orbit implies an MW mass M{sub MW,vir} = 3.15{sub -1.36}{sup +1.58} x 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with the large uncertainty dominated by cosmic scatter. In a companion paper, we compare the new observations to the properties of Leo I subhalo analogs extracted from cosmological

  10. Low-Earth-Orbiter resource allocation and capacity planning for the DSN using LEO4CAST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, G.; Borden, C.

    1994-01-01

    The Deep Space Network provides tracking and communication services for a number of U.S. and international low-Earth-orbiting (LEO) and near-Earth missions. This service is supplied by the 26-m subnet (located at each of the DSN complexes), the 9-m and the 34-m Antenna Research System antennas at Goldstone, and the 11-m antennas (following the orbital VLBI mission). An increasing number of LEO missions are planned for DSN support, which will result in increasingly complex ground resource allocation and mission support trades. To support TDA decision making on mission support and cost-effective ground system evolution for this 26-m subnet, LEO4CAST has been developed. LEO4CAST is a tool that uses statistical approaches to provide useful information for long-term ground system capacity planning and near-term resource allocation (prior to detailed time-of-day scheduling). LEO4CAST is currently beta-test software and is being exercised by both the Office of Telecommunications and Data Acquisition (TDA) and the JPL Systems Division.

  11. Handover aspects for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) CDMA Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, P.; Beach, M. A.

    This paper addresses the problem of handoff in a land mobile satellite (LMS) system between adjacent satellites in a low earth orbit (LEO) constellation. In particular, emphasis is placed on the application of soft handoff in a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) LMS system. Soft handoff is explained in terms of terrestrial macroscopic diversity, in which signals transmitted via several independent fading paths are combined to enhance the link quality. This concept is then reconsidered in the context of a LEO LMS system. A two-state Markov channel model is used to simulate the effects of shadowing on the communications path from the mobile to each satellite during handoff. The results of the channel simulation form a platform for discussion regarding soft handoff, highlighting the potential merits of the scheme when applied in a LEO LMS environment.

  12. Handover aspects for a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) CDMA Land Mobile Satellite (LMS) system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, P.; Beach, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of handoff in a land mobile satellite (LMS) system between adjacent satellites in a low earth orbit (LEO) constellation. In particular, emphasis is placed on the application of soft handoff in a direct sequence code division multiple access (DS-CDMA) LMS system. Soft handoff is explained in terms of terrestrial macroscopic diversity, in which signals transmitted via several independent fading paths are combined to enhance the link quality. This concept is then reconsidered in the context of a LEO LMS system. A two-state Markov channel model is used to simulate the effects of shadowing on the communications path from the mobile to each satellite during handoff. The results of the channel simulation form a platform for discussion regarding soft handoff, highlighting the potential merits of the scheme when applied in a LEO LMS environment.

  13. Two-manoeuvres transfers between LEOs and Lissajous orbits in the Earth-Moon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessi, Elisa Maria; Gómez, Gerard; Masdemont, Josep J.

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this work is to compute transfer trajectories from a given Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to a nominal Lissajous quasi-periodic orbit either around the point L1 or the point L2 in the Earth-Moon system. This is achieved by adopting the Circular Restricted Three-Body Problem (CR3BP) as force model and applying the tools of Dynamical Systems Theory. It is known that the CR3BP admits five equilibrium points, also called Lagrangian points, and a first integral of motion, the Jacobi integral. In the neighbourhood of the equilibrium points L1 and L2, there exist periodic and quasi-periodic orbits and hyperbolic invariant manifolds which emanate from them. In this work, we focus on quasi-periodic Lissajous orbits and on the corresponding stable invariant manifolds. The transfers under study are established on two manoeuvres: the first one is required to leave the LEO, the second one to get either into the Lissajous orbit or into its associated stable manifold. We exploit order 25 Lindstedt-Poincaré series expansions to compute invariant objects, classical manoeuvres and differential correction procedures to build the whole transfer. If part of the trajectory lays on the stable manifold, it turns out that the transfer’s total cost, Δv, and time, t, depend mainly on: the altitude of the LEO;the geometry of the arrival orbit;the point of insertion into the stable manifold;the angle between the velocity of insertion on the manifold and the velocity on it. As example, for LEOs 360 km high and Lissajous orbits of about 6000 km wide, we obtain Δv∈[3.68,4.42]km/sandt∈[5,40]days. As further finding, when the amplitude of the target orbit is large enough, there exist points for which it is more convenient to transfer from the LEO directly to the Lissajous orbit, that is, without inserting into its stable invariant manifold.

  14. Orbits design for LEO space based solar power satellite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Addanki, Neelima Krishna Murthy

    2011-12-01

    Space Based Solar Power satellites use solar arrays to generate clean, green, and renewable electricity in space and transmit it to earth via microwave, radiowave or laser beams to corresponding receivers (ground stations). These traditionally are large structures orbiting around earth at the geo-synchronous altitude. This thesis introduces a new architecture for a Space Based Solar Power satellite constellation. The proposed concept reduces the high cost involved in the construction of the space satellite and in the multiple launches to the geo-synchronous altitude. The proposed concept is a constellation of Low Earth Orbit satellites that are smaller in size than the conventional system. 7For this application a Repeated Sun-Synchronous Track Circular Orbit is considered (RSSTO). In these orbits, the spacecraft re-visits the same locations on earth periodically every given desired number of days with the line of nodes of the spacecraft's orbit fixed relative to the Sun. A wide range of solutions are studied, and, in this thesis, a two-orbit constellation design is chosen and simulated. The number of satellites is chosen based on the electric power demands in a given set of global cities. The orbits of the satellites are designed such that their ground tracks visit a maximum number of ground stations during the revisit period. In the simulation, the locations of the ground stations are chosen close to big cities, in USA and worldwide, so that the space power constellation beams down power directly to locations of high electric power demands. The j2 perturbations are included in the mathematical model used in orbit design. The Coverage time of each spacecraft over a ground site and the gap time between two consecutive spacecrafts visiting a ground site are simulated in order to evaluate the coverage continuity of the proposed solar power constellation. It has been observed from simulations that there always periods in which s spacecraft does not communicate with any

  15. Fuzzy attitude control for a nanosatellite in leo orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvo, Daniel; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Lapuerta, Victoria; Aviles, Taisir

    Fuzzy logic controllers are flexible and simple, suitable for small satellites Attitude Determination and Control Subsystems (ADCS). In this work, a tailored fuzzy controller is designed for a nanosatellite and is compared with a traditional Proportional Integrative Derivative (PID) controller. Both control methodologies are compared within the same specific mission. The orbit height varies along the mission from injection at around 380 km down to a 200 km height orbit, and the mission requires pointing accuracy over the whole time. Due to both the requirements imposed by such a low orbit, and the limitations in the power available for the attitude control, a robust and efficient ADCS is required. For these reasons a fuzzy logic controller is implemented as the brain of the ADCS and its performance and efficiency are compared to a traditional PID. The fuzzy controller is designed in three separated controllers, each one acting on one of the Euler angles of the satellite in an orbital frame. The fuzzy memberships are constructed taking into account the mission requirements, the physical properties of the satellite and the expected performances. Both methodologies, fuzzy and PID, are fine-tuned using an automated procedure to grant maximum efficiency with fixed performances. Finally both methods are probed in different environments to test their characteristics. The simulations show that the fuzzy controller is much more efficient (up to 65% less power required) in single maneuvers, achieving similar, or even better, precision than the PID. The accuracy and efficiency improvement of the fuzzy controller increase with orbit height because the environmental disturbances decrease, approaching the ideal scenario. A brief mission description is depicted as well as the design process of both ADCS controllers. Finally the validation process and the results obtained during the simulations are described. Those results show that the fuzzy logic methodology is valid for small

  16. Preliminary Study of Geosynchronous Orbit Transfers from LEO using Invariant Manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Kathryn E.; Anderson, Rodney L.; Born, George H.

    2011-07-01

    The invariant manifolds of libration point orbits (LPOs) in the Sun-Earth/Moon system are used to construct low-energy transfers from Low Earth Orbits (LEOs) to geosynchronous orbits. A maneuver is performed in LEO to insert onto a stable manifold trajectory of an LPO. The spacecraft travels to the host LPO and then follows an unstable manifold trajectory back to a geosynchronous orbit, where an orbit insertion maneuver is performed. The gravitational effects of the Sun-Earth/Moon three-body system act in such a way that large plane changes between the initial and final orbits at Earth may be realized without the execution of any plane change maneuvers. The maneuver costs of the transfers that employ invariant manifolds are compared to those using traditional techniques. The transfers that employ manifold trajectories can lower the cost of traditional Hohmann transfers by up to 3.15 km/s for transfers involving large differences in initial and final inclinations. The decrease in fuel expenditure is accompanied by an increase in time of flight; transfer durations are slightly over one year.

  17. On the feasibility of phase only PPP for kinematic LEO orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallat, Christoph; Schön, Steffen

    2016-04-01

    Low Earth Orbiters (LEO) are satellites in altitudes up to 1000 kilometers. From the sensor data collected on board the Earth's gravity field can be recovered. Over the last 15 years several satellite missions were brought into space and the orbit determination improved over the years. To process the sensor data, precise positioning and timing of the satellite is mandatory. There are two approaches for precise orbit determination (POD) of LEO satellites. Kinematic orbits are based on GNSS observations and star camera data measured on board of the LEO. With a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) known from the terrestrial case, using ionospheric-free linear combinations P3 and L3 three-dimensional coordinates of the LEO can be estimated for every observation epoch. To counteract the challenges in kinematic orbit determination our approach is based on a technique called GNSS receiver clock modeling (RCM). Here the frequency stability of an external oscillator is used to model the behavior of the GNSS receiver clock with piecewise linear polynomials instead of estimating epoch-wise the receiver clock time offset as an unknown parameter. When using RCM the observation geometry is stabilized and the orbit coordinates and the receiver clock error can be estimated with a better precision. The satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission are equipped with Ultra Stable quartz Oscillators (USO). The USO frequency stability is used to correct the GRACE GPS receiver clock. Therefore, receiver clock modeling is feasible for polynomials with a length up to 60 seconds, leading to improved mean PDOP values of 30 % and smaller formal mean standard deviations of the coordinates between 6 and 33 %. We developed a new approach for GRACE orbits using kinematic PPP with clock modeling and tested our approach with simulated and real GPS data. The idea to use only carrier phase observations in the final processing and no code measurements leads to a reduced number

  18. Laboratory simulation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.; Oakes, David B.

    1994-01-01

    A pulsed fast oxygen atom source has been used extensively over the last 7 years to investigate the effects of ambient oxygen atoms impacting materials placed in low Earth orbit. In this period, we irradiated well over 2000 material samples with 8 km/s oxygen atoms generated in our source. Typical irradiance level is 3 x 10(exp 20) O atoms/sq cm although some materials have been irradiated to fluence levels as high as 6 x 10(exp 21) O atoms/sq cm. The operating principles and characteristics of our source are reviewed along with diagnostic and handling procedures appropriate to material testing. Representative data is presented on the velocity dependence of oxygen atom erosion rates (the PSI source provides oxygen atoms tunable over the velocity range of 5 to 12 km/s) as well as the dependence on material temperature. Specific examples of non-linear oxidative effects related to surface contamination and test duration are also be provided.

  19. Super NiCd Open-Circuit Storage and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Life Test Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Jean Marie; Hwang, Warren C.; Ang, Valerie J.; Hayden, Jeff; Rao, Gopalakrishna; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This presentation discusses Air Force tests performed on super NiCd cells to measure their performance under conditions simulating Low Earth Orbit (LEO) conditions. Super NiCd cells offer potential advantages over existing NiCd cell designs including advanced cell design with improved separator material and electrode making processes, but handling and storage requires active charging. These tests conclude that the super NiCd cells support generic Air Force qualifications for conventional LEO missions (up to five years duration) and that handling and storage may not actually require active charging as previously assumed. Topics covered include: Test Plan, Initial Characterization Tests, Open-Circuit Storage Tests, and post storage capacities.

  20. Minimum Number of Observation Points for LEO Satellite Orbit Estimation by OWL Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Jin; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Park, Jang-Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Sun-Youp; Kim, Ji-Hye; Roh, Dong-Goo; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Park, Young-Sik; Jeong, Min-Ji

    2015-12-01

    By using the Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) network developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) we generated the right ascension and declination angle data from optical observation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. We performed an analysis to verify the optimum number of observations needed per arc for successful estimation of orbit. The currently functioning OWL observatories are located in Daejeon (South Korea), Songino (Mongolia), and Oukaïmeden (Morocco). The Daejeon Observatory is functioning as a test bed. In this study, the observed targets were Gravity Probe B, COSMOS 1455, COSMOS 1726, COSMOS 2428, SEASAT 1, ATV-5, and CryoSat-2 (all in LEO). These satellites were observed from the test bed and the Songino Observatory of the OWL network during 21 nights in 2014 and 2015. After we estimated the orbit from systematically selected sets of observation points (20, 50, 100, and 150) for each pass, we compared the difference between the orbit estimates for each case, and the Two Line Element set (TLE) from the Joint Space Operation Center (JSpOC). Then, we determined the average of the difference and selected the optimal observation points by comparing the average values.

  1. Active vehicle charging measurements in sounding rocket and space shuttle orbiter environments at Low Earth Orbit (LEO) altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. J.; Eccles, J. V.; Myers, N. B.; Thompson, D. C.; Banks, P. M.; Williamson, P. R.; Bush, R. I.; Hawkins, J.; Sasaki, S.; Oyama, K.-I.

    1987-01-01

    It was concluded that for electron beam emission up to 100mA, vehicle charging is not a significant problem with the Space Shuttle Orbiter. Similarly, sounding rocket payloads have no serious charging problems up to this level of beam current, provided that the maximum amount of the rocket skin is available to collect ionospheric electrons from the LEO altitude range. However, sounding rockets are marginal in their collecting area capability and other effects may occur to balance the beam current when operated at lower altitudes during the night.

  2. Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Life Cycle Evaluation of Nickel-Zinc Batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coates, D.; Ferreira, E.; Nyce, M.; Charkey, A.

    1997-01-01

    The conclusion of the Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) life cycle evaluation of nickel-zinc batteries are: that composite nickel electrode provide excellent performance at a reduced weight and lower cost; calcium / zinc electrode minimizes shape change; unioptimized cell designs yield 60 Wh/kg; nickel-zinc delivers 600 cycles at 80% DOD; long cycle life obtainable at low DOD; high rate capability power density; long-term failure mechanism is stack dry; and anomalous overcharge (1120%) greatly affected cell performance but did not induce failure and was recoverable.

  3. On LEO Debris Orbit Prediction Performance Using Tracking Data from a Single Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, J.

    2014-09-01

    Debris laser ranging during terminator time periods has become routine practice for some tracking stations. Processing tracking data from Mt Stromlo has shown that an orbit prediction accuracy of 20 arc seconds in the along-track direction for the next 24 hours was achievable for low Earth orbiting (LEO) debris using 2 passes of debris laser ranging data from a single station, separated by about 24 hours. The radial prediction error was in the order of tens of meter, for the Mt Stromlo and Shanghai tracking stations, respectively. The accuracies were determined by comparing the predicted orbits with subsequent tracking data from the same station. This accuracy assessment might be over-optimistic for other parts of orbits far away from the station because the generated orbit is only constrained by the data above the tracking station. Therefore, a verification is needed to confirm the achievability of the debris orbit prediction accuracy using the accurate debris laser data from a single station. In this paper, the verification results using satellite laser ranging (SLR) data from a single tracking station are presented. Starlette and Larets are chosen for this study and they have perigee altitudes of 815km and 690km, respectively. The SLR data is downloaded from the website of International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) Network. The similar data scenario is assumed. That is, SLR data of only two passes separated by about 24 hours is used to determine the orbits and then the orbits are propagated forward for 7 days. The SLR data is corrupted with random errors of 1m standard deviation to reflect realistic debris laser ranging accuracy. The predicted orbits are then compared with the accurate Consolidated Prediction Format (CPF) orbits generated by the ILRS data centers. The study confirms that accuracy of 20 arc seconds in the along-track direction for 1-2 day orbit predictions, and tens of meter in the radial direction, are achievable. For the lower Larets satellite

  4. DETECTION OF A GIANT EXTRASOLAR PLANET ORBITING THE ECLIPSING POLAR DP LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, S.-B.; Liao, W.-P.; Zhu, L.-Y.; Dai, Z.-B.

    2010-01-01

    DP Leo is the first discovered eclipsing polar with a short period of 1.4967 hours. The period variation of the eclipsing binary was analyzed by using five new determined eclipse times together with those compiled from the literature. It is discovered that the O - C curve of DP Leo shows a cyclic variation with a period of 23.8 years and a semiamplitude of 31.5 s. The small-amplitude periodic change can be plausibly explained as the light-travel time effect due to the presence of a tertiary companion. The mass of the tertiary component is determined to be M {sub 3}sin i' = 0.00600({+-}0.00055) M {sub sun} = 6.28({+-}0.58) M {sub Jupiter} when a total mass of 0.69 M {sub sun} is adopted. If the tertiary companion is coplanar to the eclipsing binary (i.e., i' = 79.{sup 0}5), it should be a giant extrasolar planet with a mass of 6.39 M {sub Jupiter} at a distance of 8.6 astronomical units to the central binary. One of the most interesting things that we have learned about extrasolar planets over the last 17 years is that they can exist almost anywhere. The detection of a giant planet orbiting a polar would provide insight into the formation and evolution of circumbinary planets (planets orbiting both components of short-period binaries) as well as the late evolution of binary stars.

  5. The Application of GIM in Precise Orbit Determination for LEO Satellites with Single-Frequency GPS Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Dong-ju; Wu, Bin

    2012-10-01

    With the precise GPS ephemeris and clock error available, the iono- spheric delay is left as the dominant error source in the single-frequency GPS data. Thus, the removal of ionospheric effects is a ma jor prerequisite for an improved orbit reconstruction of LEO satellites based on the single-frequency GPS data. In this paper, the use of Global Ionospheric Maps (GIM) in kine- matic and dynamic orbit determinations for LEO satellites with single-frequency GPS pseudorange measurements is discussed first, and then, estimating the iono- spheric scale factor to remove the ionospheric effects from the C/A-code pseu- dorange measurements for both kinematic and dynamic orbit determinations is addressed. As it is known that the ionospheric delay of space-borne GPS sig- nals is strongly dependent on the orbit altitudes of LEO satellites, we select the real C/A-code pseudorange measurement data of the CHAMP, GRACE, TerraSAR-X and SAC-C satellites with altitudes between 300 km and 800 km as sample data in this paper. It is demonstrated that the approach to eliminating ionospheric effects in C/A-code pseudorange measurements by estimating the ionospheric scale factor is highly effective. Employing this approach, the accu- racy of both kinematic and dynamic orbits can be improved notably. Among those five LEO satellites, CHAMP with the lowest orbit altitude has the most remarkable improvements in orbit accuracy, which are 55.6% and 47.6% for kine- matic and dynamic orbits, respectively. SAC-C with the highest orbit altitude has the least improvements in orbit accuracy accordingly, which are 47.8% and 38.2%, respectively.

  6. Satellite co-locations as a link between SLR, GPS and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melachroinos, S. A.; Lemoine, F. G.; Chinn, D. S.; Nicolas, J. B.; Zelensky, N. P.; Wimert, J.; Radway, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The procedure applied for the determination of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF) requires the combination of all four major techniques of Space Geodesy. This combination is only possibly realized by the introduction of the local-ties between co-located techniques. A local-tie is the lever arm vector between the marker points on the sites where two or more space geodesy instruments operate. The local ties are used as additional observations with proper variances. They are usually derived from local surveys using either classical geodesy or the global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). The Global Positioning System (GPS) plays a major role in the ITRF combination by linking together all the other three techniques SLR, DORIS and VLBI (Altamimi and Collilieux 2009). However, discrepancies between local ties and space geodesy estimates are well known although the reasons for these discrepancies are often not clear. These discrepancies could be either due to errors in local ties and in coordinate estimates or in both. In this study, we use the tracking to G05-35 and G06-36 and one LEO by SLR sites and their combined orbits, earth rotation parameters (ERPs) and station positions in order to establish space-based co-location ties on the stations. The LEO satellite used in this experiment is Jason-2, which carries both GPS and SLR. Therefore from the data-processing point of view the LEO satellite is used as a fast moving station (Thaller et al. 2011). Jason-2 is also equipped with DORIS, but it will be included into another combined analysis. Subsequently, we compare the consistency of our space-based co-locations to the ones from ITRF08 and SLRF08 - IGb08 solutions.

  7. Radiation exposure and performance of multiple burn LEO-GEO orbit transfer trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorland, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    Many potential strategies exist for the transfer of spacecraft from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. One strategy has generally been utilized, that being a single impulsive burn at perigee and a GEO insertion burn at apogee. Multiple burn strategies were discussed for orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) but the transfer times and radiation exposure, particularly for potentially manned missions, were used as arguments against those options. Quantitative results concerning the trip time and radiation encountered by multiple burn orbit transfer missions in order to establish the feasibility of manned missions, the vulnerability of electronics, and the shielding requirements are presented. The performance of these multiple burn missions is quantified in terms of the payload and propellant variances from the minimum energy mission transfer. The missions analyzed varied from one to eight perigee burns and ranged from a high thrust, 1 g, acceleration, cryogenic hydrogen-oxygen chemical propulsion system for a continuous burn, 0.001 g acceleration, hydrogen, fueled resistojet propulsion system with a trip time of 60 days.

  8. Radiation exposure and performance of multiple burn LEO-GEO orbit transfer trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorland, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    Many potential strategies exist for the transfer of spacecraft from low Earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous (GEO) orbit. One strategy has generally been utilized, that being a single impulsive burn at perigee and a GEO insertion burn at apogee. Multiple burn strategies were discussed for orbit transfer vehicles (OTVs) but the transfer times and radiation exposure, particularly for potentially manned missions, were used as arguments against those options. Quantitative results concerning the trip time and radiation encountered by multiple burn orbit transfer missions in order to establish the feasibility of manned missions, the vulnerability of electronics, and the shielding requirements are presented. The performance of these multiple burn missions is quantified in terms of the payload and propellant variances from the minimum energy mission transfer. The missions analyzed varied from one to eight perigee burns and ranged from a high thrust, 1 g acceleration, cryogenic hydrogen-oxygen chemical prpulsion system to a continuous burn, 0.001 g acceleration, hydrogen fueled resistojet propulsion system with a trip time of 60 days.

  9. Modeling of LEO Orbital Debris Populations in Centimeter and Millimeter Size Regimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Hill, . M.; Horstman, M.; Krisko, P. H.; Liou, J.-C.; Matney, M.; Stansbery, E. G.

    2010-01-01

    The building of the NASA Orbital Debris Engineering Model, whether ORDEM2000 or its recently updated version ORDEM2010, uses as its foundation a number of model debris populations, each truncated at a minimum object-size ranging from 10 micron to 1 m. This paper discusses the development of the ORDEM2010 model debris populations in LEO (low Earth orbit), focusing on centimeter (smaller than 10 cm) and millimeter size regimes. Primary data sets used in the statistical derivation of the cm- and mm-size model populations are from the Haystack radar operated in a staring mode. Unlike cataloged objects of sizes greater than approximately 10 cm, ground-based radars monitor smaller-size debris only in a statistical manner instead of tracking every piece. The mono-static Haystack radar can detect debris as small as approximately 5 mm at moderate LEO altitudes. Estimation of millimeter debris populations (for objects smaller than approximately 6 mm) rests largely on Goldstone radar measurements. The bi-static Goldstone radar can detect 2- to 3-mm objects. The modeling of the cm- and mm-debris populations follows the general approach to developing other ORDEM2010-required model populations for various components and types of debris. It relies on appropriate reference populations to provide necessary prior information on the orbital structures and other important characteristics of the debris objects. NASA's LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris (LEGEND) model is capable of furnishing such reference populations in the desired size range. A Bayesian statistical inference process, commonly adopted in ORDEM2010 model-population derivations, changes a priori distribution into a posteriori distribution and thus refines the reference populations in terms of data. This paper describes key elements and major steps in the statistical derivations of the cm- and mm-size debris populations and presents results. Due to lack of data for near 1-mm sizes, the model populations of 1- to 3.16-mm

  10. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  11. A Dynamic/Anisotropic Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Ionizing Radiation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badavi, Francis F.; West, Katie J.; Nealy, John E.; Wilson, John W.; Abrahms, Briana L.; Luetke, Nathan J.

    2006-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) provides the proving ground for future long duration human activities in space. Ionizing radiation measurements in ISS form the ideal tool for the experimental validation of ionizing radiation environmental models, nuclear transport code algorithms, and nuclear reaction cross sections. Indeed, prior measurements on the Space Transportation System (STS; Shuttle) have provided vital information impacting both the environmental models and the nuclear transport code development by requiring dynamic models of the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Previous studies using Computer Aided Design (CAD) models of the evolving ISS configurations with Thermo Luminescent Detector (TLD) area monitors, demonstrated that computational dosimetry requires environmental models with accurate non-isotropic as well as dynamic behavior, detailed information on rack loading, and an accurate 6 degree of freedom (DOF) description of ISS trajectory and orientation.

  12. Aktiv De-Orbiting Onboard System from Leo of Upper Stages of Launchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shalay, V.; Shatrov, J.; Jakovlev, M.; Kostantino, A.

    2009-03-01

    The active de-orbiting onboard system (VDOS) of upper separable parts (USP) stage of launchers from LEO into orbits of utilization with term of existence orbital lifetimes till 25 years is offered. ADOS it is based on use of power resources of not produced rests of liquid fuel onboard USP launchers with liquid propulsion module (LPM). Following systems enter in structure VDOS: the gas jet propulsion system consisting of a system of gasification, chambers of gas engines (GE), a control system. For gasification of the rests of liquid fuel the heat-carrier received in the autonomous gas generator is used. The gasification propellant components from each tank with temperature and the pressure determined by strength of the corresponding tank, move in chambers of the GE established on a top of a fuel compartment. After separation of a payload execute twist USP for preservation of its position in the space by activity of the GE. Ways of increase of a system effectiveness of gasification are offered by superposition on the entered heat-carrier of ultrasonic oscillations, and also introduction in gaseous fuel nanopowder of aluminum. The volume of adaptations of construction USP, connected with introduction VDOS does not exceed 5 % from weight of a dry construction.

  13. Analysing Global Achievements in Orbital Lifetime Reduction at the End of LEO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krag, Holger; Lemmens, Stijn; Flohrer, Tim; Klinkard, Heiner

    2013-08-01

    The major driver for future debris proliferation, besides the intentional and unintentional release of objects, is the abundance of objects with large masses and sizes in orbit that could be involved in catastrophic collisions. Mitigation measures thus concentrate on the prevention of object release (explosions, mission-related objects, SRM (Solid Rocket Motor) exhaust products), the disposal of objects and active collision avoidance. As ESA's simulations show, the most effective means of stabilizing the space debris environment is the removal of mass from regions with high spatial densities. A limitation of the residence time of controlled objects in altitudes below 2000km to 25 years followed by either atmospheric re-entry or reboost to higher altitudes allows to limit the growth of object numbers in the densely populated LEO environment. This is the most relevant requirement for operations. In this paper we look into the achievements of all spacefaring nations with respect to this requirement. For this purpose, ESA has developed a method to determine the operational status of running missions, by monitoring their manoeuvre activity with the help of the publicly available orbit data distributed by the US Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM). Missions that have been found to have terminated their operational life will be processed to determine the remaining orbital lifetime. The results will be presented in a statistical manner.

  14. Analysis of Static Spacecraft Floating Potential at Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herr, Joel L.; Hwang, K. S.; Wu, S. T.

    1995-01-01

    Spacecraft floating potential is the charge on the external surfaces of orbiting spacecraft relative to the space. Charging is caused by unequal negative and positive currents to spacecraft surfaces. The charging process continues until the accelerated particles can be collected rapidly enough to balance the currents at which point the spacecraft has reached its equilibrium or floating potential. In low inclination. Low Earth Orbit (LEO), the collection of positive ion and negative electrons. in a particular direction. are typically not equal. The level of charging required for equilibrium to be established is influenced by the characteristics of the ambient plasma environment. by the spacecraft motion, and by the geometry of the spacecraft. Using the kinetic theory, a statistical approach for studying the interaction is developed. The approach used to study the spacecraft floating potential depends on which phenomena are being applied. and on the properties of the plasma. especially the density and temperature. The results from kinetic theory derivation are applied to determine the charging level and the electric potential distribution at an infinite flat plate perpendicular to a streaming plasma using finite-difference scheme.

  15. A spaceborne, pulsed UV laser system for re-entering or nudging LEO debris, and re-orbiting GEO debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.; Bonnal, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Among the problems raised by the presence of debris in Earth Orbit, the question of large derelict satellites in Geostationary Orbit (GEO) is of major importance. More than 1000 defunct GEO satellites cruise in the vicinity of this unique orbit and pose the question of orbital slot availability. It is proposed to use lasers in GEO to reorbit the large debris in the graveyard zone, some 300 km above GEO. The principle of orbital transfer by laser ablation is recalled, and two different methods are described. These lasers can also serve for small debris deorbiting and large debris nudging in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Technical details are provided, as well as a preliminary mass budget.

  16. The Method for Calculating Atmospheric Drag Coefficient Based on the Characteristics of Along-track Error in LEO Orbit Prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Liu, Z. G.; Zhang, W.

    2016-07-01

    The errors of atmosphere density model and drag coefficient are the major factors to restrain the accuracy of orbit prediction for the LEO (Low Earth Orbit) objects, which would affect unfavorably the space missions that need a high-precision orbit. This paper brings out a new method for calculating the drag coefficient based on the divergence laws of prediction error's along-track component. Firstly, we deduce the expression of along-track error in LEO's orbit prediction, revealing the comprehensive effect of the initial orbit and model's errors in the along-track direction. According to this expression, we work out a suitable drag coefficient adopted in prediction step on the basis of some certain information from orbit determination step, which will limit the increasing rate of along-track error and reduce the largest error in this direction, then achieving the goal of improving the accuracy of orbit prediction. In order to verify the method's accuracy and successful rate in the practice of orbit prediction, we use the full-arcs high precision position data from the GPS receiver on GRACE-A. The result shows that this new method can significantly improve the accuracy of prediction by about 45%, achieving a successful rate of about 71% and an effective rate of about 86%, with respect to classical method which uses the fitted drag coefficient directly from orbit determination step. Furthermore, the new method shows a preferable application value, because it is effective for low, moderate, and high solar radiation levels, as well as some quiet and moderate geomagnetic activity condition.

  17. Impedance measurements on a spiral-wound nickel/metal hydride cell cycled in a simulated Leo orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Margaret A.

    1993-01-01

    A spiral-wound size C cell was cycled at 25 C in a low earth orbit (LEO) regime at 50 percent depth of discharge (DOD) with approximately five percent over-charge. The nominal capacity was 3.5 AH. The cell was cycled for 2000 cycles. Capacity checks and impedance measurements over the complete range of state of charge were made upon receipt and after 500, 1000, and 2000 cycles. The capacity of the cell was essentially unchanged until after the impedance measurements at 2000 cycles. Only small changes in the impedance parameters were observed, but there was somewhat more scatter in the data after 2000 cycles. When the cell was returned to LEO cycling after 2000 cycles, only 38 percent of the capacity could be obtained. It is believed that the cell failed because of an equipment failure at the end of the final impedance measurements which allowed an over-discharge.

  18. Space Gravity Spectroscopy - determination of the Earth's gravitational field by means of Newton interpolated LEO ephemeris Case studies on dynamic (CHAMP Rapid Science Orbit) and kinematic orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Austen, G.; Grafarend, E. W.

    2003-07-01

    An algorithm for the (kinematic) orbit analysis of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) GPS tracked satellite to determine the spherical harmonic coefficients of the terrestrial gravitational field is presented. A contribution to existing long wavelength gravity field models is expected since the kinematic orbit of a LEO satellite can nowadays be determined with very high accuracy in the range of a few centimeters. To demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method, first results from the analysis of real CHAMP Rapid Science (dynamic) Orbits (RSO) and kinematic orbits are illustrated. In particular, we take advantage of Newton's Law of Motion which balances the acceleration vector and the gradient of the gravitational potential with respect to an Inertial Frame of Reference (IRF). The satellite's acceleration vector is determined by means of the second order functional of Newton's Interpolation Formula from relative satellite ephemeris (baselines) with respect to the IRF. Therefore the satellite ephemeris, which are normally given in a Body fixed Frame of Reference (BRF) have to be transformed into the IRF. Subsequently the Newton interpolated accelerations have to be reduced for disturbing gravitational and non-gravitational accelerations in order to obtain the accelerations caused by the Earth's gravitational field. For a first insight in real data processing these reductions have been neglected. The gradient of the gravitational potential, conventionally expressed in vector-valued spherical harmonics and given in a Body Fixed Frame of Reference, must be transformed from BRF to IRF by means of the polar motion matrix, the precession-nutation matrices and the Greenwich Siderial Time Angle (GAST). The resulting linear system of equations is solved by means of a least squares adjustment in terms of a Gauss-Markov model in order to estimate the spherical harmonics coefficients of the Earth's gravitational field.Key words. space gravity spectroscopy, spherical harmonics

  19. Planning constraints of low grazing altitude GEO-LEO laser links based on in-orbit data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterr, Uwe; Dallmann, Daniel; Heine, Frank; Tröndle, Daniel; Meyer, Rolf; Lutzer, Michael; Benzi, Edoardo

    2016-11-01

    Part of the operational concept for laser communication networks such as the European data relay system is planning constraints. In addition to hard constraints such as angular range of the actuators, there is also the atmosphere, which has a gradual increasing impact as the distance between laser beam path and earth decreases. The shortest distance between the laser beam path and the surface of the earth is called "grazing altitude." The atmosphere impacts spatial acquisition as well as communication performance. In-orbit measurement data of geostationary orbit-low-Earth orbit (GEO-LEO) links between two laser communication terminals (LCT) developed by TESAT-Spacecom, Germany, in the frame of Alphasat TDP1 optical GEO-relay demonstration program are presented. Planning constraint guidelines are formulated based on the observed influence. TESAT-Spacecom's LCTs use a highly sensitive and high-performance coherent transmission technology and a beaconless spatial acquisition system.

  20. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia via TRPV1 channel agonism provides neuroprotection following ischemic stroke when initiated 90 min after reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijuan; Balasubramanian, Adithya; Marrelli, Sean P

    2014-01-15

    Traditional methods of therapeutic hypothermia show promise for neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R), however, with limitations. We examined effectiveness and specificity of pharmacological hypothermia (PH) by transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel agonism in the treatment of focal cerebral I/R. Core temperature (T(core)) was measured after subcutaneous infusion of TRPV1 agonist dihydrocapsaicin (DHC) in conscious C57BL/6 WT and TRPV1 knockout (KO) mice. Acute measurements of heart rate (HR), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cerebral perfusion were measured before and after DHC treatment. Focal cerebral I/R (1 h ischemia + 24 h reperfusion) was induced by distal middle cerebral artery occlusion. Hypothermia (>8 h) was initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion by DHC infusion (osmotic pump). Neurofunction (behavioral testing) and infarct volume (TTC staining) were measured at 24 h. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) produced a stable drop in T(core) (33°C) in naive and I/R mouse models but not in TRPV1 KO mice. DHC (1.25 mg/kg) had no measurable effect on HR and cerebral perfusion but produced a slight transient drop in MAP (<6 mmHg). In stroke mice, DHC infusion produced hypothermia, decreased infarct volume by 87%, and improved neurofunctional score. The hypothermic and neuroprotective effects of DHC were absent in TRPV1 KO mice or mice maintained normothermic with heat support. PH via TRPV1 agonist appears to be a well-tolerated and effective method for promoting mild hypothermia in the conscious mouse. Furthermore, TRPV1 agonism produces effective hypothermia in I/R mice and significantly improves outcome when initiated 90 min after start of reperfusion.

  1. Mapping the Space Radiation Environment in LEO Orbit by the SATRAM Timepix Payload On Board the Proba-V Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan; Sospisil, Stanislav; Owens, Alan; Mellab, Karim

    2016-08-01

    The compact spacecraft payload SATRAM is operating in LEO orbit since 2013 on board the Proba-V satellite from ESA and provides high-resolution wide-range radiation monitoring of the satellite environment. Equipped with the pixel detector Timepix, the technology demonstration payload determines the composition (particle types) and spectral characterization (stopping power) of the mixed radiation field with quantum imaging sensitivity, charged particle tracking, energy loss and directionality capability. With a polar orbit (sun synchronous, 98° inclination) and altitude of 820 km the space radiation field is continuously sampled over the entire planet every few days. Results are given in the form of spatial- and time- correlated maps of dose rate and particle flux. Comparison is made between quiescent and geomagnetic storm activity periods.

  2. German Lunar Exploration Orbiter (LEO): Providing a Globally Covered, Highly Resolved, Integrated, Geological, Geochemical, and Geophysical Data Base of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaumann, R.; Spohn, T.; Hiesinger, H.; Jessberger, E. K.; Neukum, G.; Oberst, J.; Helbert, J.; Christensen, U.; Keller, H. U.; Hartogh, P.; Glassmeier, K.-H.; Auster, H.-U.; Moreira, A.; Werner, M.; Pätzold, M.; Palme, H.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R.; Mandea

    2008-03-01

    LEO is planned to be launched in 2012 and shall orbit the Moon for about four years at low altitude (<50 km) in order to map the Moon geomorphologically, geochemically, and geophysically with resolutions down to less than 1 m globally.

  3. High intensity 5 eV atomic oxygen source and Low Earth Orbit (LEO) simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.; Spangler, L. H.; Hoffbauer, M. A.; Archuleta, F. A.; Leger, Lubert; Visentine, James

    1987-01-01

    An atomic oxygen exposure facility has been developed for studies of material degradation. The goal of these studies is to provide design criteria and information for the manufacture of long life (20 to 30 years) construction materials for use in LEO. The studies that are being undertaken using the facility will provide: absolute reaction cross sections for use in engineering design problems; formulations of reaction mechanisms; and calibration of flight hardware (mass spectrometers, etc.) in order to directly relate experiments performed in LEO to ground based investigations. The facility consists of: (1) a CW laser sustained discharge source of O atoms having a variable energy up to 5 eV and an intensity between 10(15) and 10(17) O atoms s(-1) cm(-2); (2) an atomic beam formation and diagnostics system consisting of various stages of differential pumping, a mass spectrometer detector, and a time of flight analyzer; (3) a spinning rotor viscometer for absolute O atom flux measurements; and (4) provision for using the system for calibration of actual flight instruments. Surface analysis equipment is available for the characterization of material surfaces before and after exposure to O atoms.

  4. An electrically conductive thermal control surface for spacecraft encountering Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen indium tin oxide-coated thermal blankets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, J. L.

    1987-01-01

    An organic black thermal blanket material was coated with indium tin oxide (ITO) to prevent blanket degradation in the low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen environment. The blankets were designed for the Galileo spacecraft. Galileo was initially intended for space shuttle launch and would, therefore, have been exposed to atomic oxygen in LEO for between 10 and 25 hours. Two processes for depositing ITO are described. Thermooptical, electrical, and chemical properties of the ITO film are presented as a function of the deposition process. Results of exposure of the ITO film to atomic oxygen (from a shuttle flight) and radiation exposure (simulated Jovian environment) are also presented. It is shown that the ITO-protected thermal blankets would resist the anticipated LEO oxygen and Jovian radiation yet provide adequate thermooptical and electrical resistance. Reference is made to the ESA Ulysses spacecraft, which also used ITO protection on thermal control surfaces.

  5. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cell - Update II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1992-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles, compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min discharge (2X normal rate). The depth-of-discharge was 80 percent. Six 48-Ah Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells), and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The three 31 percent KOH cells failed (cycles 3729, 4165, and 11355). One of the 26 percent KOH cells failed at cycle 15314. The other two 26 percent KOH cells were cycled for over 16,000 cycles during the continuing test.

  6. Precise Orbit Determination for LEO Spacecraft Using GNSS Tracking Data from Multiple Antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Da; Bertiger, William; Desai, Shailen; Haines, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    To support various applications, certain Earth-orbiting spacecrafts (e.g., SRTM, COSMIC) use multiple GNSS antennas to provide tracking data for precise orbit determination (POD). POD using GNSS tracking data from multiple antennas poses some special technical issues compared to the typical single-antenna approach. In this paper, we investigate some of these issues using both real and simulated data. Recommendations are provided for POD with multiple GNSS antennas and for antenna configuration design. The observability of satellite position with multiple antennas data is compared against single antenna case. The impact of differential clock (line biases) and line-of-sight (up, along-track, and cross-track) on kinematic and reduced-dynamic POD is evaluated. The accuracy of monitoring the stability of the spacecraft structure by simultaneously performing POD of the spacecraft and relative positioning of the multiple antennas is also investigated.

  7. Orbit Determination of LEO Satellites for a Single Pass through a Radar: Comparison of Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khutorovsky, Z.; Kamensky, S.; Sbytov, N.; Alfriend, K. T.

    2007-01-01

    The problem of determining the orbit of a space object from measurements based on one pass through the field of view of a radar is not a new one. Extensive research in this area has been carried out in the USA and Russia since the late 50s when these countries started the development of ballistic missile defense (BMD) and Early Warning systems. In Russia these investigations got additional stimulation in the early 60s after the decision to create a Space Surveillance System, whose primary task would be the maintenance of the satellite catalog. These problems were the focus of research interest until the middle 70s when the appropriate techniques and software were implemented for all radars. Then for more than 20 years no new research papers appeared on this subject. This produced an impression that all the problems of track determination based on one pass had been solved and there was no need for further research. In the late 90s interest in this problem arose again in relation to the following. It was estimated that there would be greater than 100,000 objects with size greater than 1-2 cm and collision of an operational spacecraft with any of these objects could have catastrophic results. Thus, for prevention of hazardous approaches and collisions with valuable spacecraft the existing satellite catalog should be extended by at least an order of magnitude This is a very difficult scientific and engineering task. One of the issues is the development of data fusion procedures and the software capable of maintaining such a huge catalog in near real time. The number of daily processed measurements (of all types, radar and optical) for such a system may constitute millions, thus increasing the number of measurements by at least an order of magnitude. Since we will have ten times more satellites and measurements the computer effort required for the correlation of measurements will be two orders of magnitude greater. This could create significant problems for processing

  8. Neutral atomic oxygen beam produced by ion charge exchange for Low Earth Orbital (LEO) simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce; Rutledge, Sharon; Brdar, Marko; Olen, Carl; Stidham, Curt

    1987-01-01

    A low energy neutral atomic oxygen beam system was designed and is currently being assembled at the Lewis Research Center. The system utilizes a 15 cm diameter Kaufman ion source to produce positive oxygen ions which are charge exchange neutralized to produce low energy (variable from 5 to 150 eV) oxygen atoms at a flux simulating real time low Earth orbital conditions. An electromagnet is used to direct only the singly charged oxygen ions from the ion source into the charge exchange cell. A retarding potential grid is used to slow down the oxygen ions to desired energies prior to their charge exchange. Cryogenically cooled diatomic oxygen gas in the charge exchange cell is then used to transfer charge to the oxygen ions to produce a neutral atomic oxygen beam. Remaining non-charge exchanged oxygen ions are then swept from the beam by electromagnetic or electrostatic deflection depending upon the desired experiment configuration. The resulting neutral oxygen beam of 5 to 10 cm in diameter impinges upon target materials within a sample holder fixture that can also provide for simultaneous heating and UV exposure during the atomic oxygen bombardment.

  9. Requirements for an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) for Improved Regional Weather Prediction and Monitoring of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.; Chahine, Moustafa T.; Susskind, Joel

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral infrared atmospheric sounders (e.g., the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on Aqua and the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on Met Op) provide highly accurate temperature and water vapor profiles in the lower to upper troposphere. These systems are vital operational components of our National Weather Prediction system and the AIRS has demonstrated over 6 hrs of forecast improvement on the 5 day operational forecast. Despite the success in the mid troposphere to lower stratosphere, a reduction in sensitivity and accuracy has been seen in these systems in the boundary layer over land. In this paper we demonstrate the potential improvement associated with higher spatial resolution (1 km vs currently 13.5 km) on the accuracy of boundary layer products with an added consequence of higher yield of cloud free scenes. This latter feature is related to the number of samples that can be assimilated and has also shown to have a significant impact on improving forecast accuracy. We also present a set of frequencies and resolutions that will improve vertical resolution of temperature and water vapor and trace gas species throughout the atmosphere. Development of an Advanced Low Earth Orbit (LEO) Sounder (ALS) with these improvements will improve weather forecast at the regional scale and of tropical storms and hurricanes. Improvements are also expected in the accuracy of the water vapor and cloud properties products, enhancing process studies and providing a better match to the resolution of future climate models. The improvements of technology required for the ALS are consistent with the current state of technology as demonstrated in NASA Instrument Incubator Program and NOAA's Hyperspectral Environmental Suite (HES) formulation phase development programs.

  10. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    A breakthrough in low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen battery cells was reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The effect of KOH concentration on cycle life was studied. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min charge (2 x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The next step is to validate these results using flight hardware and a real time LEO test. NASA Lewis has a contract with the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana, to validate the boiler plate test results. Six 48 A-hr Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells) and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The cells were cycled for over 8000 cycles in the continuing test. There were no failures for the cells containing 26 percent KOH. There was two failures, however, for the cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  11. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1990-01-01

    A breakthrough in the low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV) nickel hydrogen battery cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. The effect of KOH concentration on cycle life was studied. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min charge (2 x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The next step is to validate these results using flight hardware and real time LEO test. NASA Lewis has a contract with the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana to validate the boiler plate test results. Six 48 A-hr Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells) and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The cells were cycled for over 8000 cycles in the continuing test. There were no failures for the cells containing 26 percent KOH. There were two failures, however, for the cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  12. Ensemble Simulations of the Thermosphere to Quantify the Relationship between Uncertainties in the Space Environment Drivers and the Orbital Position of LEO Satellites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussy-Virat, C.; Ridley, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The prediction of the position and the velocity of low Earth orbit (LEO) satellites and orbital debris has become particularly important as their number has considerably increased. Some space missions that include measurements of the Earth require the knowledge of the state (position and velocity) of the spacecraft that takes the measurements. Collision avoidance is also a major issue that can only be solved with a particular accurate orbit determination of the objects in orbit. The CYclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS) that aims to improve the prediction of tropical cyclones by using a constellation of eight satellites is a good example of a mission that requires a high level of accuracy in the orbit propagation of each of the satellites. After gravity, the main force acting on LEO satellites is atmospheric drag. The drag force acting on the satellite is directly proportional to the thermospheric density, which is complex to model and predict because of the strong coupling of the thermosphere with the lower atmosphere, the ionosphere (itself driven by the magnetosphere), and the Sun. Therefore, uncertainties in the density are not negligible at these altitudes and are an important cause of the uncertainties on the position of a satellite. Many groups have worked on the prediction of inputs of the space environment that impact the density of the thermosphere (solar wind speed, Interplanetary Magnetic Field, F10.7, Ap/Kp). However, quantifying the uncertainty on these predictions is also essential. Ensemble forecasts can help quantify how uncertainties in drivers affect the uncertainty in the orbital position of satellites. We use ensemble simulations of the thermosphere, including both empirical and physics-based models, to quantify the relationship between uncertainties in the drivers and orbital position.

  13. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells-update 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in low earth orbit (LEO) cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel (IPV nickel-hydrogen cells has been previously reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte was about 40 000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH. This test was conducted at Hughes Aircraft Company under a NASA Lewis contract. The purpose was to investigate the effect of KOH concentration on cycle life. The cycle regime was a stressful accelerated LEO, which consisted of a 27.5 min charge followed by a 17.5 min discharge (2x normal rate). The depth of discharge (DOD) was 80 percent. The cell temperature was maintained at 23 C. The boiler plate test results are in the process of being validated using flight hardware and real time LEO test at the Naval Weapons Support Center (NWSC), Crane, Indiana under a NASA Lewis Contract. Six 48 Ah Hughes recirculation design IPV nickel-hydrogen flight battery cells are being evaluated. Three of the cells contain 26 percent KOH (test cells), and three contain 31 percent KOH (control cells). They are undergoing real time LEO cycle life testing. The cycle regime is a 90-min LEO orbit consisting of a 54-min charge followed by a 36-min discharge. The depth-of-discharge is 80 percent. The cell temperature is maintained at 10 C. The three 31 percent KOH cells failed (cycles 3729, 4165, and 11355). One of the 26 percent KOH cells failed at cycle 15314. The other two 26 percent KOH cells were cycled for over 16600 cycles during the continuing test.

  14. Lunar shadow eclipse prediction models for the Earth orbiting spacecraft: Comparison and application to LEO and GEO spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Vineet K.; Kumar, Jai; Kulshrestha, Shivali; Srivastava, Ashutosh; Bhaskar, M. K.; Kushvah, Badam Singh; Shiggavi, Prakash; Vallado, David A.

    2015-05-01

    A solar eclipse occurs when the Sun, Moon and Earth are aligned in such a way that shadow of the Moon falls on the Earth. The Moon's shadow also falls on the Earth orbiting spacecraft. In this case, the alignment of the Sun, Moon, and spacecraft is similar to that of the Sun, Moon, and Earth but this phenomenon is often referred as a lunar eclipse falling on the spacecraft. Lunar eclipse is not as regular in terms of times of occurrence, duration, and depth as the Earth shadow eclipse and number of its occurrence per orbital location per year ranges from zero to four with an average of two per year; a spacecraft may experience two to three lunar eclipses within a twenty-four hour period [2]. These lunar eclipses can cause severe spacecraft operational problems. This paper describes two lunar shadow eclipse prediction models using a projection map approach and a line of intersection method by extending the Earth shadow eclipse models described by Srivastava et al. [10,11] for the Earth orbiting spacecraft. The attractive feature of both models is that they are much easier to implement. Both mathematical models have been simulated for two Indian low Earth orbiting spacecrafts: Oceansat-2, Saral-1, and two geostationary spacecrafts: GSAT-10, INSAT-4CR. Results obtained by the models compare well with lunar shadow model given by Escobal and Robertson [12], and high fidelity commercial software package, Systems Tool Kit (STK) of AGI.

  15. Particle filter using a new resampling approach applied to LEO satellite autonomous orbit determination with a magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jinjie; Liu, Kun; Wei, Jingbo; Han, Dapeng; Xiang, Junhua

    2012-12-01

    Particle filter (PF) is widely used in nonlinear and non-Gaussian systems. Resampling is one of the significant steps in PF. However, PF using conventional resampling approaches may lead to divergent solutions because of the degeneracy phenomenon or sample impoverishment associated with a multidimensional system. In this article, an efficient alternative to conventional resampling approaches, called adaptive partial systematic resampling (APSR) with Markov chain Monte Carlo move and intelligent roughening is proposed for satellite orbit determination using a magnetometer. The results of the new resampling approach are compared with conventional resampling approaches and with unscented Kalman filter (UKF) for various initial errors in position and velocity, measurement sampling periods, and measurement noises to evaluate and verify the performance of the new resampling approach. The results of the new resampling approach in all cases are significantly better than the results of conventional resampling approaches. The velocity accuracy of the orbit determination of APSR is slightly poorer than UKF for relatively small initial errors, and small Gaussian measurement noise. However, the proposed approach yields more robust and stable convergence than UKF under large initial errors, long measurement sampling period, large Gaussian measurement noise, or non-Gaussian noise.

  16. The International Space Station: A Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Test Bed for Advancements in Space and Environmental Medicine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruttley, Tara M.; Robinson, Julie A.

    2010-01-01

    Ground-based space analog projects such as the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) can be valuable test beds for evaluation of experimental design and hardware feasibility before actually being implemented on orbit. The International Space Station (ISS) is an closed-system laboratory that orbits 240 miles above the Earth, and is the ultimate extreme environment. Its inhabitants spend hours performing research that spans from fluid physics to human physiology, yielding results that have implications for Earth-based improvements in medicine and health, as well as those that will help facilitate the mitigation of risks to the human body associated with exploration-class space missions. ISS health and medical experiments focus on pre-flight and in-flight prevention, in-flight treatment, and postflight recovery of health problems associated with space flight. Such experiments include those on enhanced medical monitoring, bone and muscle loss prevention, cardiovascular health, immunology, radiation and behavior. Lessons learned from ISS experiments may not only be applicable to other extreme environments that face similar capability limitations, but also serve to enhance standards of care for everyday use on Earth.

  17. Leo Minor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Lesser Lion; abbrev. LMi, gen. Leonis Minoris; area 232 sq.deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Ursa Major and Leo, and culminates at midnight in late February. It was introduced by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-87) of Danzig (Gdansk), who included it in his atlas Firmamentum Sobiescianum sive Uranographia of 1687....

  18. Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses (OOREOS) Satellite: Radiation Exposure in LEO and Supporting Laboratory Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew Lige; Cook, Amanda Marie; Quinn, Richard C.; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Ricca,Alessandra; Jones, Nykola C.; Hoffman, Soren; Ricco,Antonio

    2014-01-01

    We will present the results from the exposure of the metalloporphyrin iron tetraphenylporphyrin chloride (FeTPPCI), anthraufin (C(sub 14)H(sub 8)(O sub 4) (Anth) and Isoviolanthrene (C(sub 34H sub 18) (IVA) to the outher space environment, measured in situ aboard the Organism/Organic Exposure to Orbital Stresses nanosatellite. The compounds were exposed for a period of 17 months (3700 hours of direct solar exposure) including broad-spectrum solar radiation (approx. 122 nm to the near infrared). The organic films are enclosed in hermetically sealed sample cells that contain one of four astrobiologically relevant microenvironments. Transmission spectra (200-1000 nm) were recorded for each film, at first daily and subsequently every 15 days, along with a solar spectrum and the dark response of the detector array. In addition to analysis via UV-Vis spectroscopy, the laboratory controls were also monitored via infrared and far-UV spectroscopy. The results presented will include the finding that the FeTPPCI and IVA organic films in contact with a humid headspace gas (0.8-2.3%) exhibit faster degradation times, upon irradiation, in comparison with identical films under dry headspaces gases, whereas the Anth thin film exhibited a higher degree of photostability. In the companion laboratory experiments, simulated solar exposure of FeTPI films in contact with either Ar or CO(sub -2):O(sub -2):Ar (10:0.01:1000) headspace gas results in growth of a band in the films infrared spectra at 1961 cm(sup 1). Our assignment of this new spectral feature and the corresponding rational will be presented. The relevance of O/OREOS findings to planetary science, biomarker research, and the photostability of organic materials in astrobiologically relevant environments will also be discussed.

  19. NASA STD-4005: The LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2006-01-01

    Power systems with voltages higher than about 55 volts may charge in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) enough to cause destructive arcing. The NASA STD-4005 LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard will help spacecraft designers prevent arcing and other deleterious effects on LEO spacecraft. The Appendices, an Information Handbook based on the popular LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines by Ferguson and Hillard, serve as a useful explanation and accompaniment to the Standard.

  20. Impact of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    2003-04-01

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, ...). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire``constellation´´ of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously. In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, namely, (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, ...); (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours; (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines; (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs; and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance to improve the global GPS results at all. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on simulated data and combined global solutions based on real CHAMP and JASON data and the data

  1. Wave optics-based LEO-LEO radio occultation retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benzon, Hans-Henrik; Høeg, Per

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the theory for performing retrieval of radio occultations that use probing frequencies in the XK and KM band. Normally, radio occultations use frequencies in the L band, and GPS satellites are used as the transmitting source, and the occultation signals are received by a GPS receiver on board a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite. The technique is based on the Doppler shift imposed, by the atmosphere, on the signal emitted from the GPS satellite. Two LEO satellites are assumed in the occultations discussed in this paper, and the retrieval is also dependent on the decrease in the signal amplitude caused by atmospheric absorption. The radio wave transmitter is placed on one of these satellites, while the receiver is placed on the other LEO satellite. One of the drawbacks of normal GPS-based radio occultations is that external information is needed to calculate some of the atmospheric products such as the correct water vapor content in the atmosphere. These limitations can be overcome when a proper selected range of high-frequency waves are used to probe the atmosphere. Probing frequencies close to the absorption line of water vapor have been included, thus allowing the retrieval of the water vapor content. Selecting the correct probing frequencies would make it possible to retrieve other information such as the content of ozone. The retrieval is performed through a number of processing steps which are based on the Full Spectrum Inversion (FSI) technique. The retrieval chain is therefore a wave optics-based retrieval chain, and it is therefore possible to process measurements that include multipath. In this paper simulated LEO to LEO radio occultations based on five different frequencies are used. The five frequencies are placed in the XK or KM frequency band. This new wave optics-based retrieval chain is used on a number of examples, and the retrieved atmospheric parameters are compared to the parameters from a global European Centre for Medium

  2. Simulating cosmic radiation absorption and secondary particle production of solar panel layers of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite with GEANT4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yiǧitoǧlu, Merve; Veske, Doǧa; Nilüfer Öztürk, Zeynep; Bilge Demirköz, Melahat

    2016-07-01

    All devices which operate in space are exposed to cosmic rays during their operation. The resulting radiation may cause fatal damages in the solid structure of devices and the amount of absorbed radiation dose and secondary particle production for each component should be calculated carefully before the production. Solar panels are semiconductor solid state devices and are very sensitive to radiation. Even a short term power cut-off may yield a total failure of the satellite. Even little doses of radiation can change the characteristics of solar cells. This deviation can be caused by rarer high energetic particles as well as the total ionizing dose from the abundant low energy particles. In this study, solar panels planned for a specific LEO satellite, IMECE, are analyzed layer by layer. The Space Environment Information System (SPENVIS) database and GEANT4 simulation software are used to simulate the layers of the panels. The results obtained from the simulation will be taken in account to determine the amount of radiation protection and resistance needed for the panels or to revise the design of the panels.

  3. Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm in LEO/MEO Double-layered Optical Satellite Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongjun; Zhao, Shanghong

    2016-09-01

    A novel routing algorithm (Hierarchical Supervisor and Agent Routing Algorithm, HSARA) for LEO/MEO (low earth orbit/medium earth orbit) double-layered optical satellite network is brought forward. The so-called supervisor (MEO satellite) is designed for failure recovery and network management. LEO satellites are grouped according to the virtual managed field of MEO which is different from coverage area of MEO satellite in RF satellite network. In each LEO group, one LEO satellite which has maximal persistent link with its supervisor is called the agent. A LEO group is updated when this optical inter-orbit links between agent LEO satellite and the corresponding MEO satellite supervisor cuts off. In this way, computations of topology changes and LEO group updating can be decreased. Expense of routing is integration of delay and wavelength utilization. HSARA algorithm simulations are implemented and the results are as follows: average network delay of HSARA can reduce 21 ms and 31.2 ms compared with traditional multilayered satellite routing and single-layer LEO satellite respectively; LEO/MEO double-layered optical satellite network can cover polar region which cannot be covered by single-layered LEO satellite and throughput is 1% more than that of single-layered LEO satellite averagely. Therefore, exact global coverage can be achieved with this double-layered optical satellite network.

  4. Orbital

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanson, Robert M.

    2003-06-01

    ORBITAL requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime Plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL).

  5. The SATRAM Timepix spacecraft payload in open space on board the Proba-V satellite for wide range radiation monitoring in LEO orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granja, Carlos; Polansky, Stepan; Vykydal, Zdenek; Pospisil, Stanislav; Owens, Alan; Kozacek, Zdenek; Mellab, Karim; Simcak, Marek

    2016-06-01

    The Space Application of Timepix based Radiation Monitor (SATRAM) is a spacecraft platform radiation monitor on board the Proba-V satellite launched in an 820 km altitude low Earth orbit in 2013. The is a technology demonstration payload is based on the Timepix chip equipped with a 300 μm silicon sensor with signal threshold of 8 keV/pixel to low-energy X-rays and all charged particles including minimum ionizing particles. For X-rays the energy working range is 10-30 keV. Event count rates can be up to 106 cnt/(cm2 s) for detailed event-by-event analysis or over 1011 cnt/(cm2 s) for particle-counting only measurements. The single quantum sensitivity (zero-dark current noise level) combined with per-pixel spectrometry and micro-scale pattern recognition analysis of single particle tracks enables the composition (particle type) and spectral characterization (energy loss) of mixed radiation fields to be determined. Timepix's pixel granularity and particle tracking capability also provides directional sensitivity for energetic charged particles. The payload detector response operates in wide dynamic range in terms of absorbed dose starting from single particle doses in the pGy level, particle count rate up to 106-10 /cm2/s and particle energy loss (threshold at 150 eV/μm). The flight model in orbit was successfully commissioned in 2013 and has been sampling the space radiation field in the satellite environment along its orbit at a rate of several frames per minute of varying exposure time. This article describes the design and operation of SATRAM together with an overview of the response and resolving power to the mixed radiation field including summary of the principal data products (dose rate, equivalent dose rate, particle-type count rate). The preliminary evaluation of response of the embedded Timepix detector to space radiation in the satellite environment is presented together with first results in the form of a detailed visualization of the mixed radiation

  6. Effects of Target Fragmentation on Evaluation of LET Spectra From Space Radiation in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) Environment: Impact on SEU Predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Badhwar, G. D.; ONeill, P. M.; Badavi, F. F.

    1995-01-01

    Recent improvements in the radiation transport code HZETRN/BRYNTRN and galactic cosmic ray environmental model have provided an opportunity to investigate the effects of target fragmentation on estimates of single event upset (SEU) rates for spacecraft memory devices. Since target fragments are mostly of very low energy, an SEU prediction model has been derived in terms of particle energy rather than linear energy transfer (LET) to account for nonlinear relationship between range and energy. Predictions are made for SEU rates observed on two Shuttle flights, each at low and high inclination orbit. Corrections due to track structure effects are made for both high energy ions with track structure larger than device sensitive volume and for low energy ions with dense track where charge recombination is important. Results indicate contributions from target fragments are relatively important at large shield depths (or any thick structure material) and at low inclination orbit. Consequently, a more consistent set of predictions for upset rates observed in these two flights is reached when compared to an earlier analysis with CREME model. It is also observed that the errors produced by assuming linear relationship in range and energy in the earlier analysis have fortuitously canceled out the errors for not considering target fragmentation and track structure effects.

  7. Leo Satellite Communication through a LEO Constellation using TCP/IP Over ATM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foore, Lawrence R.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.

    1999-01-01

    The simulated performance characteristics for communication between a terrestrial client and a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite server are presented. The client and server nodes consist of a Transmission Control Protocol /Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) over ATM configuration. The ATM cells from the client or the server are transmitted to a gateway, packaged with some header information and transferred to a commercial LEO satellite constellation. These cells are then routed through the constellation to a gateway on the globe that allows the client/server communication to take place. Unspecified Bit Rate (UBR) is specified as the quality of service (QoS). Various data rates are considered.

  8. Nickel metal hydride LEO cycle testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, Eric

    1995-01-01

    The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center is working to characterize aerospace AB5 Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH) cells. The cells are being evaluated in terms of storage, low earth orbit (LEO) cycling, and response to parametric testing (high rate charge and discharge, charge retention, pulse current ability, etc.). Cells manufactured by Eagle Picher are the subjects of the evaluation. There is speculation that NiMH cells may become direct replacements for current Nickel Cadmium cells in the near future.

  9. An Update on the Effectiveness of Postmission Disposal in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C; Krisko, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Orbital debris mitigation measures have been developed to reduce the growth of the future debris population by the international space community over the past two decades. A major component in the overall mitigation strategy is postmission disposal (PMD). A key PMD element for the low Earth orbit (LEO, the region below 2000 km altitude) satellites is the 25-year decay rule. It is intended to limit the long-term presence of massive intact objects - rocket bodies (R/Bs) and spacecraft (S/C) in the environment. The effectiveness of the 25-year rule was well demonstrated and documented during the development of the mitigation measures. The orbital debris population in LEO, unfortunately, has significantly increased since that time. The objectives of this paper are to provide an updated assessment based on the 2012 LEO environment and to highlight the importance of the global compliance of the 25-year decay rule.

  10. Advanced propulsion for LEO and GEO platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Pidgeon, David J.

    1990-01-01

    Mission requirements and mass savings applicable to specific low earth orbit and geostationary earth orbit platforms using three highly developed propulsion systems are described. Advanced hypergolic bipropellant thrusters and hydrazine arcjets can provide about 11 percent additional instrument payload to 14,000 kg LEO platforms. By using electric propulsion on a 8,000 kg class GEO platform, mass savings in excess of 15 percent of the beginning-of-life platform mass are obtained. Effects of large, advanced technology solar arrays and antennas on platform propulsion requirements are also discussed.

  11. Impact of GPS tracking data of LEO satellites on global GPS solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothacher, M.; Svehla, D.

    Already at present quite a few Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites (SAC-C, CHAMP, JASON-1, GRACE-1 and GRACE-2) are equipped with one or more GPS receivers for precise orbit determination or other applications (atmospheric sounding, gravity field recovery, . . . ). This trend will continue in the near future (e.g., with the GOCE and COSMIC missions) and we will soon have an entire "constellation" of LEO satellites tracked by GPS at our disposal. In this contribution we want to study the impact of LEO GPS measurements (from a single LEO satellite or from a LEO constellation) on global GPS solutions, where GPS satellite orbits and clocks, Earth rotation parameters (ERPs), station coordinates and troposphere zenith delays are determined simultaneously using the data of the global network of the International GPS Service (IGS). In order to assess the impact of the LEO GPS data on global IGS results, we have to perform a combined analysis of the space-borne and the ground-based GPS data. Such a combination may benefit on one hand from the differences between a ground station and a LEO, e.g., (1) the different tracking geometry (coverage of isolated geographical areas by LEOs, rapidly changing geometry, . . . ), (2) that LEOs connect all ground stations within 1-2 hours, (3) that baselines between LEO and ground stations may be longer than station-station baselines, (4) that no tropospheric delays have to be estimated for LEOs, and (5) that LEOs orbit the Earth within the ionosphere and may therefore contribute to global ionosphere models. On the other hand we have to deal with difficult aspects of precise orbit determination for the LEOs: only if we succeed to obtain very accurate dynamic or reduced-dynamic orbits for the LEOs, we will have a chance at all to improve the global GPS results. We present first results concerning the influence of LEO data on GPS orbits, ERPs, site coordinates, and troposphere zenith delays using both, variance-covariance analyses based on

  12. Instability of the Present LEO Satellite Populations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    Several studies conducted during 1991-2001 demonstrated, with some assumed launch rates, the future unintended growth potential of the Earth satellite population, resulting from random, accidental collisions among resident space objects. In some low Earth orbit (LEO) altitude regimes where the number density of satellites is above a critical spatial density, the production rate of new breakup debris due to collisions would exceed the loss of objects due to orbital decay. A new study has been conducted in the Orbital Debris Program Office at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, using higher fidelity models to evaluate the current debris environment. The study assumed no satellites were launched after December 2005. A total of 150 Monte Carlo runs were carried out and analyzed. Each Monte Carlo run simulated the current debris environment and projected it 200 years into the future. The results indicate that the LEO debris environment has reached a point such that even if no further space launches were conducted, the Earth satellite population would remain relatively constant for only the next 50 years or so. Beyond that, the debris population would begin to increase noticeably, due to the production of collisional debris. Detailed analysis shows that this growth is primarily driven by high collision activities around 900 to 1000 km altitude - the region which has a very high concentration of debris at present. In reality, the satellite population growth in LEO will undoubtedly be worse than this study indicates, since spacecraft and their orbital stages will continue to be launched into space. Postmission disposal of vehicles (e.g., limiting postmission orbital lifetimes to less than 25 years) will help, but will be insufficient to constrain the Earth satellite population. To preserve better the near-Earth environment for future space activities, it might be necessary to remove existing large and massive objects from regions where high collision activities are

  13. Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris Environments for the International Space Station

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-15

    Baseline micrometeoroid and orbital debris fluence estimates for spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are provided. For these calculations, an orbit similar to that of the International Space Station (ISS) is used.

  14. Performance of Duplex Communication between a Leo Satellite and Terrestrial Location Using a Geo Constellation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Daryl C.; Konangi, Vijay K.; Wallett, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A network comprised of a terrestrial site, a constellation of three GEO satellites and a LEO satellite is modeled and simulated. Continuous communication between the terrestrial site and the LEO satellite is facilitated by the GEO satellites. The LEO satellite has the orbital characteristics of the International Space Station. Communication in the network is based on TCP/IP over ATM, with the ABR service category providing the QoS, at OC-3 data rate. The OSPF protocol is used for routing. We simulate FTP file transfers, with the terrestrial site serving as the client and the LEO satellite being the server. The performance characteristics are presented.

  15. Leo Doyle, master surgeon.

    PubMed

    Vellar, I

    2000-10-01

    On 3 March 1953 Leo Doyle died at the Mercy Hospital, Melbourne. The day before he died Leo Doyle had been operating at the Mercy Hospital when he took ill. Doyle's final illness was almost certainly the result of the severe aortic stenosis that had been developing over some years. His death at the relatively young age of 61 ended the career of a man described by Sir Gordon Gordon Taylor as the greatest technical surgeon that he had ever seen. In all likelihood Australian surgery will never see the likes of Doyle, a virtuoso surgeon, again. And yet to many of the surgeons who were Doyle's contemporaries and to those who followed him he remained somewhat of an enigma. Perhaps in some way the description of the great French surgeon Baron Dupuytren may also be applicable to Leo Doyle: known to all, loved by many, understood by few. By all accounts Leo Doyle's surgical repertoire knew no bounds. He operated with equal facility on the central nervous system, the head and neck, in the thorax, abdomen and pelvis and he was more than competent in gynaecology, urology and orthopaedics. In the latter part of his career he became, par excellence, a cancer surgeon. He was, arguably, Australia's first surgical oncologist. No procedure was deemed too complicated or demanding. Like some other superb technicians his judgement at times did not match his technical ability. Doyle was one of the first surgeons in Australia to perform hindquarter amputation and he helped to pioneer the operations of total gastrectomy and oesophagogastrectomy. An avid reader of the surgical literature, he possessed an enormous library which was matched by an equally large collection of surgical instruments. Unlike Devine he published relatively little. He was not a good clinical teacher, preferring to teach by example in the operating theatre. Although interested in music and the visual arts, surgery was his life.

  16. System using leo satellites for centimeter-level navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabinowitz, Matthew (Inventor); Parkinson, Bradford W. (Inventor); Cohen, Clark E. (Inventor); Lawrence, David G. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a system for rapidly resolving position with centimeter-level accuracy for a mobile or stationary receiver [4]. This is achieved by estimating a set of parameters that are related to the integer cycle ambiguities which arise in tracking the carrier phase of satellite downlinks [5,6]. In the preferred embodiment, the technique involves a navigation receiver [4] simultaneously tracking transmissions [6] from Low Earth Orbit Satellites (LEOS) [2] together with transmissions [5] from GPS navigation satellites [1]. The rapid change in the line-of-sight vectors from the receiver [4] to the LEO signal sources [2], due to the orbital motion of the LEOS, enables the resolution with integrity of the integer cycle ambiguities of the GPS signals [5] as well as parameters related to the integer cycle ambiguity on the LEOS signals [6]. These parameters, once identified, enable real-time centimeter-level positioning of the receiver [4]. In order to achieve high-precision position estimates without the use of specialized electronics such as atomic clocks, the technique accounts for instabilities in the crystal oscillators driving the satellite transmitters, as well as those in the reference [3] and user [4] receivers. In addition, the algorithm accommodates as well as to LEOS that receive signals from ground-based transmitters, then re-transmit frequency-converted signals to the ground.

  17. LEO Flight Experience On MPS Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reulier, D.; Remy, S.; Mosset, E.; Carre, A.

    2011-10-01

    5 years after the qualification of the MPS176065 Li-ion battery for microsatellite, achieved with CNES Toulouse support, the module has been embedded on board several spacecrafts. The qualified module in 8S3P arrangement has been also derived in similar 7S3P, 6S1P and 8S6P flight configurations. The different battery configurations and associated missions will be presented, at the same time as flight status. Some missions are already finished and completed with success, whereas some others are running, or are to be launched. The proven sustainable levels and associated margins will be remembered with also a status of the life tests results (more than 63000 cycles achieved today in LEO typical mission conditions). Taking into account that more than 50 battery modules have been manufactured at the present time, the paper will describe main lessons learnt on the technical, process and industrial point of view. On orbit available and disclosable data will be shown to confirm the real performances and reliability of the MPS batteries. A specific chapter will present the comparison of some telemetry flight data correlated with SLIM software model predictions during LEO orbits. At the end of this presentation, a logical transition will emphasize the reasons for VES16 Li-ion cells development. It will include the main benefits given by the VES16 Li-ion cell compared to the current MPS cell especially aiming to extend the mission duration up to more than 12 years.

  18. Demonstration of Uncued Optical Surveillance of LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J.

    2014-09-01

    J.T. McGraw and Associates, LLC, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), has built and is operating two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test novel techniques for uncued surveillance of LEO. The imaging systems are built from off-the-shelf optics and detectors resulting in a 350mm aperture and a 6 square degree field of view. For streak detection, field of view is of critical importance because the maximum exposure time on the object is limited by its crossing time and measurements of apparent angular motion are better constrained with longer streaks. The current match of the detector to the optical system is optimized for detection of objects at altitudes above 450km, which for a circular orbit, corresponds to apparent motions of approximately 1 deg./sec. Using our GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems have detected objects fainter than V=12.3, which approximately corresponds to a 24 cm object at 1000 km altitude at better than 6 sigma significance, from sites near and within Albuquerque, NM. This work demonstrates scalable optical systems designed for near real time detection of fast moving objects, which can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same orbital volume to constrain the orbits of detected objects using parallax measurements. These detections are followed-up by photometric observations taken at UNM to independently assess the objects and the quality of the derived orbits. We believe this demonstrates the potential of small telescope arrays for detecting and cataloguing heretofore unknown LEO objects.

  19. Geocenter variations derived from a combined processing of LEO- and ground-based GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Männel, Benjamin; Rothacher, Markus

    2017-01-01

    GNSS observations provided by the global tracking network of the International GNSS Service (IGS, Dow et al. in J Geod 83(3):191-198, 2009) play an important role in the realization of a unique terrestrial reference frame that is accurate enough to allow a detailed monitoring of the Earth's system. Combining these ground-based data with GPS observations tracked by high-quality dual-frequency receivers on-board low earth orbiters (LEOs) is a promising way to further improve the realization of the terrestrial reference frame and the estimation of geocenter coordinates, GPS satellite orbits and Earth rotation parameters. To assess the scope of the improvement on the geocenter coordinates, we processed a network of 53 globally distributed and stable IGS stations together with four LEOs (GRACE-A, GRACE-B, OSTM/Jason-2 and GOCE) over a time interval of 3 years (2010-2012). To ensure fully consistent solutions, the zero-difference phase observations of the ground stations and LEOs were processed in a common least-squares adjustment, estimating all the relevant parameters such as GPS and LEO orbits, station coordinates, Earth rotation parameters and geocenter motion. We present the significant impact of the individual LEO and a combination of all four LEOs on the geocenter coordinates. The formal errors are reduced by around 20% due to the inclusion of one LEO into the ground-only solution, while in a solution with four LEOs LEO-specific characteristics are significantly reduced. We compare the derived geocenter coordinates w.r.t. LAGEOS results and external solutions based on GPS and SLR data. We found good agreement in the amplitudes of all components; however, the phases in x- and z-direction do not agree well.

  20. Optical Observation of LEO Debris Caused by Feng Yun 1C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurosaki, Hirohisa; Yanagisawa, Toshifumi; Nakajima, Atsushi

    Many pieces of space debris are in low earth orbit (LEO), and may be a serious problem in the near future. They are very hazardous to spacecraft such as the ISS, in which humans stay for long periods. In January 2007, China performed an experimental destruction of the meteorological satellite FengYun-1C in low earth orbit using a ballistic missile. Optical instruments for space debris observation were installed on Mt. Nyukasa in Nagano Prefecture by JAXA, and the resulting low earth orbit debris was observed with the small telescope there. We have developed an image-processing technique, the line-detection method, to extract such effects as the streaks created by meteors, LEO satellites, and LEO debris. We succeeded in detecting the trajectories of specified FengYun-1C debris whose TLE were known. In this paper, the detection and observation of low earth orbit debris are discussed.

  1. Space-based visible observation strategy for beyond-LEO objects based on an equatorial LEO satellite with multi-sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yun-peng; Huang, Jian-yu; Chen, Lei

    2017-04-01

    Many space-based visible observation strategies based on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites for observing Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) objects were proposed previously. However, there were few studies about other beyond-LEO objects (Geostationary Transfer Orbit (GTO) objects, Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) objects, and Molniya objects). In this paper, a space-based visible observation strategy is proposed for observing GEO objects, GTO objects, MEO objects (especially global navigation satellites), and Molniya objects simultaneously to get more orbital data, using an earth-oriented equatorial LEO satellite with three sensors. This work is focused on the pointing geometry. Brightness of observed objects and sensitivity of sensors are assumed under the relative ideal conditions. First, the distribution characteristics of these beyond-LEO objects are discussed. And in order to observe global navigation satellites efficiently, joint regions formed by the track superposition of two adjacent orbits in a constellation are proposed. To offset the influence of the earth shadow and constraint of sun-target-observer angle, two sensors pointing inside of the equatorial plane are used to observe GEO and GTO objects. The installation angle of the third sensor is optimized to obtain a relative high coverage rate for observing global navigation satellites and Molniya objects based on joint regions. Finally, the coverage rate, the number of observations, and observation duration under different sensors with different field of views (FOVs) are compared and analyzed respectively.

  2. The effect of solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations on LEO satellites' nominal aerodynamic drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwankwo, Victor U. J.; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Weigel, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric drag is the strongest force perturbing the motion of satellites in low Earth orbits LEO, and could cause re-entry of satellites, difficulty in identifying and tracking of the satellites and other space objects, manuvering and prediction of lifetime and re-entry. Solar activities influence the temperature, density and composition of the upper atmosphere. These effects thus strongly depend on the phase of a solar cycle. The frequency of intense flares and storms increase during solar maximum. Heating up of the atmosphere causes its expansion eventually leading to accelerated drag of orbiting satellites, especially those in LEO. In this paper, we present the model of the atmospheric drag effect on the trajectory of hypothetical LEO satellites of different ballistic coefficients. We investigate long-term trend of atmospheric drag on LEO satellites due to solar forcing induced atmospheric perturbations and heating at different phases of the solar cycle, and during interval of strong geomagnetic disturbances or storms. We show the dependence of orbital decay on severity of both the solar cycle and phase, and the extent of geomagnetic perturbations. The result of the model compares well with the observed decay profile of existing LEO satellites and provides a better understanding of the issue of the orbital decay. Our result may also be useful for selection of launch window of satellites for an extended lifetime in the orbit.

  3. The Disposal of Spacecraft and Launch Vehicle Stages in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the rationale for disposal of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satelites and other spacecraft after the operational lifetime for the space craft and launch vehicle stages. It also reviews the National and International Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, LEO Spacecraft Disposals, and the LEO Launch Vehicle Stage Disposals. Several examples of space craft disposals or passivation are given.

  4. Arcing in Leo and Geo Simulated Environments: Comparative Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris V.; Ferguson, Dale C.; Galofaro, Joel TY.

    2006-01-01

    Comprehensive tests of two solar array samples in simulated Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) environments have demonstrated that the arc inception voltage was 2-3 times lower in the LEO plasma than in the GEO vacuum. Arc current pulse wave forms are also essentially different in these environments. Moreover, the wide variations of pulse forms do not allow introducing the definition of a "standard arc wave form" even in GEO conditions. Visual inspection of the samples after testing in a GEO environment revealed considerable damage on coverglass surfaces and interconnects. These harmful consequences can be explained by the discharge energy being one order of magnitude higher in vacuum than in background plasma. The tests also revealed a potential danger of powerful electrostatic discharges that could be initiated on the solar array surface of a satellite in GEO during the ignition of an arcjet thruster.

  5. Outgassing products from orbiter TPS materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Lash, Tom J.; Rawls, J. Richard

    1995-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) orbiters are known to be significant sources of outgassing in low earth orbit (LEO). Infrared and mass spectra of residues and outgassing from orbiter thermal protection tile and an external blanket are presented. Several sources of methyl and phenyl methyl silicones are identified. About fifty pounds of silicones are estimated to be outgassed during an STS mission.

  6. Eagle Class small satellite for LEO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neil, Jason; Goralczyk, Steve

    1991-07-01

    The 'Eagle' Class small satellite is a modular Lightsat capable of supporting a wide variety of LEO applications. This paper highlights the key parameters of the spacecraft - power, stabilization, payload accommodation, etc., which make it useful as a platform for scientific experiments. The satellite consists of modules such as core, payload, deployables and orbit insertion subsystem which are integrated into a stacked configuration. The 38 in. diameter is sized for the Pegasus or Air Force SLV. Although considered a 'Lightsat', the satellite can offer as much as 500 watts of power and .01 degree attitude knowledge. It is suitable for a wide variety of earth observation and sensing missions. The satellite can be commanded by an economical desk-size Master Ground Station.

  7. An Assessment of the January 2007 Chinese ASAT Test on the LEO Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talent, D.

    Over the past several decades there has been increasing concern regarding the growth of the orbital debris population in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. Even under the best of circumstances the debris population may be expected to increase under conditions of ambient use by the space-faring nations of the world. It is easy to see that such a situation will obtain since the operational lifetimes of most on-orbit systems are typically less than a decade, while their orbital lifetimes may be many decades to hundreds of years or more. Historically, very little has been done regarding the removal of defunct orbital systems. Making matters worse, there have been many cases of spontaneous explosion of derelict upper stages on orbit. In such an event, a single large "hazard to navigation" becomes hundreds to thousands of pieces of orbiting shrapnel. As the numbers of debris objects increases, for whatever reason, so does the threat of collision with high-value operational assets. Thus, given the importance of minimizing orbital debris in LEO, it is obvious that any nation conducting anti-satellite (ASAT) tests should do so in a responsible fashion - minimizing the long-term deposition of large numbers of orbital debris objects at operational LEO altitudes. It is the thesis of this paper that the January 2007 ASAT test conducted by the Chinese government was particularly careless in this regard. In support of this statement, Oceanit's LEO environment model, PODEM (patented in 2004), was employed. The Chinese ASAT test was conducted successfully at an altitude of about 850 km producing large numbers of debris objects. Results, based on an approximation to this recent event, utilizing the PODEM model, suggest that meter-size debris pieces may remain in the LEO environment for hundreds of years. By contrast, debris ranging in size from one to several centimeters may be expected to drift down, due to drag, through lower LEO altitudes producing a transient spike in hazard

  8. LEO effects on conventional and unconventional solar cell cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1991-01-01

    In 1984, the LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) was placed in LEO (low earth orbit) for a mission planned to last approximately one year. The effects of the LDEF mission environment (micrometeorite/debris impacts, atomic, atomic oxygen, UV, and particulate radiation) on the samples are described. The relative importance of these interactions is highly dependent on orbital altitude. There is no evidence that the impacts with the test samples (including solar cells) caused any electrical degradation. Evidence from a number of LDEF experiments suggests that the majority of the impacts observed on this experiment were of space debris, rather than micrometeorite origin.

  9. Mitochondrial genome of the African lion Panthera leo leo.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue-ping; Wang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the African lion P. leo leo was reported. The total length of the mitogenome was 17,054 bp. It contained the typical mitochondrial structure, including 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, 2 ribosomal RNA genes and 1 control region; 21 of the tRNA genes folded into typical cloverleaf secondary structure except for tRNASe. The overall composition of the mitogenome was A (32.0%), G (14.5%), C (26.5%) and T (27.0%). The new sequence will provide molecular genetic information for conservation genetics study of this important large carnivore.

  10. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Concepts for LEO Small Debris Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with launch latitudes, or with specific useful orbit inclinations (such as polar orbits). Such narrow inclination bands generally have a uniform spread over all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. This complicates concept of rendezvous and capture for debris removal. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a base can serve as a single space-based launch facility (a "mother ship") that can tend and then send tiny individual catcher devices for each debris object, as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as the higher object. This presentation will highlight characteristic system requirements of such an architecture, including structural and navigation requirements, power, mass and dV budgets for both the mother ship and the mass-produced common catcher devices that would clean out selected inclination bands. The altitude and inclination regime over which a band is to be cleared, the size distribution of the debris, and the inclusion of additional mission priorities all affect the sizing of the system. It is demonstrated that major LEO hazardous debris reductions can be realized in each band with a single LEO launch of a single mother ship, with simple attached catchers of total mass less than typical commercial LEO launch capability.

  11. Standard for Solar Array Arc-Prevention in LEO - NASA 4005

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2006-01-01

    Spacecraft charging in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is commonly caused by the high voltage (>55 V) solar array power system. Conversely, arcing on the solar arrays is an undesirable consequence of the spacecraft charging. The new NASA Low Earth Orbit Spacecraft Charging Design Standard and Information Handbook (NASA-4005) presents a standard and all the necessary background information to understand how to eliminate solar array arcing on LEO spacecraft in the design stage, before the spacecraft is built, and before costly retrofits are needed.

  12. A new concept for high-cycle-life LEO: Rechargeable MnO2-hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appleby, A. J.; Dhar, H. P.; Kim, Y. J.; Murphy, O. J.

    1989-01-01

    The nickel-hydrogen secondary battery system, developed in the early 1970s, has become the system of choice for geostationary earth orbit (GEO) applications. However, for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites with long expected lifetimes the nickel positive limits performance. This requires derating of the cell to achieve very long cycle life. A new system, rechargeable MnO2-Hydrogen, which does not require derating, is described here. For LEO applications, it promises to have longer cycle life, high rate capability, a higher effective energy density, and much lower self-discharge behavior than those of the nickel-hydrogen system.

  13. Leo Tolstoy the Spiritual Educator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers the often overlooked religious and educational works of the Russian novelist Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). After outlining Tolstoy's life, religious and educational views, it is argued that Tolstoy has much to offer spiritual educators today. In particular, it suggests Tolstoy's insistence on the absolute and eternal nature of…

  14. High-voltage plasma interactions calculations using NASCAP/LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandell, M. J.; Katz, I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews four previous simulations (two laboratory and two space-flight) of interactions of a high-voltage spacecraft with a plasma under low-earth orbit conditions, performed using a three-dimensional computer code NASCAP/LEO. Results show that NASCAP/LEO can perform meaningful simulations of high-voltage plasma interactions taking into account three-dimensional effects of geometry, spacecraft motion, and magnetic field. Two new calculations are presented: (1) for current collection by 1-mm pinholes in wires (showing that a pinhole in a wire can collect far more current than a similar pinhole in a flat plate); and (2) current collection by Charge-2 mother vehicle launched in December 1985. It is shown that the Charge-2 calculations predicted successfully ion collection at negative bias, the floating potential of a probe outside or inside the sheath under negative bias conditions, and magnetically limited electron collection under electron beam operation at high altitude.

  15. A novel unicast routing algorithm for LEO satellite networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xuegui; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jun; Cheng, Lianzhen

    2005-11-01

    One of research challenges in low earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks is to develop specialized and efficient routing algorithms. In this paper, a dynamic source routing algorithm (DSRA) for LEO satellite networks is presented to achieve short end-to-end delay and low computation overhead under the condition that a logical location concept is adopted to hide satellite mobility. In this algorithm, the path between source and destination with minimum propagation delay is designated by source satellite in packet header by an efficient metric < D0, n0; D1, n1; D2, n2 >. Then the packet is forwarded to its destination by intermediate nodes according to the metric. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated through simulation and its computation complexity is analyzed to validate algorithm efficiency.

  16. New NASA SEE LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines: How to Survive in LEO Rather Than GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2003-01-01

    It has been almost two solar cycles since the 1984 GEO Guidelines of Purvis, Garrett, Whittlesey, and Stevens were published. In that time, interest in high voltage LEO systems has increased. Correct and conventional wisdom has been that LEO conditions are sufficiently different from GEO that the GEO Guidelines (and other GEO and POLAR documents produced since then) should not be used for LEO spacecraft. Because of significant recent GEO spacecraft failures that have been shown in ground testing to be likely to also occur on LEO spacecraft, the SEE program commissioned the production of the new LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines. Now available in CD-ROM form, the LEO Guidelines highlight mitigation techniques to prevent spacecraft arcing on LEO solar arrays and other systems. We compare and contrast the mitigation techniques for LEO and GEO in this paper. We also discuss the extensive bibliography included in the LEO Guidelines, so results can be found in their primary sources.

  17. Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanipe, David B.; Provence, Robert Steve; Straube, Timothy M.; Reed, Helen; Bishop, Robert; Lightsey, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    Dual RF Astrodynamic GPS Orbital Navigator Satellite (DRAGONSat) will demonstrate autonomous rendezvous and docking (ARD) in low Earth orbit (LEO) and gather flight data with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver strictly designed for space applications. ARD is the capability of two independent spacecraft to rendezvous in orbit and dock without crew intervention. DRAGONSat consists of two picosatellites (one built by the University of Texas and one built by Texas A and M University) and the Space Shuttle Payload Launcher (SSPL); this project will ultimately demonstrate ARD in LEO.

  18. Materials selection for long life in LEO: A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Kuminecz, J.; Leger, L.; Nordine, P.

    1988-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-Earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined to be in thermal atom environments are compared to those observed in LEO and in high quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-hundredth to one-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of 8 in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain specific thermal test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools. Using thermal atom methods to predict material lifetime in LEO requires direct calibration of the method against LEO data or high quality simulation data for each material.

  19. TT and C - First TDRSS, Then Commercial GEO and Big LEO and Now through LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Dwayne; Bull, Barton; Grant, Charles; Streich, Ronald; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communications satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce Telemetry Tracking and Control (TT&C) costs of launch vehicles and Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) by reducing or eliminating ground infrastructure. Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF) in Virginia have successfully used commercial GEO & Big LEO communications satellites for Long Duration Balloon flight TT&C. In addition, TDRSS capability for these balloons has been developed by WFF for the Ultra Long Duration Balloons with the first test flight launch in January 2001 for one global circumnavigation at 120,000 feet altitude launched from Alice Springs. Australia. Numerous other low cost applications can new utilize the commercial LEO satellites for TT&C. The Flight Modern became a GSFC/WFF Advanced Range Technology Initiative (ARTI) in an effort to streamline TT&C capability to the user community at low cost. Phase I ground tests of The Flight Modem verified downlink communications quality of service and measured transmission latencies. These tests were completed last year, Phase II consisting of aircraft flight tests provide much of the data presented in this paper. Phase III of the Flight Modern baseline test program is a demonstration of the ruggedized version of the WFF Flight Modem flown on one sounding rocket launched from Sweden. Flights of opportunity have been and are being actively pursued with other centers, ranges and users at universities. The WFF goal is to reduce TT&C costs by providing a low cost COTS Flight Modem with a User Handbook containing system capability and limitation descriptions. Additionally, since data transmission is by packetized Internet Protocol (IP), data can be received and commands initialed from practically any location with no infrastructure. The WFF, like most ranges, has been using GPS receivers on sounding rockets and long duration balloons for several years

  20. A Novel Spacecraft Charge Monitor for LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goembel, Luke

    2004-01-01

    Five years ago we introduced a new method for measuring spacecraft chassis floating potential relative to the space plasma (absolute spacecraft potential) in low Earth orbit. The method, based on a straightforward interpretation of photoelectron spectra, shows promise for numerous applications, but has not yet been tried. In the interest of testing the method, and ultimately supplying another tool for measuring absolute spacecraft charge, we are producing a flight prototype Spacecraft Charge Monitor (SCM) with support from NASA's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Although insight into the technique came from data collected in space over two decades ago, very little data are available. The data indicate that it may be possible to determine spacecraft floating potential to within 0.1 volt each with the SCM second under certain conditions. It is debatable that spacecraft floating potential has ever been measured with such accuracy. The compact, easily deployed SCM also offers the advantage of long-term stability in calibration. Accurate floating potential determinations from the SCM could be used to correct biases in space plasma measurements and evaluate charge mitigation and/or sensing devices. Although this paper focuses on the device's use in low Earth orbit (LEO), the device may also be able to measure spacecraft charge at higher altitudes, in the solar wind, and in orbits around other planets. The flight prototype SCM we are producing for delivery to NASA in the third quarter of 2004 will measure floating potential from 0 to -150 volts with 0.1 volt precision, weigh approximately 600-700 grams, consume approximately 2 watts, and will measure approximately 8 x 10 x 17 cm.

  1. An Assessment of the Current LEO Debris Environment and the Need for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    The anti-satellite test on the Fengun-1 C weather satellite in early 2007 and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 in 2009 dramatically altered the landscape of the human-made orbital debris environment in the low Earth orbit (LEO). The two events generated approximately 5500 fragments large enough to be tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network. Those fragments account for more than 60% increase to the debris population in LEO. However, even before the ASAT test, model analyses already indicated that the debris population (for those larger than 10 cm) in LEO had reached a point where the population would continue to increase, due to collisions among existing objects, even without any future launches. The conclusion implies that as satellites continue to be launched and unexpected breakup events continue to occur, commonly-adopted mitigation measures will not be able to stop the collision-driven population growth. To remediate the debris environment in LEO, active debris removal must be considered. This presentation will provide an updated assessment of the debris environment after the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 collision, an analysis of several future environment projections based on different scenarios, and a projection of collision activities in LEO in the near future. The need to use active debris removal to stabilize future debris environment will be demonstrated and the effectiveness of various active debris removal strategies will be quantified.

  2. An active debris removal parametric study for LEO environment remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are, however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to explore different operational options to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.

  3. Space Station Element Commonality between LEO and Lunar Infrastructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hempsell, M.

    Previous work has considered the use of common space station modules launched by the Skylon reusable launch system to construct a large in-orbit infrastructure composed of many small space stations. This previous work assumed this infrastruc- ture extended out to geostationary and lunar locations but without detailed consideration of the implications of operations beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). This paper considers the implications of the extension of the approach to the geostationary and lunar environments. These environments impose both different requirements and constraints on the station modules. It is shown, through feasibility concept designs, that these new requirements can be easily incorporated in the core modules so that they can also be used both in LEO and in CIS-lunar space without any significant impact on their effectiveness, although all the requirements do need to be included at the start of the module development. It is also argued that the inclusion of lunar infrastructure requirements into the common modules completely scopes the additional requirements for operation in geostationary orbit. The concept is also extended to lunar surface bases and it is concluded while many new elements would be required some use of common modules is possible but may not be the optimum strategy.

  4. Charging of space debris in the LEO and GEO regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Abhijit; Tiwari, Sanat Kumar

    The near exponential rise of space debris at the satellite orbital altitudes (particularly in the low earth orbit (LEO) region) and the risk they pose for space assets is a source of major concern for all nations engaged in space activities. Considerable efforts are therefore being expended into accurate modeling and tracking of these objects and various ideas for the safe removal of these debris are being explored. The debris objects are likely to acquire a large amount of charge since they are typically found in a plasma environment - such as the earth’s ionospheric plasma in the LEO region (100 kms to 1000 kms) and the radiation belts in the geosynchronous orbit (GEO) region. The consequent flow of electron and ion currents on them lead to the accumulation of a large amount of surface charge and the development of a surface potential on these objects. The influence of the plasma environment on the dynamics and charging of the debris is a relatively unexplored area of Space Situational Awareness (SSA) and Space Debris (SD) research and can be potentially important for the accurate prediction of the long-term evolution of debris orbits and their collision probabilities with other space objects. In this paper we will report on the charging of space debris under a variety of orbital conditions in the LEO and GEO regions using both analytic and particle-in-cell (PIC) modeling. The analytic estimates are obtained using refined Orbit Motion Limited (OML) modeling while the simulation studies are carried out using the SPIS code [1]. In the GEO region account is taken of charging due to photoemission processes as well as energetic beam charging. The PIC approach enables us to study charging of irregularly shaped debris objects as well as differential charging on objects that are composed of patches of conducting and insulated regions. The dynamical consequences of the debris charging on their orbital trajectories and rotational characteristics will be discussed. [1] J

  5. Study of LEO-SAT microwave link for broad-band mobile satellite communication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujise, Masayuki; Chujo, Wataru; Chiba, Isamu; Furuhama, Yoji; Kawabata, Kazuaki; Konishi, Yoshihiko

    1993-01-01

    In the field of mobile satellite communications, a system based on low-earth-orbit satellites (LEO-SAT's) such as the Iridium system has been proposed. The LEO-SAT system is able to offer mobile telecommunication services in high-latitude areas. Rain degradation, fading and shadowing are also expected to be decreased when the system is operated at a high elevation angle. Furthermore, the propagation delay generated in the LEO-SAT system is less pronounced than that in the geostationary orbit satellite (GEO-SAT) system and, in voice services, the effect of the delay is almost negligible. We proposed a concept of a broad-band mobile satellite communication system with LEO-SAT's and Optical ISL. In that system, a fixed L-band (1.6/1.5 GHz) multibeam is used to offer narrow band service to the mobile terminals in the entire area covered by a LEO-SAT and steerable Ka-band (30/20 GHz) spot beams are used for the wide band service. In this paper, we present results of a study of LEO-SAT microwave link between a satellite and a mobile terminal for a broad-band mobile satellite communication system. First, the results of link budget calculations are presented and the antennas mounted on satellites are shown. For a future mobile antenna technology, we also show digital beamforming (DBF) techniques. DBF, together with modulation and/or demodulation, is becoming a key technique for mobile antennas with advanced functions such as antenna pattern calibration, correction, and radio interference suppression. In this paper, efficient DBF techniques for transmitting and receiving are presented. Furthermore, an adaptive array antenna system suitable for this LEO-SAT is presented.

  6. VES100/140 Lithium-Ion Cells LEO Life-Test Results & Protheus Flight Heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borthomieu, Y.; Prevot, D.; Massot, J.; Tastet, P.; Simon, E.

    2011-10-01

    This paper assesses from Low Earth Orbit (LEO) life tests results the influence of the cycling parameters such as Depth Of Discharge (DOD), End Of Charge Voltage (EOCV) & charge current on VES100/140 cell electrical performances. It also demonstrates a good correlation between the cells ageing predicted by the Saft Li-Ion Model (SLIM) tool and the real behavior of these cells under life-tests or in flight on board "Calipso" satellite after more than 5 years in orbit.

  7. Reinforcement learning for resource allocation in LEO satellite networks.

    PubMed

    Usaha, Wipawee; Barria, Javier A

    2007-06-01

    In this paper, we develop and assess online decision-making algorithms for call admission and routing for low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite networks. It has been shown in a recent paper that, in a LEO satellite system, a semi-Markov decision process formulation of the call admission and routing problem can achieve better performance in terms of an average revenue function than existing routing methods. However, the conventional dynamic programming (DP) numerical solution becomes prohibited as the problem size increases. In this paper, two solution methods based on reinforcement learning (RL) are proposed in order to circumvent the computational burden of DP. The first method is based on an actor-critic method with temporal-difference (TD) learning. The second method is based on a critic-only method, called optimistic TD learning. The algorithms enhance performance in terms of requirements in storage, computational complexity and computational time, and in terms of an overall long-term average revenue function that penalizes blocked calls. Numerical studies are carried out, and the results obtained show that the RL framework can achieve up to 56% higher average revenue over existing routing methods used in LEO satellite networks with reasonable storage and computational requirements.

  8. LEO effects on candidate solar cell cover materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stella, Paul M.

    1993-01-01

    In 1984, the LDEF (Long Duration Exposure Facility) was placed in LEO (Low Earth Orbit) for a mission planned to last approximately one year. Due to a number of factors, retrieval was delayed until 1990. An experiment, prepared under the direction of JPL, consisted of a test plate with thirty (30) individual thin silicon solar cell/cover samples. The covers consisted of conventional cerium doped microsheet platelets and potential candidate materials, such as FEP Teflon, silicon RTV's, glass resins, polyimides, and a silicone-polyimide copolymer encapsulant. The effects of the LDEF mission environment (micrometeorite/debris impacts, atomic oxygen, UV, and particulate radiation) on the samples are discussed.

  9. End-to-end simulation of a K-band LEO-LEO satellite link for estimating water vapor in the low troposphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, Luca; Cuccoli, Fabrizio; Argenti, Fabrizio

    2004-11-01

    A new differential measurement concept is presented for retrieving the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along the propagation path between two Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites, while such path is immersing in the atmosphere during a so called set occultation. The new approach, referred to as DSA (Differential Spectral Absorption) method, is based on the simultaneous measurement of the total attenuation at two relatively close frequencies in the K band, and on the estimate of a "spectral sensitivity parameter" that is highly correlated to the IWV content of the LEO-LEO link in the low troposphere. The DSA approach has the potential to overcome all spectrally 'flat' and spectrally correlated phenomena (atmospheric scintillation among these) and provides estimates that can then be usefully integrated with standard radio occultation data products. In the paper we describe the signaling structure chosen for DSA measurements and the transmit-receive system used to simulate an end-to-end transmission during a complete LEO-LEO set occultation. Simulations are based on atmospheric models and on real radiosonde data, which allows us to account for the natural variability of the atmospheric conditions. The effects on the IWV estimates of impairments such as thermal noise at the receiver, atmospheric scintillation, multipath and defocusing are evaluated.

  10. Differential spectral attenuation measurements at microwaves in a LEO-LEO satellites radio occultation geometry: a novel approach for limiting scintillation effects in tropospheric water vapor measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, Luca; Martini, Enrica; Cuccoli, Fabrizio; Argenti, Fabrizio

    2004-12-01

    The DSA (Differential Spectral Attenuation) approach, presented in a companion paper in this conference's proceedings, has the potential to provide the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along the propagation path between two Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites. The interest towards the DSA, based on the ratio of simultaneous measurements of the total attenuation at two relatively close frequencies in the K-Ku bands, was moved by the need for limiting the effects of tropopheric scintillation and by the fact that DSA measurements are highly correlated to the IWV along the LEO-LEO link. However, the impact of tropospheric scintillation in a LEO-LEO radio occultation geometry using frequencies above 10 GHz still has to be thoroughly investigated. In this paper we focus on the analysis of such effects, taking into account the fact that the formulations presented in the literature have to be modified in order to fit the specific problem under consideration. Specifically, an expression is derived for the variances of the amplitude and phase fluctuations of the wave, their spectrum and the correlation between fluctuations at different frequencies. In particular, the latter is extremely useful to evaluate the potential of the DSA approach through simulations whose results are reported in the last part of the paper.

  11. Optical orbital debris spotter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Englert, Christoph R.; Bays, J. Timothy; Marr, Kenneth D.; Brown, Charles M.; Nicholas, Andrew C.; Finne, Theodore T.

    2014-11-01

    The number of man-made debris objects orbiting the Earth, or orbital debris, is alarmingly increasing, resulting in the increased probability of degradation, damage, or destruction of operating spacecraft. In part, small objects (<10 cm) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are of concern because they are abundant and difficult to track or even to detect on a routine basis. Due to the increasing debris population it is reasonable to assume that improved capabilities for on-orbit damage attribution, in addition to increased capabilities to detect and track small objects are needed. Here we present a sensor concept to detect small debris with sizes between approximately 1.0 and 0.01 cm in the vicinity of a host spacecraft for near real time damage attribution and characterization of dense debris fields and potentially to provide additional data to existing debris models.

  12. Magnitude Standardization Procedure for OWL-Net Optical Observations of LEO Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roh, Dong-Goo; Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Sun-Youp; Park, Maru; Choi, Young-Jun; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Young-Sik; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Cho, Sungki; Kim, Ji-Hye; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2015-12-01

    As a governmentally approved domestic entity for Space Situational Awareness, Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) is developing and operating an optical telescopes system, Optical Wide-field PatroL (OWL) Network. During the test phase of this system, it is necessary to determine the range of brightness of the observable satellites. We have defined standard magnitude for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites to calibrate their luminosity in terms of standard parameters such as distance, phase angle, and angular rate. In this work, we report the optical brightness range of five LEO Satellites using OWL-Net.

  13. Overview of battery usage in NASA/GSFC LEO and GEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yi, Thomas

    1989-01-01

    In July, 1989, Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) will be launched from a Delta rocket to study the big bang theory. The COBE, which is in a LEO/Polar orbit, will have two 20 Ah NiCd batteries, and 18 cells per battery, made by McDonnell Douglas Company. In December, 1989, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA-D) will be launched from an Atlas rocket for weather observation purposes. NOAA-D, which is in a LEO/Polar morning orbit, will have two 26.5 Ah NiCd batteries, and 17 cells per battery, made by Ge-Astro East Windor. NOAA-I, which is scheduled for May, 1991 launch in a LEO/Polar afternoon orbit, will have three 26.5 Ah NiCd batteries, 17 cells per battery, made by GE-Astro East Windor. In April, 1990, Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) will be launched from STS37 to study the gamma ray radiation phenomenon. GRO, which is in a LEO orbit, will have two modular power systems (MPS) made by McDonnell Douglas, each MPS consisting of three 50 Ah NiCd batteries, 22 cells per battery. In July, 1990, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-I) will be launched from an Atlas I rocket for weather observation purposes. GOES-I, which is in a GEO orbit, will have two 12 Ah NiCd batteries, 28 cells per battery, made by Ford Aerospace and Communications Company. In December, 1990, Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS-E) will be launched from STS43 for communication purposes. TDRS-E, which is in a GEO orbit, will have three 40 Ah NiCd batteries, 24 cells per battery, made by TRW. In August, 1991, Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) will be launched from a Delta rocket. EUVE, which is in a LEO orbit, will have one modular power system (MPS) made by McDonnell Douglas. In December, 1991, Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS) will be launched from STS50 to study the Earth's ozone layer and other environmental concerns. UARS, which is in a 56 deg inclination LEO orbit, will have one modular power systems (MPS) made by McDonnell Douglas.

  14. Low Earth Orbiter: Terminal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kremer, Steven E.; Bundick, Steven N.

    1999-01-01

    In response to the current government budgetary environment that requires the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to do more with less, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility has developed and implemented a class of ground stations known as a Low Earth Orbiter-Terminal (LEO-T). This development thus provides a low-cost autonomous ground tracking service for NASA's customers. More importantly, this accomplishment provides a commercial source to spacecraft customers around the world to purchase directly from the company awarded the NASA contract to build these systems. A few years ago, NASA was driven to provide more ground station capacity for spacecraft telemetry, tracking, and command (TT&C) services with a decreasing budget. NASA also made a decision to develop many smaller, cheaper satellites rather than a few large spacecraft as done in the past. In addition, university class missions were being driven to provide their own TT&C services due to the increasing load on the NASA ground-tracking network. NASA's solution for this ever increasing load was to use the existing large aperture systems to support those missions requiring that level of performance and to support the remainder of the missions with the autonomous LEO-T systems. The LEO-T antenna system is a smaller, cheaper, and fully autonomous unstaffed system that can operate without the existing NASA support infrastructure. The LEO-T provides a low-cost, reliable space communications service to the expanding number of low-earth orbiting missions around the world. The system is also fostering developments that improve cost-effectiveness of autonomous-class capabilities for NASA and commercial space use. NASA has installed three LEO-T systems. One station is at the University of Puerto Rico, the second system is installed at the Poker Flat Research Range near Fairbanks, Alaska, and the third system is installed at NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Virginia. This paper

  15. LEDsats: LEO CubeSats with LEDs for Optical Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, P.; Cutler, J.; Piergentili, F.; Santoni, F.; Arena, L.; Cardona, T.; Cowardin, H.; Lee, C.; Sharma, S.

    2016-09-01

    We describe a project to launch 1U CubeSats equipped with Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) for optical tracking with ground-based telescopes. Active illumination on the satellites increases tremendously the number of passes where the LEO satellite is visible when the ground-based telescope is in darkness. The restriction that the satellite is in direct Sun is removed, and so tracking can take place all night long rather than just in twilight. The inspiration for this project came from the Japanese CubeSat FITSAT-1 that carried red and green high-powered LED arrays, and was clearly visible from the ground with small telescopes. There are two goals: 1) increase the accuracy and precision of LEO orbits by increasing the number and length of passes that satellite is visible, and 2) minimize the confusion between objects in the case of multiple CubeSats being launched at the same time. Technical issues to be discussed include the power level required for detection by small (20 - 40 cm) ground based telescopes, the optimum flash pattern for astrometry against star fields, and the timing of the flash pattern to millisecond or better accuracy and precision. We propose to deploy two such LEDsats simultaneously from the International Space Station: the first to be built at the University of Michigan, and the second to be built at Sapienza University Rome. One experiment is to see how we can distinguish these two CubeSats shortly after deployment solely from optical tracking, and so the CubeSats will have different flash patterns.

  16. Orbital Debris Research in the United States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, Gene

    2009-01-01

    The presentation includes information about growth of the satellite population, the U.S. Space Surveillance Network, tracking and catalog maintenance, Haystack and HAX radar observation, Goldstone radar, the Michigan Orbital Debris Survey Telescope (MODEST), spacecraft surface examinations and sample of space shuttle impacts. GEO/LEO observations from Kwajalein Atoll, NASA s Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM2008), a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model (LEGEND), Debris Assessment Software (DAS) 2.0, the NASA/JSC BUMPER-II meteoroid/debris threat assessment code, satellite reentry risk assessment, optical size and shape determination, work on more complicated fragments, and spectral studies.

  17. Establishing a Robotic, LEO-to-GEO Satellite Servicing Infrastructure as an Economic Foundation for Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horsham, Gary A. P.; Schmidt, George R.; Gilland, James H.

    2010-01-01

    The strategy for accomplishing civilian exploration goals and objectives is in the process of a fundamental shift towards a potential new approach called Flexible Path. This paper suggests that a government-industry or public-private partnership in the commercial development of low Earth orbit to geostationary orbit (LEO-to-GEO (LTG)) space, following or in parallel with the commercialization of Earth-to-LEO and International Space Station (ISS) operations, could serve as a necessary, logical step that can be incorporated into the flexible path approach. A LTG satellite-servicing infrastructure and architecture concept is discussed within this new strategic context. The concept consists of a space harbor that serves as a transport facility for a fleet of specialized, fully- or semi-autonomous robotic servicing spacecraft. The baseline, conceptual system architecture is composed of a space harbor equipped with specialized servicer spacecraft; a satellite command, communication, and control system; a parts station; a fuel station or depot; and a fuel/parts replenishment transport. The commercial servicer fleet would consist of several types of spacecraft, each designed with specialized robotic manipulation subsystems to provide services such as refueling, upgrade, repair, inspection, relocation, and removal. The space harbor is conceptualized as an ISS-type, octagonal truss structure equipped with radiation tolerant subsystems. This space harbor would be primarily capable of serving as an operational platform for various commercially owned and operated servicer spacecraft positioned and docked symmetrically on four of the eight sides. Several aspects of this concept are discussed, such as: system-level feasibility in terms of ISS-truss-type infrastructure and subsystems emplacement and maintenance between LEO and GEO; infrastructure components assembly in LEO, derived from ISS assembly experience, and transfer to various higher orbital locations; the evolving Earth-to-orbit

  18. MEMS Reaction Control and Maneuvering for Picosat Beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexeenko, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The MEMS Reaction Control and Maneuvering for Picosat Beyond LEO project will further develop a multi-functional small satellite technology for low-power attitude control, or orientation, of picosatellites beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The Film-Evaporation MEMS Tunable Array (FEMTA) concept initially developed in 2013, is a thermal valving system which utilizes capillary forces in a microchannel to offset internal pressures in a bulk fluid. The local vapor pressure is increased by resistive film heating until it exceeds meniscus strength in a nozzle which induces vacuum boiling and provides a stagnation pressure equal to vapor pressure at that point which is used for propulsion. Interplanetary CubeSats can utilize FEMTA for high slew rate attitude corrections in addition to desaturating reaction wheels. The FEMTA in cooling mode can be used for thermal control during high-power communication events, which are likely to accompany the attitude correction. Current small satellite propulsion options are limited to orbit correction whereas picosatellites are lacking attitude control thrusters. The available attitude control systems are either quickly saturated reaction wheels or movable high drag surfaces with long response times.

  19. Nuclear electric propulsion system utilization for earth orbit transfer of large spacecraft structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, T. H.; Byers, D. C.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses a potential application of electric propulsion to perform orbit transfer of a large spacecraft structure to geosynchronous orbit (GEO) from LEO, utilizing a nuclear reactor space power source in the spacecraft on a shared basis. The discussions include spacecraft, thrust system, and nuclear reactor space power system concepts. Emphasis is placed on orbiter payload arrangements, spacecraft launch constraints, and spacecraft LEO assembly and deployment sequences.

  20. LEGEND, a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer Chyi; Hall, Doyle T.

    2013-01-01

    LEGEND (LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model) is a three-dimensional orbital debris evolutionary model that is capable of simulating the historical and future debris populations in the near-Earth environment. The historical component in LEGEND adopts a deterministic approach to mimic the known historical populations. Launched rocket bodies, spacecraft, and mission-related debris (rings, bolts, etc.) are added to the simulated environment. Known historical breakup events are reproduced, and fragments down to 1 mm in size are created. The LEGEND future projection component adopts a Monte Carlo approach and uses an innovative pair-wise collision probability evaluation algorithm to simulate the future breakups and the growth of the debris populations. This algorithm is based on a new "random sampling in time" approach that preserves characteristics of the traditional approach and captures the rapidly changing nature of the orbital debris environment. LEGEND is a Fortran 90-based numerical simulation program. It operates in a UNIX/Linux environment.

  1. Telemetry Tracking & Control (TT&C) - First TDRSS, then Commercial GEO & Big LEO and Now Through LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Dwayne R.; Streich, Ron G.; Bull, Barton; Grant, Chuck; Power, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The advent of low earth orbit (LEO) commercial communication satellites provides an opportunity to dramatically reduce Telemetry, Tracking and Control (TT&C) costs of launch vehicles, Unpiloted Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Research Balloons and spacecraft by reducing or eliminating ground infrastructure. Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center's Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC\\WFF) have successfully used commercial Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Big LEO communications satellites for Long Duration Balloon Flight TT&C. The Flight Modem is a GSFC\\WFF Advanced Range Technology initiative (ARTI) designed to streamline TT&C capability in the user community of these scientific data gathering platforms at low cost. Making use of existing LEO satellites and adapting and ruggedized commercially available components; two-way, over the horizon communications may be established with these vehicles at great savings due to reduced infrastructure. Initially planned as a means for permitting GPS data for tracking and recovery of sounding rocket and balloon payloads, expectations are that the bandwidth can soon be expanded to allow more comprehensive data transfer. The system architecture which integrates antennas, GPS receiver, commercial satellite packet data modem and a single board computer with custom software is described and technical challenges are discussed along with the plan for their resolution. A three-phase testing and development plan is outlined and the current results are reported. Results and status of ongoing flight tests on aircraft and sounding rockets are reported. Future applications on these platforms and the potential for satellite support are discussed along with an analysis of cost effectiveness of this method vs. other tracking and data transmission schemes.

  2. Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Satellites at AIUB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Thaller, D.; Dach, R.; Beutler, G.; Prange, L.; Meyer, U.

    2010-12-01

    Many low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites are nowadays equipped with on-board receivers to collect the observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), such as the Global Positioning System (GPS), or with retro-reflectors for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR). At the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) LEO precise orbit determination (POD) using either GPS or SLR data is performed for satellites at very different altitudes. The classical numerical integration techniques used for dynamic orbit determination of LEO satellites at high altitudes are extended by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques for satellites at low altitudes to efficiently cope with force model deficiencies. Accuracies of a few centimeters are achieved by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling, e.g., for the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE).

  3. The Space Motion of Leo I: The Mass of the Milky Way's Dark Matter Halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Besla, Gurtina; van der Marel, Roeland P.

    2013-05-01

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M vir, MW). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s-1) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M vir, MW > 1012 M ⊙ at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M vir, MW. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M vir, MW would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted ΛCDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M vir, MW = 1.6 × 1012 M ⊙, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] × 1012 M ⊙. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  4. THE SPACE MOTION OF LEO I: THE MASS OF THE MILKY WAY'S DARK MATTER HALO

    SciTech Connect

    Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Bullock, James S.; Sohn, Sangmo Tony; Van der Marel, Roeland P.; Besla, Gurtina

    2013-05-10

    We combine our Hubble Space Telescope measurement of the proper motion of the Leo I dwarf spheroidal galaxy (presented in a companion paper) with the highest resolution numerical simulations of Galaxy-size dark matter halos in existence to constrain the mass of the Milky Way's dark matter halo (M{sub vir,MW}). Despite Leo I's large Galactocentric space velocity (200 km s{sup -1}) and distance (261 kpc), we show that it is extremely unlikely to be unbound if Galactic satellites are associated with dark matter substructure, as 99.9% of subhalos in the simulations are bound to their host. The observed position and velocity of Leo I strongly disfavor a low-mass Milky Way: if we assume that Leo I is the least bound of the Milky Way's classical satellites, then we find that M{sub vir,MW} > 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun} at 95% confidence for a variety of Bayesian priors on M{sub vir,MW}. In lower mass halos, it is vanishingly rare to find subhalos at 261 kpc moving as fast as Leo I. Should an additional classical satellite be found to be less bound than Leo I, this lower limit on M{sub vir,MW} would increase by 30%. Imposing a mass-weighted {Lambda}CDM prior, we find a median Milky Way virial mass of M{sub vir,MW} = 1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }, with a 90% confidence interval of [1.0-2.4] Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} M{sub Sun }. We also confirm a strong correlation between subhalo infall time and orbital energy in the simulations and show that proper motions can aid significantly in interpreting the infall times and orbital histories of satellites.

  5. New NASA SEE LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines: How to Survive in LEO Rather than GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2004-01-01

    It has been almost two solar cycles since the GEO Guidelines of Purvis et al (1984) were published. In that time, interest in high voltage LEO systems has increased. The correct and conventional wisdom has been that LEO conditions are sufficiently different from GEO that the GEO Guidelines (and other GEO and POLAR documents produced since then) should not be used for LEO spacecraft. Because of significant recent GEO spacecraft failures that have been shown in ground testing to be likely to also occur on LEO spacecraft, the SEE program commissioned the production of the new LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Guidelines (hereafter referred to as the LEO Guidelines). Now available in CD-ROM form, the LEO Guidelines highlight mitigation techniques to prevent spacecraft arcing on LEO solar arrays and other systems. We compare and contrast the mitigation techniques for LEO and GEO in this paper. We also discuss the extensive bibliography included in the LEO Guidelines, so results can be found in their primary sources.

  6. An Update on the Effectiveness of Postmission Disposal in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    The commonly-adopted orbital debris mitigation measures were developed to reduce the growth of the future debris population. A major component in debris mitigation is post-mission disposal (PMD). The key PMD element for LEO satellites is the 25-year rule. It is intended to limit the long-term presence of rocket bodies (R/Bs) and spacecraft (S/C), as well as mission-related debris, in the environment. The effectiveness of PMD has been demonstrated and documented since the development of mitigation measures began in the 1990s. This paper summarizes an updated study, based on the current environment, using the NASA LEGEND model. The study focused on the > or = 10 cm population in LEO. The historical simulation covered 1957 through 2011 and followed the recorded launches and known breakup events. The future projection was carried out for 200 years. An eight-year launch traffic, 2004 - 2011, was repeated during the projection period. An eight-year mission lifetime was assumed for future S/C. No stationkeeping and no collision avoidance maneuver were implemented. Only objects 10 cm and larger were included in collision consideration. No explosion was allowed for R/Bs and S/C launched after 2011. The 25-year PMD rule success rates were set at 0%, 10%, 50%, 75%, and 95%, respectively, for the 5 study scenarios. Results of the simulations were analyzed to quantify the differences among the different compliance rates. As expected, the 0% PMD projection followed a rapid and non-linear increase in the next 200 years. The LEO population, on average, more than tripled at the end of the simulations. With a 50% compliance of the 25-year rule, the population growth was reduced approximately by half. However, even with a 95% compliance of the 25-year rule, the LEO debris population would still increase by an average of more than 50% in 200 years. These simulation results provide an updated assessment of the effectiveness of the 25-year rule. It is the first and the most cost

  7. Review of Low Earth Orbital (LEO) flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L.; Santosmason, B.; Visentine, J.; Kuminecz, J.

    1987-01-01

    The atomic oxygen flux exposure experiments flown on Space Shuttle flights STS-5 and STS-8 are described along with the results of measurements made on hardware returned from the Solar Maximum repair mission (Space Shuttle flight 41-C). In general, these experiments have essentially provided for passive exposure of samples to oxygen fluences of approximately 1 to 3.5 x 10(20) atoms/sq cm. Atmospheric density is used to derive fluence and is dependent on solar activity, which has been on the decline side of the 11-year cycle. Thus, relatively low flight altitudes of less than 300 km were used to acquire these exposures. After exposure, the samples were analyzed using various methods ranging from mass loss to extensive scanning electron microscopy and surface analysis techniques. Results are summarized and implications for the space station are discussed.

  8. Effects of DeOrbitSail as applied to Lifetime predictions of Low Earth Orbit Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afful, Andoh; Opperman, Ben; Steyn, Herman

    2016-07-01

    Orbit lifetime prediction is an important component of satellite mission design and post-launch space operations. Throughout its lifetime in space, a spacecraft is exposed to risk of collision with orbital debris or operational satellites. This risk is especially high within the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region where the highest density of space debris is accumulated. This paper investigates orbital decay of some LEO micro-satellites and accelerating orbit decay by using a deorbitsail. The Semi-Analytical Liu Theory (SALT) and the Satellite Toolkit was employed to determine the mean elements and expressions for the time rates of change. Test cases of observed decayed satellites (Iridium-85 and Starshine-1) are used to evaluate the predicted theory. Results for the test cases indicated that the theory fitted observational data well within acceptable limits. Orbit decay progress of the SUNSAT micro-satellite was analysed using relevant orbital parameters derived from historic Two Line Element (TLE) sets and comparing with decay and lifetime prediction models. This paper also explored the deorbit date and time for a 1U CubeSat (ZACUBE-01). The use of solar sails as devices to speed up the deorbiting of LEO satellites is considered. In a drag sail mode, the deorbitsail technique significantly increases the effective cross-sectional area of a satellite, subsequently increasing atmospheric drag and accelerating orbit decay. The concept proposed in this study introduced a very useful technique of orbit decay as well as deorbiting of spacecraft.

  9. Orbit Optimization and Scattering Coefficient Analysis for the Proposed GLORIA System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the optimization of an orbit for a Low-Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellite for coastal coverage over Antarctic and United States shorelines as part of the Geostationary/Low-Earth Orbiting Radar Image Acquisition (GLORIA) System. Simulations over a range of orbital parameters are performed to determine the optimal orbit. Scattering coefficients are computed for the optimal orbit throughout the day and characterized to compare various scenarios for which link budget comparisons could then be made.

  10. Design requirements for orbit maintenance of SPS elements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The objective of this study is to identify the design and operational requirements that will be imposed by the need to avoid unplanned reentry of SPS elements. The LEO Staging Base, Electric Orbit Transfer Vehicle, the LEO Construction Base, and SPS Self-Power Module are the SPS elements selected for this analysis. The orbit decay rates and attitude control/orbit maintenance propellant requirements for nominal and worst case conditions are defined. The sequence of events that could cause unplanned reentry are defined. The design and operational requirements that will be used to prevent the various elements from deorbiting are defined.

  11. Adaptive Optics for Satellite and Debris Imaging in LEO and GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copeland, M.; Bennet, F.; Zovaro, A.; Riguat, F.; Piatrou, P.; Korkiakoski, V.; Smith, C.

    2016-09-01

    The Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics (RSAA) at the Australian National University has developed and Adaptive Optics (AO) system for satellite and debris imaging in low Earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO). In LEO the size, shape and orientation of objects will be measured with resolution of 50 cm for objects at 800 km range at an 800 nm imaging wavelength. In GEO satellite position will be measured using precision astrometry of nearby stars. We use an AO system with a deformable mirror (DM) of 277 actuators and Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor operating at 2 kHz. Imaging is performed at a rate of >30 Hz to reduce image blur due to tip-tilt and rotation. We use two imaging modes; a high resolution mode to obtain Nyquist sampled images and a acquisition mode with 75 arcsecond field of view to aid in finding targets.

  12. Nickel hydrogen low Earth orbit life testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badcock, C. C.; Haag, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    A program to demonstrate the long term reliability of NiH2 cells in low Earth orbits (LEO) and support use in mid-altitude orbits (MAO) was initiated. Both 3.5 and 4.5 inch diameter nickel hydrogen cells are included in the test plan. Cells from all U.S. vendors are to be tested. The tests will be performed at -5 and 10 C at 40 and 60% DOD for LEO orbit and 10 C and 80% DOD for MAO orbit simulations. The goals of the testing are 20,000 cycles at 60% DOD and 30,000 cycles at 40% DOD. Cells are presently undergoing acceptance and characterization testing at Naval Weapons Systems Center, Crane.

  13. HEO space debris orbit predictions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregorowicz, Dorota; Pospieszynski, Remigiusz; Golembiewska, Justyna; Wnuk, Edwin

    2012-07-01

    HEO (Highly Elliptical Orbit) satellites are objects with an elliptic orbit with a low-altitude perigee and a high-altitude apogee. Perigee mainly cross the LEO orbits and apogee reaches regions above GEO orbits. Number of satellites on the orbits are old racket bodies and other space debris. Most of HEO objects has the eccentricity more than 0.7. Many trackable objects are included in the NORAD TLE Catalogue but much more small debris exist which we could not track. Objects on as highly elliptical orbit are very danger for satellites in LEO region because of increasing velocity near the perigee. In order to calculate the trajectory of space debris we have to take into account force model consisting of geopotential, luni-solar effects, solar radiation pressure and for objects with low-altitude of perigee, atmospheric drag. This last perturbation is very important to calculate orbits with high accuracy but also one of the hardest to predict. Many atmospheric space debris objects parameters should be taken into account in this case, but we do not have sufficient data from observations, in particular S/M (area-to-mass) ratio. Fortunately we have some archival data for some debris included in TLE Catalogue, which are very helpful to estimate the approximate value of the parameter. In this paper we present the results of calculations of orbit predictions for short and medium time span (up to several weeks). We tried to designate the S/M parameter for some HEO objects from archival data from the TLE Catalogue and predict its orbital elements for several weeks. With better knowledge about approximate mean value of the S/M parameter we are able to improve the accuracy of predicted orbits.

  14. Low Earth Orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, Ray E.; Gardiner, John G.

    1993-01-01

    Currently the geostationary type of satellite is the only one used to provide commercial mobile-satellite communication services. Low earth orbit (LEO) satellite systems are now being proposed as a future alternative. By the implementation of LEO satellite systems, predicted at between 5 and 8 years time, mobile space/terrestrial technology will have progressed to the third generation stage of development. This paper considers the system issues that will need to be addressed when developing a dual mode terminal, enabling access to both terrestrial and LEO satellite systems.

  15. Servicing communication satellites in geostationary orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Paul K.; Price, Kent M.

    1990-01-01

    The econmic benefits of a LEO space station are quantified by identifying alternative operating scenarios utilizing the space station's transportation facilities and assembly and repair facilities. Particular consideration is given to the analysis of the impact of on-orbit assembly and servicing on a typical communications satellite is analyzed. The results of this study show that on-orbit servicing can increase the internal rate of return by as much as 30 percent.

  16. Low Earth Orbit Rendezvous Strategy for Lunar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cates, Grant R.; Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel

    2006-01-01

    On January 14, 2004 President George W. Bush announced a new Vision for Space Exploration calling for NASA to return humans to the moon. In 2005 NASA decided to use a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) rendezvous strategy for the lunar missions. A Discrete Event Simulation (DES) based model of this strategy was constructed. Results of the model were then used for subsequent analysis to explore the ramifications of the LEO rendezvous strategy.

  17. Sizing of "Mother Ship and Catcher" Missions for LEO Small Debris and for GEO Large Object Capture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.

    2009-01-01

    Most LEO debris lies in a limited number of inclination "bands" associated with specific useful orbits. Objects in such narrow inclination bands have all possible Right Ascensions of Ascending Node (RAANs), creating a different orbit plane for nearly every piece of debris. However, a low-orbiting satellite will always phase in RAAN faster than debris objects in higher orbits at the same inclination, potentially solving the problem. Such a low-orbiting base can serve as a "mother ship" that can tend and then send small, disposable common individual catcher/deboost devices--one for each debris object--as the facility drifts into the same RAAN as each higher object. The dV necessary to catch highly-eccentric orbit debris in the center of the band alternatively allows the capture of less-eccentric debris in a wider inclination range around the center. It is demonstrated that most LEO hazardous debris can be removed from orbit in three years, using a single LEO launch of one mother ship--with its onboard magazine of freeflying low-tech catchers--into each of ten identified bands, with second or potentially third launches into only the three highest-inclination bands. The nearly 1000 objects near the geostationary orbit present special challenges in mass, maneuverability, and ultimate disposal options, leading to a dramatically different architecture and technology suite than the LEO solution. It is shown that the entire population of near-GEO derelict objects can be gathered and tethered together within a 3 year period for future scrap-yard operations using achievable technologies and only two earth launches.

  18. Initial Verification of the GPS-LEO Occultation Technique of Mapping the Atmosphere with the GPS-MET Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajj, G. A.; Kursinski, E. R.; Bertiger, W. I.; Leroy, S. S.; Romans, L. J.; Schofield, J. T.

    1995-01-01

    The radio occultation technique was first used to observe Earth's atmosphere in April 1995 when a high performance Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver was placed into a low-Earth orbit. When a signal from the GPS travels through the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, and is received by a low-Earth orbiter (LEO) satellite, occultation data is generated. How that data is analyzed is presented.

  19. Controlling the Growth of Future LEO Debris Populations with Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.; Hill, N. M.

    2008-01-01

    Active debris removal (ADR) was suggested as a potential means to remediate the low Earth orbit (LEO) debris environment as early as the 1980s. The reasons ADR has not become practical are due to its technical difficulties and the high cost associated with the approach. However, as the LEO debris populations continue to increase, ADR may be the only option to preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations. An initial study was completed in 2007 to demonstrate that a simple ADR target selection criterion could be developed to reduce the future debris population growth. The present paper summarizes a comprehensive study based on more realistic simulation scenarios, including fragments generated from the 2007 Fengyun-1C event, mitigation measures, and other target selection options. The simulations were based on the NASA long-term orbital debris projection model, LEGEND. A scenario, where at the end of mission lifetimes, spacecraft and upper stages were moved to 25-year decay orbits, was adopted as the baseline environment for comparison. Different annual removal rates and different ADR target selection criteria were tested, and the resulting 200-year future environment projections were compared with the baseline scenario. Results of this parametric study indicate that (1) an effective removal strategy can be developed based on the mass and collision probability of each object as the selection criterion, and (2) the LEO environment can be stabilized in the next 200 years with an ADR removal rate of five objects per year.

  20. Supportability for Beyond Low Earth Orbit Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crillo, William M.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Aaseng, Gordon; Stromgren, Chel; Maxwell, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) presents many unique challenges that will require changes from current Supportability approaches. Currently, the International Space Station (ISS) is supported and maintained through a series of preplanned resupply flights, on which spare parts, including some large, heavy Orbital Replacement Units (ORUs), are delivered to the ISS. The Space Shuttle system provided for a robust capability to return failed components to Earth for detailed examination and potential repair. Additionally, as components fail and spares are not already on-orbit, there is flexibility in the transportation system to deliver those required replacement parts to ISS on a near term basis. A similar concept of operation will not be feasible for beyond LEO exploration. The mass and volume constraints of the transportation system and long envisioned mission durations could make it difficult to manifest necessary spares. The supply of on-demand spare parts for missions beyond LEO will be very limited or even non-existent. In addition, the remote nature of the mission, the design of the spacecraft, and the limitations on crew capabilities will all make it more difficult to maintain the spacecraft. Alternate concepts of operation must be explored in which required spare parts, materials, and tools are made available to make repairs; the locations of the failures are accessible; and the information needed to conduct repairs is available to the crew. In this paper, ISS heritage information is presented along with a summary of the challenges of beyond LEO missions. A number of Supportability issues are discussed in relation to human exploration beyond LEO. In addition, the impacts of various Supportability strategies will be discussed. Any measure that can be incorporated to reduce risk and improve mission success should be evaluated to understand the advantages and disadvantages of implementing those measures. Finally, an effort to model and evaluate

  1. LEO atomic oxygen effects on spacecraft materials: STS-5 results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitaker, A. F.

    1984-01-01

    Effects of low Earth orbit (LEO) atomic oxygen were measured on a variety of spacecraft materials which obtained exposure on STS-5. Material degradation dependency on temperature was found in one material. Of the five paints flown, only S13GLO was unaffected. Generally, the glossy paints became Lambertian and the diffuse coatings improved. Scanning electron microscope examinations indicated removal of urethane and epoxy paint binder materials. Reaction products were evident on the surfaces of Z302 paint and Mylar. Thin films showed thickness losses ranging from negligible loss in Teflon to considerable loss in Mylar and Kapton. Glossy films such as black Kapton and white Tedlar became diffused. Kevlar 29 rope lost tensile strength and silver solar cell interconnect material oxidized. Oxidation on the backside of an elevated specimen indicated that reflections of oxygen atoms were occurring and that reflecting surfaces, probably Kapton, were not fully accommodating the incident atoms.

  2. LEO high voltage solar array arcing response model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metz, Roger N.

    1987-02-01

    A series of mathematical models were developed that describe the electrical behavior of a large solar cell array floating electrically in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space plasma and struck by an arc at a point of negative bias. There are now three models in this series: ARCII, which is a fully analytical, linearized model; ARCIII, which is an extension of ARCIII that includes solar cell inductance as well as load reactance; Nonlinear ARC, which is a numerical model able to treat effects such as non-linearized, i.e., logarithmic solar cell I/V characteristics, conductance switching as a solar cell crosses plasma ground on a voltage excursion and non-ohmic plasma leakage current collection.

  3. LEO high voltage solar array arcing response model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metz, Roger N.

    1987-01-01

    A series of mathematical models were developed that describe the electrical behavior of a large solar cell array floating electrically in the low Earth orbit (LEO) space plasma and struck by an arc at a point of negative bias. There are now three models in this series: ARCII, which is a fully analytical, linearized model; ARCIII, which is an extension of ARCIII that includes solar cell inductance as well as load reactance; Nonlinear ARC, which is a numerical model able to treat effects such as non-linearized, i.e., logarithmic solar cell I/V characteristics, conductance switching as a solar cell crosses plasma ground on a voltage excursion and non-ohmic plasma leakage current collection.

  4. Semianalytic Theory of Motion for LEO Satellites Under Air Drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezdek, A.

    The presented semianalytic theory focuses on the longterm evolution of the LEO satellites motion, with the TD/TD88 model of the total density as a key ingredient. Besides, the theory takes into account the main geopotential perturbations, for satellites with low eccentricity and/or inclination, nonsingular elements are used. An interesting feature of the theory is its computational speed (e.g. the 10-year propagation takes 5.5 s on a PC with Intel Celeron 1.7 GHz), while considering major physical conditions that strongly influence the thermospheric density (solar flux, geomagnetic activity, diurnal and seasonal variations, geographic latitude). The online calculation as well as the code are available on the Internet. The theory has been tested against the real world data of several spherical satellites. For the lifetime prediction accuracy estimate of the theory, we used a confidential interval based on the uncertainty in the drag coefficient CD, while taking the measured values of the solar flux and geomagnetic index. The modelled long-term behaviour of the orbital elements is in reasonably good agreement with the data, the computed lifetimes fall within the CD-induced confidential intervals, typical error in the mean lifetime prediction being a few percent. The tests showed that - provided one appropriately models the solar and geomagnetic activity - the theory may be used in the areas where one needs a quick orbital propagator for LEO objects influenced by air drag (mission planning, lifetime prediction, space debris dynamics). As an example, we will show the mission planning and the medium-term prediction of the motion for the MIMOSA satellite.

  5. Low Earth Orbit satellite traffic simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoelzel, John

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a significant tool for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) capacity analysis, needed to support marketing, economic, and design analysis, known as a Satellite Traffic Simulator (STS). LEO satellites typically use multiple beams to help achieve the desired communication capacity, but the traffic demand in these beams in usually not uniform. Simulations of dynamic, average, and peak expected demand per beam is a very critical part of the marketing, economic, and design analysis necessary to field a viable LEO system. An STS is described in this paper which can simulate voice, data and FAX traffic carried by LEO satellite beams and Earth Station Gateways. It is applicable world-wide for any LEO satellite constellations operating over any regions. For aeronautical applications to LEO satellites. the anticipates aeronautical traffic (Erlangs for each hour of the day to be simulated) is prepared for geographically defined 'area targets' (each major operational region for the respective aircraft), and used as input to the STS. The STS was designed by Constellations Communications Inc. (CCI) and E-Systems for usage in Brazil in accordance with an ESCA/INPE Statement Of Work, and developed by Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI) to execute on top of its Satellite Tool Kit (STK) commercial software. The STS simulates constellations of LEO satellite orbits, with input of traffic intensity (Erlangs) for each hour of the day generated from area targets (such as Brazilian States). accumulated in custom LEO satellite beams, and then accumulated in Earth Station Gateways. The STS is a very general simulator which can accommodate: many forms of orbital element and Walker Constellation input; simple beams or any user defined custom beams; and any location of Gateways. The paper describes some of these features, including Manual Mode dynamic graphical display of communication links, to illustrate which Gateway links are accessible and which links are not, at each 'step' of the

  6. Re-Entry Point Targeting for LEO Spacecraft using Aerodynamic Drag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Omar, Sanny; Bevilacqua, Riccardo; Fineberg, Laurence; Treptow, Justin; Johnson, Yusef; Clark, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Most Low Earth Orbit (LEO) spacecraft do not have thrusters and re-enter atmosphere in random locations at uncertain times. Objects pose a risk to persons, property, or other satellites. Has become a larger concern with the recent increase in small satellites. Working on a NASA funded project to design a retractable drag device to expedite de-orbit and target a re-entry location through modulation of the drag area. Will be discussing the re-entry point targeting algorithm here.

  7. Plasma Flowfields Around Low Earth Orbit Objects: Aerodynamics to Underpin Orbit Predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, Christopher; Boyce, Russell; Brown, Melrose

    2016-07-01

    Interactions between orbiting bodies and the charged space environment are complex. The large variation in passive body parameters e.g. size, geometry and materials, makes the plasma-body interaction in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a region rich in fundamental physical phenomena. The aerodynamic interaction of LEO orbiting bodies with the neutral environment constitutes the largest non-conservative force on the body. However in general, study of the LEO plasma-body interaction has not been concerned with external flow physics, but rather with the effects on surface charging. The impact of ionospheric flow physics on the forces on space debris (and active objects) is not well understood. The work presented here investigates the contribution that plasma-body interactions have on the flow structure and hence on the total atmospheric force vector experienced by a polar orbiting LEO body. This work applies a hybrid Particle-in-Cell (PIC) - Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) code, pdFoam, to self-consistently model the electrostatic flowfield about a cylinder with a uniform, fixed surface potential. Flow conditions are representative of the mean conditions experienced by the Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) based on the International Reference Ionosphere model (IRI-86). The electron distribution function is represented by a non-linear Boltzmann electron fluid and ion gas-surface interactions are assumed to be that of a neutralising, conducting, thermally accommodating solid wall with diffuse reflections. The variation in flowfield and aerodynamic properties with surface potential at a fixed flow condition is investigated, and insight into the relative contributions of charged and neutral species to the flow physics experienced by a LEO orbiting body is provided. This in turn is intended to help improve the fidelity of physics-based orbit predictions for space debris and other near-Earth space objects.

  8. Proper Motion of the Leo II Dwarf Galaxy Based On Hubble Space Telescope Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatek, Slawomir; Pryor, Carlton; Olszewski, Edward W.

    2016-12-01

    This article reports a measurement of the proper motion of Leo II, a dwarf galaxy that is a likely satellite of the Milky Way, based on imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope and Wide Field Camera 3. The measurement uses compact background galaxies as standards of rest in both channels of the camera for two distinct pointings of the telescope, as well as a QSO in one channel for each pointing, resulting in the weighted average of six measurements. The measured proper motion in the the equatorial coordinate system is (μ α ,μ δ )=(-6.9+/- 3.7,-8.7+/- 3.9) mas century-1 and in the Galactic coordinate system it is (μ ℓ,μ b)=(6.2+/- 3.9,-9.2+/- 3.7) mas century-1. The implied space velocity with respect to the Galactic center is (Π,Θ,Z) =(-37+/- 38,117+/- 43,40+/- 16) km s-1 or, expressed in Galactocentric radial and tangential components, (Vr,Vtan )=(21.9+/- 1.5,127+/- 42) km s-1. The space velocity implies that the instantaneous orbital inclination is 68°, with a 95% confidence interval of (66°,80°). The measured motion supports the hypothesis that Leo II, Leo IV, Leo V, Crater 2, and the globular cluster Crater fell into the Milky Way as a group.

  9. Real-Time Optical Surveillance of LEO/MEO with Small Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, P.; McGraw, J.; Ackermann, M.

    J.T. McGraw and Associates, LLC operates two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test novel techniques for uncued surveillance of LEO/MEO/GEO and, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), uses a third small telescope for rapidly queued same-orbit follow-up observations. Using our GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems operating at sites near and within Albuquerque, NM, have detected objects fainter than V=13 at greater than 6 sigma significance. This detection approximately corresponds to a 16 cm object with albedo of 0.12 at 1000 km altitude. Dozens of objects are measured during each operational twilight period, many of which have no corresponding catalog object. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same orbital volume to constrain the orbits of detected objects using parallax measurements. These detections are followed-up by imaging photometric observations taken at UNM to confirm and further constrain the initial orbit determination and independently assess the objects and verify the quality of the derived orbits. This work continues to demonstrate that scalable optical systems designed for real-time detection of fast moving objects, which can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them, can provide valuable real-time surveillance data at LEO and beyond, which substantively informs the SSA process.

  10. XML Format for SESAME and LEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Durrenberger, J K; Neely, J R; Sterne, P A

    2009-04-29

    The objective of this document is to describe the XML format used by LLNL and LANL to represent the equation-of-state and related material information in the LEOS and SESAME data libraries. The primary purpose of this document is to describe a specific XML format for representing EOS data that is tailored to the nature of the underlying data and is amenable to conversion to both legacy SESAME and LEOS binary formats. The secondary purpose is to describe an XML format that lends itself to a 'natural' representation in a binary file format of the SESAME, pdb or hdf5 form so that this format and related tools can be used for the rapid and efficient development and implementation of prototype data structures. This document describes the XML format only. A working knowledge of LEOS and SESAME formats is assumed.

  11. A FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE PROPER MOTION OF THE LEO II DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Lepine, Sebastien; Koch, Andreas; Rich, R. Michael; Kuijken, Konrad

    2011-11-10

    We use 14 year baseline images obtained with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to derive a proper motion for one of the Milky Way's most distant dwarf spheroidal companions, Leo II, relative to an extragalactic background reference frame. Astrometric measurements are performed in the effective point-spread function formalism using our own developed code. An astrometric reference grid is defined using 3224 stars that are members of Leo II and brighter than a magnitude of 25 in the F814W band. We identify 17 compact extragalactic sources, for which we measure a systemic proper motion relative to this stellar reference grid. We derive a proper motion [{mu}{sub {alpha},{mu}{delta}}] = [+104 {+-}113,-33 {+-} 151] {mu}as yr{sup -1} for Leo II in the heliocentric reference frame. Though marginally detected, the proper motion yields constraints on the orbit of Leo II. Given a distance of d {approx_equal} 230 kpc and a heliocentric radial velocity v{sub r} = +79 km s{sup -1}, and after subtraction of the solar motion, our measurement indicates a total orbital motion v{sub G} = 266.1 {+-} 128.7 km s{sup -1} in the Galactocentric reference frame, with a radial component v{sub r{sub G}}=21.5{+-}4.3 km s{sup -1} and tangential component v{sub t{sub G}} = 265.2 {+-} 129.4 km s{sup -1}. The small radial component indicates that Leo II either has a low-eccentricity orbit or is currently close to perigalacticon or apogalacticon distance. We see evidence for systematic errors in the astrometry of the extragalactic sources which, while close to being point sources, are slightly resolved in the HST images. We argue that more extensive observations at later epochs will be necessary to better constrain the proper motion of Leo II. We provide a detailed catalog of the stellar and extragalactic sources identified in the HST data which should provide a solid early-epoch reference for future astrometric measurements.

  12. Innovative and Cost Effective Remediation of Orbital Debris

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    particularly above 600 km where atmospheric drag is ineffective for removing orbital debris . Certain objects, such as spent rocket stages and large defunct...widely spread across the planet. Researchers from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Orbital Debris Program Office prioritized the...year would likely prevent anticipated growth in the LEO debris population.3 The growing population of orbital debris poses a real and growing threat of

  13. Aspects of parking orbit selection in a manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desai, Prasun N.; Braun, Robert D.; Powell, Richard W.

    1992-01-01

    For any round-trip Mars mission, the selection of a parking orbit at Mars must consider the precession caused by the oblateness of the planet. This precession will affect the departure condition for Earth return and, therefore, the initial mass required in low Earth orbit (LEO). In this investigation, which considers precession effects, minimum initial LEO masses were obtained for parking orbits characterized by having near-equatorial inclinations, high eccentricities, and three-dimensional departure burns (i.e., a burn with an in-plane and an out-of-plane velocity increment component). However, because near-equatorial inclination orbits have poor planetary coverage characteristics, they are not desirable from a science viewpoint. To enhance the potential for satisfying science requirements along with landing site accessibility, a penalty in the initial LEO mass is required. This study shows that there are a set of orbits characterized by low to moderate essentricities (e = 0.2 to 0.5) and nonequatorial inclinations (i = 70 to 140 deg) that reduce this initial LEO mass penalty. Therefore, careful selection of a parking orbit at Mars can enhance the potential for satisfying science requirements with minimal mass penalties.

  14. Optimal planning of LEO active debris removal based on hybrid optimal control theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jing; Chen, Xiao-qian; Chen, Li-hu

    2015-06-01

    The mission planning of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) active debris removal problem is studied in this paper. Specifically, the Servicing Spacecraft (SSc) and several debris exist on near-circular near-coplanar LEOs. The SSc should repeatedly rendezvous with the debris, and de-orbit them until all debris are removed. Considering the long-duration effect of J2 perturbation, a linear dynamics model is used for each rendezvous. The purpose of this paper is to find the optimal service sequence and rendezvous path with minimum total rendezvous cost (Δv) for the whole mission, and some complex constraints (communication time window constraint, terminal state constraint, and time distribution constraint) should be satisfied meanwhile. Considering this mission as a hybrid optimal control problem, a mathematical model is proposed, as well as the solution method. The proposed approach is demonstrated by a typical active debris removal problem. Numerical experiments show that (1) the model and solution method proposed in this paper can effectively address the planning problem of LEO debris removal; (2) the communication time window constraint and the J2 perturbation have considerable influences on the optimization results; and (3) under the same configuration, some suboptimal sequences are equivalent to the optimal one since their difference in Δv cost is very small.

  15. Ground-based simulation of LEO environment: Investigations of a select LDEF material: FEP Teflon (trademark)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.; Koontz, Steven L.

    1993-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) has produced a wealth of data on materials degradation in the low earth orbit (LEO) space environment and has conclusively shown that surface chemistry (as opposed to surface physics-sputtering) is the key to understanding and predicting the degradation of materials in the LEO environment. It is also clear that materials degradation and spacecraft contamination are closely linked and that the fundamental mechanisms responsible for this linking are in general not well understood especially in the area of synergistic effects. The study of the fundamental mechanisms underlying materials degradation in LEO is hampered by the fact that the degradation process itself is not observed during the actual exposure to the environment. Rather the aftermath of the degradation process is studied, i.e., the material that remains after exposure is observed and mechanisms are proposed to explain the observed results. The EOIM-3 flight experiment is an attempt to bring sophisticated diagnostic equipment into the space environment and monitor the degradation process in real time through the use of mass spectrometry. More experiments of this nature which would include surface sensitive diagnostics (Auger and photoelectron spectroscopes) are needed to truly unravel the basic chemical mechanisms involved in the materials degradation process. Since these in-space capabilities will most likely not be available in the near future, ground-based LEO simulation facilities employing sophisticated diagnostics are needed to further advance the basic understanding of the materials degradation mechanisms. The LEO simulation facility developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory has been used to investigate the atomic oxygen/vacuum ultraviolet (AO/VUV) enhanced degradation of FEP Teflon. The results show that photo-ejection of polymer fragments occur at elevated temperature (200 C), that VUV synergistic rare gas sputtering of polymer fragments occur even at

  16. The Philosophical Politics of Leo Strauss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Maurice

    1985-01-01

    Leo Strauss' views concerning the way to teach political philosophy are discussed. The essay begins with a summary of Strauss' general conception of classical political philosophy. The remainder of the essay discusses the content of Strauss' book "What is Political Philosophy?" (RM)

  17. Leo Strauss: Education and the Body Politic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fennell, Jon M.; Simpson, Timothy L.

    2008-01-01

    Leo Strauss is commonly cited as a seminal influence for the neoconservatism that, in the minds of many commentators, dominates the administration of George W. Bush. What intersection, if any, exists between Strauss's views and neoconservatism? This paper investigates that question by studying Strauss's writings on liberal education and assessing…

  18. Raising a Child in the Punana Leo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iokepa-Guerrero, Noelani

    2008-01-01

    At the Punana Leo everyone, "'Anakala", uncle--a male teacher, "'Anake," aunty--a female teacher, and the "keiki," children all play important roles in the educational program of the school. Each and all are responsible for the learning that takes place and the success of the program. In this article, the author…

  19. In Memory of Leo P. Kadanoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegner, Franz J.

    2016-10-01

    Leo Kadanoff has worked in many fields of statistical mechanics. His contributions had an enormous impact. This holds in particular for critical phenomena, where he explained Widom's homogeneity laws by means of block-spin transformations and laid the basis for Wilson's renormalization group equation. I had the pleasure to work in his group for 1 year. A short historical account is given.

  20. What Happened to Leo P's Metals?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-12-01

    Measurements of metal abundances in galaxies present a conundrum: compared to expectations, there are not nearly enough metals observed within galaxies. New observations of a nearby dwarf galaxy may help us understand where this enriched material went.Removal ProcessesStar formation is responsible for the build-up of metals (elements heavier than helium) in a galaxy. But when we use a galaxys star-formation history to estimate the amount of enriched material it should contain, our predictions are inconsistent with measured abundances: large galaxies contain only about 2025% of the expected metals, and small dwarf galaxies contain as little as 1%!So what happens to galaxies metals after they have been formed? The favored explanation is that metals are removed from galaxies via stellar feedback: stars that explode in violent supernovae can drive high-speed winds, expelling the enriched material from a galaxy. This process should be more efficient in low-mass galaxies due to their smaller gravitational wells, which would explain why low-mass galaxies have especially low metallicities.But external processes may also contribute to the removal of metals, such as tidal stripping during interactions between galaxies. To determine the role of stellar feedback alone, an ideal test would be to observe an isolated low-mass, star-forming galaxy i.e., one that is not affected by external processes.Luckily, such an isolated, low-mass galaxy has recently been discovered just outside of the Local Group: Leo P, a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with a total stellar mass of 5.6 x 105 solar masses.Isolated ResultsPercentage of oxygen lost in Leo P compared to the percentage of metals lost in three other, similar-size dwarfs that are not isolated. If the gas-phase oxygen in Leo P were removed, Leo Ps measurements would be consistent with those of the other dwarfs. [McQuinn et al. 2015]Led by Kristen McQuinn (University of Minnesota, University of Texas at Austin), a team of researchers has used

  1. Ageing of Sony 18650HC Cells in LEO LifeTests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudley, G.; Buckle, R.; Hendel, B.; Mattle, T.; Spurrett, R.

    2008-09-01

    Results of a long-duration LEO life-test of a battery comprised of 72 Sony 18650HC cells are presented. The ongoing test, started in late 1999, has reached 84,000 cycles, equivalent to more than 14 years in LEO orbit at an acceleration factor of 1.7. Most cells have remained balanced in state of charge during the test but a few have dropped up to 150 mV in end of charge voltage and at the same time exhibited higher than average internal resistances. The battery continues to out-perform the predictions of the ABSL 'LIFE' model. A cell model developed at ESTEC is used to try to gain some insight into the cell ageing processes.

  2. Time Serial Analysis of the Induced LEO Environment within the ISS 6A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, John W.; Nealy, John E.; Tomov, B. T.; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Badavi, Frank F.; DeAngelis, Giovanni; Atwell, William; Leutke, N.

    2006-01-01

    Anisotropies in the low Earth orbit (LEO) radiation environment were found to influence the thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) dose within the (International Space Station) ISS 7A Service Module. Subsequently, anisotropic environmental models with improved dynamic time extrapolation have been developed including westward and northern drifts using AP8 Min & Max as estimates of the historic spatial distribution of trapped protons in the 1965 and 1970 era, respectively. In addition, a directional dependent geomagnetic cutoff model was derived for geomagnetic field configurations from the 1945 to 2020 time frame. A dynamic neutron albedo model based on our atmospheric radiation studies has likewise been required to explain LEO neutron measurements. The simultaneous measurements of dose and dose rate using four Liulin instruments at various locations in the US LAB and Node 1 has experimentally demonstrated anisotropic effects in ISS 6A and are used herein to evaluate the adequacy of these revised environmental models.

  3. The Impact of Ionospheric Delay on the Frequency Transfer Utilizing A LEO Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Shi-Wei; Xu, Rong; Yu, Yong; Chang, Jiang; Li, Guang-Xia

    2015-04-01

    Using the frequency of assisted signals transferred by a LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite to extend the coherence time of inexpensive GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) receiver clocks is one of the most effective methods to improve the performance of the GNSS receivers that may be in hostile environments or subject to interference. Among the factors affecting the results of frequency transfer, ionospheric delay is the most important one. In this work, the principles for frequency transfer utilizing an LEO satellite and the corresponding error sources are analyzed. Especially, the impact of ionospheric delay is ana- lyzed, and a correction method utilizing the ionospheric delay difference between the neighboring epoches and that between two stations is presented. Simulations are performed to validate the above analysis and correction method. The results show that with the correction proposed in this paper, the requirements for the frequency transfer can be met.

  4. Observation angle and plane characterisation for ISAR imaging of LEO space objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jin; Fu, Tuo; Chen, Defeng; Gao, Meiguo

    2016-07-01

    For inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging of low Earth orbit (LEO) space objects, examining the variations in the image plane of the object over the entire visible arc period allows more direct characterisation of the variations in the object imaging. In this study, the ideal turntable model was extended to determine the observation geometry of near-circular LEO objects. Two approximations were applied to the observation model to calculate the image plane's normal and observation angles for near-circular orbit objects. One approximation treats the orbit of the space object as a standard arc relative to the Earth during the radar observation period, and the other omits the effect of the rotation of the Earth on the observations. First, the closed-form solution of the image plane normal in various attitude-stabilisation approaches was determined based on geometric models. The characteristics of the image plane and the observation angle of the near-circular orbit object were then analysed based on the common constraints of the radar line-of-sight (LOS). Subsequently, the variations in the image plane and the geometric constraints of the ISAR imaging were quantified. Based on the image plane's normal, the rotational angular velocity of the radar LOS was estimated. The cross-range direction of the ISAR image was then calibrated. Three-dimensional imaging was then reconstructed based on dual station interferometry. Finally, simulations were performed to verify the result of the three-dimensional interferometric reconstruction and to calculate the reconstruction's precision errors.

  5. Data analysis and interpretation related to space system/environment interactions at LEO altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raitt, W. John; Schunk, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    Several studies made on the interaction of active systems with the LEO space environment experienced from orbital or suborbital platforms are covered. The issue of high voltage space interaction is covered by theoretical modeling studies of the interaction of charged solar cell arrays with the ionospheric plasma. The theoretical studies were complemented by experimental measurements made in a vacuum chamber. The other active system studied was the emission of effluent from a space platform. In one study the emission of plasma into the LEO environment was studied by using initially a 2-D model, and then extending this model to 3-D to correctly take account of plasma motion parallel to the geomagnetic field. The other effluent studies related to the releases of neutral gas from an orbiting platform. One model which was extended and used determined the density, velocity, and energy of both an effluent gas and the ambient upper atmospheric gases over a large volume around the platform. This model was adapted to study both ambient and contaminant distributions around smaller objects in the orbital frame of reference with scale sizes of 1 m. The other effluent studies related to the interaction of the released neutral gas with the ambient ionospheric plasma. An electrostatic model was used to help understand anomalously high plasma densities measured at times in the vicinity of the space shuttle orbiter.

  6. A LEO Satellite Navigation Algorithm Based on GPS and Magnetometer Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutschmann, Julie; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Rick

    2000-01-01

    The Global Position System (GPS) has become a standard method for low cost onboard satellite orbit determination. The use of GPS as an attitude and rate sensor has also been developed in the recent past. Additionally, focus has been given to attitude and orbit estimation using the magnetometer, a low cost, reliable sensor. Combining measurements from both GPS and a magnetometer can provide a robust navigation system which takes advantage of the estimation qualities of both measurements. Ultimately a low cost, accurate navigation system can result, potentially eliminating the need for more costly sensors, including gyroscopes. This work presents the development and preliminary testing of a unified navigation algorithm which produces estimates of attitude, angular rate, position, and velocity for a low earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft. The system relies on GPS phase, range, and range rate data as well as magnetometer data. The algorithm used is an extended Kalman filter (EKF) developed to provide LEO attitude, orbit, and rate estimates using magnetometer and sun sensor data. Incorporating sun sensor data into the EKF improved the attitude and rate estimates. For many LEO spacecraft the sun data is available during only a portion of the orbit. However, GPS data is available continuously throughout the orbit. GPS can produce accurate orbit estimates and combining GPS and magnetometer data improves the attitude and rate estimates. The magnetometer based EKF can converge from large initial errors in position, velocity, and 3 attitude . Combining the magnetometer and GPS data into a single EKF will provide a more robust and accurate system. The EKF is based on an existing EKF. The GPS measurement models for phase, range, and range rate are incorporated into the existing structure of the filter. The original EKF produced the orbit estimates in terms of Keplerian elements. Due to the nature of the GPS measurements and ease of computation, the orbit estimates are converted to

  7. Optimal aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change using collocation and nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yun. Y.; Nelson, R. L.; Young, D. H.

    1990-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in the non-planar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) with orbital plane change. The basic strategy here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the aeroassisted HEO to LEO transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the orbital transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into an elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and bank angle modulations to perform the desired orbital plane change and to satisfy heating constraints. Because of the energy loss during the turn, an impulse is required to initiate the third phase to boost the vehicle back to the desired LEO orbital altitude. The third impulse is then used to circularize the orbit at LEO. The problem is solved by a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the state and control variables and collocation to satisfy the differential equations. This technique converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem which is solved numerically. Solutions were obtained for cases with and without heat constraints and for cases of different orbital inclination changes. The method appears to be more powerful and robust than other optimization methods. In addition, the method can handle complex dynamical constraints.

  8. MEO and LEO space debris optical observations at Crimean Observatory: first experience and future perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumyantsev, Vasilij; Biryukov, Vadim; Agapov, Vladimir; Molotov, Igor

    The near Earth space observation group of Crimean Observatory is performing the regular op-tical monitoring of space debris at GEO region within framework of the International Scientific Optical Network (ISON). During last years we also paid attention to objects on lower orbits due to increasing interest to LEO and MEO regions caused by several catastrophic events happened in the recent past. Optical observations provide high quality information about position and physical properties of space debris at LEO and MEO so they can be considered as another source of data comple-mentary to traditional radar measurements. We will discuss our observations of fragments from Briz-M upper stage (object 28944) and Block-DM ullage motor (25054) explosions. Results of observation of USA-193 debris will be presented. Then we will focus on observations and some photometric properties of FengYun 1C debris as well as Cosmos 2251 and Iridium 33 fragments. Radar cross-section versus optical photometry will be compared. Moreover, estimates of orbital parameters as well as area-to-mass ratio for some observed objects will be given. Most of our observations which we discuss in the paper represent just the first attempt to investigate capabilities of our optical system to observe MEO and LEO objects. But these results are very promising and show good perspectives for the future. We will briefly describe future perspectives of our optical observations of space debris and other objects in MEO and LEO region after the new wide-field telescopes will be put into operation.

  9. Materials selection for long life in low earth orbit - A critical evaluation of atomic oxygen testing with thermal atom systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, S. L.; Albyn, K.; Leger, L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of thermal atom test methods as a materials selection and screening technique for low-earth orbit (LEO) spacecraft is critically evaluated. The chemistry and physics of thermal atom environments are compared with the LEO environment. The relative reactivities of a number of materials determined in thermal atom environments are compared with those observed in LEO and in high-quality LEO simulations. Reaction efficiencies (cu cm/atom) measured in a new type of thermal atom apparatus are one-thousandth to one ten-thousandth those observed in LEO, and many materials showing nearly identical reactivities in LEO show relative reactivities differing by as much as a factor of eight in thermal atom systems. A simple phenomenological kinetic model for the reaction of oxygen atoms with organic materials can be used to explain the differences in reactivity in different environments. Certain speciic thermal atom test environments can be used as reliable materials screening tools.

  10. Orbital transfer systems for lunar missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koelle, Dietrich E.; Obersteiner, Michael

    For future Lunar mission operations basically two types of transfer systems can be conceived (a) the conventional direct-injection expendable vehicle approach, and (b) the re-usable orbit-to-orbit (LEO-LLO-LEO round-trip system. The second solution has been studied in Europe in the SPACE TUG Phase A Study in 1971/72 for NASA as a fully reusable system and this is compared to a more recent NASA-MSFC transfer vehicle concept with expendable propellant tanks and aerobraking. The results of an analysis on mission opportunities for LEO-LLO transfers is presented. A European option is also shown for mode (a), using the ARIANE 5 for lunar missions with an optimized cryogenic transfer vehicle, derived from the H.10 Stage (ARIANE 4) plus a lunar vehicle derived from the MMII-CRAF propulsion module using the 27.5 kN engine from the ARIANE L.9 Stage which could land a 3.4 ton vehicle on the lunar surface. Finally a completely new option (c) is discussed: the use of a ballistic SSTO vehicle for lunar landing missions after refuelling in LEO. This seems to be a highly effective single transportation element approach compared to the seven elements SATURN V-APOLLO-LM system of the 60ies.

  11. Impact of Ionosphere on GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination of Low Earth Orbiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, D.; Jaeggi, A.; Beutler, G.; Meyer, U.; Schaer, S.

    2015-12-01

    Deficiencies in geodetic products derived from the orbital trajectories of Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites determined by GPS-based Precise Orbit Determination (POD) were identified in recent years. The precise orbits of the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) mission are, e.g., severely affected by an increased position noise level over the geomagnetic poles and spurious signatures along the Earth's geomagnetic equator (see Fig. 1, which shows the carrier phase residuals of a reduced-dynamic orbit determination for GOCE in m). Such degradations may directly map into the gravity fields recovered from the orbits. They are related to a disturbed GPS signal propagation through the Earth's ionosphere and indicate that the GPS observation model and/or the data pre-processing need to be improved. While GOCE was the first mission where severe ionosphere-related problems became obvious, the GPS-based LEO POD of satellites of the more recent missions Swarm and Sentinel-1A turn out to be affected, as well. We characterize the stochastic and systematic behavior of the ionosphere by analyzing GPS data collected by the POD antennas of various LEO satellites covering a broad altitude range (e.g., GRACE, GOCE and Swarm) and for periods covering significant parts of an entire solar cycle, which probe substantially different ionosphere conditions. The information may provide the basis for improvements of data pre-processing to cope with the ionosphere-induced problems of LEO POD. The performance of cycle slip detection can, e.g., be degraded by large changes of ionospheric refraction from one measurement epoch to the next. Geographically resolved information on the stochastic properties of the ionosphere above the LEOs provide more realistic threshold values for cycle slip detection algorithms. Removing GPS data showing large ionospheric variations is a crude method to mitigate the ionosphere-induced artifacts in orbit and gravity field products

  12. Space Telescopes and Orbital Debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitzer, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Almost 12,000 artificial objects orbiting the Earth are currently in the public catalog of orbital elements maintained by the USAF. Only a small fraction of them are operational satellites. The remainder is satellites whose missions have ended, rocket bodies, and parts and debris from larger parent objects. And the catalog only contains the biggest and brightest of the objects in orbit. The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) regime where most of this population concentrates is also a regime of incredible interest to astronomers, since it is where flagship missions such as the Hubble Space Telescope and other Great Observatories operate. I'll review the current state of knowledge of the orbital debris population, how it has grown with time, and how this environment could affect current and future space telescopes. There are mitigation measures which many spacecraft operators have adopted which can control the growth of the debris population. Orbital debris research at the University of Michigan is funded by NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office, Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas.

  13. Orbital transfer and release of tethered payloads. Continuation of investigation of electrodynamic stabilization and control of long orbiting tethers Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.; Grossi, M. D.; Arnold, D.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of reeling operations on the orbital altitude of the tether system and the development of control laws to minimize tether rebound upon payload release were studied. The use of the tether for LEO/GEO payload orbital transfer was also investigated. It was concluded that (1) reeling operations can contribute a significant amount of energy to the orbit of the system and should be considered in orbit calculations and predictions, (2) deployment of payloads, even very large payloads, using tethers is a practical and fully stable operation, (3) tether augmented LEO/GEO transfer operations yield useful payload gains under the practical constraint of fixed size OTV's, and (4) orbit to orbit satellite retrieval is limited by useful revisit times to orbital inclinations of less than forty-five degrees.

  14. Small Orbital Debris Mitigation Mission Architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegmann, Bruce M.

    2011-01-01

    Small orbital debris in LEO (1-10 cm in size) presents a clear and present danger to operational LEO spacecraft. This debris field has dramatically increased (nearly doubled) in recent years following the Chinese ASAT Test in 2007 and the Iridium/Cosmos collision in 2009. Estimates of the number of small debris have grown to 500,000 objects after these two events; previously the population was 300,000 objects. These small, untracked debris objects (appproximately 500,000) outnumber the larger and tracked objects (appproximately 20,000) by a factor 25 to 1. Therefore, the risk of the small untracked debris objects to operational spacecraft is much greater than the risk posed by the larger and tracked LEO debris objects. A recent study by The Aerospace Corporation found that the debris environment will increase the costs of maintaining a constellation of government satellites by 5%, a constellation of large commercial satellites by 11%, and a constellation of factory built satellites by 26% from $7.6 billion to $9.57 billion. Based upon these facts, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Advanced Concepts Office (ACO) performed an architecture study on Small Orbital Debris Active Removal (SODAR) using a space-based nonweapons- class laser satellite for LEO debris removal. The goal of the SODAR study was to determine the ability of a space-based laser system to remove the most pieces of debris (1 cm to 10 cm, locations unknown), in the shortest amount of time, with the fewest number of spacecraft. The ESA developed MASTER2005 orbital debris model was used to probabilistically classify the future debris environment including impact velocity, magnitude, and directionality. The study ground rules and assumptions placed the spacecraft into a high inclination Low Earth Orbit at 800 km as an initial reference point. The architecture study results found that a spacecraft with an integrated forward-firing laser is capable of reducing the small orbital debris flux within

  15. Low earth orbit infrastructure to accommodate manned lunar missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Troutman, Patrick A.; Brender, Karen D.; Dahlstrom, Eric L.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Waters, Laura M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to establish bases on the lunar and Mars surfaces, a significant amount of orbital infrastructure including assembly platforms, cryogenic fluids depots, and Space Station Freedom, will be required in LEO. These facilities will be required to perform a myriad of functions ranging from orbital demonstration of advanced technology systems and establishment of life science capabilities to servicing and refurbishment of reusable lunar transfer vehicles. This paper addresses the requirements levied on these facilities and provides an overview of potetial LEO infrastructure elements that satisfy various advanced manned missions. Of key importance to the success of the manned lunar mission are (1) the evolutionary growth of Space Station Freedom to serve as a transportation node and (2) the development of a Shuttle-derived launch vehicle to deliver mission elements to LEO.

  16. The Low Earth Orbit Business Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bienhoff, D. G.; Fox, T. W.

    1981-02-01

    The Low Earth Orbit Business Center (LEOBC) is a manufacturing/research facility, similar to a suburban commercial center, conceived to exploit the unique environment of Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The LEOBC is a two-floor torus connected to a large hub by four spokes. Up to 82 lease units and comfortable residential support for up to 400 personnel are provided in the torus. At the hub, five floors contain lease space at near zero-g, life support systems, the control center and supply storage. The design is modularized to fly on the Space Transportation System, and could be operational in the 1990's. The LEOBC can be the first step in making LEO the industrial locale it has the potential of becoming.

  17. Regulation of low Earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayasuriya, Don

    1993-01-01

    Allocation of a number of frequency bands within which low Earth systems could operate was made to the mobile satellite service by the WARC-92 conference. These allocations and their associated inter and intra-service frequency sharing difficulties are described. Former radio regulations have served adequately for the satellite systems operated from the Geostationary Satellite Orbit (GSO); WARC-92 adopted an interim regulatory system for non-GSO satellite networks. The operation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) systems are subjected to a number of provisos relating to the protection of planned or existing services; prior to their implementation in LEO, they have to show the possibility of operating within these provisos. A way to resolve difficulties arising from the use of certain frequencies and the approval of terminals are prerequisites for paneuropean operations.

  18. Cold injury to a diver's hand after a 90-min dive in 6 degrees C water.

    PubMed

    Laden, Gerard D M; Purdy, Gerard; O'Rielly, Gerard

    2007-05-01

    We present here a case of non-freezing cold injury (NFCI) in a sport scuba diver. There are similarities between the presenting symptoms of NFCI and decompression sickness, e.g., pain and/or altered sensation in an extremity, often reported as numbness. In both conditions patients have been known to describe their lower limbs or feet as feeling woolly. Both conditions are the result of environmental exposure. Additionally, there are no good (high sensitivity and specificity) diagnostic tests for either condition. Diagnosis is made based on patient history, clinical presentation, and examination. NFCI is most frequently seen in military personnel, explorers, and the homeless. When affecting the feet of soldiers it is often referred to as "trench foot." Historically, NFCI has been and continues to be of critical importance in infantry warfare in cold and wet environments. A high priority should be given to prevention of NFCI during military operational planning. With the advent of so-called "technical diving" characterized by going deeper for longer (often in cold water) and adventure tourism, this extremely painful condition is likely to increase in prevalence. NFCI is treated symptomatically.

  19. An Updated Zero Boil-Off Cryogenic Propellant Storage Analysis Applied to Upper Stages or Depots in a LEO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plachta, David; Kittel, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Previous efforts have shown the analytical benefits of zero boil-off (ZBO) cryogenic propellant storage in launch vehicle upper stages of Mars transfer vehicles for conceptual Mars Missions. However, recent NASA mission investigations have looked at a different and broad array of missions, including a variety of orbit transfer vehicle (OTV) propulsion concepts, some requiring cryogenic storage. For many of the missions, this vehicle will remain for long periods (greater than one week) in low earth orbit (LEO), a relatively warm thermal environment. Under this environment, and with an array of tank sizes and propellants, the performance of a ZBO cryogenic storage system is predicted and compared with a traditional, passive-only storage concept. The results show mass savings over traditional, passive-only cryogenic storage when mission durations are less than one week in LEO for oxygen, two weeks for methane, and roughly 2 months for LH2. Cryogenic xenon saves mass over passive storage almost immediately.

  20. Leo Kadanoff's legacy for turbulent thermal convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohse, Detlef

    Rayleigh-Benard (RB) convection -- the buoyancy-driven flow of a fluid heated from below and cooled from above -- is a classical problem in fluid dynamics. It played a crucial role in the development of stability theory in hydrodynamics (Rayleigh, Chandrasekhar) and had been paradigmatic in pattern formation and in the study of spatial-temporal chaos (Ahlers, Libchaber, and many other). It was Leo Kadanoff and his associates in Chicago who, in the 1980s and 1990s, propagated the RB system as paradigmatic for the physics of fully developed turbulence and contributed tremendously to today's understanding of thermally driven turbulence. He and his experimental coworkers (Libchaber et al.) revealed the importance of the thermal plumes and the large-scale wind, and elucidated the interplay between thermal boundary layers and bulk. His scaling analysis laid the basis for our present understanding of turbulent convection, which I will review in this talk, highlighting Leo's trailblazing contributions. Kadanoff session.

  1. Orbital cellulitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemolytic streptococci may also cause orbital cellulitis. Orbital cellulitis infections in children may get worse very quickly and ... in the space around the eye. An orbital cellulitis infection can get worse very quickly. A person with ...

  2. Comparison of currents predicted by NASCAP/LEO model simulations with elementary Langmuir-type bare probe models for an insulated cable containing a single pinhole

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.

    1990-01-01

    The behavior of a defect in the insulation of a short biased section of cable in a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space environment was examined. Such studies are of the utmost importance for large space power systems where great quantities of cabling will be deployed. An insulated probe containing a pinhole was placed into a hypothetical high speed LEO plasma. The NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP/LEO) was used to explore sheath growth about the probe as a function of applied voltage and to predict I-V behavior. A set of independent current calculations using Langmuir's formulations for concentric spheres and coaxial cylinders were also performed. The case of concentric spheres was here extended to include the case of concentric hemispheres. Several simple Langmuir-type models were then constructed to bracket the current collected by the cable. The space-charge sheath radius and impact parameters were used to determine the proper current regime. I-V curves were plotted for the models and comparisons were made with NASCAP/LEO results. Finally, NASCAP/LEO potential contours and surface cell potential plots were examined to explain interesting features in the NASCAP/LEO I-V curve.

  3. Propagation of Forecast Errors from the Sun to LEO Trajectories: How Does Drag Uncertainty Affect Conjunction Frequency?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    density is in turn strongly controlled by incident ultraviolet radiation from the sun . Accordingly, modeling and forecasting upper atmospheric density...Propagation of Forecast Errors from the Sun to LEO Trajectories: How Does Drag Uncertainty Affect Conjunction Frequency? John Emmert, Jeff Byers...trajectories of most objects in low- Earth orbit, and solar variability is the largest source of error in upper atmospheric density forecasts. There is

  4. HERRO: A Science-Oriented Strategy for Crewed Missions Beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, George R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an exploration strategy for human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and the Moon that combines the best features of human and robotic spaceflight. This "Human Exploration using Real-time Robotic Operations" (HERRO) strategy refrains from placing humans on the surfaces of the Moon and Mars in the near-term. Rather, it focuses on sending piloted spacecraft and crews into orbit around exploration targets of interest, such as Mars, and conducting astronaut exploration of the surfaces using telerobots and remotely controlled systems. By eliminating the significant communications delay with Earth due to the speed of light limit, teleoperation provides scientists real-time control of rovers and other sophisticated instruments, in effect giving them a "virtual presence" on planetary surfaces, and thus expanding the scientific return at these destinations. It also eliminates development of the numerous man-rated landers, ascent vehicles and surface systems that are required to land humans on planetary surfaces. The propulsive requirements to travel from LEO to many destinations with shallow gravity-wells in the inner solar system are quite similar. Thus, a single spacecraft design could perform a variety of missions, including orbit-based surface exploration of the Moon, Mars and Venus, and rendezvous with Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), as well as Phobos and Deimos. Although HERRO bypasses many of the initial steps that have been historically associated with human space exploration, it opens the door to many new destinations that are candidates for future resource utilization and settlement. HERRO is a first step that takes humans to exciting destinations beyond LEO, while expanding the ability to conduct science within the inner solar system.

  5. Hugoniot Models for Na and LiF from LEOS

    SciTech Connect

    Whitley, Heather D.; Wu, Christine J.

    2016-10-12

    In this document, we provide the Hugoniot for sodium from two models: LEOS table L110 and Lynx table 110. We also provide the Hugoniot for lithium fluoride from LEOS (L2240) and Lynx (2240). The Hugoniot pressures are supplied for temperatures between 338.0 and 1.16×109 Kelvin and densities between 0.968 and 11.5 g/cc. These LEOS models were developed by the quotidian EOS methodology, which is a widely used and robust method for producing tabular EOS data. Tables list the model data for LEOS 110, Lynx 110, LEOS 2240, and Lynx 2240. The Lynx models follow the same methodology as the LEOS models; however, the Purgatorio average-atom DFT code was used to compute the electron thermal part of the EOS. The models for Lynx are only listed at high compression due to known issues with the Lynx library at lower pressures.

  6. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal to Stabilize the Future LEO Debris Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses of the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resources, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of the effectiveness of ADR must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the feasibility of using ADR to preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-cost ratio. This paper describes a comprehensive sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term, orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of many key parameters. These parameters include (1) the starting epoch of ADR implementation, (2) various target selection criteria, (3) the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers, (4) the consequence of targeting specific inclination or altitude regimes, (5) the consequence of targeting specific classes of vehicles, and (6) the timescale of removal. Additional analyses on the importance of postmission disposal and how future launches might affect the requirements to stabilize the environment are also included.

  7. A Parametric Study on Using Active Debris Removal for LEO Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Recent analyses on the instability of the orbital debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have reignited the interest in using active debris removal (ADR) to remediate the environment. There are; however, monumental technical, resource, operational, legal, and political challenges in making economically viable ADR a reality. Before a consensus on the need for ADR can be reached, a careful analysis of its effectiveness must be conducted. The goal is to demonstrate the need and feasibility of using ADR to better preserve the future environment and to guide its implementation to maximize the benefit-to-cost ratio. This paper describes a new sensitivity study on using ADR to stabilize the future LEO debris environment. The NASA long-term orbital debris evolutionary model, LEGEND, is used to quantify the effects of several key parameters, including target selection criteria/constraints and the starting epoch of ADR implementation. Additional analyses on potential ADR targets among the currently existing satellites and the benefits of collision avoidance maneuvers are also included.

  8. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to LEO from a Tethered Balloon - 'Propulsion Depots' Not 'Propellant Depots'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Schneider, Evan G.; Vaughan, David A.; Hall, Jeffrey L.; Yu, Chi Yau

    2011-01-01

    As we have previously reported, it may be possible to launch payloads into low-Earth orbit (LEO) at a per-kilogram cost that is one to two orders of magnitude lower than current launch systems, using only a relatively small capital investment (comparable to a single large present-day launch). An attractive payload would be large quantities of high-performance chemical rocket propellant (e.g. Liquid Oxygen/Liquid Hydrogen (LO2/LH2)) that would greatly facilitate, if not enable, extensive exploration of the moon, Mars, and beyond.

  9. Dose in critical body organs in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; Cucinotta, F.

    1984-01-01

    Human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) are evaluated on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry for spherical shell shields of varying thickness. A data base is presented that may be used to make preliminary assessment of the impact of radiation exposure constraints on human performance. A sample impact assessment is discussed.

  10. An analysis of the effect of aeroassist maneuvers on orbital transfer vehicle performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Gregory O.; Suit, William T.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes a Langley Research Summer Scholars (LARSS) research project (Summer 1986) dealing with the topic of the effectiveness of aeroassist maneuvers to accomplish a change in the orbital inclination of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV). This task was subject to OTV design constraints, chief of which were the axial acceleration and the aerodynamic heating rate limits of the OTV. The use of vehicle thrust to replace lost kinetic energy and, thereby, to increase the maximum possible change in orbital inclination was investigated. A relation between time in the hover orbit and payload to LEO was established. The amount of plane change possible during this type of maneuver was checked for several runs and a possible thrusting procedure to increase the plane change and still get to LEO was suggested. Finally, the sensitivity of various target parameters to controllable independent variables was established, trades between the amount of control allowed, and payload to LEO suggested.

  11. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a DELTA V penalty. Usually, because of the DELTA V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: (1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO) (3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO) (4) Two impulsive maneuvers from LEO (5) Three impulsive maneuvers from LEO.

  12. Design application and development of spacecraft in LEO utilizing LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rauch, George B., Jr.; Sudduth, Richard D.

    1993-01-01

    In general, the results from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) have provided much useful information on material sensitivity in the low-Earth orbit (LEO) environment. This is particularly true for selected materials such as thermal control coatings, composites, polymers, fasteners and solar cells. However, LDEF material sensitivity data for other materials like glasses, glass coatings, lubricants, adhesives and seal materials were limited. Some of this important LDEF material sensitivity data has not yet been addressed in detail at the LDEF meetings. The type of material information needed in the design and development of a new spacecraft in LEO depends to a large extent on program phase. In early program phases it is only necessary to have material sensitivity data to determine what materials may or may not work. Later program phases require details on the material strength, optical properties, and/or other long term survivability requirements for materials in LEO. Unfortunately, documentation of exposure results for many materials sensitivity experiments that flew on LDEF has not yet been summarized in a convenient form for use by multiple users. Documentation of this data in a form convenient for scientists, engineers as well as technicians remains a significant area of concern for the aerospace industry. Many of the material experiments that flew on LDEF were only designed to measure material sensitivity for one year in an LEO environment. However, some materials expected to survive one year simply did not survive the 5.8 years that LDEF eventually remained in orbit. Therefore the survivability of several materials in an LEO environment was determined by default. Most of the LDEF materials experiments were not designed to establish long term material survivability data. This long term material survivability data is particularly useful in later program phases of spacecraft development. The lack of more controlled materials experiments to determine long

  13. The Orbital Debris Problem and the Challenges for Environment Remediation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Orbital debris scientists from major international space agencies, including JAXA and NASA, have worked together to predict the trend of the future environment. A summary presentation was given to the United Nations in February 2013. The orbital debris population in LEO will continue to increase. Catastrophic collisions will continue to occur every 5 to 9 years center dot To limit the growth of the future debris population and to better protect future spacecraft, active debris removal, should be considered.

  14. A Search for Stellar Dust Production in Leo P, a Nearby Analog of High Redshift Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, Martha; McDonald, Iain; McQuinn, Kristen; Skillman, Evan; Sonneborn, George; Srinivasan, Sundar; van Loon, Jacco Th.; Zijlstra, Albert; Sloan, Greg

    2016-08-01

    The origin of dust in the early Universe is a matter of debate. One of the main potential dust contributors are Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars, and several studies have been devoted to investigating whether and how AGB dust production changes in metal-poor environments. Of particular interest are the most massive AGB stars (8-10 Msun), which can in principle enter the dust-producing phase <50 Myr after they form. However, these stars cannot produce their own condensable material (unlike carbon AGB stars), so the efficiency of dust production decreases with metallicity. Evidence for dust production in massive AGB stars more metal-poor than the Magellanic Clouds is scarce due both to the rarity of chemically-unevolved, star-forming systems reachable in the infrared and to the short lifetimes of these stars. The recently discovered galaxy Leo P provides an irresistible opportunity to search for these massive AGB stars: Leo P is a gas-rich, star-forming galaxy, it is nearby enough for resolved star photometry with Spitzer, and its interstellar medium is 0.4 dex more metal-poor than any other accessible star-forming galaxy. Models predict ~3 massive AGB stars may be present in Leo P, and optical HST observations reveal 7 candidates. We propose to use Spitzer to determine whether these stars are dusty, providing valuable constraints to the dust contribution from AGB stars up to at least redshift 3.2, or 11.7 Gyr ago, when massive spheroidals and Galactic globular clusters were still forming. This is a gain of 2.8 Gyr compared to other accessible galaxies. We also request 1 orbit of joint HST time to confirm whether the AGB candidates in Leo P are indeed massive AGB stars belonging to the galaxy. These observations will provide information crucial for potential JWST followup spectroscopy.

  15. Long-Duration Human Habitation Beyond Low-Earth Orbit: Why is the Near Future Critical?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Lester, Daniel; Hatfield, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a decade, habitation systems capable of comfortable human occupation and effective operations beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO) for more than a few weeks have been a priority recommendation to NASA. This capability is a lynch pin for human exploration beyond the Earth-Moon system. Here we describe briefly some relevant concepts and discuss justifications in the current political and financial environment for why near-term human habitation systems beyond LEO is an imperative.

  16. The precise autonomous orbit keeping experiment on the PRISMA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Florio, Sergio; D'Amico, Simone

    2008-12-01

    This paper analyzes the problem of autonomous control of the longitude of the ascending node (LAN) for a satellite in low Earth orbit (LEO) by means of along-track and anti-alongtrack velocity increments which adjust the semimajor axis. The problems related to the possibility of generating the reference orbit (RO) on-board and with the estimation of the atmospheric drag are considered. The Autonomous Orbit Keeping (AOK) experiment of the PRISMA formation flying mission will be the test platform of the control strategy here exposed. The AOK on-board software shall demonstrate autonomous orbit control using a guidance law for the orbit's LAN and shall implement a deterministic control algorithm using along-track and anti-along-track velocity increments. Using GPS-based absolute navigation data, AOK shall command thruster activations in the orbital frame to autonomously control the orbit within a predefined window. The AOK experiment paves the way to the accurate and autonomous orbit control of LEO satellites on a routine basis. The main requirement of the experiment is to demonstrate an orbit control accuracy of the osculating ascending node of 10 m (1σ). The paper shows results from real-world software simulations where the accuracy of the reference orbit is limited and GPS sensors and hydrazine actuators are accurately modeled. The fundamental approach on which the software design, validation and testing is based, is also explained.

  17. LCT for EDRS: LEO to GEO optical communications at 1,8 Gbps between Alphasat and Sentinel 1a

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, H.; Heine, F.; Tröndle, D.; Seel, S.; Motzigemba, M.; Meyer, R.; Philipp-May, S.

    2015-10-01

    The European Data Relay System (EDRS) relies on optical communication links between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) spacecrafts. Data transmission at 1,8 Gbps between the S/Cs will be applied for link distances up to 45000 km. EDRS is foreseen to go into operation in 2015. As a precursor to the EDRS GEO Laser Communication Terminals (LCT), a LCT is embarked on the Alphasat GEO S/C, which was launched in July 2013. Sentinel 1A is a LEO earth observation satellite as part of ESAs Copernicus program. Sentinel 1A also has a LCT on board. In November 2014, the first optical communication link between a LEO and a GEO Laser Communication Terminal at gigabit data rates has been performed successfully [1]. Data generated by the Sentinel 1A instrument were optically transferred to Alphasat. From Alphasat, the data were transmitted via Kaband to a ground station. In the ground station, the original data were recovered successfully. So the whole chain from LEO to ground was verified. Since then, many optical communication links between the Alphasat LCT and the Sentinel 1A LCT were performed. During these tests, the acquisition and tracking performance was investigated. The first communication links showed a very robust link acquisition capability and tracking errors in the sub-μrad range. The communication link budget was verified and compared to the predictions, showing excellent overall system behavior with sufficient margin to support future GEO GEO link applications.

  18. Leo Szilard. Toward A Livable World.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerjuoy, Edward

    1998-04-01

    For essentially his entire adult life Leo Szilard sought to increase the likelihood that the results of basic scientific research, which especially since World War II have so greatly increased humanity's ability to manipulate the natural world, would be used for humanity's benefit. This talk will review and assess Szilard's endeavors in this quest, to which he so unwaveringly devoted his energies and talents. I also will reflect on the significance of that quest for this audience of scientists who, thirty four years after Szilard's death, have assembled today to honor him.

  19. The Leo I color-magnitude diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, Neill; Mould, Jeremy

    1991-04-01

    The R-and I-band photometry of the Leo I dwarf galaxy is presented. A relatively narrow giant branch is found, Implying an abundance range of no more than Fe/H/= - 0.7 to - 1.3. This is in contrast to the results is found by Fox and Pritchet (1987) from BV CCD photometry. The distance modulus is estimated as (m - M) = 21.85 + or - 0.15, based on the luminosity of the tip of the red giant branch.

  20. An Abel transform for deriving line-of-sight wind profiles from LEO-LEO infrared laser occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syndergaard, S.; Kirchengast, G.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a formula for the retrieval of the line-of-sight (l.o.s.) wind speed from future low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite-to-satellite infrared laser occultation measurements. The formula involves an Abelian integral transform akin to the Abel transform widely used for deriving refractive index from bending angle in Global Navigation Satellite System radio occultation measurements. Besides the Abelian integral transform, the formula is derived from a truncated series expansion of the volume absorption coefficient as a function of frequency and includes a simple absorption-line-asymmetry correction term. A first-order formulation (referred to as the standard formula) is complemented by higher-order terms that can be used for high-accuracy computations. Under the assumptions of spherical symmetry and perfect knowledge of spectroscopy, the residual l.o.s. wind error from using the standard formula rather than the high-accuracy formula is assessed to be small compared to that anticipated from measurement errors in a real experiment. Applying the new formula just in standard form to future infrared laser transmission profiles would therefore enable the retrieval of l.o.s. stratospheric wind profiles with an accuracy limited mainly by measurement errors, residual spectroscopic errors, and deviations from spherical symmetry.

  1. Space-based laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (Project SLICK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A conceptual design study of a laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (LOTV) is presented. The LOTV, nicknamed SLICK (Space Laser Interorbital Cargo Kite), will be utilized for the transfer of 16000 kg of cargo between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and either Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO) or Low Lunar Orbit (LLO). This design concentrates primarily on the LEO/GEO scenario, which will have typical LEO-to-GEO trip time of 6 days and two return versions. One version uses an all propulsive return while the other utilizes a ballute aerobrake for the return trip. Furthermore, three return cargo options of 16000 kg, 5000 kg (standard option), and 1600 kg are considered for this scenario. The LEO/LLO scenario uses only a standard, aerobraked version. The basic concept behind the LOTV is that the power for the propulsion system is supplied by a source separate from the LOTV itself. For the LEO/GEO scenario the LOTV utilizes a direct solar-pumped iodide laser and possibly two relay stations, all orbiting at an altitude of one Earth radius and zero inclination. An additional nuclear-powered laser is placed on the Moon for the LEO/LLO scenario. The propulsion system of the LOTV consists of a single engine fueled with liquid hydrogen. The laser beam is captured and directed by a four mirror optical system through a window in the thrust chamber of the engine. There, seven plasmas are created to convert the laser beam energy into thermal energy at an efficiency of at least 50 percent. For the LEO/LLO scenario the laser propulsion is supplemented by LH2/LOX chemical thrusters.

  2. Investigation on aerosol optical properties over East Asia: From LEO to GEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, C. H.; Park, M.; Park, R.; Lee, J.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.; Kim, J.

    2011-12-01

    Aerosol optical properties (AOP) have been regarded as good proxy indicators of the levels of particulate air pollutants such as PM2.5 and PM10, and have also been widely used for estimating direct radiative forcing (DRF) by aerosols. Up to date, the AOP have been retrieved mainly from the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites such as terra- and aqua-MODIS. However, the critical limitation of the AOP products from the LEO satellites is relatively long temporal resolution of one to several days. In order to overcome this critical limitation, the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) satellite-retrieved data is begun to be used recently. Therefore, in this study, several topics related to the fore-mentioned issues are introduced: (i) current status of the AOP retrieval from the LEO satellites and the AOP calculations from chemistry-transfer model (CTM) simulations over East Asia; (ii) the uses of the AOP data for estimating particulate pollution and DRF by aerosols in East Asia; (iii) preliminary AOP data retrieved from a geostationary sensor (GOCI: Geostationary Ocean Color Imager) on a Korean GEO satellite (COMS: Communication Ocean Meteorology Satellite); and (iv) possible improvements of the GEO-retrieved AOP data, combining them with the AOP data calculated from the CTM simulations over East Asia via a data assimilation technique. Regarding the AOP data retrievals from the COMS-GOCI sensor, two Korean aerosol retrieval algorithms are also introduced briefly: (i) Yonsei algorithm and (ii) GSTAR (GIST Aerosol Retrieval) algorithm. It is also discussed that these researches are being carried out with long-term research goals, aiming at the future applications of the AOP data, which is expected to be available from the world-first Korean environmental GEO sensors (GEMS: Geostationary Environmental Monitoring Sensor and GOCI-2) scheduled to be launched in 2017 or 2018, to the investigations onto the particulate air pollution and the DRF estimation by aerosols over East Asia (as

  3. NiH2 Battery Reconditioning for LEO Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Armantrout, J. D.; Hafen, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes reasons for and benefits of reconditioning nickel-hydrogen (NiH2) batteries used for Low Earth Orbit (LEO) applications. NiH2 battery cells do not have the classic discharge voltage problems more commonly associated with nickel-cadmium (NiCd) cells. This is due, in part, to use of hydrogen electrodes in place of cadmium electrodes. The nickel electrode, however, does have a similar discharge voltage signature for both cell designs. This can have an impact on LEO applications where peak loads at higher relative depths of discharge can impact operations. Periodic reconditioning provides information which can be used for analyzing long term performance trends to predict usable capacity to a specified voltage level. The reconditioning process described herein involves discharging NiH2 batteries at C/20 rates or less, to an average cell voltage of 1.0 volts or less. Recharge is performed at nominal C/5 rates to specified voltage/temperature (V/T) charge levels selected to restore required capacity with minimal overcharge. Reconditioning is a process of restoring reserve capacity lost on cycling, which is commonly called the memory effect in NiCd cells. This effect is characterized by decreases in the discharge voltage curve with operational life and cycling. The end effect of reconditioning NiH2 cells may be hidden in the versatility, of that design over the NiCd cell design and its associated negative electrode fading problem. The process of deep discharge at lower rates by way of reconditioning tends to redistribute electrolyte and water in the NiH2 cell electrode stack, while improving utilization and charge efficiency. NiH2 battery reconditioning effects on life are considered beneficial and may, in fact. extend life based on NiCd experience. In any case, usable capacity data obtained from reconditioning is required for performance evaluation and trend analysis. Characterization and life tests have provided the historical data base used to

  4. A low Earth orbit molecular beam space simulation facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    A brief synopsis of the low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite environment is presented including neutral and ionic species. Two ground based atomic and molecular beam instruments are described which are capable of simulating the interaction of spacecraft surfaces with the LEO environment and detecting the results of these interactions. The first detects mass spectrometrically low level fluxes of reactively and nonreactively surface scattered species as a function of scattering angle and velocity while the second ultrahigh velocity (UHV) molecular beam, laser induced fluorescence apparatus is capable of measuring chemiluminescence produced by either gas phase or gas-surface interactions. A number of proposed experiments are described.

  5. Satellite Power Systems (SPS) concept definition study. Volume 5: Transportation and operations analysis. [heavy lift launch and orbit transfer vehicles for orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanley, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of transportation systems to support the operations required for the orbital assembly of a 5-gigawatt satellite is discussed as well as the construction of a ground receiving antenna (rectenna). Topics covered include heavy lift launch vehicle configurations for Earth-to LEO transport; the use of chemical, nuclear, and electric orbit transfer vehicles for LEO to GEO operations; personnel transport systems; ground operations; end-to-end analysis of the construction, operation, and maintenance of the satellite and rectenna; propellant production and storage; and payload packaging.

  6. Nickel-hydrogen LEO cycling at 20-50 percent DOD. [depth of discharge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowery, John E.; Mai, Jenny

    1991-01-01

    Two NiH2 two-cell packs made up of engineering cells built according to the Hubble Space Telescope design (EPI RNH 90-3) are currently being low-earth-orbit (LEO) cycled at 20-50 percent depth of discharge (DOD). The cells were manufactured by Eagle-Picher Industries, Inc., and activated with electrolyte (KOH) concentrations of 26 percent (pack No.1) and 31 percent (pack No.2), for use during evaluation of the HST cell design. The cells have been grouped according to electrolyte concentration but follow the same test schedule for comparison. This test was set up to study the behavior of NiH2 cells having differing electrolyte concentrations, when operated at relatively high DOD (20-50 percent) in a LEO cycling program. The test was designed specifically to allow the cells to pick their own recharge ratio for varying DOD and varying EOC (end of charge) voltages. The cells are being cycled in a simulated 96-min orbit with 60-min charge and 36-min discharge where an EOC cutoff voltage controls high-rate charging. EOC cutoff voltages vary between 1.48 V and 1.56 V.

  7. The Komplast Experiment: Space Environmental Effects after 12 Years in LEO (and Counting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaevich, Sergei K.; Aleksandrov, Nicholai G.; Shumov, Andrei E.; Novikov, L. S.; Alred, John A.; Shindo, David J.; Kravchenko, Michael; Golden, Johnny L.

    2014-01-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev Space Center, together with other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 1998. The purpose is to study the effect of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment on exposed samples of various spacecraft materials. The Komplast experiment began with the launch of the first International Space Station (ISS) module on November 20, 1998. Two of eight experiment panels were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 after 12 years of LEO exposure, and were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle "Discovery" on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission. The retrieved panels contained an experiment to detect micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts, radiation sensors, a temperature sensor, several pieces of electrical cable, both carbon composite and adhesive-bonded samples, and many samples made from elastomeric and fluoroplastic materials. Our investigation is complete and a summary of the results obtained from this uniquely long-duration exposure experiment will be presented.

  8. POSSIBLE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY CYCLES IN AD LEO

    SciTech Connect

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Petrucci, Romina; Mauas, Pablo J. D.; Jofré, Emiliano

    2014-01-20

    AD Leo (GJ 388) is an active dM3 flare star that has been extensively observed both in the quiescent and flaring states. Since this active star is near the fully convective boundary, studying its long-term chromospheric activity in detail could be an appreciable contribution to dynamo theory. Here, using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram, we analyze the Ca II K line-core fluxes derived from CASLEO spectra obtained between 2001 and 2013 and the V magnitude from the ASAS database between 2004 and 2010. From both of these totally independent time series, we obtain a possible activity cycle with a period of approximately seven years and a less significant shorter cycle of approximately two years. A tentative interpretation is that a dynamo operating near the surface could be generating the longer cycle, while a second dynamo operating in the deep convection zone could be responsible for the shorter one. Based on the long duration of our observing program at CASLEO and the fact that we observe different spectral features simultaneously, we also analyze the relation between simultaneous measurements of the Na I index (R{sub D}{sup ′}), Hα, and Ca II K fluxes at different activity levels of AD Leo, including flares.

  9. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected low-earth-orbit (LEO) and high-earth-orbit (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied to correspond to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. A comparative assessment is made of the two power system types for emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (Space Station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt, and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multikilowatt earth-orbit missions. The results give the expected performance, mass and drag of multikilowatt earth-orbiting solar power systems and show how the overall system figure of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  10. Kepler's Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    Kepler does not orbit the Earth, rather it orbits the Sun in concert with the Earth, slowly drifting away from Earth. Every 61 Earth years, Kepler and Earth will pass by each other. Throughout the ...

  11. SPECS: Orbital debris removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the

  12. Effects of Orbital Lifetime Reduction on the Long-Term Earth Satellite Population as Modeled by EVOLVE 4.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.; Opiela, John N.; Liou, Jer-Chyi; Anz-Meador, Phillip D.; Theall, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    The latest update of the NASA orbital debris environment model, EVOLVE 4.0, has been used to study the effect of various proposed debris mitigation measures, including the NASA 25-year guideline. EVOLVE 4.0, which includes updates of the NASA breakup, solar activity, and the orbit propagator models, a GEO analysis option, and non-fragmentation debris source models, allows for the statistical modeling and predicted growth of the particle population >1 mm in characteristic length in LEO and GEO orbits. The initial implementation of this &odel has been to study the sensitivity of the overall LEO debris environment to mitigation measures designed to limit the lifetime of intact objects in LEO orbits. The mitigation measures test matrix for this study included several commonly accepted testing schemes, i.e., the variance of the maximum LEO lifetime from 10 to 50 years, the date of the initial implementation of this policy, the shut off of all explosions at some specified date, and the inclusion of disposal orbits. All are timely studies in that all scenarios have been suggested by researchers and satellite operators as options for the removal of debris from LEO orbits.

  13. Implementation of National Space Policy on US Air Force End of Life Operations and Orbital Debris Mitigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    the orbital debris problem in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). Therefore current EOL plans are written largely with the aim of reducing long-lasting debris that...Space Command policies for mitigation of orbital debris , this paper details several considerations for writing operational EOL plans, with special...assess and minimize orbital debris released during and after EOL satellite passivation by accidental explosions, by intentional breakup and due to on

  14. Time variable gravity retrieval and treatment of temporal aliasing using optical two-way links between GALILEO and LEO satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauk, Markus; Pail, Roland; Murböck, Michael; Schlicht, Anja

    2016-04-01

    For the determination of temporal gravity fields satellite missions such as GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment) or CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) were used in the last decade. These missions improved the knowledge of atmospheric, oceanic and tidal mass variations. The most limiting factor of temporal gravity retrieval quality is temporal aliasing due to the undersampling of high frequency signals, especially in the atmosphere and oceans. This kind of error causes the typical stripes in spatial representations of global gravity fields such as from GRACE. As part of the GETRIS (Geodesy and Time Reference in Space) mission, that aims to establish a geodetic reference station and precise time- and frequency reference in space by using optical two-way communication links between geostationary (GEO) and low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites, a possible future gravity field mission can be set up. By expanding the GETRIS space segment to the global satellite navigation systems (GNSS) the optical two-way links also connect the GALILEO satellites among themselves and to LEO satellites. From these links between GALILEO and LEO satellites gravitational information can be extracted. In our simulations inter-satellite links between GALILEO and LEO satellites are used to determine temporal changes in the Earth's gravitational field. One of the main goals of this work is to find a suitable constellation together with the best analysis method to reduce temporal aliasing errors. Concerning non-tidal aliasing, it could be shown that the co-estimation of short-period long-wavelength gravity field signals, the so-called Wiese approach, is a powerful method for aliasing reduction (Wiese et al. 2013). By means of a closed loop mission simulator using inter-satellite observations as acceleration differences along the line-of-sight, different mission scenarios for GALILEO-LEO inter-satellite links and different functional models like the Wiese approach are analysed.

  15. Unmanned, space-based, reusable orbital transfer vehicle, DARVES. Volume 1: Trade analysis and design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The design of an unmanned, space-based, reusable Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) is presented. This OTV will be utilized for the delivery and retrieval of satellites from geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) in conjunction with a space station assumed to be in existence in low Earth orbit (LEO). The trade analysis used to determine the vehicle design is presented, and from this study a vehicle definition is given.

  16. Spaceport aurora: An orbiting transportation node

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    With recent announcements of the development of permanently staffed facilities on the Moon and Mars, the national space plan is in need of an infrastructure system for transportation and maintenance. A project team at the University of Houston College of Architecture and the Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture, recently examined components for a low Earth orbit (LEO) transportation node that supports a lunar build-up scenario. Areas of investigation included identifying transportation node functions, identifying existing space systems and subsystems, analyzing variable orbits, determining logistics strategies for maintenance, and investigating assured crew return systems. The information resulted in a requirements definition document, from which the team then addressed conceptual designs for a LEO transportation node. The primary design drivers included: orbital stability, maximizing human performance and safety, vehicle maintainability, and modularity within existing space infrastructure. For orbital stability, the power tower configuration provides a gravity gradient stabilized facility and serves as the backbone for the various facility components. To maximize human performance, human comfort is stressed through zoning of living and working activities, maintaining a consistent local vertical orientation, providing crew interaction and viewing areas and providing crew return vehicles. Vehicle maintainability is accomplished through dual hangars, dual work cupolas, work modules, telerobotics and a fuel depot. Modularity is incorporated using Space Station Freedom module diameter, Space Station Freedom standard racks, and interchangeable interior partitions. It is intended that the final design be flexible and adaptable to provide a facility prototype that can service multiple mission profiles using modular space systems.

  17. Atomic oxygen interaction with spacecraft materials: Relationship between orbital and ground-based testing for materials certification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, Jon B.; Koontz, Steven L.; Lan, Esther H.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of atomic oxygen on boron nitride (BN), silicon nitride (Si3N4), Intelsat 6 solar cell interconnects, organic polymers, and MoS2 and WS2 dry lubricant, were studied in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) flight experiments and in a ground based simulation facility. Both the inflight and ground based experiments employed in situ electrical resistance measurements to detect penetration of atomic oxygen through materials and Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) analysis to measure chemical composition changes. Results are given. The ground based results on the materials studied to date show good qualitative correlation with the LEO flight results, thus validating the simulation fidelity of the ground based facility in terms of reproducing LEO flight results. In addition it was demonstrated that ground based simulation is capable of performing more detailed experiments than orbital exposures can presently perform. This allows the development of a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms involved in the LEO environment degradation of materials.

  18. ISIS Electronics Flying on Korean LEO Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remy, S.; Mosset, E.; Park, Sungwoo

    2014-08-01

    Saft (Defense & Space, France), ASP (Advanced Space Power, Germany) and KARI (Korean Aerospace Research Institute, South Korea) developed an autonomous battery management system to carry out cell packages balancing, by-pass system activation and cell package discharge after failure detection. This high reliability electronics called ISIS (Intelligent Surveillance Integrated System) has been designed, tested and qualified in the frame of the Kompsat-3, Kompsat-5 and Kompsat-3A large LEO Korean KARI Satellites. Kompsat-3 and 3A (4.8 kWh battery) and Kompsat-5 (5.2 kWh battery equipped with a demanding imaging radar system) are powered during daily sun eclipses with respectively one 4P12S or 4P13S VES100 li-ion batteries managed by ISIS system.

  19. Performance goals in RFC development for low earth orbit space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolwin, K.

    1993-06-01

    By comparing alkaline regenerative fuel cells (RFCs) with advanced battery systems, the RFCs show better performance in regard to the overall system mass for a widest range of space applications; however this does not embrace the low earth orbit (LEO) missions, which are most practical. For LEO applications of RFCs, their storage efficiency must be increased significantly. In the present work, different RFC technologies and system designs are discussed in order to minimize the required effort in fundamental electrocatalytic research. The performance goals of the electrochemical properties of RFCs applied in low earth orbits are defined.

  20. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Miller, Sharon K.; deGroh, Kim K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen is formed in the low Earth orbital environment (LEO) by photo dissociation of diatomic oxygen by short wavelength (< 243 nm) solar radiation which has sufficient energy to break the 5.12 eV O2 diatomic bond in an environment where the mean free path is sufficiently long ( 108 meters) that the probability of reassociation or the formation of ozone (O3) is small. As a consequence, between the altitudes of 180 and 650 km, atomic oxygen is the most abundant species. Spacecraft impact the atomic oxygen resident in LEO with sufficient energy to break hydrocarbon polymer bonds, causing oxidation and thinning of the polymers due to loss of volatile oxidation products. Mitigation techniques, such as the development of materials with improved durability to atomic oxygen attack, as well as atomic oxygen protective coatings, have been employed with varying degrees of success to improve durability of polymers in the LEO environment. Atomic oxygen can also oxidize silicones and silicone contamination to produce non-volatile silica deposits. Such contaminants are present on most LEO missions and can be a threat to performance of optical surfaces. The LEO atomic oxygen environment, its interactions with materials, results of space testing, computational modeling, mitigation techniques, and ground laboratory simulation procedures and issues are presented.

  1. Proceedings of the NASA Workshop on Atomic Oxygen Effects. [low earth orbital environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    A workshop was held to address the scientific issues concerning the effects of atomic oxygen on materials in the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment. The program included 18 invited speakers plus contributed posters covering topics such as LEO spaceflight experiments, interaction mechanisms, and atomic oxygen source development. Discussion sessions were also held to organize a test program to evaluate atomic oxygen exposure facilities. The key issues raised in the workshop were: (1) the need to develop a reliable predictive model of the effects of long-term exposure of materials to the LEO environment; (2) the ability of ground-based exposure facilities to provide useful data for development of durable materials; and (3) accurate determination of the composition of the LEO environment. These proceedings include the invited papers, the abstracts for the contributed posters, and an account of the test program discussion sessions.

  2. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Dever, J.A.

    1991-02-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  3. Low Earth orbital atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects on polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1991-01-01

    Because atomic oxygen and solar ultraviolet radiation present in the low earth orbital (LEO) environment can alter the chemistry of polymers resulting in degradation, their effects and mechanisms of degradation must be determined in order to determine the long term durability of polymeric surfaces to be exposed on missions such as Space Station Freedom. The effects of atomic oxygen on polymers which contain protective coatings must also be explored, since unique damage mechanisms can occur in areas where the protective coatings has failed. Mechanisms can be determined by utilizing results from previous LEO missions, by performing ground based LEO simulation tests and analysis, and by carrying out focussed space experiments. A survey is presented of the interactions and possible damage mechanisms for environmental atomic oxygen and UV radiation exposure of polymers commonly used in LEO.

  4. Analysis of GaAs and Si solar cell arrays for earth orbital and orbit transfer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffries, K. D.

    1980-01-01

    Silicon and gallium arsenide arrays were studied and compared for low earth orbit (LE), geosynchronous orbit (GEO), and LEO to GEO electric propulsion orbit transfer missions. The sensitivities of total cost to parameters such as mission duration, array cost, cover glass thickness, and concentration ratio were determined along with cost tradeoffs between silicon and gallium arsenide arrays for selected mission classes. Results indicate that development of the technology for low cost, light weight concentrators should be increased and that cost reduction efforts for gallium arsenide cells be pursued.

  5. Application of the NASCAP Spacecraft Simulation Tool to Investigate Electrodynamic Tether Current Collection in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Mitzi; HabashKrause, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Recent interest in using electrodynamic tethers (EDTs) for orbital maneuvering in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) has prompted the development of the Marshall ElectroDynamic Tether Orbit Propagator (MEDTOP) model. The model is comprised of several modules which address various aspects of EDT propulsion, including calculation of state vectors using a standard orbit propagator (e.g., J2), an atmospheric drag model, realistic ionospheric and magnetic field models, space weather effects, and tether librations. The natural electromotive force (EMF) attained during a radially-aligned conductive tether results in electrons flowing down the tether and accumulating on the lower-altitude spacecraft. The energy that drives this EMF is sourced from the orbital energy of the system; thus, EDTs are often proposed as de-orbiting systems. However, when the current is reversed using satellite charged particle sources, then propulsion is possible. One of the most difficult challenges of the modeling effort is to ascertain the equivalent circuit between the spacecraft and the ionospheric plasma. The present study investigates the use of the NASA Charging Analyzer Program (NASCAP) to calculate currents to and from the tethered satellites and the ionospheric plasma. NASCAP is a sophisticated set of computational tools to model the surface charging of three-dimensional (3D) spacecraft surfaces in a time-varying space environment. The model's surface is tessellated into a collection of facets, and NASCAP calculates currents and potentials for each one. Additionally, NASCAP provides for the construction of one or more nested grids to calculate space potential and time-varying electric fields. This provides for the capability to track individual particles orbits, to model charged particle wakes, and to incorporate external charged particle sources. With this study, we have developed a model of calculating currents incident onto an electrodynamic tethered satellite system, and first results are shown

  6. Risk Management of Jettisoned Objects in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, John B.; Gray, Charles

    2011-01-01

    The construction and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS) has led to the release of many objects into its orbital plane, usually during the course of an extra-vehicular activity (EVA). Such releases are often unintentional, but in a growing number of cases, the jettison has been intentional, conducted after a careful assessment of the net risk to the partnership and to other objects in space. Since its launch in 1998 the ISS has contributed on average at least one additional debris object that is simultaneously in orbit with the station, although the number varies widely from zero to eight at any one moment. All of these objects present potential risks to other objects in orbit. Whether it comes from known and tracked orbiting objects or from unknown or untrackable objects, collision with orbital debris can have disastrous consequences. Objects greater than 10cm are generally well documented and tracked, allowing orbiting spacecraft or satellites opportunities to perform evasive maneuvers (commonly known as Debris Avoidance Maneuvers, or DAMs) in the event that imminent collision is predicted. The issue with smaller debris; however, is that it is too numerous to be tracked effectively and yet still poses disastrous consequences if it intercepts a larger object. Due to the immense kinetic energy of any item in orbit, collision with debris as small as 1cm can have catastrophic consequences for many orbiting satellites or spacecraft. Faced with the growing orbital debris threat and the potentially catastrophic consequences of a collision-generated debris shower originating in an orbit crossing the ISS altitude band, in 2007 the ISS program manger asked program specialists to coordinate a multilateral jettison policy amongst the ISS partners. This policy would define the acceptable risk trade rationale for intentional release of a debris object, and other mandatory constraints on such jettisons to minimize the residual risks whenever a jettison was

  7. Risk Analysis of On-Orbit Spacecraft Refueling Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Stromgren, Chel; Cates, Grant R.

    2010-01-01

    On-orbit refueling of spacecraft has been proposed as an alternative to the exclusive use of Heavy-lift Launch Vehicles to enable human exploration beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). In these scenarios, beyond LEO spacecraft are launched dry (without propellant) or partially dry into orbit, using smaller or fewer element launch vehicles. Propellant is then launched into LEO on separate launch vehicles and transferred to the spacecraft. Refueling concepts are potentially attractive because they reduce the maximum individual payload that must be placed in Earth orbit. However, these types of approaches add significant complexity to mission operations and introduce more uncertainty and opportunities for failure to the mission. In order to evaluate these complex scenarios, the authors developed a Monte Carlo based discrete-event model that simulates the operational risks involved with such strategies, including launch processing delays, transportation system failures, and onorbit element lifetimes. This paper describes the methodology used to simulate the mission risks for refueling concepts, the strategies that were evaluated, and the results of the investigation. The results of the investigation show that scenarios that employ refueling concepts will likely have to include long launch and assembly timelines, as well as the use of spare tanker launch vehicles, in order to achieve high levels of mission success through Trans Lunar Injection.

  8. GPU-accelerated Faint Streak Detection for Uncued Surveillance of LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmer, P.; Ackermann, M.; McGraw, J. T.

    2013-09-01

    By astronomical standards, small objects (<10cm) in LEO illuminated by the Sun under terminator conditions are quite bright, depositing 100's to 1000's of photons per second into small telescope apertures (< 1m diameter). The challenge in discovering these objects with no a priori knowledge of their orbit (i.e. uncued surveillance) is that their relative motion with respect to a ground-based telescope makes them appear to have large angular rates of motion, up to and exceeding 1 degree per second. Thus in even a short exposure, the signal from the object is smeared out in a streak with low signal-to-noise per pixel. Go Green Termite (GGT), Inc. of Gilroy, CA, in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), is building two proof-of-concept wide-field imaging systems to test, develop and prove a novel streak detection technique. The imaging systems are built from off-the-shelf optics and detectors resulting in a 350mm aperture and a 6 square degree field of view. For streak detection, field of view is of critical importance because the maximum exposure time on the object is limited by its crossing time. In this way, wider fields of view impact surveys for LEO objects both by increasing the survey volume and increasing sensitivity. Using our newly GPU-accelerated detection scheme, the proof-of-concept systems are expected to be able to detect objects fainter than 12th magnitude moving at 1 degree per second and possibly as faint as 13th magnitude for slower moving objects. Meter-class optical systems using these techniques should be able to detect objects fainter than 14th magnitude, which is roughly equivalent to a golf ball at 1000km altitude. The goal of this work is to demonstrate a scalable system for near real time detection of fast moving objects that can be then handed off to other instruments capable of tracking and characterizing them. The two proof-of-concept systems, separated by ~30km, work together by taking simultaneous images of the same

  9. Space Tourism: Orbital Debris Considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoudian, N.; Shajiee, S.; Moghani, T.; Bahrami, M.

    2002-01-01

    Space activities after a phase of research and development, political competition and national prestige have entered an era of real commercialization. Remote sensing, earth observation, and communication are among the areas in which this growing industry is facing competition and declining government money. A project like International Space Station, which draws from public money, has not only opened a window of real multinational cooperation, but also changed space travel from a mere fantasy into a real world activity. Besides research activities for sending man to moon and Mars and other outer planets, space travel has attracted a considerable attention in recent years in the form of space tourism. Four countries from space fairing nations are actively involved in the development of space tourism. Even, nations which are either in early stages of space technology development or just beginning their space activities, have high ambitions in this area. This is worth noting considering their limited resources. At present, trips to space are available, but limited and expensive. To move beyond this point to generally available trips to orbit and week long stays in LEO, in orbital hotels, some of the required basic transportations, living requirements, and technological developments required for long stay in orbit are already underway. For tourism to develop to a real everyday business, not only the price has to come down to meaningful levels, but also safety considerations should be fully developed to attract travelers' trust. A serious hazard to space activities in general and space tourism in particular is space debris in earth orbit. Orbiting debris are man-made objects left over by space operations, hazardous to space missions. Since the higher density of debris population occurs in low earth orbit, which is also the same orbit of interest to space tourism, a careful attention should be paid to the effect of debris on tourism activities. In this study, after a

  10. Radiation Environment at LEO in the frame of Space Monitoring Data Center at Moscow State University - recent, current and future missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myagkova, Irina; Kalegaev, Vladimir; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Bogomolov, Vitaly; Bogomolov, Andrey; Barinova, Vera; Barinov, Oleg; Bobrovnikov, Sergey; Dolenko, Sergey; Mukhametdinova, Ludmila; Shiroky, Vladimir; Shugay, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Radiation Environment of Near-Earth space is one of the most important factors of space weather. Space Monitoring Data Center of Moscow State University provides operational control of radiation conditions at Low Earth's Orbits (LEO) of the near-Earth space using data of recent (Vernov, CORONAS series), current (Meteor-M, Electro-L series) and future (Lomonosov) space missions. Internet portal of Space Monitoring Data Center of Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics of Lomonosov Moscow State University (SINP MSU) http://swx.sinp.msu.ru/ provides possibilities to control and analyze the space radiation conditions in the real time mode together with the geomagnetic and solar activity including hard X-ray and gamma- emission of solar flares. Operational data obtained from space missions at L1, GEO and LEO and from the Earth's magnetic stations are used to represent radiation and geomagnetic state of near-Earth environment. The models of space environment that use space measurements from different orbits were created. Interactive analysis and operational neural network forecast services are based on these models. These systems can automatically generate alerts on particle fluxes enhancements above the threshold values, both for SEP and relativistic electrons of outer Earth's radiation belt using data from GEO and LEO as input. As an example of LEO data we consider data from Vernov mission, which was launched into solar-synchronous orbit (altitude 640 - 83 0 km, inclination 98.4°, orbital period about 100 min) on July 8, 2014 and began to receive scientific information since July 20, 2014. Vernov mission have provided studies of the Earth's radiation belt relativistic electron precipitation and its possible connection with atmosphere transient luminous events, as well as the solar hard X-ray and gamma-emission measurements. Radiation and electromagnetic environment monitoring in the near-Earth Space, which is very important for space weather study, was also realised

  11. Improved Space Object Orbit Determination Using CMOS Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Peltonen, J.; Sännti, T.; Silha, J.; Flohrer, T.

    2014-09-01

    CMOS-sensors, or in general Active Pixel Sensors (APS), are rapidly replacing CCDs in the consumer camera market. Due to significant technological advances during the past years these devices start to compete with CCDs also for demanding scientific imaging applications, in particular in the astronomy community. CMOS detectors offer a series of inherent advantages compared to CCDs, due to the structure of their basic pixel cells, which each contains their own amplifier and readout electronics. The most prominent advantages for space object observations are the extremely fast and flexible readout capabilities, feasibility for electronic shuttering and precise epoch registration, and the potential to perform image processing operations on-chip and in real-time. The major challenges and design drivers for ground-based and space-based optical observation strategies have been analyzed. CMOS detector characteristics were critically evaluated and compared with the established CCD technology, especially with respect to the above mentioned observations. Similarly, the desirable on-chip processing functionalities which would further enhance the object detection and image segmentation were identified. Finally, we simulated several observation scenarios for ground- and space-based sensor by assuming different observation and sensor properties. We will introduce the analyzed end-to-end simulations of the ground- and space-based strategies in order to investigate the orbit determination accuracy and its sensitivity which may result from different values for the frame-rate, pixel scale, astrometric and epoch registration accuracies. Two cases were simulated, a survey using a ground-based sensor to observe objects in LEO for surveillance applications, and a statistical survey with a space-based sensor orbiting in LEO observing small-size debris in LEO. The ground-based LEO survey uses a dynamical fence close to the Earth shadow a few hours after sunset. For the space-based scenario

  12. Microbiological monitoring and automated event sampling at karst springs using LEO-satellites.

    PubMed

    Stadler, H; Skritek, P; Sommer, R; Mach, R L; Zerobin, W; Farnleitner, A H

    2008-01-01

    Data communication via Low-Earth-Orbit (LEO) Satellites between portable hydrometeorological measuring stations is the backbone of our system. This networking allows automated event sampling with short time increments also for E. coli field analysis. All activities of the course of the event-sampling can be observed on an internet platform based on a Linux-Server. Conventionally taken samples compared with the auto-sampling procedure revealed corresponding results and were in agreement with the ISO 9308-1 reference method. E. coli concentrations were individually corrected by event specific inactivation coefficients (0.10-0.14 day(-1)), compensating losses due to sample storage at spring temperature in the auto sampler.Two large summer events in 2005/2006 at an important alpine karst spring (LKAS2) were monitored including detailed analysis of E. coli dynamics (n = 271) together with comprehensive hydrological characterisations. High-resolution time series demonstrated a sudden increase of E. coli concentrations in spring water (approximately 2 log10 units) with a specific time delay after the beginning of the event. Statistical analysis suggested the spectral absorption coefficient measured at 254 nm (SAC254) as an early warning surrogate for real time monitoring of faecal input. Together with the LEO-satellite based system it is a helpful tool for early-warning systems in the field of drinking water protection.

  13. Space environmental effects on spacecraft: LEO materials selection guide, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides performance properties on major spacecraft materials and subsystems that have been exposed to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. Spacecraft materials include metals, polymers, composites, white and black paints, thermal-control blankets, adhesives, and lubricants. Spacecraft subsystems include optical components, solar cells, and electronics. Information has been compiled from LEO short-term spaceflight experiments (e.g., space shuttle) and from retrieved satellites of longer mission durations (e.g., Long Duration Exposure Facility). Major space environment effects include atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, micrometeoroids and debris, contamination, and particle radiation. The main objective of this document is to provide a decision tool to designers for designing spacecraft and structures. This document identifies the space environments that will affect the performance of materials and components, e.g., thermal-optical property changes of paints due to UV exposures, AO-induced surface erosion of composites, dimensional changes due to thermal cycling, vacuum-induced moisture outgassing, and surface optical changes due to AO/UV exposures. Where appropriate, relationships between the space environment and the attendant material/system effects are identified. Part 1 covers spacecraft design considerations for the space environment; advanced composites; polymers; adhesives; metals; ceramics; protective coatings; and lubricants, greases, and seals.

  14. Space environmental effects on spacecraft: LEO materials selection guide, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silverman, Edward M.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides performance properties on major spacecraft materials and subsystems that have been exposed to the low-Earth orbit (LEO) space environment. Spacecraft materials include metals, polymers, composites, white and black paints, thermal-control blankets, adhesives, and lubricants. Spacecraft subsystems include optical components, solar cells, and electronics. Information has been compiled from LEO short-term spaceflight experiments (e.g., space shuttle) and from retrieved satellites of longer mission durations (e.g., Long Duration Exposure Facility). Major space environment effects include atomic oxygen (AO), ultraviolet radiation, micrometeoroids and debris, contamination, and particle radiation. The main objective of this document is to provide a decision tool to designers for designing spacecraft and structures. This document identifies the space environments that will affect the performance of materials and components, e.g., thermal-optical property changes of paints due to UV exposures, AO-induced surface erosion of composites, dimensional changes due to thermal cycling, vacuum-induced moisture outgassing, and surface optical changes due to AO/UV exposures. Where appropriate, relationships between the space environment and the attendant material/system effects are identified. Part 2 covers thermal control systems, power systems, optical components, electronic systems, and applications.

  15. A Comparative Far UV Spectroscopic Study of the Dwarf Novae VW Vul and X Leo During Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, C. K.; Sion, E. M.

    2000-12-01

    VW Vulpecula and X Leo are two U Geminorum type dwarf novae, the latter with a newly found orbital period (0.16870+/-0.00007 days). The inclination angle of VW Vul is known to be 44+/-12 deg, the mass of the white dwarf is 0.24+/-0.06 Msun, a secondary mass of 0.14+/-0.01 Msun and the system appears to have an outburst period of 14-24 days (Ritter & Kolb 2000). X Leo has nearly the same orbital period, outburst recurrence time and outburst amplitude but more uncertain orbital parameters. We have carried out an IUE archival comparative study of the two systems. We have applied the Massa-Fitzpatrick (2000) flux calibration correction to the archival IUE NEWSIPS SWP spectra of these two systems, obtained during dwarf nova quiescence. We have carried out high gravity model atmosphere using the codes TLUSTY195, SYNSPEC42, ROTIN and accretion disk synthetic spectra from the grid of Wade and Hubeny (1998). We have determined the physical properties of the white dwarf accreters, including temperature, gravity, chemical abundances estimates, and the accretion rate during quiescence. We discuss our results in the context of the overall picture of accretion physics in dwarf novae and the effects of accretion on the white dwarf. This research was supported in part by NSF grant AST 99-01955, NASA ADP grant NAG5-8388 and by summer research funding from the NASA- Delaware Space Grant Colleges Consortium.

  16. LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission optimization considering J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhao; Zhang, Jin; Li, Hai-yang; Zhou, Jian-yong

    2017-01-01

    The optimization of an LEO cooperative multi-spacecraft refueling mission considering the J2 perturbation and target's surplus propellant constraint is studied in the paper. First, a mission scenario is introduced. One service spacecraft and several target spacecraft run on an LEO near-circular orbit, the service spacecraft rendezvouses with some service positions one by one, and target spacecraft transfer to corresponding service positions respectively. Each target spacecraft returns to its original position after obtaining required propellant and the service spacecraft returns to its original position after refueling all target spacecraft. Next, an optimization model of this mission is built. The service sequence, orbital transfer time, and service position are used as deign variables, whereas the propellant cost is used as the design objective. The J2 perturbation, time constraint and the target spacecraft's surplus propellant capability constraint are taken into account. Then, a hybrid two-level optimization approach is presented to solve the formulated mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) problem. A hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm is adopted to seek the near optimal solution in the up-level optimization, while a linear relative dynamic equation considering the J2 perturbation is used to obtain the impulses of orbital transfer in the low-level optimization. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed model and method is validated by numerical examples.

  17. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; MacLeod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2016-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  18. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryan, Tom; Macleod, Todd; Gagliano, Larry

    2015-01-01

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASA's Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well to help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  19. Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera Technology Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagliano, L.; Bryan, T.; MacLeod, T.

    On-Orbit Small Debris Tracking and Characterization is a technical gap in the current National Space Situational Awareness necessary to safeguard orbital assets and crew. This poses a major risk of MOD damage to ISS and Exploration vehicles. In 2015 this technology was added to NASAs Office of Chief Technologist roadmap. For missions flying in or assembled in or staging from LEO, the physical threat to vehicle and crew is needed in order to properly design the proper level of MOD impact shielding and proper mission design restrictions. Need to verify debris flux and size population versus ground RADAR tracking. Use of ISS for In-Situ Orbital Debris Tracking development provides attitude, power, data and orbital access without a dedicated spacecraft or restricted operations on-board a host vehicle as a secondary payload. Sensor Applicable to in-situ measuring orbital debris in flux and population in other orbits or on other vehicles. Could enhance safety on and around ISS. Some technologies extensible to monitoring of extraterrestrial debris as well To help accomplish this, new technologies must be developed quickly. The Small Orbital Stereo Tracking Camera is one such up and coming technology. It consists of flying a pair of intensified megapixel telephoto cameras to evaluate Orbital Debris (OD) monitoring in proximity of International Space Station. It will demonstrate on-orbit optical tracking (in situ) of various sized objects versus ground RADAR tracking and small OD models. The cameras are based on Flight Proven Advanced Video Guidance Sensor pixel to spot algorithms (Orbital Express) and military targeting cameras. And by using twin cameras we can provide Stereo images for ranging & mission redundancy. When pointed into the orbital velocity vector (RAM), objects approaching or near the stereo camera set can be differentiated from the stars moving upward in background.

  20. LEO P: AN UNQUENCHED VERY LOW-MASS GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Berg, Danielle; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Haynes, Martha P.; Girardi, Léo

    2015-10-20

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ∼0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M{sub ⊙}. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ∼10{sup −5} M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites.

  1. Leo P: An Unquenched Very Low-mass Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B. W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Dolphin, Andrew; Cannon, John M.; Salzer, John J.; Rhode, Katherine L.; Adams, Elizabeth A. K.; Berg, Danielle; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Girardi, Léo; Haynes, Martha P.

    2015-10-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy discovered through the blind H i Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA survey. The H i and follow-up optical observations have shown that Leo P is a gas-rich dwarf galaxy with active star formation, an underlying older population, and an extremely low oxygen abundance. We have obtained optical imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope to two magnitudes below the red clump in order to study the evolution of Leo P. We refine the distance measurement to Leo P to be 1.62 ± 0.15 Mpc, based on the luminosity of the horizontal branch stars and 10 newly identified RR Lyrae candidates. This places the galaxy at the edge of the Local Group, ˜0.4 Mpc from Sextans B, the nearest galaxy in the NGC 3109 association of dwarf galaxies of which Leo P is clearly a member. The star responsible for ionizing the H ii region is most likely an O7V or O8V spectral type, with a stellar mass ≳25 M⊙. The presence of this star provides observational evidence that massive stars at the upper end of the initial mass function are capable of being formed at star formation rates as low as ˜10-5 M⊙ yr-1. The best-fitting star formation history (SFH) derived from the resolved stellar populations of Leo P using the latest PARSEC models shows a relatively constant star formation rate over the lifetime of the galaxy. The modeled luminosity characteristics of Leo P at early times are consistent with low-luminosity dSph Milky Way satellites, suggesting that Leo P is what a low-mass dSph would look like if it evolved in isolation and retained its gas. Despite the very low mass of Leo P, the imprint of reionization on its SFH is subtle at best, and consistent with being totally negligible. The isolation of Leo P, and the total quenching of star formation of Milky Way satellites of similar mass, implies that the local environment dominates the quenching of the Milky Way satellites. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope (HST), obtained from the

  2. Leo Szilard In Physics and Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garwin, Richard

    2014-03-01

    The excellent biography by William Lanouette, ``Genius in the Shadows,'' tells it the way it was, incredible though it may seem. The 1972 ``Collected Works of Leo Szilard: Scientific Papers'' Bernard T. Feld and Getrude W. Szilard, Editors, gives the source material both published and unpublished. Szilard's path-breaking but initially little-noticed 1929 paper, ``On the Decrease of Entropy in a Thermodynamic System by the Intervention of Intelligent Beings'' spawned much subsequent research. It connected what we now call a bit of information with a quantity k ln 2 of entropy, and showed that the process of acquiring, exploiting, and resetting this information in a one-molecule engine must dissipate at least kT ln 2 of energy at temperature T. His 1925 paper, ``On the Extension of Phenomenological Thermodynamics to Fluctuation Phenomena,'' showed that fluctuations were consistent with and predicted from equilibrium thermodynamics and did not depend on atomistic theories. His work on physics and technology, demonstrated an astonishing range of interest, ingenuity, foresight, and practical sense. I illustrate this with several of his fundamental contributions nuclear physics, to the neutron chain reaction and to nuclear reactors, and also to electromagnetic pumping of liquid metals.

  3. The Fornax-Leo-Sculptor stream revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    1994-08-01

    Lynden-Bell first demonstrated that the satellites of the Milky Way appear situated along two great 'streams' in the sky: the 'Magellanic stream' and the 'Fornax-Leo-Sculptor (FLS) stream.' Further exploration of the three-dimensional distribution of Galactic satellites reveals that the recently discovered Sextans and Phoenix dwarf spheroidal galaxies also lie near the plane defined by the FLS galaxies, and therefore strengthens the evidence in favor of the FLS stream. Moreover, a specific group of globular clusters -- those exhibiting the reddest horizontal branches (HBs) among those identified as 'young halo' by Zinn -- appear to populate the FLS stream. As previously demonstrated by Zinn, the spatial distribution of old halo globulars appears to be flattened toward the Galactic plane, and therefore the old halo clusters are typically anti-correlated to the nearly orthogonal FLS stream. A scenario is postulated wherein the Galactic satellites of the FLS stream and the red HB, young halo globular clusters share a common origin in the accretion of a formerly larger, parent satellite galaxy or Searle & Zinn 'fragment.'

  4. The Fornax-Leo-Sculptor stream revisited

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Majewski, Steven R.

    1994-01-01

    Lynden-Bell first demonstrated that the satellites of the Milky Way appear situated along two great 'streams' in the sky: the 'Magellanic stream' and the 'Fornax-Leo-Sculptor (FLS) stream.' Further exploration of the three-dimensional distribution of Galactic satellites reveals that the recently discovered Sextans and Phoenix dwarf spheroidal galaxies also lie near the plane defined by the FLS galaxies, and therefore strengthens the evidence in favor of the FLS stream. Moreover, a specific group of globular clusters -- those exhibiting the reddest horizontal branches (HBs) among those identified as 'young halo' by Zinn -- appear to populate the FLS stream. As previously demonstrated by Zinn, the spatial distribution of old halo globulars appears to be flattened toward the Galactic plane, and therefore the old halo clusters are typically anti-correlated to the nearly orthogonal FLS stream. A scenario is postulated wherein the Galactic satellites of the FLS stream and the red HB, young halo globular clusters share a common origin in the accretion of a formerly larger, parent satellite galaxy or Searle & Zinn 'fragment.'

  5. Human Operations Beyond LEO by the End of the Decade: An Affordable Near-Term "Stepping Stone"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thronson, Harley; Lester, Dan; Talay, Ted

    2010-01-01

    For more than a decade, several teams have assessed designs for a long-duration free-space human habitat beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), building upon years of hard-won experience with the International Space Station (ISS). These systems would enable multiple achievements for science and human space flight. Most were intended to be deployed using available or near-future capabilities within about a decade after funding begins and serve as the first major human "stepping stone" beyond LEO. Last year, Thronson and Talay summarized work up to that time on expandable or inflatable concepts for deployment at an Earth-Moon (E-M) L1 or L2 location. Here we summarize our team's more recent work both on a long-duration human habitat that could be deployed beyond LEO within a decade and on the priority goals that such a habitat might accomplish. Particulars of this and other concepts for human operations in cis-lunar space are posted on the web and will be presented at professional conferences, and detailed in future publications by our group.

  6. The LEO Archipelago: A system of earth-rings for communications, mass-transport to space, solar power, and control of global warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulenberg, Andrew; Karthik Balaji, P. S.

    2011-06-01

    Man's quest to get into space is hindered by major problems (e.g., system-development and capital costs, expense of putting mass into orbit, trapped-radiation belts, and environmental impact of a large increase in rocket launches). A multi-purpose low-earth-orbit system of rings circling the earth - the "LEO ARCHIPELAGO TM" - is proposed as a means of solving or bypassing many of them. A fiber-optic ring about the earth would be an initial testing and developmental stage for the Ring Systems, while providing cash-flow through a LEO-based, high-band-width, world-wide communication system. A low-earth-orbit-based space-elevator system, "Sling-on-a-Ring TM", is proposed as the crucial developmental stage of the LEO Archipelago. Being a LEO-based heavy-mass lifter, rather than earth- or GEO-based, it is much less massive and therefore less costly than other proposed space-elevators. With the advent of lower-cost, higher-mass transport to orbit, the options for further space development (e.g., space solar power, radiation, and space-debris dampers, sun shades, and permanent LEO habitation) are greatly expanded. This paper provides an update of the Sling-on-a-Ring concept in terms of new materials, potential applications, and trade-offs associated with an earlier model. The impact of Colossal Carbon Tubes, CCT, a new material with high tensile strength, extremely-low density, and other favorable properties, and other new technologies (e.g., solar-powered lasers, power beaming to near-space and earth, and thermal-control systems) on the development of associated LEO-Ring systems is also explored. The material's effect on the timeline for the system development indicates the feasibility of near-term implementation of the system (possibly within the decade). The Sling-on-a-Ring can provide a less-expensive, environment-friendly mode of access to space. This would pave the way (via eventual operation at >1000 t per day by 2050) for large scale development of space

  7. Active and Passive Sensing from Geosynchronous and Libration Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark; Raymond, Carol; Hildebrand, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The development of the LEO (EOS) missions has led the way to new technologies and new science discoveries. However, LEO measurements alone cannot cost effectively produce high time resolution measurements needed to move the science to the next level. Both GEO and the Lagrange points, L1 and L2, provide vantage points that will allow higher time resolution measurements. GEO is currently being exploited by weather satellites, but the sensors currently operating at GEO do not provide the spatial or spectral resolution needed for atmospheric trace gas, ocean or land surface measurements. It is also may be possible to place active sensors in geostationary orbit. It seems clear, that the next era in earth observation and discovery will be opened by sensor systems operating beyond near earth orbit.

  8. Optimal aeroassisted return from high earth orbit with plane change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winh, N. X.; Hanson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical treatment of the problem of aeroassisted return from a high earth orbit to LEO is presented. The approach taken is that of the minimum fuel aeroassisted return from the higher to the lower orbit with occasional maneuvers within the atmosphere while performing a plane change. The plane changes are calculated for different angular alterations, and a model is developed for optimized atmospheric turning. It is found that larger plane changers demand deeper penetration into the denser regions of the atmosphere, where greater velocity depletion will also occur. Attention is given to lift effects and their optimized solution, and an atmospheric exit condition is characterized which will require one post atmospheric impulse to achieve a LEO of 380 km. Finally, it is shown that application of an impulse will always result in a plane change.

  9. Optimal aeroassisted return from high earth orbit with plane change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winh, N. X.; Hanson, J. M.

    1983-10-01

    An analytical treatment of the problem of aeroassisted return from a high earth orbit to LEO is presented. The approach taken is that of the minimum fuel aeroassisted return from the higher to the lower orbit with occasional maneuvers within the atmosphere while performing a plane change. The plane changes are calculated for different angular alterations, and a model is developed for optimized atmospheric turning. It is found that larger plane changers demand deeper penetration into the denser regions of the atmosphere, where greater velocity depletion will also occur. Attention is given to lift effects and their optimized solution, and an atmospheric exit condition is characterized which will require one post atmospheric impulse to achieve a LEO of 380 km. Finally, it is shown that application of an impulse will always result in a plane change.

  10. Earth Orbiting Support Systems for commercial low Earth orbit data relay: Assessing architectures through tradespace exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palermo, Gianluca; Golkar, Alessandro; Gaudenzi, Paolo

    2015-06-01

    As small satellites and Sun Synchronous Earth Observation systems are assuming an increased role in nowadays space activities, including commercial investments, it is of interest to assess how infrastructures could be developed to support the development of such systems and other spacecraft that could benefit from having a data relay service in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), as opposed to traditional Geostationary relays. This paper presents a tradespace exploration study of the architecture of such LEO commercial satellite data relay systems, here defined as Earth Orbiting Support Systems (EOSS). The paper proposes a methodology to formulate architectural decisions for EOSS constellations, and enumerate the corresponding tradespace of feasible architectures. Evaluation metrics are proposed to measure benefits and costs of architectures; lastly, a multicriteria Pareto criterion is used to downselect optimal architectures for subsequent analysis. The methodology is applied to two case studies for a set of 30 and 100 customer-spacecraft respectively, representing potential markets for LEO services in Exploration, Earth Observation, Science, and CubeSats. Pareto analysis shows how increased performance of the constellation is always achieved by an increased node size, as measured by the gain of the communications antenna mounted on EOSS spacecraft. On the other hand, nonlinear trends in optimal orbital altitude, number of satellites per plane, and number of orbital planes, are found in both cases. An upward trend in individual node memory capacity is found, although never exceeding 256 Gbits of onboard memory for both cases that have been considered, assuming the availability of a polar ground station for EOSS data downlink. System architects can use the proposed methodology to identify optimal EOSS constellations for a given service pricing strategy and customer target, thus identifying alternatives for selection by decision makers.

  11. LCT for the European data relay system: in orbit commissioning of the Alphasat and Sentinel 1A LCTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heine, F.; Mühlnikel, G.; Zech, H.; Tröndle, D.; Seel, S.; Motzigemba, M.; Meyer, R.; Philipp-May, S.; Benzi, E.

    2015-03-01

    The European Data Relay System (EDRS) relies on optical communication links between Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and geostationary (GEO) spacecrafts. Data transmission at 1.8 Gbps between the S/Cs will be applied. EDRS is foreseen to go into operation in 2015. As a precursor to the EDRS GEO Laser Communication Terminals (LCT), an LCT is embarked on the Alphasat GEO S/C. Sentinel 1A is a LEO earth observation satellite as part of ESAs Copernicus program and carries an LCT on board. Both the Alphasat and the Sentinel 1A LCT have completed their individual in orbit commissioning and a joint link commissioning phase, with first LEO to GEO optical communication links in 2014. In this presentation, the design principle of the LCT applied for EDRS will be investigated. The most recent results of the in-orbit link commissioning phase of the LCTs on board of Alphasat and Sentinel 1A will be presented.

  12. Leishmania infantum infection in two captive barbary lions (Panthera leo leo).

    PubMed

    Libert, Cédric; Ravel, Christophe; Pratlong, Francine; Lami, Patrick; Dereure, Jacques; Keck, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    A female barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) from the Montpellier Zoological Park (France) showing colitis, epistaxis, and lameness with pad ulcers was positive by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for Leishmania infantum. Further indirect immunofluorescence (IFAT) tests on the banked sera from all lions of the park detected another infected but asymptomatic female, which was confirmed by PCR on ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) blood sample. Leishmania infantum zymodeme MON-1 was cultured from EDTA bone marrow samples sampled from this second animal. The first female was successfully treated with marbofloxacine at 2 mg/kg s.i.d. for 28 days (Marbocyl, Vetoquinol 70204 Lure, France) and allopurinol at 30 mg/kg s.i.d. for 3 mo (Allopurinol Mylan, Mylan SAS, 69800 Saint-Priest, France) and then 1 wk/mo. Both positive animals were born at the Rabat Zoological Park, Morocco, and arrived together at Montpellier in 2003. The chronicity and source of this current infection are unknown since Morocco and southern France are well-known to be enzootic for leishmaniasis.

  13. Design and Fabrication of DebriSat - A Representative LEO Satellite for Improvements to Standard Satellite Breakup Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Weremeyer, M.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses the design and fabrication of DebriSat, a 50 kg satellite developed to be representative of a modern low Earth orbit satellite in terms of its components, materials used, and fabrication procedures. DebriSat will be the target of a future hypervelocity impact experiment to determine the physical characteristics of debris generated after an on-orbit collision of a modern LEO satellite. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was SOCIT, conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960's. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques than those built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. To ensure that DebriSat is truly representative of typical LEO missions, a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 1 kg to 5000 kg was conducted. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions. Although DebriSat is an engineering model, specific attention is placed on the quality, type, and quantity of the materials used in its fabrication to ensure the integrity of the outcome. With the exception of software, all other aspects of the satellite s design, fabrication, and assembly integration and testing will be as rigorous as that of an actual flight vehicle. For example, to simulate survivability of launch loads, DebriSat will be subjected to a vibration test. As well, the satellite will undergo thermal vacuum tests to verify that the components and overall systems meet typical environmental standards. Proper assembly and integration techniques will involve comprehensive joint analysis, including the precise

  14. Autonomous Low Earth Orbit Satellite and Orbital Debris Tracking Using Mid Aperture COTS Optical Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehrhorn, B.; Azari, D.

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and Orbital Debris tracking have become considerably important with regard to Space Situational Awareness (SSA). This paper discusses the capabilities of autonomous LEO and Orbital Debris Tracking Systems using commercially available (mid aperture 20-24 inch) telescopes, tracking gimbals, and CCD imagers. RC Optical Systems has been developing autonomous satellite trackers that allow for unattended acquisition, imaging, and orbital determination of LEOs using low cost COTS equipment. The test setup from which we are gathering data consists of an RC Optical Systems Professional Series Elevation over Azimuth Gimbal with field de-rotation, RC Optical Systems 20 inch Ritchey-Chretien Telescope coupled to an e2v CCD42-40 CCD array, and 77mm f/4 tracking lens coupled to a KAF-0402ME CCD array. Central to success of LEO acquisition and open loop tracking is accurate modeling of Gimbal and telescope misalignments and flexures. Using pro-TPoint and a simple automated mapping routine we have modeled our primary telescope to achieve pointing and tracking accuracies within a population standard deviation of 1.3 arc-sec (which is 1.1 arc-sec RMS). Once modeled, a mobile system can easily and quickly be calibrated to the sky using a simple 6-10 star map to solve for axis tilt and collimation coefficients. Acquisition of LEO satellites is accomplished through the use of a wide field imager. Using a 77mm f/4 lens and 765 x 510 x 9mu CCD array yields a 1.28 x 0.85 degree field of view in our test setup. Accurate boresite within the acquisition array is maintained throughout the full range of motion through differential tpoint modeling of the main and acquisition imagers. Satellite identification is accomplished by detecting a stationary centroid as a point source and differentiating from the background of streaked stars in a single frame. We found 100% detection rate of LEO with radar cross sections (RCS) of > 0.5 meter*meter within the acquisition array, and

  15. NGSLR's Measurement of the Retro-Reflector Array Response of Various LEO to GNSS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGarry, Jan; Clarke, Christopher; Degnan, John; Donovan, Howard; Hall, Benjamin; Hovarth, Julie; Zagwodzki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) has successfully demonstrated daylight and nighttime tracking this year to s atellites from LEO to GNSS orbits, using a 7-8 arcsecond beam divergence, a 43% QE Hamamatsu MCP-PMT with single photon detection, a narrow field of view (11 arcseconds), and a 1 mJ per pulse 2kHz repetition rate laser. We have compared the actual return rates we are getting against the theoretical link calculations, using the known system confi guration parameters, an estimate of the sky transmission using locall y measured visibility, and signal processing to extract the signal from the background noise. We can achieve good agreement between theory and measurement in most passes by using an estimated pOinting error. We will s.()w the results of this comparison along with our conclusio ns."

  16. Three Canted Radiator Panels to Provide Adequate Cooling for Instruments on Slewing Spacecraft in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2012-01-01

    Certain free-flying spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) or payloads on the International Space Station (ISS) are required to slew to point the telescopes at targets. Instrument detectors and electronics require cooling. Traditionally a planar thermal radiator is used. The temperature of such a radiator varies significantly when the spacecraft slews because its view factors to space vary significantly. Also for payloads on the ISS, solar impingement on the radiator is possible. These thermal adversities could lead to inadequate cooling for the instrument. This paper presents a novel thermal design concept that utilizes three canted radiator panels to mitigate this problem. It increases the overall radiator view factor to cold space and reduces the overall solar or albedo flux absorbed per unit area of the radiator.

  17. Medium Earth Orbits: Is There a Need for a Third Protected Region?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2010-01-01

    The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) and the United Nations have adopted the concept of near-Earth regions which should be afforded protection from the accumulation of orbital debris. These regions are low Earth orbit (LEO), which extends up to 2000 km altitude, and geosynchronous orbit (GEO), which includes the volume of space encompassed by 35,786 km +/- 200 km in altitude and +/- 15 degrees in inclination. The region between LEO and GEO is commonly referred to as Medium Earth Orbit (MEO). Although historically a small minority of spacecraft have operated in MEO, the number of such satellites residing in or routinely transiting the zone is increasing. The question thus arises: should MEO be considered an orbital debris protected region? This paper first reviews the characteristics of space systems now utilizing MEO, as well as those anticipated to join them in the near future. MEO is then contrasted with LEO and GEO, both physically and pragmatically. Recommended orbital debris mitigation guidelines for MEO space vehicles are highlighted, and the challenges of spacecraft and launch vehicle stage disposal are recognized. Note is also made of the principal tenets of the United Nations Outer Space Treaty and of recent trends toward de facto partitioning of MEO. Finally, the efficacy and practicality of establishing MEO as a new protected region with regard to orbital debris is addressed.

  18. On the atmospheric drag in orbit determination for low Earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jingshi; Liu, Lin; Miao, Manqian

    2012-07-01

    The atmosphere model is always a major limitation for low Earth orbit (LEO) in orbit prediction and determination. The accelerometer can work around the non-gravitational perturbations in orbit determination, but it helps little to improve the atmosphere model or to predict the orbit. For certain satellites, there may be some specific software to handle the orbit problem. This solution can improve the orbit accuracy for both prediction and determination, yet it always contains empirical terms and is exclusive for certain satellites. This report introduces a simple way to handle the atmosphere drag for LEO, which does not depend on instantaneous atmosphere conditions and improves accuracy of predicted orbit. This approach, which is based on mean atmospheric density, is supported by two reasons. One is that although instantaneous atmospheric density is very complicated with time and height, the major pattern is determined by the exponential variation caused by hydrostatic equilibrium and periodic variation caused by solar radiation. The mean density can include the major variations while neglect other minor details. The other reason is that the predicted orbit is mathematically the result from integral and the really determinant factor is the mean density instead of instantaneous density for every time and spot. Using the mean atmospheric density, which is mainly determined by F10.7 solar flux and geomagnetic index, can be combined into an overall parameter B^{*} = C_{D}(S/m)ρ_{p_{0}}. The combined parameter contains several less accurate parameters and can be corrected during orbit determination. This approach has been confirmed in various LEO computations and an example is given below using Tiangong-1 spacecraft. Precise orbit determination (POD) is done using one-day GPS positioning data without any accurate a-priori knowledge on spacecraft or atmosphere conditions. Using the corrected initial state vector of the spacecraft and the parameter B^* from POD, the

  19. Orbiter's Skeleton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The structure of NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft is constructed from composite panels of carbon layers over aluminum honeycomb, lightweight yet strong. This forms a basic structure or skeleton on which the instruments, electronics, propulsion and power systems can be mounted. The propellant tank is contained in the center of the orbiter's structure. This photo was taken at Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, during construction of the spacecraft.

  20. The Orbital Design of Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, Sasha; Belikov, Rus; Bendek, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet candidates discovered by Kepler are too distant for biomarkers to be detected with foreseeable technology. Alpha Centauri has high separation from other stars and is of close proximity to Earth, which makes the binary star system 'low hanging fruit' for scientists. Alpha Centauri Exoplanet Satellite (ACESat) is a mission proposed to Small Explorer Program (SMEX) that will use a coronagraph to search for an orbiting planet around one of the stars of Alpha Centauri. The trajectory design for this mission is presented here where three different trajectories are considered: Low Earth Orbit (LEO), Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) and a Heliocentric Orbit. Uninterrupted stare time to Alpha Centauri is desirable for meeting science requirements, or an orbit that provides 90% stare time to the science target. The instrument thermal stability also has stringent requirements for proper function, influencing trajectory design.

  1. PECULIAR VELOCITIES OF GALAXIES IN THE LEO SPUR

    SciTech Connect

    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarova, Lidia N.; Makarov, Dmitry I.; Tully, R. Brent; Rizzi, Luca

    2015-06-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys has been used to determine accurate distances for the spiral galaxy NGC 2683 and 12 other galaxies in a zone of the “local velocity anomaly” from luminosity measurements of the brightest red giant branch stars. These galaxies lie in the Leo Spur, the nearest filament beyond our Local Sheet. The new accurate distance measurements confirm that galaxies along the Leo Spur are more distant than expected from uniform cosmic expansion, and hence have large and peculiar velocities toward us. The motions are generally explained by a previously published model that posits that the Local Sheet is descending at 259 km s{sup −1} toward the south supergalactic pole due to expansion of the Local Void and is being attracted toward the Virgo Cluster at 185 km s{sup −1}. With the standard ΛCDM cosmology, an empty void expands at 16 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}, so a motion of 259 km s{sup −1} requires the Local Void to be impressively large and empty. Small residuals from the published model can be attributed to an upward push toward the north supergalactic pole by the expansion of the Gemini–Leo Void below the Leo Spur. The Leo Spur is sparsely populated, but among its constituents there are two associations that contain only dwarf galaxies.

  2. Charged aerodynamics of a Low Earth Orbit cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capon, C. J.; Brown, M.; Boyce, R. R.

    2016-11-01

    This work investigates the charged aerodynamic interaction of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) cylinder with the ionosphere. The ratio of charge to neutral drag force on a 2D LEO cylinder with diffusely reflecting cool walls is derived analytically and compared against self-consistent electrostatic Particle-in-Cell (PIC) simulations. Analytical calculations predict that neglecting charged drag in an O+ dominated LEO plasma with a neutral to ion number density ratio of 102 will cause a 10% over-prediction of O density based on body accelerations when body potential (ɸB) is ≤ -390 V. Above 900 km altitude in LEO, where H+ becomes the dominant ion species, analytical predictions suggest charge drag becomes equivalent to neutral drag for ɸB ≤ -0.75 V. Comparing analytical predictions against PIC simulations in the range of 0 < - ɸB < 50 V found that analytical charged drag was under-estimated for all body potentials; the degree of under-estimation increasing with ɸB. Based on the -50 V PIC simulations, our in-house 6 degree of freedom orbital propagator saw a reduction in the semi-major axis of a 10 kg satellite at 700 km of 6.9 m/day and 0.98 m/day at 900 km compared that caused purely by neutral drag - 0.67 m/day and 0.056 m/day respectively. Hence, this work provides initial evidence that charged aerodynamics may become significant compared to neutral aerodynamics for high voltage LEO bodies.

  3. Ellipsoidal Space Gravity Spectrosopy By Means of Newton Interpolated Leo Ephemeris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reubelt, T.; Austen, G.; Grafarend, E. W.

    This contribution aims at an algorithm for the orbit analysis of a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) GPS tracked satellite to determine the ellipsoidal harmonic coefficients of the terrestrial gravitational field. The static EarthSs gravitational accelerations acting on the satellite are determined by means of the second order functional of NewtonSs in- terpolation formula and reduction from gravitational and non-gravitational disturbing forces. By means of NewtonSs Law of Motion which balances the acceleration vector with respect to an Inertial Frame of Reference (IRF) and the gradient of the gravita- tional potential, the ellipsoidal harmonics coefficients can be determined. In contrast to standard representations in terms of vector-spherical harmonics w.r.t. a reference sphere we setup the vector of gravitational field intensity in terms of vector ellipsoidal harmonics w.r.t. a reference ellipsoid. Such a representation aims at ellipsoidal space gravity spectroscopy and is for the benefit of geoid computations since the figure of the earth is fitted better by an ellipsoid. Detailed formulas and results from simulated and real CHAMP Rapid science orbits will be illustrated.

  4. Malignant lymphoma in african lions (panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Harrison, T M; McKnight, C A; Sikarskie, J G; Kitchell, B E; Garner, M M; Raymond, J T; Fitzgerald, S D; Valli, V E; Agnew, D; Kiupel, M

    2010-09-01

    Malignant lymphoma has become an increasingly recognized problem in African lions (Panthera leo). Eleven African lions (9 male and 2 female) with clinical signs and gross and microscopic lesions of malignant lymphoma were evaluated in this study. All animals were older adults, ranging in age from 14 to 19 years. Immunohistochemically, 10 of the 11 lions had T-cell lymphomas (CD3(+), CD79a(-)), and 1 lion was diagnosed with a B-cell lymphoma (CD3(-), CD79a(+)). The spleen appeared to be the primary site of neoplastic growth in all T-cell lymphomas, with involvement of the liver (6/11) and regional lymph nodes (5/11) also commonly observed. The B-cell lymphoma affected the peripheral lymph nodes, liver, and spleen. According to the current veterinary and human World Health Organization classification of hematopoietic neoplasms, T-cell lymphoma subtypes included peripheral T-cell lymphoma (4/11), precursor (acute) T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma/leukemia (2/11), chronic T-cell lymphocytic lymphoma/leukemia (3/11), and T-zone lymphoma (1/11). The single B-cell lymphoma subtype was consistent with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) testing by immunohistochemistry on sections of malignant lymphoma was negative for all 11 lions. One lion was seropositive for FeLV. In contrast to domestic and exotic cats, in which B-cell lymphomas are more common than T-cell lymphomas, African lions in this study had malignant lymphomas that were primarily of T-cell origin. Neither FeLV nor FIV, important causes of malignant lymphoma in domestic cats, seems to be significant in the pathogenesis of malignant lymphoma in African lions.

  5. Regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a low Earth orbit space station

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Garow, J.; Michaels, K.B.

    1984-08-01

    Results of a study to define the characteristics of a regenerative fuel cell energy storage system for a large space station operating in low earth orbit (LEO) are presented. The regenerative fuel cell system employs an alkaline electrolyte fuel cell with the option of employing either an alkaline or a solid polymer electrolyte electrolyzer.

  6. A Comparison of Atomic Oxygen Degradation in Low Earth Orbit and in a Plasma Etcher

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Townsend, Jacqueline A.; Park, Gloria

    1997-01-01

    In low Earth orbit (LEO) significant degradation of certain materials occurs from exposure to atomic oxygen (AO). Orbital opportunities to study this degradation for specific materials are limited and expensive. While plasma etchers are commonly used in ground-based studies because of their low cost and convenience, the environment produced in an etcher chamber differs greatly from the LEO environment. Because of the differences in environment, the validity of using etcher data has remained an open question. In this paper, degradation data for 22 materials from the orbital experiment Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-3) are compared with data from EOIM-3 control specimens exposed in a typical plasma etcher. This comparison indicates that, when carefully considered, plasma etcher results can produce order-of-magnitude estimates of orbital degradation. This allows the etcher to be used to screen unacceptable materials from further, more expensive tests.

  7. Orbit Prediction Tool for Different Classes of Space Debris Orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wnuk, Edwin; Wytrzyszczak, Iwona; Golembiewska, Justyna; Klinkrad, Heiner

    once per given orbital arc (with a arc different lengths for different orbital classes, usually a few days long). Only those amplitudes that essentially influence the perturbation (usually a few percent) are stored for further calculations. For each of the orbits we also determine "a reso-nance indicator". In the case of resonance the resonance terms are selected. In a second step, applying simple formulas and using the stored values of amplitudes, predicted positions for given epochs are calculated. For resonance orbits only the non-resonant terms are included in this entirely analytical algorithm. Early separated resonance terms of the perturbing function are included into another algorithm for the calculation of perturbations on a basis of numerical integration. Solar radiation pressure perturbations in orbital elements are determined with the use of a newly developed analytical theory that enables relatively simple calculations of these perturbations for given epochs. The paper will present the model of the prediction tool and several examples of future space debris trajectories determination for different classes of orbit including LEO, MEO, HEO and GEO.

  8. Sensor management for collision alert in orbital object tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peiran; Chen, Huimin; Charalampidis, D.; Shen, Dan; Chen, Genshe; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh

    2011-06-01

    Given the increasingly dense environment in both low-earth orbit (LEO) and geostationary orbit (GEO), a sudden change in the trajectory of any existing resident space object (RSO) may cause potential collision damage to space assets. With a constellation of electro-optical/infrared (EO/IR) sensor platforms and ground radar surveillance systems, it is important to design optimal estimation algorithms for updating nonlinear object states and allocating sensing resources to effectively avoid collisions among many RSOs. Previous work on RSO collision avoidance often assumes that the maneuver onset time or maneuver motion of the space object is random and the sensor management approach is designed to achieve efficient average coverage of the RSOs. Few attempts have included the inference of an object's intent in the response to an RSO's orbital change. We propose a game theoretic model for sensor selection and assume the worst case intentional collision of an object's orbital change. The intentional collision results from maximal exposure of an RSO's path. The resulting sensor management scheme achieves robust and realistic collision assessment, alerts the impending collisions, and identifies early RSO orbital change with lethal maneuvers. We also consider information sharing among distributed sensors for collision alert and an object's intent identification when an orbital change has been declared. We compare our scheme with the conventional (non-game based) sensor management (SM) scheme using a LEO-to-LEO space surveillance scenario where both the observers and the unannounced and unplanned objects have complete information on the constellation of vulnerable assets. We demonstrate that, with adequate information sharing, the distributed SM method can achieve the performance close to that of centralized SM in identifying unannounced objects and making early warnings to the RSO for potential collision to ensure a proper selection of collision avoidance action.

  9. In-orbit test, verification and surveillance of the laser communication system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jianfeng; Wang, Biao; Fei, Ligang; Zhang, Changquan; Liu, Liren

    2015-10-01

    To perform the in-orbit test, verification and surveillance task, the laser simulation and test station must be constructed. Cooperated with the fixed laser communication ground station, we can not only test the main specifications of the laser communication terminals, but also test the performances of the laser backbone link. In this paper, we first give the basic theory of the in-orbit test. Then designed the laser simulation and test station, which consists of laser transmitter module, laser receiver module, and general test module. In the GEO-to-LEO laser communication terminal test progress, the laser simulation and test station responsible for the simulation of the LEO laser communication terminal. In the LEO-GEO-Ground laser link performance test progress, the laser simulation and test station simulate the LEO satellite, which transfer high date rate data flow to GEO satellite, then the GEO satellite route the data flow to the GEO-to-Ground laser communication terminal through optical router, finally GEO satellite transfer the LEO data down to fixed laser receiver on ground.

  10. A novel method for on-orbit measurement of space materials degradation.

    PubMed

    Verker, Ronen; Grossman, Eitan; Gouzman, Irina

    2011-02-01

    The low Earth orbit (LEO) environment is considered hazardous to spacecraft, resulting in materials degradation. Currently, in order to evaluate the degradation of materials in LEO, a retrieval of space exposed samples is required. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to evaluate degradation of materials in LEO without the need of retrieval. The method is utilizing photovoltaic cells (PVCs), an existing component onboard of any satellite. The PVCs are coated by various materials which are sensitive to different LEO constituents, such as atomic oxygen (AO) or ultra-violet (UV) radiation. The method's acronym is ORMADD (on-ORbit MAterials Degradation Detector). The ORMADD's principle of operation is based on measuring the PVC output power which depends on the cell coating material's optical transmission. Erosion of the coating by AO or coloring due to UV radiation affects its optical transmission and, accordingly, the PVC output. The ORMADD performance was tested using different coatings, such as polyimide and amorphous carbon (sensitive to AO), and siloxane based coating which is sensitive to UV radiation. The proposed ORMADD reveals sensitivity to different LEO components and can be used either as material degradation detector or as an AO monitor.

  11. A novel method for on-orbit measurement of space materials degradation

    SciTech Connect

    Verker, Ronen; Grossman, Eitan; Gouzman, Irina

    2011-02-15

    The low Earth orbit (LEO) environment is considered hazardous to spacecraft, resulting in materials degradation. Currently, in order to evaluate the degradation of materials in LEO, a retrieval of space exposed samples is required. In this study, a novel approach is proposed to evaluate degradation of materials in LEO without the need of retrieval. The method is utilizing photovoltaic cells (PVCs), an existing component onboard of any satellite. The PVCs are coated by various materials which are sensitive to different LEO constituents, such as atomic oxygen (AO) or ultra-violet (UV) radiation. The method's acronym is ORMADD (on-ORbit MAterials Degradation Detector). The ORMADD's principle of operation is based on measuring the PVC output power which depends on the cell coating material's optical transmission. Erosion of the coating by AO or coloring due to UV radiation affects its optical transmission and, accordingly, the PVC output. The ORMADD performance was tested using different coatings, such as polyimide and amorphous carbon (sensitive to AO), and siloxane based coating which is sensitive to UV radiation. The proposed ORMADD reveals sensitivity to different LEO components and can be used either as material degradation detector or as an AO monitor.

  12. Computer subroutines for estimation of human exposure to radiation in low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    Computer subroutines to calculate human exposure to trapped radiations in low Earth orbit (LEO) on the basis of a simple approximation of the human geometry by spherical shell shields of varying thickness are presented and detailed. The subroutines calculate the dose to critical body organs and the fraction of exposure limit reached as a function of altitude of orbit, degree of inclination, shield thickness, and days in mission. Exposure rates are compared with current exposure limits.

  13. Human Mars Mission: Launch Window from Earth Orbit. Pt. 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Archie

    1999-01-01

    The determination of orbital window characteristics is of major importance in the analysis of human interplanetary missions and systems. The orbital launch window characteristics are directly involved in the selection of mission trajectories, the development of orbit operational concepts, and the design of orbital launch systems. The orbital launch window problem arises because of the dynamic nature of the relative geometry between outgoing (departure) asymptote of the hyperbolic escape trajectory and the earth parking orbit. The orientation of the escape hyperbola asymptotic relative to the earth is a function of time. The required hyperbola energy level also varies with time. In addition, the inertial orientation of the parking orbit is a function of time because of the perturbations caused by the Earth's oblateness. Thus, a coplanar injection onto the escape hyperbola can be made only at a point in time when the outgoing escape asymptote is contained by the plane of parking orbit. Even though this condition may be planned as a nominal situation, it will not generally represent the more probable injection geometry. The general case of an escape injection maneuver performed at a time other than the coplanar time will involve both a path angle and plane change and, therefore, a delta V penalty. Usually, because of the delta V penalty the actual departure injection window is smaller in duration than that determined by energy requirement alone. This report contains the formulation, characteristics, and test cases for five different launch window modes for Earth orbit. These modes are: 1) One impulsive maneuver from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 2) Two impulsive maneuvers from a Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO); 3) One impulsive maneuver from a Low Earth Orbit (LEO); 4) Two impulsive maneuvers form LEO; and 5) Three impulsive maneuvers form LEO. The formulation of these five different launch window modes provides a rapid means of generating realistic parametric data

  14. Combined orbit determination of space debris using SLR and optical data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Juping

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the combined orbit determination analysis by using the laser ranging data and optical angle direction data of space debris collected from Shanghai and Changchun SLR systems and optical tracking telescopes of Purple Mountain Observatory respectively during December 2015 to January 2016. It is shown that laser ranging is a good supplement for ground-based radar and optical telescopes system for space debris tracking. When the laser data is used for the orbit determination of LEO debris objects, the orbit determination and prediction accuracy will be improved in less than 3 days and help to avoid unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers for spacecrafts on orbit.

  15. Electrochemical Energy Storage for an Orbiting Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-01-01

    The system weight of a multi hundred kilowatt fuel cell electrolysis cell energy storage system based upon alkaline electrochemical cell technology for use in a future orbiting space station in low Earth orbit (LEO) was studied. Preliminary system conceptual design, fuel cell module performance characteristics, subsystem and system weights, and overall system efficiency are identified. The impact of fuel cell module operating temperature and efficiency upon energy storage system weight is investigated. The weight of an advanced technology system featuring high strength filament wound reactant tanks and a fuel cell module employing lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plates is defined.

  16. Electrochemical energy storage for an orbiting space station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, R. E.

    1981-12-01

    The system weight of a multi hundred kilowatt fuel cell electrolysis cell energy storage system based upon alkaline electrochemical cell technology for use in a future orbiting space station in low Earth orbit (LEO) was studied. Preliminary system conceptual design, fuel cell module performance characteristics, subsystem and system weights, and overall system efficiency are identified. The impact of fuel cell module operating temperature and efficiency upon energy storage system weight is investigated. The weight of an advanced technology system featuring high strength filament wound reactant tanks and a fuel cell module employing lightweight graphite electrolyte reservoir plates is defined.

  17. Optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Lee, W. Y.

    1990-09-01

    Guidance trajectories for coplanar aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high earth orbit to LEO are presently optimized under the assumption of trajectory control during its endoatmospheric phase by alpha-dependent lift coefficient. Optimal trajectories are first computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse required for AOT; attention is then given to guidance trajectories capable of approximating such key properties of the optimal trajectories as minimum altitude, exit velocity, and exit path inclination, in real time. A switch is made from target-altitude guidance to target path inclination-guidance according to the velocity depletion required for optimum flight.

  18. The Littoral Environment Observation (LEO) Data Collection Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-01

    C SCHNEIDER UNCLASSIFIED ERC- CETA -81-5 NL * EEEEEEEEEEEEIBlag~lli/lii ND CETA 81-5 The Littoral Environment Observation ’. (LEO) Data Collection...E 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER - CETA -81-5 / 4. TITLE (and Sublitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT 4 PERIOD COVERED/ , oas tal...pp. 2WALTON, T.L., Jr., "Computation of Longshore Energy using LEO Current Observations," CETA 80-3, U.S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal

  19. Leo I - The youngest Milky Way dwarf spheroidal galaxy?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Myung G.; Freedman, Wendy; Mateo, Mario; Thompson, Ian; Roth, Miguel; Ruiz, Maria-Teresa

    1993-01-01

    Deep CCD photometry of about 16,000 stars in the Milky Way's Leo I spheroidal galaxy satellite is reported. An account is given of the features observed in the color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) derived therefrom. A very blue and well-defined red giant branch (RGB) is noted. The CMDs of Leo I shows about 50 anomalous Cepheid candidates; there are another 50 or so asymptotic giant branch stars above the tip of the RGB, including 15 known carbon stars. The mean color of the RGB is estimated at M sub I = -3.5 mag.

  20. Variable stars in the Leo A dwarf galaxy (DDO 69)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoessel, John G.; Saha, A.; Krist, John; Danielson, G. Edward

    1994-01-01

    Observations of the Leo A dwarf galaxy, obtained over the period from 1980 to 1991 are reported. Forty two separate Charge Coupled Devices (CCD) frames were searched for variable stars. A total of 14 suspected variables were found, 9 had sufficient coverage for period determination, and 5 had Cepheid light curves. Four of these stars fit well on a P-L relation and yield a distance modulus, after correction for Galactic foreground extinction, of m-M = 26.74. This corresponds to a distance of 2.2 Mpc, placing Leo A near the Local Group zero-velocity surface.

  1. Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessler, D. J. (Compiler); Su, S. Y. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    Earth orbital debris issues and recommended future activities are discussed. The workshop addressed the areas of environment definition, hazards to spacecraft, and space object management. It concluded that orbital debris is a potential problem for future space operations. However, before recommending any major efforts to control the environment, more data are required. The most significant required data are on the population of debris smaller than 4 cm in diameter. New damage criteria are also required. When these data are obtained, they can be combined with hypervelocity data to evaluate the hazards to future spacecraft. After these hazards are understood, then techniques to control the environment can be evaluated.

  2. Determining the Rotation Periods of an Inactive LEO Satellite and the First Korean Space Debris on GEO, KOREASAT 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jin; Jo, Jung Hyun; Kim, Myung-Jin; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Sun-Youp; Lee, Hee-Jae; Park, Maru; Choi, Young-Jun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Young-Sik; Cho, Sungki; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Eun-Jung; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Park, Jang-Hyun

    2016-06-01

    Inactive space objects are usually rotating and tumbling as a result of internal or external forces. KOREASAT 1 has been inactive since 2005, and its drift trajectory has been monitored with the optical wide-field patrol network (OWL-Net). However, a quantitative analysis of KOREASAT 1 in regard to the attitude evolution has never been performed. Here, two optical tracking systems were used to acquire raw measurements to analyze the rotation period of two inactive satellites. During the optical campaign in 2013, KOREASAT 1 was observed by a 0.6 m class optical telescope operated by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI). The rotation period of KOREASAT 1 was analyzed with the light curves from the photometry results. The rotation periods of the low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite ASTRO-H after break-up were detected by OWL-Net on April 7, 2016. We analyzed the magnitude variation of each satellite by differential photometry and made comparisons with the star catalog. The illumination effect caused by the phase angle between the Sun and the target satellite was corrected with the system tool kit (STK) and two line element (TLE) technique. Finally, we determined the rotation period of two inactive satellites on LEO and geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) with light curves from the photometry. The main rotation periods were determined to be 5.2 sec for ASTRO-H and 74 sec for KOREASAT 1.

  3. Analytical model for orbital debris environmental management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talent, David L.

    1990-01-01

    A differential equation, also referred to as the PIB (particle-in-a-box) model, expressing the time rate of change of the number of objects in orbit, is developed, and its applicability is illustrated. The model can be used as a tool for the assessment of LEO environment stability, and as a starting point for the development of numerical evolutionary models. Within the context of the model, evolutionary scenarios are examined, and found to be sensitive to the growth rate. It is determined that the present environment is slightly unstable to catastrophic growth, and that the number of particles on orbit will continue to increase until approximately 2250-2350 AD, with a maximum of 2,000,000. The model is expandable to the more realistic (complex) case of multiple species in a multiple-tier system.

  4. Orbital Propagation of Momentum Exchange Tether Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westerhoff, John

    2002-01-01

    An advanced concept in in-space transportation currently being studied is the Momentum-Exchange/Electrodynamic Reboost Tether System (MXER). The system acts as a large momentum wheel, imparting a Av to a payload in low earth orbit (LEO) at the expense of its own orbital energy. After throwing a payload, the system reboosts itself using an electrodynamic tether to push against Earth's magnetic field and brings itself back up to an operational orbit to prepare for the next payload. The ability to reboost itself allows for continued reuse of the system without the expenditure of propellants. Considering the cost of lifting propellant from the ,ground to LEO to do the same Av boost at $10000 per pound, the system cuts the launch cost of the payload dramatically, and subsequently, the MXER system pays for itself after a small number of missions.1 One of the technical hurdles to be overcome with the MXER concept is the rendezvous maneuver. The rendezvous window for the capture of the payload is on the order of a few seconds, as opposed to traditional docking maneuvers, which can take as long ets necessary to complete a precise docking. The payload, therefore, must be able to match its orbit to meet up with the capture device on the end of the tether at a specific time and location in the future. In order to be able to determine that location, the MXER system must be numerically propagated forward in time to predict where the capture device will be at that instant. It should be kept in mind that the propagation computation must be done faster than real-time. This study focuses on the efforts to find and/or build the tools necessary to numerically propagate the motion of the MXER system as accurately as possible.

  5. Nuclear orbiting

    SciTech Connect

    Shapira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Nuclear orbiting following collisions between sd and p shell nuclei is discussed. The dependence of this process on the real and imaginary parts of the nucleus-nucleus potential is discussed, as well as the evolution of the dinucleus toward a fully equilibrated fused system. 26 refs., 15 figs.

  6. Technology development, demonstration, and orbital support requirements for manned lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Brender, Karen D.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the critical technology needs and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) focused support requirements for the Office of Exploration's (OEXP) manned lunar and Mars missions is presented. Major emphasis is directed at the technology needs associated with the low earth orbit (LEO) transportation node assembly and vehicle processing functions required by the lunar and Mars mission flight elements. The key technology areas identified as crucial to support the LEO node function include in-space assembly and construction, in-space vehicle processing and refurbishment, space storable cryogenics, and autonomous rendezvous and docking.

  7. High data rate x-band transmitter for low Earth orbit satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, O.; Sunay, H.; Ismailoglu, Neslin; Kirdmaz; Dudak, Celal

    2004-11-01

    Small satellite communication systems require high data rate, high-efficiency and simple transmitters, without sacrificing efficiency and linearity depending on the modulation scheme. Main purpose of this study is to design a low power, simple and low weight transmitter with data rates up to 100 Mbps, BPSK/QPSK/OQPSK modulation and 7W output power at 8.2 GHz for low earth orbit (LEO) satellites in order to satisfy the high data rate demand. Output power of the transmitter is chosen to be 7W (38.5 dBm), which satisfies the link budget for LEO at 680 km and BER performance of 1e-6 .

  8. Satellite Telemetry and Command using Big LEO Mobile Telecommunications Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huegel, Fred

    1998-01-01

    Various issues associated with satellite telemetry and command using Big LEO mobile telecommunications systems are presented in viewgraph form. Specific topics include: 1) Commercial Satellite system overviews: Globalstar, ICO, and Iridium; 2) System capabilities and cost reduction; 3) Satellite constellations and contact limitations; 4) Capabilities of Globalstar, ICO and Iridium with emphasis on Globalstar; and 5) Flight transceiver issues and security.

  9. Sowing the Seeds of the Autism Field: Leo Kanner (1943)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan; Christensen, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    More than 65 years after Leo Kanner published his seminal article, research on autism continues to be an area of increasing interest. Although much progress has been made, this field is still in its infancy, and many avenues of research are just beginning to be pursued. Despite the time that has passed, the syndrome Kanner identified and his…

  10. Neoconservatism and Leo Strauss: The Place of a Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    York, J. G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the work of Leo Strauss, specifically his two essays on liberal education. Strauss is often claimed to be a founding thinker of neoconservatism and while much scholarship has been produced analyzing his work, very little discusses his essays on liberal education and how these fit within his larger project. This essay…

  11. Severe intestinal coccidiosis in a newborn lion (Panthera leo)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe coccidiosis was found in sections of small intestine of a less than 2 day old lion (Panthera leo) born in captivity. Schizonts, merozoites, gamonts, and unsporulated oocysts were located in epithelial cells of ileum. Ultrastructural examination indicated that schizonts divided by schizogony. ...

  12. Complete mitochondrial genome of a Asian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-Fei; Wang, Qiang; Zhao, Jian-ning

    2016-01-01

    The entire mitochondrial genome of this Asian lion (Panthera leo goojratensis) was 17,183 bp in length, gene composition and arrangement conformed to other lions, which contained the typical structure of 22 tRNAs, 2 rRNAs, 13 protein-coding genes and a non-coding region. The characteristic of the mitochondrial genome was analyzed in detail.

  13. Exploiting link dynamics in LEO-to-ground communications

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Joseph Mcrae; Caffrey, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The high dynamics of the LEO-to-ground radio channel are described. An analysis shows how current satellite radio systems largely underutilize the available radio link, and that a radio that can adaptively vary the bit rate can more fully exploit it, resulting in increased data throughput and improved power efficiency. We propose one method for implementing the adaptivity, and present simulation results.

  14. Near-real time orbit determination for the GPS, CHAMP, GRACE, TerraSAR-X, and TanDEM-X satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalak, Grzegorz; Koenig, Rolf

    The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences developed a near-real time (NRT) orbit gen-eration system for GPS and Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) satellites to support radio occultation data processing for the CHAMP, GRACE, Terra-SAR-X and the upcoming TanDEM-X mis-sions and fast baseline determination for the TanDEM-X mission. Precise NRT orbits are being generated for the CHAMP and GRACE-A satellites since August 2006 and for TerraSAR-X since August 2007. For each LEO, the system consists of three independent chains delivering NRT orbits with different latencies and accuracies. The first chain generates in a preceding step NRT GPS orbits and clock biases and based thereon LEO orbits with delays of 30 minutes counted from the last measurement point to the time the orbit product is available. The orbit accuracies can be assessed via Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) to 7 cm. The second chain is based on predicted GPS orbits from the International GNSS Service (IGS) but endowed with in-house estimated clock biases. This chain generates orbits with the same latency of 30 minutes but with better accuracies of 5 cm SLR RMS. The third chain, the least accurate but the fastest, is based on predicted IGS GPS orbits and clocks and delivers LEO orbits with latencies of 13 minutes and accuracies of 10 cm SLR RMS. The system design is such that it can easily be extended to cope with new satellites like TanDEM-X requiring precise and fast available orbits.

  15. The Komplast Experiment: Space Environmental Effects after 12 Years in LEO (and Counting)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaevich, S. K.; Aleksandrov, N. G.; Shumov, A. E.; Novikov, L. S.; Alred, J. A.; Shindo, D. J.; Kravchenko, M.; Golden, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    The Komplast materials experiment was designed by the Khrunichev State Research and Production Space Center, together with other Russian scientific institutes, and has been carried out by Mission Control Moscow since 18. Komplast panels fitted with material samples and sensors were located on the International Space Station (ISS) Functional Cargo Block (FGB) module exterior surface. Within the framework of this experiment, the purpose was to study the effect of the low earth orbit (LEO) environment on exposed samples of various materials. The panels were sent into orbit with the FGB when it launched on November 20, 1998. Panels #2 and #10 were retrieved during Russian extravehicular activity in February 2011 and sealed within cases to temporarily protect the samples from exposure to air until they could be studied on the ground. Panel #2 contained an experiment to detect micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) impacts, radiation and UV sensors, several pieces of electrical cable, and samples made from elastomeric and fluoroplastic materials. Panel #10 contained a temperature sensor, and both carbon composite and adhesive-bonded samples. A figure shows the location of panels #2 and #10 on the FGB module aft endcone. The panels were subsequently returned to Earth by Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-133/ULF-5 mission after 12 years of LEO exposure and opened in an argon chamber at the Institute of Nuclear Physics at Moscow State University in July 2011. Based on the results of analyzing the readings from sensors located on Komplast panels and in studying material samples from the panels, the comprehensive effect of spaceflight factors on the FGB (at the locations of Panels #2 and #10) was evaluated. Total solar exposure was determined to be 960 +/- 200 kJ/square cm or 21,000 equivalent solar hours. Because of location of these two panels and the ISS flight attitude, atomic oxygen (AO) fluence was relatively low for such a long duration exposure, approximately 1.5x

  16. International Low-Earth-Orbit Spacecraft Materials Test Program Initiated for Better Prediction of Durability and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft in low Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to many components of the environment, which can cause them to degrade much more rapidly than intended and greatly shorten their functional life. The atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, and cross contamination present in LEO can affect sensitive surfaces such as thermal control paints, multilayer insulation, solar array surfaces, and optical surfaces. The LEO Spacecraft Materials Test (LEO-SMT) program is being conducted to assess the effects of simulated LEO exposure on current spacecraft materials to increase understanding of LEO degradation processes as well as to enable the prediction of in-space performance and durability. Using ground-based simulation facilities to test the durability of materials currently flying in LEO will allow researchers to compare the degradation evidenced in the ground-based facilities with that evidenced on orbit. This will allow refinement of ground laboratory test systems and the development of algorithms to predict the durability and performance of new materials in LEO from ground test results. Accurate predictions based on ground tests could reduce development costs and increase reliability. The wide variety of national and international materials being tested represent materials being functionally used on spacecraft in LEO. The more varied the types of materials tested, the greater the probability that researchers will develop and validate predictive models for spacecraft long-term performance and durability. Organizations that are currently participating in the program are ITT Research Institute (USA), Lockheed Martin (USA), MAP (France), SOREQ Nuclear Research Center (Israel), TNO Institute of Applied Physics (The Netherlands), and UBE Industries, Ltd. (Japan). These represent some of the major suppliers of thermal control and sensor materials currently flying in LEO. The participants provide materials that are exposed to selected levels of atomic oxygen, vacuum ultraviolet

  17. EcAMSat and BioSentinel: Autonomous Bio Nanosatellites Addressing Strategic Knowledge Gaps for Manned Spaceflight Beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padgen, Michael R.

    2017-01-01

    Manned missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) require that several strategic knowledge gaps about the effects of space travel on the human body be addressed. NASA Ames Research Center has been the leader in developing autonomous bio nanosatellites, including past successful missions for GeneSat, PharmaSat, and O/OREOS, that tackled some of these issues. These nanosatellites provide in situ measurements, which deliver insight into the dynamic changes in cell behavior in microgravity. In this talk, two upcoming bio nanosatellites developed at Ames, the E. coli Antimicrobial Satellite (EcAMSat) and BioSentinel, will be discussed. Both satellites contain microfluidic systems that precisely deliver nutrients to the microorganisms stored within wells of fluidic cards. Each well, in turn, has its own 3-color LED and detector system which is used to monitor changes in metabolic activity with alamarBlue, a redox indicator, and the optical density of the cells. EcAMSat investigates the effects of microgravity on bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs, vital knowledge for understanding how to maintain the health of astronauts in long-term and beyond LEO spaceflight. The behavior of wild type and mutant uropathic E. coli will be compared in microgravity and with ground data to help understand the molecular mechanisms behind antibiotic resistance and how these phenotypes might change in space. BioSentinel seeks to directly measure the effects of space radiation on budding yeast S. cerevisiae, particularly double strand breaks (DSB). While hitching a ride on the SLS EM-1 mission (Orion's first unmanned mission to the moon) in 2018, BioSentinel will be kicked off and enter into a heliocentric orbit, becoming the first study of the effects of radiation on living organisms outside LEO since the Apollo program. The yeast are stored in eighteen independent 16-well microfluidic cards, which will be individually activated over the 12 month mission duration. In addition to the wild

  18. LEO Download Capacity Analysis for a Network of Adaptive Array Ground Stations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, Mary Ann; Barott, William C.; Popovic, Zoya; Rondineau, Sebastien; Langley, John; Romanofsky, Robert; Lee, Richard Q.; Miranda, Felix; Steffes, Paul; Mandl, Dan

    2005-01-01

    To lower costs and reduce latency, a network of adaptive array ground stations, distributed across the United States, is considered for the downlink of a polar-orbiting low earth orbiting (LEO) satellite. Assuming the X-band 105 Mbps transmitter of NASA s Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) satellite with a simple line-of-sight propagation model, the average daily download capacity in bits for a network of adaptive array ground stations is compared to that of a single 11 m dish in Poker Flats, Alaska. Each adaptive array ground station is assumed to have multiple steerable antennas, either mechanically steered dishes or phased arrays that are mechanically steered in azimuth and electronically steered in elevation. Phased array technologies that are being developed for this application are the space-fed lens (SFL) and the reflectarray. Optimization of the different boresight directions of the phased arrays within a ground station is shown to significantly increase capacity; for example, this optimization quadruples the capacity for a ground station with eight SFLs. Several networks comprising only two to three ground stations are shown to meet or exceed the capacity of the big dish, Cutting the data rate by half, which saves modem costs and increases the coverage area of each ground station, is shown to increase the average daily capacity of the network for some configurations.

  19. Near-Real Time Cloud Properties and Aircraft Icing Indices from GEO and LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Smith, William L., Jr.; Nguyen, Louis; Spangenberg, D. A.; Heck, Patrick W.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Ayers, J. Kirk; Wolff, Cory; Murray, John J.

    2004-01-01

    Imagers on many of the current and future operational meteorological satellites in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) and lower Earth orbit (LEO) have enough spectral channels to derive cloud microphysical properties useful for a variety of applications. The products include cloud amount, phase, optical depth, temperature, height and pressure, thickness, effective particle size, and ice or liquid water path, shortwave albedo, and outgoing longwave radiation for each imager pixel. Because aircraft icing depends on cloud temperature, droplet size, and liquid water content as well as aircraft variables, it is possible to estimate the potential icing conditions from the cloud phase, temperature, effective droplet size, and liquid water path. A prototype icing index is currently being derived over the contiguous USA in near-real time from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES-10 and 12) data on a half-hourly basis and from NOAA- 16 Advanced Very High Resolution (AVHRR) data when available. Because the threshold-based algorithm is sensitive to small errors and differences in satellite imager and icing is complex process, a new probability based icing diagnosis technique is developed from a limited set of pilot reports. The algorithm produces reasonable patterns of icing probability and intensities when compared with independent model and pilot report data. Methods are discussed for improving the technique for incorporation into operational icing products.

  20. Relative clock estimation method between two LEO satellites with a double-difference solution constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junhong; Gu, Defeng; Ju, Bing; Lai, Yuwang; Yi, Dongyun

    2015-04-01

    A method of estimating the relative clocks between two spaceborne global positioning system (GPS) receivers based on the single-difference (SD) observations is investigated in this paper. Especially, the advantages of introducing a double-difference (DD) solution constraint, including the orbits and ambiguities, are discussed with the simulated data and the real data of Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites. The theoretical accuracy analysis shows that the accuracy of the relative clocks is improved and the edge effects are eliminated with a DD solution constraint. The simulations indicate a potential accuracy improvement of at least 30% of the relative clocks with the constraint. Furthermore, one month's real data is processed and the overlapping data arcs are used to validate the accuracy of the relative clock solutions. The average overlapping root mean square (RMS) of the relative clock solutions is approximate 99 ps and 31 ps without and with the DD solution constraint, respectively. Moreover, the jumps of the day boundaries are weakened evidently by adding the DD solution constraint. This paper demonstrates that the accuracy and stability of the estimated relative clocks between two low earth orbit (LEO) satellites from SD observations are improved obviously with the DD solution constraint.

  1. Simulation of the space debris environment in LEO using a simplified approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kebschull, Christopher; Scheidemann, Philipp; Hesselbach, Sebastian; Radtke, Jonas; Braun, Vitali; Krag, H.; Stoll, Enrico

    2017-01-01

    Several numerical approaches exist to simulate the evolution of the space debris environment. These simulations usually rely on the propagation of a large population of objects in order to determine the collision probability for each object. Explosion and collision events are triggered randomly using a Monte-Carlo (MC) approach. So in many different scenarios different objects are fragmented and contribute to a different version of the space debris environment. The results of the single Monte-Carlo runs therefore represent the whole spectrum of possible evolutions of the space debris environment. For the comparison of different scenarios, in general the average of all MC runs together with its standard deviation is used. This method is computationally very expensive due to the propagation of thousands of objects over long timeframes and the application of the MC method. At the Institute of Space Systems (IRAS) a model capable of describing the evolution of the space debris environment has been developed and implemented. The model is based on source and sink mechanisms, where yearly launches as well as collisions and explosions are considered as sources. The natural decay and post mission disposal measures are the only sink mechanisms. This method reduces the computational costs tremendously. In order to achieve this benefit a few simplifications have been applied. The approach of the model partitions the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) region into altitude shells. Only two kinds of objects are considered, intact bodies and fragments, which are also divided into diameter bins. As an extension to a previously presented model the eccentricity has additionally been taken into account with 67 eccentricity bins. While a set of differential equations has been implemented in a generic manner, the Euler method was chosen to integrate the equations for a given time span. For this paper parameters have been derived so that the model is able to reflect the results of the numerical MC

  2. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    Echography - eye orbit; Ultrasound - eye orbit; Ocular ultrasonography; Orbital ultrasonography ... ophthalmology department of a hospital or clinic. Your eye is numbed with medicine (anesthetic drops). The ultrasound ...

  3. A Cryogenic Propellant Production Depot for Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, Seth D.; Henley, Mark; Guitierrez, Sonia; Fikes, John; Carrington, Connie; Smitherman, David; Gerry, Mark; Sutherlin, Steve; Beason, Phil; Howell, Joe (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The cost of access to space beyond low Earth orbit can be lowered if vehicles can refuel in orbit. The power requirements for a propellant depot that electrolyzes water and stores cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen can be met using technology developed for space solar power. A propellant depot is described that will be deployed in a 400 km circular equatorial orbit, receive tanks of water launched into a lower orbit from Earth by gun launch or reusable launch vehicle, convert the water to liquid hydrogen and oxygen, and store Lip to 500 metric tonnes of cryogenic propellants. The propellant stored in the depot can support transportation from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit, the Moon, LaGrange points, Mars, etc. The tanks are configured in an inline gravity-gradient configuration to minimize drag and settle the propellant. Temperatures can be maintained by body-mounted radiators; these will also provide some shielding against orbital debris. Power is supplied by a pair of solar arrays mounted perpendicular to the orbital plane, which rotate once per orbit to track the Sun. In the longer term, cryogenic propellant production technology can be applied to a larger LEO depot, as well as to the use of lunar water resources at a similar depot elsewhere.

  4. Comparison of magnetic perturbation data from LEO satellite constellations: Statistics of DMSP and AMPERE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Matsuo, T.; Kilcommons, L.; Richmond, A.; Anderson, B.; Korth, H.; Redmon, R.; Mero, B.; Parrish, N.

    2014-01-01

    During the past decade engineering-grade magnetic field measurements from the low Earth orbiting (LEO) Iridium constellation of communication satellites have been available to the geospace science community as a tool to map field-aligned currents. The Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE) applied to Iridium measurements markedly improved the temporal and spatial resolution of these data. We developed new methods to compare data from the latest improvement to AMPERE with those from a constellation of four LEO Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) spacecraft that carry high-resolution magnetometers. To perform the comparisons, we transformed all data to a common coordinate frame and altitude (110 km) and developed a means of computing spacecraft magnetic conjunctions. These conjunctions yield discrepancies in the magnetic field perturbations measured at each proximate spacecraft. During the geomagnetic disturbance of 29-30 May 2010, the vector differences in the horizontal perturbations at closest approach (typically a few tens of kilometers) had mean, median, and standard deviation values of 132 nT, 112 nT, and 90 nT, respectively. The DMSP spacecraft tend to report larger perturbations in the northern polar cap and cusp regions, especially during active intervals. We attribute some of the differences to limitations of spacecraft-attitude knowledge that propagate into AMPERE data. Overall, for the magnetic storm, we provide clear evidence that AMPERE data can provide high-resolution auroral zone data in good agreement with DMSP data for use in data assimilation algorithms. Such dual-use commercial data can provide important global augmentation to the nation's space weather monitoring capabilities.

  5. Cycle life testing of lithium-ion batteries for small satellite LEO space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, S.T.; Feikert, J.H.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1993-08-16

    In 1990, Sony corporation announced their intention to manufacture a rechargeable lithium ion battery, based on the intercalation of lithium ions into a carbonaceous anode. The cells were first introduced for portable telephone use in June, 1991. (1) A 3.6V average cell voltage (4.1-2.75V range); (2) Excellent cycle life (1200 @ 100% DOD); (3) Good capacity retention (70% after 6 months); (4) Wide temperature range performance ({minus}20 to +60{degrees}C); (5) Excellent Discharge rate (82% capacity at 30 min. discharge rate); (6) Excellent Charge rate (100% Charge in <3 hrs); and (7) High energy density (264 W*hr/1 and 120 Whr/kg for ``D`` size cell. These specifications show significant promise for application of these batteries in low earth orbit (LEO) small satellites, particularly when compared to existing NiH{sub 2} and NiCd technology. The very high energy density and specific energy will reduce power system volume and weight. The wide temperature range enables simpler thermal design, particularly for new, small, high power satellites. The materials used in the lithium ion batteries are relatively inexpensive and benign, so that we expect costs to come down substantially in the future. The specified cycle life at 100% DOD is also 50% longer than most NiCds, so low DOD (depth of discharge) performance could be substantial. This study was undertaken to: (a) assess the feasibility for using lithium ion cells on small satellite LEO missions and (b) verify the claims of the manufacturer. This was accomplished by performing a detailed autopsy and various depth of discharge and rate tests on the cells. Of special interest was the cycle life performance of these cell at various depths of discharge DOD`s, to get an initial measure of the reduction in capacity fade with cycle conditions. Low DOD`s are used to extend the life of all batteries used in a space application.

  6. NASA Orbital Debris Large-Object Baseline Population in ORDEM 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisco, Paula H.; Vavrin, A. B.; Anz-Meador, P. D.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) has created and validated high fidelity populations of the debris environment for the latest Orbital Debris Engineering Model (ORDEM 3.0). Though the model includes fluxes of objects 10 um and larger, this paper considers particle fluxes for 1 cm and larger debris objects from low Earth orbit (LEO) through Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). These are validated by several reliable radar observations through the Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radars. ORDEM 3.0 populations were designed for the purpose of assisting, debris researchers and sensor developers in planning and testing. This environment includes a background derived from the LEO-to-GEO ENvironment Debris evolutionary model (LEGEND) with a Bayesian rescaling as well as specific events such as the FY-1C anti-satellite test, the Iridium 33/Cosmos 2251 accidental collision, and the Soviet/Russian Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite (RORSAT) sodium-potassium droplet releases. The environment described in this paper is the most realistic orbital debris population larger than 1 cm, to date. We describe derivations of the background population and added specific populations. We present sample validation charts of our 1 cm and larger LEO population against Space Surveillance Network (SSN), Haystack, and HAX radar measurements.

  7. Comparison of Hyperthermal Ground Laboratory Atomic Oxygen Erosion Yields With Those in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; Dill, Grace C.; Loftus, Ryan J.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2013-01-01

    The atomic oxygen erosion yields of 26 materials (all polymers except for pyrolytic graphite) were measured in two directed hyperthermal radio frequency (RF) plasma ashers operating at 30 or 35 kHz with air. The hyperthermal asher results were compared with thermal energy asher results and low Earth orbital (LEO) results from the Materials International Space Station Experiment 2 and 7 (MISSE 2 and 7) flight experiments. The hyperthermal testing was conducted to a significant portion of the atomic oxygen fluence similar polymers were exposed to during the MISSE 2 and 7 missions. Comparison of the hyperthermal asher prediction of LEO erosion yields with thermal energy asher erosion yields indicates that except for the fluorocarbon polymers of PTFE and FEP, the hyperthermal energy ashers are a much more reliable predictor of LEO erosion yield than thermal energy asher testing, by a factor of four.

  8. Atomic oxygen effects on POSS polyimides in low earth orbit.

    PubMed

    Minton, Timothy K; Wright, Michael E; Tomczak, Sandra J; Marquez, Sara A; Shen, Linhan; Brunsvold, Amy L; Cooper, Russell; Zhang, Jianming; Vij, Vandana; Guenthner, Andrew J; Petteys, Brian J

    2012-02-01

    Kapton polyimde is extensively used in solar arrays, spacecraft thermal blankets, and space inflatable structures. Upon exposure to atomic oxygen in low Earth orbit (LEO), Kapton is severely eroded. An effective approach to prevent this erosion is to incorporate polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) into the polyimide matrix by copolymerizing POSS monomers with the polyimide precursor. The copolymerization of POSS provides Si and O in the polymer matrix on the nano level. During exposure of POSS polyimide to atomic oxygen, organic material is degraded, and a silica passivation layer is formed. This silica layer protects the underlying polymer from further degradation. Laboratory and space-flight experiments have shown that POSS polyimides are highly resistant to atomic-oxygen attack, with erosion yields that may be as little as 1% those of Kapton. The results of all the studies indicate that POSS polyimide would be a space-survivable replacement for Kapton on spacecraft that operate in the LEO environment.

  9. Effects of Low Earth Orbit on Docking Seal Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imka, Emily C.; Asmar, Olivia C.; deGroh, Henry C., III; Banks, Bruce A.

    2014-01-01

    Spacecraft docking seals are typically made of silicone elastomers. When such seals are exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions, they can suffer damage from ultraviolet (UV) radiation and atomic oxygen (AO, or monoatomic oxygen, the predominant oxygen species in LEO). An experiment flew on the International Space Station (ISS) to measure the effects of LEO on seal materials S0383-70 and ELA-SA-401 and various mating counterface materials which included anodized aluminum. Samples flown in different orientations received different amounts of UV and AO. The hypotheses were that most of the damage would be from UV, and 10 days or more of exposure in LEO would badly damage the seals. Eighteen seals were exposed for 543 days in ram (windward), zenith (away from Earth), or wake (leeward) orientations, and 15 control samples (not flown) provided undamaged baseline leakage. To determine post-flight leak rates, each of the 33 seals were placed in an O-ring groove of a leak test fixture and pressure tested over time. Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs), pressure transducers, and LabVIEW (National Instruments) programs were used to measure and analyze the temperature and pressure and calculate leakage. Average leakage of control samples was 2.6 x 10(exp -7) lbs/day. LEO exposure did not considerably damage ELA-SA-401. The S0383-70 flight samples leaked at least 10 times more than ELA-SA-401 in all cases except one, demonstrating that ELA-SA-401 may be a more suitable sealing material in LEO. AO caused greater damage than UV; samples in ram orientation (receiving an AO fluence of 4.3 x 10(exp 21) atoms/(sq cm) and in wake (2.9x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)) leaked more than those in zenith orientation (1.58 x 10(exp 20) atoms/(sq cm)), whereas variations in UV exposure did not seem to affect the samples. Exposure to LEO did less damage to the seals than hypothesized, and the data did not support the conjecture that UV causes more damage than AO.

  10. Characterization of the Catalog Fengyun-1C Fragments and Their Long-term Effect on the LEO Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, N. L.

    2008-01-01

    The intentional breakup of Fengyun-1C on 11 January 2007 created the most severe orbital debris cloud in history. More than 2500 large fragments were identified and tracked by the U.S. Space Surveillance Network by the end of the year. The altitude where the event occurred was probably the worst location for a major breakup in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region, since it was already highly populated with operational satellites and debris generated from previous breakups. The addition of so many fragments not only poses a realistic threat to operational satellites in the region, but also increases the instability (i.e., collision cascade effect) of the debris population there. Preliminary analysis of the large Fengyun-1C fragments indicates that their size and area-to-mass ratio (A/M) distributions are very different from those of other known events. About half of the fragments appear to be composed of light-weight materials and more than 100 of them have A/M values exceeding 1 square meter per kilogram, consistent with thermal blanket pieces. In addition, the orbital elements of the fragments suggest nontrivial velocity gain by the fragment cloud during the impact. These important characteristics were incorporated into a numerical simulation to assess the long-term impact of the Fengyun-1C fragments to the LEO debris environment. The main objectives of the simulation were to evaluate (1) the collision probabilities between the Fengyun-1C fragments and the rest of the catalog population and (2) the collision activities and population growth in the region in the next 100 years.

  11. Orbit analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.

    1995-01-01

    The past fifteen years have witnessed a remarkable development of methods for analyzing single particle orbit dynamics in accelerators. Unlike their more classic counterparts, which act upon differential equations, these methods proceed by manipulating Poincare maps directly. This attribute makes them well matched for studying accelerators whose physics is most naturally modelled in terms of maps, an observation that has been championed most vigorously by Forest. In the following sections the author sketchs a little background, explains some of the physics underlying these techniques, and discusses the best computing strategy for implementing them in conjunction with modeling accelerators.

  12. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond.

    PubMed

    Benton, E R; Benton, E V

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars.

  13. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    2001-01-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars. c2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Space radiation dosimetry in low-Earth orbit and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, E. R.; Benton, E. V.

    2001-09-01

    Space radiation dosimetry presents one of the greatest challenges in the discipline of radiation protection. This is a result of both the highly complex nature of the radiation fields encountered in low-Earth orbit (LEO) and interplanetary space and of the constraints imposed by spaceflight on instrument design. This paper reviews the sources and composition of the space radiation environment in LEO as well as beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. A review of much of the dosimetric data that have been gathered over the last four decades of human space flight is presented. The different factors affecting the radiation exposures of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are emphasized. Measurements made aboard the Mir Orbital Station have highlighted the importance of both secondary particle production within the structure of spacecraft and the effect of shielding on both crew dose and dose equivalent. Roughly half the dose on ISS is expected to come from trapped protons and half from galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The dearth of neutron measurements aboard LEO spacecraft and the difficulty inherent in making such measurements have led to large uncertainties in estimates of the neutron contribution to total dose equivalent. Except for a limited number of measurements made aboard the Apollo lunar missions, no crew dosimetry has been conducted beyond the Earth's magnetosphere. At the present time we are forced to rely on model-based estimates of crew dose and dose equivalent when planning for interplanetary missions, such as a mission to Mars. While space crews in LEO are unlikely to exceed the exposure limits recommended by such groups as the NCRP, dose equivalents of the same order as the recommended limits are likely over the course of a human mission to Mars.

  15. Optical Observations of the Orbital Debris Environment at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Africano, John L.; Stansbery, Eugene G.; McKay, Gordon A. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the LEO and MEO (low and middle earth orbit) optical orbital debris environments, especially in the important, but difficult to track one to ten centimeter size range, NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) has built a zenith-staring Liquid Mirror Telescope (LMT) near Cloudcroft, NM. The mirror of the LMT consists of a three-meter diameter parabolic dish containing several gallons of mercury that is spun at a rate of ten revolutions per minute. A disadvantage of the LMT is its inability to point in any direction other than the zenith. However, this is not a major limitation for statistical sampling of the LEO and MEO orbital debris population. While the LMT is used for the characterization of the LEO and MEO orbital debris environments, its inability to point off zenith limits its utility for the GEO environment where objects are concentrated over the equator. To gain a better understanding of the GEO debris environment, NASA JSC has built a CCD Debris Telescope (CDT). The CDT is a 12.5-inch aperture Schmidt portable telescope with automated pointing capability. The CDT is presently co-located with the LMT. The CDT can see down to 17.1 magnitude in a 30 second exposure with a 1.5 degree field of view. This corresponds to a ten percent reflective, 0.8-meter diameter object at geosynchronous altitude. Both telescopes are used every clear night. We present results from 3 years of observations from the LMT and preliminary results from the CDT.

  16. Minimum fuel coplanar aeroassisted orbital transfer using collocation and nonlinear programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shi, Yun Yuan; Young, D. H.

    1991-01-01

    The fuel optimal control problem arising in coplanar orbital transfer employing aeroassisted technology is addressed. The mission involves the transfer from high energy orbit (HEO) to low energy orbit (LEO) without plane change. The basic approach here is to employ a combination of propulsive maneuvers in space and aerodynamic maneuvers in the atmosphere. The basic sequence of events for the coplanar aeroassisted HEO to LEO orbit transfer consists of three phases. In the first phase, the transfer begins with a deorbit impulse at HEO which injects the vehicle into a elliptic transfer orbit with perigee inside the atmosphere. In the second phase, the vehicle is optimally controlled by lift and drag modulation to satisfy heating constraints and to exit the atmosphere with the desired flight path angle and velocity so that the apogee of the exit orbit is the altitude of the desired LEO. Finally, the second impulse is required to circularize the orbit at LEO. The performance index is maximum final mass. Simulation results show that the coplanar aerocapture is quite different from the case where orbital plane changes are made inside the atmosphere. In the latter case, the vehicle has to penetrate deeper into the atmosphere to perform the desired orbital plane change. For the coplanar case, the vehicle needs only to penetrate the atmosphere deep enough to reduce the exit velocity so the vehicle can be captured at the desired LEO. The peak heating rates are lower and the entry corridor is wider. From the thermal protection point of view, the coplanar transfer may be desirable. Parametric studies also show the maximum peak heating rates and the entry corridor width are functions of maximum lift coefficient. The problem is solved using a direct optimization technique which uses piecewise polynomial representation for the states and controls and collocation to represent the differential equations. This converts the optimal control problem into a nonlinear programming problem

  17. Agreement between Saint Leo College, Inc. and United Faculty of Saint Leo College, United Faculty of Florida, NEA, October 19, 1983-June 2, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Saint Leo College and the United Faculty of Saint Leo College/United Faculty of Florida Chapter (43 members) of the National Education Association covering the period October 19, 1983-June 2, 1985 is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, definitions, management and union…

  18. Autonomous space processor for orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramohalli, Kumar; Marine, Micky; Colvin, James; Crockett, Richard; Sword, Lee; Putz, Jennifer; Woelfle, Sheri

    1991-01-01

    The development of an Autonomous Space Processor for Orbital Debris (ASPOD) was the goal. The nature of this craft, which will process, in situ, orbital debris using resources available in low Earth orbit (LEO) is explained. The serious problem of orbital debris is briefly described and the nature of the large debris population is outlined. The focus was on the development of a versatile robotic manipulator to augment an existing robotic arm, the incorporation of remote operation of the robotic arms, and the formulation of optimal (time and energy) trajectory planning algorithms for coordinated robotic arms. The mechanical design of the new arm is described in detail. The work envelope is explained showing the flexibility of the new design. Several telemetry communication systems are described which will enable the remote operation of the robotic arms. The trajectory planning algorithms are fully developed for both the time optimal and energy optimal problems. The time optimal problem is solved using phase plane techniques while the energy optimal problem is solved using dynamic programming.

  19. Environmental durability issues for solar power systems in low earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Groh, K.K. de; Banks, B.A.; Smith, D.C.

    1995-10-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  20. Environmental Durability Issues for Solar Power Systems in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Smith, Daniela C.

    1994-01-01

    Space solar power systems for use in the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment experience a variety of harsh environmental conditions. Materials used for solar power generation in LEO need to be durable to environmental threats such as atomic oxygen, ultraviolet (UV) radiation, thermal cycling, and micrometeoroid and debris impact. Another threat to LEO solar power performance is due to contamination from other spacecraft components. This paper gives an overview of these LEO environmental issues as they relate to space solar power system materials. Issues addressed include atomic oxygen erosion of organic materials, atomic oxygen undercutting of protective coatings, UV darkening of ceramics, UV embrittlement of Teflon, effects of thermal cycling on organic composites, and contamination due to silicone and organic materials. Specific examples of samples from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) and materials returned from the first servicing mission of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) are presented. Issues concerning ground laboratory facilities which simulate the LEO environment are discussed along with ground-to-space correlation issues.

  1. Low Earth orbit atomic oxygen simulation for durability evaluation of solar reflector surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Banks, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the performance and durability of solar reflector surfaces in the atomic oxygen environment typical of low Earth orbit (LEO), one must expose the reflector surface either directly to LEO or to ground-laboratory atomic oxygen environments. Although actual LEO exposures are most desired, such opportunities are typically scarce, expensive, and of limited duration. As a result, ground-laboratory exposures must be relied upon as the most practical long-term durability evaluation technique. Plasma ashers are widely used as LEO simulation facilities by producing atomic oxygen environments for durability evaluation of potential spacecraft materials. Atomic oxygen arrival differs between ground and space exposure in that plasma asher exposure produces isotropic arrival and space solar tracking produces sweeping arrival. Differences in initial impact reaction probability occur, dependent upon the energy and species existing in these environments. Due to the variations in ground-laboratory and space atomic oxygen, quantification of in-space performance based on plasma asher testing is not straightforward. The various atomic oxygen interactions that can occur with reflector surfaces, such as undercutting in organic substrates at protective coating defect sites, ground-laboratory techniques recommended for evaluating the atomic oxygen durability of reflectors based on asher exposures, and computational techniques which make use of ground-laboratory atomic oxygen exposure to predict in-space LEO durability are addressed.

  2. The New NASA Orbital Debris Mitigation Procedural Requirements and Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2008-01-01

    NASA has issued major updates to its principal orbital debris mitigation policy directive and standards. The new NASA Procedural Requirements for Limiting Orbital Debris (NPR 8715.6), with its supporting NASA Standard 8719.14, both refine earlier orbital debris mitigation documents and in some areas expand their applicability. Organizational and individual responsibilities along with general directives are set forth in NPR 8715.6. New requirements include routine conjunction assessments for all maneuverable NASA spacecraft in LEO and GEO, prompt notifications of intended or unintended debris generation, preparation and maintenance of formal end-of-mission plans, and disposal of vehicles in operation around the Moon and Mars and at the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points. NASA Standard 8719.14 replaces the 1995 NASA Safety Standard 1740.14 with no major new requirements but with several refinements and additions, some of which had already been adopted. Compliance with human casualty risk limitations from reentering debris will be calculated explicitly and not be expressed in terms of average debris casualty area. Moreover, the minimum kinetic energy threshold for potentially injurious reentering debris is set at 15 Joules. The overarching requirement for the disposal of GEO spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages is to ensure that the vehicles do not come within GEO + 200 km for at least 100 km after end of mission, rather than setting specific requirements for the disposal orbit. Spacecraft operating in or routinely transiting LEO must remain in the region for no more than 25 years after end of mission or 30 years after launch, whichever occurs sooner. A comprehensive new NASA handbook on orbital debris has also been prepared to provide background on the orbital debris environment and the related NASA mitigation requirements and standards.

  3. CASTOR: Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mruphy, Gloria A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of CASTOR (Cathode/Anode Satellite Thruster for Orbital Repositioning) satellite is to demonstrate in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) a nanosatellite that uses a Divergent Cusped Field Thruster (DCFT) to perform orbital maneuvers representative of an orbital transfer vehicle. Powered by semi-deployable solar arrays generating 165W of power, CASTOR will achieve nearly 1 km/s of velocity increment over one year. As a technology demonstration mission, success of CASTOR in LEO will pave the way for a low cost, high delta-V orbital transfer capability for small military and civilian payloads in support of Air Force and NASA missions. The educational objective is to engage graduate and undergraduate students in critical roles in the design, development, test, carrier integration and on-orbit operations of CASTOR as a supplement to their curricular activities. This program is laying the foundation for a long-term satellite construction program at MIT. The satellite is being designed as a part of AFRL's University Nanosatellite Program, which provides the funding and a framework in which student satellite teams compete for a launch to orbit. To this end, the satellite must fit within an envelope of 50cmx50cmx60cm, have a mass of less than 50kg, and meet stringent structural and other requirements. In this framework, the CASTOR team successfully completed PDR in August 2009 and CDR in April 2010 and will compete at FCR (Flight Competition Review) in January 2011. The complexity of the project requires implementation of many systems engineering techniques which allow for development of CASTOR from conception through FCR and encompass the full design, fabrication, and testing process.

  4. The new NASA orbital debris mitigation procedural requirements and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-02-01

    NASA has issued major updates to its principal orbital debris mitigation policy directive and standards. The new NASA procedural requirements for limiting orbital debris (NPR 8715.6A), with its supporting NASA Standard 8719.14, both refine earlier orbital debris mitigation documents and in some areas expand their applicability. Organizational and individual responsibilities along with general directives are set forth in NPR 8715.6A. New requirements include routine conjunction assessments for all maneuverable NASA spacecraft in LEO and GEO, prompt notifications of intended or unintended debris generation, preparation and maintenance of formal end-of-mission plans, and disposal of vehicles in operation around the Moon and Mars and at the Earth-Sun Lagrangian points. NASA Standard 8719.14 replaces the 1995 NASA Safety Standard 1740.14 with no major new requirements but with several refinements and additions, some of which had already been adopted informally. Compliance with human casualty risk limitations from reentering debris will be calculated explicitly and not be expressed in terms of average debris casualty area. Moreover, the minimum kinetic energy threshold for potentially injurious reentering debris is set at 15 J. The overarching requirement for the disposal of GEO spacecraft and launch vehicle orbital stages is to ensure that the vehicles do not come within GEO+200 km for at least 100 years after end of mission, rather than setting specific requirements for the disposal orbit. Spacecraft operating in or routinely transiting LEO must remain in the region for no more than 25 years after end of mission or 30 years after launch, whichever occurs sooner. A comprehensive new NASA handbook on orbital debris has also been prepared to provide background on the orbital debris environment and the related NASA mitigation requirements and standards.

  5. Leo Szilard: Physics, Politics, and the Narrow Margin of Hope.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanouette, William

    1998-04-01

    Leo Szilard (1898-1964) was a creative physicist and biologist. But concern about how scientific discoveries might affect humanity also led him to seek political solutions to enlarge the benefits and limit the damage caused by his work. This disposition to save the world came to Szilard by the age of 10, when he read The Tragedy of Man, a Hungarian epic poem in which humanity faces extinction yet continues to survive by maintaining a narrow margin of hope. With this hope Szilard brought about improbable scientific and political feats (such as the nuclear chain reaction and the Moscow-Washington Hotline). This talk focuses on Szilard's many attempts in 1945 to prevent the atomic bombing of Japan. William Lanouette, a writer and public policy analyst, is the author of Genius in the Shadows: A Biography of Leo Szilard, The Man Behind the Bomb. (University of Chicago Press, 1994)

  6. LEO high voltage solar array arcing response model, continuation 5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metz, Roger N.

    1989-01-01

    The modeling of the Debye Approximation electron sheaths in the edge and strip geometries was completed. Electrostatic potentials in these sheaths were compared to NASCAP/LEO solutions for similar geometries. Velocity fields, charge densities and particle fluxes to the biased surfaces were calculated for all cases. The major conclusion to be drawn from the comparisons of our Debye Approximation calculations with NASCAP-LEO output is that, where comparable biased structures can be defined and sufficient resolution obtained, these results are in general agreement. Numerical models for the Child-Langmuir, high-voltage electron sheaths in the edge and strip geometries were constructed. Electrostatic potentials were calculated for several cases in each of both geometries. Velocity fields and particle fluxes were calculated. The self-consistent solution process was carried through one cycle and output electrostatic potentials compared to NASCAP-type input potentials.

  7. A new release of the mean orbital motion theory, and a new tool provided by CNES for long term analysis of disposal orbits and re-entry predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deleflie, Florent; Wailliez, Sébastien; Portmann, Christophe; Gilles, M.; Vienne, Alain; Berthier, J.; Valk, St; Hautesserres, Denis; Martin, Thierry; Fraysse, Hubert

    To perform an orbit modelling accurate enough to provide a good estimate of the lifetime of a satellite, or to ensure the stability of a disposal orbit through centuries, we built a new orbit propagator based on the theory of mean orbital motion. It is named SECS-SD2 , for Simplified and Extended CODIOR Software -Space Debris Dedicated . The CODIOR software propagates numerically averaged equations of motion, with a typical integration step size on the order of a few hours, and was originally written in classical orbital elements. The so-called Space Debris -dedicated version is written in orbital elements suitable for orbits with small eccentricities and inclinations, so as to characterize the main dynamic properties of the motion within the LEO, MEO, and GEO regions. The orbital modelling accounts for the very first terms of the geopotential, the perturbations induced by the luni-solar attraction, the solar radiation pressure, and the atmospheric drag (using classical models). The new software was designed so as to ensure short computation times, even over periods of decades or centuries. This paper aims first at describing and validating the main functionalities of the software: we explain how the simplified averaged equations of motion were built, we show how we get sim-plified luni-solar ephemerides without using any huge file for orbit propagations over centuries, and we show how we averaged and simulated the solar flux. We show as well how we expressed short periodic terms to be added to the mean equations of motion, in order to get orbital ele-ments comparable to those deduced from the classical numerical integration of the oscultating equations of motion. The second part of the paper sheds light on some dynamical properties of space debris flying in the LEO and GEO regions, which were obtained from the new software. Knowing that each satellite in the LEO region is now supposed to re-enter the atmosphere within a period of 25 years, we estimated in various

  8. LEO test data for 81 Ah FNC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Anderman, M.; Cohen, F.

    1997-12-01

    LEO test data for 81 Ah Fiber Nickel-Cadmium (FNC) battery packs are presented. Trends in pressure, charge acceptance, discharge voltage, capacity, and impedance during 7,800, 60% DOD cycles will be discussed. It will be shown that the FNC is capable of high rate discharge and fast charge to high DOD with stable performance. The relationship between cell design and battery pack performance will also be discussed.

  9. Forecast analysis on satellites that need de-orbit technologies: future scenarios for passive de-orbit devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Chiara; Kingston, Jennifer

    2016-09-01

    Propulsion-based de-orbit is a space-proven technology; however, this strategy can strongly limit operational lifetime, as fuel mass is dedicated to the de-orbiting. In addition previous reliability studies have identified the propulsion subsystem as one of the major contributors driving satellite failures. This issue brings the need to develop affordable de-orbit technologies with a limited reliance on the system level performance of the host satellite, ideally largely passive methods. Passive disposal strategies which take advantage of aerodynamic drag as the de-orbit force are particularly attractive because they are independent of spacecraft propulsion capabilities. This paper investigates the future market for passive de-orbit devices in LEO to aid in defining top-level requirements for the design of such devices. This is performed by considering the compliances of projected future satellites with the Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee de-orbit time, to quantify the number of spacecraft that are compliant or non-compliant with the guidelines and, in this way, determine their need for the previously discussed devices. The study is performed by using the SpaceTrak™ database which provides future launch schedules, and spacecraft information; the de-orbit analysis is carried out by means of simulations with STELA. A case study of a passive strategy is given by the de-orbit mechanism technological demonstrator, which is currently under development at Cranfield University and designed to deploy a drag sail at the end of the ESEO satellite mission.

  10. Verification of the GSICS GEO-LEO inter-calibration products with GEO-GEO collocation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Fangfang; Wu, Xiangqian; Qian, Haifeng; Sindic-Rancic, Gordana

    2011-10-01

    The Global Space-based Inter-Calibration System (GSICS) geostationary (GEO) vs. low earth orbit (LEO) inter-calibration correction products have been routinely generated for years at NOAA to improve and harmonize the data quality of the operational GOES satellite for a better global weather monitoring, prediction and climate change studies. In this study, the collocated GOES-13 and GOES-15 Imager infrared (IR) data are used to validate the GSICS GEO-LEO Imager inter-calibration correction products. To compensate the impact of difference in the spectral response function (SRF) on the GSICS corrected GEO radiance, two radiative transfer models (RTM) with different atmospheric profiles are used to simulate the relations between the two GEO radiance values. The results of GEO-GEO inter-calibration shows that the mean Tb difference between GOES-13 and GOES-15 is less than 0.2K(Ch2), 0.65K(Ch3), 0.08K(Ch4) and 0.35K(Ch6). The two RTM models with different atmospheric profiles have significantly different impacts on the Tb difference at the two absorptive channels, Ch3 and Ch6, indicating that the impact of different optical path is not well addressed in this study. Future study should apply the double difference using the RTM as transfer to compensate for the SRF and viewing/optical path difference at each collocated pixel.

  11. LEO-to-ground polarization measurements aiming for space QKD using Small Optical TrAnsponder (SOTA).

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Casado, Alberto; Kunimori, Hiroo; Takenaka, Hideki; Kubo-Oka, Toshihiro; Akioka, Maki; Fuse, Tetsuharu; Koyama, Yoshisada; Kolev, Dimitar; Munemasa, Yasushi; Toyoshima, Morio

    2016-05-30

    Quantum communication, and more specifically Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), enables the transmission of information in a theoretically secure way, guaranteed by the laws of quantum physics. Although fiber-based QKD has been readily available since several years ago, a global quantum communication network will require the development of space links, which remains to be demonstrated. NICT launched a LEO satellite in 2014 carrying a lasercom terminal (SOTA), designed for in-orbit technological demonstrations. In this paper, we present the results of the campaign to measure the polarization characteristics of the SOTA laser sources after propagating from LEO to ground. The most-widely used property for encoding information in free-space QKD is the polarization, and especially the linear polarization. Therefore, studying its behavior in a realistic link is a fundamental step for proving the feasibility of space quantum communications. The results of the polarization preservation of two highly-polarized lasers are presented here, including the first-time measurement of a linearly-polarized source at λ = 976 nm and a circularly-polarized source at λ = 1549 nm from space using a realistic QKD-like receiver, installed in the Optical Ground Station at the NICT Headquarters, in Tokyo, Japan.

  12. Pursuing atmospheric water vapor retrieval through NDSA measurements between two LEO satellites: evaluation of estimation errors in spectral sensitivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, L.; Cuccoli, F.; Argenti, F.

    2008-10-01

    NDSA (Normalized Differential Spectral Absorption) is a novel differential measurement method to estimate the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along a tropospheric propagation path between two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. A transmitter onboard the first LEO satellite and a receiver onboard the second one are required. The NDSA approach is based on the simultaneous estimate of the total attenuations at two relatively close frequencies in the Ku/K bands and of a "spectral sensitivity parameter" that can be directly converted into IWV. The spectral sensitivity has the potential to emphasize the water vapor contribution, to cancel out all spectrally flat unwanted contributions and to limit the impairments due to tropospheric scintillation. Based on a previous Monte Carlo simulation approach, through which we analyzed the measurement accuracy of the spectral sensitivity parameter at three different and complementary frequencies, in this work we examine such accuracy for a particularly critical atmospheric status as simulated through the pressure, temperature and water vapor profiles measured by a high resolution radiosonde. We confirm the validity of an approximate expression of the accuracy and discuss the problems that may arise when tropospheric water vapor concentration is lower than expected.

  13. Orbital Winch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, Robert (Inventor); Slostad, Jeffrey T. (Inventor); Frank, Scott (Inventor); Barnes, Ian M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Orbital winch having: lower and upper frames; spool having upper and lower flanges with lower flange attached to lower frame; axial tether guide mounted to upper frame; secondary slewing ring coaxial with spool and rotatably mounted to upper frame, wherein secondary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; upper tether guide mounted to inner surface of secondary slewing ring; linear translation means having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted on lower frame; primary slewing ring rotatably mounted within linear translation means allowing translation axially between flanges, wherein primary slewing ring's outer surface has gearing; lower tether guide mounted on primary slewing ring's inner surface; pinion rod having upper end mounted to upper frame and lower end mounted to lower frame, wherein pinion rod's teeth engage primary and secondary slewing rings' outer surface teeth; and tether passing through axial, upper, and lower tether guides and winding around spool.

  14. Solar Array in Simulated LEO Plasma Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale

    2004-01-01

    Six different types of solar arrays have been tested in large vacuum chambers. The low Earth orbit plasma environment was simulated in plasma vacuum chambers, where the parameters could be controlled precisely. Diagnostic equipment included spherical Langmuir probes, mass spectrometer, low-noise CCD camera with optical spectrometer, video camera, very sensitive current probe to measure arc current, and a voltage probe to register variations in a conductor potential. All data (except video) were obtained in digital form that allowed us to study the correlation between external parameters (plasma density, additional capacitance, bias voltage, etc) and arc characteristics (arc rate, arc current pulse width and amplitude, gas species partial pressures, and intensities of spectral lines). Arc inception voltages, arc rates, and current collections are measured for samples with different coverglass materials and thickness, interconnect designs, and cell sizes. It is shown that the array with wrapthrough interconnects have the highest arc threshold and the lowest current collection. Coverglass design with overhang results in decrease of current collection and increase of arc threshold. Doubling coverglass thickness causes the increase in arc inception voltage. Both arc inception voltage and current collection increase significantly with increasing a sample temperature to 80 C. Sustained discharges are initiated between adjacent cells with potential differences of 40 V for the sample with 300 m coverglass thickness and 60 V for the sample with 150 m coverglass thickness. Installation of cryogenic pump in large vacuum chamber provided the possibility of considerable outgassing of array surfaces which resulted in significant decrease of arc rate. Arc sites were determined by employing a video-camera, and it is shown that the most probable sites for arc inception are triple-junctions, even though some arcs were initiated in gaps between cells. It is also shown that the arc

  15. Solar Array in Simulated LEO Plasma Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vayner, Boris; Galofaro, Joel; Ferguson, Dale

    2003-01-01

    Six different types of solar arrays have been tested in large vacuum chambers. The low earth orbit plasma environment was simulated in plasma vacuum chambers, where the parameters could be controlled precisely. Diagnostic equipment included spherical Langmuir probes, mass spectrometer, low-noise CCD camera with optical spectrometer, video camera, very sensitive current probe to measure arc current, and a voltage probe to register variations in a conductor potential. All data (except video) were obtained in digital form that allowed us to study the correlation between external parameters (plasma density, additional capacitance, bias voltage, etc) and arc characteristics (arc rate, arc current pulse width and amplitude, gas species partial pressures, and intensities of spectral lines). Arc inception voltages, arc rates, and current selections are measured for samples with different coverglass materials and thickness, interconnect designs, and cell sizes. It is shown that the array with wrapthrough interconnects have the highest arc threshold and the lowest current collection. Coverglass design with overhang results in decrease of current collection and increase of arc threshold. Doubling coverglass thickness cases the increase in arc inception voltage. Both arc inception voltage and current collection increase significantly with increasing a sample temperature to 80 C. Sustained discharges are initiated between adjacent cells with potential differences of 40 V for the sample with 300 micron coverglass thickness and 60 V for the sample with 150 micron coverglass thickness. Installation of cryogenic pump in large vacuum chamber provided the possibility of considerable outgassing of array surfaces which resulted in significant decrease of arc rate. Arc sites were determined by employing a video-camera, and it is shown that the most probable sites for arc inception are triple-junctions, even though some arcs were initiated in gaps between cells. It is also shown that the

  16. Calculations of differential spacecraft charging in high and low Earth orbits using COULOMB-2 code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Makletsov, Andrei; Sinolits, Vadim

    2016-07-01

    In the paper, we discuss the main physical quantities determining the principle features of spacecraft charging in high and low Earth orbits: characteristic values of magnetosphere plasma particle primary currents, peculiarities of the various particle current angular distributions, typical values of secondary emission currents for a number of spacecraft constructional materials. Methods for computation of electrostatic potential distribution over the spacecraft non-uniform complex shape surface which are used in COULOMB-2 program package for high (GEO) and low orbits (LEO) are described. The physical approximations necessary for calculation of the plasma particles primary currents which enable to use the analytical expressions in the case of high spacecraft surface charging similar to formulas for Langmuir currents, are discussed for GEO and for LEO. Distribution of the electrostatic potential over the spacecraft surface is determined as result of numerical solution of nonlinear algebraic equations system corresponding to the established balance of currents on each of discrete elements (2-5 thousands of elements) of the spacecraft surface. The analytical approach noted above enable to obtain the stationary distribution of the potential for rather small computation time that enables to obtain the results for a large number of the influencing factors orientations in reasonable computation time. Typical electric potential distributions over surfaces of the modern GEO and LEO spacecraft are presented. The principle features of these potential distributions determined by specific conditions of charging in GEO and in LEO are discussed.

  17. Design of a Representative Low Earth Orbit Satellite to Improve Existing Debris Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, S.; Dietrich, A.; Werremeyer, M.; Fitz-Coy, N.; Liou, J.-C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the process and methodologies used in the design of a small-satellite, DebriSat, that represents materials and construction methods used in modern day Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. This satellite will be used in a future hypervelocity impact test with the overall purpose to investigate the physical characteristics of modern LEO satellites after an on-orbit collision. The major ground-based satellite impact experiment used by DoD and NASA in their development of satellite breakup models was conducted in 1992. The target used for that experiment was a Navy Transit satellite (40 cm, 35 kg) fabricated in the 1960 s. Modern satellites are very different in materials and construction techniques from a satellite built 40 years ago. Therefore, there is a need to conduct a similar experiment using a modern target satellite to improve the fidelity of the satellite breakup models. The design of DebriSat will focus on designing and building a next-generation satellite to more accurately portray modern satellites. The design of DebriSat included a comprehensive study of historical LEO satellite designs and missions within the past 15 years for satellites ranging from 10 kg to 5000 kg. This study identified modern trends in hardware, material, and construction practices utilized in recent LEO missions, and helped direct the design of DebriSat.

  18. Space-based laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (Project SLICK)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The project SLICK (Space Laser Interorbital Cargo Kite) involves conceptual designs of reusable space-based laser-powered orbital transfer vehicle (LOTV) for ferrying 16,000 kg cargo primarily between low Earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). The power of LOTV is beamed by a single 32-MW solar-pumped iodide laser orbiting the Earth at an altitude of one Earth radius. The laser engine selected for the LOTV is based on a continuous-wave, steady-state propulsion scheme and uses an array of seven discrete plasmas in a flow of hydrogen propellant. Both all-propulsive and aerobraked LOTV configurations were analyzed and developed. The all-propulsive vehicle uses a rigid 11.5-m aperture primary mirror and its engine produces a thrust of 2000 N at a specific impulse of 1500 sec. For the LEO-to-GEO trip, the payload ratio, m(sub payload/m(sub propellant)+m(sub dry vehicle) = 1.19 and the trip time is about 6 days. The aerobraked version uses a lightweight, retractable wrapped-rib primary mirror which is folded for aerobraking and a 20-m-diameter inflatable-ballute aeroshield which is jettisoned after aeromaneuver. Lifecycle cost analysis shows that the aerobraked configuration may have an economic advantage over the all-propulsive configuration as long as the cost of launching the propellant to LEO is higher than about $500/kg in current dollars.

  19. NASA-STD-4005 and NASA-HDBK-4006, LEO Spacecraft Solar Array Charging Design Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.

    2007-01-01

    Two new NASA Standards are now official. They are the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Standard (NASA-STD-4005) and the NASA LEO Spacecraft Charging Design Handbook (NASA-HDBK-4006). They give the background and techniques for controlling solar array-induced charging and arcing in LEO. In this paper, a brief overview of the new standards is given, along with where they can be obtained and who should be using them.

  20. Robotic on-orbit fueling of SEI vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, Margaret M.; Haines, David E.; Mauceri, A. J.

    Research to investigate the feasibility of, and to develop concepts for, the robotic supply of consumables on orbit is examined, with emphasis on Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) assets. Principal methods for effecting propellant transfer on orbit are summarized, and the pros and cons of applying robotics to each method are discussed. Methods include direct transfer of fuel and oxidizer, assembly of tanks to the vehicle, and assembly of propulsion modules to the vehicles. Guidelines are developed for the automated/robotic cryogenic propellant transfer mechanism to accomplish on-orbit consumable supply of SEI vehicles by direct fluid transfer. The development of initial design concepts for the LEO fueling of the Mars Transfer System is traced.

  1. A comparison of potential electric propulsion systems for orbit transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. M.

    1982-01-01

    Electric propulsion concepts are compared on the basis of trip time for the low earth orbit (LEO) to geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO) mission. Resistojet, arcjet, magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD), pulsed inductive, and ion engine thruster concepts are included. The optimum (minimum trip time) value of specific impulse is found to be dependent upon the specific mission and system being considered. As expected, the devices which can deliver good efficiency at low specific impulses promise the fastest trip times. The solution for trip time and propellant mass for the constant power, continuous low acceleration orbit transfer problem (one way and round trip) is presented in nomograph form. The influences of mission Delta V, thruster efficiency, specific impulse, power, power and propulsion system mass, and payload mass are clearly illustrated.

  2. NASA's New Orbital Debris Engineering Model, ORDEM2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krisko, Paula H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the functionality and use of ORDEM2010, which replaces ORDEM2000, as the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) debris engineering model. Like its predecessor, ORDEM2010 serves the ODPO mission of providing spacecraft designers/operators and debris observers with a publicly available model to calculate orbital debris flux by current-state-of-knowledge methods. The key advance in ORDEM2010 is the input file structure of the yearly debris populations from 1995-2035 of sizes 10 micron - 1 m. These files include debris from low-Earth orbits (LEO) through geosynchronous orbits (GEO). Stable orbital elements (i.e., those that do not randomize on a sub-year timescale) are included in the files as are debris size, debris number, material density, random error and population error. Material density is implemented from ground-test data into the NASA breakup model and assigned to debris fragments accordingly. The random and population errors are due to machine error and uncertainties in debris sizes. These high-fidelity population files call for a much higher-level model analysis than what was possible with the populations of ORDEM2000. Population analysis in the ORDEM2010 model consists of mapping matrices that convert the debris population elements to debris fluxes. One output mode results in a spacecraft encompassing 3-D igloo of debris flux, compartmentalized by debris size, velocity, pitch, and yaw with respect to spacecraft ram direction. The second output mode provides debris flux through an Earth-based telescope/radar beam from LEO through GEO. This paper compares the new ORDEM2010 with ORDEM2000 in terms of processes and results with examples of specific orbits.

  3. Simulation of charge-discharge cycling of lithium-ion batteries under low-earth-orbit conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong-Won; Anguchamy, Yogesh K.; Popov, Branko N.

    Charge-discharge behavior of SONY 18650 lithium-ion batteries for aerospace applications was simulated under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions, by using a first-principles based mathematical model. The model determines the capacity fade on the basis of the irreversible loss of active lithium ions due to electrolyte reduction. The capacity fade during LEO cycling was studied for 5 years of continuous operation with 20% depth of discharge as a function of the cycling parameters such as the end of charge voltage and the charging rate.

  4. The LEO Particulate Environment as Determined by LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Hoerz, Friedrick; Bernhard, P.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Foster, Tammy R.; Kinard, William H.

    1993-01-01

    The Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group has been studying the low-Earth orbit particulate environment by examining and documenting impact craters that occurred on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) during its 5.7 year stay in orbit.

  5. Technology Development for Human Exploration Beyond LEO in the New Millennium IAA-13-3 Strategies and Plans for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Lueck, Dale E.; Parrish, Clyde F.; Sanders, Gerald B.; Trevathan, Joseph R.; Baird, R. Scott; Simon, Tom; Peters, T.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    As we look forward into the new millennium, the extension of human presence beyond Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) looms large in the plans of NASA. The Agency's Strategic Plan specifically calls out the need to identify and develop technologies for 100 and 1000-day class missions beyond LEO. To meet the challenge of these extended duration missions, it is important that we learn how to utilize the indigenous resources available to us on extraterrestrial bodies. This concept, known as In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) can greatly reduce the launch mass & cost of human missions while reducing the risk. These technologies may also pave the way for the commercial development of space. While no specific target beyond LEO is identified in NASA's Strategic Plan, mission architecture studies have been on-going for the Moon, Mars, Near-Earth Asteroids and Earth/Moon & Earth/Sun Libration Points. As a result of these studies, the NASA Office of Space Flight (Code M) through the Johnson and Kennedy Space Centers, is leading the effort to develop ISRU technologies and systems to meet the current and future needs of human missions beyond LEO and on to Mars. This effort also receives support from the NASA Office of Biological and Physical Research (Code U), the Office of Space Science (Code S), and the Office of Aerospace Technology (Code R). This paper will present unique developments in the area of fuel and oxidizer production, breathing air production, water production, C02 collection, separation of atmospheric gases, and gas liquefaction and storage. A technology overview will be provided for each topic along with the results achieved to date, future development plans, and the mission architectures that these technologies support.

  6. Low Earth Orbital Atomic Oxygen Interactions With Spacecraft Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, Bruce A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Miller, Sharon K.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic oxygen, formed in Earth s thermosphere, interacts readily with many materials on spacecraft flying in low Earth orbit (LEO). All hydrocarbon based polymers and graphite are easily oxidized upon the impact of approx.4.5 eV atomic oxygen as the spacecraft ram into the residual atmosphere. The resulting interactions can change the morphology and reduce the thickness of these materials. Directed atomic oxygen erosion will result in the development of textured surfaces on all materials with volatile oxidation products. Examples from space flight samples are provided. As a result of the erosive properties of atomic oxygen on polymers and composites, protective coatings have been developed and are used to increase the functional life of polymer films and composites that are exposed to the LEO environment. The atomic oxygen erosion yields for actual and predicted LEO exposure of numerous materials are presented. Results of in-space exposure of vacuum deposited aluminum protective coatings on polyimide Kapton indicate high rates of degradation are associated with aluminum coatings on both surfaces of the Kapton. Computational modeling predictions indicate that less trapping of the atomic oxygen occurs, with less resulting damage, if only the space-exposed surface is coated with vapor deposited aluminum rather than having both surfaces coated.

  7. Effect of LEO Exposure on Aromatic Polymers Containing Phenylphosphine Oxide Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, K. A.; Ghose, S.; Lillehei, P. T.; Smith, J. G., Jr.; Connell, J. W.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the Materials on The International Space Station Experiment (MISSE), aromatic polymers containing phenylphosphine oxide groups were exposed to low Earth orbit (LEO) for approximately 4 years. All of the aromatic polymers containing phenylphosphine oxide groups survived the exposure despite the high fluence of atomic oxygen that completely eroded other polymer films such as Kapton and Mylar of comparable or greater thickness. The samples consisted of a colorless polyimide film and a poly(arylene ether benzimidazole) film and thread. The samples were characterized for changes in physical properties, thermal/optical properties (i.e. solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity), surface chemistry (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy), and surface topography (atomic force microscopy). The data from the polymer samples on MISSE were compared to samples from the same batch of material stored under ambient conditions on Earth. In addition, comparisons were made between the MISSE samples and those subjected to shorter term space flight exposures. The results of these analyses will be presented.

  8. Analysis of MIR-18 results for physical and biological dosimetry: radiation shielding effectiveness in LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, F. A.; Wilson, J. W.; Williams, J. R.; Dicello, J. F.

    2000-01-01

    We compare models of radiation transport and biological response to physical and biological dosimetry results from astronauts on the Mir space station. Transport models are shown to be in good agreement with physical measurements and indicate that the ratio of equivalent dose from the Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) to protons is about 3/2:1 and that this ratio will increase for exposures to internal organs. Two biological response models are used to compare to the Mir biodosimetry for chromosome aberration in lymphocyte cells; a track-structure model and the linear-quadratic model with linear energy transfer (LET) dependent weighting coefficients. These models are fit to in vitro data for aberration formation in human lymphocytes by photons and charged particles. Both models are found to be in reasonable agreement with data for aberrations in lymphocytes of Mir crew members: however there are differences between the use of LET dependent weighting factors and track structure models for assigning radiation quality factors. The major difference in the models is the increased effectiveness predicted by the track model for low charge and energy ions with LET near 10 keV/micrometers. The results of our calculations indicate that aluminum shielding, although providing important mitigation of the effects of trapped radiation, provides no protective effect from the galactic cosmic rays (GCR) in low-earth orbit (LEO) using either equivalent dose or the number of chromosome aberrations as a measure until about 100 g/cm 2 of material is used.

  9. Extreme ultraviolet emission from laser-induced plasma relevance to neutral gas environment simulation in LEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tagawa, Masahito; Kimoto, Yugo; Yokota, Kumiko; Ohira, Junki; Watanabe, Daiki; Nishimura, Hiroaki

    The reaction mechanism of atomic oxygen (AO) in low Earth orbit (LEO) with spacecraft materials has been studied by ground-based experiments using laser-detonation hyperthermal beam source, which enables to accelerate the electrically neutral AO up to 8 km/s. However, the beam conditions in the laser-detonation sources could not fully duplicate the AO environment in space. The difference in beam condition including side products leads to the different material responses. The light emission from the laser-induced oxygen plasma may affect the erosion of ultraviolet (UV)-sensitive materials. However, the light emission could also be used as a diagnostic tool to understand the molecular processes in plasma. In this presentation, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission from the laser-induced plasma during AO test was evaluated by the flat field EUV spectrometer. Many emission lines between 25-40 nm originated from OII and OIII were observed from the laser-induced oxygen plasma. This result suggested multiple-charged O ions are generated in the laser-induced plasma. Promotion of oxygen dissociation effect by adding Ar in the target gas was explained by the energy transfer processes from Ar to O2 in the plasma. From the viewpoint of reducing the side products in the AO exposure tests, a method to reduce the EUV emission will also be investigated. These results could be used for establishing more accurate ground-based natural gas simulations on the space environmental effect of materials.

  10. Model-Based GN and C Simulation and Flight Software Development for Orion Missions beyond LEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odegard, Ryan; Milenkovic, Zoran; Henry, Joel; Buttacoli, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For Orion missions beyond low Earth orbit (LEO), the Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) system is being developed using a model-based approach for simulation and flight software. Lessons learned from the development of GN&C algorithms and flight software for the Orion Exploration Flight Test One (EFT-1) vehicle have been applied to the development of further capabilities for Orion GN&C beyond EFT-1. Continuing the use of a Model-Based Development (MBD) approach with the Matlab®/Simulink® tool suite, the process for GN&C development and analysis has been largely improved. Furthermore, a model-based simulation environment in Simulink, rather than an external C-based simulation, greatly eases the process for development of flight algorithms. The benefits seen by employing lessons learned from EFT-1 are described, as well as the approach for implementing additional MBD techniques. Also detailed are the key enablers for improvements to the MBD process, including enhanced configuration management techniques for model-based software systems, automated code and artifact generation, and automated testing and integration.

  11. The cryogenic on-orbit liquid analytical tool (COOLANT) - A computer program for evaluating the thermodynamic performance of orbital cryogen storage facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, W. J.; Honkonen, S. C.; Williams, G. E.; Liggett, M. W.; Tucker, S. P.

    1991-01-01

    The United States plans to establish a permanent manned presence at the Space Station Freedom in low earth orbit (LEO) and then carry out exploration of the solar system from this base. These plans may require orbital cryogenic propellant storage depots. The COOLANT program has been developed to analyze the thermodynamic performance of these depots to support design tradeoff studies. It was developed as part of the Long Term Cryogenic Storage Facility Systems Study for NASA/MSFC. This paper discusses the program structure and capabilities of the COOLANT program. In addition, the results of an analysis of a 200,000 lbm hydrogen/oxygen storage depot tankset using COOLANT are presented.

  12. Consistent Ocean Mass Time Series from LEO Potential Field Missions (CONTIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lück, Christina; Ren, Le; Androsov, Alexey; Kusche, Jürgen; Schröter, Jens; Danilov, Sergey; Rietbroek, Roelof

    2016-04-01

    Ocean mass variability on timescales of months to decades is still insufficiently understood. On these timescales, large-scale ocean bottom pressure (OBP) anomalies are associated both with wind induced variability as well as baroclinic processes, i.e. related to vertical shear of ocean density. The GRACE mission has been instrumental in quantifying such mass fluctuations, yet its lifetime is limited. The broader importance of non-tidal ocean mass variability for oceanography but also geodesy (i.e. for understanding the time-varying geoid, shape of the Earth's crust, centre of figure, Earth rotation) is obvious. Deep ocean processes can only be understood properly when not only sea surface height and upper ocean steric expansion are measured but deep ocean pressure anomalies are accounted for in addition. Apart from GRACE, the SWARM constellation may provide information on the lowest degrees of the time-variable gravity field of the Earth and therefore of large-scale oceanic processes. Here we introduce the project CONTIM, which is run in the framework of the German Special Priority Programme "Dynamic Earth" (SPP1788). In CONTIM we propose to combine expertise on precise satellite orbit determination, gravity field and mass modelling, and physical oceanography to retrieve, analyse and verify consistent time series of ocean mass variations from a set of low-flying Earth orbiters including GRACE, but extending the GRACE time series. This information is used to advance our understanding of oceanic movement, ocean warming and sea level rise. CONTIM will thus synergistically address three areas: (1) the methodology of precisely determining LEO orbits, applied here to the SWARM constellation. (2) a new method of retrieving large-scale time-varying gravity (TVG) and mass change associated with oceanic (and cryospheric and hydrological) processes from results of (1), based on forward modelling. (3) physical modelling of ocean mass variations, both for improved forward

  13. Haemangiosarcoma in a captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica)

    PubMed Central

    Vercammen, F.; Brandt, J.; Brantegem, L. Van; Bosseler, L.; Ducatelle, R.

    2015-01-01

    A 2.7-year-old male captive Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica) died unexpectedly without preceding symptoms. Gross necropsy revealed liver and lung tumours, which proved to be haemangiosarcomas by histopathology. Some of the liver tumours were ruptured, leading to massive intra-abdominal haemorrhage and death. Haemangiosarcomas are rare in domestic and exotic felids, occurring in skin, thoracic-abdominal cavity and bones. Although these tumours mainly appear to be occurring in older cats, they are sometimes observed in younger animals, as in the present case. This is the first description of haemangiosarcoma in a young Asiatic lion. PMID:26623366

  14. Low Earth Orbital Mission Aboard the Space Test Experiments Platform (STEP-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinza, David E.

    1992-01-01

    A discussion of the Space Active Modular Materials Experiments (SAMMES) is presented in vugraph form. The discussion is divided into three sections: (1) a description of SAMMES; (2) a SAMMES/STEP-3 mission overview; and (3) SAMMES follow on efforts. The SAMMES/STEP-3 mission objectives are as follows: assess LEO space environmental effects on SDIO materials; quantify orbital and local environments; and demonstrate the modular experiment concept.

  15. Earth-to-Geostationary Orbit Transportation for Space Solar Power System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, James A.; Donahue, Benjamin B.; Lawrence, Schuyler C.; McClanahan, James A.; Carrington, Connie K. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Space solar power satellites have the potential to provide abundant quantities of electricity for use on Earth. One concept, the Sun Tower, can be assembled in geostationary orbit from pieces transferred from Earth. The cost of transportation is one of the major hurdles to space solar power. This study found that autonomous solar-electric transfer is a good choice for the transportation from LEO to GEO.

  16. Multi-technique combination of space geodesy observations: Impact of the Jason-2 satellite on the GPS satellite orbits estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoulida, Myriam; Pollet, Arnaud; Coulot, David; Perosanz, Félix; Loyer, Sylvain; Biancale, Richard; Rebischung, Paul

    2016-10-01

    In order to improve the Precise Orbit Determination (POD) of the GPS constellation and the Jason-2 Low Earth Orbiter (LEO), we carry out a simultaneous estimation of GPS satellite orbits along with Jason-2 orbits, using GINS software. Along with GPS station observations, we use Jason-2 GPS, SLR and DORIS observations, over a data span of 6 months (28/05/2011-03/12/2011). We use the Geophysical Data Records-D (GDR-D) orbit estimation standards for the Jason-2 satellite. A GPS-only solution is computed as well, where only the GPS station observations are used. It appears that adding the LEO GPS observations results in an increase of about 0.7% of ambiguities fixed, with respect to the GPS-only solution. The resulting GPS orbits from both solutions are of equivalent quality, agreeing with each other at about 7 mm on Root Mean Square (RMS). Comparisons of the resulting GPS orbits to the International GNSS Service (IGS) final orbits show the same level of agreement for both the GPS-only orbits, at 1.38 cm in RMS, and the GPS + Jason2 orbits at 1.33 cm in RMS. We also compare the resulting Jason-2 orbits with the 3-technique Segment Sol multi-missions d'ALTimétrie, d'orbitographie et de localisation précise (SSALTO) POD products. The orbits show good agreement, with 2.02 cm of orbit differences global RMS, and 0.98 cm of orbit differences RMS on the radial component.

  17. Orbital Debris Detection and Tracking Strategies for the NASA/AFRL Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulrooney, M.; Hickson, P.; Stansbery, Eugene G.

    2010-01-01

    MCAT (Meter-Class Autonomous Telescope) is a 1.3m f/4 Ritchey-Chr tien on a double horseshoe equatorial mount that will be deployed in early 2011 to the western pacific island of Legan in the Kwajalein Atoll to perform orbital debris observations. MCAT will be capable of tracking earth orbital objects at all inclinations and at altitudes from 200 km to geosynchronous. MCAT s primary objective is the detection of new orbital debris in both low-inclination low-earth orbits (LEO) and at geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). MCAT was thus designed with a fast focal ratio and a large unvignetted image circle able to accommodate a detector sized to yield a large field of view. The selected primary detector is a close-cycle cooled 4Kx4K 15um pixel CCD camera that yields a 0.9 degree diagonal field. For orbital debris detection in widely spaced angular rate regimes, the camera must offer low read-noise performance over a wide range of framing rates. MCAT s 4-port camera operates from 100 kHz to 1.5 MHz per port at 2 e- and 10 e- read noise respectively. This enables low-noise multi-second exposures for GEO observations as well as rapid (several frames per second) exposures for LEO. GEO observations will be performed using a counter-sidereal time delay integration (TDI) technique which NASA has used successfully in the past. For MCAT the GEO survey, detection, and follow-up prediction algorithms will be automated. These algorithms will be detailed herein. For LEO observations two methods will be employed. The first, Orbit Survey Mode (OSM), will scan specific orbital inclination and altitude regimes, detect new orbital debris objects against trailed background stars, and adjust the telescope track to follow the detected object. The second, Stare and Chase Mode (SCM), will perform a stare, then detect and track objects that enter the field of view which satisfy specific rate and brightness criteria. As with GEO, the LEO operational modes will be fully automated and will be

  18. Space debris orbit prediction errors using bi-static laser observations. Case study: ENVISAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirnsberger, Harald; Baur, Oliver; Kirchner, Georg

    2015-06-01

    Large and massive space debris objects - such as abandoned satellites and upper stages - in the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) segment pose an increasing threat to all space faring nations. For collision avoidance measures or the removal of these objects, the quality of orbit predictions is one of the most relevant issues. Laser ranging has the potential to significantly contribute to the reliability and accuracy of orbit predictions. The benefit of "conventional" two-way laser ranges for this purpose has recently been demonstrated. For the first time, in this contribution we focus on bi-static laser observations - a new observation type for orbit determination and prediction. Our investigations deal with orbit predictions of the defunct ENVISAT satellite. In order to compensate for the sparseness of "conventional" tracking data, we found that the concept of bi-static laser observations improves the prediction accuracy by one order of magnitude compared to the results based on two-way laser ranges only.

  19. MDO approach for early design of aerobraking orbital transfer vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, N.; Bertrand, S.

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents a new multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO) methodology for preliminary design of an aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle (AOTV) performing a two-way transfer between a low-Earth "parking" orbit and a high-energy orbit. This work has been performed in the frame of Onera's CENTOR [N. Bérend, C. Jolly, F. Jouhaud, D. Lazaro, Y. Mauriot, C. Monjaret, J.M. Moschetta, M. Parlier, J.L. Pastre, Y. Servouze, J.L. Vérant, Project CENTOR: Preparing the design of future orbital transfer vehicles; IAC-07-D.2.3.07, in: 58th International Astronautical Congress, 24-28/09/2007, Hyderabad, India] project whose objective is to prepare tools and methodology for studying and designing future space transportation systems for new kinds of missions such as on-orbit servicing (OOS), payload ferrying, or in-situ observation of space-debris. Using simplified models and an appropriate low-dimension formulation for the optimization problem the method makes possible to obtain rapidly and easily a global view of the trade-off between the payload mass and the total mass. It also makes possible to discuss the feasibility of the vehicle with regard to different multidisciplinary constraints and technology hypotheses for the heat shield. This approach is illustrated by eight different AOTV design studies, considering two different missions (LEO-MEO and LEO-GEO), two different propulsion technologies (LOX-LH2 and LOX-CH4) and two different thermal protection system (TPS) characteristics. In each case, we discuss the feasibility and characteristics of the lightest vehicle carrying a prescribed 100 kg payload, and, conversely, a heavy vehicle with a prescribed 18 ton total mass, carrying the heaviest possible payload.

  20. Properties of the optimal trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Deaton, A. W.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from a high Earth orbit (HEO) to a low Earth orbit (LEO) is examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that two impulses are employed, one at HEO exit and one at LEO entry. During the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient in such a way that the total characteristic velocity is minimized. First, an ideal optimal trajectory is determined analytically for lift coefficient unbounded. This trajectory is called grazing trajectory, because the atmospheric pass is made by flying at constant altitude along the edge of the atmosphere until the excess velocity is depleted. For the grazing trajectory, the lift coefficient varies in such a way that the lift, the centrifugal force due to the Earth's curvature, the weight, and the Coriolis force due to the Earth's rotation are in static balance. Also, the grazing trajectory minimizes the total characteristic velocity and simultaneously nearly minimizes the peak values of the altitude drop, dynamic pressure, and heating rate. Next, starting from the grazing trajectory results, a real optimal trajectory is determined numerically for the lift coefficient bounded from both below and above. This trajectory is characterized by atmospheric penetration with the smallest possible entry angle, followed by flight at the lift coefficient lower bound. Consistently with the grazing trajectory behavior, the real optimal trajectory minimizes the total characteristic velocity and simultaneously nearly minimizes the peak values of the altitude drop, the dynamic pressure, and the heating rate.

  1. Properties of the optimal trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.; Deaton, A. W.

    The optimization of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from a high Earth orbit (HEO) to a low Earth orbit (LEO) is examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that two impulses are employed, one at HEO exit and one at LEO entry. During the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient in such a way that the total characteristic velocity is minimized. First, an ideal optimal trajectory is determined analytically for lift coefficient unbounded. This trajectory is called grazing trajectory, because the atmospheric pass is made by flying at constant altitude along the edge of the atmosphere until the excess velocity is depleted. For the grazing trajectory, the lift coefficient varies in such a way that the lift, the centrifugal force due to the Earth's curvature, the weight, and the Coriolis force due to the Earth's rotation are in static balance. Also, the grazing trajectory minimizes the total characteristic velocity and simultaneously nearly minimizes the peak values of the altitude drop, dynamic pressure, and heating rate. Next, starting from the grazing trajectory results, a real optimal trajectory is determined numerically for the lift coefficient bounded from both below and above. This trajectory is characterized by atmospheric penetration with the smallest possible entry angle, followed by flight at the lift coefficient lower bound. Consistently with the grazing trajectory behavior, the real optimal trajectory minimizes the total characteristic velocity and simultaneously nearly minimizes the peak values of the altitude drop, the dynamic pressure, and the heating rate.

  2. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Orbital Debris Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, N.; Rudd, V.,; DiMarcantonio, A.; Sandford, S.

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar power aperture product will be presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits will be analyzed. The suitability of this ladar for precision orbit determination will be discussed.

  3. Material exposure effects in a simulated low-Earth orbit environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, C.; McHarg, G.; Asmolova, O.; Andersen, G.; Rodrigues, S.; Ketsdever, A.

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft operating in low-Earth orbit (LEO) are subjected to a number of hazardous environmental constituents that can lead to decreased system performance and reduced operational lifetimes. Due to their thermal, optical, and mechanical properties, polymers are used extensively in space systems; however they are particularly susceptible to material erosion and degradation as a result of exposure to the LEO environment. The focus of this research is to examine the material erosion and mass loss experienced by the Novastrat 500 polyimide due to exposure in a simulated LEO environment. In addition to the polymer samples, chrome, silver and gold specimens will be examined to measure the oxidation rate and act as a control specimen, respectively. A magnetically filtered atomic oxygen plasma source has previously been developed and characterized for the purpose of simulating the low-Earth orbit environment. The plasma source can be operated at a variety of discharge currents and gas flow rates, of which the plasma parameters downstream of the source are dependent. The characteristics of the generated plasma were examined as a function of these operating parameters to optimize the production of O+ ions with energy relevant to LEO applications, where the ram energy of the ions due to the motion of the satellite relative to the LEO plasma is high (e.g. 7800 m/s, which corresponds to approximately 5 eV of kinetic energy for O+ ions). The plasma downstream of the source consists of streaming ions with energy of approximately 5 eV and an ion species fraction that is approximately 90% O+.

  4. Chemical Abundances in the Stellar Populations of the Leo I and Leo II dSph Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosler, T. L.; Smecker-Hane, T. A.; Stetson, P. B.

    2002-05-01

    Our goal is to map the chemical abundance distribution of the stellar populations of the Leo I and Leo II dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies to constrain the physical processes that regulate their evolution. The dSphs are particularly interesting galaxies because their star formation histories (SFHs) appear to be much more complicated than theory would predict for such low mass, low luminosity, low surface-brightness galaxies. Color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs) of these dSphs have shown that they formed stars over many Gyr. In order to understand the true spread in stellar ages and chemical abundances we need more precise abundance indicators than can be inferred from CMD analysis: abundances based upon the broad-band colors of red giants are subject to large systematic errors because of limitations in convection theory, and poorly determined color--effective temperature relations produce sizable uncertainties in the derived shapes of theoretical red giant branches. Therefore we are measuring the abundance distribution of the Leo I and Leo II dSphs from spectroscopy of individual red giant stars using the Ca II absorption lines in the near infrared (8498, 8542, and 8662 Å). Our observations are made on the Keck I 10-meter Telescope using the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. One night of successful observations yielded spectra of approximately 40 stars in each dSph from which abundances with random uncertainties of ≈ 0.1 dex will be derived. Calibration of the Ca II strengths to [Fe/H] has been done by Rutledge, et al. (1997, PASP, 109, 907) using Galactic globular clusters. We are also deriving a new calibration for [Ca/H]. This new calibration will remove the dependence on SFH built into the Rutledge, et al. calibration, i.e., the assumptions of a unique age for the system and a Galactic [Ca/Fe]--[Fe/H] relationship. Financial support for this project was provided by NSF grant AST-0070985 to TSH, and an ARCS Foundation fellowship to TB.

  5. An Artificial Gravity Spacecraft Approach which Minimizes Mass, Fuel and Orbital Assembly Reg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, L.

    2002-01-01

    The Sasakawa International Center for Space Architecture (SICSA) is undertaking a multi-year research and design study that is exploring near and long-term commercial space development opportunities. Space tourism in low-Earth orbit (LEO), and possibly beyond LEO, comprises one business element of this plan. Supported by a financial gift from the owner of a national U.S. hotel chain, SICSA has examined opportunities, requirements and facility concepts to accommodate up to 100 private citizens and crewmembers in LEO, as well as on lunar/planetary rendezvous voyages. SICSA's artificial gravity Science Excursion Vehicle ("AGSEV") design which is featured in this presentation was conceived as an option for consideration to enable round-trip travel to Moon and Mars orbits and back from LEO. During the course of its development, the AGSEV would also serve other important purposes. An early assembly stage would provide an orbital science and technology testbed for artificial gravity demonstration experiments. An ultimate mature stage application would carry crews of up to 12 people on Mars rendezvous missions, consuming approximately the same propellant mass required for lunar excursions. Since artificial gravity spacecraft that rotate to create centripetal accelerations must have long spin radii to limit adverse effects of Coriolis forces upon inhabitants, SICSA's AGSEV design embodies a unique tethered body concept which is highly efficient in terms of structural mass and on-orbit assembly requirements. The design also incorporates "inflatable" as well as "hard" habitat modules to optimize internal volume/mass relationships. Other important considerations and features include: maximizing safety through element and system redundancy; means to avoid destabilizing mass imbalances throughout all construction and operational stages; optimizing ease of on-orbit servicing between missions; and maximizing comfort and performance through careful attention to human needs. A

  6. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  7. Numerical Analysis of Orbital Perturbation Effects on Inclined Geosynchronous SAR

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Xichao; Hu, Cheng; Long, Teng; Li, Yuanhao

    2016-01-01

    The geosynchronous synthetic aperture radar (GEO SAR) is susceptible to orbit perturbations, leading to orbit drifts and variations. The influences behave very differently from those in low Earth orbit (LEO) SAR. In this paper, the impacts of perturbations on GEO SAR orbital elements are modelled based on the perturbed dynamic equations, and then, the focusing is analyzed theoretically and numerically by using the Systems Tool Kit (STK) software. The accurate GEO SAR slant range histories can be calculated according to the perturbed orbit positions in STK. The perturbed slant range errors are mainly the first and second derivatives, leading to image drifts and defocusing. Simulations of the point target imaging are performed to validate the aforementioned analysis. In the GEO SAR with an inclination of 53° and an argument of perigee of 90°, the Doppler parameters and the integration time are different and dependent on the geometry configurations. Thus, the influences are varying at different orbit positions: at the equator, the first-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at the perigee and apogee, the second-order phase errors should be mainly considered; at other positions, first-order and second-order exist simultaneously. PMID:27598168

  8. Beller Lecture: The Roots of Leo Szilard and his Interdisciplinarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, George

    1998-04-01

    A Central European among the whites was said about Leo Szilard who originated from a polycultural family. In the early 20th century he grew up in Hungary, at the crossroads of history, where political regimes, national borders, ideological doctrines, ``final truths'' changed in a dizzying cavalcade. Instead of conservative dogmatism this social environment required critical thinking in order to survive. World War I was the school of Theodore von Kármán, John von Neumann, Eugene P. Wigner and Leo Szilard; each of them learned trespassing political and disciplinary boundaries without inhibition. Their sensitivity for trends had been utilized by the United States when war efforts and high tech required orientation under new horizons. Szilard's interest ranged from statistical physics through information theory to biological evolution, from life phenomena through hot atoms to nuclear strategy. His intellectual adventures might look crazy jumps for specialists. But now, looking back to the political and technological history of the 20th century one can see than it was a consequent progress of a future-sensitive mind.

  9. Operational Impact of Improved Space Tracking on Collision Avoidance in the Future LEO Space Debris Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibert, D.; Borgeson, D.; Peterson, G.; Jenkin, A.; Sorge, M.

    2010-09-01

    Even if global space policy successfully curtails on orbit explosions and ASAT demonstrations, studies indicate that the number of debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) will continue to grow solely from debris on debris collisions and debris generated from new launches. This study examines the threat posed by this growing space debris population over the next 30 years and how improvements in our space tracking capabilities can reduce the number of Collision Avoidance (COLA) maneuvers required keep the risk of operational satellite loss within tolerable limits. Particular focus is given to satellites operated by the Department of Defense (DoD) and Intelligence Community (IC) in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The following debris field and space tracking performance parameters were varied parametrically in the experiment to study the impact on the number of collision avoidance maneuvers required: - Debris Field Density (by year 2009, 2019, 2029, and 2039) - Quality of Track Update (starting 1 sigma error ellipsoid) - Future Propagator Accuracy (error ellipsoid growth rates - Special Perturbations in 3 axes) - Track Update Rate for Debris (stochastic) - Track Update Rate for Payloads (stochastic) Baseline values matching present day tracking performance for quality of track update, propagator accuracy, and track update rate were derived by analyzing updates to the unclassified Satellite Catalog (SatCat). Track update rates varied significantly for active payloads and debris and as such we used different models for the track update rates for military payloads and debris. The analysis was conducted using the System Effectiveness Analysis Simulation (SEAS) an agent based model developed by the United States Air Force Space Command’s Space and Missile Systems Center to evaluate the military utility of space systems. The future debris field was modeled by The Aerospace Corporation using a tool chain which models the growth of the 10cm+ debris field using high fidelity

  10. Simulation of the synergistic low Earth orbit effects of vacuum thermal cycling, vacuum UV radiation, and atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.; Degroh, Kim K.; Stidham, Curtis R.; Stueber, Thomas J.; Dever, Therese M.; Rodriguez, Elvin; Terlep, Judith A.

    1992-01-01

    In order to assess the low Earth orbit (LEO) durability of candidate space materials, it is necessary to use ground laboratory facilities which provide LEO environmental effects. A facility combining vacuum thermal cycling and vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation has been designed and constructed at NASA Lewis Research Center for this purpose. This facility can also be operated without the VUV lamps. An additional facility can be used to provide VUV exposure only. By utilizing these facilities, followed by atomic oxygen exposure in an RF plasma asher, the effects of the individual vacuum thermal cycling and VUV environments can be compared to the effect of the combined vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environment on the atomic oxygen durability of materials. The synergistic effects of simulated LEO environmental conditions on materials were evaluated by first exposing materials to vacuum thermal cycling, VUV, and vacuum thermal cycling/VUV environments followed by exposure to atomic oxygen in an RP plasma asher. Candidate space power materials such as atomic oxygen protected polyimides and solar concentrator mirrors were evaluated using these facilities. Characteristics of the Vacuum Thermal Cycling/VUV Exposure Facility which simulates the temperature sequences and solar ultraviolet radiation exposure that would be experienced by a spacecraft surface in LEO are discussed. Results of durability evaluations of some candidate space power materials to the simulated LEO environmental conditions will also be discussed. Such results have indicated that for some materials, atomic oxygen durability is affected by previous exposure to thermal cycling and/or VUV exposure.

  11. Orbital dystopia due to orbital roof defect.

    PubMed

    Rha, Eun Young; Joo, Hong Sil; Byeon, Jun Hee

    2013-01-01

    We performed a retrospective review of patients who presented with delayed dystopia as a consequence of an orbital roof defect due to fractures and nontraumatic causes to search for a correlation between orbital roof defect size and surgical indications for the treatment thereof. Retrospective analyses were performed in 7 patients, all of whom presented with delayed dystopia due to orbital roof defects, between January 2001 and June 2011. The causes of orbital roof defects were displaced orbital roof fractures (5 cases), tumor (1 case), and congenital sphenoid dysplasia (1 case). All 7 patients had initially been treated conservatively and later presented with significant dystopia. The sizes of the defects were calculated on computed tomographic scans. Among the 7 patients, aspiration of cerebrospinal fluid, which caused ocular symptoms, in 1 patient with minimal displaced orbital roof and reconstruction with calvarial bone, titanium micromesh, or Medpor in 6 other patients were performed. The minimal size of the orbital roof in patients who underwent orbital roof reconstruction was 1.2 cm (defect height) x 1.0 cm (defect length), 0.94 cm(2). For all patients with orbital dystopia, displacement of the globe was corrected without any complications, regardless of whether the patient was evaluated grossly or by radiology. In this retrospective study, continuous monitoring of clinical signs and active surgical management should be considered for cases in which an orbital roof defect is detected, even if no definite symptoms are noted, to prevent delayed sequelae.

  12. Sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation.

    PubMed

    Brannan, Paul A; Kersten, Robert C; Kulwin, Dwight R

    2006-01-01

    A 5-year-old girl referred for orbital cellulitis was found to have a right orbital mass. Computed tomography revealed a mass occupying the inferotemporal orbit, extending into the maxillary sinus. Biopsy yielded a diagnosis of sclerosing idiopathic orbital inflammation. She was successfully treated with prednisone.

  13. Exposure estimates for repair satellites at geosynchronous orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badavi, Francis F.

    2013-02-01

    Communications and weather satellites in geosynchronous (GEO, altitude: 35,793 km.) and geostationary orbits (GSO) are revolutionizing our ability to almost instantly communicate with each other, capture high resolution global imagery for weather forecasting and obtain a multitude of other geophysical data for environmental protection purposes. The rapid increase in the number of satellites at GEO is partly due to the exponential expansion of the internet, its commercial potential and the need to deliver a large amount of digital information in near real time. With the large number of satellites operating at GEO and particularly at GSO, there is a need to think of viable approaches to retrieve, rejuvenate and perhaps repair these satellites. The first step in this process is a detailed understanding of the ionizing radiation environment at GEO. Currently, the most widely used trapped particle radiation environment definition near Earth is based on the NASA's static AP8/AE8 models which define the trapped proton and electron intensities. These models are based on a large number of satellite measurements carried out in the 1960s and 1970s. In this paper, the AP8/AE8 models as well as a heavy ion galactic cosmic ray (GCR) model are used to define the radiation environments for protons, electrons and heavy ions at low Earth orbit (LEO), medium Earth orbit (MEO) and GEO. LEO and MEO dosimetric calculations are included in the analysis since any launch platform capable of delivering a payload to GEO will accumulate exposure during its transit through LEO and MEO. The computational approach (particle transport) taken in this paper is to use the static LEO, MEO, GEO and geomagnetically attenuated GCR environments as input to the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) developed deterministic particle transport codes high charge and energy transport (HZETRN) and coupled electron photon transport (CEPTRN). This is done through exposure prediction within a spherical shell, a

  14. Low earth orbit satellite/terrestrial mobile service compatibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheriff, R. E.; Gardiner, J. G.

    1993-01-01

    Digital cellular mobile 'second generation' systems are now gradually being introduced into service; one such example is GSM, which will provide a digital voice and data service throughout Europe. Total coverage is not expected to be achieved until the mid '90's, which has resulted in several proposals for the integration of GSM with a geostationary satellite service. Unfortunately, because terrestrial and space systems have been designed to optimize their performance for their particular environment, integration between a satellite and terrestrial system is unlikely to develop further than the satellite providing a back-up service. This lack of system compatibility is now being addressed by system designers of third generation systems. The next generation of mobile systems, referred to as FPLMTS (future public land mobile telecommunication systems) by CCIR and UMTS (universal mobile telecommunication system) in European research programs, are intended to provide inexpensive, hand-held terminals that can operate in either satellite, cellular, or cordless environments. This poses several challenges for system designers, not least in terms of the choice of multiple access technique and power requirements. Satellite mobile services have been dominated by the geostationary orbital type. Recently, however, a number of low earth orbit configurations have been proposed, for example Iridium. These systems are likely to be fully operational by the turn of the century, in time for the implementation of FPLMTS. The developments in LEO mobile satellite service technology were recognized at WARC-92 with the allocation of specific frequency bands for 'big' LEO's, as well as a frequency allocation for FPLMTS which included a specific satellite allocation. When considering integrating a space service into the terrestrial network, LEO's certainly appear to have their attractions: they can provide global coverage, the round trip delay is of the order of tens of milliseconds, and

  15. Orbital fractures: a review

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Jeffrey M; Glavas, Ioannis P

    2011-01-01

    This review of orbital fractures has three goals: 1) to understand the clinically relevant orbital anatomy with regard to periorbital trauma and orbital fractures, 2) to explain how to assess and examine a patient after periorbital trauma, and 3) to understand the medical and surgical management of orbital fractures. The article aims to summarize the evaluation and management of commonly encountered orbital fractures from the ophthalmologic perspective and to provide an overview for all practicing ophthalmologists and ophthalmologists in training. PMID:21339801

  16. Estimating water vapour along the radio path between two LEO satellites through multifrequency differential power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, Luca; Cuccoli, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The Normalized Differential Spectral Attenuation (NDSA) concept was proposed in 2002 by the authors for tropospheric water vapour sounding by means of a couple of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites (one carrying a transmitter, the other a receiver and operating in the Ku/K bands) in limb geometry. In those years, in the course of the ACE+ mission studies (second call for proposal of the ESA Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission), the problem arose of the severe impact of scintillation due to tropospheric turbulence on the water vapour estimates provided by radio occultation measurements made in limb mode between two LEO satellites. In following ESA studies (AlmetLeo - 2004, ACTLIMB -2009) it was demonstrated that NDSA, thanks to its normalised differential approach, is effective for limiting scintillation and for estimating the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) along the propagation path between the two LEO satellites. NDSA relies on the conversion of a spectral parameter (the spectral sensitivity S), into the IWV through IWV-S relationships. S is a finite-difference approximation of the derivative of the spectral attenuation at a given frequency fo, normalized to the spectral attenuation itself. To measure Sat fo,it is required that two tone signals with equal power at relatively close frequencies f1 and f2 (f1 > f2) symmetrically placed around fo are simultaneously transmitted. The two pertinent received powers P1 and P2 are simultaneously measured and S is provided by: S = -P2--P1- (f1 - f2 )P2 From the very beginning of the NDSA studies, it was evident that in ideal measurement conditions (no disturbance at the receiver nor propagation impairments) S is tightly correlated to the IWV. To verify this, we accounted for natural variations of the atmospheric conditions by generating simulated spherically symmetric atmospheres using real radiosonde profiles. We computed IWV along the radio path and simulated S separately obtaining IWV-S relationships at various altitudes

  17. Solar array orientations for a space station in low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1991-01-01

    A large portion of the drag of a space station in LEO is generated by its solar array; for a baseline 25-kW solar array in 334-km orbit, 1800 kg of reboost propellant/year is needed to counteract solar array drag. A study is conducted of the drag reduction potential of three possible solar array orientations: sun-pointing, sun-pointing during illumination/edge-on during eclipse, and edge-on during entire orbit. An 18.5-percent drag-makeup propellant reduction is found to be obtainable with the sun-pointing/edge-on eclipse orientation technique.

  18. Study of multi-kW solar arrays for Earth orbit application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Low cost low Earth orbit (LOW) and geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) Solar Array concepts in the 300 to 1000 kW range which could be reduced to hardware in the mid 1980's, are identified. Size scaling factors and longer life demands are recognized as the prime drivers for the designs if low life cycle costs for energy are to be achieved. Technology is identified which requires further development in order to assure component readiness and availability. Use of the low concentration ratio (CR) concentrator, which uses gallium arsenide solar cells for both LEO and GEO applications, is recommended.

  19. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  20. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  1. Estimated performance and future potential of solar dynamic and photovoltaic power systems for selected LEO and HEO missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.

    1989-01-01

    Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and High Eccentric Orbit (Energy) (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied corresponding to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. Comparative assessment is made between the two power system types utilizing newly emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage, and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (space station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multi-kWe earth orbit missions. System characterizations include all required subsystems, including power conditioning, cabling, structure, to deliver electrical power to the user. Performance is estimated on the basis of three different levels of component technology: (1) state-of-art, (2) near-term, and (3) advanced technologies. These range from planar array silicon/IPV nickel hydrogen batteries and Brayton systems at 1000 K to thin film GaAs with high energy density secondary batteries or regenerative fuel cells and 1300 K Stirling systems with ultra-lightweight concentrators and radiators. The system estimates include design margin for performance degradations from the known environmental mechanisms (micrometeoroids and space debris, atomic oxygen, electron and proton flux) which are modeled and applied depending on the mission. The results give expected performance, mass and drag of multi-kWe earth orbiting solar power systems and show how overall system figures of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.

  2. Use of negotiated rulemaking in developing technical rules for low-Earth orbit mobile satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Leslie A.

    1993-01-01

    Technical innovations have converged with the exploding market demand for mobile telecommunications to create the impetus for low-earth orbit (LEO) communications satellite systems. The so-called 'Little LEO's' propose use of VHF and UHF spectrum to provide position - location and data messaging services. The so-called 'Big LEO's' propose to utilize the RDSS bands to provide voice and data services. In the United States, several applications were filed with the U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to construct and operate these mobile satellite systems. To enable the prompt introduction of such new technology services, the FCC is using innovative approaches to process the applications. Traditionally, when the FCC is faced with 'mutually exclusive' applications, e.g. a grant of one would preclude a grant of the others, it uses selection mechanisms such as comparative hearings or lotteries. In the case of the LEO systems, the FCC has sought to avoid these time-consuming approaches by using negotiated rulemakings. The FCC's objective is to enable the multiple applicants and other interested parties to agree on technical and service rules which will enable the grant of all qualified applications. With regard to the VHF/UHF systems, the Advisory Committee submitted a consensus report to the FCC. The process for the systems operating in the bands above 1 GHz involved more parties and more issues but still provided the FCC useful technical information to guide the adoption of rules for the new mobile satellite service.

  3. Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Orbit Determination Accuracy Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slojkowski, Steven E.

    2014-01-01

    Results from operational OD produced by the NASA Goddard Flight Dynamics Facility for the LRO nominal and extended mission are presented. During the LRO nominal mission, when LRO flew in a low circular orbit, orbit determination requirements were met nearly 100% of the time. When the extended mission began, LRO returned to a more elliptical frozen orbit where gravity and other modeling errors caused numerous violations of mission accuracy requirements. Prediction accuracy is particularly challenged during periods when LRO is in full-Sun. A series of improvements to LRO orbit determination are presented, including implementation of new lunar gravity models, improved spacecraft solar radiation pressure modeling using a dynamic multi-plate area model, a shorter orbit determination arc length, and a constrained plane method for estimation. The analysis presented in this paper shows that updated lunar gravity models improved accuracy in the frozen orbit, and a multiplate dynamic area model improves prediction accuracy during full-Sun orbit periods. Implementation of a 36-hour tracking data arc and plane constraints during edge-on orbit geometry also provide benefits. A comparison of the operational solutions to precision orbit determination solutions shows agreement on a 100- to 250-meter level in definitive accuracy.

  4. Direct Data Distribution From Low-Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinger, James M.; Fujikawa, Gene; Kunath, Richard R.; Nguyen, Nam T.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Spence, Rodney L.

    1997-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) is developing the space and ground segment technologies necessary to demonstrate a direct data distribution (1)3) system for use in space-to-ground communication links from spacecraft in low-Earth orbit (LEO) to strategically located tracking ground terminals. The key space segment technologies include a K-band (19 GHz) MMIC-based transmit phased array antenna, and a multichannel bandwidth- and power-efficient digital encoder/modulate with an aggregate data rate of 622 Mb/s. Along with small (1.8 meter), low-cost tracking terminals on the ground, the D3 system enables affordable distribution of data to the end user or archive facility through interoperability with commercial terrestrial telecommunications networks. The D3 system is applicable to both government and commercial science and communications spacecraft in LEO. The features and benefits of the D3 system concept are described. Starting with typical orbital characteristics, a set of baseline requirements for representative applications is developed, including requirements for onboard storage and tracking terminals, and sample link budgets are presented. Characteristics of the transmit array antenna and digital encoder/modulator are described. The architecture and components of the tracking terminal are described, including technologies for the next generation terminal. Candidate flights of opportunity for risk mitigation and space demonstration of the D3 features are identified.

  5. Electric Propulsion Performance from Geo-transfer to Geosynchronous Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dankanich, John W.; Carpenter, Christian B.

    2007-01-01

    For near-Earth application, solar electric propulsion advocates have focused on Low Earth Orbit (LEO) to Geosynchronous (GEO) low-thrust transfers because of the significant improvement in capability over chemical alternatives. While the performance gain attained from starting with a lower orbit is large, there are also increased transfer times and radiation exposure risk that has hindered the commercial advocacy for electric propulsion stages. An incremental step towards electric propulsion stages is the use of integrated solar electric propulsion systems (SEPS) for GTO to GEO transfer. Thorough analyses of electric propulsion systems options and performance are presented. Results are based on existing or near-term capabilities of Arcjets, Hall thrusters, and Gridded Ion engines. Parametric analyses based on "rubber" thruster and launch site metrics are also provided.

  6. THE ARECIBO LEGACY FAST ALFA SURVEY. IX. THE LEO REGION H I CATALOG, GROUP MEMBERSHIP, AND THE H I MASS FUNCTION FOR THE LEO I GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Stierwalt, Sabrina; Haynes, Martha P.; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Martin, Ann M.; Kent, Brian R.; Saintonge, Amelie; Karachentsev, Igor D.; Karachentseva, Valentina E. E-mail: haynes@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: amartin@astro.cornell.edu E-mail: amelie@physik.uzh.ch E-mail: vkarach@observ.univ.kiev.ua

    2009-08-15

    We present the catalog of H I sources extracted from the ongoing Arecibo Legacy Fast ALFA (ALFALFA) extragalactic H I line survey, found within the sky region bounded by 9{sup h}36{sup m} < {alpha} < 11{sup h}36{sup m} and +08{sup 0} < {delta} < +12{sup 0}. The H I catalog presented here for this 118 deg{sup 2} region is combined with the ones derived from surrounding regions also covered by the ALFALFA survey to examine the large-scale structure in the complex Leo region. Because of the combination of wide sky coverage and superior sensitivity, spatial and spectral resolution, the ALFALFA H I catalog of the Leo region improves significantly on the numbers of low H I mass sources as compared with those found in previous H I surveys. The H I mass function of the Leo I group presented here is dominated by low-mass objects: 45 of the 65 Leo I members have M{sub H{sub l}}<10{sup 8} M-odot, yielding tight constraints on the low-mass slope of the Leo I H I mass function. The best-fit slope is {alpha} {approx_equal} -1.41 + 0.2 - 0.1. A direct comparison between the ALFALFA H I line detections and an optical search of the Leo I region proves the advantage of the ALFALFA strategy in finding low-mass, gas-rich dwarfs. These results suggest the existence of a significant population of low surface brightness, gas-rich, yet still very low H I mass galaxies, and may reflect the same type of morphological segregation as is seen in the Local Group. While the low-mass end slope of the Leo I H I mass function is steeper than that determined for luminosity functions of the group, the slope still falls short of the values predicted by simulations of structure formation in the lambda cold dark matter paradigm.

  7. Precise Orbit Determination Of Low Earth Satellites At AIUB Using GPS And SLR Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaggi, A.; Bock, H.; Thaller, D.; Sosnica, K.; Meyer, U.; Baumann, C.; Dach, R.

    2013-12-01

    An ever increasing number of low Earth orbiting (LEO) satellites is, or will be, equipped with retro-reflectors for Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and on-board receivers to collect observations from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) such as the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Russian GLONASS and the European Galileo systems in the future. At the Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) LEO precise orbit determination (POD) using either GPS or SLR data is performed for a wide range of applications for satellites at different altitudes. For this purpose the classical numerical integration techniques, as also used for dynamic orbit determination of satellites at high altitudes, are extended by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling techniques to efficiently cope with potential force model deficiencies for satellites at low altitudes. Accuracies of better than 2 cm may be achieved by pseudo-stochastic orbit modeling for satellites at very low altitudes such as for the GPS-based POD of the Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE).

  8. Space Radiation Environment Prediction for VLSI microelectronics devices onboard a LEO Satellite using OMERE-Trad Software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sajid, Muhammad

    This tutorial/survey paper presents the assessment/determination of level of hazard/threat to emerging microelectronics devices in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) space radiation environment with perigee at 300 Km, apogee at 600Km altitude having different orbital inclinations to predict the reliability of onboard Bulk Built-In Current Sensor (BBICS) fabricated in 350nm technology node at OptMA Lab. UFMG Brazil. In this context, the various parameters for space radiation environment have been analyzed to characterize the ionizing radiation environment effects on proposed BBICS. The Space radiation environment has been modeled in the form of particles trapped in Van-Allen radiation belts(RBs), Energetic Solar Particles Events (ESPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) where as its potential effects on Device- Under-Test (DUT) has been predicted in terms of Total Ionizing Dose (TID), Single-Event Effects (SEE) and Displacement Damage Dose (DDD). Finally, the required mitigation techniques including necessary shielding requirements to avoid undesirable effects of radiation environment at device level has been estimated /determined with assumed standard thickness of Aluminum shielding. In order to evaluate space radiation environment and analyze energetic particles effects on BBICS, OMERE toolkit developed by TRAD was utilized.

  9. New Results on RZ Leo and CC Scl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szkody, Paula; Mukadam, Anjum S.; Gaensicke, Boris T.; Toloza, Odette; Dai, Zhibin; HST GO12870 Team

    2017-01-01

    Using HST COS ultraviolet spectra in time-tag mode and a long K2 observation, we have determined a spin period for the white in RZ Leo of 220 seconds, thus confirming this cataclysmic variable as a new member of the Intermediate Polar class of systems. The ultraviolet light curve of CC Scl at quiescence created from its COS spectral observations is dominated by its spin period of 195 seconds (that has only been previously observed during one of its outbursts). Spectra formed from the high and low sections of its light curve shows a temperature difference of several thousand degrees.PS and ASM acknowledge support from NASA grant HST-GO13807 and from NSF grant AST-1514737.

  10. Next Generation Grating Spectrometer Sounders for LEO and GEO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagano, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    AIRS and MODIS are widely used for weather, climate, composition, carbon cycle, cross-calibration, and applications. The community asking for new capability in the 2020 timeframe, capabilities desired: (1) Hyperspectral UV to LWIR, High Spatial ?1km IFOV (2) Maximize Synergies of Solar Reflected and IR. Synergies with OCO-2. We expect more users and applications of next gen LEO IR Sounder than GEO. These include: weather, climate, GHG monitoring, aviation, disaster response. There is a new direction for imagers and sounders: (1) Separate Vis/NIR/SWIR from MWIR/LWIR instruments reduces technology risk and complexity. (2) Expect Costs to be lower than CrIS & VIIRS Some additional ideas to reduce costs include: (1) minimum set of requirements (2) mini-grating spectrometers. supports constellation for higher revisit (3) new technology to reduce instrument size (large format fpa's) (4) hosted payloads

  11. Cranial malformations in related white lions (Panthera leo krugeri).

    PubMed

    Scaglione, F E; Schröder, C; Degiorgi, G; Zeira, O; Bollo, E

    2010-11-01

    White lions (Panthera leo krugeri) have never been common in the wild, and at present, the greatest population is kept in zoos where they are bred for biological and biodiversity conservation. During the years 2003 to 2008 in a zoological garden in northern Italy, 19 white lions were born to the same parents, who were in turn paternally consanguineous. Out of the 19 lions, 4 (21%) were stillborn, 13 (69%) died within 1 month, and 1 (5%) was euthanatized after 6 months because of difficulty with prehension of food. Six lions (32%) showed malformations involving the head (jaw, tongue, throat, teeth, and cranial bones). One lion (5%) still alive at 30 months revealed an Arnold-Chiari malformation upon submission for neurological evaluation of postural and gait abnormalities. Paternal consanguinity of the parents, along with inbreeding among white lions in general, could account for the high incidence of congenital malformations of the head in this pride of white lions.

  12. Molecular phylogeny of the extinct cave lion Panthera leo spelaea.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joachim; Rosendahl, Wilfried; Loreille, Odile; Hemmer, Helmut; Eriksson, Torsten; Götherström, Anders; Hiller, Jennifer; Collins, Matthew J; Wess, Timothy; Alt, Kurt W

    2004-03-01

    To reconstruct the phylogenetic position of the extinct cave lion (Panthera leo spelaea), we sequenced 1 kb of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from two Pleistocene cave lion DNA samples (47 and 32 ky B.P.). Phylogenetic analysis shows that the ancient sequences form a clade that is most closely related to the extant lions from Africa and Asia; at the same time, cave lions appear to be highly distinct from their living relatives. Our data show that these cave lion sequences represent lineages that were isolated from lions in Africa and Asia since their dispersal over Europe about 600 ky B.P., as they are not found among our sample of extant populations. The cave lion lineages presented here went extinct without mitochondrial descendants on other continents. The high sequence divergence in the cytochrome b gene between cave and modern lions is notable.

  13. Blood platelet counts, morphology and morphometry in lions, Panthera leo.

    PubMed

    Du Plessis, L

    2009-09-01

    Due to logistical problems in obtaining sufficient blood samples from apparently healthy animals in the wild in order to establish normal haematological reference values, only limited information regarding the blood platelet count and morphology of free-living lions (Panthera leo) is available. This study provides information on platelet counts and describes their morphology with particular reference to size in two normal, healthy and free-ranging lion populations. Blood samples were collected from a total of 16 lions. Platelet counts, determined manually, ranged between 218 and 358 x 10(9)/l. Light microscopy showed mostly activated platelets of various sizes with prominent granules. At the ultrastructural level the platelets revealed typical mammalian platelet morphology. However, morphometric analysis revealed a significant difference (P < 0.001) in platelet size between the two groups of animals. Basic haematological information obtained in this study may be helpful in future comparative studies between animals of the same species as well as in other felids.

  14. Doramectin toxicity in a group of lions (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Lobetti, Remo G; Caldwell, Peter

    2012-10-15

    Ten lions (Panthera leo) that were treated with a single injection of doramectin at a dose ranging between 0.2 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg showed clinical signs consistent with avermectin toxicity, namely ataxia, hallucinations, and mydriasis. Two subsequently died whereas the other eight lions recovered after 4-5 days with symptomatic therapy. Post-mortem examinations of the two that died showed cyanosis, severe pulmonary oedema, pleural effusion, and pericardial effusion, with histopathology not revealing any abnormalities. In both these lions, doramectin brain and liver tissue concentrations were elevated. Although doramectin is regularly used in wild felids, to date there have been no reports of avermectin toxicity in the literature. This article highlights the potential for doramectin toxicity in this species.

  15. Treatment of malignant lymphoma in an African lion (Panthera leo).

    PubMed

    Harrison, Tara M; Sikarskie, James; Kitchell, Barbara; Rosenstein, Diana S; Flaherty, Heather; Fitzgerald, Scott D; Kiupel, Matti

    2007-06-01

    A 14 yr-old male, vasectomized African lion (Panthera leo) exhibited mild weight loss despite adequate appetite. Splenomegaly was diagnosed on physical examination. On the basis of hematology and clinical pathology, malignant lymphoma with chronic lymphocytic leukemia was diagnosed. Abdominal exploratory surgery and splenectomy were performed. Histologic examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed a small cell peripheral T-cell lymphoma. Initial treatments consisted of doxorubicin and prednisone, with later addition of lomustine. The lion remained in clinical remission at 2 mo, 6 mo, and 12 mo postchemotherapy physical examinations. The lion survived 504 days from initial diagnosis. At necropsy, the only lesions consistent with lymphoma were localized epitheliotrophic infiltrates of small neoplastic T lymphocytes within the nasopharyngeal epithelium and the underlying submucosa observed on microscopic examination.

  16. CLINICOPATHOLOGIC FEATURES OF MAMMARY MASSES IN CAPTIVE LIONS (PANTHERA LEO).

    PubMed

    Sadler, Ryan A; Craig, Linden E; Ramsay, Edward C; Helmick, Kelly; Collins, Darin; Garner, Michael M

    2016-03-01

    A multi-institutional retrospective analysis of 330 pathology accessions from 285 different lions found 15 captive, female African lions (Panthera leo) with confirmed mammary masses. Aside from the presence of a mammary mass, the most common initial clinical sign was inappetence. Histologic diagnoses were predominantly adenocarcinoma (n = 12), though two benign masses (mammary hyperplasia and a mammary cyst) and one squamous cell carcinoma were identified. Nine of 13 malignant tumors had metastasized to lymph nodes or viscera at the time of necropsy. Six lions with adenocarcinoma and two lions with benign mammary masses had received hormonal contraception, though little evidence of mammary lobular hyperplasia was seen in association with the adenocarcinomas. The most common concurrent disease processes found at necropsy were chronic urinary tract disease and other malignancies. These cases demonstrate that mammary malignancies occur in captive lions and frequently metastasize.

  17. Global tracking and inventory of military hardware via LEO satellite: A system approach and likely scenario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, David; Estabrook, Polly; Romer, Richard

    1995-01-01

    A system for global inventory control of electronically tagged military hardware is achievable using a LEO satellite constellation. An equipment Tag can communicate directly to the satellite with a power of 5 watts or less at a data rate of 2400 to 50,000 bps. As examples, two proposed commercial LEO systems, IRIDIUM and ORBCOMM, are both capable of providing global coverage but with dramatically different telecom capacities. Investigation of these two LEO systems as applied to the Tag scenario provides insight into satellite design trade-offs, constellation trade-offs and signal dynamics that effect the performance of a satellite-based global inventory control system.

  18. Numerical Algorithms for Precise and Efficient Orbit Propagation and Positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Ben K.

    orbit propagation, yielding savings in computation time and memory. Orbit propagation and position transformation simulations are analyzed to generate a complete set of recommendations for performing the ITRS/GCRS transformation for a wide range of needs, encompassing real-time on-board satellite operations and precise post-processing applications. In addition, a complete derivation of the ITRS/GCRS frame transformation time-derivative is detailed for use in velocity transformations between the GCRS and ITRS and is applied to orbit propagation in the rotating ITRS. EOP interpolation methods and ocean tide corrections are shown to impact the ITRS/GCRS transformation accuracy at the level of 5 cm and 20 cm on the surface of the Earth and at the Global Positioning System (GPS) altitude, respectively. The precession-nutation and EOP simplifications yield maximum propagation errors of approximately 2 cm and 1 m after 15 minutes and 6 hours in low-Earth orbit (LEO), respectively, while reducing computation time and memory usage. Finally, for orbit propagation in the ITRS, a simplified scheme is demonstrated that yields propagation errors under 5 cm after 15 minutes in LEO. This approach is beneficial for orbit determination based on GPS measurements. We conclude with a summary of recommendations on EOP usage and bias-precession-nutation implementations for achieving a wide range of transformation and propagation accuracies at several altitudes. This comprehensive set of recommendations allows satellite operators, astrodynamicists, and scientists to make informed decisions when choosing the best implementation for their application, balancing accuracy and computational complexity.

  19. Telemetry Tracking and Control Through Commercial LEO Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streich, Ronald C.; Morgan, Dwayne R.; Bull, Barton B.; Grant, Charles E.; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Personnel from the Goddard Space Flight Center Wallops Flight Facility (GSFC/WFF in Virginia have successfully tested commercial LEO communications satellites for sounding rocket, balloon and aircraft flight TT&C. The Flight Modern became a GSFC/WFF Advanced Range Technology Initiative (ARTI) in an effort to streamline TT&C capability to the user community at low cost. Ground tests of the Flight Modem verified duplex communications quality of service and measured transmission latencies. These tests were completed last year and results reported in the John Hopkins University (JHU) Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) 4th International Symposium on Reducing Spacecraft Costs for Ground Systems and Operations. The second phase of the Flight Modem baseline test program was a demonstration of the ruggedized version of the WFF Flight Modem flown on a sounding rocket launched it the Swedish rocket range (Esrangc) near Kiruna, Sweden, with results contained in this paper. Aircraft flight tests have been and continue to be conducted. Flights of opportunity are being actively pursued with other centers, ranges and users at universities. The WFF Flight Modem contains a CPS receiver to provide vehicle position for tracking and vehicle recovery. The system architecture, which integrates antennas, CPS receiver, commercial satellite packet data modem and a single board computer with custom software, is described. Small satellite use of the WFF Flight Modem is also being investigated, The Flight Modem provides an independent vehicle position source for Range Safety applications. The LEO communication system contains a coarse position location system, which is compared to GPS ace acy. This comparison allows users, to determine the need for a CPS receiver in addition to the satellite packet data modem for their application.

  20. Archean evolution of the Leo Rise and its Eburnean reworking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiéblemont, Denis; Goujou, Jean Christian; Egal, Emmanuel; Cocherie, Alain; Delor, Claude; Lafon, Jean Michel; Fanning, C. Mark

    2004-06-01

    Recent geological mapping in southeastern Guinea, supported by zircon dating, has called into question traditional understanding concerning the evolution of the Leo Rise. Gneiss dated at about 3540 Ma appears to constitute the earliest evidence for continental accretion within the Leo Rise. The existence of a Leonian depositional cycle at about 3000 Ma is confirmed, marked by volcanic and sedimentary rocks that can be correlated with the Loko Group in Sierra Leone. The span of ages (3244-3050 Ma) suggests that the Leonian cycle comprises different episodes whose respective chronology is as yet uncertain. Clearly distinct from the Leonian cycle, the Liberian cycle (˜2900-2800 Ma) is represented in Guinea by granite and migmatite (˜2910-2800 Ma), reflecting remobilization of the ancient Archean basement and deformation of the Leonian rocks; no deposition is associated with this cycle. After the Liberian, the Nimba and Simandou successions, containing Liberian detrital zircons, are assigned to the Birimian (˜2200-2000 Ma). Finally, Eburnean tectonism caused intense deformation of the Archean craton, accompanied by high-grade metamorphism and the intrusion of granite and syenite with ages between 2080 and 2020 Ma. The evolution of the Kénéma-Man domain, attributed to the cumulated effect of the Leonian and Liberian cycles, is thus in part Eburnean. We can suppose, therefore, that the NNE-SSW-trending structures attributed to the Liberian in Sierra Leone are, in fact, Eburnean. The Kambui Supergroup, also affected by this tectonism, should thus be assigned to the Birimian rather than the Liberian, which would explain its similarities with the Nimba and Simandou successions.

  1. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  2. Solar Activity Forecasting for use in Orbit Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    2001-01-01

    Orbital prediction for satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) or low planetary orbit depends strongly on exospheric densities. Solar activity forecasting is important in orbital prediction, as the solar UV and EUV inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth and planets, forming the exosphere in which satellites orbit. Geomagnetic effects also relate to solar activity. Because of the complex and ephemeral nature of solar activity, with different cycles varying in strength by more than 100%, many different forecasting techniques have been utilized. The methods range from purely numerical techniques (essentially curve fitting) to numerous oddball schemes, as well as a small subset, called 'Precursor techniques.' The situation can be puzzling, owing to the numerous methodologies involved, somewhat akin to the numerous ether theories near the turn of the last century. Nevertheless, the Precursor techniques alone have a physical basis, namely dynamo theory, which provides a physical explanation for why this subset seems to work. I discuss this solar cycle's predictions, as well as the Sun's observed activity. I also discuss the SODA (Solar Dynamo Amplitude) index, which provides the user with the ability to track the Sun's hidden, interior dynamo magnetic fields. As a result, one may then update solar activity predictions continuously, by monitoring the solar magnetic fields as they change throughout the solar cycle. This paper ends by providing a glimpse into what the next solar cycle (#24) portends.

  3. Generalized Orbital Projections of a Sublimating Ice Particle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menkin, Evgeny; Bacon, Jack

    2006-01-01

    The issue of orbital debris resulting from human activities in space is a growing concern for the space users' community. Waste generated in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) can stay in orbit for a long time, creating significant hazards for other spacecraft flying at lower intercepting orbits. Many spacecraft, especially crewed vehicles, are required to vent fluids into space. These fluids include propellant, wastewater, excess condensate, and others. It is important to analyze the behavior of particles that result from these activities, since each individual particle is capable of damaging or destroying a spacecraft in a lower, crossing orbit, and such particles are invisible to tracking radar systems on the ground. The deorbit trajectory of an ice particle is complex. It depends on factors including attitude of the vehicle during vent, initial velocities of particles, altitude at which the vent occurred, and numerous evaporation and sublimation factors. These include contamination within the vented water, evolution of bubbles within the clear water, and sun flux factors such as time of the year and current beta angle. The purpose of this study is to examine the influences of these factors on the trajectories of ice particles resulting from condensate water dumps, and to bound the safe trajectories of spacecraft that lie below the venting spacecraft.

  4. Multiwavelength Optical Observations of Two Chromospherically Active Binary Systems: V789 Mon and GZ Leo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gálvez, M. C.; Montes, D.; Fernández-Figueroa, M. J.; De Castro, E.; Cornide, M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes a multiwavelength optical study of chromospheres in two X-ray/EUV-selected active binary stars with strong Hα emission, V789 Mon (2RE J0725 - 002) and GZ Leo (2RE J1101+223). The goal of the study is to determine radial velocities and fundamental stellar parameters in chromospherically active binary systems in order to include them in the activity-rotation and activity-age relations. We carried out high-resolution echelle spectroscopic observations and applied spectral-subtraction technique in order to measure emission excesses due to chromosphere. The detailed study of activity indicators allowed us to characterize the presence of different chromospheric features in these systems and enabled to include them in a larger activity-rotation survey. We computed radial velocities of the systems using cross-correlation with the radial velocity standards. The double-line spectral binarity was confirmed and the orbital solutions improved for both systems. In addition, other stellar parameters such as spectral types, projected rotational velocities (vsin i) and the equivalent width of the lithium Li I λ6707.8 Å absorption line were determined. Based on observations collected with the 2.2 m telescope at the Centro Astronómico Hispano Alemán (CAHA) at Calar Alto (Almería, Spain), operated jointly by the Max-Planck Institut für Astronomie and the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC) and with the 2.1 m Otto Struve Telescope at McDonald Observatory of the University of Texas at Austin (USA).

  5. Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems.

    PubMed

    Li, Feilong; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Guangxia; Dong, Feihong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-21

    The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS) in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS) is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework.

  6. Efficient Wideband Spectrum Sensing with Maximal Spectral Efficiency for LEO Mobile Satellite Systems

    PubMed Central

    Li, Feilong; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Guangxia; Dong, Feihong; Zhang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    The usable satellite spectrum is becoming scarce due to static spectrum allocation policies. Cognitive radio approaches have already demonstrated their potential towards spectral efficiency for providing more spectrum access opportunities to secondary user (SU) with sufficient protection to licensed primary user (PU). Hence, recent scientific literature has been focused on the tradeoff between spectrum reuse and PU protection within narrowband spectrum sensing (SS) in terrestrial wireless sensing networks. However, those narrowband SS techniques investigated in the context of terrestrial CR may not be applicable for detecting wideband satellite signals. In this paper, we mainly investigate the problem of joint designing sensing time and hard fusion scheme to maximize SU spectral efficiency in the scenario of low earth orbit (LEO) mobile satellite services based on wideband spectrum sensing. Compressed detection model is established to prove that there indeed exists one optimal sensing time achieving maximal spectral efficiency. Moreover, we propose novel wideband cooperative spectrum sensing (CSS) framework where each SU reporting duration can be utilized for its following SU sensing. The sensing performance benefits from the novel CSS framework because the equivalent sensing time is extended by making full use of reporting slot. Furthermore, in respect of time-varying channel, the spatiotemporal CSS (ST-CSS) is presented to attain space and time diversity gain simultaneously under hard decision fusion rule. Computer simulations show that the optimal sensing settings algorithm of joint optimization of sensing time, hard fusion rule and scheduling strategy achieves significant improvement in spectral efficiency. Additionally, the novel ST-CSS scheme performs much higher spectral efficiency than that of general CSS framework. PMID:28117712

  7. Discussion on the kinematic orbit determination by the onboard GPS zero-differential phase observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Zuo-Ya; Cai, Wu-San; Huang, Cheng; Cheng, Zong-Yi; Fegn, Chu-Gang

    2005-03-01

    Based on the geometric, dynamic and reduced dynamic precise orbit determination (POD), a kinematic POD by the onboard GPS zero-differential phase observations was discussed and programmed. It applies the observations of GPS receive onboard LEO (Low Earth Orbit) and the precise GPS ephemeris of IGS rather than the complicated dynamic models and ground observations. It is simple and convenient in computation, rapid and precise in orbit determination and could provide estimations of some dynamic parameters too. However, it is unable to predict the orbit. The coefficient matrix of the normal equation is very huge and so in its reverse it is divided into sub-matrixes and then is transformed into upper-triangular. As an example of application of this new method the CHAMP data are analyzed in order to estimate the precision of POD.

  8. Transfer from Earth to libration point orbit using lunar gravity assist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yi; Xu, Shijie; Qi, Rui

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, transfers from the low Earth orbit (LEO) to libration point orbits using lunar gravity assist (LGA) are proposed and investigated in the Sun-Earth-Moon restricted four-body problem (RFBP). Using the patched LGA orbits as the initial guesses, we present a design method of LGA transfers to libration orbits in the RFBP. The design method is applicable to both prograde and retrograde lunar flyby. Based on the design method, 8 kinds of LGA transfers are obtained. Then, the performances of those LGA transfers, including fuel cost and duration time, are compared and discussed. The analysis results can guide us choose appropriate types of LGA transfers in libration point mission. Finally, LGA transfers are compared with direct transfers based on the Sun-Earth stable manifolds to display the effect of lunar flyby on the transfer.

  9. Natural orbital environment definition guidelines for use in aerospace vehicle development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. Jeffrey (Editor); Smith, Robert E. (Compiler)

    1994-01-01

    This document provides definitions of the natural near-Earth space environment suitable for use in the initial development/design phase of any space vehicle. The natural environment includes the neutral atmosphere, plasma, charged particle radiation, electromagnetic radiation (EMR), meteoroids, orbital debris, magnetic field, physical and thermal constants, and gravitational field. Communications and other unmanned satellites operate in geosynchronous-Earth orbit (GEO); therefore, some data are given for GEO, but emphasis is on altitudes from 200 km to 1000 km (low-Earth orbit (LEO)). This document does not cover the induced environment of other effects resulting from presence of the space vehicle. Manmade factors are included as part of the ambient natural environment; i.e., orbital debris and radio frequency (RF) noise generated on Earth, because they are not caused by the presence of the space vehicle but form part of the ambient environment that the space vehicle experiences.

  10. Pulsed Plasma Propulsion - Making CubeSat Missions Beyond Low Earth Orbit Possible

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Northway, P.

    2015-12-01

    As CubeSat missions become more and more popular means of scientific exploration of space, the current direction of interest is to utilize them in areas beyond low earth orbit. The University of Washington CubeSat program focuses on examining possible mission scenarios in addition to technology development and integration. Specifically, we are developing an inert CubeSat propulsion system in the form of a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) capable of orbit maneuvers. Such a system would allow for missions at the Earth beyond LEO, extended missions at the Moon, and even missions at Europa, when assisted to the Jovian system. We will discuss how starting with a CubeSat design using PPTs for orbital maneuvers, other developing compact technology can be adapted to create a full suite of systems that would meet the requirements for a mission traveling outside low earth orbit.

  11. R&D of a Next Generation LEO System for Global Multimedia Mobile Satellite Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morikawa, E.; Motoyoshi, S.; Koyama, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Yasuda, Y.

    2002-01-01

    Next-generation LEO System Research Center (NeLS) was formed in the end of 1997 as a research group under the Telecommunications Advancement Organization of Japan, in cooperation with the telecommunications operators, manufacturers, universities and governmental research organization. The aim of this project is to develop new technology for global multimedia mobile satellite communications services with a user data rate around 2Mbps for handy terminals. component of the IMT-2000, and the second generation of the big-LEO systems. In prosecuting this project, two-phase approach, phase 1 and phase 2, is considered. Phase 1 is the system definition and development of key technologies. In Phase 2, we plan to verify the developed technology in Phase 1 on space. From this year we shifted the stage to Phase 2, and are now developing the prototype of on-board communication systems for flight tests, which will be planed at around 2006. The satellite altitude is assumed to be 1200 km in order to reduce the number of satellites, to avoid the Van Allen radiation belts and to increase the minimum elevation angle. Ten of the circular orbits with 55 degree of inclination are selected to cover the earth surface from -70 to 70 degree in latitude. 12 satellites are positioned at regular intervals in each orbit. In this case, the minimum elevation angle from the user terminal can be keep more than 20 degree for the visibility of the satellite, and 15 degree for simultaneous visibility of two satellites. Then, NeLS Research Center was focusing on the development of key technologies as the phase 1 project. Four kinds of key technologies; DBF satellite antenna, optical inter-satellite link system, satellite network technology with on-board ATM switch and variable rate modulation were selected. Satellite Antenna Technology: Development of on-board direct radiating active phased array antenna with digital beam forming technology would be one of the most important breakthroughs for the

  12. Lunar orbiting prospector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    One of the prime reasons for establishing a manned lunar presence is the possibility of using the potential lunar resources. The Lunar Orbital Prospector (LOP) is a lunar orbiting platform whose mission is to prospect and explore the Moon from orbit in support of early lunar colonization and exploitation efforts. The LOP mission is divided into three primary phases: transport from Earth to low lunar orbit (LLO), operation in lunar orbit, and platform servicing in lunar orbit. The platform alters its orbit to obtain the desired surface viewing, and the orbit can be changed periodically as needed. After completion of the inital remote sensing mission, more ambitious and/or complicated prospecting and exploration missions can be contemplated. A refueled propulsion module, updated instruments, or additional remote sensing packages can be flown up from the lunar base to the platform.

  13. Indonesia coverage simulation of SAR satellite at near-equatorial orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Septanto, Harry; Utama, Satriya; Heru Triharjanto, Robertus; Suhermanto

    2017-01-01

    Properties of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) that able to penetrate the cloud and does not depend on the sunlight are a number of advantages when utilized for monitoring tropical region like the IMC (Indonesian Maritime Continent). Moreover, since having areas along equatorial belt, the IMC is at a shortcoming from perspective of highly inclined LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellite. It would result shorter and infrequent pass times when compared with a near-equatorial LEO satellite whose low inclination. This paper reports on the investigation of a near-equatorial LEO SAR satellite coverage property through simulations. The simulations is run in nine scenarios of orbit parameter that consist of combinations of attitude {500 km, 600 km, 700 km} and inclination {80, 90, 100}. The target area is defined as 50 km x 50 km around Jakarta. Meanwhile, the SAR sensor simulation is run with swath width of 40 km, incidence angle around 250-290 and Stripmap mode. Minimum, Maximum and Mean Access Revisit of the target for each scenarios are resulted.

  14. NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - LEO C FRANCISCUS MISSIONS ANALYSIS BRANCH WORKING ON RECOVERABLE BOOSTERS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - LEO C FRANCISCUS MISSIONS ANALYSIS BRANCH WORKING ON RECOVERABLE BOOSTERS - PERFORM MISSION ANALYSIS STUDIES - AT PRESENT TIME STUDYING SUBSONIC AND SUPERSONIC COMBUSTION RAM JET ENGINES - ALSO PERFORMING ANALYTICAL STUDIES

  15. An all electronic transportation system from LEO to GEO and beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, William C.

    1989-01-01

    System description and moon mission interface; LEO to GEO flight times; technology readiness and modular construction; system capacity and costs; and reduction of propellant mass are outlined. This presentation is represented by viewgraph only.

  16. Celebrating a centennial-Leo Szilárd (1898-1964)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stinner, Arthur

    1998-04-01

    In the long list of gifted Hungarian scientists and mathematicians active in the first half of this century, the name of Leo Szilárd rises to the top. This year we celebrate the centennial of his birth.

  17. Seismic amplitude anomalies associated with thick First Leo sandstone lenses, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balch, A.H.; Lee, M.W.; Miller, J.J.; Ryder, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    Several new discoveries of oil production in the Leo sandstone, an economic unit in the Pennsylvanian middle member of the Minnelusa formation, eastern Powder River basin, Wyoming-Nebraska-South Dakota, have renewed exploration interest in this area. Vertical seismic profiles (VSP) and model studies suggested that a measurable seismic amplitude anomaly is frequently associated with the thick First Leo sandstone lenses. To test this concept, a surface reflection seismic profile was run between two wells about 12 miles apart. The First Leo was present and productive in one well and thin and barren in the other. The surface profile shows the predicted amplitude anomaly at the well where a thick lens is known to exist. Two other First Leo amplitude anomalies also appear on the surface seismic profile between the two wells, which may indicate the presence of additional lenses.-Authors

  18. Benefits of Active Debris Removal on the LEO Debris Population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniwa, Kazuaki; Hanada, Toshiya; Kawamoto, Satomi

    Since the launch of Sputnik, orbital debris population continues to increase due to ongoing space activities, on-orbit explosions, and accidental collisions. In the future, a great deal of fragments can be expected to be created by explosions and collisions. In spite of prevention of satellite and rocket upper stage explosions and other mitigation measures, debris population in low Earth orbit may not be stabilized. To better limit the growth of the future debris population, it is necessary to remove the existing debris actively. This paper studies about the effectiveness of active debris removal in low Earth orbit where the collision rate with and between space debris is high. This study does not consider economic problems, but investigates removing debris which may stabilize well the current debris population based on the concept of Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency.

  19. Surveillance of medium and high Earth orbits using large baseline stereovision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danescu, Radu; Ciurte, Anca; Oniga, Florin; Cristea, Octavian; Dolea, Paul; Dascal, Vlad; Turcu, Vlad; Mircea, Liviu; Moldovan, Dan

    2014-11-01

    The Earth is surrounded by a swarm of satellites and associated debris known as Resident Space Objects (RSOs). All RSOs will orbit the Earth until they reentry into Earth's atmosphere. There are three main RSO categories: Low Earth Orbit (LEO), when the satellite orbits at an altitude below 1 500 km; a Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) at an altitude of around 20 000 km, and a Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) (also sometimes called the Clarke orbit), for geostationary satellites, at an altitude of 36 000 km. The Geostationary Earth Orbits and the orbits of higher altitude are also known as High Earth Orbits (HEO). Crucial for keeping an eye on RSOs, the Surveillance of Space (SofS) comprises detection, tracking, propagation of orbital parameters, cataloguing and analysis of these objects. This paper presents a large baseline stereovision based approach for detection and ranging of RSO orbiting at medium to high altitudes. Two identical observation systems, consisting of camera, telescope, control computer and GPS receiver are located 37 km apart, and set to observe the same region of the sky. The telescopes are placed on equatorial mounts able to compensate for the Earth's rotation, so that the stars appear stationary in the acquired images, and the satellites will appear as linear streaks. The two cameras are triggered simultaneously. The satellite streaks are detected in each image of the stereo pair using its streak-like appearance against point-like stars, the motion of the streaks between successive frames, and the stereo disparity. The detected satellite pixels are then put into correspondence using the epipolar geometry, and the 3D position of the satellite in the Earth Center, Earth Fixed (ECEF) reference frame is computed using stereo triangulation. Preliminary tests have been performed, for both MEO and HEO orbits. The preliminary results indicate a very high detection rate for MEO orbits, and good detection rate for

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is…

  1. Five Equivalent d Orbitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauling, Linus; McClure, Vance

    1970-01-01

    Amplifies and clarifies a previous paper on pyramidal d orbitals. Discusses two sets of pyramid d orbitals with respect to their maximum bond strength and their symmetry. Authors described the oblate and prolate pentagonal antiprisms arising from the two sets of five equivalent d orbitals. (RR)

  2. Construction of a Matched Global Cloud and Radiance Product from LEO/GEO and EPIC Observations to Estimate Daytime Earth Radiation Budget from DSCOVR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duda, David P.; Khlopenkov, Konstantin V.; Thiemann, Mandana; Palikonda, Rabindra; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick; Su, Wenying

    2016-01-01

    With the launch of the Deep Space Climate Observatory (DSCOVR), new estimates of the daytime Earth radiation budget can be computed from a combination of measurements from the two Earth-observing sensors onboard the spacecraft, the Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera (EPIC) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology Advanced Radiometer (NISTAR). Although these instruments can provide accurate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiance measurements, they lack sufficient resolution to provide details on small-scale surface and cloud properties. Previous studies have shown that these properties have a strong influence on the anisotropy of the radiation at the TOA, and ignoring such effects can result in large TOA-flux errors. To overcome these effects, high-resolution scene identification is needed for accurate Earth radiation budget estimation. Selected radiance and cloud property data measured and derived from several low earth orbit (LEO, including NASA Terra and Aqua MODIS, NOAA AVHRR) and geosynchronous (GEO, including GOES (east and west), METEOSAT, INSAT-3D, MTSAT-2, and HIMAWARI-8) satellite imagers were collected to create hourly 5-km resolution global composites of data necessary to compute angular distribution models (ADM) for reflected shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) radiation. The satellite data provide an independent source of radiance measurements and scene identification information necessary to construct ADMs that are used to determine the daytime Earth radiation budget. To optimize spatial matching between EPIC measurements and the high-resolution composite cloud properties, LEO/GEO retrievals within the EPIC fields of view (FOV) are convolved to the EPIC point spread function (PSF) in a similar manner to the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Single Scanner Footprint TOA/Surface Fluxes and Clouds (SSF) product. Examples of the merged LEO/GEO/EPIC product will be presented, describing the chosen radiance and cloud properties and

  3. A DEEPER LOOK AT LEO IV: STAR FORMATION HISTORY AND EXTENDED STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Sand, David J.; Seth, Anil; Olszewski, Edward W.; Zaritsky, Dennis; Willman, Beth; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2010-07-20

    We present MMT/Megacam imaging of the Leo IV dwarf galaxy in order to investigate its structure and star formation history, and to search for signs of association with the recently discovered Leo V satellite. Based on parameterized fits, we find that Leo IV is round, with {epsilon} < 0.23 (at the 68% confidence limit) and a half-light radius of r{sub h} {approx_equal} 130 pc. Additionally, we perform a thorough search for extended structures in the plane of the sky and along the line of sight. We derive our surface brightness detection limit by implanting fake structures into our catalog with stellar populations identical to that of Leo IV. We show that we are sensitive to stream-like structures with surface brightness {mu}{sub r} {approx}< 29.6 mag arcsec{sup -2}, and at this limit we find no stellar bridge between Leo IV (out to a radius of {approx}0.5 kpc) and the recently discovered, nearby satellite Leo V. Using the color-magnitude fitting package StarFISH, we determine that Leo IV is consistent with a single age ({approx}14 Gyr), single metallicity ([Fe/H] {approx} -2.3) stellar population, although we cannot rule out a significant spread in these values. We derive a luminosity of M{sub V} = -5.5 {+-} 0.3. Studying both the spatial distribution and frequency of Leo IV's 'blue plume' stars reveals evidence for a young ({approx}2 Gyr) stellar population which makes up {approx}2% of its stellar mass. This sprinkling of star formation, only detectable in this deep study, highlights the need for further imaging of the new Milky Way satellites along with theoretical work on the expected, detailed properties of these possible 'reionization fossils'.

  4. A Deeper Look at Leo IV: Star Formation History and Extended Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sand, David J.; Seth, Anil; Olszewski, Edward W.; Willman, Beth; Zaritsky, Dennis; Kallivayalil, Nitya

    2010-07-01

    We present MMT/Megacam imaging of the Leo IV dwarf galaxy in order to investigate its structure and star formation history, and to search for signs of association with the recently discovered Leo V satellite. Based on parameterized fits, we find that Leo IV is round, with epsilon < 0.23 (at the 68% confidence limit) and a half-light radius of rh ~= 130 pc. Additionally, we perform a thorough search for extended structures in the plane of the sky and along the line of sight. We derive our surface brightness detection limit by implanting fake structures into our catalog with stellar populations identical to that of Leo IV. We show that we are sensitive to stream-like structures with surface brightness μ r <~ 29.6 mag arcsec-2, and at this limit we find no stellar bridge between Leo IV (out to a radius of ~0.5 kpc) and the recently discovered, nearby satellite Leo V. Using the color-magnitude fitting package StarFISH, we determine that Leo IV is consistent with a single age (~14 Gyr), single metallicity ([Fe/H] ~ -2.3) stellar population, although we cannot rule out a significant spread in these values. We derive a luminosity of MV = -5.5 ± 0.3. Studying both the spatial distribution and frequency of Leo IV's "blue plume" stars reveals evidence for a young (~2 Gyr) stellar population which makes up ~2% of its stellar mass. This sprinkling of star formation, only detectable in this deep study, highlights the need for further imaging of the new Milky Way satellites along with theoretical work on the expected, detailed properties of these possible "reionization fossils." Observations reported here were obtained at the MMT observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona.

  5. Project Freebird: An orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aneses, Carlos A.; Blanchette, Ryan L.; Brann, David M.; Campos, Mario J.; Cohen, Lisa E.; Corcoran, Daniel J., III; Cox, James F.; Curtis, Trevor J.; Douglass, Deborah A.; Downard, Catherine L.

    1994-01-01

    Freebird is a space-based orbital transfer vehicle designed to repair and deorbit orbital assets. Freebird is based at International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) at an inclination of 51.6 deg and is capable of three types of missions: crewed and teleoperated LEO missions, and extended robotic missions. In a crewed local configuration, the vehicle can visit inclinations between 30.8 deg and 72.4 deg at altitudes close to 390 km. Adding extra fuel tanks extends this range of inclination up to 84.9 deg and down to 18.3 deg. Furthermore, removing the crew module, using the vehicle in a teleoperated manner, and operating with extra fuel tanks allows missions to polar and geosynchronous orbits. To allow for mission flexibility, the vehicle was designed in a semimodular configuration. The major system components include a crew module, a 'smart box' (which contains command, communications, guidance, and navigation equipment), a propulsion pack, extra fuel tanks, and a vehicle storage facility (VSF) for storage purposes. To minimize risk as well as development time and cost, the vehicle was designed using only proven technology or technology which is expected to be flight-qualified in time for the intended launch date of 2002. And, because Freebird carries crew and operates near the space station, it must meet or exceed the NASA reliability standard of 0.994, as well as other standard requirements for such vehicles. The Freebird program was conceived and designed as a way to provide important and currently unavailable satellite repair and replacement services of a value equal to or exceeding operational costs.

  6. LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Phyllis S Y; Zhou, Jianbiao; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Qian, Jingru; Guo, Tiannan; Sze, Siu Kwan; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee Joo

    2014-06-01

    PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

  7. Depositional environments of middle Minnelusa Leo (Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian), Wyoming, South Dakota, and Nebraska

    SciTech Connect

    Tromp, P.L.

    1983-08-01

    The informal middle member of the Minnelusa Formation, commonly known as Leo, consists of a spectrum of sediments including sandstone, dolomite, anhydrite, bedded chert, limestone, and radioactive carbonaceous shale. Deposition within the upper Paleozoic alliance basin of the present day tri-state area of South Dakota, Wyoming, and Nebraska occurred in sabkha, tidal flat, and shallow subtidal environments. Major and minor cycles of eustatic sea level changes are manifest by the Leo section. Early Desmoinesian (lowermost Leo) sediments are open marine, upper subtidal limestone interbedded with restricted marine upper subtidal dolomite, anhydrite, and radioactive organic-rich dolomite. During the upper Desmoinesian and lower Missourian, most of the Alliance basin was a restricted carbonate tidal flat. Throughout the remainder of the Pennsylvanian, the prevalent environment was a restricted coastal to inland sabkha with episodic inundations intercalating intertidal dolomite and lagoonal black shale with the sabkha sediments. Prolonged periods of exposure allowed migration of eolian bypass with only isolated patches of dunes being trapped by rare topographic relief. Criteria suggesting windblown deposition of the majority of Leo sandstone include deflationary lag surfaces, low-amplitude ripples, subcritically climbing translatent cross-stratification, and sand-flow toes. Isolated eolian sandstones provide excellent stratigraphic traps for hydrocarbons generated in the organic-rich shales. The current flurry of Leo drilling that began in 1978, has affirmed the inherent potential of this play. Definition of paleodepositional trends and seismic recognition of isolated dunes are the keys to Leo exploration success.

  8. Orbit Software Suite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osgood, Cathy; Williams, Kevin; Gentry, Philip; Brownfield, Dana; Hallstrom, John; Stuit, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Orbit Software Suite is used to support a variety of NASA/DM (Dependable Multiprocessor) mission planning and analysis activities on the IPS (Intrusion Prevention System) platform. The suite of Orbit software tools (Orbit Design and Orbit Dynamics) resides on IPS/Linux workstations, and is used to perform mission design and analysis tasks corresponding to trajectory/ launch window, rendezvous, and proximity operations flight segments. A list of tools in Orbit Software Suite represents tool versions established during/after the Equipment Rehost-3 Project.

  9. Thermal Optimization of an On-Orbit Long Duration Cryogenic Propellant Depot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Honour, Ryan; Kwas, Robert; O'Neil, Gary; Kutter, Gary

    2012-01-01

    A Cryogenic Propellant Depot (CPD) operating in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) could provide many near term benefits to NASA's space exploration efforts. These benefits include elongation/extension of spacecraft missions and requirement reduction of launch vehicle up-mass. Some of the challenges include controlling cryogenic propellant evaporation and managing the high costs and long schedules associated with the new development of spacecraft hardware. This paper describes a conceptual CPD design that is thermally optimized to achieve extremely low propellant boil-off rates. The CPD design is based on existing launch vehicle architecture, and its thermal optimization is achieved using current passive thermal control technology. Results from an integrated thermal model are presented showing that this conceptual CPD design can achieve propellant boil-off rates well under 0.05% per day, even when subjected to the LEO thermal environment.

  10. Impact-generated atmospheric plumes: The threat to satellites in low-earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Boslough, M.B.; Crawford, D.A.

    1996-02-01

    Computational simulations of the impacts of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) fragments on Jupiter provide a framework for interpreting the observations. A reasonably consistent picture has emerged, along with a more detailed understanding of atmospheric collisional processes. The knowledge gained from the observations and simulations of SL9 has led us to consider the threat of impact-generated plumes to satellites in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Preliminary simulations suggest that impacts of a size that recur about once per century on Earth generate plumes that rise to nearly 1000 km over an area thousands of km in diameter. Detailed modeling of such plumes is needed to quantify this threat to satellites in LEO. Careful observations of high-energy atmospheric entry events using both satellite and ground- based instruments would provide validation for these computational models.

  11. The radiation environment in a low earth orbit:the case of BeppoSAX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campana, Riccardo; Orlandini, Mauro; Del Monte, Ettore; Feroci, Marco; Frontera, Filippo

    2014-11-01

    Low-inclination, low altitude Earth orbits (LEO) are of increasing importance for astrophysical satellites, due to their low background environment. Here, the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is the region with the highest amount of radiation. We study the radiation environment in a LEO (500-600 km altitude, 4∘ inclination) through the particle background measured by the Particle Monitor (PM) experiment onboard the BeppoSAX satellite, between 1996 and 2002. Using time series of particle count rates measured by PM we construct intensity maps and derive SAA passage times and fluences. The low-latitude SAA regions are found to have an intensity strongly decreasing with altitude and dependent on the magnetic rigidity. The SAA extent, westward drift and strength vs altitude is shown.

  12. An evaluation of radiation damage to solid state components flown in low earth orbit satellites.

    PubMed

    Shin, Myung-Won; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2004-01-01

    The effects of total ionising radiation dose upon commercial off-the-shelf semiconductors fitted to satellites operating in low Earth orbit (LEO) conditions was evaluated. The evaluation was performed for the Korea Institute of Technology SATellite-1, (KITSAT-1) which was equipped with commercial solid state components. Two approximate calculation models for space radiation shielding were developed. Verification was performed by comparing the results with detailed three-dimensional calculations using the Monte-Carlo method and measured data from KITSAT-1. It was confirmed that the developed approximate models were reliable for satellite shielding calculations. It was also found that commercial semiconductor devices, which were not radiation hardened, could be damaged within their lifetime due to the total ionising dose they are subject to in the LEO environment. To conclude, an intensive shielding analysis should be considered when commercial devices are used.

  13. Evaluation of a Drag-Free Control Concept for Missions in Low Earth Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleck, Melissa E.; Starin, Scott R.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric drag causes the greatest uncertainty in the equations of motion for spacecraft in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). If atmospheric drag eflects can be continuously and autonomously counteracted through the use of a drag-fee control system, drag may essentially be eliminated from the equations of motion for the spacecraft. The main perturbations on the spacecraft will then be those due to the gravitational field, which are much more easily predicted Through dynamical analysis and numerical simulation, this paper presents some potential costs and benefits associated with the fuel used during continuous drag compensation. In light of this cost-benefit analysis, simulation results are used to validate the concept of drag-free control for LEO spacecraft missions having certain characteristics.

  14. Painless orbital myositis.

    PubMed

    Chakor, Rahul T; Santhosh, N S

    2012-07-01

    Idiopathic orbital inflammation is the third most common orbital disease, following Graves orbitopathy and lymphoproliferative diseases. We present a 11 year old girl with 15 days history of painless diplopia. There was no history of fluctuation of symptoms, drooping of eye lids or diminished vision. She had near total restricted extra-ocular movements and mild proptosis of the right eye. There was no conjunctival injection, chemosis, or bulb pain. There was no eyelid retraction or lid lag. Rest of the neurological examination was unremarkable.Erythrocyte sedimentation rate was raised with eosinophilia. Antinuclear antibodies were positive. Liver, renal and thyroid functions were normal. Antithyroid, double stranded deoxyribonucleic acid and acetylcholine receptor antibodies were negative. Repetitive nerve stimulation was negative. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the orbit was typical of orbital myositis. The patient responded to oral steroids. Orbital myositis can present as painless diplopia. MRI of orbit is diagnostic in orbital myositis.

  15. The Many Worlds of Leo Szilard: Physicist, Peacemaker, Provocateur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanouette, William

    2014-03-01

    Best known for being the first to conceive and patent the nuclear chain reaction in the 1930s, Leo Szilard should also be remembered for other insights in both physics and biology, and for historical initiatives to control the A-bomb he helped create. In physics, Szilard applied entropy to data in a seminal 1929 paper that laid the basis for ``information theory.'' Szilard co-designed an electromagnetic refrigerator pump with Einstein in the 1920s, in 1939 he co-designed the first nuclear reactor with Enrico Fermi, and he later thought up and named the nuclear ``breeder'' reactor. Biologist Francois Jacob called Szilard an ``intellectual bumblebee'' for the many novel ideas he shared, including one that earned Jacob and others the Nobel Prize. James D. Watson said that for intellectual stimulation he liked being around Szilard because ``Leo got excited about something before it was true.'' A political activist, Szilard proposed and drafted the 1939 letter Einstein sent to President Franklin Roosevelt that warned of German A-bomb work and led to the Manhattan Project - where Szilard was ``Chief Physicist.'' Yet Szilard then worked tirelessly to curb nuclear weapons, organizing a scientists' petition to President Truman and lobbying Congress for civilian control of the atom. Szilard loved dreaming up new institutions. He helped to create the Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs, and founded the Council for a Livable World - the first political action committee for arms control. In biology, Szilard proposed the European Molecular Biology Organization modeled on CERN, and helped create the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, where he was one of the first fellows. Shy, witty, and eccentric, Szilard wrote a political satire in 1960 that predicted when the US-Soviet nuclear arms race would end in the late 1980s. Another satire, ``My Trial as a War Criminal'' about scientists' responsibilities for weapons of mass destruction, is credited with prompting

  16. Solar Sail Optimal Orbit Transfers to Synchronous Orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, Robert B.; Coverstone, Victoria; Prussing, John E.; Lunney, Bryan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    A constant outward radial thrust acceleration can be used to reduce the radius of a circular orbit of specified period. Heliocentric circular orbits are designed to match the orbital period of Earth or Mars for various radial thrust accelerations and are defined as synchronous orbits. Minimum-time solar sail orbit transfers to these synchronous heliocentric orbits are presented.

  17. Low-Cost Propellant Launch to Earth Orbit from a Tethered Balloon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Propellant will be more than 85% of the mass that needs to be lofted into Low Earth Orbit (LEO) in the planned program of Exploration of the Moon, Mars, and beyond. This paper describes a possible means for launching thousands of tons of propellant per year into LEO at a cost 15 to 30 times less than the current launch cost per kilogram. The basic idea is to mass-produce very simple, small and relatively low-performance rockets at a cost per kilogram comparable to automobiles, instead of the 25X greater cost that is customary for current launch vehicles that are produced in small quantities and which are manufactured with performance near the limits of what is possible. These small, simple rockets can reach orbit because they are launched above 95% of the atmosphere, where the drag losses even on a small rocket are acceptable, and because they can be launched nearly horizontally with very simple guidance based primarily on spin-stabilization. Launching above most of the atmosphere is accomplished by winching the rocket up a tether to a balloon. A fuel depot in equatorial orbit passes over the launch site on every orbit (approximately every 90 minutes). One or more rockets can be launched each time the fuel depot passes overhead, so the launch rate can be any multiple of 6000 small rockets per year, a number that is sufficient to reap the benefits of mass production.

  18. A laser-optical system to re-enter or lower low Earth orbit space debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phipps, Claude R.

    2014-01-01

    Collisions among existing Low Earth Orbit (LEO) debris are now a main source of new debris, threatening future use of LEO space. Due to their greater number, small (1-10 cm) debris are the main threat, while large (>10 cm) objects are the main source of new debris. Flying up and interacting with each large object is inefficient due to the energy cost of orbit plane changes, and quite expensive per object removed. Strategically, it is imperative to remove both small and large debris. Laser-Orbital-Debris-Removal (LODR), is the only solution that can address both large and small debris. In this paper, we briefly review ground-based LODR, and discuss how a polar location can dramatically increase its effectiveness for the important class of sun-synchronous orbit (SSO) objects. With 20% clear weather, a laser-optical system at either pole could lower the 8-ton ENVISAT by 40 km in about 8 weeks, reducing the hazard it represents by a factor of four. We also discuss the advantages and disadvantages of a space-based LODR system. We estimate cost per object removed for these systems. International cooperation is essential for designing, building and operating any such system.

  19. Mitigating Aviation Communication and Satellite Orbit Operations Surprises from Adverse Space Weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobiska, W. Kent

    2008-01-01

    Adverse space weather affects operational activities in aviation and satellite systems. For example, large solar flares create highly variable enhanced neutral atmosphere and ionosphere electron density regions. These regions impact aviation communication frequencies as well as precision orbit determination. The natural space environment, with its dynamic space weather variability, is additionally changed by human activity. The increase in orbital debris in low Earth orbit (LEO), combined with lower atmosphere CO2 that rises into the lower thermosphere and causes increased cooling that results in increased debris lifetime, adds to the environmental hazards of navigating in near-Earth space. This is at a time when commercial space endeavors are posed to begin more missions to LEO during the rise of the solar activity cycle toward the next maximum (2012). For satellite and aviation operators, adverse space weather results in greater expenses for orbit management, more communication outages or aviation and ground-based high frequency radio used, and an inability to effectively plan missions or service customers with space-based communication, imagery, and data transferal during time-critical activities. Examples of some revenue-impacting conditions and solutions for mitigating adverse space weather are offered.

  20. H-- Filtering Algorithms Case Study GPS-Based Satellite Orbit Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuang, Jinlu; Tan, Soonhie

    In this paper the new Hfiltering algorithms for the design of navigation systems for autonomous LEO satellite is introduced. The nominal orbit (i.e., position and velocity) is computed by integrating the classical orbital differential equations of the LEO satellite by using the 7th-8th order Runge- Kutta algorithms. The perturbations due to the atmospheric drag force, the lunar-solar attraction and the solar radiation pressure are included together with the Earth gravity model (EGM-96). The spherical harmonic coefficients of the EGM-96 are considered up to 72 for the order and degree. By way of the MATLAB GPSoft software, the simulated pseudo ranges between the user LEO satellite and the visible GPS satellites are generated when given the appropriate angle of mask. The effects of the thermal noises, tropospheric refraction, ionospheric refraction, and multipath of the antenna are also compensated numerically in the simulated pseudo ranges. The dynamic Position-Velocity (PV) model is obtained by modeling the velocity as nearly constant being the white noise process. To further accommodate acceleration in the process model, the Position-Velocity-Acceleration (PVA) model is investigated by assuming the acceleration to be the Gaussian- Markov process. The state vector for the PV model becomes 8-dimensional (3-states for positions, 3-states for velocities, 1-state for range (clock) bias error, 1-state for range (clock) drift error). The state vector for the PV model becomes 11-dimensional with the addition of three more acceleration states. Three filtering approaches are used to smooth the orbit solution based upon the GPS pseudo range observables. The numerical simulation shows that the observed orbit root-mean-square errors of 60 meters by using the least squares adjustment method are improved to be less than 5 meters within 16 hours of tracking time by using the Hfiltering algorithms. The results are compared with the ones obtained by using the Extended Kalman

  1. Experimental Tests of UltraFlex Array Designs in Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Charging Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galofaro, Joel T.; Vayner, Boris V.; Hillard, Grover B.

    2011-01-01

    The present ground based investigations give the first definitive look describing the expected on-orbit charging behavior of Orion UltraFlex array coupons in the Low Earth Orbital and Geosynchronous Environments. Furthermore, it is important to note that the LEO charging environment also applies to the International Space Station as well as to the lunar mission charging environments. The GEO charging environment includes the bounding case for all lunar orbital and lunar surface mission environments. The UltraFlex thin film photovoltaic array technology has been targeted to become the sole power system for life support and on-orbit power for the manned Aires Crew Exploration Vehicle. It is therefore, crucial to gain an understanding of the complex charging behavior to answer some of the basic performance and survivability issues in an attempt to ascertain that a single UltraFlex array design will be able to cope with the projected worst case LEO and GEO charging environments. Testing was limited to four array coupons, two coupons each from two different array manufactures, Emcore and Spectrolab. The layout of each array design is identical and varies only in the actual cell technology used. The individual array cells from each manufacturer have an antireflection layered coating and come in two different varieties either uncoated (only AR coating) or coated with a thin conducting ITO layer. The LEO Plasma tests revealed that all four coupons passed the arc threshold -120 V bias tests. GEO electron gun charging tests revealed that only front side area of ITO coated coupons passed tests. Only the Emcore AR array passed backside Stage 2 GEO Tests.

  2. SEL2 servicing: increased science return via on-orbit propellant replenishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; DeWeese, Keith; Kienlen, Michael; Aranyos, Thomas; Pellegrino, Joseph; Bacon, Charles; Qureshi, Atif

    2016-07-01

    Spacecraft designers are driving observatories to the distant Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2 (SEL2) to meet ever-increasing science requirements. The mass fraction dedicated to propellant for these observatories to reach and operate at SEL2 will be allocated with the upmost care, as it comes at the expense of optics and instrument masses. As such, these observatories could benefit from on-orbit refueling, allowing greater dry-to-wet mass ratio at launch and/or longer mission life. NASA is developing technologies, capabilities and integrated mission designs for multiple servicing applications in low Earth orbit (LEO), geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) and cisluner locations. Restore-L, a mission officially in formulation, will launch a free-flying robotic servicer to refuel a government-owned satellite in LEO by mid 2020. This paper will detail the results of a point design mission study to extend Restore-L servicing technologies from LEO to SEL2. This SEL2 mission would launch an autonomous, robotic servicer spacecraft equipped to extend the life of two space assets through refueling. Two space platforms were chosen to 1) drive the requirements for achieving SEL2 orbit and rendezvous with a spacecraft, and 2) to drive the requirements to translate within SEL2 to conduct a follow-on servicing mission. Two fuels, xenon and hydrazine, were selected to assess a multiple delivery system. This paper will address key mission drivers, such as servicer autonomy (necessitated due to communications latency at L2). Also discussed will be the value of adding cooperative servicing elements to the client observatories to reduce mission risk.

  3. Detection and laser ranging of orbital objects using optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, P.; Hampf, D.; Sproll, F.; Hasenohr, T.; Humbert, L.; Rodmann, J.; Riede, W.

    2016-09-01

    Laser ranging to satellites (SLR) in earth orbit is an established technology used for geodesy, fundamental science and precise orbit determination. A combined active and passive optical measurement system using a single telescope mount is presented which performs precise ranging measurements of retro reflector equipped objects in low earth orbit (LEO). The German Aerospace Center (DLR) runs an observatory in Stuttgart where a system has been assembled completely from commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components. The visible light directed to the tracking camera is used to perform angular measurements of objects under investigation. This is done astrometrically by comparing the apparent target position with cataloged star positions. First successful satellite laser ranging was demonstrated recently using an optical fiber directing laser pulses onto the astronomical mount. The transmitter operates at a wavelength of 1064 nm with a repetition rate of 3 kHz and pulse energy of 25 μJ. A motorized tip/tilt mount allows beam steering of the collimated beam with μrad accuracy. The returning photons reflected from the object in space are captured with the tracking telescope. A special low aberration beam splitter unit was designed to separate the infrared from visible light. This allows passive optical closed loop tracking and operation of a single photon detector for time of flight measurements at a single telescope simultaneously. The presented innovative design yields to a compact and cost effective but very precise ranging system which allows orbit determination.

  4. ROGER a potential orbital space debris removal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starke, Juergen; Bischof, Bernd; Foth, W.-O.; -J., J.; Günther

    target and stabilization and transportation features for the combined configuration. The capture system is a deployable and closable net. The net is ejected from the mother spacecraft at a safe distance to prevent any collision with the target. After transport to the disposal orbit the net will be cut and the spacecraft will return to the operational orbit of the next target. An initial down-scaled demonstration is planned for the net capture system on a parabolic flight in autumn 2010. Further representative demonstrations including, for example, one in LEO are under discussion. The capture system can be used operationally also in other orbits e.g. LEO, but the propellant requirements for transport of the target into a direct controlled re-entry orbit and the subsequent return of the mother spacecraft to a new target orbit will be very high. This could impact the multi mission capability of the system. The potential applications are under discussion with different customers including satellite operators, insurance companies and international organisations. juergen.starke@astrium.eads.net Tel.: +49-421-539-4573

  5. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells. An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  6. Effect of KOH concentration on LEO cycle life of IPV nickel-hydrogen flight cells - An update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smithrick, John J.; Hall, Stephen W.

    1991-01-01

    An update of validation test results confirming the breakthrough in LEO cycle life of nickel-hydrogen cells containing 26 percent potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte is presented. A breakthrough in the LEO cycle life of individual pressure vessel nickel-hydrogen cells is reported. The cycle life of boiler plate cells containing 26 percent KOH electrolyte was about 40,000 LEO cycles compared to 3500 cycles for cells containing 31 percent KOH.

  7. A SEARCH FOR DUST EMISSION IN THE LEO INTERGALACTIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect

    Bot, Caroline; Helou, George; Puget, Jeremie; Latter, William B.; Schneider, Stephen; Terzian, Yervant

    2009-08-15

    We present a search for infrared dust emission associated with the Leo cloud, a large intergalactic cloud in the M96 group. Mid-infrared and far-infrared images were obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer on the Spitzer Space Telescope. Our analysis of these maps is done at each wavelength relative to the H I spatial distribution. We observe a probable detection at 8 {mu}m and a marginal detection at 24 {mu}m associated with the highest H I column densities in the cloud. At 70 and 160 {mu}m, upper limits on the dust emission are deduced. The level of the detection is low so that the possibility of a fortuitous cirrus clump or of an overdensity of extragalactic sources along the line of sight cannot be excluded. If this detection is confirmed, the quantities of dust inferred imply a dust-to-gas ratio in the intergalactic cloud up to a few times solar but no less than 1/20 solar. A confirmed detection would therefore exclude the possibility that the intergalactic cloud has a primordial origin. Instead, this large intergalactic cloud could therefore have been formed through interactions between galaxies in the group.

  8. Arcing in LEO - Does the Whole Array Discharge?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional wisdom about solar array arcing in LEO is that only the parts the solar array that are swept over by the arc-generated plasma front are discharged in the initial arc. This limits the amount of energy that can be discharged. Recent work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that this idea is mistaken. In fact, the capacitance of the entire solar array may be discharged, which for large arrays leads to very large and possibly debilitating arcs, even if no sustained arc occurs. We present the laboratory work that conclusively demonstrates this fact by using a grounded plate that prevents the arc-plasma front from reaching certain array strings. Finally, we discuss the dependence of arc strength and arc pulse width on the capacitance that is discharged, and provide a physical mechanism for discharge of the entire array, even when parts of the array are not accessible to the arc-plasma front. Mitigation techniques are also presented.

  9. A Metapopulation Approach to African Lion (Panthera leo) Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Stenglein, Jennifer; Hazzah, Leela; Lutz, R. Scott; Frank, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic pressures, African lion (Panthera leo) populations in Kenya and Tanzania are increasingly limited to fragmented populations. Lions living on isolated habitat patches exist in a matrix of less-preferred habitat. A framework of habitat patches within a less-suitable matrix describes a metapopulation. Metapopulation analysis can provide insight into the dynamics of each population patch in reference to the system as a whole, and these analyses often guide conservation planning. We present the first metapopulation analysis of African lions. We use a spatially-realistic model to investigate how sex-biased dispersal abilities of lions affect patch occupancy and also examine whether human densities surrounding the remaining lion populations affect the metapopulation as a whole. Our results indicate that male lion dispersal ability strongly contributes to population connectivity while the lesser dispersal ability of females could be a limiting factor. When populations go extinct, recolonization will not occur if distances between patches exceed female dispersal ability or if females are not able to survive moving across the matrix. This has profound implications for the overall metapopulation; the female models showed an intrinsic extinction rate from five-fold to a hundred-fold higher than the male models. Patch isolation is a consideration for even the largest lion populations. As lion populations continue to decline and with local extinctions occurring, female dispersal ability and the proximity to the nearest lion population are serious considerations for the recolonization of individual populations and for broader conservation efforts. PMID:24505385

  10. Arcing in LEO: Does the Whole Array Discharge?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Dale C.; Vayner, Boris V.; Galofaro, Joel T.; Hillard, G. Barry

    2005-01-01

    The conventional wisdom about solar array arcing in LEO is that only the parts of the solar array that are swept over by the arc-generated plasma front are discharged in the initial arc. This limits the amount of energy that can be discharged. Recent work done at the NASA Glenn Research Center has shown that this idea is mistaken. In fact, the capacitance of the entire solar array may be discharged, which for large arrays leads to very large and possibly debilitating arcs, even if no sustained arc occurs. We present the laboratory work that conclusively demonstrates this fact by using a grounded plate that prevents the arc-plasma front from reaching certain array strings. Finally, we discuss the dependence of arc strength and arc pulse width on the capacitance that is discharged, and provide a physical mechanism for discharge of the entire array, even when parts of the array are not accessible to the arc-plasma front. Mitigation techniques are also presented.

  11. A metapopulation approach to African lion (Panthera leo) conservation.

    PubMed

    Dolrenry, Stephanie; Stenglein, Jennifer; Hazzah, Leela; Lutz, R Scott; Frank, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    Due to anthropogenic pressures, African lion (Panthera leo) populations in Kenya and Tanzania are increasingly limited to fragmented populations. Lions living on isolated habitat patches exist in a matrix of less-preferred habitat. A framework of habitat patches within a less-suitable matrix describes a metapopulation. Metapopulation analysis can provide insight into the dynamics of each population patch in reference to the system as a whole, and these analyses often guide conservation planning. We present the first metapopulation analysis of African lions. We use a spatially-realistic model to investigate how sex-biased dispersal abilities of lions affect patch occupancy and also examine whether human densities surrounding the remaining lion populations affect the metapopulation as a whole. Our results indicate that male lion dispersal ability strongly contributes to population connectivity while the lesser dispersal ability of females could be a limiting factor. When populations go extinct, recolonization will not occur if distances between patches exceed female dispersal ability or if females are not able to survive moving across the matrix. This has profound implications for the overall metapopulation; the female models showed an intrinsic extinction rate from five-fold to a hundred-fold higher than the male models. Patch isolation is a consideration for even the largest lion populations. As lion populations continue to decline and with local extinctions occurring, female dispersal ability and the proximity to the nearest lion population are serious considerations for the recolonization of individual populations and for broader conservation efforts.

  12. Intermediary LEO propagation including higher order zonal harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hautesserres, Denis; Lara, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two new intermediary orbits of the artificial satellite problem are proposed. The analytical solutions include higher order effects of the geopotential, and are obtained by means of a torsion transformation applied to the quasi-Keplerian system resulting after the elimination of the parallax simplification, for the first intermediary, and after the elimination of the parallax and perigee simplifications, for the second one. The new intermediaries perform notably well for low Earth orbits propagation, are free from special functions, and result advantageous, both in accuracy and efficiency, when compared to the standard Cowell integration of the J_2 problem, thus providing appealing alternatives for onboard, short-term, orbit propagation under limited computational resources.

  13. Gamma guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.

    1990-01-01

    The optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high Earth orbit (HEO) to low Earth orbit (LEO) are examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that at most three impulses are employed: one at HEO exit, one at atmospheric exit, and one at LEO entry. It is also assumed that, during the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. First, optimal trajectories are computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse (hence, the propellant consumption) required for AOT transfer. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is used for optimal control problems. The optimal trajectory is shown to include two branches: a relatively short descending flight branch (branch 1) and a long ascending flight branch (branch 2). Next, attention is focused on guidance trajectories capable of approximating the optimal trajectories in real time, while retaining the essential characteristics of simplicity, ease of implementation, and reliability. For the atmospheric pass, a feedback control scheme is employed and the lift coefficient is adjusted according to a two-stage gamma guidance law. Further improvements are possible via a modified gamma guidance which is more stable with respect to dispersion effects arising from navigation errors, variations of the atmospheric density, and uncertainties in the aerodynamic coefficients than gamma guidance trajectory. A byproduct of the studies on dispersion effects is the following design concept. For coplaner aeroassisted orbital transfer, the lift-range-to-weight ratio appears to play a more important role than the lift-to-drag ratio. This is because the lift-range-to-weight ratio controls mainly the minimum

  14. Gamma guidance of trajectories for coplanar, aeroassisted orbital transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miele, A.; Wang, T.

    The optimization and guidance of trajectories for coplaner, aeroassisted orbital transfer (AOT) from high Earth orbit (HEO) to low Earth orbit (LEO) are examined. In particular, HEO can be a geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO). It is assumed that the initial and final orbits are circular, that the gravitational field is central and is governed by the inverse square law, and that at most three impulses are employed: one at HEO exit, one at atmospheric exit, and one at LEO entry. It is also assumed that, during the atmospheric pass, the trajectory is controlled via the lift coefficient. The presence of upper and lower bounds on the lift coefficient is considered. First, optimal trajectories are computed by minimizing the total velocity impulse (hence, the propellant consumption) required for AOT transfer. The sequential gradient-restoration algorithm (SGRA) is used for optimal control problems. The optimal trajectory is shown to include two branches: a relatively short descending flight branch (branch 1) and a long ascending flight branch (branch 2). Next, attention is focused on guidance trajectories capable of approximating the optimal trajectories in real time, while retaining the essential characteristics of simplicity, ease of implementation, and reliability. For the atmospheric pass, a feedback control scheme is employed and the lift coefficient is adjusted according to a two-stage gamma guidance law. Further improvements are possible via a modified gamma guidance which is more stable with respect to dispersion effects arising from navigation errors, variations of the atmospheric density, and uncertainties in the aerodynamic coefficients than gamma guidance trajectory. A byproduct of the studies on dispersion effects is the following design concept. For coplaner aeroassisted orbital transfer, the lift-range-to-weight ratio appears to play a more important role than the lift-to-drag ratio. This is because the lift-range-to-weight ratio controls mainly the minimum

  15. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORY OF LEO T FROM HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Weisz, Daniel R.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Gilbert, Karoline M.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Zucker, Daniel B.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Martin, Nicolas F.; De Jong, Jelte T. A.; Holtzman, Jon A.; Bell, Eric F.; Belokurov, Vasily; Evans, N. Wyn

    2012-04-01

    We present the star formation history (SFH) of the faintest known star-forming galaxy, Leo T, based on deep imaging taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2). The HST/WFPC2 color-magnitude diagram (CMD) of Leo T is exquisitely deep, extending {approx}2 mag below the oldest main-sequence turnoff, permitting excellent constraints on star formation at all ages. We use a maximum likelihood CMD fitting technique to measure the SFH of Leo T assuming three different sets of stellar evolution models: Padova (solar-scaled metallicity) and BaSTI (both solar-scaled and {alpha}-enhanced metallicities). The resulting SFHs are remarkably consistent at all ages, indicating that our derived SFH is robust to the choice of stellar evolution model. From the lifetime SFH of Leo T, we find that 50% of the total stellar mass formed prior to z {approx} 1 (7.6 Gyr ago). Subsequent to this epoch, the SFH of Leo T is roughly constant until the most recent {approx}25 Myr, where the SFH shows an abrupt drop. This decrease could be due to a cessation of star formation or stellar initial mass function sampling effects, but we are unable to distinguish between the two scenarios. Overall, our measured SFH is consistent with previously derived SFHs of Leo T. However, the HST-based solution provides improved age resolution and reduced uncertainties at all epochs. The SFH, baryonic gas fraction, and location of Leo T are unlike any of the other recently discovered faint dwarf galaxies in the Local Group, and instead bear strong resemblance to gas-rich dwarf galaxies (irregular or transition), suggesting that gas-rich dwarf galaxies may share common modes of star formation over a large range of stellar mass ({approx}10{sup 5}-10{sup 9} M{sub Sun }).

  16. Orbit Determination of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, D. D.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Torrence, M. H.; Lemoine, F. G.; Zuber, M. T.

    2011-01-01

    We present the results on precision orbit determination from the radio science investigation of the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) spacecraft. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge several times better than the required 50-100m (in total position), over the period from 13 July 2009 to 31 January 2011. In addition to the near-continuous radiometric tracking data, we include altimetric data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) in the form of crossover measurements, and show that they strongly improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction (total position overlap differences decrease from approx.70m to approx.23 m). To refine the spacecraft trajectory further, we develop a lunar gravity field by combining the newly acquired LRO data with the historical data. The reprocessing of the spacecraft trajectory with that model shows significantly increased accuracy (approx.20m with only the radiometric data, and approx.14m with the addition of the altimetric crossovers). LOLA topographic maps and calibration data from the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Camera were used to supplement the results of the overlap analysis and demonstrate the trajectory accuracy.

  17. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems to define suitable de-orbit devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palla, Chiara; Peroni, Moreno; Kingston, Jennifer

    2016-11-01

    Space missions in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) are severely affected by the build-up of orbital debris. A key practice, to be compliant with IADC (Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee) mitigation guidelines, is the removal of space systems that interfere with the LEO region not later than 25 years after the End of Mission. It is important to note that the current guidelines are not generally legally binding, even if different Space Agencies are now looking at the compliance for their missions. If the guidelines will change in law, it will be mandatory to have a postmission disposal strategy for all satellites, including micro and smaller classes. A potential increased number of these satellites is confirmed by different projections, in particular in the commercial sector. Micro and smaller spacecraft are, in general, not provided with propulsion capabilities to achieve a controlled re-entry, so they need different de-orbit disposal methods. When considering the utility of different debris mitigation methods, it is useful to understand which spacecraft subsystems are most likely to fail and how this may affect the operation of a de-orbit system. This also helps the consideration of which components are the most relevant or should be redundant depending on the satellite mass class. This work is based on a sample of LEO and MEO satellites launched between January 2000 and December 2014 with mass lower than 1000 kg. Failure analysis of satellite subsystems is performed by means of the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis; the parametric fits are conducted with Weibull distributions. The study is carried out by using the satellite database SpaceTrak™ which provides anomalies, failures, and trends information for spacecraft subsystems and launch vehicles. The database identifies five states for each satellite subsystem: three degraded states, one fully operational state, and one failed state (complete failure). The results obtained can guide the identification of the

  18. Effects of the low Earth orbital environment on spacecraft materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J.

    1986-01-01

    It is evident from space flights during the last three years that the low Earth orbital (LEO) environment interacts with spacecraft surfaces in significant ways. One manifestation of these interactions is recession of, in particular, organic-polymer-based surfaces presumably due to oxidation by atomic oxygen, the major component of the LEO environment. Three experiments have been conducted on Space Shuttle flights 5, 8 and 41-G to measure reaction rates and the effects of various parameters on reaction rates. Surface recession on these flights indicates reaction efficiencies approximately 3 x 10(-24) cu cm/atoms for unfilled organic polymers. Of the metals, silver and osmium are very reactive. Effects on spacecraft or experiment surfaces can be evaluated using the derived reaction efficiencies and a definition of the total exposure to atomic oxygen. This exposure is obtained using an ambient density model, solar activity data and spacecraft parameters of altitude, attitude and operational date. Oxygen flux on a given surface is obtained from the ambient density and spacecraft velocity and can then be integrated to provide the total exposure or fluence. Such information can be generated using simple computational programs and can be converted to various formats. Overall, the extent of damage is strongly dependent on the type of surface and total exposure time.

  19. Orbital Debris: A Chronology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Portree, Davis S. F. (Editor); Loftus, Joseph P., Jr. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This chronology covers the 37-year history of orbital debris concerns. It tracks orbital debris hazard creation, research, observation, experimentation, management, mitigation, protection, and policy. Included are debris-producing, events; U.N. orbital debris treaties, Space Shuttle and space station orbital debris issues; ASAT tests; milestones in theory and modeling; uncontrolled reentries; detection system development; shielding development; geosynchronous debris issues, including reboost policies: returned surfaces studies, seminar papers reports, conferences, and studies; the increasing effect of space activities on astronomy; and growing international awareness of the near-Earth environment.

  20. Introducing Earth's Orbital Eccentricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oostra, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Most students know that planetary orbits, including Earth's, are elliptical; that is Kepler's first law, and it is found in many science textbooks. But quite a few are mistaken about the details, thinking that the orbit is very eccentric, or that this effect is somehow responsible for the seasons. In fact, the Earth's orbital eccentricity is small, and its only effect on the seasons is their unequal durations. Here I show a pleasant way to guide students to the actual value of Earth's orbital eccentricity, starting from the durations of the four seasons. The date of perihelion is also found.

  1. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Orbit

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the orbits of Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, a Solar-Terrestrial Probe mission comprising of four identically instrumented spacecraft that will study the Earth's magn...

  2. Family of Orbiters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This image shows the paths of three spacecraft currently in orbit around Mars, as well as the path by which NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander will approach and land on the planet. The t-shaped crosses show where the orbiters will be when Phoenix enters the atmosphere, while the x-shaped crosses show their location at landing time.

    All three orbiters, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA's Mars Odyssey and the European Space Agency's Mars Express, will be monitoring Phoenix during the final steps of its journey to the Red Planet.

    Phoenix will land just south of Mars's north polar ice cap.

  3. A Review of the Recent NASA Long-Term Orbital Debris Environment Projection and Active Debris Removal Modeling Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The NASA Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) developed a high fidelity debris evolutionary model, LEGEND (a LEO-to-GEO Environment Debris model), in 2004 to enhance its capability to better model the near-Earth environment. LEGEND can mimic the growth of the historical debris population and project it into the future based on user-defined scenarios. The first major LEGEND study concluded that even without any future launches, the LEO population would continue to increase due to mutual collisions among existing objects. In reality, the increase will be worse than this prediction because of ongoing satellite launches and unexpected major breakups. Even with a full implementation of the commonly-adopted mitigation measures, the LEO population growth is inevitable. To preserve the near-Earth environment for future generations, active debris removal (ADR) must be considered. A follow-up LEGEND ADR study was completed recently. The main results indicate that (1) the mass and collision probability of each object can be used to establish an effective removal selection criterion and (2) a removal rate of 5 objects per year is sufficient to stabilize the LEO environment. Due to the limitation of removal techniques, however, different target selection criteria (in size, altitude, inclination, etc.) may be more practical. A careful evaluation of the effectiveness of different proposed techniques must be carried out to maximize the long-term benefit to the environment.

  4. Gossamer Technology to Deorbit LEO Non-Propulsion Fitted Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupuy, C.; LeCouls, O.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2004, CNES has decided to apply the end of life Code of Conduct rules to debris mitigation. Originally drawn up by the main European space agencies, it contains basic rules to be applied in space in order to limit the increase of orbital debris. In low Earth orbit, the rule is to limit in-orbit lifetime to 25 years after the end of the operational mission, or else to transfer to a graveyard orbit above 2000 km. In order to follow these instructions, a task force was set up in 2005 to find the best way to implement them on MICROSCOPE and CNES microsatellite family (MYRIADE). This 200-kg spacecraft should be launched in 2014 on a 790-km high circular orbit. Without targeted action, its natural re-entry would occur in 67 years. Two strategies to reduce this time period were compared: propulsive maneuvers at the end of the mission or the deployment of large surfaces to increase significantly the ballistic coefficient. At the end of the trade off, it was recommended: .. For the non-propulsive system fitted satellites, to use passive aerobraking by deployment of added surface, .. For satellites having propulsive subsystem in baseline for mission purposes, to keep sufficient propellant and implement specific maneuvers. The poster gives an overview of the process that led to the development of a deployable aerobraking wing using a lightweight aluminized Kapton membrane and an inflatable aluminum laminate boom. The main requirements; The trade off among various aerobraking solutions; The development plan. This technology presents a very attractive potential and it could be a first step in using of inflatable technology on spaces vehicles, before to deal with others more exigent applications.

  5. Simulation study for the determination of the lunar gravity field from PRARE-L tracking onboard the German LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechtner, Frank; Neumayer, Karl Hans; Kusche, Jürgen; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Sohl, Frank

    2008-10-01

    A simulation study has been performed at GFZ Potsdam, which shows the anticipated improvement of the lunar gravity field model with respect to current (LP150Q model) or near-future (SELENE) knowledge in the framework of the planned German Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO) mission, based on PRARE-L (Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment - Lunar version) Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) and Satellite-Earth-Satellite (SEST) tracking observations. It is shown that the global mean error of the lunar gravity field can be reduced to less than 0.1 mGal at a spatial resolution of 50 km. In the spectral domain, this means a factor of 10 (long wavelengths) and some 100 (mid to short wavelengths) improvement as compared to predictions for SELENE or a factor of 1000 with respect to LP150Q. Furthermore, a higher spatial resolution of up to 28 km seems feasible and would correspond to a factor of 2-3 improvement of SELENE results. Moreover, PRARE-L is expected to derive the low-degree coefficients of the lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy. Considering long mission duration (at least 1 year is planned) this would allow for the first time a precise direct determination of the low-degree tidal Love numbers of the Moon and, in combination with high precision SEST, would provide an experimental basis to study relativistic effects such as the periselenium advance in the Earth-Moon system.

  6. The Oxygen and Nitrogen Abundance of Leo A and GR 8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Zee, L.; Skillman, E. D.; Haynes, M. P.

    1999-05-01

    Gas phase abundances are one of the best measures of the intrinsic metallicity of low mass galaxies. We recently obtained low resolution long slit optical spectra of several HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 with the Palomar 5m telescope. Previous studies of the resolved stellar population of Leo A indicated that the stars have metallicities approximately 2% of solar (Tolstoy et al. 1998). Preliminary analysis of the HII region spectra, and that of a planetary nebula, indicates that the gas phase oxygen abundance of Leo A is approximately 3% of solar. This confirms the result of Skillman et al. (1989), who also derived an oxygen abundance for Leo A from a planetary nebula. Similarly, for GR 8 we find a mean oxygen abundance of 5% of solar. For all the HII regions, the derived log(N/O) is -1.5 +/- 0.1, as has been found for other low metallicity systems. These new observations of multiple HII regions in Leo A and GR 8 confirm that metals in low mass galaxies are well mixed.

  7. Leo P: A very low-mass, extremely metal-poor, star-forming galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McQuinn, Kristen B.; Leo P Team

    2017-01-01

    Leo P is a low-luminosity dwarf galaxy just outside the Local Group with properties that make it an ideal probe of galaxy evolution at the faint-end of the luminosity function. Using combined data from 2 Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observing campaigns, the Very Large Array, the Spitzer Space telescope, as well as ground based data, we have constructed a robust evolutionary picture of Leo P. Leo P is one the most metal-poor, gas-rich galaxies ever discovered, has a stellar mass of a 5x105 Msun, comparable gas mass, and a single HII region. The star formation history reconstructed from the resolved stellar populations in Leo P shows it is unquenched, despite its very low mass. Based on the star formation history and metallicity measurements, the galaxy has lost 95% of its oxygen produced via nucleosynthesis, presumably to outflows. The neutral gas in the galaxy shows signs of rotation, although the velocity dispersion is comparable to the rotation velocity. Thus, Leo P bridges the gap between more massive dwarf irregular and less massive dwarf spheroidals on the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Furthermore, the galaxy hosts several, extremely dusty AGB candidates which will be probed with new HST and Spitzer observations. If confirmed as AGB stars, these may be our best local proxies for studying chemically unevolved star formation and subsequent dust production in metallicity environments comparable to the early universe.

  8. Orbital granulocytic sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Stockl, F.; Dolmetsch, A.; Saornil, M; Font, R.; Burnier, M.

    1997-01-01

    AIM—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a localised tumour composed of cells of myeloid origin. Histological diagnosis can be difficult in patients with poorly differentiated orbital tumours and no evidence of systemic leukaemia. The naphthol AS-D chloracetate esterase (Leder stain) and immunohistochemical stains for lysozyme and MAC387 were used to determine the staining characteristics of these tumours. A case series of seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma is presented.
METHODS—Seven patients with orbital granulocytic sarcoma were studied. Haematoxylin and eosin, Leder, and lysozyme stained sections were available in seven cases. Unstained formalin fixed paraffin embedded sections of seven cases were available for immunohistochemical evaluation using the avidin-biotin-complex technique for MAC387.
RESULTS—The mean age of presentation of the orbital tumour was 8.8 years. Four patients presented with an orbital tumour before any systemic manifestations of leukaemia. In two cases the diagnosis of the orbital tumour and systemic leukaemia was made simultaneously. There was one case of established systemic myeloid leukaemia in remission with the subsequent development of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. Six of seven cases (86%) were positive for the Leder stain. Five of seven cases (71%) showed positive immunoreactivity with lysozyme. The immunohistochemical stain for MAC387 was positive in all seven cases (100%) including one case that was negative for both lysozyme and Leder stains.
CONCLUSIONS—Orbital granulocytic sarcoma is a tumour that affects children and can present with rapidly progressive proptosis. This tumour may develop before, during, or after the occurrence of systemic leukaemia. The combination of Leder and lysozyme stains is useful in the diagnosis of orbital granulocytic sarcoma. MAC387 may be a more reliable marker for orbital granulocytic sarcoma.

 PMID:9497470

  9. Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.

  10. Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Desineni Subbaramaiah; Hibey, Joseph L.

    1989-06-01

    The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.

  11. Fuel-optimal trajectories of aeroassisted orbital transfer with plane change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, D. S.

    The problem of minimization of fuel consumption during the atmospheric portion of an aeroassisted, orbital transfer with plane change is addressed. The complete mission has required three characteristic velocities, a deorbit impulse at high earth orbit (HEO), a boost impulse at the atmospheric exit, and a reorbit impulse at low earth orbit (LEO). A performance index has been formulated as the sum of these three impulses. Application of optimal control principles has led to a nonlinear, two-point, boundary value problem which was solved by using a multiple shooting algorithm. The strategy for the atmospheric portion of the minimum-fuel transfer is to start initially with the maximum positive lift in order to recover from the downward plunge, and then to fly with a gradually decreasing lift such that the vehicle skips out of the atmosphere with a flight path angle near zero degrees.

  12. A Numerical Approach to Estimate the Ballistic Coefficient of Space Debris from TLE Orbital Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Narkeliunas, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is full of space debris, which consist of spent rocket stages, old satellites and fragments from explosions and collisions. As of 2009, more than 21,000 orbital debris larger than 10 cm are known to exist], and while it is hard to track anything smaller than that, the estimated population of particles between 1 and 10 cm in diameter is approximately 500,000, whereas small as 1 cm exceeds 100 million. These objects orbit Earth with huge kinetic energies speeds usually exceed 7 kms. The shape of their orbit varies from almost circular to highly elliptical and covers all LEO, a region in space between 160 and 2,000 km above sea level. Unfortunately, LEO is also the place where most of our active satellites are situated, as well as, International Space Station (ISS) and Hubble Space Telescope, whose orbits are around 400 and 550 km above sea level, respectively.This poses a real threat as debris can collide with satellites and deal substantial damage or even destroy them.Collisions between two or more debris create clouds of smaller debris, which are harder to track and increase overall object density and collision probability. At some point, the debris density couldthen reach a critical value, which would start a chain reaction and the number of space debris would grow exponentially. This phenomenon was first described by Kessler in 1978 and he concluded that it would lead to creation of debris belt, which would vastly complicate satellite operations in LEO. The debris density is already relatively high, as seen from several necessary debris avoidance maneuvers done by Shuttle, before it was discontinued, and ISS. But not all satellites have a propulsion system to avoid collision, hence different methods need to be applied. One of the proposed collision avoidance concepts is called LightForce and it suggests using photon pressure to induce small orbital corrections to deflect debris from colliding. This method is very efficient as seen from

  13. Congenital orbital encephalocele, orbital dystopia, and exophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon

    2012-07-01

    We present here an exceedingly rare variant of a nonmidline basal encephalocele of the spheno-orbital type, and this was accompanied with orbital dystopia in a 56-year-old man. On examination, his left eye was located more inferolaterally than his right eye, and the patient said this had been this way since his birth. The protrusion of his left eye was aggravated when he is tired. His naked visual acuity was 0.7/0.3, and the ocular pressure was 14/12 mm Hg. The exophthalmometry was 10/14 to 16 mm. His eyeball motion was not restricted, yet diplopia was present in all directions. The distance from the midline to the medial canthus was 20/15 mm. The distance from the midline to the midpupillary line was 35/22 mm. The vertical dimension of the palpebral fissure was 12/9 mm. The height difference of the upper eyelid margin was 11 mm, and the height difference of the lower eyelid margin was 8 mm. Facial computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed left sphenoid wing hypoplasia and herniation of the left anterior temporal pole and dura mater into the orbit, and this resulted into left exophthalmos and encephalomalacia in the left anterior temporal pole. To the best of our knowledge, our case is the second case of basal encephalocele and orbital dystopia.

  14. AMORE: Applied Momentum for Orbital Refuse Elimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, M.

    2014-09-01

    The need for active orbital debris remediation has increasingly gained acceptance throughout the space community throughout the last decade as the threat to our assets has also increased. While there have been a wide variety of conceptual solutions proposed, a debris removal system has yet to be put in place. The challenges that stand in the way of action are formidable and range from technical to political to economic. The AMORE concept is a nascent technique that has the potential to address these challenges and bring active debris remediation into reality. It uses an on-orbit low energy neutral particle beam (~10 keV, TBD) to impart momentum onto medium (5mm 10 cm) debris objects in Low Earth Orbit (LEO), thereby reducing their kinetic energy and expediting their reentry. The advantage of this technique over other proposed concepts is that it does not require delta-V intensive rendezvous, has an effective range that allows daily access to hundreds of debris objects, and does not create policy concerns over violation of international treaties. In essence, AMORE would be a medium-sized high power satellite with one or more particle beams fed by a large propellant tank, and an on-board tracking sensor that provides beam control. The particle beam would be similar to existing Xenon Hall Effect thrusters being used today, with the addition of a beam lens that would focus and aim the beam. The primary technical challenge of this concept is the focusing, pointing, and closed loop control of the beam that is necessary to maintain effective momentum transfer at ranges up to 100 km. This effective range is critical in order to maximize daily access to debris objects. Even in the densely populated 800 km debris band, it can be expected that a single AMORE system would be within 100 km of a debris object less than an hour a day. Space is big, and range is critical for timely, cost effective debris removal. Initial analysis indicates that a single AMORE vehicle operating in

  15. Reticulohistiocytoma of the Orbit

    PubMed Central

    Weissman, Heather M.; Hayek, Brent R.; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2015-01-01

    Reticulohistiocytoma is a rare, benign histiocytic proliferation of the skin or soft tissue. While ocular involvement has been documented in the past, there have been no previously reported cases of reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit. In this report, the authors describe a reticulohistiocytoma of the orbit in a middle-aged woman. PMID:24807799

  16. Statistical initial orbit determination

    SciTech Connect

    Taff, L.G.; Belkin, B.; Schweiter, G.A.; Sommar, K. D.H. Wagner Associates, Inc., Paoli, PA )

    1992-02-01

    For the ballistic missile initial orbit determination problem in particular, the concept of 'launch folders' is extended. This allows to decouple the observational data from the initial orbit determination problem per se. The observational data is only used to select among the possible orbital element sets in the group of folders. Monte Carlo simulations using up to 7200 orbital element sets are described. The results are compared to the true orbital element set and the one a good radar would have been able to produce if collocated with the optical sensor. The simplest version of the new method routinely outperforms the radar initial orbital element set by a factor of two in future miss distance. In addition, not only can a differentially corrected orbital element set be produced via this approach - after only two measurements of direction - but also an updated, meaningful, six-dimensional covariance array for it can be calculated. This technique represents a significant advance in initial orbit determination for this problem, and the concept can easily be extended to minor planets and artificial satellites. 9 refs.

  17. Orbital Shape Representations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikuchi, Osamu; Suzuki, Keizo

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the use of orbital shapes for instructional purposes, emphasizing that differences between polar, contour, and three-dimensional plots must be made clear to students or misconceptions will occur. Also presents three-dimensional contour surfaces for the seven 4f atomic orbitals of hydrogen and discusses their computer generation. (JN)

  18. Orbital endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Selva, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive "keyhole" surgery performed using endoscopic visualization is increasing in popularity and is being used by almost all surgical subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, however, endoscopic surgery is not commonly performed and there is little literature on the use of the endoscope in orbital surgery. Transorbital use of the endoscope can greatly aid in visualizing orbital roof lesions and minimizing the need for bone removal. The endoscope is also useful during decompression procedures and as a teaching aid to train orbital surgeons. In this article, we review the history of endoscopic orbital surgery and provide an overview of the technique and describe situations where the endoscope can act as a useful adjunct to orbital surgery.

  19. Orbital Plots Using Gnuplot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Brian G.

    2000-06-01

    The plotting program Gnuplot is freely available, general purpose, easy to use, and available on a variety of platforms. Complex three-dimensional surfaces, including the familiar angular parts of the hydrogen atom orbitals, are easily represented using Gnuplot. Contour plots allow viewing the radial and angular variation of the probability density in an orbital. Examples are given of how Gnuplot is used in an undergraduate physical chemistry class to view familiar atomic orbitals in new ways or to generate views of orbital functions that the student may have not seen before. Gnuplot may also be easily integrated into the environment of a Web page; an example of this is discussed (and is available at http://onsager.bd.psu.edu/~moore/orbitals_gnuplot). The plotting commands are entered with a form and a CGI script is used to run Gnuplot and display the result back to the browser.

  20. Congenital Orbital Teratoma

    PubMed Central

    Pellerano, Fernando; Guillermo, Elvis; Garrido, Gloreley; Berges, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of congenital orbital teratoma. A 3-day-old male, born at 39 weeks’ gestation without relevant prenatal history, presented with a large vascularized proptotic mass distorting the left midface. Laboratory studies showed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (12,910 ng/ml). Computed tomography showed a multiloculated heterogeneous lesion composed of hypodense and hyperdense calcified areas encompassing the whole orbital cavity with expansion of the bony walls, as well as forward displacement and compression of the eyeball without extension to surrounding structures. Clinical, imaging and laboratory features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to pronounced proptosis with exposure keratopathy and corneal perforation, no motility of the globe and no vision in the affected eye in a resource-limited setting, the patient underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. We describe the clinical course, radiographic and histopathological findings of this rare orbital tumor. PMID:28275597

  1. Mars Climate Orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this mission is to study the climate history and the water distribution of Mars. Beautiful panoramic views of the shuttle on the launch pad, engine ignition, Rocket launch, and the separation and burnout of the Solid Rocket Boosters are shown. The footage also includes an animation of the mission. Detailed views of the path that the Orbiter traversed were shown. Once the Orbiter lands on the surface of Mars, it will dig a six to eight inch hole and collect samples from the planets' surface. The animation also included the prospective return of the Orbiter to Earth over the desert of Utah. The remote sensor on the Orbiter helps in finding the exact location of the Orbiter so that scientists may collect the sample and analyze it.

  2. Congenital Orbital Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Pellerano, Fernando; Guillermo, Elvis; Garrido, Gloreley; Berges, Pedro

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of congenital orbital teratoma. A 3-day-old male, born at 39 weeks' gestation without relevant prenatal history, presented with a large vascularized proptotic mass distorting the left midface. Laboratory studies showed elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein (12,910 ng/ml). Computed tomography showed a multiloculated heterogeneous lesion composed of hypodense and hyperdense calcified areas encompassing the whole orbital cavity with expansion of the bony walls, as well as forward displacement and compression of the eyeball without extension to surrounding structures. Clinical, imaging and laboratory features were consistent with congenital orbital teratoma. Due to pronounced proptosis with exposure keratopathy and corneal perforation, no motility of the globe and no vision in the affected eye in a resource-limited setting, the patient underwent orbital exenteration. Histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of mature cystic teratoma. We describe the clinical course, radiographic and histopathological findings of this rare orbital tumor.

  3. Remote Controlled Orbiter Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garske, Michael; delaTorre, Rafael

    2007-01-01

    The Remote Control Orbiter (RCO) capability allows a Space Shuttle Orbiter to perform an unmanned re-entry and landing. This low-cost capability employs existing and newly added functions to perform key activities typically performed by flight crews and controllers during manned re-entries. During an RCO landing attempt, these functions are triggered by automation resident in the on-board computers or uplinked commands from flight controllers on the ground. In order to properly route certain commands to the appropriate hardware, an In-Flight Maintenance (IFM) cable was developed. Currently, the RCO capability is reserved for the scenario where a safe return of the crew from orbit may not be possible. The flight crew would remain in orbit and await a rescue mission. After the crew is rescued, the RCO capability would be used on the unmanned Orbiter in an attempt to salvage this national asset.

  4. Spacecraft design project: Low Earth orbit communications satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moroney, Dave; Lashbrook, Dave; Mckibben, Barry; Gardener, Nigel; Rivers, Thane; Nottingham, Greg; Golden, Bill; Barfield, Bill; Bruening, Joe; Wood, Dave

    1991-01-01

    This is the final product of the spacecraft design project completed to fulfill the academic requirements of the Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course (AE-4871) taught at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School. The Spacecraft Design and Integration 2 course is intended to provide students detailed design experience in selection and design of both satellite system and subsystem components, and their location and integration into a final spacecraft configuration. The design team pursued a design to support a Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) communications system (GLOBALSTAR) currently under development by the Loral Cellular Systems Corporation. Each of the 14 team members was assigned both primary and secondary duties in program management or system design. Hardware selection, spacecraft component design, analysis, and integration were accomplished within the constraints imposed by the 11 week academic schedule and the available design facilities.

  5. Automatic trajectory planning for low-thrust active removal mission in low-earth orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Carlo, Marilena; Romero Martin, Juan Manuel; Vasile, Massimiliano

    2017-03-01

    In this paper two strategies are proposed to de-orbit up to 10 non-cooperative objects per year from the region within 800 and 1400 km altitude in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The underlying idea is to use a single servicing spacecraft to de-orbit several objects applying two different approaches. The first strategy is analogous to the Traveling Salesman Problem: the servicing spacecraft rendezvous with multiple objects in order to physically attach a de-orbiting kit that reduces the perigee of the orbit. The second strategy is analogous to the Vehicle Routing Problem: the servicing spacecraft rendezvous and docks with an object, spirals it down to a lower altitude orbit, undocks, and then spirals up to the next target. In order to maximise the number of de-orbited objects with minimum propellant consumption, an optimal sequence of targets is identified using a bio-inspired incremental automatic planning and scheduling discrete optimisation algorithm. The optimisation of the resulting sequence is realised using a direct transcription method based on an asymptotic analytical solution of the perturbed Keplerian motion. The analytical model takes into account the perturbations deriving from the J2 gravitational effect and the atmospheric drag.

  6. GEO vs. LEO Space Telecommunication Systems Commercial Set Up, Finance &Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreisel, Joerg

    2002-01-01

    Space-based commercial telecommunication systems - especially in GEO - still represent the big volume segment in commercial space and probably will do so for a while. Although such end-to-end systems both in GEO and LEO are using satellites, ground stations, and service centers, etc., their commercial genesis differs significantly. Based on existing and planned space telecommunication businesses, this paper deals with prime characteristics of commercial GEO and LEO systems and their differences. In a tutorial way the stages of development of both LEO- and GEO-type business ventures are presented. The entire commercial development path is covered (concept, business plan, financing, partnership, growth, etc.). Focus is to understand what drives space telecommunication business and what it takes to start such new commercial space ventures. The perspective given is also based on the author's longstanding background in space commercialization and experiences made as a venture capitalist.

  7. Orbital Causes of Incomitant Strabismus

    PubMed Central

    Lueder, Gregg T.

    2015-01-01

    Strabismus may result from abnormal innervation, structure, or function of the extraocular muscles. Abnormalities of the orbital bones or masses within the orbit may also cause strabismus due to indirect effects on the extraocular muscles. This paper reviews some disorders of the orbit that are associated with strabismus, including craniofacial malformations, orbital masses, trauma, and anomalous orbital structures. PMID:26180465

  8. Dynamical evidence for a strong tidal interaction between the Milky Way and its satellite, Leo V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Michelle L. M.; Tollerud, Erik J.; Sand, David J.; Bonaca, Ana; Willman, Beth; Strader, Jay

    2017-01-01

    We present a chemodynamical analysis of the Leo V dwarf galaxy, based on Keck II DEIMOS spectra of 8 member stars. We find a systemic velocity for the system of < v_rrangle = 170.9^{+ 2.1}_{-1.9} km s^{-1}, and barely resolve a velocity dispersion for the system, with σ _{vr} = 2.3^{+3.2}_{-1.6} km s^{-1}, consistent with previous studies of Leo V. The poorly resolved dispersion means we are unable to adequately constrain the dark matter content of Leo V. We find an average metallicity for the dwarf of [Fe/H]=-2.48 ± 0.21, and measure a significant spread in the iron abundance of its member stars, with -3.1 ≤[Fe/H]≤-1.9 dex, which cleanly identifies Leo V as a dwarf galaxy that has been able to self-enrich its stellar population through extended star formation. Owing to the tentative photometric evidence for tidal substructure around Leo V, we also investigate whether there is any evidence for tidal stripping or shocking of the system within its dynamics. We measure a significant velocity gradient across the system, of dv/dχ = -4.1^{+2.8}_{-2.6} km s^{-1} per arcmin (or dv/dχ = -71.9^{+50.8}_{-45.6} km s^{-1} kpc-1), which points almost directly toward the Galactic centre. We argue that Leo V is likely a dwarf on the brink of dissolution, having just barely survived a past encounter with the centre of the Milky Way.

  9. New U-Pb SHRIMP dating for the Leo Pargil gneiss dome, western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leech, M. L.; Sas, R.

    2006-12-01

    The Leo Pargil gneiss dome is comprised of upper amphibolite-facies metasedimentary rocks of the lower Tethyan Himalayan sequence (the Haimantas unit) that are intruded by numerous small granitoid bodies and leucogranite dikes. The dome is exposed in northern India/southwestern Tibet at the confluence of the Sutlej and Spiti rivers west of the Zada basin. The dome is bound by generally N-S trending normal faults; the western boundary is termed the Kaurik-Chango normal fault and has a history of recent seismicity. The Leo Pargil dome differs from other North Himalayan domes in that it exhibits orogen-parallel stretching lineations and a uniform top-to-the-northwest sense-of-shear on its western flank (in contrast to approximately arc-normal stretching lineations and variable sense-of-shear in other North Himalayan domes; the youngest phase of Leo Pargil dome development is related to an orogen-parallel extensional structure similar to that which bounds the Gurla Mandhata dome to the southeast. New U-Pb SHRIMP dating of zircon yields Late Archean to Late Proterozoic ages for Leo Pargil paragneisses (c. 800-900 Ma and rarer 2-3 Ga zircons) and Late Oligocene to Early Miocene ages for granitoid intrusions (c. 27-16 Ma). These Oligocene to Miocene ages for Leo Pargil granitoids may correspond to magmatism associated with the widespread leucogranite bodies exposed througout the Himalaya. The Leo Pargil dome, like other similar Himalayan gneiss domes, may be exposures of a ductile mid-crustal channel.

  10. A LEO Satellite Postmission Disposal Study using LEGEND

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, J.-C.; Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from two postmission disposal parametric analyses based on the high fidelity NASA orbital debris evolutionary model LEGEND. The first analysis includes a nonmitigation reference scenario and four test scenarios, where the mission lifetimes of spacecraft are set to 5, 10, 20, and 30 years, respectively, before they are moved to the 25-year decay orbits. The comparison among the five scenarios quantifies how a prolonged spacecraft mission lifetime decreases the effectiveness of the 25-year decay rule in the low Earth orbit region. The second analysis includes three 25-year decay postmission disposal scenarios where the mission lifetimes of spacecraft are set to 5 years but with disposal success rates set to 50%, 70%, and 90%, respectively. It illustrates how the postmission disposal success rate impacts the long-term debris environment. The conclusion of this paper is that a prolonged spacecraft mission lifetime and a lower postmission disposal success rate can have noticeable negative impact on the debris environment in the long run.

  11. Forecasting and remote sensing outer belt relativistic electrons from low Earth orbit

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Cunningham, Gregory S.; ...

    2016-02-15

    Our study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of using observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) to forecast and nowcast relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Furthermore, we first report a high cross-energy, cross-pitch-angle coherence discovered between the trapped MeV electrons and precipitating approximately hundreds (~100s) of keV electrons—observed by satellites with very different altitudes—with correlation coefficients as high as ≳ 0.85. We then tested the feasibility of applying linear prediction filters to LEO data to predict the arrival of new MeV electrons during geomagnetic storms, as well as their evolving distributions afterward, based on the coherence. Reliability of thesemore » predictive filters is quantified by the performance efficiency with values as high as 0.74 when driven merely by LEO observations (or up to 0.94 with the inclusion of in situ MeV electron measurements). Finally, a hypothesis based upon the wave-particle resonance theory is proposed to explain the coherence, and a first-principle electron tracing model yields supporting evidence.« less

  12. Forecasting and remote sensing outer belt relativistic electrons from low Earth orbit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yue; Reeves, Geoffrey D.; Cunningham, Gregory S.; Redmon, Robert J.; Henderson, Michael G.

    2016-02-15

    Our study demonstrates the feasibility and reliability of using observations from low Earth orbit (LEO) to forecast and nowcast relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt. Furthermore, we first report a high cross-energy, cross-pitch-angle coherence discovered between the trapped MeV electrons and precipitating approximately hundreds (~100s) of keV electrons—observed by satellites with very different altitudes—with correlation coefficients as high as ≳ 0.85. We then tested the feasibility of applying linear prediction filters to LEO data to predict the arrival of new MeV electrons during geomagnetic storms, as well as their evolving distributions afterward, based on the coherence. Reliability of these predictive filters is quantified by the performance efficiency with values as high as 0.74 when driven merely by LEO observations (or up to 0.94 with the inclusion of in situ MeV electron measurements). Finally, a hypothesis based upon the wave-particle resonance theory is proposed to explain the coherence, and a first-principle electron tracing model yields supporting evidence.

  13. Low Earth orbit durability evaluation of protected silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degroh, Kim K.; Mccollum, Timothy A.

    1994-01-01

    The need for efficient, cost effective sources of electrical power in space has led to the development of photovoltaic power systems which make use of novel refractive solar concentrators. These concentrators have been conceived in both point-focus and linear-focus designs. Current concentrator lenses are fabricated from flexible silicones with Fresnel facets along their inside surface. To insure the efficient operation of these power systems, the concentrator lenses must be durable and the silicone material must remain specularly transmitting over a reasonable lifetime in low Earth orbit (LEO) and other space environments. Because of the vulnerability of silicones to atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation in LEO these lenses have been coated with a multi-layer metal oxide protective coating. The objective of this research was to evaluate the LEO durability of the multilayer coated silicone for advanced refractive photovoltaic concentrator arrays with respect to optical properties and microstructure. Flat metal oxide coated silicone samples were exposed to ground-laboratory and in-space atomic oxyqen for durability evaluation.

  14. Evaluation of Low-Earth-Orbit Environmental Effects on International Space Station Thermal Control Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dever, Joyce A.

    1998-01-01

    Many spacecraft thermal control coatings in low Earth orbit (LEO) can be affected by solar ultraviolet radiation and atomic oxygen. Ultraviolet radiation can darken some polymers and oxides commonly used in thermal control materials. Atomic oxygen can erode polymer materials, but it may reverse the ultraviolet-darkening effect on oxides. Maintaining the desired solar absorptance for thermal control coatings is important to assure the proper operating temperature of the spacecraft. Thermal control coatings to be used on the International Space Station (ISS) were evaluated for their performance after exposure in the NASA Lewis Research Center's Atomic Oxygen-Vacuum Ultraviolet Exposure (AO-VUV) facility. This facility simulated the LEO environments of solar vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) radiation (wavelength range, 115 to 200 nanometers (nm)) and VUV combined with atomic oxygen. Solar absorptance was measured in vacuo to eliminate the "bleaching" effects of ambient oxygen on VUV-induced degradation. The objective of these experiments was to determine solar absorptance increases of various thermal control materials due to exposure to simulated LEO conditions similar to those expected for ISS. Work was done in support of ISS efforts at the requests of Boeing Space and Defense Systems and Lockheed Martin Vought Systems.

  15. DWARF IRREGULAR GALAXY LEO A: SUPRIME-CAM WIDE-FIELD STELLAR PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect

    Stonkutė, Rima; Narbutis, Donatas; Vansevičius, Vladas; Arimoto, Nobuo; Hasegawa, Takashi; Tamura, Naoyuki

    2014-10-01

    We have surveyed a complete extent of Leo A—an apparently isolated gas-rich low-mass dwarf irregular galaxy in the Local Group. The B, V, and I passband CCD images (typical seeing ∼0.''8) were obtained with the Subaru Telescope equipped with the Suprime-Cam mosaic camera. The wide-field (20' × 24') photometry catalog of 38,856 objects (V ∼ 16-26 mag) is presented. This survey is also intended to serve as ''a finding chart'' for future imaging and spectroscopic observation programs of Leo A.

  16. A photometric study of the dwarf spheroidal galaxies Leo IV and Bootes II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Haw

    A photometric study of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies Leo IV and Bootes II in the V and IC filters is here presented. The age of Leo IV relative to M92 w