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Sample records for 90-minute focus groups

  1. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    BODELL, NATHANIEL G.; GILLUM, TREVOR

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12–16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12–16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials. PMID:27990228

  2. 90 Minutes of Moderate-Intensity Exercise does not Attenuate Postprandial Triglycerides in Older Adults.

    PubMed

    Bodell, Nathaniel G; Gillum, Trevor

    2016-01-01

    To determine whether 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise, prior to a high fat meal, attenuates postprandial triglycerides (PPT) in older adults. Eight sedentary older adult volunteers (mean ± SD age = 58 ± 8 years, BMI 26.5 ± 4.2); completed two trials consisting of exercise and a no-exercise control. Exercise trials involved 90 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 60% heart rate reserve (HRR). Following exercise, an overnight fast of 12-16 hours was performed. Participants were given a high fat meal that consisted of 146 grams of CHO, and 92 grams of fat and instructed to rest. Lipid levels were collected at pre-feeding, 1, 2, 3, and 4 hours post feeding. The control trial involved no exercise, performed an overnight fast of 12-16 hours, and was given the high fat meal followed by four hours of rest and data collection. There was no difference in PPT between the control and exercise trials (p < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) increased in both trials over pre-feeding values (pre-feeding 123.13 ± 65.03 con. 111 ± 53.9 ex., 1hr 161.50 ± 83.77 con. 149 ± 71.03 ex., 2hrs 208.25 ± 120.69 con. 177 ± 97.29 ex., 3hrs 228 ± 146.99 con. 147.25 ± 87.64 ex., 4hrs 211.75 ± 140.15 con. 169.5 ± 68.14 ex). No difference in triglycerides over time was observed among older adults between the exercise and control trials.

  3. Physical Demands Study - Focus Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-26

    BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOPMS MOS NCO SME TOW TRADOC USARIEM LIST OF ACRONYMS Armored Knight...Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine v AKV APOBS BFV CAT FAASV FS3 GLPS HEl-T IOTV JAQ LLDR LRAS3 MK19 MOP MS MOS NCO...the Carrier Ammunition Track ( CAT ) task. Soldiers in the senior enlisted’ 138 focus group reported the most frequently performed tasks in training

  4. Findings: LANL outsourcing focus groups

    SciTech Connect

    Jannotta, M.J.; McCabe, V.B.

    1996-12-31

    In March 1996, a series of 24 3-hour dialog focus groups were held with randomly selected Laboratory employees and contractors to gain their perceptions regarding potentials and problems for privatization and consolidation. A secondary goal was to educate and inform the workforce about potentials and issues in privatization and consolidation. Two hundred and thirty-six participants engaged in a learning session and structured input exercises resulting in 2,768 usable comments. Comments were categorized using standard qualitative methods; resulting categories included positive and negative comments on four models (consolidation, spin offs, outsourcing, and corporate partnering) and implications for the workforce, the Laboratory, and the local economy. Categories were in the areas of increasing/decreasing jobs, expertise, opportunity/salary/benefits, quality/efficiency, and effect on the local area and economy. An additional concern was losing Laboratory culture and history. Data were gathered and categorized on employee opinion regarding elements of successful transition to the four models, and issues emerged in the areas of terms and conditions of employment; communication; involvement; sound business planning; ethics and fairness; community infrastructure. From the aggregated opinion of the participants, it is recommended that decision-makers: Plan using sound business principles and continually communicate plans to the workforce; Respect workforce investments in the Laboratory; Tell the workforce exactly what is going on at all times; Understand that economic growth in Northern New Mexico is not universally viewed as positive; and Establish dialog with stakeholders on growth issues.

  5. Ball-Sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90): validity and reliability of a 90-minute soccer performance test.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jeremy D; Abt, Grant; Kilding, Andrew E

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of a 90-minute soccer performance test: Ball-sport Endurance and Sprint Test (BEAST90). Fifteen healthy male amateur soccer players participated and attended 5 testing sessions over a 10-day period to perform physiologic and soccer-specific assessments. This included familiarization sessions and 2 full trials of the BEAST90, separated by 7 days. The total 90-minute distance, mean percent peak heart rate (HRpeak), and estimated percent peak oxygen uptake of the BEAST90 were 8,097 ± 458 m, 85 ± 5% and 82 ± 14%, respectively. Measures obtained from trial 1 and trial 2 were not significantly different (p > 0.05). Reliability of measures over 90 minutes ranged from 0.9-25.5% (% typical error). The BEAST90 protocol replicated soccer match play in terms of time, movement patterns, physical demands (volume and intensity), distances, and mean and HRpeak values, as well as having an aerobic load similar to that observed during a soccer match. Reproducibility of key physical measures during the BEAST90 were mostly high, suggesting good reliability. The BEAST90 could be used in studies that wish to determine the effects of training or nutritional interventions on prolonged intermittent physical performance.

  6. Focus Groups Help To Focus the Marketing Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashar, Hanna; Lane, Maureen

    1996-01-01

    A university-based degree completion program for adults conducted focus group research to refine market positioning and promotion. Focus groups averaged five current students and recent graduates who reflected, demographically, the current student population. Results gave insight into reasons for selecting the university, aspects of the program…

  7. [The notion of task in focus groups].

    PubMed

    Dall'Agnol, Clarice Maria; de Magalhães, Ana Maria Müller; Mano, Gustavo Caetano de Mattos; Olschowsky, Agnes; da Silva, Flávia Pacheco

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to revisit the concept of task in light of Pichon-Riviére's referential and to discuss its application in research with focus groups. Focus groups are understood as a research technique which proposes to investigate a topic in depth, allowing the construction of new ideas and answers on the subject in focus. The presuppositions of operative groups were used to support the research practice with focus groups. In these, the notion of task has a key strategic position from which it seeks to intervene in society through dialogue and collective construction, unlike simple data collecting

  8. Teaching Focus Group Interviewing: Benefits and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Molly

    2013-01-01

    Focus group interviewing is widely used by academic and applied researchers. Given the popularity and strengths of this method, it is surprising how rarely focus group interviewing is taught in the undergraduate classroom and how few resources exist to support instructors who wish to train students to use this technique. This article fills the gap…

  9. Focus Groups with Linguistically Marginalized Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardi, Marco M.

    The focus group method has rapidly gained credibility among researchers in many fields, including public health researchers. The increased use of focus groups by public health researchers has underscored the demonstrable need for the capacity to apply this method of research among populations with limited abilities in or cultural resistance to…

  10. Peer Led Focus Groups and Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Peer led focus groups, a qualitative social science research method, and their use with young people are examined. The paper outlines three developments that have contributed to their emergence, namely: traditional focus groups, peer education and participatory research. Drawing on a study in progress, the advantages and challenges associated with…

  11. Conducting the Computer-Mediated Focus Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saban, Kenneth A.

    The growing popularity of focus group measurements can be traced to any one of four factors: (1) the economics associated with focus groups; (2) the speed at which data can now be collected; (3) the need to understand customer motivations; and (4) the desire to improve subsequent qualitative research activities and programs. Market researchers are…

  12. How I Learned to Conduct Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Rio-Roberts, Maribel

    2011-01-01

    The use of focus groups may provide researchers with important insights into research questions via participant discussion and interaction. As a human services practitioner and researcher, I became interested in learning how to conduct focus groups in order to apply these steps to my research and gain valuable insights about the human experience…

  13. Young Women with Breast Cancer: A Focus Group Study of Unmet Needs

    PubMed Central

    Greaney, Mary L.; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Meyer, Meghan E.; Emmons, Karen M.; Partridge, Ann H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Young women with breast cancer suffer distress both at the time of diagnosis and afterwards. This study aimed to elucidate which issues are most disturbing to this population and which might be amenable to intervention. Methods: English-speaking women treated or involved in research at the Dana–Farber Cancer Institute for stage I–III breast cancer while aged 18–42 years were invited to participate in one of four focus groups. A trained moderator led each 90-minute audio-recorded group using a semi-structured interview guide. All transcripts were coded using thematic content analysis with NVivo software. Results: Thirty-six women participated. Three major themes emerged from the analyses of these focus groups' data: (1) participants felt different from older breast cancer patients with regard to relationships, fertility, menopausal symptoms, treatment side effects, and work/finances; (2) participants faced unique challenges transitioning into the survivorship phase of care; and (3) participants desired assistance, including connections with other young patients, help navigating the healthcare system, educational materials, and lists of appropriate counselors. Conclusion: Young women with breast cancer have unmet needs for psychosocial support, education, and symptom management, and can identify potential support that may help meet these needs. PMID:24380034

  14. Focus group discussions of daylighting practices

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, B.F.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1988-11-01

    This research was sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Buildings and Community systems and conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as part of an ongoing effort to enhance the commercial use of federally developed technologies. One such technology is the use of daylighting practices in the design of nonresidential buildings. This document is a report of the findings from meetings of focus groups conducted to gain insight into building designers' perceptions and attitudes about daylighting systems.

  15. Curriculum as environment: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lange, Bernadette; Purnell, Marguerite J

    2011-01-01

    Curricula development is critical for the advancement and evolution of holistic nursing education. Although the American Holistic Nurses Association offers advanced practice board certification for graduate nurses, there is a scarcity of available graduate holistic nursing courses and curricula. The researchers developed a curriculum for an advanced holistic nursing program at a university college of nursing in South Florida. The curriculum and process of development were presented at a workshop during a national holistic nursing conference. A portion of the workshop included an opportunity for attendees to voluntarily participate in a focus group research study. The specific aim of the research was to determine the best approaches for the development of curricula for the promotion of graduate holistic nurse education based on the insights of holistic nurses, nurse educators, nurse practitioners, and scholars. A content analysis identified 3 themes that addressed holistic nursing curriculum: (1) consider curriculum as an evolving blueprint for personal and professional growth; (2) embrace the uniqueness of students; and (3) encourage faculty to co-create the learning environment.

  16. Reflections on Focus Group Sessions Regarding Inclusive Education: Reconsidering Focus Group Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nel, Norma M.; Romm, Norma R. A.; Tlale, L. D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we deliberate upon our way of facilitating focus group sessions with teachers concerning their views on inclusive education, by referring also to feedback that we received from the participants when they commented upon their experiences of the sessions. (The teacher participants were from three separate primary schools in South…

  17. Focus Group Evidence: Implications for Design and Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Katherine E.; Gandha, Tysza; Culbertson, Michael J.; Carlson, Crystal

    2014-01-01

    In evaluation and applied social research, focus groups may be used to gather different kinds of evidence (e.g., opinion, tacit knowledge). In this article, we argue that making focus group design choices explicitly in relation to the type of evidence required would enhance the empirical value and rigor associated with focus group utilization. We…

  18. Solution-Focused Group Therapy for Level 1 Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smock, Sara A.; Trepper, Terry S.; Wetchler, Joseph L.; McCollum, Eric E.; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to…

  19. Solution-focused group therapy for level 1 substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Smock, Sara A; Trepper, Terry S; Wetchler, Joseph L; McCollum, Eric E; Ray, Rose; Pierce, Kent

    2008-01-01

    The present study compared solution-focused group therapy (SFGT) with a traditional problem-focused treatment for level 1 substance abusers. Outcome research on the effectiveness of solution-focused group therapy is minimal, especially in treating substance abusers. In the present study, clients were measured before and after treatment to determine therapeutic effectiveness. Clients in the solution-focused group significantly improved on both the Beck Depression Inventory and the Outcome Questionnaire. The clients in the comparison group did not improve significantly on either measure. Therapist skill level and adherence to theoretical models were measured in each group to reduce confounding variables.

  20. Black Men’s Perceptions and Knowledge of Diabetes: A Church-Affiliated Barbershop Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Balls-Berry, Joyce; Watson, Christopher; Kadimpati, Sandeep; Crockett, Andre; Mohamed, Essa A.; Brown, Italo; Soto, Miguel Valdez; Sanford, Becky; Halyard, Michele; Khubchandani, Jagdish; Dacy, Lea; Davis, Olga Idriss

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States and disproportionately affects racial and ethnic minorities. These disparities persist despite educational efforts to reduce the prevalence of diabetes. Receptiveness of educational efforts for Black men needs to be studied. Objective This study assesses Black men’s receptiveness to a barbershop-based program focused on diabetes prevention and awareness in a church-affiliated barbershop in Rochester, Minnesota. Methods The pastor and barber of a church-affiliated barbershop and academic medical researchers designed a community-engaged research study to determine Black men’s perception of diabetes. Recruitment for the 90-minute focus group included flyers (n=60), email, and in-person. Units of analysis included focus-group audio recording, transcripts, and field notes. Using traditional content analysis, we categorized data into themes and sub-themes. Results Thirteen Black men participated (Group 1, n=6; Group 2, n=7) having a mean age of 40.3 years (range 19 to 65), and employed full-time (77%). Themes included diabetes prevention, treatment, prevalence, risks, and health education. Participants identified diet and exercise as essential components of diabetes prevention. Additionally, participants mentioned that family history contributes to diabetes. Participants agreed that barbershops are an appropriate setting for data collection and health education on diabetes for Black men. Discussion/Conclusion Findings indicate that Black men are generally aware of diabetes. The community-engaged research process allowed for development of a culturally appropriate research study on diabetes. This study is the foundation for developing a culturally appropriate health education program on diabetes for Black men. PMID:26594612

  1. Focus Groups: An Important Research Technique for Internal Evaluation Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara Poitras

    1993-01-01

    The use of focus groups by the Federal Bureau of Investigation as a tool of internal evaluation is described. Focus groups are used in an environment where credibility is key to achieving meaningful cooperation. Issues for consideration by other evaluators interested in the approach are summarized. (SLD)

  2. Training Objectives for Tank Platoon Leaders: A Focus Group Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-02-01

    interactive participation, an information-elicitation tech- nique known as "focus groups" was employed. The focus group idea grew out of the early work of Kurt ... Lewin (1939) in his "action research" program conducted during the forties. The idea gained considerable acceptance as a "motivation research

  3. Using Focus Groups to Check Youth Perceptions of Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holz-Clause, Mary; Jost, Mark

    1995-01-01

    Focus groups conducted with urban and rural middle school students showed that they had typical stereotypes about agriculture and farmers and found farm careers unattractive. Results suggested that agriculture be tied to youth interests and addressed before middle school. The project also elicited information about using focus groups with youth.…

  4. Interpreting Outcomes: Using Focus Groups in Evaluation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ansay, Sylvia J.; Perkins, Daniel F.; Nelson, John

    2004-01-01

    Although focus groups continue to gain popularity in marketing and social science research, their use in program evaluation has been limited. Here we demonstrate how focus groups can benefit evaluators, program staff, policy makers and administrators by providing an in-depth understanding of program effectiveness from the perspective of…

  5. USE OF FOCUS GROUPS FOR THE ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH RESEARCHER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Qualitative research techniques are often under-utilized by the environmental health researcher. Focus groups, one such qualitative method, can provide rich data sets for study planning and implementation, risk perception, program and policy research, and exploration into future...

  6. Reducing Psychiatric Inpatient Violence through Solution-Focused Group Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Elaine B.; Chambliss, Catherine

    Violent behaviors increasingly provide the basis for psychiatric hospitalization. This study targeted a group of high-risk psychiatric inpatients with a recent history of violence. A solution-focused treatment approach was used in conducting two ongoing weekly therapy groups. Patients were encouraged to reflect upon occasions where they…

  7. Assessing Undergraduate Curriculum for the Adult Learner: Focus Group Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Cynthia B.

    Focus group discussions were held to determine the perceptions of 8 male and 28 female adult students regarding the quality of their undergraduate evening program at a medium-sized public liberal arts college. The students voluntarily participated in one of three group sessions at which the following topics were discussed: whether evening students…

  8. Using Focus Groups in the Refinement of a Research Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    were needed to obtain the different perspectives on palliative care services. In Willgerodt’s (7) project, the research aim was to determine the...McLafferty (1) conducted a study to determine attitudes of different skilled nurses and nurse lecturers towards working with older patients in a...composition. Because this study focused on the attitudes of various types of skilled nurses , McLafferty’s (1) focus groups were organized into

  9. Colorectal cancer screening brochure for Latinos: focus group evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.

  10. Using Group Counseling Techniques to Clarify and Deepen the Focus of Supervision Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kees, Nathalie L.; Leech, Nancy L.

    2002-01-01

    Suggestions for using group counseling techniques for clarifying and deepening the focus within a supervision group are described. Examples are provided from a supervision group of advanced group counseling students. Each student facilitated an ongoing group in settings ranging from schools to residential treatment. Clarifying and deepening rounds…

  11. Focus Group Interview Evaluation Report for the LSTA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham, Byron R.; Gilbert, Virginia E.

    The Utah State Library Division conducted an evaluation of its participation in the Library Services and Technology Act (LSTA). The evaluation plan determined by the Utah State Library Division used two approaches designed to examine issues and achievements related to LSTA: focus groups and a statewide survey. Utah State University (USU) was…

  12. Children Displaced by Hurricane Katrina: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Houston, J. Brian; Wyche, Karen Fraser; Van Horn, Richard L.; Reyes, Gilbert; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung; North, Carol S.

    2008-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted with 23 children and adolescents, aged 9 to 17 years, who relocated from Louisiana to Texas following Hurricane Katrina to explore their disaster, evacuation, and resettlement experiences. The resilience described by some was remarkable and, despite evidence of cultural disparity and stigma, many identified positive…

  13. Effective Student Focus Groups: The Bright and Early Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, E. Alana

    1996-01-01

    At Mount Royal College (Alberta), the perceptions of enrolled college students are seen as an important part of academic program review, but identification of appropriate scheduling of meetings may be difficult. The solution found was to obtain faculty assistance in selecting students and to schedule focus groups as breakfast meetings, which…

  14. Focus Groups with Children after the World Trade Center Attacks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; North, Carol S.; Pollio, David E.; Wallace, Nancy E.; Smith, Rebecca; Jeon-Slaughter, Haekyung

    2007-01-01

    Focus groups with 23 New York City children examined their reactions to the September 11 terrorist attacks, their parents' reactions, and their expectations about the future. We identified an initial set of six topics; these topics were reviewed and assigned to a final set of thematic categories--understanding the events and motives, emotional…

  15. Teachers' Perceptions of Bullying: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Lisa H.; Scott, Shannon R.; DeOrnellas, Kathy

    2017-01-01

    The current qualitative study used a focus group approach to examine teachers' perceptions of student aggressors and victims. Participants in the current study included 35 teachers from public elementary, middle, and high schools. Teachers' responses to five questions about risk factors for aggression and victimization, adaptive and maladaptive…

  16. FINAL REPORT: NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY FOCUS GROUPS - FOLLOW-UP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this work assignment was to add to our knowledge of the issues that will affect

    recruitment and retention of pregnant women into the National Children's Study by conducting 14 focus

    groups
    comprised of pregnant women, couples, and parents of young chi...

  17. Focusing on Content: Discourse in L2 Peer Review Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorobel, Oksana; Kim, Deoksoon

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies on peer review groups in second language classes have focused on various topics, including collaboration (Carr, 2008) and the effect of peer review versus teacher feedback on students' writing (Zhang, 1995). One area that has received little attention is the content of students' speech during peer review. This longitudinal case…

  18. Art therapy focus groups for children and adolescents with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Stafstrom, Carl E; Havlena, Janice; Krezinski, Anthony J

    2012-06-01

    Children with epilepsy are at risk for numerous psychological and social challenges. We hypothesized that art therapy focus groups would enhance the self-image of children and adolescents with epilepsy. Sixteen children with epilepsy, ages 7-18 years, were recruited from pediatric neurology clinics at the University of Wisconsin to participate in four art therapy sessions. Pre-group assessments included psychological screens (Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale; Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale; Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale) and art therapy instruments (Formal Elements Art Therapy Scale; Seizure Drawing Task; Levick Emotional and Cognitive Art Therapy Assessment). Developmental levels of drawings were significantly below age-expected standards. Following completion of focus groups, a repeat Childhood Attitude Toward Illness Scale showed no differences between pre- and post-test scores on any measure of this scale. However, subjects and parents were uniformly positive about their group experiences, suggesting a qualitative benefit from participation in art therapy focus groups.

  19. Employee perceptions of diabetes education needs: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Wood, Felecia; Jacobson, Sharol

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this descriptive non-experimental research was to assess employee perceptions of desired diabetes education through focus groups. Thirteen employees of a southern university in three focus groups identified many standard and some emerging educational topics of interest including healthier food choices when eating out, increasing activity, deciding whether highly advertised "special" products for diabetes were necessary, and recognizing the importance of obesity among children. The employees were willing to attend group meetings related to diabetes, but not to pay for them. The information will be used to plan an intervention to promote diabetes prevention and self-management in a worksite environment where diabetes costs are rising rapidly, and to support the need for a university wellness program. Occupational health nurses can address both employees' needs and employers' costs through such a program.

  20. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers.

    PubMed

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2011-03-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field.

  1. Ganando Confianza: Research Focus Groups with Immigrant Mexican Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Hausmann-Stabile, Carolina; Zayas, Luis H.; Runes, Sandra; Abenis-Cintron, Anna; Calzada, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Immigrant families with children with developmental disabilities must be served using culturally sensitive approaches to service and research to maximize treatment benefits. In an effort to better understand cultural issues relevant to the provision of parenting programs for immigrant Mexican mothers of children with developmental disabilities, we conducted sustained focus groups through which we could learn more about our participants and thereby improve services. This paper reports on the challenges and lessons learned from these groups. We characterize the key lessons as (a) recruitment and retention is more than agreement to participate; (b) confidentiality is not just a word but an activity; (c) the complicated nature of language; (d) cultural norms shape the group process; (e) appreciating the value of taking time; and (f) gender issues and group interaction. Service providers and researchers who work with Mexican families may benefit from our experiences as they promote and develop programs and projects in the developmental disabilities field. PMID:25674353

  2. The patient experience of depression and remission: focus group results.

    PubMed

    Frank, Lori; Matza, Louis S; Hanlon, Jennifer; Mannix, Sally; Revicki, Dennis A; Feltner, Douglas; Morlock, Robert J

    2007-08-01

    Few depression measures were developed with the patient perspective. To obtain patient views on depression and early symptom resolution, 4 focus groups (N=31) were conducted. Patients also completed the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomology (Self-Report), SF-36, and a rating of the bothersomeness and significance of 12 symptoms of depression. Transcripts were reviewed for major themes. Irritability was a key symptom and it remitted earlier than others. Important to participants were low mood, low energy, lack of motivation, lack of focus/concentration, feelings of guilt, self-critical thoughts, feeling overwhelmed, lack of enjoyment, hypersomnia, restlessness, anger, and irritability. Gender differences emerged; most men reported irritability as one of the first symptoms to remit; for women, motivation level and energy commonly remitted first. Results suggest that new measures of treatment outcome should encompass irritability, anger, and ability to cope with life stressors.

  3. Community-Guided Focus Group Analysis to Examine Cancer Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Schaal, Jennifer C.; Lightfoot, Alexandra F.; Black, Kristin Z.; Stein, Kathryn; White, Stephanie Baker; Cothern, Carol; Gilbert, Keon; Hardy, Christina Yongue; Jeon, Janet Y.; Mann, Lilli; Mouw, Mary Sherwyn; Robertson, Lyn; Waters, Emily M.; Yonas, Michael A.; Eng, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Background Accountability for Cancer Care through Undoing Racism and Equity (ACCURE) is a systems-change intervention addressing disparities in treatment initiation and completion and outcomes for early stage Black and White breast and lung cancer patients. Using a community-based participatory research approach, ACCURE is guided by a diverse partnership involving academic researchers, a non-profit community-based organization, its affiliated broader-based community coalition, and providers and staff from two cancer centers. Objectives This paper describes the collaborative process our partnership used to conduct focus groups and to code and analyze the data to inform two components of the ACCURE intervention: 1) a “power analysis” of the cancer care system, and 2) the development of the intervention’s training component, Healthcare Equity Education and Trainings, for cancer center providers and staff. Methods Utilizing active involvement of community and academic partners at every stage in the process, we engaged Black and White breast and lung cancer survivors at two partner cancer centers in eight focus group discussions organized by race and cancer type. Participants were asked to describe “pressure point encounters” or critical incidents during their journey through the cancer system that facilitated or hindered their willingness to continue treatment. Community and academic members collaborated to plan and develop materials, conduct focus groups, and code and analyze data. Conclusions A collaborative qualitative data analysis process strengthened the capacity of our community-medical-academic partnership, enriched our research moving forward, and enhanced the transparency and accountability of our research approach. PMID:27018365

  4. Adolescent girls' views on cosmetic surgery: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ashikali, Eleni-Marina; Dittmar, Helga; Ayers, Susan

    2016-01-01

    This study examined adolescent girls' views of cosmetic surgery. Seven focus groups were run with girls aged 15-18 years (N = 27). Participants read case studies of women having cosmetic surgery, followed by discussion and exploration of their views. Thematic analysis identified four themes: (1) dissatisfaction with appearance, (2) acceptability of cosmetic surgery, (3) feelings about undergoing cosmetic surgery and (4) cosmetic surgery in the media. Results suggest the acceptability of cosmetic surgery varies according to the reasons for having it and that the media play an important role by normalising surgery and under-representing the risks associated with it.

  5. EXPERIENCES OF GAMMA HYDROXYBUTYRATE (GHB) INGESTION: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Judith C.; Harris, Shana L.; Dyer, Jo E.

    2008-01-01

    GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate) is a significant new drug of abuse added to the United States Controlled Substance Act in 2000. The majority of the published literature on GHB consists of clinical case reports, mainly from emergency departments, and a collection of laboratory-based studies, focused mainly on anesthesia. While comments about the various experiences and behaviors of human users are often included in such studies or reports, these aspects of GHB are only just beginning to be systematically investigated or detailed. Reported here are data from a qualitative study using focus group methods on the consumption habits, experiences, and beliefs of GHB users. A total of 51 people, 30 men and 21 women, mean age of 31.1±7.6 years (range 18 – 52 years), who report having used GHB for an average of 4.3±2.5 years (range 1–11 years), were interviewed in 10 separate groups held in 2004. This paper discusses broadly the general experience of the GHB ‘high,’ major perceived benefits including sexual responses to the drug, perceived risks and dangers of ingestion, co-ingestion, and various contexts of use. The paper concludes with a discussion of the implications drawn from this information for clinicians treating patients who use GHB. PMID:17703706

  6. Response by High Risk Groups to HIV/AIDS Educational Outreach: A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smiley, Nina Feldman

    Twelve focus groups were conducted to determine how various at-risk groups would respond to Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) educational outreach approaches presented via print (posters and comic book), television, and radio media. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding HIV and AIDS were also…

  7. Focus Groups for Solar System Investigations with the JWST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hines, Dean C.; Milam, Stefanie N.; Stansberry, John; Hammel, Heidi B.; Sonneborn, George; Lunine, Jonathan; Rivkin, Andrew; Woodward, Charles; Norwood, Jim; Villanueva, Geronimo; Thomas, Cristina; Santos-Sanz, Pablo; Tiscareno, Matthew; Kestay, Laszlo; Nixon, Conor; Parker, Alex

    2014-11-01

    The unprecedented sensitivity and angular resolution of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will make it NASA’s premier space-based facility for infrared astronomy. This 6.5-meter telescope, which is optimized for observations in the near and mid infrared, will be equipped with four state-of-the-art instruments that include imaging, spectroscopy, and coronagraphy. These instruments, along with the telescope’s moving target capabilities, will enable the infrared study of solar system objects with unprecedented detail. A new white paper (Norwood et al., 2014) provides a general overview of JWST observatory and instrument capabilities for Solar System science, and updates and expands upon an earlier study by Lunine et al. (2010). In order to fully realize the potential of JWST for Solar System observations, we have recently organized 10 focus groups to explore various science use cases in more detail on topics including: Asteroids, Comets, Giant Planets, Mars, Near Earth Objects, Occultations, Rings, Satellites, Titan, and Trans-Neptunian Objects. The findings from these groups will help guide the project as it develops and implements planning tools, observing templates, the data pipeline and archives so that they enable a broad range of Solar System Science investigations. The purpose of this presentation is to raise awareness of the JWST Solar System planning, and to invite participation of DPS members with our Focus Groups and other pre-launch activities.References:Lunine, J., Hammel, H., Schaller, E., Sonneborn, G., Orton, G., Rieke, G., and Rieke, M. 2010, JWST Planetary Observations within the Solar System, http://www.stsci.edu/jwst/doc-archive/white-papers.Norwood, J., Hammel, H., Milam, S.,Stansberry, J., Lunine, J., Chanover, N., Hines, D., Sonneborn, G., Tiscareno, M., Brown, M. and Ferruit, P., 2014, ArXiv e-prints, 1403.6845.

  8. Meaning Making in Cancer Survivors: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Spek, Nadia; Vos, Joel; van Uden-Kraan, Cornelia F.; Breitbart, William; Tollenaar, Rob A. E. M.; Cuijpers, Pim; Verdonck-de Leeuw, Irma M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Confrontation with a life-threatening disease like cancer can evoke existential distress, which can trigger a search for meaning in people after having survived this disease. Methods In an effort to gain more insight in the meaning making process, we conducted four focus groups with 23 cancer survivors on this topic. Participants responded to questions about experienced meaning making, perceived changes in meaning making after cancer and the perceived need for help in this area. Results Most frequently mentioned meaning making themes were relationships and experiences. We found that, in general, cancer survivors experienced enhanced meaning after cancer through relationships, experiences, resilience, goal-orientation and leaving a legacy. Some participants, however, also said to have (also) experienced a loss of meaning in their lives through experiences, social roles, relationships and uncertainties about the future. Conclusions The results indicated that there is a group of cancer survivors that has succeeded in meaning making efforts, and experienced sometimes even more meaning in life than before diagnosis, while there is also a considerable group of survivors that struggled with meaning making and has an unmet need for help with that. The results of this study contribute to develop a meaning centered intervention for cancer survivors. PMID:24086695

  9. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  10. Cervical Cancer Screening and Chinese Women: Insights from Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C. H.; Woo, J. S. T.; Yau, V.; Gorzalka, B. B.; Brotto, L. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite extensive efforts to raise awareness, Papanicolaou (Pap) testing rates among Chinese women living in North America remain low compared with Euro-American women. Although the lower Pap testing rate and ensuing health repercussions among Chinese women are well characterized, mechanisms underlying such health disparities are not. The aim of this study was to use a qualitative approach to delineate such mechanisms. Qualitative approaches to understand constructs within the domain of sexual and reproductive health have been shown to be particularly appropriate, and offer a nuanced view of sexuality that is not afforded by traditional quantitative methods. Method: We carried out two focus groups aimed at exploring how Mandarin-speaking and English-speaking Chinese women experience Pap testing (N = 12). The women were invited to partake in the focus groups from having participated in a large-scale quantitative study. Participants were all first-generation immigrants and their average age was 53-years-old. We used content analyses to analyze transcripts and extract themes. Results and Discussion: The women heavily endorsed traditional Chinese medicine philosophy, conceptualizing physical health holistically, and valuing preventative measures over screening and interceptive measures. Pap testing was described as qualitatively different from other screening procedures, such that women assigned a sexually charged meaning to Pap testing, often discussing it in relation to sexual activity and promiscuity. Women expressed their preference for the compulsory and depersonalized manner that Pap tests are performed in their home country of China, as this lessens the embarrassment associated with undergoing Pap testing. Conclusion: Three mechanisms may contribute to lower Pap testing among middle-aged first-generation Chinese immigrants: preference for Chinese medicine philosophy, perceived sexualization of Pap testing, and the institutionalization of medical

  11. Perceived motivators to home food preparation: focus group findings.

    PubMed

    Jones, Sheila A; Walter, Janelle; Soliah, LuAnn; Phifer, Janna T

    2014-10-01

    Family meals are positively associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and numerous nutrients, promoting good eating habits and disease prevention. Families benefiting from home-cooked meals are more likely to consume smaller portions and fewer calories, less fat, less salt, and less sugar. Some Western cultures have lost confidence in preparing meals and tend to rely on foods prepared outside the home. The ability of young adults to prepare foods at home may be impaired. The purpose of our study is to identify motivators and, consequently, barriers to preparing foods at home vs purchasing preprepared foods from a deli or eating in a restaurant. Focus groups of college students (n=239) from two universities were asked questions about motivators to preparing meals at home in two subsequent sessions. The primary motivators among the students were that they desired to save money; had a model in food preparation; were familiar with cooking techniques; and had enough time to shop, cook, and clean up after meals. Food and nutrition practitioners have opportunities to promote cost-effective, simple, and time-saving home food preparation techniques as healthful habits.

  12. Focused Research Group in Correlated Electron and Complex Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ziqiang

    2016-02-17

    discoveries and the resolution to outstanding and unresolved issues. It should be emphasized that the DOE funding provided the crucial support for the close and meaningful collaborations of the focused research group that go far beyond simply putting the research papers from each group together. Indeed, the majority of the publications involved multiple PIs and collaborations between theory and experiments.

  13. Communicating about overdiagnosis: Learning from community focus groups on osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Rebecca; Hersch, Jolyn; Thomas, Rae; Glasziou, Paul; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2017-01-01

    Background Overdiagnosis is considered a risk associated with the diagnosis of osteoporosis–as many people diagnosed won’t experience harm from the condition. As yet there’s little evidence on community understanding of overdiagnosis outside cancer- where it is an established risk of some screening programs–or effective ways to communicate about it. We examined community understanding around overdiagnosis of osteoporosis, to optimise communication strategies about this problem. Methods and findings Using a qualitative design we recruited a community sample of women, 50–80 years, from the Gold Coast community around Bond University, Australia, using random digit dialing, and conducted 5 focus groups with 41 women. A discussion guide and 4-part presentation were developed and piloted, with independent review from a consumer and clinical experts. Initial discussion had 4 segments: osteoporosis; bone density vs. other risk factors; medication; and overdiagnosis. The second half included the 4 short presentations and discussions on each. Analysis used Framework Analysis method. Initially participants described osteoporosis as bone degeneration causing some fear, demonstrated imprecise understanding of overdiagnosis, had a view osteoporosis couldn’t be overdiagnosed as bone scans provided “clear cut” results, expressed belief in early diagnosis, and interest in prevention strategies enabling control. Following presentations, participants expressed some understanding of overdiagnosis, preference for describing osteoporosis as a “risk factor” not “disease”, concern about a poor risk-benefit ratio for medications, and surprise and unease the definition of osteoporosis decided bone density of young women was “normal”, without age adjustment. Limitations include English-speaking backgrounds of the sample and complex materials. Conclusions Our findings suggest a gap between community expectations and how experts sometimes arbitrarily set low

  14. Consumers' preferences for fresh yam: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Barlagne, Carla; Cornet, Denis; Blazy, Jean-Marc; Diman, Jean-Louis; Ozier-Lafontaine, Harry

    2017-01-01

    In West and Central Africa and in the Caribbean, yam is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates and has a great potential to improve food security. The yam production sector is, however, now challenged by the satisfaction of evolving consumers' preferences. Since little is known about consumers' preferences regarding yams' characteristics, product quality, and the drivers of yam purchase, six focus group discussions were conducted (for a total of 31 participants). Among the purchasing criteria, price was considered more important than the others. It was followed by the external damage, the origin, and the size of the tuber. The most frequently cited consumption criteria were the taste, the texture, and color of flesh after cooking. Taste was considered more important than the other criteria. Three consumers' profiles were established reflecting heterogeneity in preferences, especially as concerns the willingness to pay for yam and consumption habits. They were designated as the Hedonistic, the Thrifty and the Flexible. Our results suggest that innovations can be implemented to sustain and stimulate the development of the yam sector in Guadeloupe. Two main development paths were identified. The first path is the valorization of the great existing diversity of yam varieties and the increase in the level of information for consumers about product attributes such as the cooking mode, the origin, and the mode of production. Building a marketing strategy based on the valorization of this diversity can help maintain and preserve yam's agro-biodiversity and the satisfaction of rapidly evolving consumption habits. The second path is the definition of yam ideotypes that suit consumers' needs. We expect that tailoring the production to consumers' needs will have a positive impact on global food security in the Caribbean region.

  15. Augmenting continuing education with psychologically focused group consultation: Effects on adoption of group drug counseling.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Jason B; Hayes, Steven C; Twohig, Michael P; Roget, Nancy; Fisher, Gary; Padilla, Michelle; Bissett, Richard; Holt, Charles; Kohlenberg, Barbara

    2007-12-01

    This study examines whether adding psychologically focused group consultation to a standard 1-day continuing-education workshop on Group Drug Counseling (GDC), a group therapy with evidence of effectiveness in the treatment of substance abuse problems, improves GDC adoption. Counselors who had taken a 1-day workshop were randomly assigned to an 8-week course of group consultation that met for 1.5 hr per session (n = 16) or to no additional contact (n = 14). The group consultation used Relapse Prevention and Acceptance and Commitment Therapy principles to help participants overcome psychological barriers to the adoption of GDC. Results showed that the 1-day workshop resulted in attempts by trainees to implement the new therapy, but that the consultation condition maintained significantly higher levels of adoption and 2- and 4-month followups. Additionally, those in the group consultation condition reported a higher sense of personal accomplishment at the 4-month followup. These findings suggest that empirically supported psychotherapy models can be used to decrease clinicians' psychological barriers to adoption of evidence-based psychotherapy methods. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Congruence of group therapist and group member alliance judgments in emotionally focused group therapy for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Compare, Angelo; Tasca, Giorgio A; Lo Coco, Gianluca; Kivlighan, Dennis M

    2016-06-01

    We used West and Kenny's (2011) Truth-and-Bias (T&B) model to examine how accurately group therapists' judge their group members' alliances, and the effects of therapist-patient congruence in alliance ratings on patient outcomes. Were considered: (a) directional bias - therapists' tendency to over- or underrate their clients' alliances, (b) truth strength - clients' alliance ratings, and (c) bias strength - therapists' tendency to conflate their alliance ratings for a specific group member with the average alliance ratings for the other members of the group. There were 118 obese adult patients with binge-eating disorder that were treated by 8 therapists with Emotionally Focused Group Therapy. Outcomes were operationalized as pre- to postchanges in: health-related quality of life, binge eating, and psychological distress. Patients' and therapists' working alliance were assessed after the 2nd, 10th, and last (20th) group therapy sessions. (a) There was no significant congruence between group therapists' and members' ratings of alliance; (b) therapists' ratings of an individual group member's alliance were significantly related to therapists' ratings of the other group members' alliance in early sessions but unrelated in later sessions; and (c) the relationship between therapists' alliance ratings and bias strength was weaker when patient binge eating outcomes improved. Group therapists adopted a "better safe than sorry" strategy by underestimating the strength of their group members' alliances. Therapists had a tendency to judge each group member's individual alliance based on the aggregated alliance of the other group members. Improvement in patient binge eating outcomes was related to therapists overcoming this tendency. (PsycINFO Database Record

  17. Understanding Implicit Texts in Focus Groups from a Systems Psychodynamic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smit, Brigitte; Cilliers, Frans

    2006-01-01

    Many researchers have been inquiring into focus groups as a qualitative data collection method (Barbour & Kitzinger 1999; Krueger 1998; Morgan, 1998), but only a few have been able to analyze the different levels of understanding in focus groups, which we focus on in this article. The guiding research question is how do focus groups offer deeper…

  18. Group Calls for More Focus on Potentially Hazardous Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2014-12-01

    A group of astronauts, scientists, business leaders, and artists are calling for a dramatic increase in detecting and monitoring asteroids that could potentially strike the Earth catastrophically. They have announced that 30 June 2015 will be a global asteroid awareness day.

  19. The Role of Focus Groups with Other Performance Measurement Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Elizabeth

    Huddersfield University Library (England) has undertaken a wide range of evaluative studies of its services and systems, using various data collection techniques such as: user surveys; exit interviews; online and CD-ROM analysis; benchmarking; user groups; staffing and staff development evaluation; suggestion sheets; student project work; group…

  20. Using focus groups in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 91.

    PubMed

    Stalmeijer, Renée E; Mcnaughton, Nancy; Van Mook, Walther N K A

    2014-11-01

    Qualitative research methodology has become an established part of the medical education research field. A very popular data-collection technique used in qualitative research is the "focus group". Focus groups in this Guide are defined as "… group discussions organized to explore a specific set of issues … The group is focused in the sense that it involves some kind of collective activity … crucially, focus groups are distinguished from the broader category of group interview by the explicit use of the group interaction as research data" (Kitzinger 1994, p. 103). This Guide has been designed to provide people who are interested in using focus groups with the information and tools to organize, conduct, analyze and publish sound focus group research within a broader understanding of the background and theoretical grounding of the focus group method. The Guide is organized as follows: Firstly, to describe the evolution of the focus group in the social sciences research domain. Secondly, to describe the paradigmatic fit of focus groups within qualitative research approaches in the field of medical education. After defining, the nature of focus groups and when, and when not, to use them, the Guide takes on a more practical approach, taking the reader through the various steps that need to be taken in conducting effective focus group research. Finally, the Guide finishes with practical hints towards writing up a focus group study for publication.

  1. Engaging Focus Group Methodology: The 4-H Middle School-Aged Youth Learning and Leading Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Siri; Grant, Samantha; Nippolt, Pamela Larson

    2015-01-01

    With young people, discussing complex issues such as learning and leading in a focus group can be a challenge. To help prime youth for the discussion, we created a focus group approach that featured a fun, interactive activity. This article includes a description of the focus group activity, lessons learned, and suggestions for additional…

  2. Using Focus Groups to Study Consumer Understanding and Experiences with Tamper-Evident Packaging Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascall, Melvin A.; Lee, Ken; Fraser, Angela; Halim, Linna

    2009-01-01

    A focus group with an educational component was used to help initiate a new research hypothesis. Early-stage development of a new tamper-evident invention was improved with input from a consumer focus group. The focus group comprised consumers who were shown several tamper-evident devices, including a new color-changing cap under active…

  3. The Use of Online Focus Groups to Design an Online Food Safety Education Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Ashley Bramlett; Harrison, Judy A.

    2012-01-01

    In the development of an online food safety education intervention for college students, online focus groups were used to determine the appropriate format and messages. Focus groups are often used in qualitative research and formative evaluation of public health programs, yet traditional focus groups can be both difficult and expensive to…

  4. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject box...: Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  5. Focus Groups to Explore the Perceptions of Older Adults on a Pedometer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David B.; Richeson, Nancy E.; Croteau, Karen A.; Farmer, Bonnie Cashin

    2009-01-01

    Focus group methodology was used to explore in depth the perceptions of older adults who had participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention. Nineteen women and 8 men, ages 55-86 years, volunteered to take part in the focus groups following participation in the intervention. Four focus groups of six to eight participants were scheduled at…

  6. Reinforcing the Seams: Using Focus Groups To Connect with Specific Employee Groups. AIR 1999 Annual Forum Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oudenhoven, D. Arnie; Gibson-Harman, Kim

    This paper reports on the use of focus groups at Oakton Community College (Illinois) to connect with classified staff and to get their feedback on key issues. A total of four single-session focus groups, three with classified staff (employees with varying levels of academic preparation and current responsibilities) and one with…

  7. Focus Groups as Temporal Ecosystems for Newly Qualified Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farquhar, Sandy; Tesar, Marek

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a focus group study of newly qualified early childhood teachers' experiences during their first year of teaching. It argues that focus groups have the potential to invite dialogical engagement in ways that support teachers' exploration of their own identities, and it emphasises the significant role group context plays in…

  8. Lessons Learned: One Experience with Focus Groups in a School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara J.; Kelly, Lynn E.

    2005-01-01

    Focus group research is an effective way for school nurses to gain knowledge about a diverse range of issues that children in schools may face. It is a means to gather information about perceptions, feelings, points of view, and manners of thinking from a group of individuals about a specific topic. This article overviews focus groups as a…

  9. Conducting focus groups cross-culturally: experiences with Pacific northwest Indian people.

    PubMed

    Strickland, C J

    1999-06-01

    Many disciplines have used focus groups in research and the use has increased in the past 15 years (Smith, 1995). Procedural concerns have been explored, such as the selection of the participants, the location, and the size of the group, but little attention has been given to the consideration of cultural influences. The purpose of this paper is to focus attention on the impact of culture in conducting focus groups. Experiences from 15 focus groups conducted in two qualitative research studies with two Washington state Indian tribes over a 5 year period are presented and illustrate the importance of culture in conducting focus groups. Communication patterns, roles, relationships, and traditions were found to be important elements that must be considered in conducting focus groups cross-culturally. While some strategies discovered were found to be helpful, additional research is needed.

  10. Conducting focus groups with women with severe psychiatric disabilities: a methodological overview.

    PubMed

    Koppelman, N F; Bourjolly, J N

    2001-01-01

    This article presents information on the methodology used in conducting focus groups with women with severe psychiatric disabilities. The purpose of the focus groups was to understand the experiences of low-income women with severe psychiatric disabilities in accessing and using primary health care services. Discussed are the design decisions researchers should reflect on when constructing and conducting focus groups with women with severe psychiatric disabilities. Information on how guidelines from the literature on conducting focus groups were adapted for these women as well as lessons learned from this experience are presented.

  11. Interaction between participants in focus groups with older patients and general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Moen, Janne; Antonov, Karolina; Nilsson, J Lars G; Ring, Lena

    2010-05-01

    Group interaction is put forward as the principal advantage for focus group research, although rarely reported on. The aim of the article is to contribute to the methodological knowledge regarding focus group research by providing an empirical example of the application of the Lehoux, Poland, and Daudelin template suggested for analysis of the interaction in focus groups. The data source was 18 focus groups' performance in Sweden: 12 with older patients and 6 with general practitioners (GPs). GPs found common ground in belonging to the same profession, whereas the older patients, instead of constituting a group in the word's real sense, started just sharing a common focus. We found the template easy to understand and use, except for identifying participants' explicit and implicit purposes for participating. Furthermore, adding an interaction analysis to the content analysis helped us appreciate and clarify the contexts from which these data were created.

  12. Demonstrating the Efficacy of Group Prolonged Exposure Treatment of PTSD in OEF/OIF/OND Male Veterans

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    format. The study population is male OEF/OIF/OND veterans who will be block randomized in groups of 3 into a 10- week , 90-minute, Prolonged Exposure...be block randomized in groups of 3 into a 10- week , 90-minute, Prolonged Exposure Group (PEG) or Present-Centered Therapy (PCT) group. The goal of

  13. Precincts and Prospects in the Use of Focus Groups in Social and Behavioral Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagoe, Dominic

    2012-01-01

    Over the past few years, the focus group method has assumed a very important role as a method for collecting qualitative data in social and behavioural science research. This article elucidates theoretical and practical problems and prospects associated with the use of focus groups as a qualitative research method in social and behavioural science…

  14. Strengthening the Role of Part-Time Faculty in Community Colleges. Focus Group Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Community College Student Engagement encourages colleges to hold focus groups with part-time and full-time faculty to learn about differences in the faculty and their experience at their college and to complement survey data. Survey responses tell the "what" about faculty's experiences; through conducting focus groups,…

  15. Benefits and Challenges of Focus Groups in the Evaluation of a New Graduate Entry Medical Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nestel, Debra; Ivkovic, Amelie; Hill, Robyn A.; Warrens, Anthony N.; Paraskevas, Paraskeva A.; McDonnell, Jacqueline A.; Mudarikwa, Ruvimbo S.; Browne, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Programme evaluation is essential for quality assurance in education. In this paper, we describe our evaluation strategy for the first year of a new medical programme. Although we used multiple methods in the evaluation, the use of the focus group method was core. This paper reports our experiences of focus groups for this purpose. We describe the…

  16. The Comparability of Focus Group and Survey Results: Three Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Victoria M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Focus group findings were compared with survey findings for three studies in which both methods were used. Studies conducted on voluntary sterilization in Guatemala, Honduras, and Zaire with over 2,000 subjects confirm that focus groups yield information similar to that obtained from surveys and are useful in program planning. (SLD)

  17. Focus Groups with Working Parents of School-Aged Children: What's Needed to Improve Family Meals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Kubik, Martha Y.; Rydell, Sarah; Boutelle, Kerri N.; Garwick, Ann; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Dudovitz, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To conduct focus groups to identify parents' perceptions of barriers to family meals and elucidate ideas to guide the development of interventions to overcome barriers. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 27 working parents in urban community settings. Results: Parents reported enjoying the sharing/bonding…

  18. Report on Focus Groups: Research and Practice--Reading Instruction. ERIC/OSEP Special Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaunstein, Phyllis; And Others

    This report summarizes results of three focus groups which examined teachers' ideas and attitudes about the utility of research on the practice of teaching reading to students with learning disabilities and about forms of communication that would make research information more useful. The focus groups were part of a larger project designed to…

  19. Designing a bone health and soy focus group discussion guide based on the health belief model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Focus groups were used to assess the knowledge and skills of women in order to support curricula development. The Health Belief Model was applied to the discussion guide to enhance focus group findings and applications. Constructs related to perceived susceptibility, severity, benefits, and barriers...

  20. Using a Focus Group to Analyze Students' Perceptions of a Service-Learning Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diambra, Joel F.; McClam, Tricia; Fuss, Angie; Burton, Bobbie; Fudge, Daniel L.

    2009-01-01

    A semi-structured focus group prompted interaction among 23 human service undergraduates prior to a unique service-learning experience that involved completing a horticultural project and case management tasks with at-risk youth living in a locked psychiatric residential treatment center. The focus group provided an opportunity for university…

  1. The Complete Guide to Focus Group Marketing Research for Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topor, Robert S.

    This guide discusses the use of focus groups in marketing research for higher education. It describes the differences between qualitative and quantitative research, and examines when it is appropriate to use focus group research, when it is not, and why. The guide describes a step-by-step approach in how to plan, formulate, moderate, and report…

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of Focus Group Respondents in the 1992 Presidential Debates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dudczak, Craig A.; Altenbernd, Lisa M.

    A study assessed the selection techniques used to secure focus group respondents at one site as part of a larger study to determine what viewers learned from the 1992 Presidential Debates. A two-stage random sampling technique was developed to select focus group respondents from the 224,041 registered voters in Syracuse, New York. The random…

  3. Using focus groups and social marketing to strengthen promotion of group prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Vonderheid, Susan C; Carrie, S Klima; Norr, Kathleen F; Grady, Mary Alice; Westdahl, Claire M

    2013-01-01

    Centering Pregnancy, an innovative group model of prenatal care, shows promise to reduce persistent adverse maternal-infant outcomes and contain costs. Because this innovation requires systemwide change, clinics reported needing support enrolling women into groups and obtaining organizational buy-in. This study used the 3-step social marketing communication strategy to help clinic staff identify key customers and customer-specific barriers to adopting or supporting Centering Pregnancy. They developed targeted information to reduce barriers and built skills in communicating with different customers through role-playing. Findings provide practical information for others to use this communication strategy to improve implementation of Centering Pregnancy.

  4. Report on Results of Focus Groups Conducted with People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Human Services, Augusta. Bureau of Health.

    This report describes results of six focus groups of people with disabilities convened by the Maine Bureau of Health to determine the feelings, attitudes, and experiences of this population. Four groups were comprised of adults ranging in age from the early twenties to the late seventies; two groups were comprised of adolescents and young adults.…

  5. Teachers' Commitment To, and Experiences of, the Teaching Profession in Tanzania: Findings of Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mkumbo, Kitila A. K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined teachers' commitment to, and experiences of, the teaching profession in six regions of Tanzania. The study used focus group discussions as research method and data collection tool. Twenty four groups were conducted, with group membership ranging from five to nine participants. The results show that the teachers'…

  6. Elaborating patient information with patients themselves: lessons from a cancer treatment focus group

    PubMed Central

    Moumjid, Nora; Morelle, Magali; Carrère, Marie‐Odile; Bachelot, Thomas; Mignotte, Hervé; Brémond, Alain

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To assess the significance of patients' input in the elaboration of a patient information booklet. Design  Qualitative study based on focus group discussions. Setting  Centre Léon Bérard, a comprehensive cancer centre in the Rhône‐Alpes region of France. Participants  (1) A multidisciplinary working group (oncologists, health economists and one clinical psychologist) wrote up initial information documents concerning possible breast cancer treatments. (2) A focus group comprised of patients with a history of breast cancer and healthy volunteers discussed their reactions to these documents. Main outcome measure  Analysis of the focus group's reactions according to key themes predetermined by the working group and related themes introduced by the focus group itself. Results  The focus group proposed numerous, significant modifications to answer requests for additional information, clarification and better readability in the information booklets. Discussion/Conclusions  This qualitative analysis showed a significant input of patients' perspective in the elaboration of patient information. It is also an additional support to the feasibility and appropriateness of the focus group technique. The next stage will be to test whether information documents produced here conform to the needs of patients currently undergoing treatment. PMID:12752741

  7. Lessons learned using Web conference technology for online focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Tuttas, Carol A

    2015-01-01

    Researchers use Internet technology for data collection in qualitative studies. In the literature there are published accounts of synchronous (real-time) and more commonly, asynchronous (not-real-time) focus group data collection methods supported by Internet technology in the form of email correspondence, LISTSERVs, discussion boards, and chat rooms. Real-time audiovisual Web conference technology offers qualitative researchers a promising alternative means to carry out focus groups. In this methodological article I describe how I used Web conference technology to host online focus groups for a qualitative study about job integration experiences of travel nurses geographically dispersed across the United States. I describe lessons learned from the use of this innovative method for qualitative data collection, including a brief overview about the use of dictation software for transcription. This new knowledge is useful to researchers considering Web conference technology to carry out focus group data collection in qualitative research.

  8. Brief Group Psychotherpay for Women after Divorce: Planning a Focused Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coche, Judith; Goldman, Janice

    1979-01-01

    A model for a brief, focused group psychotherapy experience for women, led by women therapists, is suggested as an effective means to ease the transition from marriage and to allow a redefinition of the self as a single individual. (Author)

  9. Focus Group Assessment of Culturally Specific Cholesterol-Lowering Menus for Mexican Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, M.; Coyle, Y.; Kavanaugh, A.; Adams-Huet, B.; Lipsky, P.E.

    2004-01-01

    This study focus tested the acceptability of a set of six 1400 kcal and six 1800 kcal culturally appropriate cholesterol-lowering menus developed for low-income Mexican-Americans with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The focus group, made up of 11 low-income Mexican-American women without SLE, found the menus to be generally culturally valid,…

  10. Adolescent Girls' Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women's understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) "types of sexual risk,"…

  11. Exploring Cryogenic Focused Ion Beam Milling as a Group III-V Device Fabrication Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) milling as a Group III-V device fabrication tool. Cryogenic cooling of III-V semiconductor material during Ga + FIB irradiation...potential applications of cryogenic focused ion beam (cryo-FIB) milling as a Group III-V device fabrication tool. Cryogenic cooling of III-V semiconductor...sensitivity to the Ga ion beam . This sensitivity is manifested as changes in the structure and chemical composition of the starting material upon exposure to

  12. The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health: Using Focus Groups to Inform Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Recruitment and retention of participants to large-scale, longitudinal studies can be a challenge, particularly when trying to target young women. Qualitative inquiries with members of the target population can prove valuable in assisting with the development of effective recruiting techniques. Researchers in the current study made use of focus group methodology to identify how to encourage young women aged 18-23 to participate in a national cohort online survey. Objective Our objectives were to gain insight into how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal health survey, as well as to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Methods The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health used focus group methodology to learn how to encourage young women to participate in a large-scale, longitudinal Web-based health survey and to evaluate the survey instrument and mode of administration. Nineteen groups, involving 75 women aged 18-23 years, were held in remote, regional, and urban areas of New South Wales and Queensland. Results Focus groups were held in 2 stages, with discussions lasting from 19 minutes to over 1 hour. The focus groups allowed concord to be reached regarding survey promotion using social media, why personal information was needed, strategies to ensure confidentiality, how best to ask sensitive questions, and survey design for ease of completion. Recruitment into the focus groups proved difficult: the groups varied in size between 1 and 8 participants, with the majority conducted with 2 participants. Conclusions Intense recruitment efforts and variation in final focus group numbers highlights the “hard to reach” character of young women. However, the benefits of conducting focus group discussions as a preparatory stage to the recruitment of a large cohort for a longitudinal Web-based health survey were upheld. PMID:26902160

  13. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. Participants A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Intervention Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Results Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session (‘developing a sense of group belonging’) and perceptions of its design and delivery (‘creating the conditions for engagement’). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Conclusions Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections

  14. Social representations of climate change in Swedish lay focus groups: local or distant, gradual or catastrophic?

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2014-02-01

    This paper explores social representations of climate change, investigating how climate change is discussed by Swedish laypeople interacting in focus group interviews. The analysis focuses on prototypical examples and metaphors, which were key devices for objectifying climate change representations. The paper analyzes how the interaction of focus group participants with other speakers, ideas, arguments, and broader social representations shaped their representations of climate change. Climate change was understood as a global but distant issue with severe consequences. There was a dynamic tension between representations of climate change as a gradual vs. unpredictable process. Implications for climate change communication are discussed.

  15. The Purpose of Focus Groups in Ascertaining Learner Satisfaction with a Virtual Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tainsh, Yana I.

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the contribution of focus groups in evaluating learner satisfaction with a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE). It explores the views of a group of introductory level Post Compulsory Education learners that have a history of disaffection, impoverished learning and challenged written and communication skills. The outcome of this…

  16. The Nominal Group Technique as an Evaluation Tool for Solution-Focused Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roeden, John M.; Maaskant, Marian A.; Curfs, Leopold M. G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Solution-focused coaching (SFC) helps individuals or groups to achieve their preferred outcomes by evoking and co-constructing solutions. SFC has been shown to be helpful for persons with ID as well as for teams coaching people with ID. Nominal Group Technique (NGT) helps to organize people's thoughts with regard to a single question.…

  17. Socialization in the Institution: A Working Group's Journey to Bring Public Engagement into Focus on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plakans, Lia; Alper, Rebecca; Colvin, Carolyn; Aquilino, Mary; Louko, Linda J.; Zebrowski, Patricia; Ali, Saba Rasheed

    2016-01-01

    For over 3 years, 6 faculty members and 1 graduate student have gathered as a working group applying an interdisciplinary focus to public engagement projects involving immigrant families in the rural Midwest. One dimension of the group's effort has been to involve faculty, staff, and students from many disciplines in its examination of pertinent…

  18. Listening to Voices of Children with a Visual Impairment: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khadka, Jyoti; Ryan, Barbara; Margrain, Tom H.; Woodhouse, J. Margaret; Davies, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the educational, social and leisure activities and issues that matter to school children and young people with a visual impairment and to compare their lifestyle with fully sighted counterparts. Thirteen focus groups were conducted and the groups were stratified by age, gender, visual status and school…

  19. Focus Group Discussions: Three Examples from Family and Consumer Science Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrison, M. E. Betsy; Pierce, Sarah H.; Monroe, Pamela A.; Sasser, Diane D.; Shaffer, Amy C.; Blalock, Lydia B.

    1999-01-01

    Gives examples of the focus group method in terms of question development, group composition and recruitment, interview protocols, and data analysis as applied to three family and consumer-sciences research projects: consumer behavior of working female adolescents, work readiness of adult males with low educational attainment, and definition of…

  20. The Effect of Solution-Focused Brief Group Counseling upon the Perceived Social Competences of Teenagers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of solution-focused brief group counseling upon the perceived social competences of teenagers was investigated. The study group included 24 volunteer students who took lower scores rather than the ones obtained from perceived social competence scale pre-test measurements out of 227 students studying at a high school in…

  1. Tech Prep: Building a Framework for Future Research, Evaluation, and Program Practice. Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Barbara G.

    This document reports on three focus groups comprised of state officials, local practitioners and supporters, and researchers who were convened to provide input on strategies for assessing and validating the effects of tech prep. Part I provides a brief summary of the groups' discussions, including major points and broad themes in these four topic…

  2. A 3-Component Approach Incorporating Focus Groups in Strategic Planning for Sexual Violence Prevention.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Theresa H; Hess, Julia Meredith; Woelk, Leona; Bear, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Sexual violence is of special concern in New Mexico because of the presence of large priority populations in which its prevalence is high. This article describes a 3-component approach to developing a strategic plan to prevent sexual violence in the state that consisted of an advisory group, subject matter experts, and focus groups from geographically and demographically diverse communities. Both common and community-specific themes emerged from the focus groups and were included in the strategic plan. By incorporating community needs and experiences, this approach fosters increased investment in plan implementation.

  3. Capacity Building through Focus Group Training in Community-based Participatory Research

    PubMed Central

    Amico, KL; Wieland, ML; Weis, JA; Sullivan, SM; Nigon, JA; Sia, IG

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR) emphasizes collaborative efforts among communities and academics where all members are equitable contributors. Capacity building through training in research methodology is a potentially important outcome for CBPR partnerships. Objectives To describe the logistics and lessons learned from building community research capacity for focus group moderation in the context of a CBPR partnership. Methods After orientation to CBPR principles, members of a US suburban community underwent twelve hours of interactive learning in focus group moderation by a national focus group expert. An additional eight-hour workshop promoted advanced proficiency and built on identified strengths and weaknesses. Ten focus groups were conducted at an adult education center addressing a health concern previously identified by the center’s largely immigrant and refugee population. Program evaluation was achieved through multiple observations by community and academic-based observers. Results Twenty-seven community and academic members were recruited through established relationships for training in focus group moderation, note-taking, and report compilation. Focus group training led to increased trust among community and research partners while empowering individual community members and increasing research capacity for CBPR. Conclusions Community members were trained in focus group moderation and successfully applied these skills to a CBPR project addressing a health concern in the community. This approach of equipping community members with skills in a qualitative research method promoted capacity building within a socio-culturally diverse community, while strengthening community-academic partnership. In this setting, capacity building efforts may help to ensure the success and sustainability for continued health interventions through CBPR. PMID:22267359

  4. Virtual Versus In-Person Focus Groups: Comparison of Costs, Recruitment, and Participant Logistics

    PubMed Central

    Poehlman, Jon A; Hayes, Jennifer J; Ray, Sarah E; Moultrie, Rebecca R

    2017-01-01

    Background Virtual focus groups—such as online chat and video groups—are increasingly promoted as qualitative research tools. Theoretically, virtual groups offer several advantages, including lower cost, faster recruitment, greater geographic diversity, enrollment of hard-to-reach populations, and reduced participant burden. However, no study has compared virtual and in-person focus groups on these metrics. Objective To rigorously compare virtual and in-person focus groups on cost, recruitment, and participant logistics. We examined 3 focus group modes and instituted experimental controls to ensure a fair comparison. Methods We conducted 6 1-hour focus groups in August 2014 using in-person (n=2), live chat (n=2), and video (n=2) modes with individuals who had type 2 diabetes (n=48 enrolled, n=39 completed). In planning groups, we solicited bids from 6 virtual platform vendors and 4 recruitment firms. We then selected 1 platform or facility per mode and a single recruitment firm across all modes. To minimize bias, the recruitment firm employed different recruiters by mode who were blinded to recruitment efforts for other modes. We tracked enrollment during a 2-week period. A single moderator conducted all groups using the same guide, which addressed the use of technology to communicate with health care providers. We conducted the groups at the same times of day on Monday to Wednesday during a single week. At the end of each group, participants completed a short survey. Results Virtual focus groups offered minimal cost savings compared with in-person groups (US $2000 per chat group vs US $2576 per in-person group vs US $2,750 per video group). Although virtual groups did not incur travel costs, they often had higher management fees and miscellaneous expenses (eg, participant webcams). Recruitment timing did not differ by mode, but show rates were higher for in-person groups (94% [15/16] in-person vs 81% [13/16] video vs 69% [11/16] chat). Virtual group

  5. Use of focus group interviews with public health nurses to identify the efforts of and challenges faced by branches of the Japan Health Insurance Association to achieve good performance of the Specific Health Guidance initiatives.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Fumi; Ozawa, Keiko; Kawabata, Teruko; Takemi, Yukari

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Aiming at improvement of the Japan Health Insurance Association's Specific Health Guidance initiatives and human resource development, we conducted a qualitative study to clarify the features necessary for and the challenges hindering the achievement of good performance of the initiatives.Methods From November 2014 to January 2015, we conducted 10 focus group interviews, each 90 minutes long, with 64 public health nurses from 10 Japan Health Insurance Association branches. In addition, self-administered questionnaires were administered to obtain the participants' basic characteristics. After we excluded one group for failing to meet our performance targets, we divided the remaining nine focus groups according to two patterns: Maintenance and Progress. The four focus groups fitting the Maintenance pattern had a well-established track record, and the five focus groups fitting the Progress pattern had a track record of good growth. Using open coding of the interview transcripts, we extracted efforts or needs in two domains, individual and branch, Then, we placed codes in eight main categories: [quality], [general practice], [dietary guidance practice], [success factor], [branch system], [training and skill development], [approach to the member office], and [past efforts]. We further extracted important subcategories based on their rates of appearance within branches.Results Data from 56 female public health nurses working at nine branches were included in the analysis. With respect to the individual domain, subcategories such as "building rapport," "creating the physical environment," and "taking the initiative in evaluating one's own lifestyle" in the 〈high emphasis〉 segment of the [general practice] category were common to both patterns. In addition, "increasing opportunities for training" and "enhancement of training program content" were found for both patterns in relation to the 〈demand〉 segment of the [training and skill development

  6. Split-Session Focus Group Interviews in the Naturalistic Setting of Family Medicine Offices

    PubMed Central

    Fetters, Michael D.; Guetterman, Timothy C.; Power, Debra; Nease, Donald E.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE When recruiting health care professionals to focus group interviews, investigators encounter challenges such as busy clinic schedules, recruitment, and a desire to get candid responses from diverse participants. We sought to overcome these challenges using an innovative, office-based, split-session focus group procedure in a project that elicited feedback from family medicine practices regarding a new preventive services model. This procedure entails allocating a portion of time to the entire group and the remaining time to individual subgroups. We discuss the methodologic procedure and the implications of using this approach for data collection. METHODS We conducted split-session focus groups with physicians and staff in 4 primary care practices. The procedure entailed 3 sessions, each lasting 30 minutes: the moderator interviewed physicians and staff together, physicians alone, and staff alone. As part of the focus group interview, we elicited and analyzed participant comments about the split-session format and collected observational field notes. RESULTS The split-session focus group interviews leveraged the naturalistic setting of the office for context-relevant discussion. We tested alternate formats that began in the morning and at lunchtime, to parallel each practice’s workflow. The split-session approach facilitated discussion of topics primarily relevant to staff among staff, topics primarily relevant to physicians among physicians, and topics common to all among all. Qualitative feedback on this approach was uniformly positive. CONCLUSION A split-session focus group interview provides an efficient, effective way to elicit candid qualitative information from all members of a primary care practice in the naturalistic setting where they work. PMID:26755786

  7. Court reporters: a viable solution for the challenges of focus group data collection?

    PubMed

    Scott, Shannon D; Sharpe, Heather; O'Leary, Kathy; Dehaeck, Ulrike; Hindmarsh, Kathryn; Moore, John Garry; Osmond, Martin H

    2009-01-01

    Focus group interviews are a common approach to data collection in qualitative research projects. They are, however, a method with the potential for methodological and pragmatic difficulties, many of which stem from transcribing focus group data from an audiotape. An alternative to postinterview transcription is the use of a court reporter. Advantages found using court reporters were increased accuracy, timely receipt of transcripts, less distraction for focus group facilitators, guaranteed confidentiality, time saved reviewing transcripts, and convenience. Because court reporters do not traditionally work in health research, there might be issues with medical terminology that require diligence on the part of the researcher to ensure that jargon is appropriately identified and transcribed. Using court reporters in rural areas might be cost-prohibitive because of travel expenses. Court reporters offer a viable and worthwhile approach to data transcription, and in our experience, have provided our research team with rich and accurate data.

  8. Interactive Performance and Focus Groups with Adolescents: The Power of Play

    PubMed Central

    Norris, Anne E.; Aroian, Karen J.; Warren, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Conducting focus groups with adolescents can be challenging given their developmental needs, particularly with sensitive topics. These challenges include intense need for peer approval, declining social trust, short attention span, and reliance on concrete operations thinking. In this article we describe an adaptation of interactive performance as an alternative to traditional focus group method. We used this method in a study of discrimination experienced by Muslims (ages 13-17) and of peer pressure to engage in sexual behavior experienced by Hispanic girls (ages 10-14). Recommendations for use of this method include using an interdisciplinary team, planning for large amounts of disclosure towards the end of the focus group, and considering the fit of this method to the study topic. PMID:22949032

  9. Using focus groups to develop interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bang H.; Vo, Phuong H.; Doan, Hiep T.; McPhee, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Vietnamese Americans. Their colorectal screening rates are lower than the rates of whites. Methods Four focus groups were conducted to identify Vietnamese American sources and credibility of health information, media utilization, and intervention approaches. Results Vietnamese Americans trusted doctors and patient testimonials, and had access to, and received most of their health information from, Vietnamese-language print and electronic media. Recommended intervention approaches include promoting doctors' recommendation of screening and using Vietnamese-language mass media, print materials, and oral presentations. Conclusions Focus groups are useful in determining communication channels and intervention approaches. PMID:17020518

  10. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach

    PubMed Central

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-01-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity. PMID:23610606

  11. Assessing the children's views on foods and consumption of selected food groups: outcome from focus group approach.

    PubMed

    Sharif Ishak, Sharifah Intan Zainun; Shohaimi, Shamarina; Kandiah, Mirnalini

    2013-04-01

    The food choices in childhood have high a probability of being carried through into their adulthood life, which then contributes to the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Therefore, there is a need to gather some information about children's views on foods which may influence their food choices for planning a related dietary intervention or programme. This paper aimed to explore the views of children on foods and the types of foods which are usually consumed by children under four food groups (snacks, fast foods, cereals and cereal products; and milk and dairy products) by using focus group discussions. A total of 33 school children aged 7-9 years old from Selangor and Kuala Lumpur participated in the focus groups. Focus groups were audio-taped, transcribed and analyzed according to the listed themes. The outcomes show that the children usually consumed snacks such as white bread with spread or as a sandwich, local cakes, fruits such as papaya, mango and watermelon, biscuits or cookies, tea, chocolate drink and instant noodles. Their choices of fast foods included pizza, burgers, French fries and fried chicken. For cereal products, they usually consumed rice, bread and ready-to-eat cereals. Finally, their choices of dairy products included milk, cheese and yogurt. The reasons for the food liking were taste, nutritional value and the characteristics of food. The outcome of this study may provide additional information on the food choices among Malaysian children, especially in urban areas with regard to the food groups which have shown to have a relationship with the risk of childhood obesity.

  12. Overcoming Workplace Barriers: A Focus Group Study Exploring African American Mothers' Needs for Workplace Breastfeeding Support

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Angela Marie; Kirk, Rosalind; Muzik, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background Persistent racial disparities in breastfeeding show that African American women breastfeed at the lowest rates. Return to work is a critical breastfeeding barrier for African American women who return to work sooner than other ethnic groups and more often encounter unsupportive work environments. They also face psychosocial burdens that make breastfeeding at work uniquely challenging. Participants share personal struggles with combining paid employment and breastfeeding and suggest workplace and personal support strategies that they believe will help continue breastfeeding after a return to work. Objective To explore current perspectives on ways to support African American mothers' workplace breastfeeding behavior. Methods Pregnant African American women (n = 8), African American mothers of infants (n = 21), and lactation support providers (n = 9) participated in 1 of 6 focus groups in the Greater Detroit area. Each focus group audiotape was transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis was used to inductively analyze focus group transcripts and field notes. Focus groups explored thoughts, perceptions, and behavior on interventions to support African American women's breastfeeding. Results Participants indicate that they generally believed breastfeeding was a healthy option for the baby; however, paid employment is a critical barrier to successful breastfeeding for which mothers receive little help. Participants felt breastfeeding interventions that support working African American mothers should include education and training for health care professionals, regulation and enforcement of workplace breastfeeding support policies, and support from peers who act as breastfeeding role models. Conclusion Culturally appropriate interventions are needed to support breastfeeding among working African American women. PMID:25714345

  13. Reconsidering the role of interaction in analyzing and reporting focus groups.

    PubMed

    Morgan, David L

    2010-05-01

    In the two sections of this article, I examine aspects of the analysis and reporting of interaction in focus groups. In both sections, I argue that the essential importance of interaction for producing the data in focus groups does not correspond to any requirement that the analysis or the reporting of that data should emphasize interaction. With regard to analyzing interaction, the goals of the research should guide the analysis of the data, and those goals might or might not emphasize interaction. In particular, a great deal of focus group research is conducted for substantive and practical purposes, where the analysis typically requires little attention to the dynamics of interaction in those groups. With regard to reporting interaction, quotations from single individuals can often be the most efficient and effectives ways to accomplish an article's goals; however, I also discuss the kinds of situations where there are good reasons to report interaction among the participants. I conclude by briefly describing a different agenda for examining the importance of interaction in focus groups.

  14. Use of focus groups to elicit student perception of NCLEX-RN preparation.

    PubMed

    Pabst, Mary K; Strom, Jan; Reiss, Penny J

    2010-09-01

    Focus groups are an appropriate data collection method when one wants to listen to and gather information from a homogenous group of participants. Faculty members from a baccalaureate program used this technique to learn more about their students' perceptions of NCLEX-RN preparation practices. Themes were identified that could lead to more controlled study and ways to effectively remediate those at risk for failure.

  15. Communicating the Nature of Science through "The Big Bang Theory": Evidence from a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Rashel; Orthia, Lindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a little-studied means of communicating about or teaching the nature of science (NOS)--through fiction television. We report some results of focus group research which suggest that the American sitcom "The Big Bang Theory" (2007-present), whose main characters are mostly working scientists, has influenced…

  16. Understanding Successful School-University Collaboration: Drawing Conclusions through Focus Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borthwick, Arlene C.; Stirling, Terry; Nauman, April D.; Bishop, Grace; Mayer, Nancy J.

    In research begun in 1999, participant perceptions of the elements required for successful school-university partnerships were explored. All participants were involved in partnerships of the Chicago Public Schools with a university partner. This study asked participants, through a series of focus groups, to examine, discuss, and draw their own…

  17. Using the Focus Group in Assessing Training Needs: Empowering Child Welfare Workers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Janice D.; Verschelden, Cia

    1993-01-01

    Describes an assessment process in a public child welfare agency that included workers as a primary source of knowledge about their own needs. Argues that the use of focus groups (a marketing research technique) encourages high levels of direct input and helps engage workers in subsequent phases of the training process. (MM)

  18. Business and Marketing Education Programs in Georgia: Focus Groups Examine Issues for Program Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Womble, Myra J.; Adams, J. Elaine; Stitt-Gohdes, Wanda L.

    2000-01-01

    Focus groups with 25 business and 18 marketing teachers and 6 business/industry representatives elicited the following opinions: the primary purpose of business/marketing education is work force preparation; dedicated faculty and administrative support are ideal features; a strong voice for vocational education is needed; and important skill areas…

  19. Benefits, Barriers, and Cues to Action of Yoga Practice: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Nancy L.; Permuth-Levine, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To explore perceived benefits, barriers, and cues to action of yoga practice among adults. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with persons who had never practiced yoga, practitioners of one year or less, and practitioners for more than one year. The Health Belief Model was the theoretical foundation of inquiry. Results: All…

  20. Focus Group Research on the Implications of Adopting the Unified English Braille Code

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetzel, Robin; Knowlton, Marie

    2006-01-01

    Five focus groups explored concerns about adopting the Unified English Braille Code. The consensus was that while the proposed changes to the literary braille code would be minor, those to the mathematics braille code would be much more extensive. The participants emphasized that "any code that reduces the number of individuals who can access…

  1. Focus Groups with Smokers To Develop a Smoke-Free Home Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gupta, Romilla; Dwyer, John J. M.

    2001-01-01

    Conducted focus groups with daily smokers to identify key themes and strategies that would be effective in influencing attitudinal and behavioral change in homes that allowed smoking to occur. Smokers preferred messages that addressed the health of children, respected smokers, were based on research, provided information and assistance on…

  2. Using Focus Groups to Identify Rural Participant Needs in Balancing Work and Family Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Stephen F.; Marotz-Baden, Ramona

    1999-01-01

    Six focus groups with 49 rural residents identified concerns about balancing work and family (time, energy, conflicting demands, child care), causes of imbalance, and types of help needed. Results were used to plan programs on time and resource management, meal planning, and relationship skills. (SK)

  3. First Year Co-Teaching: Disclosed through Focus Group and Individual Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isherwood, Robert; Barger-Anderson, Richael; Merhaut, Joseph; Badgett, Rebecca; Katsafanas, Jodi

    2011-01-01

    Focus group interviews and individual interviews were conducted with 47 faculty members and administrators in a rural school district in Western Pennsylvania to determine strategies for consideration when attempting to establish and implement a co-teaching program. Participants were part of a school district in its second year of adopting a…

  4. Perceived Barriers to Hearing Protection Use by Employees in Amplified Music Venues, a Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Aoife C.; Boyd, Sara M.; Henehan, Gary T. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: It is a legal requirement for employees in noisy workplaces such as nightclubs to be provided with suitable information regarding their noise exposure risks, used a focus group approach to examine employees' attitudes to workplace noise and to hearing protection use. The subsequent analysis was based on an adapted Health Belief Model.…

  5. Using Focus Groups to Develop a Nutrition Education Video for High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Delores C. S.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Frazee, Carol

    1997-01-01

    Study used focus group interviews with ninth graders to help develop a nutrition education video and teacher's guide for Florida high schools. Students believed a video would be successful, expressed interest in 10 nutrition topics, recommended using teen actors with varying body types, and suggested no more than three or four topics per video.…

  6. Use of Focus Group Data to Develop Recommendations for Demographically Segmented Colorectal Cancer Educational Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Shipp, Michele; Eloubeidi, Mohamad; Clay, Kimberly S.; Smith-Janas, Mary Ann; Janas, Michael John; Britt, Kristi; Norena, Maria; Fouad, Mona N.

    2009-01-01

    Screening is available and effective in colorectal cancer (CRC) control, but underutilized. The purpose of this study was to use focus group data to develop recommendations for the development of educational interventions to increase CRC screening, using an audience segmentation strategy. Demographic segments were based on urban-rural residence,…

  7. Perceptions of Factors Influencing Healthful Food Consumption Behavior in the Lower Mississippi Delta: Focus Group Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Richardson, Valerie; Johnson, Glenda S.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Yadrick, Kathleen; Ndirangu, Murugi; Goolsby, Susan; Watkins, Debra; Simpson, Pippa M.; Hyman, Edith; Stigger, Flavelia; Bogle, Margaret L.; Kramer, Tim R.; Strickland, Earline; McCabe-Sellers, Beverly

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To identify perceptions of Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD) residents regarding factors that influence a change in healthful food consumption behavior to assist in planning sustainable nutrition interventions in the LMD. Design: Nine focus groups were conducted with LMD residents in 9 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. One…

  8. Library on the Go: A Focus Group Study of the Mobile Web and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeholzer, Jamie; Salem, Joseph A., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This study explores student use of the mobile Web in general and expectations for an academic library's mobile Web site in particular through focus groups with students at Kent State University. Participants expressed more interest in using their mobile Web device to interact with library resources and services than anticipated. Results showed an…

  9. Teen Perceptions of the Promotion of Safer Sexual Practices: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrman, Judith W.; Kelley, Andrea; Haigh, Katherine M.

    2017-01-01

    Teens' own thoughts on fostering safe sexual practice are important perspectives in promoting adolescent sexual health yet are relatively absent in the literature. This focus group study explored teens' perceptions about the supports and challenges that exist as teens strive to engage in healthy sexual practices. Seventy-five teens participated in…

  10. Focus Groups and Usability Testing in Redesigning an Academic Library's Web Site

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oldham, Bonnie W.

    2008-01-01

    As the World Wide Web has advanced since its inception, librarians have endeavored to keep pace with this progress in the design of their library Web pages. User recommendations collected from focus groups and usability testing have indicated that the University of Scranton's Weinberg Memorial Library's Web site was not working as intended, and…

  11. Using Focus Groups to Identify Factors Affecting Healthful Weight Maintenance in Latino Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greaney, Mary L.; Lees, Faith D.; Lynch, Breanna; Sebelia, Linda; Greene, Geoffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore (1) how migration influenced physical activity and dietary behaviors among Latino immigrants and (2) participants' perception of concepts related to a Health at Every Size (HAES) approach to weight maintenance (mindful eating, taking care of oneself). Methods: Four focus groups (n = 35), homogenous by sex, were conducted in…

  12. Children's Experiences and Meaning Construction on Parental Divorce: A Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maes, Sofie D. J.; De Mol, Jan; Buysse, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The global aim of this study was to explore children's narratives of parental divorce. A convenience sample, composed of 11- and 14-year-old children, was recruited. A total of 22 children (12 male, 10 female) participated in this focus group study. The findings show that two components seem to be really important for children during the divorce…

  13. A Retention Assessment Process: Utilizing Total Quality Management Principles and Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codjoe, Henry M.; Helms, Marilyn M.

    2005-01-01

    Retaining students is a critical topic in higher education. Methodologies abound to gather attrition data as well as key variables important to retention. Using the theories of total quality management and focus groups, this case study gathers and reports data from current college students. Key results, suggestions for replication, and areas for…

  14. 78 FR 42797 - Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Comment Request Focus Groups About the Housing Search...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... Housing Search Process for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) People AGENCY: Office of Policy... information: Title of Proposal: Focus Groups about the Housing Search Process for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and.... Specifically, we are interested in the manner in which people identify themselves as lesbian, gay,...

  15. Cancer patients' perspectives on multidisciplinary team working: an exploratory focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lamb, Benjamin W; Jalil, Rozh T; Shah, Sujay; Brown, Katrina; Allchorne, Paula; Vincent, Charles; Green, James S A; Sevdalis, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative, focus-group study explores what patients understand about the multidisciplinary team (MDT) in cancer care. Participants were positive towards MDT working, and by strengthening the role of nurses in MDT decision-making, the representation of patients' interests can be improved.

  16. A Focus Group Study of Child Nutrition Professionals' Attitudes about Food Allergies and Current Training Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yee Ming; Kwon, Junehee; Sauer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore child nutrition professionals' (CNPs) attitudes about food allergies, current practices of food allergy training, and operational issues related to food allergy training in school foodservice operations. Methods: Three focus groups were conducted with 21 CNPs with managerial…

  17. Assessing Students' Perceptions of Campus Community: A Focus Group Approach. Professional File. Number 95, Spring 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David X.

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a focus group approach to the understanding of student perceptions of campus community. Using the Strange and Banning (2001) framework of community, the author argues that students' sense of campus community should be studied as it exists within the institutional environment. The results of the study include: 1) There is a strong…

  18. Using Focus Groups to Explore the Stressful Life Events of Black College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, Daphne C.; Green, B. Lee; Goodson, Patricia; Guidry, Jeffrey Joseph; Stanley, Christine A.

    2007-01-01

    Black students who attend predominately White institutions (PWI) face many obstacles. This study identified the stressful life events of Black college men via focus group discussions and examined how these events impact their mental health and health behaviors. Forty-six participants from a PWI and a historically Black college/university (HBCU)…

  19. Putting Knowledge To Work Effectively: Assessing Information Needs through Focus Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Valerie E.

    This paper describes how focus groups were used to assess the effectiveness of the University of Kentucky's Agricultural Information Center (AIC) in providing patron services. The AIC serves 1,100 undergraduate students, 370 graduate and postdoctoral students, and 1,700 faculty and staff in the College of Agriculture. In August 2000, the AIC…

  20. Virtual Focus Groups in Extension: A Useful Approach to Audience Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    As change agents, Extension educators may begin their program planning by identifying the audience's perceived barriers and benefits to adopting some behavior that will benefit the community. Extension professionals and researchers have used in-person focus groups to understand an audience, and they can also administer them as…

  1. Grounded Theory and Focus Groups: Reconciling Methodologies in Indigenous Australian Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This paper captures an ideological moment in time in which I contemplated the methodological approach I was embarking upon. In my search for a more appropriate approach for conducting research with Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander tertiary students at the University of Queensland, I chose focus groups set within the qualitative process of…

  2. Going to the Doctor's: The Findings from a Focus Group with People with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollard, Martin

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how a focus group of seven individuals with Down syndrome was used to explore experiences of going to the doctor. Obtaining consent and acknowledging the power differential between participants and researchers are highlighted as key challenges for those wishing to engage in disability research. (Contains references.)…

  3. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  4. Dropping Out at Western Iowa Tech Community College: A Report Summarizing Focus Group Interviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nitzke, Joseph; Wacker, Mary Ellen

    This paper reports on the first phase of a three-part study meant to provide information, in an expanded context, for decisions related to marketing communications at Western Iowa Tech Community College (WITCC). The Marketing Department proposed focus groups to examine dropouts, students who are admitted but do not enroll, and business persons in…

  5. Assessing Child Mental Health Services in New York: A Report on Three Focus Groups, Winter 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koyanagi, Chris; Semansky, Rafael

    In 2002, the Bazelon Center for Mental Health Law investigated the impact of expanding child mental health services in Medicaid on the actual availability of services to children. To assess family satisfaction, focus groups were held in two states: Oregon and New York. Both states have a comprehensive Medicaid mental health benefit for children…

  6. Traditional Male Circumcision in Uganda: A Qualitative Focus Group Discussion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sabet Sarvestani, Amir; Bufumbo, Leonard; Geiger, James D.; Sienko, Kathleen H.

    2012-01-01

    Background The growing body of evidence attesting to the effectiveness of clinical male circumcision in the prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission is prompting the majority of sub-Saharan African governments to move towards the adoption of voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). Even though it is recommended to consider collaboration with traditional male circumcision (TMC) providers when planning for VMMC, there is limited knowledge available about the TMC landscape and traditional beliefs. Methodology and Main Findings During 2010–11 over 25 focus group discussions (FGDs) were held with clan leaders, traditional cutters, and their assistants to understand the practice of TMC in four ethnic groups in Uganda. Cultural significance and cost were among the primary reasons cited for preferring TMC over VMMC. Ethnic groups in western Uganda circumcised boys at younger ages and encountered lower rates of TMC related adverse events compared to ethnic groups in eastern Uganda. Cutting styles and post-cut care also differed among the four groups. The use of a single razor blade per candidate instead of the traditional knife was identified as an important and recent change. Participants in the focus groups expressed interest in learning about methods to reduce adverse events. Conclusion This work reaffirmed the strong cultural significance of TMC within Ugandan ethnic groups. Outcomes suggest that there is an opportunity to evaluate the involvement of local communities that still perform TMC in the national VMMC roll-out plan by devising safer, more effective procedures through innovative approaches. PMID:23082112

  7. Focusing on What Counts: Using Exploratory Focus Groups to Enhance the Development of an Electronic Survey in a Mixed-Methods Research Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galliott, Natal'ya; Graham, Linda J.

    2016-01-01

    This paper illustrates the use of exploratory focus groups to inform the development of a survey instrument in a sequential phase mixed-methods study investigating differences in secondary students' career choice capability. Five focus groups were conducted with 23 Year 10 students in the state of New South Wales, Australia. Analysis of the focus…

  8. Utilizing Drumming for American Indians/Alaska Natives with Substance Use Disorders: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dickerson, Daniel; Robichaud, Francis; Teruya, Cheryl; Nagaran, Kathleen; Hser, Yih-Ing

    2013-01-01

    Background Drumming has been utilized among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) tribes for centuries to promote healing and self-expression. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA), currently under development, is a substance abuse treatment utilizing drumming as a core component. Objectives Focus groups were conducted to assist in the development of the DARTNA protocol. Feedback obtained from these focus groups will inform a subsequent pretest of DARTNA and an empirical study analyzing its effectiveness. Methods Three focus groups were conducted among AIs/ANs with substance use disorders (n = 6), substance abuse treatment providers (n = 8), and a community advisory board (n = 4) to solicit feedback prior to a pretest of the DARTNA protocol. Results Overall, participants indicated that DARTNA could be beneficial for AIs/ANs with substance use disorders. Four overarching conceptual themes emerged across the focus groups: (1) benefits of drumming, (2) importance of a culture-based focus, (3) addressing gender roles in drumming activities, and (4) providing a foundation of common AI/AN traditions. Conclusions The DARTNA protocol is a potentially beneficial and culturally appropriate substance abuse treatment strategy for AIs/ANs. In order to optimize the potential benefits of a substance abuse treatment protocol utilizing drumming for AIs/ANs, adequate attention to tribal diversity and gender roles is needed. Scientific Significance Due to the shortage of substance abuse treatments utilizing traditional healing activities for AIs/ANs, including drumming, results from this study provide an opportunity to develop an intervention that may meet the unique treatment needs of AIs/ANs. PMID:22931086

  9. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In high income countries, vaccine-preventable diseases have been greatly reduced through routine vaccination programs. Despite this success, many parents question, and a small proportion even refuse vaccination for their children. As no qualitative studies have explored the factors behind these decisions among Dutch parents, we performed a study using online focus groups. Methods In total, eight online focus groups (n = 60) which included Dutch parents with at least one child, aged 0–4 years, for whom they refused all or part of the vaccinations within the National Immunization Program (NIP). A thematic analysis was performed to explore factors that influenced the parents’ decisions to refuse vaccination. Results Refusal of vaccination was found to reflect multiple factors including family lifestyle; perceptions about the child’s body and immune system; perceived risks of disease, vaccine efficacy, and side effects; perceived advantages of experiencing the disease; prior negative experience with vaccination; and social environment. The use of online focus groups proved to be an effective qualitative research method providing meaningful data. Conclusion Information provided by the NIP turned out to be insufficient for this group of parents. More trust in the NIP and deliberate decisions might result from increased parental understanding of lifestyle and disease susceptibility, the impact of vaccinations on the immune system, and the relative risks of diseases and their vaccines. The public health institute should also inform parents that the NIP is recommended but non-mandatory. PMID:24341406

  10. GPs’ perspectives on secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age: a focus group study in the Netherlands

    PubMed Central

    van Peet, Petra G; Drewes, Yvonne M; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; de Ruijter, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Background Although guidelines recommend secondary cardiovascular prevention irrespective of age, in older age the uptake of treatment is lower than in younger age groups. Aim To explore the dilemmas GPs in the Netherlands encounter when implementing guidelines for secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age. Design and setting Qualitative study in four focus groups consisting of GPs (n = 23, from the northern part of the province South Holland) and a fifth focus group consisting of GP trainees (n = 4, from the Leiden University Medical Center). Method Focus group discussions were organised to elicit perspectives on the implementation of secondary cardiovascular prevention for older people. The 14 theoretical domains of the refined Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) were used for (deductive) coding of the focus group discussions. The coded texts were analysed, content was discussed, and barriers and facilitators were identified for each domain of the TDF. Results The main theme that emerged was ‘uncertainty’. Identified barriers were guideline-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. Identified facilitators were doctor-related, patient-related, and organisation-related. The main aim of secondary preventive treatment was improvement in quality of life. Conclusion GPs in the Netherlands are uncertain about many aspects of secondary cardiovascular prevention in older age; the guidelines themselves, their own role, patient factors, and the organisation of care. In view of this uncertainty, GPs consciously weigh all aspects of the situation in close dialogue with the individual patient, with the ultimate aim of improving quality of life. This highly-individualised care may largely explain the reduced prescription rates. PMID:26500321

  11. Feedbacks from Focus Group Meeting on Training and Implementation of Building Energy Codes in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shui, Bin; Lin , Haiyan; Song, Bo; Halverson, Mark A.; Evans, Meredydd; Zhu, Xiaojiao

    2011-01-01

    A focus group meeting is a very effective quality research approach to collect information on a specific project. Through focus group meetings at both Changchun and Ningbo in August 2010, the project team gained a more complete understandings of key stakeholders (such as their education level), their training needs and expectations, key factors influencing their decision making, and incurred implementation difficulties. In addition, the meeting helped the project team (especially PNNL) improve its understanding of the implementation status of building energy codes in other regions (such as small cities and counties neighboring to urban areas, small townships and rural areas distant from urban areas). The collected feedbacks will serve as important input not only for better design of training materials and the development of an on-line training website, but also for development of follow-up projects to promote building energy codes in China.

  12. Adolescent Girls’ Assessment and Management of Sexual Risks: Insights from Focus Group Research

    PubMed Central

    Bay-Cheng, Laina Y.; Livingston, Jennifer A.; Fava, Nicole M.

    2010-01-01

    We conducted focus groups with girls ages 14 to 17 (N = 43) in order to study how the dominant discourse of sexual risk shapes young women’s understanding of the sexual domain and their management of these presumably pervasive threats. Through inductive analysis, we developed a coding scheme focused on three themes: (a) types of sexual risk; (b) factors that moderate sexual risk; and (c) strategies for managing sexual risk. Collectively, participants identified many risks but distanced themselves from these by claiming that girls’ susceptibility is largely a function of personal factors and therefore avoidable given the right traits, values, and skills. We consider this reliance on other-blaming and self-exemption, as well as instances in which individual participants diverged from this group discourse, in the context of neoliberalism. PMID:21860537

  13. Creative interactions with data: using visual and metaphorical devices in repeated focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Nind, Melanie; Vinha, Hilra

    2016-01-01

    This article presents some of the emergent methods developed to fit a study of quality in inclusive research with people with learning disabilities. It addresses (i) the ways in which the methodology was a response to the need for constructive, transformative dialogue through use of repeated focus groups in a design interspersing dialogic and reflective spaces; and (ii) how stimulus materials for the focus groups involved imaginative and creative interactions with data. Particular innovations in the blending of narrative and thematic analyses and data generation and analysis processes are explored, specifically the creative use of metaphor as stimulus and the playful adaptation of I-poems from the Listening Guide approach as writing and performance. In reflecting on these methodological turns we also reflect on creativity as an interpretive lens. The paper is an invitation for further methodological dialogue and development. PMID:26865833

  14. [Professionalization of Legal Dental Experts in Germany: Results of Studies on Structured Focus Groups].

    PubMed

    Brauer, H U; Walther, W; Dick, M

    2016-10-25

    Background: Legal expert opinions are a crucial instrument of professional self-control in medicine. To give impulses for further development, focus groups were initiated to reflect upon the perspective of legal dental experts. Methods: 5 focus group discussions on the topic "Professionalization of legal dental experts" were conducted. A total of 32 experienced legal dental experts participated in the discussions. The results were evaluated by qualitative content analysis. Results: A catalogue of 68 ideas was generated for improvement and divided into 15 categories. Among these were periodic quality circles, interprofessional exchange, supervision of novices and periodic feedback for legal dental experts and dentists. Conclusion: Self-reflection can be included as an instrument for quality improvement of legal dental expert opinions.

  15. Preventive Strategies and Processes to Counteract Bullying in Health Care Settings: Focus Group Discussions.

    PubMed

    Strandmark K, Margaretha; Rahm, GullBritt; Wilde Larsson, Bodil; Nordström, Gun; Rystedt, Ingrid

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore preventive strategies and processes to counteract bullying in workplaces. Data were collected by individual interviews and focus group discussions at one hospital and two nursing home wards for elderly, a total of 29 participants. In the analysis of the interviews we were inspired by constructivist grounded theory. Persistent work with a humanistic value system by supervisor and coworkers, raising awareness about the bullying problem, strong group collaboration, and conflict management, along with an open atmosphere at the workplace, appears to be imperative for accomplishing a policy of zero tolerance for bullying.

  16. The integration of relationship-focused group therapy with couples treatment.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Darryl B; Kahn, Gloria Batkin

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This article discusses a new treatment paradigm combining couples therapy with a separate relationship-focused group therapy for each partner. This model is thought to be especially efficacious for those couples experiencing difficulty in making progress in couples treatment alone. The authors postulate that the addition of a separate group process utilizing object relations and self-psycho- logical theories, as well as concepts borrowed from Imago relationship therapy, enhance the probability of working through intractable transference projections that tend to be impervious to either treatment modality on its own. Challenges created by this combined approach as well as benefits are addressed. Theoretical rationale and treatment implications are discussed.

  17. Understanding the concept of the key worker: do focus groups help?

    PubMed

    Hull, Ken; Turton, Pat

    2014-08-12

    The concept of the 'key-worker role' within paediatric haematology and oncology services is recognised in the UK through inclusion in published policies and guidance. Such guidance originates from both statutory and voluntary sector organisations. Within the policy direction itself, references are made to both 'designated' and 'non-designated' key workers, and there remains ongoing confusion within the professional field about the exact nature of the process of 'key-working' and how this should operate. This confusion therefore also exists for parents, carers and service users. The project described here aimed to examine the concept of the key-worker role through consultation with users as part of local service development. Focus group discussion was identified as the methodology of choice. Careful planning and delivery ensured that meaningful data emerged. Active participation by those attending the focus group discussion was observed. The focus group was in two sessions, both of which were digitally recorded and transcribed, with contemporaneous notes taken. These were subjected to thematic analysis and clear themes emerged regarding the importance of terminology, communication, skill mix and the use of technology. This local project achieved greater clarity about how to develop the key-worker role to best meet the needs of users through highlighting the need to include both the key-worker role, and the process of key-working. It is concluded that the use of focus groups is both a valid and valuable mechanism of consultation, as user consultation regarding service design and evaluation of care delivered is high on the wider agenda of the NHS.

  18. Education and Outreach in the Life Sciences: Crosswalk Analysis Report: Survey and Focus Group Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Burbank, Roberta L.; John, Lisa; Mahy, Heidi A.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Weller, Richard E.; Nelson-Wally, Anjanette

    2008-10-01

    The DOE's National Nuclear Security Agency (NNSA) asked PNNL to consider the role of individual scientists in upholding safety and security. The views of scientists were identified as a critical component of this policy process. Therefore, scientists, managers, and representatives of Institutional Biosafety Committees (IBCs) at the national labs were invited to participate in a brief web-based survey and a set of focus groups. This report cros-walks the findings between the two reports and identifies linkages and disparities.

  19. 2015 Focus Groups on Sexual Assualt and Response Among Active Duty Members (2015 FGSAPR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ofsexualassault response and prevention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS " ~~ Perceptions about Unwanted Gender-Related Behaviors , Options for Reporting Sexual Assault...unwanted gender-related behaviors ; the focus groups provide deeper insights into the dynamics behind the survey results and help better understand...gender-related behaviors at their base/installation, but they do not portray a statistical report on prevalence rates or quantitative evaluation of

  20. Using and Applying Focus Groups in Climate Change Impact Assessment Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S.

    2011-12-01

    The focus group social science research method is an efficient and flexible data collection tool with broad applicability across disciplines and contexts. Through group dynamics, this interviewing approach offers strengths in gathering candid, spontaneous comments and detailed firsthand descriptions from stakeholders' perspectives. The method, which can stand alone or be integrated with other research frameworks, has much potential for helping to manage complex issues of global change. For optimal outcomes, however, careful planning and procedures are paramount. This presentation offers guidance in this regard via examples, tips, and lessons learned from a multidisciplinary NOAA-funded project: Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). Focus groups are a key component of the EESLR-NGOM project as they are being used to better understand coastal resource managers' operational and information behaviors and needs regarding sea level rise (SLR), erosion, and hurricane storm surge impact; to learn how to best develop and translate the project's expected scientific results into straightforward, useful, and readily-disseminated products; and to gather outreach recommendations. As part of an EESLR-NGOM project kickoff workshop, 12 coastal resource managers participated voluntarily in a focus group. A summary of findings and illustrative participant quotations will be included in the presentation. The initial focus group was productive in gaining insights into challenges and opportunities associated with a climate change project such as the EESLR-NGOM. It highlighted the importance of considering the interrelationships of natural and built environments and new avenues for resilience and sustainability. The coastal resource managers are not only end-users but also opinion leaders in their local communities who will diffuse this information widely through their networks of other potential end-users. Engaging coastal resource managers in

  1. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J. A.; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living. PMID:27920744

  2. Attitudes of Older Adults in a Group-Based Exercise Program Toward a Blended Intervention; A Focus-Group Study.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Sumit; Dadema, Tessa; Kröse, Ben J A; Visser, Bart; Engelbert, Raoul H H; Van Den Helder, Jantine; Weijs, Peter J M

    2016-01-01

    Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety, and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  3. Understanding Patient Preference for Integrative Medical Care: Results from Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Guy F.; O’Connor, Bonnie B.

    2007-01-01

    Background Integrative medicine (IM), a combination of conventional and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), has become a popular source of medical care, yet little is known about its use. Objective To identify the motivations of people who choose IM for their primary care needs. Design Qualitative study from focus group data of regular users of IM. Participants Six focus groups that include a total of 37 regular users of IM who consented to participate in a study of IM use. Approach Focus group meetings were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative analysis using grounded theory was used to derive the motivations for use of IM. Results Participants beliefs include the following: the combination of CAM and conventional medicine is better than either alone; health is a combination of physical, emotional, and spiritual well being; nutrition and lifestyle play a role in wellness; and pharmaceuticals should be avoided except as a last resort. Participants suffer from health problems that are not well treated by conventional medicine. Participants want to discuss CAM with physicians and obtain guidance on its use. Participants want time with their providers, to feel listened to and to have the opportunity for shared decision-making. Conclusion Much of what patients are seeking in integrative medical care is likely universally shared: a strong therapeutic relationship with providers who listen and provide time and knowledgeable advice. Users believe a combined approach of CAM and conventional medicine is better than either alone and want to be able to discuss CAM use with their providers. PMID:17846846

  4. Focus group insights assist trial design for stroke telerehabilitation: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Saywell, Nicola; Taylor, Denise

    2015-03-01

    The objective of the study was to draw on the insights of people with stroke to assist in the development of a telerehabilitation program, using easily accessible technology to deliver an intervention. A qualitative study was conducted with four focus groups of people who were at least 12 months post-stroke and who had completed their rehabilitation. All focus groups were conducted in community facilities and used a semi-structured approach. Fifteen people took part in the focus groups. Three main themes emerged from the data in response to questions about use of technology and important aspects of physiotherapy. The first theme expressed the participants' perspective that the technology really helped with "keeping connected". The second theme indicated "what we need from therapists" in order to gain the most from therapy; and the third theme highlighted aspects of a physiotherapy program they considered important, "what we would like from therapy". The themes helped us gain insight into how participants viewed the use of technology to augment rehabilitation and also what they needed from therapists to make the gains they viewed as important. These themes informed the development of a telerehabilitation program using readily accessible technology.

  5. Exploring the impact of a community hospital closure on older adults: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults.

  6. EXPLORING THE IMPACT OF A COMMUNITY HOSPITAL CLOSURE ON OLDER ADULTS: A FOCUS GROUP STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Countouris, Malamo; Gilmore, Sandra; Yonas, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The closing of hospitals has exacerbated challenges for older adults in accessing healthcare, especially those living in economically underserved settings. Through focus groups and a community-engaged approach, our study examined and documented the emergent health needs of older adults following the closing of a local hospital in an economically disadvantaged community. Focus groups were reconvened to assess progress and health needs over time. Analyses of the focus groups (n=37, mean age 77, 84% female) illustrated the impact of the closure and the emergence of the following dominant themes: perceptions of the hospital system, including feelings of abandonment and social isolation; transportation challenges in accessing health care resources; and lack of knowledge and literacy regarding available health care and obtaining health services. Discussion sessions with hospital administrators and participants afforded an opportunity for sharing data and additional assessment. The data and relationships developed with community participants and health system representatives resulted in the production of an information resource about access to health services, tailored for older adults. PMID:24448403

  7. "I Feel I Mean Something to Someone:" Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Support Groups for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how bullied schoolchildren experience solution-focused brief therapy support groups, and to examine how members of the support group experience their participation in the group. An explorative qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19…

  8. The impact of itch symptoms in psoriasis: results from physician interviews and patient focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Globe, Denise; Bayliss, Martha S; Harrison, David J

    2009-01-01

    Background The objective of this qualitative study was to better understand the impact of psoriasis symptoms using a 3-part process: 1) develop a disease model for psoriasis to identify the most important concepts relevant to psoriasis patients; 2) conduct interviews with dermatologists to identify key areas of clinical concern; and 3) explore psoriasis patients' perceptions of the impact of psoriasis. Methods A disease model was developed from a review of the published literature and later revised based on the findings of clinician interviews and patient focus groups. To confirm the clinical relevance of the concepts identified in the disease model, 5 dermatologists were selected and interviewed one-on-one. They were asked to rate major psoriasis symptoms according to importance and bothersomeness level to patients on separate scales of 1 to 10. Results of clinician interviews were used to develop interview guides for patient focus groups. To identify important domains of psoriasis, 39 patients participated in 5 separate concept elicitation focus groups. Four focus groups included patients with severe psoriasis (n = 31) and one included patients with mild psoriasis (n = 8). Patients were asked to describe their current psoriasis symptoms and to rate them on a scale of 1 to 10, according to importance, severity, and troublesomeness. An average mean rating was calculated for each symptom throughout all focus groups. Results Clinicians most frequently mentioned itch (n = 5), psoriatic arthritis or "joint pains" (n = 4), flaking (n = 4), and pain (n = 3) as primary physical symptoms of psoriasis. Three clinicians gave a rating of 10 for the importance of itch; two clinicians gave ratings of 8 and 7 for importance. The majority of patients rated itch as the most important (31/39), most severe (31/39), and most troublesome (24/39) symptom and noted that itch negatively impacted daily activities (eg, concentration, sleep, ability to attend work or school), as well as

  9. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  10. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Carter, Ava Elizabeth; Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs.

  11. A Focus Group on Dental Pain Complaints with General Medical Practitioners: Developing a Treatment Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Geoff; Abbey, Robyn

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The differential diagnosis of pain in the mouth can be challenging for general medical practitioners (GMPs) as many different dental problems can present with similar signs and symptoms. This study aimed to create a treatment algorithm for GMPs to effectively and appropriately refer the patients and prescribe antibiotics. Design. The study design is comprised of qualitative focus group discussions. Setting and Subjects. Groups of GMPs within the Gold Coast and Brisbane urban and city regions. Outcome Measures. Content thematically analysed and treatment algorithm developed. Results. There were 5 focus groups with 8-9 participants per group. Addressing whether antibiotics should be given to patients with dental pain was considered very important to GMPs to prevent overtreatment and creating antibiotic resistance. Many practitioners were unsure of what the different forms of dental pains represent. 90% of the practitioners involved agreed that the treatment algorithm was useful to daily practice. Conclusion. Common dental complaints and infections are seldom surgical emergencies but can result in prolonged appointments for those GMPs who do not regularly deal with these issues. The treatment algorithm for referral processes and prescriptions was deemed easily downloadable and simple to interpret and detailed but succinct enough for clinical use by GMPs. PMID:27462469

  12. Incorporating cancer risk information into general practice: a qualitative study using focus groups with health professionals

    PubMed Central

    Usher-Smith, Juliet A; Silarova, Barbora; Ward, Alison; Youell, Jane; Muir, Kenneth R; Campbell, Jackie; Warcaba, Joanne

    2017-01-01

    Background It is estimated that approximately 40% of all cases of cancer are attributable to lifestyle factors. Providing people with personalised information about their future risk of cancer may help promote behaviour change. Aim To explore the views of health professionals on incorporating personalised cancer risk information, based on lifestyle factors, into general practice. Design and setting Qualitative study using data from six focus groups with a total of 24 general practice health professionals from the NHS Nene Clinical Commissioning Group in England. Method The focus groups were guided by a schedule covering current provision of lifestyle advice relating to cancer and views on incorporating personalised cancer risk information. Data were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and then analysed using thematic analysis. Results Providing lifestyle advice was viewed as a core activity within general practice but the influence of lifestyle on cancer risk was rarely discussed. The word ‘cancer’ was seen as a potentially powerful motivator for lifestyle change but the fact that it could generate health anxiety was also recognised. Most focus group participants felt that a numerical risk estimate was more likely to influence behaviour than generic advice. All felt that general practice should provide this information, but there was a clear need for additional resources for it to be offered widely. Conclusion Study participants were in support of providing personalised cancer risk information in general practice. The findings highlight a number of potential benefits and challenges that will inform the future development of interventions in general practice to promote behaviour change for cancer prevention. PMID:28193618

  13. Perspectives of Mobile Versus Fixed Mammography in Santa Clara County, California: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Halpenny, Christine; Kumarasamy, Narmadan A; Venegas, Angela; Braddock III, Clarence H

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to examine underserved women’s perceptions on mobile versus fixed mammography in Santa Clara, California through a focus group study. Background: Research has shown that medically underserved women have higher breast cancer mortality rates correlated with under-screening and a disproportional rate of late-stage diagnosis. The Community Health Partnership in Santa Clara County, California runs the Community Mammography Access Project (CMAP) that targets nearly 20,000 medically underserved women over the age of 40 in the county through the collaborative effort of an existing safety net of healthcare providers. However, little data exists on the advantages or disadvantages of mobile mammography units from the patient perspective.  Methods: We assessed underserved women’s perspectives on mammography services in Santa Clara County through two focus groups from women screened at mobile or fixed site programs. Patients were recruited from both CMAP clinics and a county hospital, and focus group data were analyzed using content analysis. Results: We found that women from both the mobile and fixed sites shared similar motivating factors for getting a mammogram. Both groups recognized that screening was uncomfortable but necessary for good health and had positive feedback about their personal physicians. However, mobile participants, in particular, appreciated the atmosphere of mobile screening, reported shorter wait times, and remarked on the good communication from the clinic staff and empathetic treatment they received. However, mobile participants also expressed concern about the quality of films at mobile sites due to delayed initial reading of the films.  Conclusions: Mobile mammography offers a unique opportunity for women of underserved populations to access high satisfaction screenings, and it encourages a model similar to CMAP in other underserved areas. However, emphasis should be placed on providing a warm and welcoming

  14. Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers' professional identities: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lerbaek, Birgitte; Aagaard, Jørgen; Andersen, Mette Braendstrup; Buus, Niels

    2016-12-01

    Assertive community treatment (ACT) case managers provide healthcare services to people with severe and persistent mental illness. These case managers take on generic roles in multidisciplinary teams and provide all-around services in the clients' private homes. This focus group study aimed to gain insight into Danish ACT case managers' professional identity work by examining their discussions of ethical dilemmas and collaboration in their everyday practice. Data were collected during five focus groups at three ACT teams in the North Denmark Region and subjected to discourse analysis emphasizing how identity work was accomplished through talk. The findings indicated that the case managers constructed professional identities by actively positioning themselves and the particular ACT approach in relation to other mental healthcare professionals and clients. They represented themselves as achieving better client-related outcomes by being more assertive and persistent, and as responsible caregivers who provided the help that their clients needed when other services had failed to do so. They depicted their services as being focused on the clients' well-being, and their persistent efforts to establish and sustain interpersonal relationships with clients were an important part of their service. Basic nursing tasks were described as an important part of their everyday work, and even though such tasks were not distinctive for ACT case managers, the representations of their work seemed to give them a sense of worth as professionals and legitimized a unique role in the community mental healthcare services.

  15. Focus group discussions on secondary variants and next-generation sequencing technologies.

    PubMed

    Christenhusz, Gabrielle M; Devriendt, Koenraad; Van Esch, Hilde; Dierickx, Kris

    2015-04-01

    The clinical application of new genetic technologies will be and already is of great benefit to children with unexplained developmental disabilities or congenital anomalies. In most cases, it will be their parents who, together with medical professionals, make decisions about what should be disclosed and how the information will be used. We conducted eight exploratory focus group discussions with stakeholders to provide a broad sketch of concerns and ideas around the communication of results from next-generation sequencing technologies involving children. Stakeholders included those with (grand-) children of various ages and those without children; those involved professionally with genetics and those who were not; and a range of ages. Participants were asked to focus on which secondary variants they would and would not want disclosed about their (hypothetical) children or themselves. While the literature often concentrates on the medical and scientific characteristics of secondary variants, focus group participants were also interested in factors involving the parent-child relationship and the broader context. This resulted in more flexibility surrounding the types of secondary variants disclosed to parents than much of the literature currently supports. In addition, participants would on occasion use the same factors to argue opposing positions. The "Family Illness Paradigms model" can help explain this seeming contradiction. This model emphasises the importance of how the family reacts to personal and family experiences of disease and loss, more than the fact of having these experiences.

  16. The mixed waste focus area mercury working group: an integrated approach for mercury treatment and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, T.B.; Morris, M.I.; Holmes-Burns, H.; Petersell, J.; Schwendiman, L.

    1997-02-01

    In May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG), which was established to address and resolve the issues associated with mercury- contaminated mixed wastes. Three of the first four technology deficiencies identified during the MWFA technical baseline development process were related to mercury amalgamation, stabilization, and separation/removal. The HgWG will assist the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing all the efforts required to address these deficiencies. The focus of the HgWG is to better establish the mercury-related treatment needs at the DOE sites, refine the MWFA technical baseline as it relates to mercury treatment, and make recommendations to the MWFA on how to most effectively address these needs. The team will initially focus on the sites with the most mercury-contaminated mixed wastes, whose representatives comprise the HgWG. However, the group will also work with the sites with less inventory to maximize the effectiveness of these efforts in addressing the mercury- related needs throughout the entire complex.

  17. Community responses to communication campaigns for influenza A (H1N1): a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This research was a part of a contestable rapid response initiative launched by the Health Research Council of New Zealand and the Ministry of Health in response to the 2009 influenza A pandemic. The aim was to provide health authorities in New Zealand with evidence-based practical information to guide the development and delivery of effective health messages for H1N1 and other health campaigns. This study contributed to the initiative by providing qualitative data about community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behavioural change and the differential impact on vulnerable groups in New Zealand. Methods Qualitative data were collected on community responses to key health messages in the 2009 and 2010 Ministry of Health H1N1 campaigns, the impact of messages on behaviour and the differential impact on vulnerable groups. Eight focus groups were held in the winter of 2010 with 80 participants from groups identified by the Ministry of Health as vulnerable to the H1N1 virus, such as people with chronic health conditions, pregnant women, children, Pacific Peoples and Māori. Because this study was part of a rapid response initiative, focus groups were selected as the most efficient means of data collection in the time available. For Māori, focus group discussion (hui) is a culturally appropriate methodology. Results Thematic analysis of data identified four major themes: personal and community risk, building community strategies, responsibility and information sources. People wanted messages about specific actions that they could take to protect themselves and their families and to mitigate any consequences. They wanted transparent and factual communication where both good and bad news is conveyed by people who they could trust. Conclusions The responses from all groups endorsed the need for community based risk management including information dissemination. Engaging with communities will be

  18. End of life care in nursing homes: Translating focus group findings into action.

    PubMed

    Bükki, Johannes; Neuhaus, Petra M; Paal, Piret

    Therapeutic options for nursing home residents focus on functional improvement, while inadequate hospital admissions in the dying phase are frequent. The aim of this study was to explore views, attitudes, and concerns among staff and to embark on a process that facilitates end-of-life care on an institutional level. Three focus group interviews were conducted with nursing home staff (nurses, care managers, physicians). The discussants (22) expressed the following issues: workload; ethical conflicts; additional resources; "living palliative care"; deleterious effect of restorative aims; lack of training; fear; knowledge and skills; rituals; lack of attachment, frustration, and abuse; team; discouragement; resilience enhanced by good care; style of communication; avoidance; the "palliative status"; legal concerns and hospital admissions. Nursing home staff expressed willingness to care for the dying. Providing good end of life care may promote professional resilience and personal integrity. Therefore, team issues, fears, and avoidance should be addressed.

  19. Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview

    PubMed Central

    Nestel, Debra; Kidd, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Nurses' perceptions and experiences of communication in the operating theatre: a focus group interview Background Communication programmes are well established in nurse education. The focus of programmes is most often on communicating with patients with less attention paid to inter-professional communication or skills essential for working in specialised settings. Although there are many anecdotal reports of communication within the operating theatre, there are few empirical studies. This paper explores communication behaviours for effective practice in the operating theatre as perceived by nurses and serves as a basis for developing training. Methods A focus group interview was conducted with seven experienced theatre nurses from a large London teaching hospital. The interview explored their perceptions of the key as well as unique features of effective communication skills in the operating theatre. Data was transcribed and thematically analysed until agreement was achieved by the two authors. Results There was largely consensus on the skills deemed necessary for effective practice including listening, clarity of speech and being polite. Significant influences on the nature of communication included conflict in role perception and organisational issues. Nurses were often expected to work outside of their role which either directly or indirectly created barriers for effective communication. Perceptions of a lack of collaborative team effort also influenced communication. Conclusion Although fundamental communication skills were identified for effective practice in the operating theatre, there were significant barriers to their use because of confusion over clarity of roles (especially nurses' roles) and the implications for teamwork. Nurses were dissatisfied with several aspects of communication. Future studies should explore the breadth and depth of this dissatisfaction in other operating theatres, its impact on morale and importantly on patient safety

  20. Exploring the Experience of Nursing Home Residents Participation in a Hope-Focused Group

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Sharon L.; Hall, Susan E.

    2014-01-01

    A qualitative intervention was used to explore how older adults living in a long-term care environment (nursing home) understand hope and experience being participants in a group in which a hope intervention was carried out. A group project in which each session focused intentionally on a hope strategy was carried out with a convenience sample of 10 women (ages 75–99) who were members of an existing group. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis of the interviews (conducted before the group intervention was carried out and again at the end), field notes, and collaborative conversations regarding emerging themes. Findings from this study suggest that hope is not static and that it can change over time in response to one's situations and circumstances. Also evident in this study is the potential for using a group process in long-term care to foster hope in an intentional way to make it more visible in the lives of the residents and their environment suggesting that one is “never too old for hope.” PMID:24551450

  1. Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development

    PubMed Central

    Goodrick, G. Kenneth; Pavlik, Valory; Markesino, Jennifer; Laws, Donna Y.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women. OBJECTIVES (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding weight loss and maintenance; and (3) to help develop a relevant questionnaire that can be used to explore weight loss and maintenance in a large sample of African Americans. DESIGN Seven focus groups were conducted with African-American women: four with women successful at weight loss maintenance, three with women who lost weight but regained it. Discussions centered on weight loss and maintenance experiences. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven African-American women. APPROACH Content analysis of focus group transcripts. RESULTS Weight loss maintainers lost 22% of body weight. They view positive support from others and active opposition to cultural norms as critical for maintenance. They struggle with weight regain, but have strategies in place to lose weight again. Some maintainers struggle with being perceived as sick or too thin at their new weight. Regainers and maintainers struggle with hairstyle management during exercise. The theoretical constructs from TPB were defined and supported by focus group content. CONCLUSIONS A weight loss questionnaire for African Americans should include questions regarding social support in weight maintenance, the importance of hair management during exercise, the influence of cultural norms on weight and food consumption, and concerns about being perceived as too thin or sick when weight is lost. PMID:17415617

  2. Strategies to Optimize Participation in Diabetes Prevention Programs following Gestational Diabetes: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Da Costa, Deborah; Pillay, Sabrina; De Civita, Mirella; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Leong, Aaron; Bacon, Simon; Stotland, Stephen; Chetty, V. Tony; Garfield, Natasha; Majdan, Agnieszka; Meltzer, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Objective We performed a qualitative study among women within 5 years of Gestational Diabetes (GDM) diagnosis. Our aim was to identify the key elements that would enhance participation in a type 2 diabetes (DM2) prevention program. Research Design and Methods Potential participants received up to three invitation letters from their GDM physician. Four focus groups were held. Discussants were invited to comment on potential facilitators/barriers to participation and were probed on attitudes towards meal replacement and Internet/social media tools. Recurring themes were identified through qualitative content analysis of discussion transcripts. Results Among the 1,201 contacted and 79 eligible/interested, 29 women attended a focus group discussion. More than half of discussants were overweight/obese, and less than half were physically active. For DM2 prevention, a strong need for social support to achieve changes in dietary and physical activity habits was expressed. In this regard, face-to-face interactions with peers and professionals were preferred, with adjunctive roles for Internet/social media. Further, direct participation of partners/spouses in a DM2 prevention program was viewed as important to enhance support for behavioural change at home. Discussants highlighted work and child-related responsibilities as potential barriers to participation, and emphasized the importance of childcare support to allow attendance. Meal replacements were viewed with little interest, with concerns that their use would provide a poor example of eating behaviour to children. Conclusions Among women within 5 years of a GDM diagnosis who participated in a focus group discussion, participation in a DM2 prevention program would be enhanced by face-to-face interactions with professionals and peers, provision of childcare support, and inclusion of spouses/partners. PMID:23861824

  3. A focus group assessment of patient perspectives on irritable bowel syndrome and illness severity.

    PubMed

    Drossman, Douglas A; Chang, Lin; Schneck, Susan; Blackman, Carlar; Norton, William F; Norton, Nancy J

    2009-07-01

    There is a growing need to understand from the patient's perspective the experience of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and the factors contributing to its severity; this has been endorsed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Accordingly, we conducted focus groups to address this issue. A total of 32 patients with mostly moderate to severe IBS were recruited through advertising and were allocated into three focus groups based on predominant stool pattern. The focus groups were held using standard methodology to obtain a general assessment of the symptoms experienced with IBS, its impact, and of factors associated with self-perceived severity. Patients described IBS not only as symptoms (predominantly abdominal pain) but mainly as it affects daily function, thoughts, feelings and behaviors. Common responses included uncertainty and unpredictability with loss of freedom, spontaneity and social contacts, as well as feelings of fearfulness, shame, and embarrassment. This could lead to behavioral responses including avoidance of activities and many adaptations in routine in an effort for patients to gain control. A predominant theme was a sense of stigma experienced because of a lack of understanding by family, friends and physicians of the effects of IBS on the individual, or the legitimacy of the individual's emotions and adaptation behaviors experienced. This was a barrier to normal functioning that could be ameliorated through identifying with others who could understand this situation. Severity was linked to health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and was influenced by the intensity of abdominal pain and other symptoms, interference with and restrictions relating to eating, work, and social activities, and of the unpredictability of the condition. This study confirms the heterogeneous and multi-component nature of IBS. These qualitative data can be used in developing health status and severity instruments for larger-scale studies.

  4. Door-to-Needle Time Under 60 Minutes and Picture-to-Puncture Under 90 Minutes: Initiatives and Outcomes in Reducing Time to Recanalization for Cerebral Major Artery Occlusion

    PubMed Central

    OTA, Takahiro; SATO, Masayuki; AMANO, Tatsuo; MATSUMARU, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    The adoption of stent retrievers has significantly improved outcomes of intravenous treatment for acute stroke due to major artery occlusion, and reducing the time to recanalization may achieve further improvements. We reviewed reductions in “door-to-needle time” (DNT) and “picture-to-puncture time” (P2P), as the results of measures to consolidate stroke response capabilities in our hospital, and compared treatment outcomes in acute recanalization patients. We investigated DNT by the route of admission for 96 consecutive patients who received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator between July 2012 and June 2015. We then retrospectively studied 52 patients with acute stroke who underwent endovascular recanalization within 8 h after stroke onset, grouped according to recanalization before (Group I; n = 23) or after (Group II; n = 29) introduction of stent retrievers. Between 2012 and 2015, mean DNT decreased. Significant differences between Groups I and II were only seen in times required, with significantly shorter DNT, picture-to-puncture time, admission to puncture time, and puncture to guiding catheter placement time in Group II. A considerable difference in DNT was seen according to the route of patient admission, and consolidation of hospital stroke response capability successfully reduced the time from admission to recanalization. PMID:27385058

  5. "People are all about appearances": A focus group of teenagers with Moebius Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Kathleen R

    2015-12-01

    This focus group study examined the social experiences of 10 adolescents aged 12-17 years with Moebius Syndrome, a rare condition involving congenital facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes: social engagement/disengagement, resilience/sensitivity, social support/stigma, being understood/misunderstood, and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Compared to previous research on adults with Moebius Syndrome, adolescents were more likely to experience bullying and social strain. Like adults, teenagers displayed resilience and communication skills. Greater public awareness is key to reducing the stigma associated with this condition, and social skills programs should be developed to support those who struggle with social functioning.

  6. Social interaction experiences of adults with Moebius Syndrome: a focus group.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Kathleen R; Tickle-Degnen, Linda; Joffe, Matthew S

    2012-11-01

    This focus group study explored the social interaction experiences and strategies of 12 adults with Moebius Syndrome, a rare congenital condition characterized by facial paralysis. Content analysis revealed five themes of social functioning: social engagement/disengagement; resilience/sensitivity; social support/stigma; being understood/misunderstood; and public awareness/lack of awareness of Moebius Syndrome. Participants used compensatory expressive strategies such as vocal tone, gestures, and humor. The combination of being unable to express oneself with the face, having a facial difference, and having a rare disease is particularly stigmatizing. Increasing public awareness and developing social skills programs for people with facial paralysis could facilitate social functioning.

  7. A Student-Centered Mental Health Virtual Community Needs and Features: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    El Morr, Christo; Maule, Catherine; Ashfaq, Iqra; Ritvo, Paul; Ahmad, Farah

    2017-01-01

    Mental health is a pervasive challenge in the population and especially for university/college students on campuses across North America. Anxiety, stress and depression are on the rise and a scalable, economically sound innovation is essential to address these mental health challenges. The research team has conducted 8 focus groups in April to May 2016 in order to elicit perspectives of students at York University about their online activities and the development of an online mindfulness based Mental Health Virtual Community. This paper explains the main results of the qualitative analysis pertaining to the challenges and benefits of an online mindfulness based Mental Health Virtual Community.

  8. Understanding Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening Among Urban Hispanics: Use of Focus Group Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Alejandro; DuHamel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer deaths among US Hispanics. Screening decreases mortality through early detection. To understand factors related to CRC screening among Hispanics, focus groups were conducted. Reasons for getting screened included peace of mind; influence from family and friends; and wanting to prevent CRC. Barriers included fear of finding cancer and fear of the examination. These results informed a survey to better understand CRC screening among Hispanics in a cross-sectional study. The information from both will direct the development of interventions to increase CRC screening among Hispanics. PMID:20082178

  9. Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA): results from a pretest and focus groups.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, Daniel L; Venner, Kamilla L; Duran, Bonnie; Annon, Jeffrey J; Hale, Benjamin; Funmaker, George

    2014-01-01

    Drum-Assisted Recovery Therapy for Native Americans (DARTNA) is a substance abuse treatment intervention for American Indians/Alaska Natives (AI/ANs). This article provides results from 1) an initial pretest of DARTNA provided to 10 AI/AN patients with histories of substance use disorders, and 2) three subsequent focus groups conducted among AI/AN DARTNA pretest participants, substance abuse treatment providers, and the DARTNA Community Advisory Board. These research activities were conducted to finalize the DARTNA treatment manual; participants also provided helpful feedback which will assist toward this goal. Results suggest that DARTNA may be beneficial for AI/ANs with substance use problems.

  10. Understanding factors related to Colorectal Cancer (CRC) screening among urban Hispanics: use of focus group methodology.

    PubMed

    Varela, Alejandro; Jandorf, Lina; Duhamel, Katherine

    2010-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer deaths among US Hispanics. Screening decreases mortality through early detection. To understand factors related to CRC screening among Hispanics, focus groups were conducted. Reasons for getting screened included peace of mind; influence from family and friends; and wanting to prevent CRC. Barriers included fear of finding cancer and fear of the examination. These results informed a survey to better understand CRC screening among Hispanics in a cross-sectional study. The information from both will direct the development of interventions to increase CRC screening among Hispanics.

  11. Focus group data pertinent to the prevention of obesity in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Dietz, W

    2001-11-01

    The increased prevalence of obesity among African-American women makes it likely that they bear a disproportionate burden of comorbidities attributable to obesity, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipemia. These observations suggest that intensive efforts to prevent obesity should be directed at this group. This presentation provides a summary of the findings of focus groups that convened prior to the Sisters Together, Move More, Eat Better campaign in Boston. This pilot campaign was designed to increase awareness of the importance of healthy eating and physical activity among young adult African-American women. In addition, data collected by the Division of Nutrition and Physical Activity of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) provide additional information about attitudes toward diet and physical activity among African American youth. Such data are essential to understand the attitudinal changes necessary to prevent obesity in these vulnerable populations.

  12. Increasing opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations: findings from focus groups with general dentists in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Psoter, Walter J; Morse, Douglas E; Sánchez-Ayendez, Melba; Vega, Carmen M Vélez; Aguilar, Maria L; Buxó-Martinez, Carmen J; Psoter, Jodi A; Kerr, Alexander R; Lane, Christina M; Scaringi, Vincent J; Elias, Augusto

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identify educational and training modalities that dentists in Puerto Rico (PR) believe will increase the quality and quantity of opportunistic oral cancer screening examinations (OCS) in dental offices on the island. The study was conducted in three phases: a systematic search of relevant literature, an expert review and consensus panel, and focus groups (FG) involving PR general dentists. To increase OCS by dentists in PR, the FG participants proposed a small group, hands-on OCS training, an integrated oral cancer course, and readily available videos, photographs, and computer simulations to further demonstrate OCS performance and facilitate differential diagnosis. OCS training requirements for licensure and re-licensure, improving OCS dentist-patient communication skills, and establishment of an oral lesion referral center were also viewed favorably. In conclusion, general dentists in our FGs believed the quality and quantity of OCS in Puerto Rico can be increased through the application of specific continuing education and training modalities.

  13. Transitioning from traditional to green cleaners: an analysis of custodian and manager focus groups.

    PubMed

    Simcox, Nancy; Wakai, Sara; Welsh, Loyola; Westinghouse, Carol; Morse, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Custodians represent one of the largest occupational groups using cleaning agents, and yet their voices are infrequently heard in relation to the introduction of "green" cleaners and the laws regarding environmentally preferable products (EPP). This study reflects worker voices on use and effectiveness of chemicals, as well as incentives and obstacles for green cleaning programs. Sixty-four custodians and staff participated in 10 focus groups. Data were entered into Atlas Ti and the constant comparative method of qualitative data analysis was used to identify themes. Themes included satisfaction in a "well-done" job, more effort required for job, lack of involvement in EPP selection process, EPP's ease of use for workers with English as a Second Language (ESL), misuse of disinfectants, health complaints, and need for training. This study shows that custodians have a voice, and that improved communication and feedback among all the stakeholders are needed to make the transition to green cleaning more effective.

  14. Report on Focus Groups Conducted for the Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence and the Partnership for Kentucky School Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Rona; Kay, Steve

    Findings of a study that explored focus group participants' views on public schools and Kentucky's recent education reform efforts are presented in this document. In May 1992, 7 focus groups, with a total of 70 participants, were conducted at 6 locations throughout Kentucky. Three groups consisted of citizens who were not public school employees,…

  15. Stakeholders’ Perceptions on Shortage of Healthcare Workers in Primary Healthcare in Botswana: Focus Group Discussions

    PubMed Central

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Shaibu, Sheila; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2015-01-01

    Background An adequate health workforce force is central to universal health coverage and positive public health outcomes. However many African countries have critical shortages of healthcare workers, which are worse in primary healthcare. The aim of this study was to explore the perceptions of healthcare workers, policy makers and the community on the shortage of healthcare workers in Botswana. Method Fifteen focus group discussions were conducted with three groups of policy makers, six groups of healthcare workers and six groups of community members in rural, urban and remote rural health districts of Botswana. All the participants were 18 years and older. Recruitment was purposive and the framework method was used to inductively analyse the data. Results There was a perceived shortage of healthcare workers in primary healthcare, which was believed to result from an increased need for health services, inequitable distribution of healthcare workers, migration and too few such workers being trained. Migration was mainly the result of unfavourable personal and family factors, weak and ineffective healthcare and human resources management, low salaries and inadequate incentives for rural and remote area service. Conclusions Botswana has a perceived shortage of healthcare workers, which is worse in primary healthcare and rural areas, as a result of multiple complex factors. To address the scarcity the country should train adequate numbers of healthcare workers and distribute them equitably to sufficiently resourced healthcare facilities. They should be competently managed and adequately remunerated and the living conditions and rural infrastructure should also be improved. PMID:26284617

  16. Evaluation of interdisciplinary terrorism preparedness programs: a pilot focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ablah, Elizabeth; Wetta-Hall, Ruth; Molgaard, Craig A; Fredrickson, Doren D; Grube, Carole D; Skalacki, Marta K; Wolfe, Deborah J; Cook, David J

    2006-01-01

    Many terrorism preparedness trainings occur throughout the United States, yet few qualitatively examine trainees' needs and interests, reactions to training, or suggestions for training improvement. Eleven posttraining focus groups were conducted with 31 training participants at six sites. Participants were stratified by health profession discipline, and discipline-specific moderators conducted each session to better understand and probe for feedback. One additional moderator attended all sessions to increase consistency in methods across sessions. Focus group participants assessed changes in their perceptions, knowledge, and beliefs about terrorism preparedness. Participants reported perceiving terrorism as a potential threat but less likely than natural disasters. All-hazards crossover training for responding to terrorism and natural disasters was requested. The training was viewed positively, including the enrollment process, training content, and reference materials. Participants reported increased confidence in abilities to recognize a terrorist event. Participants stated they would like the training repeated annually with more first responders in attendance. Participants from rural areas had unique training needs based on limited resources and multiple roles of staff. While most participants wanted a longer, multispecialty conference with in-depth, discipline-specific breakout sessions, physicians requested shorter, separate training. Multispecialty training methods were successful and appreciated. This pilot study may serve as a template for qualitative evaluation of terrorism preparedness conferences for health professionals.

  17. Optimizing a Text Message Intervention to Reduce Heavy Drinking in Young Adults: Focus Group Findings

    PubMed Central

    Kristan, Jeffrey; Person Mecca, Laurel; Chung, Tammy; Clark, Duncan B

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent trial results show that an interactive short message service (SMS) text message intervention, Texting to Reduce Alcohol Consumption (TRAC), is effective in reducing heavy drinking in non-treatment-seeking young adults, but may not be optimized. Objective To assess the usability of the TRAC intervention among young adults in an effort to optimize future intervention design. Methods We conducted five focus groups with 18 young adults, aged 18-25 years, who had a history of heavy drinking and had been randomized to 12 weeks of the TRAC intervention as part of a clinical trial. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed to identify themes. Results We identified four themes regarding user experiences with the TRAC intervention: (1) ease of use, (2) comfort and confidentiality, (3) increased awareness of drinking behavior, and (4) accountability for drinking behavior. Participants’ comments supported the existing features of the TRAC intervention, as well as the addition of other features to increase personalization and continuing engagement with the intervention. Conclusions Young adults perceived the TRAC intervention as a useful way to help them reduce heavy drinking on weekends. Components that promote ease of use, ensure confidentiality, increase awareness of alcohol consumption, and increase accountability were seen as important. PMID:27335099

  18. Sexual Abuse of Older Residents in Nursing Homes: A Focus Group Interview of Nursing Home Staff

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Maria Helen; Kilvik, Astrid; Malmedal, Wenche

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to increase knowledge of sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. A qualitative approach was used. Through a focus group interview with staff in nursing homes, the aim was to reveal employees' thoughts, experiences, and attitudes. Findings from the focus group interview show that sexual abuse of older residents is a taboo topic among health professionals. Acts of sexual abuse are difficult to imagine; it is hard to believe that it occurs. The fact that staff are not aware that it could happen, or have a hard time believing that it actually happens, can amplify the residents' vulnerable position as potential victims of abuse, and it makes it even more challenging to report or uncover such acts. The study highlights the need for education of all health care workers in Norway as well as more research on sexual abuse against older residents in nursing homes. Furthermore, there is a need for good policies and reporting systems, as an important step towards addressing sexual abuse of the aged in a more appropriate way. Further research must aim to reveal more about this taboo area. PMID:26078879

  19. Features of Effective Medical Knowledge Resources to Support Point of Care Learning: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Cook, David A.; Sorensen, Kristi J.; Hersh, William; Berger, Richard A.; Wilkinson, John M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Health care professionals access various information sources to quickly answer questions that arise in clinical practice. The features that favorably influence the selection and use of knowledge resources remain unclear. We sought to better understand how clinicians select among the various knowledge resources available to them, and from this to derive a model for an effective knowledge resource. Methods We conducted 11 focus groups at an academic medical center and outlying community sites. We included a purposive sample of 50 primary care and subspecialist internal medicine and family medicine physicians. We transcribed focus group discussions and analyzed these using a constant comparative approach to inductively identify features that influence the selection of knowledge resources. Results We identified nine features that influence users' selection of knowledge resources, namely efficiency (with sub-features of comprehensiveness, searchability, and brevity), integration with clinical workflow, credibility, user familiarity, capacity to identify a human expert, reflection of local care processes, optimization for the clinical question (e.g., diagnosis, treatment options, drug side effect), currency, and ability to support patient education. No single existing resource exemplifies all of these features. Conclusion The influential features identified in this study will inform the development of knowledge resources, and could serve as a framework for future research in this field. PMID:24282535

  20. Adults' perceptions of being overweight or obese: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching Thon; Chang, Kam Hock; Cheah, Whye Lian

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perception of, feelings and attitudes toward overweight or obesity, and the perceived barriers to weight loss among native adults from lower socio-economic background. A total of six gender- and ethnic-specific focus groups consisted of 38 overweight and obese purposefully and criterion selected adults (21 women and 17 men), participated in this study. An unstructured discussion guide based on the study objectives were used for the focus groups. The results showed that some participants perceived themselves as ugly, felt ashamed of their body size and were frustrated because they did not desire to be overweight. Due to their excess weight, most also expressed they were less effective in their work performances. Although some participants had negative attitudes toward themselves because of excess weight, this appeared to link to self-stigmatization rather than anti-obesity discrimination. The participants remained in the Pre-contemplation stage of losing weight probably because of perceived barriers such as difficulty to resist eating, lack of know how and previous failed attempts to lose weight. Importantly, this study provided some evidence that individuals in the Pre-contemplation stage are unable to take action to lose weight, even if effective strategies are suggested.

  1. Usefulness of Patients-Reported Outcomes in Rheumatoid Arthritis Focus Group

    PubMed Central

    Amaya-Amaya, Jenny; Botello-Corzo, Diana; Calixto, Omar-Javier; Calderón-Rojas, Rolando; Domínguez, Aura-Maria; Cruz-Tapias, Paola; Montoya-Ortiz, Gladis; Mantilla, Ruben-Dario; Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) have become an essential part of the assessment of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We aimed to evaluate the agreement and correlation between PROs and the physician's measurements. Methods. This was a cross-sectional analytical study in which 135 patients with RA were clinically evaluated during two different sessions of focus group interviews. Rheumatologist recorded 28 swollen (SJCs) and tender joint counts (TJCs). The patients filled out the PROs instruments (MDHAQ, RADAI, RAPID3, 4, and 5 and self-report articular index (SAI) diagram for pain and joint swelling). DAS28 was calculated (C-reactive protein). An adjusted multiple lineal regression model was done (DAS28 as dependent variable). Results. Highly significant agreements were found between SJC and TJC registered by the physician and patient. There was moderate correlation between DAS28 with patient SJC (r = 0.52), patient TJC (r = 0.55), RADAI (r = 0.56), RAPID3 (r = 0.52), RAPID4 (r = 0.56), RAPID5 (r = 0.66), and VAS-Global (r = 0.51). Likewise, we found moderate to high correlations between CDAI and SDAI with all variable measurements done by the patients. The resulting predictive equation was DAS28(CRP) = 2.02 + 0.037 × RAPID4 + 0.042× patient SJC. Conclusion. PROs applied in focus groups interview are a useful tool for managing patients with RA regardless of gender, educational level, and duration of disease. PMID:23097701

  2. Perspectives of People with a Chronic Disease on Participating in Work: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Vooijs, Marloes; Leensen, Monique C J; Hoving, Jan L; Wind, Haije; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2017-01-18

    Purpose To explore solutions that people with a chronic disease use to overcome difficulties they experience regarding participating in work, and the support they require to identify or implement these solutions. Methods Focus groups were held to explore solutions and support requirements of people with a chronic disease. Participants were recruited through a research institution's patient panel, a patient federation and personal networks. Analysis was conducted by means of open and selective coding, using the MAXQDA software package. Results Five focus groups were held with 19 participants with different chronic diseases. Solutions that were identified included learning to accept and cope with the disease, which is frequently supported by family and friends. Disclosing the disease to employers and colleagues, identifying active ways to help with duties, and implementing adaptations to the work environment were all effective solutions with the help, empathy and understanding of people in the work environment. Solutions mostly supported by patient associations included providing sufficient information about the disease, relevant help and protective legal regulations regarding work participation. Finally, health professionals could support solutions such as incorporating periods of rest, promoting self-efficacy and gaining insight into an individual's ability to participate in work. Conclusions People with a chronic disease suggested various solutions that can help overcome difficulties surrounding participating in work. Support from friends and family, patient associations, employers, colleagues and occupational health professionals is needed to help identify and implement suitable solutions.

  3. Evaluation of Cueing Innovation for Pressure Ulcer Prevention Using Staff Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Tracey L.; Kennerly, Susan; Corazzini, Kirsten; Porter, Kristie; Toles, Mark; Anderson, Ruth A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the manuscript is to describe long-term care (LTC) staff perceptions of a music cueing intervention designed to improve staff integration of pressure ulcer (PrU) prevention guidelines regarding consistent and regular movement of LTC residents a minimum of every two hours. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) model guided staff interviews about their perceptions of the intervention’s characteristics, outcomes, and sustainability. Methods: This was a qualitative, observational study of staff perceptions of the PrU prevention intervention conducted in Midwestern U.S. LTC facilities (N = 45 staff members). One focus group was held in each of eight intervention facilities using a semi-structured interview protocol. Transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis, and summaries for each category were compared across groups. Results: The a priori codes (observability, trialability, compatibility, relative advantage and complexity) described the innovation characteristics, and the sixth code, sustainability, was identified in the data. Within each code, two themes emerged as a positive or negative response regarding characteristics of the innovation. Moreover, within the sustainability code, a third theme emerged that was labeled “brainstormed ideas”, focusing on strategies for improving the innovation. Implications: Cueing LTC staff using music offers a sustainable potential to improve PrU prevention practices, to increase resident movement, which can subsequently lead to a reduction in PrUs. PMID:27429278

  4. Use of focus groups to explore consumers' preferences for content and graphic design of nutrition publications.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, S K; Sims, L S; Cronin, F J; Shaw, A; Davis, C A

    1989-11-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine consumers' preferences for the content and design of nutrition print materials through the use of focus group interviews. Thirty-seven non-pregnant, non-nursing female consumers 20 to 50 years of age attended one of six focus group interviews. Existing nutrition print materials were used to stimulate discussion on content and graphic design features of the materials. Content features discussed included glossaries, quizzes, diet evaluation checklists, diet monitoring forms, and "factual" vs. "how to " information. Graphic design features discussed included color, format, size, organization, and general appearance. Participants were asked to discuss the personal impressions and practical considerations that formed the basis of their opinions regarding each feature and to elaborate on how the existing materials might be improved to meet their particular needs. Features that drew the most positive reactions were bright food colors, organizational cues, clear information and explanations, features that help personalize the issue being addressed, and "how to" information.

  5. A focus group study of chiropractic students following international service learning experiences

    PubMed Central

    Boysen, James C.; Salsbury, Stacie A.; Derby, Dustin; Lawrence, Dana J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: One objective of chiropractic education is to cultivate clinical confidence in novice practitioners. The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe how participation in a short-term international service learning experience changed perceptions of clinical confidence in senior chiropractic students. Methods: Seventeen senior chiropractic students participated in 4 moderated focus group sessions within 4 months after a clinical educational opportunity held in international settings. Participants answered standard questions on how this educational experience may have changed their clinical confidence. Two investigators performed qualitative thematic analysis of the verbatim transcripts to identify core concepts and supporting themes. Results: The core concept was transformation from an unsure student to a confident doctor. The service learning experience allowed students to deliver chiropractic treatment to patients in a real-world setting, engage in frequent repetitions of technical skills, perform clinical decision-making and care coordination, and communicate with patients and other health professionals. Students described increased clinical confidence in 9 competency areas organized within 3 domains: (1) chiropractic competencies including observation, palpation, and manipulation; (2) clinical competencies including problem solving, clinic flow, and decision-making; and (3) communication competencies, including patient communication, interprofessional communication, and doctor–patient relationship. Students recommended that future service learning programs include debriefing sessions similar to the experience offered by these focus groups to enhance student learning. Conclusion: Senior chiropractic students who participated in an international service learning program gained confidence and valuable practical experience in integrating their chiropractic, clinical, and communication skills for their future practices. PMID:27258817

  6. Breaking phase focused wave group loads on offshore wind turbine monopiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghadirian, A.; Bredmose, H.; Dixen, M.

    2016-09-01

    The current method for calculating extreme wave loads on offshore wind turbine structures is based on engineering models for non-breaking regular waves. The present article has the aim of validating previously developed models at DTU, namely the OceanWave3D potential flow wave model and a coupled OceanWave3D-OpenFOAM solver, against measurements of focused wave group impacts on a monopile. The focused 2D and 3D wave groups are reproduced and the free surface elevation and the in-line forces are compared to the experimental results. In addition, the pressure distribution on the monopile is examined at the time of maximum force and discussed in terms of shape and magnitude. Relative pressure time series are also compared between the simulations and experiments and detailed pressure fields for a 2D and 3D impact are discussed in terms of impact type. In general a good match for free surface elevation, in-line force and wave-induced pressures is found.

  7. Prescribing attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding metformin for patients with diabetes: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Trinkley, Katy E.; Malone, Daniel C.; Nelson, Jennifer A.; Saseen, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to identify the reasons why metformin prescribing is suboptimal. Methods: Two semi-structured focus groups with attitudinal questionnaires and a brief educational presentation were held in two US cities. Participants included providers (physicians, pharmacists, midlevel practitioners) caring for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in an ambulatory setting. Outcome measures included provider attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding the use of metformin. Results: Participants identified three main themes influencing the use of metformin, including the appropriate timing of metformin initiation, known risks associated with metformin, and procedures to manage safety concerns and mitigate adverse effects associated with metformin. Participant prescribing behaviors of metformin were not consistent with the best available evidence in the settings of renal insufficiency, heart failure, hepatic dysfunction, alcohol use, and lactic acidosis. With minimal education, provider prescribing behaviors appeared to change by the end of the focus group to align more closely with the best available evidence. Conclusions: Provider attitudes, behaviors and opinions regarding the use of metformin for T2DM reveals the need for further education to improve appropriate use of metformin. Educational interventions should target prescribing behaviors and opinions identified to be inconsistent with the evidence. PMID:27583122

  8. Exploring Sources of Emotional Distress among People Living with Scleroderma: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Gumuchian, Stephanie T.; Peláez, Sandra; Delisle, Vanessa C.; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Jewett, Lisa R.; El-Baalbaki, Ghassan; Fortune, Catherine; Hudson, Marie; Impens, Ann; Körner, Annett; Persmann, Jennifer; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Bartlett, Susan J.; Thombs, Brett D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic sclerosis, or scleroderma, is a chronic and rare connective tissue disease with negative physical and psychological implications. Sources of emotional distress and the impact they have on the lives of people with scleroderma are not well understood. Objectives To gain an in-depth understanding of the emotional experiences and sources of emotional distress for women and men living with scleroderma through focus group discussions. Methods Three semi-structured focus group discussions were conducted (two in English, one in French) with a total of 22 people with scleroderma recruited through the Scleroderma Society of Ontario in Hamilton, Ontario and a scleroderma clinic in Montreal, Canada. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and then coded for emerging themes using thematic inductive analysis. Results Core themes representing sources of emotional distress were identified, including: (a) facing a new reality; (b) the daily struggle of living with scleroderma; (c) handling work, employment and general financial burden; (d) changing family roles; (e) social interactions; and (f) navigating the health care system. Collectively, these themes refer to the stressful journey of living with scleroderma including the obstacles faced and the emotional experiences beginning prior to receiving a diagnosis and continuing throughout the participants’ lives. Conclusion Scleroderma was portrayed as being an unpredictable and overwhelming disease, resulting in many individuals experiencing multiple sources of emotional distress. Interventions and supportive resources need to be developed to help individuals with scleroderma and people close to them manage and cope with the emotional aspects of the disease. PMID:27008209

  9. What constitutes an excellent allied health care professional? A multidisciplinary focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Paans, Wolter; Wijkamp, Inge; Wiltens, Egbert; Wolfensberger, Marca V

    2013-01-01

    Background Determining what constitutes an excellent allied health care professional (AHCP) is important, since this is what will guide the development of curricula for training future physical therapists, oral hygienists, speech therapists, diagnostic radiographers, and dietitians. This also determines the quality of care. Aim To describe perspectives of AHCPs on which characteristics are commonly associated with an excellent AHCP. Methods AHCPs’ perspectives were derived from three focus group discussions. Twenty-one health care professionals participated. The final analysis of the focus group discussions produced eight domains, in which content validity was obtained through a Delphi panel survey of 27 contributing experts. Results According to the survey, a combination of the following characteristics defines an excellent AHCP: (1) cognizance, to obtain and to apply knowledge in a broad multidisciplinary health care field; (2) cooperativity, to effectively work with others in a multidisciplinary context; (3) communicative, to communicate effectively at different levels in complex situations; (4) initiative, to initiate new ideas, to act proactively, and to follow them through; (5) innovative, to devise new ideas and to implement alternatives beyond current practices; (6) introspective, to self-examine and to reflect; (7) broad perspective, to capture the big picture; and (8) evidence-driven, to find and to use scientific evidence to guide one’s decisions. Conclusion The AHCPs perspectives can be used as a reference for personal improvement for supervisors and professionals in clinical practice and for educational purposes. These perspectives may serve as a guide against which talented students can evaluate themselves. PMID:24049449

  10. Focus group study assessing self-management skills of Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue; Chuang, Les; Bateman, William B

    2012-10-01

    Despite a rapid growth of Type 2 diabetes mellitus in Chinese Americans, the management of diabetes in this population is yet understudied. This pilot study attempts a first step in seeking solutions to decrease demand for health services in this population by improving patients' self-care. Focus groups were conducted in well-controlled (HbA1c < 7) and poorly-controlled (HbA1c > 8) Chinese Americans with Type 2 DM who were asked about their knowledge and self-care skills of diabetes as well as experience of living with the disease. Well-controlled had more insights in their illness and were more inquisitive, while poorly-controlled were more fixated on symptoms and side effects of treatments. Common themes for both groups included interest in diet and Traditional Chinese Medicine. The findings provide valuable information to design a survey instrument to more definitively assess self-care skills differentiating levels of control, suggest that changing attitudes and behaviors need to be a stronger focus in care and identify needs to provide more culturally appropriate materials to care for this population.

  11. International tobacco control: a focus group study of U.S. anti-tobacco activists.

    PubMed

    David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N

    2001-01-01

    Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.

  12. Strategies for Sharing Scientific Research on Sea Level Rise: Suggestions from Stakeholder Focus Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLorme, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Stephens, S. H.

    2013-12-01

    This presentation reports results of focus groups with coastal resource managers on suggestions for effectively sharing sea level rise (SLR) scientific research with the public and other target audiences. The focus groups were conducted during three annual stakeholder workshops as an important and innovative component of an ongoing five-year multi-disciplinary NOAA-funded project, Ecological Effects of Sea Level Rise in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (EESLR-NGOM). The EESLR-NGOM project is assessing SLR risks to the natural and built environment along the Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida Panhandle coasts. The purpose was to engage stakeholders (e.g., coastal resource managers) in helping target, translate, and tailor the EESLR-NGOM project's scientific findings and emerging products so they are readily accessible, understandable, and useful. The focus groups provided insight into stakeholders' SLR informational and operational needs, solicited input on the project's products, and gathered suggestions for public communication and outreach. A total of three ninety-minute focus groups of between eight and thirteen participants each were conducted at annual workshops in Alabama, Florida, and Mississippi. The moderator asked a series of open-ended questions about SLR-related topics using an interview guide and encouraged participant interaction. All focus group audio-recordings were transcribed, and analyzed by carefully reading the 102 total pages of transcript data and identifying patterns and themes. Participants thought outreach about SLR impact and the EESLR-NGOM project scientific research/products was vital and acknowledged various communication challenges and opportunities. They identified three target audiences (local officials, general public, coastal resource managers themselves) that likely require different educational efforts and tools. Participants felt confident the EESLR-NGOM project products will benefit their resource planning and decision making and

  13. Decision aids for familial breast cancer: exploring women's views using focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Rapport, Frances; Iredale, Rachel; Jones, Wendy; Sivell, Stephanie; Edwards, Adrian; Gray, Jonathon; Elwyn, Glyn

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background  There is increasing need for accessible information about familial breast cancer for those facing complex decisions around genetic testing, screening and treatment. Information currently includes leaflets and computerized decision aids, offering interactive interfaces to clarify complex choices. Objective  Exploration of users’ views and reactions to three decision aids for genetic testing for breast cancer using focus groups. Setting  A regional cancer genetics service in the UK. Participants  Women over 18 years of age who had been referred to Cancer Genetics Service for Wales (CGSW) and had received a risk assessment for familial breast cancer. Methods  Qualitative study involving one pilot and six extended focus groups with 39 women at high, moderate and population risk. Two CD‐ROMs and one paper‐based aid evaluated for: clarity of presentation, ease of handling, emotive response, increased knowledge and greater informed choice. Results  Women reported variable preferences for different types of decision aids and mixed emotions, indicating the sensitivity of raising issues in decision support tools, lack of consensus over the most appropriate aid and no systematic differences between risk groups. Women remarked that aids increased their knowledge, particularly about breast cancer genes and risk and wanted a decision aid designed within the context of the NHS, in both paper‐based and CD‐ROM formats from an authoritative source. Mixed views about presentation styles suggest decision aids would be most effective with a user‐selected range of formats. Conclusions  Decision aid development should be informed by users and should meet the needs of those concerned about their risk of breast cancer in the UK. Without such aids, patients will continue to search for information from a variety of sources of varying quality. PMID:16911137

  14. Experimenting Clinical Pathways in General Practice: a Focus Group Investigation with Italian General Practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Zannini, Lucia; Cattaneo, Cesarina; Peduzzi, Paolo; Lopiccoli, Silvia; Auxilia, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background Clinical governance is considered crucial in primary care. Since 2005, clinical pathways have been experimentally implemented at the Local Health Authority of Monza Brianza (ASLMB), Italy, to develop general practitioners’ (GPs) care of patients affected by some chronic diseases. The experimentation was aimed at introducing clinical governance in primary care, increasing GPs’ involvement in the care of their patients, and improving both patients’ and professionals’ satisfaction. In the period 2005-2006, 12% of the 763 employed GPs in the ASLMB were involved in the experiment, while this percentage increased to 15-20% in 2007-2008. Design and Methods Twenty-four GPs were purposively sampled, randomly divided into two groups and asked to participate in focus groups (FGs) held in 2008, aimed at evaluating their perception of the experiment. The FGs were audio-recorded, dialogues were typed out and undergone to a thematic analysis, according to the Interpretative Phenomenological Approach. Results Four major themes emerged: i) clinical pathways can result in GPs working in a more efficient and effective fashion; ii) they can assure higher levels of both patient and professional satisfaction, since they sustain a caring approach and strengthen the GPs’ role; iii) nevertheless, clinical pathways increase the bureaucratic workload and problems can arise in relationships among GPs and the LHA; iv) the implementation of clinical pathways can be improved, especially by reducing bureaucracy and by assuring their continuity. Conclusions Managerial aspects should be considered with care in order to experimentally introduce clinical pathways in general practice, and continuity of the experimentation should be guaranteed to improve GPs’ adherence and commitment. Acknowledgments the Authors thank Dr. AP. Cantù and Dr D. Cereda who participated in the two focus groups as observers. PMID:25181354

  15. Discovering the research priorities of people with diabetes in a multicultural community: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ken; Dyas, Jane; Chahal, Prit; Khalil, Yesmean; Riaz, Perween; Cummings-Jones, Joy

    2006-01-01

    Background Usually experts decide on which research is worthwhile, yet it is government policy to involve service users in research. There has been a lack of published research about involving patients from minority ethnic groups and people from deprived areas in setting research agendas. In this study we wanted to hear the voices of patients that are not often heard. Aim To find out the research priorities of people with diabetes from an inner city community and compare these with current expert-led research priorities in diabetes. Design of study A qualitative study using a participatory approach with consumer groups. Setting Primary care within inner city Nottingham, UK. Method Thirty-nine adult patients with diabetes with varying ethnic backgrounds recruited from three general practices. Six focus groups carried out in participants' preferred language, analysed using the constant comparative method. Results Nine main themes equating to research priorities were identified. Within these themes, information and awareness, service delivery and primary prevention of diabetes emerged as the main factors. There were no science-based topics and there was more emphasis on culturally influenced research questions, which differed from recent Department of Health priorities. There were several themes about service delivery, patient self-management and screening and prevention of diabetes that overlapped. Conclusions There is some divergence between expert-led and patient-led agendas in research about diabetes. Patient perspectives have a significant influence on research priorities, and there are likely to be several different patient perspectives. PMID:16536961

  16. Parental decisional strategies regarding HPV vaccination before media debates: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Hofman, Robine; van Empelen, Pepijn; Vogel, Ineke; Raat, Hein; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Korfage, Ida J

    2013-01-01

    Before the introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, decisional strategies and factors that could guide HPV vaccination intentions were explored. The authors conducted 4 focus group discussions with 36 parents of children 8-15 years of age. Three groups consisted primarily of Dutch parents and 1 group of only Turkish parents. Discussions followed a semi-structured question route. Results showed that some parents used an approach of systematically seeking information as a way to prepare a decision, whereas others merely relied on trust in the message source. In general, parents believed that it was important to protect their child against negative outcomes that could result from vaccinating or not, and they felt that it is their responsibility to decide about uptake. Perceived susceptibility, vaccine effectiveness, and possibility of serious side effects were most important in the HPV vaccination decision-making process. In conclusion, parents perceived a lack of information and felt insecure about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness. This may result in ambivalent feelings toward HPV vaccination, which, in turn, may lead to postponing decisions about uptake. To facilitate informed decision making, which requires central processing, personally relevant messages about the knowns and unknowns regarding the effects of HPV vaccination should be provided.

  17. A focus on pleasure? Desire and disgust in group work with young men

    PubMed Central

    McGeeney, Ester

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of persuasive arguments as to why sexual pleasure should be included in sexual health work with young people, including the suggestion that this would provide young people with accounts of gender and sexuality that are more critical and holistic than those presented in the popular media, pornography and current sex education curricula. This paper considers the possibilities for engaging young men in critical group work about sexual pleasure in research and education contexts, drawing on a mixed-methods study of young people's understandings and experiences of ‘good sex’. The paper provides a reflexive account of one focus group conducted with a group of heterosexual young men and two youth educators. It explores some of the challenges to building relationships with young men and creating ‘safe spaces’ in which to engage in critical sexuality education in socially unequal contexts. In this case study, adult-led discussion elicits rebellious, ‘hyper-masculine’ performances that close down opportunities for critical or reflective discussion. Although there are some opportunities for critical work that move beyond limited public health or school-based sex education agendas, there is also space for collusion and the reinforcement of oppressive social norms. The paper concludes by imagining possibilities for future research and practice. PMID:25985279

  18. A focus-group study on spirituality and substance-abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heinz, Adrienne J.; Disney, Elizabeth R.; Epstein, David H.; Glezen, Louise A.; Clark, Pamela I.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals recovering from addictions frequently cite spirituality as a helpful influence. However, little is known about whether or how spirituality could be incorporated into formal treatment in a manner that is sensitive to individual differences. In the present study, focus groups were conducted with 25 methadone-maintained outpatients (primarily high-school educated, African-American males) to examine beliefs about the role of spirituality in recovery and its appropriateness in formal treatment. Groups also discussed the relationship between spirituality and behavior during active addiction. Thematic analyses suggested that spirituality and religious practices suffered in complex ways during active addiction, but went “hand in hand” with recovery. Nearly all participants agreed that integration of a voluntary spiritual discussion group into formal treatment would be preferable to currently available alternatives. One limitation was that all participants identified as strongly spiritual. Studies of more diverse samples will help guide the development and evaluation of spiritually based interventions in formal treatment settings. PMID:20025443

  19. A focus on pleasure? Desire and disgust in group work with young men.

    PubMed

    McGeeney, Ester

    2015-01-01

    There are a number of persuasive arguments as to why sexual pleasure should be included in sexual health work with young people, including the suggestion that this would provide young people with accounts of gender and sexuality that are more critical and holistic than those presented in the popular media, pornography and current sex education curricula. This paper considers the possibilities for engaging young men in critical group work about sexual pleasure in research and education contexts, drawing on a mixed-methods study of young people's understandings and experiences of 'good sex'. The paper provides a reflexive account of one focus group conducted with a group of heterosexual young men and two youth educators. It explores some of the challenges to building relationships with young men and creating 'safe spaces' in which to engage in critical sexuality education in socially unequal contexts. In this case study, adult-led discussion elicits rebellious, 'hyper-masculine' performances that close down opportunities for critical or reflective discussion. Although there are some opportunities for critical work that move beyond limited public health or school-based sex education agendas, there is also space for collusion and the reinforcement of oppressive social norms. The paper concludes by imagining possibilities for future research and practice.

  20. The implementation evaluation of primary care groups of practice: a focus on organizational identity

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since 2002 the Health Ministry of Québec (Canada) has been implementing a primary care organizational innovation called 'family medicine groups'. This is occurring in a political context in which the reorganization of primary care is considered necessary to improve health care system performance. More specifically, the purpose of this reform has been to overcome systemic deficiencies in terms of accessibility and continuity of care. This paper examines the first years of implementation of the family medicine group program, with a focus on the emergence of the organizational identity of one of the pilot groups located in the urban area of Montreal. Methods An in-depth longitudinal case study was conducted over two and a half years. Face to face individual interviews with key informants from the family medicine group under study were conducted over the research period considered. Data was gathered throuhg observations and documentary analysis. The data was analyzed using temporal bracketing and Fairclough's three-dimensional critical discourse analytical techniques. Results Three different phases were identified over the period under study. During the first phase, which corresponded to the official start-up of the family medicine group program, new resources and staff were only available at the end of the period, and no changes occurred in medical practices. Power struggles between physicians and nurses characterized the second phase, resulting in a very difficult integration of advanced nurse practitioners into the group. Indeed, the last phase was portrayed by initial collaborative practices associated with a sensegiving process prompted by a new family medicine group director. Conclusions The creation of a primary care team is a very challenging process that goes beyond the normative policy definitions of who is on the team or what the team has to do. To fulfil expectations of quality improvement through team-based care, health care professionals who

  1. Focus Groups Reveal Differences in Career Experiences Between Male and Female Geoscientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oconnell, S.; Frey, C. D.; Holmes, M.

    2003-12-01

    We conducted twelve telephone focus groups of geoscientists to discover what motivates geoscientists to enter our field and stay in our field. There were separate male and female groups from six different professional categories: administrators, full and associate professors, non-tenure track personnel, assistant professors, post-docs and PhD candidates, Bachelor's and Master's candidates. A total of 96 geoscientists participated. Specifically, respondents were asked what initially brought them into the geosciences. Three dominant themes emerged: the subject matter itself, undergraduate experiences, and relationships. A total of 51 responses to this question related to the subject matter itself. Approximately 61 percent (31) of those responses were given by male focus group participants. Across all focus groups, participants brought up issues such as a general appreciation of the outdoors, weather, rocks, and dinosaurs. Following closely behind the general subject matter is undergraduate events. Fifty-one responses mentioned something about undergraduate experiences such as an introductory class, a laboratory experience, or field experiences. While both female and male participants discussed the role of interpersonal relationships in their decision to become a geoscientist, females were slightly more likely to bring up relevant relationships (26 times for females compared to 21 for males). These relationships varied in both groups from a parent or grandparents influence to camping trips with professors. When respondents were asked whether they had ever considered leaving the geosciences and under what circumstances, there was a striking difference between males and females: males were far less likely to have ever considered leaving. Younger males were more likely to consider leaving than older geoscientists. They feel challenged by the financial constraints of graduate school and the time constraints of academic vs. family life. Many females considered leaving at

  2. A novel nanobiotherapeutic poly-[hemoglobin-superoxide dismutase-catalase-carbonic anhydrase] with no cardiac toxicity for the resuscitation of a rat model with 90 minutes of sustained severe hemorrhagic shock with loss of 2/3 blood volume.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yuzhu; Chang, Thomas Ming Swi

    2015-02-01

    We crosslink hemoglobin (Hb), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and carbonic anhydrase (CA) to form a soluble polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA nanobiotechnological complex. The obtained product is a soluble complex with three enhanced red blood cell (RBC) functions and without blood group antigens. In the present study, 2/3 of blood volume was removed to result in 90-min hemorrhagic shock at mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) of 30 mmHg. This was followed by the reinfusion of different resuscitation fluids, then followed for another 60 min. PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA maintained the MAP at 87.5 ± 5 mmHg as compared with 3 volumes of lactated Ringer's solution, 43.3 ± 2.8 mmHg; blood, 91.3 ± 3.6 mmHg; polyHb-SOD-CAT, 86.0 ± 4.6 mmHg; poly stroma-free hemolysate (polySFHb), 85.0 ± 2.5 mmHg; and polyHb, 82.6 ± 3.5 mmHg. PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA was superior to the blood and other fluids based on the following criteria. PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA reduced tissue pCO2 from 98 ± 4.5 mmHg to 68.6 ± 3 mmHg. This was significantly (p < 0.05) more effective than lactated Ringer's solution (98 ± 4.5 mmHg), polyHb (90.1 ± 4.0 mmHg), polyHb-SOD-CAT (90.9 ± 1.4 mmHg), blood (79.1 ± 4.7 mmHg), and polySFHb (77 ± 5 mmHg). PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA reduced the elevated ST level to 21.7 ± 6.7% and is significantly (< 0.05) better than polyHb (57.7 ± 8.7%), blood (39.1 ± 1.5%), polySFHb (38.3% ± 2.1%), polyHb-SOD-CAT (27.8 ± 5.6%), and lactated Ringer's solution (106 ± 3.1%). The plasma cardiac troponin T (cTnT) level of polyHb-SOD-CAT-CA group was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of all the other groups. PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA reduced plasma lactate level from 18 ± 2.3 mM/L to 6.9 ± 0.3 mM/L. It was significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than lactated Ringer's solution (12.4 ± 0.6 mM/L), polyHb (9.6 ± 0.7 mM/L), blood (8.1 ± 0.2 mM/L), polySFHb (8.4 ± 0.1 mM/L), and polyHb-SOD-CAT (7.6 ± 0.3 mM/L). PolyHb-SOD-CAT-CA can be stored for 320 days at room temperature. Lyophilized poly

  3. Patients' perspectives on residual symptoms in bipolar disorder: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Samalin, Ludovic; Bellivier, Frank; Giordana, Bruno; Yon, Liova; Milhiet, Vanessa; El-Hage, Wissam; Courtet, Philippe; Hacques, Evguenia; Bedira, Nabil; Dillenschneider, Anne; Llorca, Pierre Michel

    2014-07-01

    Euthymic bipolar patients are often impacted by residual symptoms (RSs) that increase the risk of relapse or low functioning. We aimed to identify the perceptions of RSs, barriers to management, and service needs in euthymic bipolar patients. A qualitative methodology (focus group) was used. The interviews were investigated using a semistructured guide, tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically. Twenty-three bipolar patients expressed concern about several RSs, such as emotional dysregulation, circadian rhythm disruption, cognitive impairment, low self-esteem, and physical symptoms. They reported concern about the impact of RSs on their functioning and about the need for more systematic assessment of RSs during interepisode visits. Selection bias may have occurred because the recruitment was limited to France and there may be cultural differences in the perceptions of RSs. Bipolar patients experienced bipolar disorder as a chronic disorder because they frequently continued to suffer from RSs associated with a functional impact.

  4. The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis and public perceptions of biomedical research: a focus group study.

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Benjamin R.; Harris, Tina M.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans are less likely than European Americans to participate in biomedical research. Researchers often attribute nonparticipation to the "Tuskegee effect." Using critical qualitative analysis of focus group data, we examined the public's use of the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis (TSUS) to discuss biomedical research. Our participants articulated three primary themes in relation to TSUS: 1) that TSUS made them suspicious about biomedical research; 2) that other values had to weigh against concerns about TSUS; and 3) that African Americans could take steps to resolve their concerns about TSUS. African Americans were more likely to discuss TSUS than were European Americans. African Americans did not use TSUS to express simple fear. African Americans suggested issues other than TSUS that influence the decision to participate in research. African Americans indicated specific reforms that would increase participation in research. We discuss how a better understanding of African Americans' use of TSUS can enhance research participation and allay concerns about "another Tuskegee." PMID:15303410

  5. Patient Informed Governance of Distributed Research Networks: Results and Discussion from Six Patient Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Mamo, Laura A.; Browe, Dennis K.; Logan, Holly C.; Kim, Katherine K.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients’ views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes. PMID:24551383

  6. Exploring Winter Community Participation Among Wheelchair Users: An Online Focus Group.

    PubMed

    Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons.

  7. Single mothers' views of young children's everyday routines: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Koulouglioti, Christina; Cole, Robert; Moskow, Marian

    2011-07-01

    Consistent daily routines have been associated with children's well-being, but children of single parents are less likely to engage in regular family meals or bedtime routines. This study explored routines and the challenges of maintaining routines as experienced by single mothers with a preschool age (3-5) child. Four focus groups (N = 12) were conducted and qualitative content analysis was used. Mothers described routines as an integral part of their parenting role and a reflection of successful parenting but maintaining routines around bedtimes and mealtimes were major concerns. Difficulties managing their child's behavior and their own fatigue were major challenges but mothers described a wide range of helpful strategies as well.

  8. Online focus groups as an HIV prevention program for gay, bisexual, and queer adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Ybarra, Michele L; DuBois, L Zachary; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Prescott, Tonya L; Mustanski, Brian

    2014-12-01

    Seventy-five 14-18-year-old gay, bisexual, and queer (GBQ) males provided feedback about how their participation in national, online focus groups (FG) about GBQ sexual health related topics resulted in behavioral and attitudinal changes. Most sexually experienced youth agreed that their participation positively changed their views and behavioral intentions. Some said that being in the FG made them more comfortable talking about sex, their sexuality, and making safer choices such as negotiating condoms. Others indicated intentions to become more involved in the LGBT community. Sexually inexperienced FG participants similarly said that the FG discussion positively affected them-most commonly by reducing their sense of isolation as young GBQ men who were waiting to have sex. Many also thought that they would become more vocal advocates of abstinence and/or safe sex. Online FGs and facilitated discussion boards should be further explored as a low-cost HIV prevention program for GBQ youth.

  9. Community Pharmacy Practice Barriers in Preventing Drug Misuse, Divergence and Overdose: A Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Leong, Christine; Sareen, Jitender; Enns, Murray W; Bolton, James; Alessi-Severini, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Community pharmacists frequently encounter patients suspected to be at risk of medication misuse, divergence and overdose; yet, little research exists in describing how pharmacists effectively identify and intervene during these encounters. This study aimed to understand the barriers and facilitators in community pharmacy practice using a focus group design to help inform policymakers in the development of effective and feasible strategies for limiting the means of medication misuse. Findings revealed three themes: (1) patient-level barriers (deciphering signs of misuse); (2) pharmacist-level barriers (type of practice experience); and (3) system-level barriers (prescriber, third-party payer). Insight into pharmacy practice provided a foundation for future study to explore strategies for improving care for at-risk patients.

  10. Learning to create new solutions together: A focus group study exploring interprofessional innovation in midwifery education.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Helle

    2016-01-01

    Undergraduate students can learn how to be innovative in partnerships with health care institutions and private enterprises. This study portrays how a three phase innovation model was applied in an interprofessional health education context at a Danish university college. The aim of the study was to explore midwifery, nutrition and health as well physiotherapy students' perceptions of participating in a real-life innovation project situated in antenatal care. A total of eighteen students participated in five focus group interviews. Thematic analysis was used to interpret data findings. Data analysis revealed three themes: 'Navigating in uncertainty', 'Being part of a team' and 'Impact of project learning'. Students found project learning to be the most relevant with regards to their clinical practice. Furthermore, study findings suggest that innovation is promoted by teamwork, interprofessional participation, mentor support and external partnerships.

  11. Exploring Winter Community Participation Among Wheelchair Users: An Online Focus Group

    PubMed Central

    Ripat, Jacquie; Colatruglio, Angela

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of what people who use wheeled mobility devices (WMDs; e.g., manual and power wheelchairs, and scooters) identify as environmental barriers to community participation in cold weather climates, and to explore recommendations to overcome environmental barriers to community participation. Researchers conducted an online asynchronous focus group that spanned seven days, with eight individuals who use WMDs. Each day, participants were asked to respond to a moderator-provided question, and to engage with one another around the topic area. The researchers analyzed the verbatim data using an inductive content-analysis approach. Four categories emerged from the data: (1) winter barriers to community participation; (2) life resumes in spring and summer; (3) change requires awareness, education, and advocacy; and (4) winter participation is a right. Participants confirmed that it is a collective responsibility to ensure that WMD users are able to participate in the community throughout the seasons. PMID:26295488

  12. Patient informed governance of distributed research networks: results and discussion from six patient focus groups.

    PubMed

    Mamo, Laura A; Browe, Dennis K; Logan, Holly C; Kim, Katherine K

    2013-01-01

    Understanding how to govern emerging distributed research networks is essential to their success. Distributed research networks aggregate patient medical data from many institutions leaving data within the local provider security system. While much is known about patients' views on secondary medical research, little is known about their views on governance of research networks. We conducted six focus groups with patients from three medical centers across the U.S. to understand their perspectives on privacy, consent, and ethical concerns of sharing their data as part of research networks. Participants positively endorsed sharing their health data with these networks believing that doing so could advance healthcare knowledge. However, patients expressed several concerns regarding security and broader ethical issues such as commercialism, public benefit, and social responsibility. We suggest that network governance guidelines move beyond strict technical requirements and address wider socio-ethical concerns by fully including patients in governance processes.

  13. Focus group evaluation of teachers' views on a new general education program in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Shek, Daniel T L; Yu, Lu; Chi, Xinli

    2017-02-01

    Using teachers' focus group interviews (n=40), this study examined the impact of the General University Requirements (GUR) implemented at The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (PolyU). Results showed that teachers were generally satisfied with the GUR subjects and its implementation in its second year. Teachers regarded the design of GUR subjects was good and the students generally welcomed the subjects. Interactive teaching and learning methods adopted in GUR subjects such as fieldwork, hands-on projects, and team debates were highly appreciated by the respondents. Teachers also reflected that the GUR had promoted the intrapersonal and interpersonal development of the students. However, several challenges were also reported by teachers, including the difficulty level of Freshman Seminar subjects and lack of interaction in some GUR subjects, which suggested directions for further improvements.

  14. Implications of smart wear technology for family caregiving relationships: focus group perceptions.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Kandiah, Jayanthi; Saiki, Diana; Nam, Jinhee; Harden, Amy; Park, Soonjee

    2014-10-01

    Technological advances in monitoring vulnerable care-recipients are on the rise. Recent and future development of Smart Wear technology (devices integrated into clothing that monitor care-recipients) might assist family caregivers with tasks related to caring for young children, relatives with disabilities, and frail spouses or parents. However, the development and use of this technology in family caregiving contexts is in its infancy. Focus group interviews of family caregivers were conducted to explore perspectives regarding the potential integration of Smart Wear technology into their family caregiving. Responses were analyzed qualitatively for themes related to perceptions of how Smart Wear could impact relationships between caregivers and care-recipients. Three major themes emerged: quality and quantity of interaction, boundary issues, and implications for anxiety. Implications and recommendations are discussed regarding maximizing the potential benefits of Smart Wear technology in ways that promote and protect healthy relationships among caregivers and care-recipients.

  15. Genetic tools for wildlife management: New TWS Working Group focuses on molecular ecology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Latch, Emily; Crowhurst, Rachel S.; Oyler-McCance, Sara J.; Robinson, Stacie

    2014-01-01

    Granted interim status in November, 2013, The Wildlife Society’s (TWS) Molecular Ecology Working Group aims to promote scientific advancement by applying molecular techniques to wildlife ecology, management, and conservation. The working group—composed of sci - entists from diverse backgrounds—met for the first time in Pittsburgh at the TWS Annual Conference held in October. Our overarching goal is to enhance awareness of molecular ecology and genetic applica - tions to wildlife biology and act as an informational and networking resource. During the group’s interim status, which runs for three years, we intend to focus on a broad scope of molecular ecology that is applicable to wildlife including genetic and ge - nomic methods, conservation genetics, non-invasive genetic population monitoring, landscape genetics, evolutionary genetics, and molecular forensics

  16. The Alsep Data Recovery Focus Group of NASA's Solar System Exploration Research Virtual Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagihara, S.; Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Williams, D. R.; Taylor, P. T.; Hills, H. K.; Kiefer, W. S.; Neal, C. R.; Schmidt, G. K.

    2014-12-01

    Astronauts on Apollo 12, 14, 15, 16, and 17 deployed instruments on the Moon for 14 geophysical experiments (passive & active seismic, heat flow, magnetics, etc.) from 1969 to 1972. These instruments were called Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Packages (ALSEPs). ALSEPs kept transmitting data to the Earth until September 1977. When the observation program ended in 1977, a large portion of these data were not delivered to the National Space Science Data Center for permanent archive. In 2010, for the purpose of searching, recovering, preserving, and analyzing the data that were not previously archived, NASA's then Lunar Science Institute formed the ALSEP Data Recovery Focus Group. The group consists of current lunar researchers and those involved in the ALSEP design and data analysis in the 1960s and 1970s. Among the data not previously archived were the 5000+ 7-track open-reel tapes that recorded raw data from all the ALSEP instruments from April 1973 to February 1976 ('ARCSAV tapes'). These tapes went missing in the decades after Apollo. One of the major achievements of the group so far is that we have found 450 ARCSAV tapes from April to June 1975 and that we are extracting data from them. There are 3 other major achievements by the group. First, we have established a web portal at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, where ~700 ALSEP-related documents, totaling ~40,000 pages, have been digitally scanned and cataloged. Researchers can search and download these documents at www.lpi.usra.edu/ lunar/ALSEP/. Second, we have been retrieving notes and reports left behind by the now deceased/retired ALSEP investigators at their home institutions. Third, we have been re-analyzing the ALSEP data using the information from the recently recovered metadata (instrument calibration data, operation logs, etc.). Efforts are ongoing to get these data permanently archived in the Planetary Data System (PDS).

  17. Understanding of blood pressure by people with type 2 diabetes: a primary care focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jane; Brown, Ken; Kendrick, Denise; Dyas, Jane

    2005-01-01

    Background For many people with type 2 diabetes most care is provided in primary care. While people with both diabetes and hypertension are at increased risk of complications, little is known about their understanding of blood pressure. Aim To explore the understanding and beliefs about the importance of blood pressure held by people with type 2 diabetes. Design of study Framework analysis of qualitative research using focus groups. Setting Thirty-two participants were recruited from four general practices and a religious meeting group in Nottingham. Discussions took place in five community centres providing familiar surroundings for participants. Method In order to get views expressed fully, white, Asian, and African–Caribbean participants met in five separate groups. Facilitators were fluent in the appropriate language and one member of the research team was present at all focus groups. Results Some participants, including those with raised blood pressure, were not aware of the increased importance of achieving good blood pressure control. No participants mentioned the increased risk of eye or kidney disease as a result of the combination of diabetes and raised blood pressure. Participants' perceptions regarding the control of blood sugar and blood pressure were different: blood sugar control was seen as their responsibility but blood pressure control was seen as the responsibility of the doctor. There was scepticism regarding the diagnosis of raised blood pressure, of targets and the management of blood pressure. There was also scepticism about the advice and education about diabetes given in primary care. Conclusions People with type 2 diabetes require more knowledge of the increased risks they have from raised blood pressure, although this alone is unlikely to improve blood-pressure control. Strategies to increase the degree of control over and responsibility taken for the control of blood pressure need development and may require the specific development of

  18. Entrapment and arrested fight and flight in depression: an exploration using focus groups.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Paul; Gilbert, Jean

    2003-06-01

    The fight/flight system has long been recognized to be a basic evolved defence system. However, recent interest has focused on the consequences of arousing these action tendencies but blocking their execution-that is arresting them. Previous research has shown that depressed people can have strong feelings of anger (fight) and desires to run away (flight), but these 'fight/flight' defences can become blocked, inhibited, and arrested, which increase stress. This study used three clinical focus groups and one of psychiatric nurses to explore depressed people's own ideas of entrapment and arrested anger. Participants felt that arrested escape (entrapments) and arrested anger were important aspects of the experience of depression. Depressed participants clarified distinctions between internal entrapment (feeling trapped in a state of depression), feeling trapped in a subordinate role, and external entrapment (feeling trapped in relationships or life circumstances). Participants also clarified key reasons for arrested anger. Nurses had similar perspectives on the reasons for entrapment in depression but also saw fear of change and opportunities as important sources of entrapment.

  19. Managing the market. Focusing on a select group of customers can keep an organization competitive.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-05-01

    The real challenge in healthcare marketing today is managing markets, focusing on selected groups of customers rather than on the organization or its services. Market management includes three distinct but related levels: Strategic market management assesses current and potential markets and chooses those the organization can serve best; segment management focuses on the needs and wants of subsets of chosen customers; and customer management reinforces long-term commitments to the organization. The patient care experience can be broken down into specific contacts with each staff member. The key to managing the experience is to identify and achieve standards of performance for each contact by examining what each event means to the patients and how patients judge each staff member, as well as the overall care experience. Regular feedback helps. An unavoidable risk in market management is that a given segment may decline in size, in need for services, or in cohesiveness as a segment. Yet those organizations which can identify the right segments and "manage" them effectively will have an advantage in a competitive market.

  20. Public culture and public understanding of genetics: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Bates, Benjamin R

    2005-01-01

    As the role of genetic science in everyday life has grown, policymakers have become concerned about Americans' understandings of this science. Much effort has been devoted to formal schooling, but less attention has been paid to the role of public culture in shaping public understanding of genetics. Research into public cultural messages about genetics has claimed that the public is likely to adopt problematic accounts, but few studies have explored the public's articulation of these messages. This study is based on 25 focus groups convened to explore the lay public's understanding of genetics. The study found that the public processed a greater variety of messages than assumed by previous researchers, including documentaries, non-science-fiction films, and popular television in addition to previous researchers' focus on science fiction and news media. The study also found that the public does not process the messages through the linear, transmission model assumed by previous research. The public processes messages about genetics complexly and critically. On the basis of these findings, the study suggests that researchers should include a greater variety of texts about genetics in their research and attend more fully to audience processing in addition to content analyses of these texts.

  1. Patients' Perspectives on Nonadherence to Statin Therapy: A Focus-Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Vicki, Fung; Sinclair, Fiona; Wang, Huihui; Dailey, Diane; Hsu, John; Shaber, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Context: Nonadherence to statin therapy is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. Objective: We explored factors and perceptions that contribute to statin therapy nonadherence. Design: We conducted a qualitative study that was based on three patient focus groups using a structured discussion guide to explore factors related to statin therapy nonadherence, information sources, perceptions of statins and cardiovascular risks factors, and suggestions for improving adherence. Participants: We enrolled 18 adult patients of an integrated delivery system who had been newly prescribed a statin between November 2006 and August 2007, with a subsequent one- to six-month gap in drug supply as documented by automated pharmacy data. Measures: We performed content analysis of verbatim focus-group transcripts to assess themes within each domain. Results: Study participants identified many factors that contributed to their statin therapy nonadherence, including concerns or experiences with adverse effects, uncertainty about the benefits or importance of statins for their overall health, and lack of convenience. Concerns about the adverse effects of statins were a dominant theme. Although most participants believed that having a high cholesterol level is unsafe, many were unsure about their personal need for statins if they were making other lifestyle changes or had only borderline high cholesterol levels. Participants suggested that systematic follow-up, as well as greater information about the risks and benefits of statins and the merits of alternative approaches for lowering cholesterol, could have improved their adherence to therapy. Conclusions: Many patients reduced statin use because of concerns about adverse effects and desire for more information about statins. Effective interventions that address patients' underlying concerns and perceptions are needed to improve statin therapy adherence. PMID:20740125

  2. What are parents' perspectives on psychological empowerment in the MMR vaccination decision? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Fadda, Marta; Galimberti, Elisa; Carraro, Valter; Schulz, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Most developed countries do not have compulsory immunisation requirements, but instead issue recommendations. Although parents are expected to make an informed, autonomous (ie, empowered) decision regarding their children's vaccinations, there is no evidence about how parents' interpret this demand nor on the latitude of their decision-making. The goal of this study is to gain insights from parents residing in a low measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) uptake area on what constitutes feelings of empowerment in the decision they have to make on their child's MMR vaccination. Design A qualitative study employing focus group interviews. Setting 11 vaccination centres and hospitals in the Province of Trento, Italy. Participants 24 mothers and 4 fathers of children for whom the MMR vaccination decision was still pending participated in 6 focus groups. Results Autonomy and competence were salient themes in relation to empowerment, and were further connected with beliefs regarding legal responsibility and ethics of freedom concerning the decision, parents' relationship with the paediatrician (trust), feelings of relevance of the decision and related stress, and seeking, avoidance, or fear of vaccination-related information. Competence was interpreted as medical knowledge and information-seeking skills, but it was also related to the extent parents perceived the paediatrician to be competent. Conclusions Since parents' interpretation of empowerment goes beyond mere perceptions of being informed and autonomous and differs across individuals, it is important that this construct be correctly interpreted and implemented by best practice, for instance by explicitly adopting a relational conception of autonomy. Knowing whether parents want to make an empowered decision and what their information and autonomy needs are might help health professionals adapt their communication about immunisation, and promote parental perception of making an informed, autonomous decision. PMID

  3. Health Beliefs and Practices Related to Dengue Fever: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Li Ping; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2013-01-01

    Background This qualitative study aimed to provide an in-depth understanding of the meaning of dengue fever (DF) amongst people living in a dengue endemic region, dengue prevention and treatment-seeking behaviours. The Health Belief Model was used as a framework to explore and understand dengue prevention behaviours. Methods A total of 14 focus group discussions were conducted with 84 Malaysian citizens of different socio-demographic backgrounds between 16th December, 2011 and 12th May, 2012. Results The study revealed that awareness about DF and prevention measures were high. The pathophysiology of dengue especially dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) were rarely known; as a result, it was seen as deadly by some but was also perceived as easily curable by others without a basis of understanding. Young adults and elderly participants had a low perception of susceptibility to DF. In general, the low perceived susceptibility emerged as two themes, namely a perceived natural ability to withstand infection and a low risk of being in contact with the dengue virus vector, Aedes spp. mosquitoes. The barriers to sustained self-prevention against dengue prevention that emerged in focus groups were: i) lack of self-efficacy, ii) lack of perceived benefit, iii) low perceived susceptibility, and iv) unsure perceived susceptibility. Low perceived benefit of continued dengue prevention practices was a result of lack of concerted action against dengue in their neighborhood. Traditional medical practices and home remedies were widely perceived and experienced as efficacious in treating DF. Conclusion Behavioural change towards attaining sustainability in dengue preventive practices may be enhanced by fostering comprehensive knowledge of dengue and a change in health beliefs. Wide use of unconventional therapy for DF warrants the need to enlighten the public to limit their reliance on unproven alternative treatments. PMID:23875045

  4. Attracted to power: challenge/threat and promotion/prevention focus differentially predict the attractiveness of group power.

    PubMed

    Scholl, Annika; Sassenrath, Claudia; Sassenberg, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Depending on their motivation, individuals prefer different group contexts for social interactions. The present research sought to provide more insight into this relationship. More specifically, we tested how challenge/threat and a promotion/prevention focus predict attraction to groups with high- or low-power. As such, we examined differential outcomes of threat and prevention focus as well as challenge and promotion focus that have often been regarded as closely related. According to regulatory focus, individuals should prefer groups that they expect to "feel right" for them to join: Low-power groups should be more attractive in a prevention (than a promotion) focus, as these groups suggest security-oriented strategies, which fit a prevention focus. High-power groups should be more attractive in a promotion (rather than a prevention) focus, as these groups are associated with promotion strategies fitting a promotion focus (Sassenberg et al., 2007). In contrast, under threat (vs. challenge), groups that allow individuals to restore their (perceived) lack of control should be preferred: Low-power groups should be less attractive under threat (than challenge) because they provide low resources which threatened individuals already perceive as insufficient and high-power groups might be more attractive under threat (than under challenge), because their high resources allow individuals to restore control. Two experiments (N = 140) supported these predictions. The attractiveness of a group often depends on the motivation to engage in what fits (i.e., prefer a group that feels right in the light of one's regulatory focus). However, under threat the striving to restore control (i.e., prefer a group allowing them to change the status quo under threat vs. challenge) overrides the fit effect, which may in turn guide individuals' behavior in social interactions.

  5. Is the Medium Really the Message? A Comparison of Face-to-Face, Telephone, and Internet Focus Group Venues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothberg, June; Applegate, Brooks; Reeves, Patricia; Kohler, Paula; Thurston, Linda; Peterson, Lori

    2013-01-01

    With increased use of technology in qualitative research, it is important to understand unintended, unanticipated, and unobvious consequences to the data. Using a side-by-side comparison of face-to-face, telephone, and Internet with video focus groups, we examined the yield differences of focus group venue (medium) to the data (message) rendered…

  6. Body Talk and Body Ideals among Adolescent Boys and Girls: A Mixed-Gender Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strandbu, Åse; Kvalem, Ingela Lundin

    2014-01-01

    This study explores how body ideals are discussed among adolescent boys and girls in 5 mixed-gender focus groups (n = 37). The ways in which boys and girls talk about bodies differed clearly within the focus group conversations as well as in the everyday situations described in the interviews. The boys were more concrete in their description of…

  7. Nursing from the casual pool: focus group study to explore the experiences of casual nurses.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, Mary; McMillan, Margaret; Maguire, Jane Margaret

    2007-08-01

    The use of flexible non-contract nursing staff is increasing in Australia and in other countries where there is currently a nursing shortage. There is sparse empirical evidence relating to the experience of these nurses. This focus group study with six groups of enrolled and registered nurses in one regional health authority in New South Wales reports on the challenges and rewards of working through the casual pool. The textual data were coded and reported in themes and subthemes; the overarching theme is balance of social and professional life, while subthemes are social politics, nursing work and professional performance. The results reveal that nurses who work from the casual pool have insight into the work environment and culture of clinical teams that is untapped formally. They have little or no chance to provide clinical teams with feedback or receive feedback on their own performance. The consequence of this study has been the development of a two-way performance intervention to promote high standards of care from nurses who work from the casual pool and the promotion of safe clinical environments and cultures.

  8. Household behaviour and attitudes with respect to recycling food waste--experiences from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Refsgaard, Karen; Magnussen, Kristin

    2009-02-01

    It is a challenge to reduce the ever-increasing flow of waste. In Norway the systems for recycling of organic waste, paper, glass, metals, etc. differ between municipalities, both with regard to organizational and to technological structures. Our hypothesis is that people's attitudes and behaviour may differ with different systems of waste management. People's behaviour and attitudes regarding (organic) waste recycling were investigated in two municipalities with differing technical and organisational systems. Data came from interviews with municipal employees, questionnaires, focus groups and multi-criteria mapping. People seem to be better informed and more positive about organic waste recycling in one of the municipalities (MH, which has recycling of organic waste) than in the other (MS, which has no such recycling). The two municipalities had similar sets of important criteria for waste management (price, environmental friendliness, easy solutions, information). Many participants stated that they had learned from the group process, though only a few reported changed preferences. The institutional context seems to be important for people's behaviour and attitudes towards waste management. This implies that people's recycling behaviour does not only depend on technical and organisational aspects, but also on institutions. These are important messages for policy makers. On an individual basis, the different systems in the two municipalities seem to affect people's stated attitudes. These differences diminish when they are in a common setting where process and dialogue stimulate new thoughts and encourage people to act more altruistically.

  9. What it Takes to Successfully Implement Technology for Aging in Place: Focus Groups With Stakeholders

    PubMed Central

    Wouters, Eveline JM; Luijkx, Katrien G; Vrijhoef, Hubertus JM

    2016-01-01

    Background There is a growing interest in empowering older adults to age in place by deploying various types of technology (ie, eHealth, ambient assisted living technology, smart home technology, and gerontechnology). However, initiatives aimed at implementing these technologies are complicated by the fact that multiple stakeholder groups are involved. Goals and motives of stakeholders may not always be transparent or aligned, yet research on convergent and divergent positions of stakeholders is scarce. Objective To provide insight into the positions of stakeholder groups involved in the implementation of technology for aging in place by answering the following questions: What kind of technology do stakeholders see as relevant? What do stakeholders aim to achieve by implementing technology? What is needed to achieve successful implementations? Methods Mono-disciplinary focus groups were conducted with participants (n=29) representing five groups of stakeholders: older adults (6/29, 21%), care professionals (7/29, 24%), managers within home care or social work organizations (5/29, 17%), technology designers and suppliers (6/29, 21%), and policy makers (5/29, 17%). Transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results Stakeholders considered 26 different types of technologies to be relevant for enabling independent living. Only 6 out of 26 (23%) types of technology were mentioned by all stakeholder groups. Care professionals mentioned fewer different types of technology than other groups. All stakeholder groups felt that the implementation of technology for aging in place can be considered a success when (1) older adults’ needs and wishes are prioritized during development and deployment of the technology, (2) the technology is accepted by older adults, (3) the technology provides benefits to older adults, and (4) favorable prerequisites for the use of technology by older adults exist. While stakeholders seemed to have identical aims, several underlying

  10. Preferred Tone of Nutrition Text Messages for Young Adults: Focus Group Testing

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Young adults are a particularly hard to reach group using conventional health promotion practices as they do not see nutrition messages as personally relevant to them. Text messaging (short message service, SMS) offers an innovative approach to reaching young adults to support and promote dietary behavior change. Objective The aim of this study was to develop and test tonal preferences for nutrition text messages among young adults using focus groups. Methods A total of 39 young adults aged 18-30 years residing in Perth, Western Australia participated in four focus groups. Participants briefly discussed their perception of healthy eating and their responses to messages about increasing fruit and vegetables, and reducing “junk food” and alcohol intake. They ranked their preference for 15 nutrition messages across 3 dietary behaviors (fruit and vegetables, junk food, and alcohol) with 5 different message tones (authoritative, empathetic, generation Y, solutions, and substitutions) and identified the messages most likely to persuade young adults to change their diet. A 5-point ranking of the nutrition messages was from the most likely to least likely to persuade (1-5). The focus groups were conducted by a trained facilitator and observer and were recorded. Data driven content analysis was used to explore themes. Tonal preferences and potential motivators were collated and frequencies presented. Results Participants ranked offering substitutes (29%, 11/39) and using empathy (22%, 9/39) as the most persuasive message techniques in improving diets of young adults, with low responses for Generation Y (17%, 7/39), solutions (17%, 7/39), and authoritative (15%, 6/39) tones. Females were more likely to consider substitution messages persuasive (35%, 7/20) compared with males (22%, 4/19). A greater proportion of males compared with females considered authoritative messages persuasive: (22%, 4/19) compared with (7%, 1/20). There is a strong preference for a

  11. How mindfulness changed my sleep: focus groups with chronic insomnia patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic insomnia is a major public health problem affecting approximately 10% of adults. Use of meditation and yoga to develop mindful awareness (‘mindfulness training’) may be an effective approach to treat chronic insomnia, with sleep outcomes comparable to nightly use of prescription sedatives, but more durable and with minimal or no side effects. The purpose of this study was to understand mindfulness training as experienced by patients with chronic insomnia, and suggest procedures that may be useful in optimizing sleep benefits. Methods Adults (N = 18) who completed an 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) program as part of a randomized, controlled clinical trial to evaluate MBSR as a treatment for chronic insomnia were invited to participate in post-trial focus groups. Two groups were held. Participants (n = 9) described how their sleep routine, thoughts and emotions were affected by MBSR and about utility (or not) of various mindfulness techniques. Groups were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed using content analysis. Results Four themes were identified: the impact of mindfulness on sleep and motivation to adopt a healthy sleep lifestyle; benefits of mindfulness on aspects of life beyond sleep; challenges and successes in adopting mindfulness-based practices; and the importance of group sharing and support. Participants said they were not sleeping more, but sleeping better, waking more refreshed, feeling less distressed about insomnia, and better able to cope when it occurred. Some participants experienced the course as a call to action, and for them, practicing meditation and following sleep hygiene guidelines became priorities. Motivation to sustain behavioral changes was reinforced by feeling physically better and more emotionally stable, and seeing others in the MBSR class improve. The body scan was identified as an effective tool to enable falling asleep faster. Participants described needing to continue

  12. Building a taxonomy of integrated palliative care initiatives: results from a focus group

    PubMed Central

    Ewert, Benjamin; Hodiamont, Farina; van Wijngaarden, Jeroen; Payne, Sheila; Groot, Marieke; Hasselaar, Jeroen; Menten, Johann; Radbruch, Lukas

    2016-01-01

    Background Empirical evidence suggests that integrated palliative care (IPC) increases the quality of care for palliative patients and supports professional caregivers. Existing IPC initiatives in Europe vary in their design and are hardly comparable. InSuP-C, a European Union research project, aimed to build a taxonomy of IPC initiatives applicable across diseases, healthcare sectors and systems. Methods The taxonomy of IPC initiatives was developed in cooperation with an international and multidisciplinary focus group of 18 experts. Subsequently, a consensus meeting of 10 experts revised a preliminary taxonomy and adopted the final classification system. Results Consisting of eight categories, with two to four items each, the taxonomy covers the process and structure of IPC initiatives. If two items in at least one category apply to an initiative, a minimum level of integration is assumed to have been reached. Categories range from the type of initiative (items: pathway, model or guideline) to patients’ key contact (items: non-pc specialist, pc specialist, general practitioner). Experts recommended the inclusion of two new categories: level of care (items: primary, secondary or tertiary) indicating at which stage palliative care is integrated and primary focus of intervention describing IPC givers’ different roles (items: treating function, advising/consulting or training) in the care process. Conclusions Empirical studies are required to investigate how the taxonomy is used in practice and whether it covers the reality of patients in need of palliative care. The InSuP-C project will test this taxonomy empirically in selected initiatives using IPC. PMID:26647043

  13. Being a pedestrian with dementia: A qualitative study using photo documentation and focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Brorsson, Anna; Öhman, Annika; Lundberg, Stefan; Nygård, Louise

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to identify problematic situations in using zebra crossings. They were identified from photo documentations comprising film sequences and the perspectives of people with dementia. The aim was also to identify how they would understand, interpret and act in these problematic situations based on their previous experiences and linked to the film sequences.A qualitative grounded theory approach was used. Film sequences from five zebra crossings were analysed. The same film sequences were used as triggers in two focus group interviews with persons with dementia. Individual interviews with three informants were also performed.The core category, the hazard of meeting unfolding problematic traffic situations when only one layer at a time can be kept in focus, showed how a problematic situation as a whole consisted of different layers of problematic situations. The first category, adding layers of problematic traffic situations to each other, was characterized by the informants' creation of a problematic situation as a whole. The different layers were described in the subcategories of layout of streets and zebra crossings, weather conditions, vehicles and crowding of pedestrians. The second category, actions used to meet different layers of problematic traffic situations, was characterized by avoiding problematic situations, using traffic lights as reminders and security precautions, following the flow at the zebra crossing and being cautious pedestrians.In conclusion, as community-dwelling people with dementia commonly are pedestrians, it is important that health care professionals and caregivers take their experiences and management of problematic traffic situations into account when providing support.

  14. Assistive technologies after stroke: self-management or fending for yourself? A focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assistive Technologies, defined as “electrical or mechanical devices designed to help people recover movement” have demonstrated clinical benefits in upper-limb stroke rehabilitation. Stroke services are becoming community-based and more reliant on self-management approaches. Assistive technologies could become important tools within self-management, however, in practice, few people currently use assistive technologies. This study investigated patients’, family caregivers and health professionals’ experiences and perceptions of stroke upper-limb rehabilitation and assistive technology use and identified the barriers and facilitators to their use in supporting stroke self-management. Methods A three-day exhibition of assistive technologies was attended by 204 patients, family caregivers/friends and health professionals. Four focus groups were conducted with people purposively sampled from exhibition attendees. They included i) people with stroke who had used assistive technologies (n = 5), ii) people with stroke who had not used assistive technologies (n = 6), iii) family caregivers (n = 5) and iv) health professionals (n = 6). The audio-taped focus groups were facilitated by a moderator and observer. All participants were asked to discuss experiences, strengths, weaknesses, barriers and facilitators to using assistive technologies. Following transcription, data were analysed using thematic analysis. Results All respondents thought assistive technologies had the potential to support self-management but that this opportunity was currently unrealised. All respondents considered assistive technologies could provide a home-based solution to the need for high intensity upper-limb rehabilitation. All stakeholders also reported significant barriers to assistive technology use, related to i) device design ii) access to assistive technology information and iii) access to assistive technology provision. The lack of and need for a coordinated

  15. Adherence to Technology-Mediated Insomnia Treatment: A Meta-Analysis, Interviews, and Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Lancee, Jaap; Beun, Robbert Jan; Neerincx, Mark A; Brinkman, Willem-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several technologies have been proposed to support the reduction of insomnia complaints. A user-centered assessment of these technologies could provide insight into underlying factors related to treatment adherence. Objective Gaining insight into adherence to technology-mediated insomnia treatment as a solid base for improving those adherence rates by applying adherence-enhancing strategies. Methods Adherence to technology-mediated sleep products was studied in three ways. First, a meta-analysis was performed to investigate adherence rates in technology-mediated insomnia therapy. Several databases were queried for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. After inclusion and exclusion steps, data from 18 studies were retrieved and aggregated to find an average adherence rate. Next, 15 semistructured interviews about sleep-support technologies were conducted to investigate perceived adherence. Lastly, several scenarios were written about the usage of a virtual sleep coach that could support adherence rates. The scenarios were discussed in six different focus groups consisting of potential users (n=15), sleep experts (n=7), and coaches (n=9). Results From the meta-analysis, average treatment adherence appeared to be approximately 52% (95% CI 43%-61%) for technology-mediated insomnia treatments. This means that, on average, half of the treatment exercises were not executed, suggesting there is a substantial need for adherence and room for improvement in this area. However, the users in the interviews believed they adhered quite well to their sleep products. Users mentioned relying on personal commitment (ie, willpower) for therapy adherence. Participants of the focus groups reconfirmed their belief in the effectiveness of personal commitment, which they regarded as more effective than adherence-enhancing strategies. Conclusions Although adherence rates for insomnia interventions indicate extensive room for improvement, users might not consider adherence to

  16. NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater: 90 Minutes of Spectacular Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations from space in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Ashville and the Conference Auditorium. Zoom through the Cosmos to SLC and site of the 2002 Winter Olympics using 1 m IKONOS 'Spy Satellite' data. Contrast the 1972 Apollo 17 'Blue Marble' image of the Earth with the latest US and International global satellite images that allow us to view our Planet from any vantage point. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, & Landsat 7, of storms & fires like Hurricane Isabel and the LA/San Diego Fire Storms of 2003. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we do science communication. Take the pulse of the planet on a daily, annual and 30-year time scale. See daily thunderstorms, the annual blooming of the northern hemisphere land masses and oceans, fires in Africa, dust storms in Iraq, and carbon monoxide exhaust from global burning. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. Spectacular new global visualizations of the observed and simulated atmosphere and Oceans are shown. See the currents and vortexes in the Oceans that bring up the nutrients blooms in response to El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The Etheater will be presented using the latest High Definition TV (HDTV) and video projection technology on a large screen. See the global city lights, and the great NE US blackout of August 2003 observed by the 'night-vision' DMSP satellite.

  17. Public Speaking 101: In 90 Minutes or Less.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayward, Pamela A.

    Recently, when employers of entry-level engineers were asked to prioritize the need for further instruction, over 60% of these employers identified communication skills as the primary curricular element needing increased emphasis. Two of the top 10 required skills ranked as important to engineering practice related to making oral presentations.…

  18. Intensive care discharge summaries for general practice staff: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Bench, Suzanne; Cornish, Jocelyn; Xyrichis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background Understanding how patients and relatives can be supported after hospital discharge is a UK research priority. Intensive Care Unit (ICU) discharge summaries are a simple way of providing GPs with the information they require to coordinate ongoing care, but little evidence is available to guide best practice. Aim This study aimed at better understanding the information needs of GP staff (GPs and practice nurses) supporting former patients of ICUs and their families following discharge from hospital, and identifying the barriers/facilitators associated with ICU–primary care information transfer. Design and setting This was a qualitative exploratory study of practices and participants throughout the UK. Method Audiotaped focus group discussions, complemented by small-group/individual interviews, were conducted with 15 former patients of ICUs, four relatives, and 20 GP staff between June and September 2015. Demographic data were captured by questionnaire and qualitative data were thematically analysed. Results Findings suggest variability in discharge information experiences and blurred lines of responsibility between hospital and GP staff, and patients/relatives. Continuity of care was affected by delayed or poor communication from the hospital; GPs’ limited contact with patients from critical care; and a lack of knowledge of the effects of critical illness or resources available to ameliorate these difficulties. Time pressures and information technology were, respectively, the most commonly mentioned barrier and facilitator. Conclusion Effective rehabilitation after a critical illness requires a coordinated and comprehensive approach, incorporating the provision of well-completed, timely, and relevant ICU–primary care discharge information. Health professionals need an improved understanding of critical illness, and patients and families must be included in all aspects of the information-sharing process. PMID:27872086

  19. Identifying effective healthy weight and lifestyle advertisements: Focus groups with Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Helen; Murphy, Michael; Scully, Maree; Rose, Mischa; Cotter, Trish

    2016-08-01

    This study explored adult's attitudes and reactions to a range of television advertisements (ads) promoting healthy weight, physical activity and healthy eating. Twenty-four focus groups (N = 179) were conducted in metropolitan and regional areas of the Australian states of Victoria, New South Wales (NSW) and Queensland, with participants segmented by sex, education (no tertiary, at least some tertiary) and life stage (young adults, parents). Each group was assigned to one of the three advertising streams - Weight, Activity, or Nutrition - where responses to five different ads were explored using semi-structured, moderator-led discussions. Discussion transcripts were qualitatively content analysed using a conventional approach. Four main themes were identified in participants' discussions about the ads' main messages - (i) Why is it a problem? (ii) Who is it a problem for? (iii) What should I do about it? (iv) How do I make the changes? Reactions varied by demographic factors and current weight and lifestyle status. Participants furthest from achieving public health recommendations for weight, diet and activity were motivated by 'what' and 'how' ads involving gentle persuasion and helpful hints. Participants who were closer to meeting these recommendations were motivated by 'why' ads featuring more graphic and emotive content and new information. Findings suggest a strategic approach is important for the development of public health ads promoting healthy weight and lifestyle, with consideration given to the specific communication goals and who the target audience is. This should help ensure an appropriate message is delivered to priority population subgroups in the most informative and motivating manner.

  20. Effectiveness of a trauma/grief-focused group intervention: a qualitative study with war-exposed Bosnian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cox, Jonathan; Davies, D Rob; Burlingame, Gary M; Campbell, J Eric; Layne, Christopher M; Katzenbach, R Jason

    2007-07-01

    The effectiveness and impacts of a school-based, trauma/grief-focused group treatment program for war-exposed youth in Bosnia and Herzegovina were investigated using semistructured focus groups, conducted separately for students and their school counselor group leaders. Overall, students' and leaders' evaluations of the groups were generally positive. General themes of outcomes and impacts perceived by students and group leaders include: acquisition of coping skills and attitudes, willingness to advocate for peers, improved interpersonal relationships, negative impacts, general positive impacts, impacts in the schools, impacts on the group and logistics of the program, and broader impacts on the perception of mental health in the community. The broad positive impacts of this program suggest that trauma/grief-focused group treatment intervention programs targeting trauma-exposed youth may be effective on multiple levels with war-exposed youth and their communities.

  1. Gischig receives 2011 Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    Valentin Gischig has been awarded the AGU Natural Hazards Focus Group Award for Graduate Research, given annually to a recent Ph.D. recipient for outstanding contributions to natural hazards research. Gischig's thesis is entitled “Kinematics and failure mechanisms of the Randa rock slope instability (Switzerland).” He presented an invited talk and was formally presented with the award at the 2011 AGU Fall Meeting, held 5-9 December in San Francisco, Calif. Gischig received his M.Sc. in geophysics and glaciology at Eidgenössiche Technische Hochschule (ETH) Zürich, in Switzerland, in 2007. In 2011 he attained a Ph.D. in engineering geology/rock mechanics/landslide analysis under the supervision of Simon Loew, Jeffrey R. Moore, Florian Amann, and Keith F. Evans at ETH Zürich. Gischig is currently conducting postdoctoral research at ETH Zürich. His research interests include landslides, induced seismicity in enhanced geothermal systems, and coupled processes in rock mechanics.

  2. Gut feelings in the diagnostic process of Spanish GPs: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    March, Sebastià; Gadea, Cristina; Stolper, Erik; Esteva, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The gut feelings of doctors can act as triggers and modulators of the diagnostic process. This study explored the existence, significance, determinants and triggers of gut feelings among Spanish general practitioners. Design Qualitative study using focus groups. Thematic content analysis. Setting Primary healthcare centres in Majorca (Spain). Participants 20 purposively sampled general practitioners working in Majorca. Results General practitioners were aware of the existence of gut feelings in their diagnostic reasoning process and recognised 2 kinds of gut feelings: a sense of alarm and a sense of reassurance. A previous physician–patient relationship and the physician's experience had a strong perceived influence on the appearance of gut feelings. The physicians attached great significance to gut feelings, and considered them as a characteristic of the primary care working style and as a tool available in their diagnostic process. The physicians thought that the notion of gut feelings and their relevance can be transmitted to students and trainees. They tended to follow their gut feelings, although they were not sure of their accuracy. Conclusions Spanish general practitioners in our study recognise the presence and role of gut feelings in their diagnostic reasoning process. Future research should examine the diagnostic accuracy of gut feelings and how to teach about gut feelings in the training of general practitioners. PMID:27940631

  3. Images of Environmental Management: Competing Metaphors in Focus Group Discussions of Swedish Environmental Quality Objectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system—that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  4. Nurses' views of factors affecting sleep for hospitalized children and their families: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Stremler, Robyn; Adams, Sherri; Dryden-Palmer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Light, noise, and interruptions from hospital staff lead to frequent awakenings and detrimental changes to sleep quantity and quality for children who are hospitalized and their parents who stay with them overnight. An understanding of nurses' views on how care affects sleep for the hospitalized child and parent is crucial to the development of strategies to decrease sleep disturbance in hospital. The purpose of this descriptive qualitative study was to gain an understanding of nurses' views on their role in and influence on sleep for families; perceived barriers and facilitators of patient and parent sleep at night; strategies nurses use to preserve sleep; the distribution, between parent and nurse, of care for the child at night; views of the parent as a recipient of nursing care at night; and the nature of interactions between nurses and families at night. Thirty registered nurses from general pediatric and critical care units participated in one of four semi-structured focus groups. Four main influences on sleep were identified: child factors; environmental factors; nurse-parent interaction factors; and nursing care factors. Some of these restricted nurses' ability to optimize sleep, but many factors were amenable to intervention. Balancing strategies to preserve sleep with the provision of nursing assessment and intervention was challenging and complicated by the difficult nature of work outside of usual waking hours. Nurses highlighted the need for formal policy and mentoring related to provision of nursing care at night in pediatric settings.

  5. Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program: focus groups with non-participating restaurant operators.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, John J M; Macaskill, Lesley A; Uetrecht, Connie L; Dombrow, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Eat Smart! Ontario's Healthy Restaurant Program is a standard provincial health promotion program. Public health units give an award of excellence to restaurants that meet nutrition, food safety, and non-smoking seating standards. The purpose of this study was to determine why some restaurant operators have not applied to participate in the program, and how to get them to apply. Four focus group interviews were conducted with 35 operators who didn't apply to participate. The analysis of responses yielded various themes. The participants' perceived barriers to participation were misunderstandings about how to qualify for the program, lack of time, concern about different non-smoking bylaw requirements, and potential loss of revenue. Their perceived facilitators to participation were convenience of applying to participate, franchise executives' approval to participate, a 100% non-smoking bylaw, flexibility in the assessment of restaurants, the opportunity for positive advertising, alternative payment for food handler training, and customer demand. Program staff can use the findings to develop and use strategies to encourage participation.

  6. What young people want from health-related online resources: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Fergie, Gillian; Hunt, Kate; Hilton, Shona

    2013-08-01

    The growth of the Internet as an information source about health, particularly amongst young people, is well established. The aim of this study was to explore young people's perceptions and experiences of engaging with health-related online content, particularly through social media websites. Between February and July 2011 nine focus groups were facilitated across Scotland with young people aged between 14 and 18 years. Health-related user-generated content seems to be appreciated by young people as a useful, if not always trustworthy, source of accounts of other people's experiences. The reliability and quality of both user-generated content and official factual content about health appear to be concerns for young people, and they employ specialised strategies for negotiating both areas of the online environment. Young people's engagement with health online is a dynamic area for research. Their perceptions and experiences of health-related content seem based on their wider familiarity with the online environment and, as the online environment develops, so too do young people's strategies and conventions for accessing it.

  7. Forgotten resources of older home care clients: focus group study in Finland.

    PubMed

    Turjamaa, Riitta; Hartikainen, Sirpa; Pietilä, Anna-Maija

    2013-09-01

    In this qualitative focus group study, the resources available to older home-dwelling people, particularly incoming and existing home care clients, are described from the viewpoint of home care professionals (n = 32). The data were analyzed using inductive content analysis. There were three categories of older people requiring resources from the viewpoint of interviewers: home-dwelling people, incoming home care clients, and existing home care clients. Based on the analysis, the resources of older home-dwelling people were categorized in terms of support, meaningful life, everyday activities, and environment. Incoming home care client resources were support, out-of-home activities, in-home activities, and environment. Existing client resources were described in terms of support, everyday activities, and environment. Home care professionals described the resources of the older home-dwelling people in diverse ways, but those of the perspective of existing clients were reduced. The biggest difference was in everyday activities. Psychological and social resources, including meaningful life and social relationships, seemed to be forgotten. All available resources must be taken into account, especially in the everyday home care services for existing home care clients.

  8. Public attitudes towards pricing policies to change health-related behaviours: a UK focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Marteau, Theresa M.; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Cohn, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Background: Evidence supports the use of pricing interventions in achieving healthier behaviour at population level. The public acceptability of this strategy continues to be debated throughout Europe, Australasia and USA. We examined public attitudes towards, and beliefs about the acceptability of pricing policies to change health-related behaviours in the UK. The study explores what underlies ideas of acceptability, and in particular those values and beliefs that potentially compete with the evidence presented by policy-makers. Methods: Twelve focus group discussions were held in the London area using a common protocol with visual and textual stimuli. Over 300 000 words of verbatim transcript were inductively coded and analyzed, and themes extracted using a constant comparative method. Results: Attitudes towards pricing policies to change three behaviours (smoking, and excessive consumption of alcohol and food) to improve health outcomes, were unfavourable and acceptability was low. Three sets of beliefs appeared to underpin these attitudes: (i) pricing makes no difference to behaviour; (ii) government raises prices to generate income, not to achieve healthier behaviour and (iii) government is not trustworthy. These beliefs were evident in discussions of all types of health-related behaviour. Conclusions: The low acceptability of pricing interventions to achieve healthier behaviours in populations was linked among these responders to a set of beliefs indicating low trust in government. Acceptability might be increased if evidence regarding effectiveness came from trusted sources seen as independent of government and was supported by public involvement and hypothecated taxation. PMID:25983329

  9. Focus group evaluation of "Secret Feelings": a depression fotonovela for Latinos with limited English proficiency.

    PubMed

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B; Baron, Melvin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled "Secret Feelings." Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. "Secret Feelings" was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that "Secret Feelings" is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors.

  10. Using focus groups to assess presentation methods in a research seminar.

    PubMed

    Thomas, K Jackson; Lancaster, Carol

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this inquiry was to examine preferences between presentation methods among graduate students enrolled in a research seminar course. Participants consisted of 34 second year students enrolled in the Master of Science degree program in physical therapy in the College of Health Professions at the Medical University of South Carolina. All were required to present a published research article on the general topic of exercise in elderly individuals. However, before the student presentations took place, the instructor presented two different published research papers, both of which were done in sequential time segments during a single class period. For Time Segment 1, the instructor/author used a formal, "lecture," or "platform" type presentation, embellished by power point slides with textual information and graphs. For Time Segment 2, the instructor conducted an informal discussion of the background, methods, and findings of the research paper. After the presentations were completed, students were assigned to focus groups for the purpose of providing verbal and written feedback. Examination of the findings using content analysis revealed a variety of opinions regarding presentation techniques, but showed a general preference for the method employed in Time Segment 1. Among the reasons cited were the structure, the visual aids, and past familiarity and comfort with formal, "lecture" type presentations. Also noted was the predominant view that presenter style was a major factor in judging effectiveness. These findings merit further exploration of presentation styles and teaching methodologies for augmenting teaching effectiveness and enhancing the scholarship of teaching.

  11. Focus groups among public, military, and private sector mothers: insights to improve the immunization process.

    PubMed

    Houseman, C; Butterfoss, F D; Morrow, A L; Rosenthal, J

    1997-08-01

    The underimmunization of children younger than 2 years old is a major health problem in U.S. cities. Innovative methods to increase immunization rates are being researched and implemented. In 1993, six focus groups were conducted with 41 mothers (25 African Americans and 16 Caucasians) to discuss their views regarding immunizations and the services they received from health care providers in the public health (n = 27), military (n = 4), and private (n = 10) sectors. Participants viewed immunizations positively, but perceived many barriers to immunization. They suggested the following ways to improve the immunization process: enhancing knowledge acquisition, improving reminder and appointment systems, providing transportation and child care, decreasing waiting times, improving the clinic environment, and making the immunizations less traumatic. According to mothers in this study, obtaining an immunization on time is a complex task that requires planning and resources. The fewer resources that are available to mothers, the more difficult it is to succeeded. Health care providers must help mothers identify and remove barriers if immunization rates are to be increased.

  12. Parents' and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.

  13. Focus group study of ethnically diverse low-income users of paid personal assistance services.

    PubMed

    Mullan, Joseph T; Grossman, Brian R; Hernandez, Mauro; Wong, Alice; Eversley, Rani; Harrington, Charlene

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the experiences of ethnically diverse, low-income consumers of paid personal assistance services (PAS) to understand the successes and problems they faced setting up and maintaining their assistance. A thematic analysis was conducted with transcripts from eight focus groups of ethnically homogeneous consumers (n = 67): African American, Latino, Chinese, Native American, and non-Hispanic white. These experienced consumers were generally satisfied with their current PAS but noted significant difficulties: Getting access to appropriate care, obtaining enough paid care to avoid unmet need, and dealing with confusing bureaucracies and cultural differences between them and agency staff/attendants. They desired more control over their care, including the use of paid family attendants when possible. Respondents recommended improved screening and training of attendants, more attendant time, higher wages for attendants, improved cultural sensitivity of attendants and agency staff, and greater consumer control over PAS. Although these low-income PAS consumers are ethnically and geographically diverse, the similarity of findings points to their ongoing struggle to access adequate high quality assistance. The burden they have in obtaining and maintaining services is substantial.

  14. Workplace injury and nurses: Insights from focus groups with Australian return-to-work coordinators.

    PubMed

    Southgate, Erica; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley; Bohatko-Naismith, Joanna; Rivett, Darren; Guest, Maya

    2011-06-01

    Few studies have examined the return-to-work process for nurses who are injured at work. The purpose of this study was to identify the factors that facilitate or impede the successful return to work of nurses who have sustained a workplace injury from the perspective of return-to-work coordinators. A qualitative, descriptive study was conducted and 25 return-to-work coordinators from 14 different organizations participated in focus group discussions. The participants were recruited from healthcare settings in metropolitan and rural areas of New South Wales, Australia. These included aged-care, residential, and community disability support services, public and private hospitals, and the community health sector. Workforce shortages, individual life circumstances and nurses' work, and nurses' qualifications, specialization, experience, and job tenure were identified as the factors that influence the timely, safe, and sustainable return to work of injured nurses. This study provides insight into how workforce shortages have driven innovative practice in accommodating a nurse's life circumstances when developing the return-to-work plan. Barriers to nurses' return to work included a lack of qualifications, specialization, and the casualization of the workforce.

  15. Images of environmental management: competing metaphors in focus group discussions of Swedish environmental quality objectives.

    PubMed

    Wibeck, Victoria

    2012-04-01

    In managing environmental problems, several countries have chosen the management by objectives (MBO) approach. This paper investigates how focus group participants from the Swedish environmental administration used metaphors to describe the mode of organization needed to attain environmental objectives. Such analysis can shed light on how an MBO system is perceived by actors and how it works in practice. Although the Swedish government intended to stimulate broad-based cooperation among many actors, participants often saw themselves as located at a certain "level," i.e., "higher" or "lower," in the MBO system--that is, their conceptions corresponded to a traditional, hierarchical interpretation of MBO. Prepositions such as "in" and "out" contributed to feelings of inclusion and exclusion on the part of MBO actors. However, horizontal metaphors merged with vertical ones, indicating ongoing competition for the right to interpret how the system of environmental objectives should best be managed. The paper concludes that any organization applying MBO could benefit from discussing alternate ways of talking and thinking about its constituent "levels."

  16. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  17. Older drivers' opinions of criteria that inform the cars they buy: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Jenny; Porter, Michelle M; Polgar, Jan; Vrkljan, Brenda

    2013-12-01

    Safe driving in older adulthood depends not only on health and driving ability, but also on the driving environment itself, including the type of vehicle. However, little is known about how safety figures into the older driver's vehicle selection criteria and how it ranks among other criteria, such as price and comfort. For this purpose, six focus groups of older male and female drivers (n=33) aged 70-87 were conducted in two Canadian cities to explore vehicle purchasing decisions and the contribution of safety in this decision. Themes emerged from the data in these categories: vehicle features that keep them feeling safe, advanced vehicular technologies, factors that influence their car buying decisions, and resources that inform this decision. Results indicate older drivers have gaps with respect to their knowledge of safety features and do not prioritize safety at the time of vehicle purchase. To maximize the awareness and uptake of safety innovations, older consumers would benefit from a vehicle design rating system that highlights safety as well as other features to help ensure that the vehicle purchased fits their lifestyle and needs.

  18. Effect of Solution Focused Group Counseling for High School Students in Order to Struggle with School Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ates, Bünyamin

    2016-01-01

    In this research, the effect of solution focused group counseling upon high school students struggling with school burnout was analyzed. The research was an experimental study in which a pre-test post-test control group random design was used, depending upon the real experimental model. The study group included 30 students that volunteered from…

  19. Women's status and family planning: results from a focus group survey.

    PubMed

    Gu, B; Xie, Z

    1994-02-01

    Focus group discussions were conducted in China's Pingluo County, Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and Sihui County, Guangdong Province among reproductive age women with only daughters, mothers-in-law, unmarried women aged 23 years and older, and women business persons and cadres. The topic of discussion was the status of women, gender differences in employment, education, marriage, family life, childbearing, and elderly care in counties that have above average fertility rates. There were also several groups of men, mixed gender groups with husbands working away from home, local family planning workers, and rural intellectuals. The findings showed that there is more access to education for girls and a higher employment rate for young women. Daughters receive education to the highest level affordable. Enrollments are equal for boys and girls. Women's employment is not challenged by husbands, and work is available in a variety of locations. Business ownership and operation is encouraged. By middle age, women generally do not work in enterprises, but at home or on contracted farmland. Equal rights within the family are generally accepted. Husbands turn over their salary to wives for family expenses. Girls receive the same care after birth as boys. Women's status is improving. Improvements in social status have also involved sacrifices. Women complained that the workload on the farm has increased with adult males away working in cities. Women bear the burden of family planning, including in some cases side effects from oral pills and recovery from sterilizations. One women remarked that there were burdens in bearing children, taking oral pills, having IUD insertions, and having induced abortions; men should bear 50% of the responsibility. The burden of women without sons is harder, and women may also feel inferior as the last in their family line. One family with 6 daughters accepted the fine of RMB 7000 yuan for having another child, which turned out to be a son. One

  20. 'Could you please pass one of those health leaflets along?': exploring health, morality and resistance through focus groups.

    PubMed

    Crossley, Michele L

    2002-10-01

    This paper derives from research in which focus groups were used as a preliminary method of eliciting peoples' perceptions, attitudes and opinions towards health and health promotion in a Northern British city. However, applying criticisms associated with social constructionist theories (e.g. discourse analysis and rhetorical analysis), some recently emerging work on focus groups (see The challenge and promise of focus groups, in: Barbour, Kitzinger (Eds.), Developing Focus Group Research: Politics, Theory and Practice, Sage, London, 1999, p. 1; Focus Groups in Social Research, Sage, London, 2001) has suggested that their traditional use, as a kind of 'window' onto peoples' attitudes and opinions, misses important dimensions of the way in which these phenomena are actively negotiated and constructed during the course of the focus group. Working on the premise that these observations are particularly pertinent to health issues, this paper draws on data from one focus group in order to provide a detailed working example of the way in which attitudes and opinions towards health issues are actively constructed during the course of interaction. In addition, in accordance with social constructionist theories, attention will be paid to the way in which such construction is inextricably linked to social and moral actions such as the negotiation of blame and allocation of responsibility. Through an analysis of six extracts, the paper ultimately identifies three 'positions' or 'stances', which develop over the course of the focus group, often in opposition to one another. These are: (1) 'positive mental attitude'; (2) 'genes and luck'; and (3) 'resistance'. Each of these positions becomes associated, not only with certain moral values, but also 'attached' to certain people within the group. One of the main aims of this analysis is to illustrate how, through the everyday nature of such debates, health remains an intrinsically moral phenomenon.

  1. From Crisis to Transition: The State of Russian Science Based on Focus Groups with Nuclear Physicists

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, T P; Ball, D Y

    2001-12-09

    renewed economic progress in Russia. Russian scientists could also be an important source of support for democratic norms: sociologists of science have long argued that scientists tend to support democracy because it provides them with the freedom in which their research can flourish. At the same time, a more recent study suggests that funding shortages may override the researcher's need for freedom and drive scientists to align themselves with the economic policies espoused by Nationalists and Communists in order to survive. Therefore, much turns on the question: ''What is the state of science in Russia today?'' The good news is that focus group interviews with Russian nuclear physicists conducted in October 2001 suggest that the ''science in crisis'' image is one-sided and misleading. Though scientists still complained about low salaries, lack of respect in society, and other similar issues, the participants in the focus groups also expressed positive sentiments about recent changes in the field of science. To be sure, the financing of science remains at a considerably lower level than during the heyday of Soviet times. Yet, it is now possible to earn a decent living as a scientist because of the greater availability of foreign and domestic grants and contracts. In addition, state funding has stabilized over the past few years. Thus, it is more accurate to say that Russian science is in a state of transition rather than in a state of crisis.

  2. Approaching confidentiality at a familial level in genomic medicine: a focus group study with healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Dheensa, Sandi; Fenwick, Angela; Lucassen, Anneke

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Clinical genetics guidelines from 2011 conceptualise genetic information as confidential to families, not individuals. The normative consequence of this is that the family's interest is the primary consideration and genetic information is shared unless there are good reasons not to do so. We investigated healthcare professionals' (HCPs') views about, and reasoning around, individual and familial approaches to confidentiality and how such views influenced their practice. Method 16 focus groups with 80 HCPs working in/with clinical genetics services were analysed, drawing on grounded theory. Results Participants raised seven problems with, and arguments against, going beyond the individual approach to confidentiality. These problems fell into two overlapping categories: ‘relationships’ and ‘structures’. Most participants had never considered ways to—or thought it was impossible to—treat familial genetic information and personal information differently. They worried that putting the familial approach into practice could disrupt family dynamics and erode patient trust in the health service. They also thought they had insufficient resources to share information and feared that sharing might change the standard of care and make them more vulnerable to liability. Conclusions A familial approach to confidentiality has not been accepted or adopted as a standard, but wider research suggests that some of the problems HCPs perceived are surmountable and sharing in the interest of the family can be achieved. However, further research is needed to explore how personal and familial genetic information can be separated in practice. Our findings are relevant to HCPs across health services who are starting to use genome tests as part of their routine investigations. PMID:28159847

  3. Adolescents’ and Young Adults’ Perceptions of Electronic Cigarettes for Smoking Cessation: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Cavallo, Dana A.; Kong, Grace; Morean, Meghan E.; Connell, Christian M.; Simon, Patricia; Bulmer, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Research has shown that adults perceive that electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are effective for smoking cessation, yet little is known about adolescents and young adults’ perceptions of e-cigarettes for quitting cigarette smoking. This study describes middle, high school, and college students’ beliefs about, and experiences with, e-cigarettes for cigarette smoking cessation. Methods: We conducted 18 focus groups (n = 127) with male and female cigarette smokers and nonsmokers in 2 public colleges, 2 high schools, and 1 middle school in Connecticut between November 2012 and April 2013. Participants discussed cigarette smoking cessation in relation to e-cigarettes. Verbatim transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: All participants, regardless of age and smoking status, were aware that e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation. College and high school participants described different methods of how e-cigarettes could be used for smoking cessation: (a) nicotine reduction followed by cessation; (b) cigarette reduction/dual use; and (c) long-term exclusive e-cigarette use. However, overall, participants did not perceive that e-cigarette use led to successful quitting experiences. Participants described positive attributes (maintenance of smoking actions, “healthier” alternative to cigarettes, and parental approval) and negative attributes (persistence of craving, maintenance of addiction) of e-cigarettes for cessation. Some college students expressed distrust of marketing of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation. Conclusions: Adolescent and young adult smokers and nonsmokers perceive that there are several methods of using e-cigarettes for quitting and are aware of both positive and negative aspects of the product. Future research is needed to determine the role of e-cigarettes for smoking cessation in this population. PMID:25646346

  4. Perceptions of mental workload in Dutch university employees of different ages: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As academic workload seems to be increasing, many studies examined factors that contribute to the mental workload of academics. Age-related differences in work motives and intellectual ability may lead to differences in experienced workload and in the way employees experience work features. This study aims to obtain a better understanding of age differences in sources of mental workload. 33 academics from one faculty discussed causes of workload during focus group interviews, stratified by age. Findings Among our participants, the influence of ageing seems most evident in employees’ actions and reactions, while the causes of workload mentioned seemed largely similar. These individual reactions to workload may also be driven by differences in tenure. Most positively assessed work characteristics were: interaction with colleagues and students and autonomy. Aspects most often indicated as increasing the workload, were organisational aspects as obstacles for ‘getting the best out of people’ and the feeling that overtime seems unavoidable. Many employees indicated to feel stretched between the ‘greediness’ of the organisation and their own high working standards, and many fear to be assigned even less time for research if they do not meet the rigorous output criteria. Moreover, despite great efforts on their part, promotion opportunities seem limited. A more pronounced role for the supervisor seems appreciated by employees of all ages, although the specific interpretation varied between individuals and career stages. Conclusions To preserve good working conditions and quality of work, it seems important to scrutinize the output requirements and tenure-based needs for employee supervision. PMID:23506458

  5. Communication of geohazard risks by focus group discussions in the Mount Cameroon area, Cameroon.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Marmol, M.-A.; Suh Atanga, M. Bi; Njome, S.; Mafany Teke, G.; Jacobs, P.; Suh, C. E.

    2012-04-01

    The inappropriate translation of scientific information of geohazard (volcanic, landslide and crater lake outgassing) risks to any local population leaves people with incongruent views of the real dangers. Initial workshops organized under the supervision of the VLIR-OI (Flemish Interuniversity Council - Own Initiatives) members have led to the deployment of billboards as requested and drawn up by the locals. The VLIR-OI project has also organized focus group discussions (FGD) with the local stakeholders to find out in various cities, the state of preparedness, the response to emergency situations, the recovery from the emergency and the mitigation. Researchers have preferred open discussion with the local population and its representatives in order to elicit information that otherwise might not be found on a structured questionnaire. FGD provide a meaningful interactive opportunity to collect information and reflection on a wide range of input. The method provides an insight into problems that require a solution through a process of discovering the meaning attributed to certain events or issues. In this research four cardinal points as preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation (Fothergill, 1996) guided the FGD. The population (i.e. local town councils) were constituted by a mix of chiefs, engineers, technicians and civil servants and government officials. In all the three city councils concerned, the engineers in charge complained about the lack of strategic planning, and about the missing of an elaborated strategy for disasters. They are aware of the existence of an organigram in the "Département de l'Action Civile" in Yaounde but never received any "strategic" document. Therefore inappropriate actions might be taken by the municipalities themselves. Fortunately all people interrogated at the FDG always mentioned solidarity in any event. Fothergill, 1996, Gender, Risk, and Disasters, Intern. Jour. of Mass Emergencies and Disasters, vol.14, n°1, 33-56

  6. Focus Group Study of Public Opinion About Paying Living Kidney Donors in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Angelique F.; Chapman, Jeremy R.; Wong, Germaine; Gill, John S.; Josephson, Michelle A.; Craig, Jonathan C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives The unmet demand for kidney transplantation has generated intense controversy about introducing incentives for living kidney donors to increase donation rates. Such debates may affect public perception and acceptance of living kidney donation. This study aims to describe the range and depth of public opinion on financial reimbursement, compensation, and incentives for living kidney donors. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twelve focus groups were conducted with 113 participants recruited from the general public in three Australian states in February 2013. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. Results Five themes were identified: creating ethical impasses (commodification of the body, quandary of kidney valuation, pushing moral boundaries), corrupting motivations (exposing the vulnerable, inevitable abuse, supplanting altruism), determining justifiable risk (compromising kidney quality, undue harm, accepting a confined risk, trusting protective mechanisms, right to autonomy), driving access (urgency of organ shortage, minimizing disadvantage, guaranteeing cost-efficiency, providing impetus, counteracting black markets), and honoring donor deservingness (fairness and reason, reassurance and rewards, merited recompense). Reimbursement and justifiable recompense are considered by the Australian public as a legitimate way of supporting donors and reducing disadvantage. Financial payment beyond reimbursement is regarded as morally reprehensible, with the potential for exploitative commercialism. Some contend that regulated compensation could be a defensible strategy to increased donation rates provided that mechanisms are in place to protect donors. Conclusions The perceived threat to community values of human dignity, goodwill, and fairness suggests that there could be strong public resistance to any form of financial inducements for living kidney donors. Policy priorities addressing the removal of disincentives

  7. Deconstructing Williamsburg: Using focus groups to examine residents' perceptions of the building of a walkable community

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Components of the built environment are associated with active living behaviors, but research in this area has employed surveys and other quantitative methods almost exclusively. Qualitative approaches can provide additional detail about how neighborhoods influence physical activity, including informing the extent to which such relationships are causal in nature. The purpose of this study was to gain an in-depth understanding of residents' attitudinal and behavioral responses to living in a neighborhood designed to be walkable. Methods Focus groups were conducted with residents of a planned retail and residential development that was designed to embody many attributes of walkability and was located within a large city in southwestern Ontario. In total, 31 participants provided qualitative data about neighborhood resources and dynamics, use of local services, physical activity behavior, and other related issues. The data were transcribed and coded for themes relevant to the study purpose. Results Salient themes that emerged emphasized the importance of land use diversity, safety, parks and trails, aesthetics, and a sense of community, with the latter theme cutting across all others. The data also revealed mechanisms that explain relationships between the built environment and behavior and how sidewalks in the neighborhood facilitated diverse health behaviors and outcomes. Finally, residents recited several examples of changes in behavior, both positive and negative, since moving to their current neighborhood. Conclusions The results of this study confirmed and expanded upon current knowledge about built and social environment influences on physical activity and health. That many residents reported changes in their behaviors since moving to the neighborhood permitted tentative inferences about the causal impact of built and social environments. Future research should exploit diverse methods to more fully understand how neighborhood contexts influence

  8. NLSI Focus Group on Missing ALSEP Data Recovery: Progress and Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, L. R.; Nakamura, Y.; Nagihara, S.; Williams, D. R.; Chi, P.; Taylor, P. T.; Schmidt, G. K.; Grayzeck, E. J.

    2011-01-01

    On the six Apollo landed missions, the Astronauts deployed the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments Package (ALSEP) science stations which measured active and passive seismic events, magnetic fields, charged particles, solar wind, heat flow, the diffuse atmosphere, meteorites and their ejecta, lunar dust, etc. Today's scientists are able to extract new information and make new discoveries from the old ALSEP data utilizing recent advances in computer capabilities and new analysis techniques. However, current-day investigators are encountering problems trying to use the ALSEP data. In 2007 archivists from NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) estimated only about 50 percent of the processed ALSEP lunar surface data-of-interest to current lunar science investigators were in the NSSDC archives. The current-day lunar science investigators found most of the ALSEP data, then in the NSSDC archives. were extremely difficult to use. The data were in forms often not well described in the published reports and rerecording anomalies existed in the data which could only be resolved by tape experts. To resolve this problem, the DPS Lunar Data Node was established in 2008 at NSSDC and is in the process of successfully making the existing archived ALSEP data available to current-day investigators in easily useable forms. In July of 2010 the NASA Lunar Science Institute (NLSI) at Ames Research Center established the Recovery of Missing ALSEP Data Focus Group in recognition of the importance of the current activities to find the raw and processed ALSEP data missing from the NSSDC archives.

  9. Farm and rural adolescents’ perspective on hearing conservation: Reports from a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S.; McCullagh, Marjorie C.; Nordstrom, Megan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of rural and farm adolescents regarding hearing conservation strategies. This qualitative study took place at two high schools in rural Michigan. Twenty-five adolescents living and working on farms or living in rural areas participated in one of two focus groups. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were coded and analyzed by two researchers and checked by an additional researcher to ensure reliability. Noise exposure was ubiquitous among participants, both in farm-related (e.g., equipment, livestock) and non-farm-related (e.g., music, firearms) activities. Perceived barriers to use of hearing protection devices outweighed perceived benefits, resulting in uncommon use of protection. When hearing protection was used, it was usually earmuffs or earplugs. Participants indicated a lack of training in noise hazards and protective strategies. Despite their acknowledged risk of hearing loss, participants did not associate their use of hearing protection today with their hearing ability later in life. Categories emerging that relate to hearing protector use included: Barriers, benefits, self-efficacy, situational influences, impersonal influences, cues to action, susceptibility, and severity. Farm and rural adolescents are at risk for noise exposure and hearing loss. The findings stress the significance of work environment and adult modeling in facilitating hearing conservation behaviors. As indicated by the youths’ recommendations, school-based interventions may be an effective approach to address this health concern. Intervention studies are needed to test various approaches that can effectively promote use of hearing conservation strategies among rural and farm adolescents. PMID:25913552

  10. Experiences of employees with arm, neck or shoulder complaints: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many people suffer from complaints of the arm, neck or shoulder (CANS). CANS causes significant work problems, including absenteeism (sickness absence), presenteeism (decreased work productivity) and, ultimately, job loss. There is a need for intervention programs for people suffering from CANS. Management of symptoms and workload, and improving the workstyle, could be important factors in the strategy to deal with CANS. The objective of this study is to evaluate the experienced problems of employees with CANS, as a first step in an intervention mapping process aimed at adaptation of an existing self-management program to the characteristics of employees suffering from CANS. Methods A qualitative study comprising three focus group meetings with 15 employees suffering from CANS. Based on a question guide, participants were asked about experiences in relation to continuing work despite their complaints. Data were analysed using content analysis with an open-coding system. During selective coding, general themes and patterns were identified and relationships between the codes were examined. Results Participants suffering from CANS often have to deal with pain, disability, fatigue, misunderstanding and stress at work. Some needs of the participants were identified, i.e. disease-specific information, exercises, muscle relaxation, working with pain, influence of the work and/or social environment, and personal factors (including workstyle). Conclusions Employees suffering from CANS search for ways to deal with their complaints in daily life and at work. This study reveals several recurring problems and the results endorse the multi-factorial origin of CANS. Participants generally experience problems similar to those of employees with other types of complaints or chronic diseases, e.g. related to their illness, insufficient communication, working together with healthcare professionals, colleagues and management, and workplace adaptations. These topics will be

  11. Why Physicians Favor Use of Percutaneous Coronary Intervention to Medical Therapy: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Grace A.; Dudley, R. Adams

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is performed in many patients with stable coronary artery disease, despite evidence of little clinical benefit over optimal medical therapy. OBJECTIVE To examine physicians’ beliefs, practices, and decision-making regarding elective PCI. DESIGN Six focus groups, three with primary care physicians and three with cardiologists. Participants discussed PCI using hypothetical case scenarios. Transcripts were analyzed using grounded theory, and commonly expressed themes regarding the decision-making pathway to PCI were identified. PARTICIPANTS Twenty-eight primary care physicians and 20 interventional and non-interventional cardiologists in Butte County, Orange County, and San Francisco Bay Area, California, in 2006. RESULTS A number of factors led primary care physicians to evaluate non-symptomatic or minimally symptomatic patients for coronary artery disease and refer them to a cardiologist. The use of screening tests often led to additional testing and referral, as well as fear of missing a coronary stenosis, perceived patient expectations, and medicolegal concerns. The end result was a cascade such that any positive test would generally lead to the catheterization lab, where an “oculostenotic reflex” made PCI a virtual certainty. CONCLUSIONS The widespread use of PCI in patients with stable coronary artery disease—despite evidence of little benefit in outcomes over medical therapy—may in part be due to psychological and emotional factors leading to a cascade effect wherein testing leads inevitably to PCI. Determining how to help physicians better incorporate evidence-based medicine into decision-making has important implications for patient outcomes and the optimal use of new technologies. Electronic Supplementary Material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0706-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:18618192

  12. E-cigarettes, a safer alternative for teenagers? A UK focus group study of teenagers' views

    PubMed Central

    Weishaar, Heide; Sweeting, Helen; Trevisan, Filippo; Katikireddi, Srinivasa Vittal

    2016-01-01

    Objective Concerns exist that e-cigarettes may be a gateway to traditional cigarettes and/or (re)normalise teenage smoking. This qualitative study explores how teenagers in the UK currently perceive e-cigarettes and how and why they do or do not use them. Design 16 focus groups were conducted across the UK between November 2014 and February 2015, with 83 teenagers aged 14–17. All discussions were digitally recorded, transcribed verbatim, imported into NVivo 10 and thematically analysed. Results Teenagers generally agreed that e-cigarettes are useful products for smokers, including teenage smokers, to quit or reduce traditional cigarette use. Concerns were expressed about lack of information on their precise ingredients and any unknown risks for users and bystanders. However, teenagers typically viewed e-cigarettes as substantially less harmful than traditional cigarettes. They perceived e-cigarettes as attractive, with products described as ‘fun’ and having ‘great flavourings’. Seeing websites or social media featuring e-cigarettes, especially YouTube ‘vaping tricks’, prompted some experimentation and imitation. E-cigarettes were used in a variety of situations, including at parties or when they could not smoke traditional cigarettes. A very few participants suggested covert use was a possibility and that e-cigarettes might help maintain a fledgling nicotine habit. Conclusions Teenagers support the use of e-cigarettes as smoking cessation aids for established adult smokers. However, they engage with these products differently from adults, with the novel hypothesis that covert use could potentially reinforce traditional cigarette smoking requiring further investigation. Policy responses should more clearly meet the needs of young people, as well as helping established adult smokers. PMID:27852721

  13. The HPV Vaccine: A Comparison of Focus Groups Conducted in South Africa and Ohio Appalachia

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.

    2013-01-01

    Worldwide, cervical cancer is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among women. Even though women in developing countries account for approximately 85 % of the cervical cancer cases and deaths, disparities in cervical cancer rates are also documented in developed countries like the United States (U.S.). Recently, formative research conducted in the U.S. and developing countries like South Africa have sought to gain a better understanding of the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes about cervical cancer prevention, HPV, and the acceptance of the HPV vaccine. This study compares findings from two independent focus group studies. One study was conducted in a segregated township in Johannesburg, South Africa (n = 24) and the other study was conducted in Ohio Appalachia (n = 19). The following seven themes emerged during the discussions from both studies: HPV and cervical cancer; health decision making; parent–child communication; healthy children; HPV vaccine costs; sexual abuse; and HPV vaccine education. Findings from both studies indicate the importance of the role of mothers and grandmothers in the health care decision-making process for children and a lack of awareness of HPV and its association with cervical cancer. While there was interest in the HPV vaccine, participants voiced concern about the vaccine’s cost and side effects. Some participants expressed concern that receipt of the HPV vaccine may initiate adolescent sexual behavior. However, other participants suggested that the HPV vaccine may protect young women who may experience sexual abuse. The importance of developing culturally appropriate educational materials and programs about cervical cancer prevention and the HPV vaccine were expressed by participants in both countries. PMID:22930347

  14. Using telephone focus groups methodology to examine the prostate cancer screening practices of African-American primary care physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Louie E.; Stroud, Leonardo A.; Rose, Shyanika W.; Jorgensen, Cynthia M.

    2006-01-01

    African-American men have a greater burden from prostate cancer than do white men and men of other races/ethnicities in the United States. To date, there have been no studies of how African-American primary care physicians screen their patients for prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to examine the use of telephone focus groups as a methodology and to learn about this practice among a group of African-American primary care physicians. A total of 41 physicians participated in eight telephone focus groups. Results from the study are found in a separate article. Regarding telephone focus group methodology, we found that a majority of the physicians in this study preferred telephone focus groups over the conventional face-to-face focus groups. We also discuss some of the advantages (e.g., no travel, high acceptance rates, more flexibility than in-person groups, and general cost efficiency) as well as disadvantages (e.g., nonverbal communication limits and reduction of group interaction) of this methodology. This methodology may prove useful in studies involving African-American physicians, physicians in general and other difficult-to-reach healthcare professionals. PMID:16916127

  15. E-learning for Critical Thinking: Using Nominal Focus Group Method to Inform Software Content and Design

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Steve; Mayner, Lidia; Michael Gillham, David

    2015-01-01

    Background: Undergraduate nursing students are often confused by multiple understandings of critical thinking. In response to this situation, the Critiique for critical thinking (CCT) project was implemented to provide consistent structured guidance about critical thinking. Objectives: This paper introduces Critiique software, describes initial validation of the content of this critical thinking tool and explores wider applications of the Critiique software. Materials and Methods: Critiique is flexible, authorable software that guides students step-by-step through critical appraisal of research papers. The spelling of Critiique was deliberate, so as to acquire a unique web domain name and associated logo. The CCT project involved implementation of a modified nominal focus group process with academic staff working together to establish common understandings of critical thinking. Previous work established a consensus about critical thinking in nursing and provided a starting point for the focus groups. The study was conducted at an Australian university campus with the focus group guided by open ended questions. Results: Focus group data established categories of content that academic staff identified as important for teaching critical thinking. This emerging focus group data was then used to inform modification of Critiique software so that students had access to consistent and structured guidance in relation to critical thinking and critical appraisal. Conclusions: The project succeeded in using focus group data from academics to inform software development while at the same time retaining the benefits of broader philosophical dimensions of critical thinking. PMID:26835469

  16. Utilizing Focus Groups with Potential Participants and Their Parents: An Approach to Inform Study Design in a Large Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kadimpati, Sandeep; McCormick, Jennifer B; Chiu, Yichen; Parker, Ashley B.; Iftikhar, Aliya Z.; Flick, Randall P.; Warner, David O.

    2014-01-01

    Background In the recent literature, there has been some evidence that exposure of children to anesthetic procedures during the first two years of life may impair cognitive function and learning in later life. We planned a clinical study to quantify this risk, a study involving testing 1,000 children for neurodevelopmental deficits. As a part of this planning, we conducted focus groups involving potential participants and their parents to elicit information regarding three issues: communications with the community and potential participants, recruitment and consent processes, and the return of neurodevelopmental testing results. Methods Three focus groups were conducted with the parents of potential participants and one focus group was conducted with an 18-19 year old group; each group consisted of 6-10 participants. The moderated discussions had questions about recruitment, consenting issues, and expectations from the study about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. Results The focus group data gave us an insight on potential participants’ views on recruitment, consenting, communications about the study, and expectations about return of both overall trial findings and individual research test results. The concerns expressed were largely addressable. In addition, the concern we had about some parents enrolling their children in the study solely for the sake of getting their child's cognitive function results was dispelled. Conclusions We found that the individuals participating in our focus groups were generally enthusiastic about the large clinical study and could see the value in answering the study question. The data from the focus groups were used to inform changes to the recruitment and consent process. Focus group input was also instrumental in affirming the study design regarding return of results. Our experience suggests that the approach we used may serve as a model for other investigators to help inform the various

  17. Determinants of eating behaviour in university students: a qualitative study using focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background College or university is a critical period regarding unhealthy changes in eating behaviours in students. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to explore which factors influence Belgian (European) university students’ eating behaviour, using a qualitative research design. Furthermore, we aimed to collect ideas and recommendations in order to facilitate the development of effective and tailored intervention programs aiming to improve healthy eating behaviours in university students. Methods Using a semi-structured question guide, five focus group discussions have been conducted consisting of 14 male and 21 female university students from a variety of study disciplines, with a mean age of 20.6 ± 1.7 yrs. Using Nvivo9, an inductive thematic approach was used for data analysis. Results After the transition from secondary school to university, when independency increases, students are continuously challenged to make healthful food choices. Students reported to be influenced by individual factors (e.g. taste preferences, self-discipline, time and convenience), their social networks (e.g. (lack of) parental control, friends and peers), physical environment (e.g. availability and accessibility, appeal and prices of food products), and macro environment (e.g. media and advertising). Furthermore, the relationships between determinants and university students’ eating behaviour seemed to be moderated by university characteristics, such as residency, student societies, university lifestyle and exams. Recommendations for university administrators and researchers include providing information and advice to enhance healthy food choices and preparation (e.g. via social media), enhancing self-discipline and self-control, developing time management skills, enhancing social support, and modifying the subjective as well as the objective campus food environment by e.g. making healthy foods price-beneficial and by providing vending machines with more healthy products

  18. How Adolescents Use Technology for Health Information: Implications for Health Professionals from Focus Group Studies

    PubMed Central

    Biscope, Sherry; Poland, Blake; Goldberg, Eudice

    2003-01-01

    Background Adolescents present many challenges in providing them effective preventive services and health care. Yet, they are typically the early adopters of new technology (eg, the Internet). This creates important opportunities for engaging youths via eHealth. Objective To describe how adolescents use technology for their health-information needs, identify the challenges they face, and highlight some emerging roles of health professionals regarding eHealth services for adolescents. Methods Using an inductive qualitative research design, 27 focus groups were conducted in Ontario, Canada. The 210 participants (55% female, 45% male; median age 16 years) were selected to reflect diversity in age, sex, geographic location, cultural identity, and risk. An 8-person team analyzed and coded the data according to major themes. Results Study participants most-frequently sought or distributed information related to school (89%), interacting with friends (85%), social concerns (85%), specific medical conditions (67%), body image and nutrition (63%), violence and personal safety (59%), and sexual health (56%). Finding personally-relevant, high-quality information was a pivotal challenge that has ramifications on the depth and types of information that adolescents can find to answer their health questions. Privacy in accessing information technology was a second key challenge. Participants reported using technologies that clustered into 4 domains along a continuum from highly-interactive to fixed information sources: (1) personal communication: telephone, cell phone, and pager; (2) social communication: e-mail, instant messaging, chat, and bulletin boards; (3) interactive environments: Web sites, search engines, and computers; and (4) unidirectional sources: television, radio, and print. Three emerging roles for health professionals in eHealth include: (1) providing an interface for adolescents with technology and assisting them in finding pertinent information sources; (2

  19. Observing Engineering Student Teams from the Organization Behavior Perspective Using Linguistic Analysis of Student Reflections and Focus Group Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Kerri S.; Damron, Rebecca; Sohoni, Sohum

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates group/team development in computer engineering courses at a University in the Central USA from the perspective of organization behavior theory, specifically Tuckman's model of the stages of group development. The investigation, conducted through linguistic analysis of student reflection essays, and through focus group…

  20. Laughter and Forgetting: Using Focus Groups to Discuss Smoking and Motherhood in Low-Income Areas in the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jude

    2009-01-01

    This article considers previously ignored aspects of verbal communication, humor and laughter, as critical components of social interaction within group discussions. Drawing on data from focus groups, Robinson uses a feminist perspective to explore how mothers living in areas of poverty in Liverpool, UK, use humor and laughter to discuss their…

  1. Focus Group Studies on Food Safety Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices of School-Going Adolescent Girls in South India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gavaravarapu, Subba Rao M.; Vemula, Sudershan R.; Rao, Pratima; Mendu, Vishnu Vardhana Rao; Polasa, Kalpagam

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To understand food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices of adolescent girls. Design: Focus group discussions (FGDs) with 32 groups selected using stratified random sampling. Setting: Four South Indian states. Participants: Adolescent girls (10-19 years). Phenomena of Interest: Food safety knowledge, perceptions, and practices.…

  2. Learning Cycles and Focus Groups: A Complementary Approach to the A3 Thinking Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortorella, Guilherme Luz; Viana, Samanta; Fettermann, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to propose a complementary method to the A3 information collection, data analysis and capturing and sharing knowledge to facilitate problem solving in a general framework. The incorporation of this method minimizes the difficulties identified in the literature focused on continuous improvement of processes. The method…

  3. 78 FR 38993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... defined need for direct and informal opinion on a specific topic and as a qualitative research tool have... generally conduct further research before making important decisions such as adopting new policies and... and Research, Office of the Commissioner, and any other Centers or Offices conducting focus...

  4. Bibliographic Management Software: A Focus Group Study of the Preferences and Practices of Undergraduate Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salem, Jamie; Fehrmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    With the growing population of undergraduate students on our campus and an increased focus on their success, librarians at a large midwestern university were interested in the citation management styles of this university cohort. Our university library spends considerable resources each year to maintain and promote access to the robust…

  5. Service users leading the way: focus group methodology in developing accessible information DVDs with people with learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Boyden, Paul; Esscopri, Nazima; Ogi, Laura; Brennan, Andrew; Kalsy-Lillico, Sunny

    2009-09-01

    The English government sees it important to view service users as active partners in the delivery of accessible resources. The current article follows a brief report which described an innovative project on developing an accessible DVD explaining the Birmingham Clinical Psychology Service to people with learning disabilities. The article describes three focus groups involving adults with learning disabilities that met to reflect and evaluate the accessibility of the DVD. This process formed the evaluative phase of the DVD development project where people with learning disabilities evaluated the accessibility, level of understanding, and clarity of the DVD content. The DVD was rated positively by the focus groups, and minor changes were made to the final version of the DVD. The article also reflects upon the use of focus groups as a methodological approach in researching the views of people with learning disabilities.

  6. Focus Group Evaluation of the LIVE Network-An Audio Music Program to Promote ART Adherence Self-Management.

    PubMed

    Holstad, Marcia McDonnell; Baumann, Maya; Ofotokun, Ighovwerha; Logwood, Steven J

    2012-04-01

    We present the results of 3 focus groups conducted to assess the utility, appeal, and feasibility of the LIVE Network (LN), a 70-minute audio music program developed to educate and motivate HIV-infected persons to adhere to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and self-manage medication-related side effects. Participants included 15 African American, 2 caucasian, and 1 race unknown HIV-infected persons who had been taking ART for at least 6 months. In general, the LN was well liked, relevant, educational, and motivational. It empowered and motivated participants to be responsible for their adherence self-care. One of the more surprising findings was how freely focus group participants shared the program with family and friends as a means of education and also as a means of disclosure. Moreover, the positive reception of the LN by individuals outside of the focus groups, especially children and adolescents, speaks well for the potential broad appeal of this type of program.

  7. A Focus Group Study of the Impact of Trauma Exposure in the 9/11 Terrorist Attacks

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Barney, Carissa J.; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Much of the mental health research that has emerged from the September 11 (9/11) attacks has been focused on posttraumatic stress disorder and its symptoms. To better understand the broader experience of individuals following a disaster, focus groups were conducted with individuals from affected companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. Methods Twenty-one focus groups with a total of 140 participants were conducted in the second post-9/11 year. Areas of identified concern were coded into the following themes: Disaster Experience, Emotional Responses, Workplace Issues, Coping, and Issues of Public Concern. Results Discussions of focus groups included material represented in all five themes in companies both at Ground Zero and elsewhere. The emphasis and the content within these themes varied between the Ground Zero and other companies. Content suggesting symptoms of PTSD represented only a minority of the material, especially in the company groups not at Ground Zero. Conclusions This study’s findings revealed an array of psychosocial concerns following the 9/11 attacks among employees of companies in New York City that extended far beyond PTSD. This study’s results provide further evidence that trauma exposure is central to individuals’ post-disaster experience and focus, and to individuals’ adjustment and experience after disaster. PMID:25319111

  8. Academic-correctional health partnerships: preparing the correctional health workforce for the changing landscape-focus group research results.

    PubMed

    Hale, Janet Fraser; Haley, Heather-Lyn; Jones, Judy L; Brennan, Allyson; Brewer, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Providing health care in corrections is challenging. Attracting clinicians can be equally challenging. The future holds a shortage of nurses and primary care physicians. We have a unique opportunity, now, to develop and stabilize our workforce, create a positive image, and enhance quality before the health care landscape changes even more dramatically. Focus groups were conducted with 22 correctional health care professionals divided into three groups: physicians (6), nurses (4), and nurse practitioners/physician assistants (12). Content focused on curricular themes, but additional themes emerged related to recruitment and retention. This article describes recruitment challenges, strategic themes identified, and the proposed initiatives to support a stable, high-quality correctional health workforce.

  9. How do doctors and nurses manage delirium in intensive care units? A qualitative study using focus groups

    PubMed Central

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Cachón-Pérez, José Miguel; Martínez-Piedrola, Rosa; Gueita-Rodriguez, Javier; Perez-de-Heredia, Marta; Fernández-de-las-Peñas, Cesar

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of doctors and nurses caring for patients with delirium in the intensive care unit (ICU) and to describe the process of delirium management. Setting This study was performed in 5 ICUs located within 4 hospitals in Madrid (Spain). Participants Purposeful sampling was performed which included (1) doctors and nurses working in ICUs, (2) with >1 year experience in the ICU and (3) clinical experience with delirium. 38 professionals participated (19 doctors, 19 nurses), including 22 women and 16 men. The total mean age was 39 years. Design A qualitative study using focus groups. Methods 7 focus groups were held to collect data: 3 nurse focus groups, 3 doctor focus groups and 1 mixed focus group. Each group comprised 6–10 participants. A semistructured questions guide was used. Thematic analysis methods were used to analyse the data. Results 3 themes were identified: (1) the professional perspective on delirium; (2) implementing pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment for delirium and (3) work organisation in the ICU. The professionals regarded patients with delirium with uncertainty, and felt they were often underdiagnosed and poorly managed. Doctors displayed discrepancies regarding pharmacological prescriptions and decision-making. The choice of medication was determined by experience. Nurses felt that, for many doctors, delirium was not considered a matter of urgency in the ICU. Nurses encountered difficulties when applying verbal restraint, managing sleep disorders and providing early mobilisation. The lack of a delirium protocol generates conflicts regarding what type of care management to apply, especially during the night shift. A degree of group pressure exists which, in turn, influences the decision-making process and patient care. Conclusions Patients with delirium represent complex cases, requiring the implementation of specific protocols. These results serve to improve the process

  10. Focus groups with deaf and hearing youths in Brazil: improving a questionnaire on sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Alquati Bisol, Cláudia; Sperb, Tania Mara; Moreno-Black, Geraldine

    2008-04-01

    The authors' aim is to describe the analysis of focus group discussions with deaf and hearing adolescents. They conducted focus groups to improve a questionnaire that will be computerized to assess the knowledge about HIV/AIDS and sexual behavior and attitudes of deaf and hearing youths in the south of Brazil. They developed four groups each with three participants aged 18 to 20 years, grouped by gender and hearing status. The analysis emphasizes discourse units formed by a portion of consecutive or nonconsecutive statements by several speakers and that developed around a topic of discussion. The main aspects improved in the questionnaire, adding confidence and reliability to the research, were choice of words or expressions, contextual differences between the target population and the researchers due to age and cultural and educational backgrounds, and the appropriateness of content in questions and answers.

  11. Solution Focused Empathy Training Groups for Students with Fire-Setting Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet G.

    2006-01-01

    Fire-setting students are those who intentionally or unintentionally set one or more fires due to curiosity, stress, a need for attention, or due to criminal delinquency. This article describes the nature of fire-setting behaviors, discusses the profile and risk factors associated with the behavior, and outlines a group program using empathy…

  12. Designing Project-Based Courses with a Focus on Group Formation and Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Debbie

    2009-01-01

    The value and the pitfalls of project and group work are well recognized. The principles and elements which apply to projects in general, apply to project-based courses. Thoughtful and detailed planning, understanding of the stakeholders and their needs, a good design, appropriate testing, monitoring and quality control and continual management…

  13. Effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Onyechi, Kay C.N.; Eseadi, Chiedu; Umoke, Prince C.I.; Ikechukwu-Ilomuanya, Amaka B.; Otu, Mkpoikanke S.; Obidoa, Jaachimma C.; Agu, Fedinand U.; Nwaubani, Okechukwu O.; Utoh-Ofong, Anthonia N.; Ncheke, Chijioke D.; Ugwuozor, Felix O.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Smoking is a learned habit that has an impact on the psychological and biochemical health of individuals. It is the leading preventable cause of chronic illness worldwide. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a group-focused cognitive behavioral health education program (GCBHEP) on cigarette smoking in a sample of Nigerian prisoners. Methods: The study used a pretest–posttest randomized control group design. Twenty inmates were identified through self-reporting, 1-to-1 counseling, and observation. The treatment group took part in a GCBHEP for 10 weeks, while the control group received 10 weeks’ conventional counseling. After the intervention program, both the treatment and control groups were evaluated. The repeated measures analysis of variance was used for data analysis and partial η2 was also used as a measure of effect size. Results: The findings showed that the GCBHEP had a strong effect on cigarette-smoking habits among the inmates in the treatment group compared with those in the control group. The effect of the GCBHEP by age was moderate, and modest by educational qualification. Conclusion: Group-focused cognitive behavioral health education is effective in breaking the habit of cigarette smoking among Nigerian prisoners. Therefore, future researchers are encouraged to adopt this approach in helping individuals with a smoking problem and other drug-abuse behaviors in Nigerian prisons. PMID:28072681

  14. 2014 Department of Defense Report of Focus Groups on Sexual Assault Prevention and Response

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    environment, as well as address the military’s climate of sexual assault response and prevention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Perceptions About Unwanted Sexual Contact ...Guard members which was then randomized within clusters defined by gender and paygrade group. Service and National Guard members were contacted in...participants. The six topic areas addressed in this report include:  Perceptions About Unwanted Sexual Contact  Options for Reporting Sexual

  15. Exploring the Influence of Student Focus Groups in Their Professional and Personal Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, S.; Hut, R.

    2014-12-01

    A scientific career is often more than a 9-to-5 commitment, both in terms of time and passion. An important factor that fuels this passion is engaging with the community on many levels. In the history of education and professional development, there are numerous studies that emphasis the importance of surrounding groups and like-minded peers in one's professional and personal development in a less constrained environment. In our experience, in modern days where students are surrounded with too much information and yet too little clear signal, the idea of mentor and advisor can no longer limit to one or two people. We strongly feel it is imperative to have the opportunity to share expertise on scientific issues, career options, develop presenting and writing skills, participate in professional volunteer activities with alike and advanced colleagues, share future opportunities, and successfully navigating life both inside and outside of graduate school in a relaxed environment. Most of the professional scientific and engineering communities put a lot of effort to create and maintain professional groups in masters and Ph.D. levels but the dynamics within these groups prove it to be very different and it is challenging to maintain both momentum and productivity. Authors of this report would present their experience in creating, running and maintaining various student groups in the discipline of physics, astronomy, planetary science, hydrology, and optical engineering in US, Europe and Middle East. The common factors and differences based on the supportive community, location, and the educational level would be discussed. An outline of potential helpful factors within the academic institutes and professional communities would be presented based on the examination on various successful and unsuccessful experiences.

  16. Barriers and Solutions to Recruitment Strategies of Students into Post-Secondary Agricultural Education Programs: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvin, Jennifer; Pense, Seburn L.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative study utilized focus group interviews of secondary Illinois agricultural education teachers to investigate the continuing problem of student recruitment into teacher preparation pro-grams of agricultural education. Using signal theory, image theory and person-organization fit theory, the researchers identified five themes relating…

  17. Pilot Study in the Development of an Interactive Multimedia Learning Environment for Sexual Health Interventions: A Focus Group Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goold, P. C.; Bustard, S.; Ferguson, E.; Carlin, E. M.; Neal, K.; Bowman, C. A.

    2006-01-01

    In the UK there are high rates of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies amongst young people. There is limited and contradictory evidence that current sexual health education interventions are effective or that they improve access to appropriate sexual health services. This paper describes the outcome of focus group work with…

  18. Face-to-Face in Writing: My First Attempt at Conducting a Text-Based Online Focus Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Having completed graduate degrees in educational research and counseling, I have studied the theory of focus groups and participated in many while in a classroom setting. Interestingly, I had never moderated one until my first attempt in a text-based online environment. This paper describes my preparation for the session as well as the issues I…

  19. "It's All Scientific to Me": Focus Group Insights into Why Young People Do Not Apply Safe-Sex Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Alan; Watson, Anne-Frances; Dore, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Despite rising levels of safe-sex knowledge in Australia, sexually transmitted infection notifications continue to increase. A culture-centred approach suggests it is useful in attempting to reach a target population first to understand their perspective on the issues. Twenty focus groups were conducted with 89 young people between the ages of 14…

  20. Qualitative Inquiry into Church-Based Assets for HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control: A Forum Focus Group Discussion Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aja, Godwin N.; Modeste, Naomi N.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2012-01-01

    Assets church members believed they needed to engage in effective HIV/AIDS prevention and control activities. We used the three-step forum focus group discussion (FFGD) methodology to elicit responses from 32 church leaders and lay members, representing five denominations in Aba, Nigeria. Concrete resources, health expertise, finances,…

  1. Making the Good Even Better: Feedback from easyCBM Focus Groups, School Year 2009/2010. Technical Report # 1001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonzo, Julie; Tindal, Gerald; Lai, Cheng-Fei

    2010-01-01

    This technical report provides a summary of feedback from teachers, administrators, and support personnel who used the easyCBM progress monitoring and benchmark assessment system during school year 2009/2010. Data were gathered from semi-structured focus groups conducted during the 2010 easyCBM August Institute at the University of Oregon. Results…

  2. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis,…

  3. Qualitative Investigation of the "Cooking with Kids" Program: Focus Group Interviews with Fourth-Grade Students, Teachers, and Food Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukas, Catherine V.; Cunningham-Sabo, Leslie

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Focus group (FG) interviews with students and adults were used to obtain a rich understanding of the "Cooking with Kids" classroom experience from the child and adult participant perspectives. Methods: FG topics included students' cooking experiences at school and home and perceptions of "Cooking with Kids". Verified transcripts of…

  4. Evaluation of Didactic Material Designed to Be Used by High School Art Teachers: The Use of Focus Groups and Questionnaires

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida, Adriana Mortara; Martins, Maria Helena Pires

    2009-01-01

    The article describes and discusses the use of focus groups and questionnaires to evaluate educational printed material for high school level art teachers prior to publication. The material consisted of "The Notebook of the Investigative Teacher," created by the Instituto Itau Cultural to help teachers develop critical skills in…

  5. Family Forest Landowners' Interest in Forest Carbon Offset Programs: Focus Group Findings from the Lake States, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Kristell A.; Snyder, Stephanie A.; Kilgore, Mike A.; Davenport, Mae A.

    2014-12-01

    In 2012, focus groups were organized with individuals owning 20+ acres in the Lake States region of the United States (Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin) to discuss various issues related to forest carbon offsetting. Focus group participants consisted of landowners who had responded to an earlier mail-back survey (2010) on forest carbon offsets. Two focus groups were held per state with an average of eight participants each (49 total). While landowner participant types varied, overall convergence was reached on several key issues. In general, discussion results found that the current payment amounts offered for carbon credits are not likely, on their own, to encourage participation in carbon markets. Landowners are most interested in other benefits they can attain through carbon management (e.g., improved stand species mix, wildlife, and trails). Interestingly, landowner perceptions about the condition of their own forest land were most indicative of prospective interest in carbon management. Landowners who felt that their forest was currently in poor condition, or did not meet their forest ownership objectives, were most interested in participating. While the initial survey sought landowner opinions about carbon markets, a majority of focus group participants expressed interest in general carbon management as a means to achieve reduced property taxes.

  6. Children's and Adolescents' Awareness of the Physical and Mental Health Risks Associated with Tattooing: A Focus Group Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houghton, Stephen; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Twelve focus group discussions on attitudes toward tattoos, health beliefs, and awareness of the long-term consequences of tattooing and stigmatization were conducted with 80 volunteers, 6 to 17 years of age. Attitudes toward tattoos were generally negative, although a more favorable attitude toward small tattoos was discernible among early…

  7. No Natives Here: A Focus Group Study of Student Perceptions of Web 2.0 and the Academic Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burhanna, Kenneth J.; Seeholzer, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Web 2.0 technologies in an academic library through focus groups with undergraduates at Kent State University. Results reveal that students, despite being heavy users, are less sophisticated and expressive in their use of Web 2.0 than presumed. Students set clear boundaries between educational and social spaces on the Web, and…

  8. Barriers to Disclosing and Reporting Violence among Women in Pakistan: Findings from a National Household Survey and Focus Group Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M.; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic…

  9. Eating Disorders as Social Justice Issues: Results from a Focus Group of Content Experts Vigorously Flapping Our Wings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; Stewart, Marion; MacKenzie, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Feminists have led the way in conceptualizing eating disorders as political issues and advocated for consideration of the larger socioeconomic context. Given the lack of research specific to the area of eating disorders and social justice, a focus group with professional women was conducted in an attempt to move beyond the conceptual contributions…

  10. It All Starts at Home: Hispanic Parents Speak out on Preventing Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    This report describes data from focus groups on teen pregnancy involving Hispanic parents of adolescents in four states. Participants wanted a good education for their children and positive, loving relationships with them. They wanted to communicate with their children and be closely involved in their lives. Most believed that to help prevent teen…

  11. The Use of Mobile Health Applications Among Youth and Young Adults Living with HIV: Focus Group Findings.

    PubMed

    Saberi, Parya; Siedle-Khan, Robert; Sheon, Nicolas; Lightfoot, Marguerita

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct focus groups with youth (18-29 years old) living with HIV (YLWH) to better understand preferences for mobile applications in general and to inform the design of a mobile health application aimed at improving retention and engagement in healthcare and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. We conducted four focus groups with YLWH to elicit the names and characteristics of applications that they commonly used, reasons they deleted applications, and the features of an ideal mobile health application. A diverse sample of youth (N = 17) with a mean age of 25 years, 88.2% male, and 29.4% African American participated in four focus groups. Positive attributes of applications included informative, simple, allowing for networking, timely updates, little overlap with other applications, unlimited access to entertainment, and with ongoing advancement. Participants identified several reasons for deleting applications, including engaging in excessive behaviors (e.g., spending money), for hook ups only, too many notifications or restrictions, occupied too much space on device, or required wireless connectivity or frequent updates. Participants suggested that a mobile health application that they would find useful should have the ability to connect to a community of other YLWH, readily access healthcare providers, track personal data and information (such as laboratory data), and obtain health news and education. Privacy was a key factor in a mobile health application for all participants. Researchers can use the information provided by focus group participants in creating mobile health applications for YLWH.

  12. An Interdisciplinary Focus Group Study on Students' Perceptions of Preparedness for Upper-Division Coursework in Teaching and Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunlap, Karen; Anderson, Gina B.; Rademacher, Joyce; McMenamy, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Many universities positively impact student retention rates by aligning state competencies and undergraduate coursework with specific learning outcomes known to contribute to success. Faculty from teaching and nursing conducted interdisciplinary focus group research to gather student perceptions concerning whether skills obtained through core…

  13. Mixed Methods in Prostate Cancer Prevention and Service Utilization Planning: Combining Focus Groups, Survey Research, and Community Engagement.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David Besong; Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T

    2017-03-06

    This article reports on the use of sequential and integrated mixed-methods approach in a focused population and small-area analysis. The study framework integrates focus groups, survey research, and community engagement strategies in a search for evidence related to prostate cancer screening services utilization as a component of cancer prevention planning in a marginalized African American community in the United States. Research and data analysis methods are synthesized by aggregation, configuration, and interpretive analysis. The results of synthesis show that qualitative and quantitative data validate and complement each other in advancing our knowledge of population characteristics, variable associations, the complex context in which variables exist, and the best options for prevention and service planning. Synthesis of findings and interpretive analysis provided two important explanations which seemed inexplicable in regression outputs: (a) Focus group data on the limitations of the church as an educational source explain the negative association between preferred educational channels and screening behavior found in quantitative analysis. (b) Focus group data on unwelcoming provider environments explain the inconsistent relationship between knowledge of local sites and screening services utilization found in quantitative analysis. The findings suggest that planners, evaluators, and scientists should grow their planning and evaluation evidence from the community they serve.

  14. Sex and gender traps and springboards: a focus group study among gender researchers in medicine and health sciences.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Monica; Alex, Lena; Wiklund, Anncristine Fjellman; Hammarström, Anne; Lundman, Berit

    2012-01-01

    We explored the difficulties that gender researchers encounter in their research and the strategies they use for solving these problems. Sixteen Swedish researchers, all women, took part in focus group discussions; the data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. The problems reported fell into four main categories: the ambiguity of the concepts of sex and gender; traps associated with dichotomization; difficulties with communication; and issues around publication. Categories of suggested problem-solving strategies were adaptation, pragmatism, addressing the complexities, and definition of terms. Here the specific views of gender researchers in medicine and health sciences-"medical insiders"-bring new challenges into focus.

  15. Healthy Daughters, Healthy Futures: A Focus Group Analysis to Determine Factors for Enhancing Positive Youth Development for Latina Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Berry, Diane C

    2015-01-01

    Positive youth development is designed to promote healthy physical, intellectual, psychosocial, and emotional development in the transition from adolescence to adulthood through a primary focus on youth's inherent capacity for positive growth. We conducted 2 focus groups, 1 with Latina mothers (n = 4) and 1 with Latina daughters (n = 4) in central North Carolina, to explore their views on positive youth development. Latina mothers and daughters discussed problems they faced with future aspirations, definitions of health, and cultural differences. These findings can provide a foundation for developing an intervention to empower Latina youth to make a healthy transition to adulthood.

  16. MICE -- Absorber and focus coil safety working group design document: Preliminary design and assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Giles; Baynham, Elwyn; Black, Edgar; Bradshaw, Tom; Cummings, Mary Anne; Green, Michael A.; Ishimoto, Shigeru; Ivanyushenkov, Yury; Lau, Wing; Zisman, Michael

    2003-12-04

    A Neutrino Factory based on a muon storage ring is the ultimate tool for studies of neutrino oscillations, including possibly the discovery of leptonic CP violation. it is also the first step toward a muon collider. To develop a stored-muon-beam facility to serve as a Neutrino Factory, it is necessary to ''cool'' a muon beam (decrease its phase-space volume). The short lifetime of the muon, 2.2 {micro}s at rest, eliminates all currently demonstrated cooling techniques and requires that a new, heretofore untried, technique--ionization cooling--be employed. Although ionization cooling of muons has never been demonstrated in practice, it has been shown by end-to-end simulation and design studies to be an important factor both for the performance and for the cost of a Neutrino Factory. This motivates an international program of R and D, including an experimental demonstration at Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). The aims of the international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment are: (1) to show that it is possible to design, engineer and build a section of cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory; and (2) to place it in a muon beam and measure its performance in various modes of operation and beam conditions, thereby investigating the limits and practicality of cooling. The MICE collaboration has designed an experiment in which a section of an ionization cooling channel is exposed to a muon beam. This cooling channel assembles liquid-hydrogen absorbers providing energy loss and high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to re-accelerate the particles, all tightly contained in a magnetic channel. It reduces the beam transverse emittance by > 10% for muon momenta between 140 and 240 MeV/c. The layout of the experiment is shown. They utilize one complete magnetic cell of the cooling channel, comprising three absorber-focus-coil (AFC) modules and two RF-coupling-coil (RFCC) modules. Spectrometers placed before and after the

  17. From neural responses to population behavior: neural focus group predicts population-level media effects.

    PubMed

    Falk, Emily B; Berkman, Elliot T; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-05-01

    Can neural responses of a small group of individuals predict the behavior of large-scale populations? In this investigation, brain activations were recorded while smokers viewed three different television campaigns promoting the National Cancer Institute's telephone hotline to help smokers quit (1-800-QUIT-NOW). The smokers also provided self-report predictions of the campaigns' relative effectiveness. Population measures of the success of each campaign were computed by comparing call volume to 1-800-QUIT-NOW in the month before and the month after the launch of each campaign. This approach allowed us to directly compare the predictive value of self-reports with neural predictors of message effectiveness. Neural activity in a medial prefrontal region of interest, previously associated with individual behavior change, predicted the population response, whereas self-report judgments did not. This finding suggests a novel way of connecting neural signals to population responses that has not been previously demonstrated and provides information that may be difficult to obtain otherwise.

  18. Barriers to disclosing and reporting violence among women in Pakistan: findings from a national household survey and focus group discussions.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Neil; Cockcroft, Anne; Ansari, Umaira; Omer, Khalid; Ansari, Noor M; Khan, Amir; Chaudhry, Ubaid Ullah

    2010-11-01

    Worldwide, many women who experience domestic violence keep their experience secret. Few report to official bodies. In a national survey of abuse against women in Pakistan, we examined factors related to disclosure: women who had experienced physical violence telling someone about it. In focus groups, we explored why women do not report domestic violence. Nearly one third of the 23,430 women interviewed had experienced physical violence. Only 35% of them had told anyone about it, almost always someone within their own family. Several personal and family factors were associated with disclosure. Having discussed the issue and feeling empowered to discuss violence were consistent associations. Of the 7,895 women who had suffered physical violence, only 14 had reported the matter to the police. Female focus groups said women who report violence risk their reputation and bring dishonor to the family; women fear reporting violence because it may exacerbate the problem and may lead to separation or divorce and loss of their children. Focus groups of men and women were skeptical about community leaders, councilors, and religious leaders supporting reporting of violence. They suggested setting up local groups where abused women could seek help and advice. There are strong disincentives to reporting violence in Pakistan, which are well known to women. Until better systems for reporting and dealing with reported cases are in place, domestic violence will continue to be a hidden scourge here and elsewhere.

  19. The AGNP-TDM Expert Group Consensus Guidelines: focus on therapeutic monitoring of antidepressants.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Pierre; Ulrich, Sven; Eckermann, Gabriel; Gerlach, Manfred; Kuss, Hans-Joachim; Laux, Gerd; Müller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno; Rao, Marie Luise; Riederer, Peter; Zernig, Gerald; Hiemke, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants has been widely introduced for optimization of pharmacotherapy in psychiatric patients. The interdisciplinary TDM group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) has worked out consensus guidelines with the aim of providing psychiatrists and TDM laboratories with a tool to optimize the use of TDM. Five research-based levels of recommendation were defined with regard to routine monitoring of drug plasma concentrations: (i) strongly recommended; (ii) recommended; (iii) useful; (iv) probably useful; and (v) not recommended. In addition, a list of indications that justify the use of TDM is presented, eg, control of compliance, lack of clinical response or adverse effects at recommended doses, drug interactions, pharmacovigilance programs, presence of a genetic particularity concerning drug metabolism, and children, adolescents, and elderly patients. For some drugs, studies on therapeutic ranges are lacking, but target ranges for clinically relevant plasma concentrations are presented for most drugs, based on pharmacokinetic studies reported in the literature. For many antidepressants, a thorough analysis of the literature on studies dealing with the plasma concentration-clinical effectiveness relationship allowed inclusion of therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations. In addition, recommendations are made with regard to the combination of pharmacogenetic (phenotyping or genotyping) tests with TDM. Finally, practical instructions are given for the laboratory practitioners and the treating physicians how to use TDM: preparation of TDM, drug analysis, reporting and interpretation of results, and adequate use of information for patient treatment TDM is a complex process that needs optimal interdisciplinary coordination of a procedure implicating patients, treating physicians, clinical pharmacologists, and clinical laboratory specialists. These

  20. The AGNP-TDM Expert Group Consensus Guidelines: focus on therapeutic monitoring of antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Pierre; Ulrich, Sven; Eckermann, Gabriel; Gerlach, Manfred; Kuss, Hans-Joachim; Laux, Gerd; Müller-Oerlinghausen, Bruno; Rao, Marie Luise; Riederer, Peter; Zernig, Gerald; Hiemke, Christoph

    2005-01-01

    Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of psychotropic drugs such as antidepressants has been widely introduced for optimization of pharmacotherapy in psychiatric patients. The interdisciplinary TDM group of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Neuropsychopharmakologie und Pharmakopsychiatrie (AGNP) has worked out consensus guidelines with the aim of providing psychiatrists and TDM laboratories with a tool to optimize the use of TDM. Five research-based levels of recommendation were defined with regard to routine monitoring of drug plasma concentrations: (i) strongly recommended; (ii) recommended; (iii) useful; (iv) probably useful; and (v) not recommended. In addition, a list of indications that justify the use of TDM is presented, eg, control of compliance, lack of clinical response or adverse effects at recommended doses, drug interactions, pharmacovigilance programs, presence of a genetic particularity concerning drug metabolism, and children, adolescents, and elderly patients. For some drugs, studies on therapeutic ranges are lacking, but target ranges for clinically relevant plasma concentrations are presented for most drugs, based on pharmacokinetic studies reported in the literature. For many antidepressants, a thorough analysis of the literature on studies dealing with the plasma concentration–clinical effectiveness relationship allowed inclusion of therapeutic ranges of plasma concentrations. In addition, recommendations are made with regard to the combination of pharmacogenetic (phenotyping or genotyping) tests with TDM, Finally, practical instructions are given for the laboratory practitioners and the treating physicians how to use TDM: preparation of TDM, drug analysis, reporting and interpretation of results, and adequate use of information for patient treatment. TDM is a complex process that needs optimal interdisciplinary coordination of a procedure implicating patients, treating physicians, clinical pharmacologists, and clinical laboratory specialists. These

  1. Genetic educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: a focus group study with multiple perspectives

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests that improvements in genetics education are needed to prepare primary care providers for the impact of ongoing rapid advances in genomics. Postgraduate (physician training) and master (midwifery training) programmes in primary care and public health are failing to meet these perceived educational needs. The aim of this study was to explore the role of genetics in primary care (i.e. family medicine and midwifery care) and the need for education in this area as perceived by primary care providers, patient advocacy groups and clinical genetics professionals. Methods Forty-four participants took part in three types of focus groups: mono-disciplinary groups of general practitioners and midwives, respectively and multidisciplinary groups composed of a diverse set of experts. The focus group sessions were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and analysed using content analysis. Recurrent themes were identified. Results Four themes emerged regarding the educational needs and the role of genetics in primary care: (1) genetics knowledge, (2) family history, (3) ethical dilemmas and psychosocial effects in relation to genetics and (4) insight into the organisation and role of clinical genetics services. These themes reflect a shift in the role of genetics in primary care with implications for education. Although all focus group participants acknowledged the importance of genetics education, general practitioners felt this need more urgently than midwives and more strongly emphasized their perceived knowledge deficiencies. Conclusion The responsibilities of primary care providers with regard to genetics require further study. The results of this study will help to develop effective genetics education strategies to improve primary care providers' competencies in this area. More research into the educational priorities in genetics is needed to design courses that are suitable for postgraduate and master programmes for general practitioners and

  2. Mexican immigrant women's perceptions of health care access for stigmatizing illnesses: a focus group study in Albuquerque, New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, Russell H; Roberts, Laura Weiss; Warner, Teddy D

    2008-08-01

    This study examines attitudes of Mexican female immigrants to Albuquerque, New Mexico, regarding barriers to health care access in the United States and Mexico for stigmatizing and non-stigmatizing illnesses and moderating effects of social support. Native Spanish speakers conducted three focus groups (in Spanish) lasting two hours with seven to eight participants. Focus groups were transcribed, translated, and coded. Frequency data were calculated by number of times concepts or themes were raised. Comparisons of barriers to health care access were made between U.S. and Mexican cultures. The majority (86%) of comments on barriers for non-stigmatizing illnesses implicated U.S. culture; the majority (90%) for stigmatizing illnesses implicated Mexican culture. Social support for stigmatizing illnesses was discussed. Participants discussed important issues of health care access for stigmatizing illnesses that may have implications for this population's health status. Greater attention should be paid to stigma and social support in future empirical studies.

  3. Our lives were healthier before: focus groups with African American, American Indian, Hispanic/Latino, and Hmong people with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Heather; Roberts, Martha; Okaya, Amy; Xiong, Yer Moua

    2006-01-01

    Focus groups were conducted to explore health-related beliefs and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, American Indian, and Hmong people with diabetes and engage community members in improving diabetes care and education for these populations. Eighty participants attended 12 focus groups, 3 per population. Major themes were loss of health attributed to modern American lifestyles, lack of confidence in the medical system, and the importance of spirituality. Participants recommended improvements in the areas of health care, diabetes education, social support, and community action. Their recommendations emphasize the importance of respectful, knowledgeable health care providers; culturally responsive diabetes education for people with diabetes and their families; and broad-based community action. These recommendations align with current public health priorities and medical knowledge. It is proposed that healthy traditions from diverse populations can be leveraged to improve the health of all people with diabetes.

  4. Felt Stigma in Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers: Focus Group Research with HIV-Risk Populations in Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Julio; Puig, Marieva; Sala, Ana Cecilia; Ramos, Juan Carlos; Castro, Eida; Morales, Marangelie; Santiago, Lydia; Zorrilla, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Though many studies have conclusively linked felt stigma and HIV, few have focused on the experiences of rejection felt by members of such socially marginalized groups as intravenous drug users (IDU) and sex workers (SW). Using focus groups, our study explored these experiences in 34 individuals (17 male UDUs and 17 female SWs) at risk of becoming infected with HIV, the objective being to discover why they engaged in maladaptive behaviors as a way of coping with felt stigma. We used deductive and inductive analysis to codify the resulting data. Concepts associated with the word stigma, emotional reactions to felt stigma, and the impact of felt stigma on self-schema helped elucidate how the internalization of felt stigma can lead to negative affective states and self-destructive behaviors (e.g., drug use and syringe exchange). Results underline the importance of developing intervention models that reduce stigma as a means of HIV prevention in vulnerable populations. PMID:27013930

  5. Risk perception about medication sharing among patients: a focus group qualitative study on borrowing and lending of prescription analgesics

    PubMed Central

    Markotic, Filipa; Vrdoljak, Davorka; Puljiz, Marijana; Puljak, Livia

    2017-01-01

    Background One form of self-medication is sharing of medications, defined as borrowing or lending medications in situations where the receiver of these drugs is not the individual to whom the medications were allocated. Objective To explore experiences and opinions of patients about sharing prescription analgesics, reasons for sharing prescription analgesics, the way in which patients choose to share those medications, their awareness of risk regarding sharing prescription analgesics, and how they estimated the potential risk. Methods This qualitative study was conducted by focus group discussions with 40 participants led by a moderator trained in focus group methodology using a semi-structured moderator guide. Adults aged ≥18 years who had received a prescription for an analgesic at least once in a lifetime were included. Six separate focus groups were conducted to discuss participants’ perception of risks associated with sharing of prescription analgesics among patients. Additionally, participants filled out two questionnaires on demographic data, their own behavior regarding sharing analgesics, and their attitudes about risks associated with sharing prescription analgesics. Results In a questionnaire, 55% of the participants indicated that they personally shared prescription analgesics, while subsequently in the focus group discussions, 76% confessed to such behavior. Participants recognized certain risks related to sharing of prescription analgesics, mentioned a number of reasons for engaging in such behavior, and indicated certain positive aspects of such behavior. Forty-five percent of the participants indicated that sharing prescription analgesics is riskier than sharing nonprescription analgesics. Conclusion There is a prevalent attitude among participants that sharing prescription analgesics is a positive behavior, where potential benefits outweigh risks. PMID:28243140

  6. Socio-ethical analysis of equity in access to nutrigenomics interventions for obesity prevention: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Lise; Ozdemir, Vural; Godard, Béatrice

    2008-12-01

    The goal of nutrigenomics is to develop nutritional interventions targeted to individual genetic make-up. Obesity is a prime candidate for nutrigenomics research. Personalized approaches to prevention of diseases associated with obesity may be available in the near future. Nevertheless, in the context of limited resources, access to a nutrigenomics personalized health service raises questions around equity. Using focus groups, the present qualitative research study provides empirical data on ethical concerns and values surrounding the nutrigenomics-guided personalized nutrition for obesity prevention. Eight focus groups were convened including 27 healthy individuals and 21 individuals who self-identified as obese or at risk of obesity. The transcripts of the focus group were analyzed according to the qualitative method of grounded theory. Responsibility, reciprocity, and solidarity emerged as the key ethical criteria perceived by the respondents to be significant in terms of how health professionals should determine access to personalized nutrition services. Still, exclusion of individuals from specific nutrigenomic services is likely to conflict with the imperatives of medical deontology and contemporary social consensus. The representation of equity in this paper is novel: it considers the intersection of nutrigenomics and personalized nutritional interventions specifically in the context of limited public resources for health services.

  7. Comparing hospital staff and patient perceptions of customer service: a pilot study utilizing survey and focus group data.

    PubMed

    Fottler, Myron D; Dickson, Duncan; Ford, Robert C; Bradley, Kenneth; Johnson, Lee

    2006-02-01

    The measurement of patient satisfaction is crucial to enhancing customer service and competitive advantage in the health-care industry. While there are numerous approaches to such measurement, this paper provides a case study which compares and contrasts patient and staff perceptions of customer service using both survey and focus group data. Results indicate that there is a high degree of correlation between staff and patient perceptions of customer service based on both survey and focus group data. However, the staff and patient subgroups also provided complementary information regarding patient perceptions of their service experience. Staff members tended to have more negative perceptions of service attributes than did the patients themselves. The focus group results provide complementary information to survey results in terms of greater detail and more managerially relevant information. While these results are derived from a pilot study, they suggest that diversification of data sources beyond patient surveys may enhance the utility of customer service information. If further research can affirm these findings, they create exciting possibilities for gathering valid, reliable and cost-effective customer service information.

  8. Risky business: focus-group analysis of sexual behaviors, drug use and victimization among incarcerated women in St. Louis.

    PubMed

    Millay, Tamara A; Satyanarayana, Veena A; O'Leary, Catina C; Crecelius, Robert; Cottler, Linda B

    2009-09-01

    Incarcerated women report multiple vulnerabilities and, yet, are under-represented in research. This study used focus-group methodology to explore high-risk sexual behaviors, drug use, and victimization among female offenders in St. Louis. Inmates of the St. Louis Medium Security Institution (MSI) were invited to participate in one of five focus groups between May and September 2005 in preparation for an NIH/NINR HIV-prevention intervention study among female offenders in Drug Court. The focus group sample of 30 women was 70% African-American, with a mean age of 36 years. Results indicated that oral sex was the most common sex trade activity. Consistent with the literature, condom usage was described as irregular. In terms of drug use, participants reported that crack was most commonly used, with binges often lasting for several days. Regarding victimization, women frequently reported sexual abuse in childhood, and some described abusive relationships as adults. Participants also reported being beaten and raped by customers, which led to their concealing knives in purses and razors under the tongue. Consequently, perpetrated violence, including murder, was reported as protection against further violence. These findings confirm the vulnerability of this population of women who are at high risk for HIV. Effective HIV-prevention interventions are needed to assist these incarcerated women in making lifestyle changes during incarceration and sustaining them after release.

  9. Using exploratory focus groups to establish a sampling strategy to investigate disability experienced by adults living with HIV.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Kelly K; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Davis, Aileen M; Young, Nancy L; Strike, Carol

    2009-11-01

    In HIV clinical research, participants are typically sampled based on demographic and/or disease characteristics. As little is known about HIV-specific disability, we did not know whether this purposive type of sampling would be helpful and what characteristics (if any) should guide our sampling strategy. We describe using exploratory focus groups to determine a sampling strategy to investigate disability from the perspective of adults living with HIV. We conducted 4 focus groups with 23 men and women and asked participants to describe their health-related challenges and impact on their overall health. We analyzed data to determine whether health-related challenges differed based on age, gender, ethnocultural background, length of time since HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral use and if these characteristics should be considered when sampling. Participants described seven health-related challenges that appeared not to vary based on demographic or disease characteristics. Variations emerged in the way health-related challenges manifested and the strategies participants used to deal with these challenges. Consequently, we decided upon a broad theoretical sampling strategy for the subsequent interview phase. Exploratory focus groups may be a useful technique to determine a sampling strategy when exploring a new phenomenon in HIV qualitative research.

  10. Use of concurrent mixed methods combining concept mapping and focus groups to adapt a health equity tool in Canada.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Anne; Tardieu, Émilie; Dagenais, Christian; Nour, Kareen; Lafontaine, Ginette; Ridde, Valéry

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this project was to identify and prioritize a set of conditions to be considered for incorporating a health equity tool into public health practice. Concept mapping and focus groups were implemented as complementary methods to investigate the conditions of use of a health equity tool by public health organizations in Quebec. Using a hybrid integrated research design is a richer way to address the complexity of questions emerging from intervention and planning settings. This approach provides a deeper, operational, and contextualized understanding of research results involving different professional and organizational cultures, and thereby supports the decision-making process. Concept mapping served to identify and prioritize in a limited timeframe the conditions to be considered for incorporation into a health equity tool into public health practices. Focus groups then provided a more refined understanding of the barriers, issues, and facilitating factors surrounding the tools adoption, helped distinguish among participants' perspectives based on functional roles and organizational contexts, and clarified some apparently contradictory results from the concept map. The combined use of these two techniques brought the strengths of each approach to bear, thereby overcoming some of the respective limitations of concept mapping and focus groups. This design is appropriate for investigating targets with multiple levels of complexity.

  11. Perceptions on the use of pricing strategies to stimulate healthy eating among residents of deprived neighbourhoods: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pricing strategies are mentioned frequently as a potentially effective tool to stimulate healthy eating, mainly for consumers with a low socio-economic status. Still, it is not known how these consumers perceive pricing strategies, which pricing strategies are favoured and what contextual factors are important in achieving the anticipated effects. Methods We conducted seven focus groups among 59 residents of deprived neighbourhoods in two large Dutch cities. The focus group topics were based on insights from Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and consisted of four parts: 1) discussion on factors in food selection; 2) attitudes and perceptions towards food prices; 3) thinking up pricing strategies; 4) attitudes and perceptions regarding nine pricing strategies that were nominated by experts in a former Delphi Study. Analyses were conducted with Atlas.ti 5.2 computer software, using the framework approach. Results Qualitative analyses revealed that this group of consumers consider price to be a core factor in food choice and that they experience financial barriers against buying certain foods. Price was also experienced as a proficient tool to stimulate healthier food choices. Yet, consumers indicated that significant effects could only be achieved by combining price with information and promotion techniques. In general, pricing strategies focusing on encouraging healthy eating were valued to be more helpful than pricing strategies which focused on discouraging unhealthy eating. Suggested high reward strategies were: reducing the price of healthier options of comparable products (e.g., whole meal bread) compared to unhealthier options (e.g., white bread); providing a healthy food discount card for low-income groups; and combining price discounts on healthier foods with other marketing techniques such as displaying cheap and healthy foods at the cash desk. Conclusion This focus group study provides important new insights regarding the use of pricing

  12. Focus Groups of Alaska Native Adolescent Tobacco Users: Preferences for Tobacco Cessation Interventions and Barriers to Participation

    PubMed Central

    Patten, Christi A.; Enoch, Carrie; Renner, Caroline C.; Offord, Kenneth P.; Nevak, Caroline; Kelley, Stacy F.; Thomas, Janet; Decker, Paul A.; Hurt, Richard D.; Lanier, Anne; Kaur, Judith S.

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco cessation interventions developed for Alaska Native adolescents do not exist. This study employed focus group methodology to explore preferences for tobacco cessation interventions and barriers to participation among 49 Alaska Natives (61% female) with a mean age of 14.6 (SD = 1.6) who resided in western Alaska. Using content analysis, themes from the 12 focus groups were found to be consistent across village, gender, and age groups. Program location or site (e.g., away from the village, hunting, fishing), a group-based format, and inclusion of medication and personal stories were reported to be important attributes of cessation programs. Motivators to quit tobacco were the perceived adverse health effects of tobacco, improved self-image and appearance, and the potential to be a future role model as a non–tobacco user for family and friends. Parents were perceived as potentially supportive to the adolescent in quitting tobacco. The findings will be used to develop tobacco cessation programs for Alaska Native youth. PMID:18048549

  13. High prevalence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense group 1 in pigs from the Fontem sleeping sickness focus in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Simo, G; Asonganyi, T; Nkinin, S W; Njiokou, F; Herder, S

    2006-06-30

    To understand the importance of domestic pigs in the epidemiology of human trypanosomiasis, PCR was used to identify trypanosome populations in 133 pigs from the Fontem sleeping sickness focus of Cameroon. The results from this study show that 73.7% (98/133) of pigs from the Fontem area carry at least one trypanosome species. Trypanosoma vivax, T. brucei s.l. and T. congolense forest were found in 34.6% (46/133), 40.0% (53/133) and 46.0% (61/133) of the pigs respectively. T. simiae and T. congolense savannah were not identified in these animals. The use of repeated DNA sequences detected T. b. gambiense group 1 in 14.8% (15/101) of the pigs. Such pigs can be possible reservoir hosts for T. b. gambiense group 1 and contribute to the maintenance of the disease in the area. Mixed infections were revealed in 35.3% (47/133) of the pigs. Furthermore, we observed that under natural conditions, 52.4% (11/21) of the pigs from the Fontem focus carry mixed infections with T. b. gambiense group 1. No significant difference was observed between the percentage of T. b. gambiense group 1 single and mixed infections, and between the prevalence of this trypanosome in pigs from villages with and without sleeping sickness patients.

  14. The use of focus groups to examine pubertal concerns in preteen girls: initial findings and implications for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Doswell, W M; Vandestienne, G

    1996-01-01

    This article presents the findings of four focus groups aimed at discovering the concerns a group of 9- to 12-year-old African American and Hispanic girls (N = 38) had about puberty, the transition to adolescence, and growing up. Among the factors these girls liked about growing up were increasing independence from parents, widening social relations with same- and opposite-sex friends, and an increase in decision making regarding clothes and activities. What they reported as not liking about growing up were an increase in peer pressure, high parental expectations, and more responsibility for their actions in home, school, and recreational activities. Health care for this group must include systematic monitoring of pubertal development and concerns in order to aggressively educate preadolescents to negotiate this period smoothly and to avoid high-risk behaviors that could have negative health and social sequelae during adolescence and adulthood.

  15. Older smokers could be the strongest supporters for U.S. government regulation of tobacco: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Targeting of marginalized groups with aggressive tobacco marketing has been identified as exacerbating health disparities. However, interpretation of such targeting by groups varies, from surprise and outrage to regarding such marketing as evidence of social legitimacy. We sought to learn how an often-overlooked marginalized group, older adults, would respond to industry documents offering evidence of tobacco company target marketing. Methods We conducted 10 focus groups in California cities with older (≥50 years) smokers and former smokers. A set of previously-undisclosed tobacco industry documents related to target marketing was shown to the group in sequence. Audiotaped discussions were transcribed and data analyzed using qualitative approaches. Results Responses to evidence of tobacco industry targeting varied, with some regarding it as exploitive and others as normal business practice. However, in most groups, discussions turned to government’s failure to protect the public—even though government action /inaction was not prompted nor addressed in the discussion documents. Conclusion Given the Food and Drug Administration’s new authority to regulate tobacco products, these findings suggest that some of the tobacco industry’s “best customers” (older, established smokers and ex-smokers) may be strong supporters of government regulation of tobacco. PMID:23958397

  16. Developing Policy for Integrating Biomedicine and Traditional Chinese Medical Practice Using Focus Groups and the Delphi Technique

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C. H.; Ma, Polly H. X.; Lau, Chun Hong; Griffiths, Sian M.

    2012-01-01

    In Hong Kong, statutory regulation for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practitioners has been implemented in the past decade. Increasing use of TCM on top of biomedicine (BM) services by the population has been followed; but corresponding policy development to integrate their practices has not yet been discussed. Using focus group methodology, we explore policy ideas for integration by collating views from frontline BM (n = 50) and TCM clinicians (n = 50). Qualitative data were analyzed under the guidance of structuration model of collaboration, a theoretical model for understanding interprofessional collaboration. From focus group findings we generated 28 possible approaches, and subsequently their acceptability was assessed by a two round Delphi survey amongst BM and TCM policy stakeholders (n = 12). Consensus was reached only on 13 statements. Stakeholders agreed that clinicians from both paradigms should share common goals of providing patient-centered care, promoting the development of protocols for shared care and information exchange, as well as strengthening interprofessional connectivity and leadership for integration. On the other hand, attitudes amongst policy stakeholders were split on the possibility of fostering trust and mutual learning, as well as on enhancing innovation and governmental support. Future policy initiatives should focus on these controversial areas. PMID:22649469

  17. Support for a ban on tobacco powerwalls and other point-of-sale displays: findings from focus groups.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Carol L; Allen, Jane A; Kosa, Katherine M; Curry, Laurel E

    2015-02-01

    This study uses focus group data to document consumer perceptions of powerwall and other point-of-sale (POS) tobacco displays, and support for a ban on tobacco displays. Four focus groups were conducted in 2012 by a trained moderator. The study comprised 34 adult residents of New York State, approximately half with children under age 18 years living at home. Measures used in the study were awareness and perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, and level of support for a ban on tobacco displays. Analysis focused on perceptions of powerwall and other POS displays, level of support for a ban on tobacco displays and reasons participants oppose a display ban. This study documents a general lack of concern about tobacco use in the community, which does not appear to be associated with support for a ban on POS tobacco displays. Although all participants had seen tobacco powerwalls and most considered them to be a form of advertising, participants were divided as to whether they played a role in youth smoking. Additional research is warranted to determine what factors individuals weigh in assigning value to a ban on POS tobacco displays and other tobacco control policies and how educational efforts can influence those assessments.

  18. Inter-professional perspectives of dementia services and care in England: Outcomes of a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Jasper, Rowan; Roe, Brenda; Jolley, David; Crook, Anthony; Challis, David J

    2016-09-01

    Many people living with dementia are supported at home using a variety of health and social care services. This paper reports the findings from a focus group study undertaken with staff in community mental health teams to explore areas for improvement in relation to national policies and recommendations for dementia care. Two focus groups were held with staff (n = 23) in 2011 to discuss topics including service delivery, information and communication, and provision of health and community care for people with dementia. Respondents identified problems with information sharing and incompatible electronic systems; inflexibility in home care services; and poor recognition of dementia in hospital settings. General practitioners had developed a greater awareness of the disease and some community services worked well. They felt that budgetary constraints and a focus on quality indicators impeded good dementia care. Key areas suggested by staff for improvements in dementia care included the implementation of more flexible services, dementia training for health and social care staff, and better quality care in acute hospital settings.

  19. Views of parents, teachers and children on health promotion in kindergarten--first results from formative focus groups and observations.

    PubMed

    Sansolios, Sanne; Mikkelsen, Bent Egberg

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the study was to capture the views of children, parents and teachers on the topic of physical activity in kindergarten through observation and focus group interviews. The study was conducted in the kindergartens from the sampling group in the Danish part of PERISCOPE. 1(st) methodology: Children interviewed inside by the researcher on preferable movements and settings and then observed outside during their playtime. 2(nd) methodology: Children asked to draw themselves playing their most preferred physical activity. Parents and kindergarten teachers interviewed in two different groups, using an identical guide. Children are skilled in taking advantage of the space and facilities available for physical activity; girls need more support than boys to initiate physical activity; children are happy with the facilities and the toys available in the kindergarten. Teachers feel an increasing pressure to take more responsibility and initiatives for the children's health habits. Parents state that if more physical activity is initiated in the kindergarten, it could make children request domestic activity. Physical activity and movement concept are too abstract for children of this age to talk about: they quickly lose their focus and concentration. The new methodology of videotaping gives the researcher the chance to interpret facial expressions to capture movement, talk and actions, and to make a distinction among children, as they tend to interrupt each other. However, this method contains a weakness, if used alone, by the fact that the shooting is only a reflection of what the video camera has recorded.

  20. Married Iranian Women's Knowledge, Attitude and Sense of Self-efficacy about Oral Contraceptives: Focus Group Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Peyman, Nooshin; Oakley, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Oral contraceptive pills effectiveness is lower in actual use than in clinical trials. The views of a group of married Iranian women were sought as a step toward improving the enhanced use of contraceptive pills. Methods Two focus groups of current pill users (n=13) and two focus groups of women not currently taking the pills (n=14) were held. Leaders trained facilitators; themes were identified from line-by-line analysis of transcripts. Results The majority of the participants were primary school graduates with a mean age of 34 years. Knowledge about mechanisms of action was low; some women wanted more information. Both users and non-users recognized positive and negative characteristics of contraceptive pills. For non-users, physical and emotional side-effects were the most important; and anecdotal information from their social network was more important. They tended to trust more traditional methods. For users, their own experience and more reality-based understanding of side-effects mitigated concerns about side-effects. They also felt that health clinic staff had a negative attitude toward the pills. A stronger expression of self-efficacy seemed to be associated with more positive attitudes toward oral contraceptive pills. Conclusion Although Iran has had a government-funded family planning program since 1990, and pills are the single most popular modern contraceptive method, women who take OCPs can provide important information that could increase effective health education about their use. PMID:23926515

  1. The diagnostic role of gut feelings in general practice A focus group study of the concept and its determinants

    PubMed Central

    Stolper, Erik; van Bokhoven, Marloes; Houben, Paul; Van Royen, Paul; van de Wiel, Margje; van der Weijden, Trudy; Jan Dinant, Geert

    2009-01-01

    Background General practitioners sometimes base clinical decisions on gut feelings alone, even though there is little evidence of their diagnostic and prognostic value in daily practice. Research into these aspects and the use of the concept in medical education require a practical and valid description of gut feelings. The goal of our study was therefore to describe the concept of gut feelings in general practice and to identify their main determinants Methods Qualitative research including 4 focus group discussions. A heterogeneous sample of 28 GPs. Text analysis of the focus group discussions, using a grounded theory approach. Results Gut feelings are familiar to most GPs in the Netherlands and play a substantial role in their everyday routine. The participants distinguished two types of gut feelings, a sense of reassurance and a sense of alarm. In the former case, a GP is sure about prognosis and therapy, although they may not always have a clear diagnosis in mind. A sense of alarm means that a GP has the feeling that something is wrong even though objective arguments are lacking. GPs in the focus groups experienced gut feelings as a compass in situations of uncertainty and the majority of GPs trusted this guide. We identified the main determinants of gut feelings: fitting, alerting and interfering factors, sensation, contextual knowledge, medical education, experience and personality. Conclusion The role of gut feelings in general practice has become much clearer, but we need more research into the contributions of individual determinants and into the test properties of gut feelings to make the concept suitable for medical education. PMID:19226455

  2. TOWARDS LEARNER-CENTRED MEDICAL CURRICULUM: QUALITATIVE FOCUS GROUP STUDY OF INDIVIDUAL PREFERENCES DEPENDING ON VERBAL ENVIRONMENT.

    PubMed

    Bukeyeva, A; Riklefs, V; Riklefs, I; Tashkenbayeva, V; Kassatova, A

    2016-05-01

    There is a strong evidence in medical education literature that the learner-centred curriculum favouring the use of metacognition and self-learning is very proficient. However, ethnocultural and verbal environment may undermine learners' ability to utilise the learning strategies, leading to inefficient learning. This study aimed to investigate the personal preferences of learners in multilingual educational environment prompting the most efficient learning. The study uses qualitative focus group methodology to understand students' opinion on how educational environment influences the efficiency of medical school curriculum.

  3. Mixed Waste Focus Area Working Group: An Integrated Approach to Mercury Waste Treatment and Disposal. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.I.; Conley, T.B.; Osborne-Lee, I.W.

    1997-09-08

    May 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) initiated the Mercury Work Group (HgWG). The HgWG was established to address and resolve the issues associated with Mercury- contaminated mixed wastes (MWs). During the initial technical baseline development process of the MWFA, three of the top four technology deficiencies identified were related to (1) amalgamation, (2) stabilization, and (3) separation and removal for the treatment of mercury and mercury-contaminated mixed waste (MW). The HgWG is assisting the MWFA in soliciting, identifying, initiating, and managing efforts to address these needs.

  4. Safety planning in focus groups of Malawian women living with HIV: helping each other deal with violence and abuse.

    PubMed

    Mkandawire-Valhmu, Lucy; Stevens, Patricia E; Kako, Peninnah M; Dressel, Anne

    2013-11-01

    In this critical ethnography, 72 HIV-infected women in Southern Malawi participated in 12 focus groups discussing the impact of HIV and violence. Our analysis, informed by a postcolonial feminist perspective, revealed women's capacity to collectively engage in safety planning. We present our findings about women's experiences based on narratives detailing how women collectively strategized safety planning efforts to mitigate the impact of violence. This study helps to fill a gap in the literature on the intersection between HIV and violence in women's lives. Strategies discussed by the women could form a basis for safety planning interventions for women in similar circumstances.

  5. Views of academic and community partners regarding participant protections and research integrity: a pilot focus group study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Emily E

    2013-02-01

    When community partners have direct interaction with human research participants, it is important to consider potential threats to participant protections and research integrity. Few studies have directly compared the views of academic and community partners. This pilot focus group study explores the views of academic partners (APs) and community partners (CPs) regarding challenges to the protection of research participants and research integrity in community-engaged research (CEnR). Data are analyzed to understand how APs and CPs define and think about ethical problems and how meaning and analysis may differ between the two groups. Findings have implications for the development of research ethics training materials for academic-community research partnerships and IRBs; best practices for CEnR; and future research on ethical issues in CEnR.

  6. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study

    PubMed Central

    North, Carol S.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A.; Gordon, Mollie R.; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E.

    2014-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company’s workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees’ emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals. PMID:23066661

  7. σ(ECF) factors of gram-positive bacteria: a focus on Bacillus subtilis and the CMNR group.

    PubMed

    Souza, Bianca Mendes; Castro, Thiago Luiz de Paula; Carvalho, Rodrigo Dias de Oliveira; Seyffert, Nubia; Silva, Artur; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco

    2014-07-01

    The survival of bacteria to different environmental conditions depends on the activation of adaptive mechanisms, which are intricately driven through gene regulation. Because transcriptional initiation is considered to be the major step in the control of bacterial genes, we discuss the characteristics and roles of the sigma factors, addressing (1) their structural, functional and phylogenetic classification; (2) how their activity is regulated; and (3) the promoters recognized by these factors. Finally, we focus on a specific group of alternative sigma factors, the so-called σ(ECF) factors, in Bacillus subtilis and some of the main species that comprise the CMNR group, providing information on the roles they play in the microorganisms' physiology and indicating some of the genes whose transcription they regulate.

  8. Workplace response of companies exposed to the 9/11 World Trade Center attack: a focus-group study.

    PubMed

    North, Carol S; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Hong, Barry A; Gordon, Mollie R; Kim, You-Seung; Lind, Lisa; Pollio, David E

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 11 September 2001 (9/11) left workplaces in pressing need of a mental health response capability. Unaddressed emotional sequelae may be devastating to the productivity and economic stability of a company's workforce. In the second year after the attacks, 85 employees of five highly affected agencies participated in 12 focus groups to discuss workplace mental health issues. Managers felt ill prepared to manage the magnitude and the intensity of employees' emotional responses. Rapid return to work, provision of workplace mental health services, and peer support were viewed as contributory to emotional recovery. Formal mental health services provided were perceived as insufficient. Drawing on their post-9/11 workplace experience, members of these groups identified practical measures that they found helpful in promoting healing outside of professional mental health services. These measures, consistent with many principles of psychological first aid, may be applied by workplace leaders who are not mental health professionals.

  9. Issues experienced while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals: A study based on focus group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Risa; Shimizu, Yasuko

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dementia is a major public health problem. More and more patients with dementia are being admitted to acute care hospitals for treatment of comorbidities. Issues associated with care of patients with dementia in acute care hospitals have not been adequately clarified. This study aimed to explore the challenges nurses face in providing care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals in Japan. Methods This was a qualitative study using focus group interviews (FGIs). The setting was six acute hospitals with surgical and medical wards in the western region of Japan. Participants were nurses in surgical and internal medicine wards, excluding intensive care units. Nurses with less than 3 years working experience, those without experience in dementia patient care in their currently assigned ward, and head nurses were excluded from participation. FGIs were used to collect data from February to December 2008. Interviews were scheduled for 1–1.5 h. The qualitative synthesis method was used for data analysis. Results In total, 50 nurses with an average experience of 9.8 years participated. Eight focus groups were formed. Issues in administering care to patients with dementia at acute care hospitals were divided into seven groups. Three of these groups, that is, problematic patient behaviors, recurrent problem, and problems affecting many people equally, interact to result in a burdensome cycle. This cycle is exacerbated by lack of nursing experience and lack of organization in hospitals. In coping with this cycle, the nurses develop protection plans for themselves and for the hospital. Conclusions The two main issues experienced by nurses while administering care to patients with dementia in acute care hospitals were as follows: (a) the various problems and difficulties faced by nurses were interactive and caused a burdensome cycle, and (b) nurses do their best to adapt to these conditions despite feeling conflicted. PMID:25716983

  10. Therapists' Perspective on Virtual Reality Training in Patients after Stroke: A Qualitative Study Reporting Focus Group Results from Three Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Schmid, Ludwig; Glässel, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Background. During the past decade, virtual reality (VR) has become a new component in the treatment of patients after stroke. Therefore aims of the study were (a) to get an insight into experiences and expectations of physiotherapists and occupational therapists in using a VR training system and (b) to investigate relevant facilitators, barriers, and risks for implementing VR training in clinical practice. Methods. Three focus groups were conducted with occupational therapists and physiotherapists, specialised in rehabilitation of patients after stroke. All data were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. The study was analysed based on a phenomenological approach using qualitative content analysis. Results. After code refinements, a total number of 1289 codes emerged out of 1626 statements. Intercoder reliability increased from 53% to 91% until the last focus group. The final coding scheme included categories on a four-level hierarchy: first-level categories are (a) therapists and VR, (b) VR device, (c) patients and VR, and (d) future prospects and potential of VR developments. Conclusions. Results indicate that interprofessional collaboration is needed to develop future VR technology and to devise VR implementation strategies in clinical practice. In principal, VR technology devices were seen as supportive for a general health service model. PMID:28058130

  11. Focus group reflections on the current and future state of cognitive assessment tools in geriatric health care

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Jocelyne C; Gambino, Sara A; Richter, Jeffrey D; Ryan, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study provides insight into the thoughts and opinions of geriatric health-care professionals toward cognitive assessments and the use of emerging technologies, such as eye-tracking, to supplement current tools. Methods Two focus group sessions were conducted with nurses and physicians who routinely administer neurocognitive assessments to geriatric populations. Video recordings of the focus group sessions were transcribed and a thematic analysis was performed. Results Participants reported the need for assessment and diagnostic tools that are accessible and efficient, and that are capable of accommodating the rapid growth in the aging population. The prevalence of more complex ailments experienced by older adults has had repercussions in the quality of care that the clients receive, and has contributed to lengthy wait times and resource shortages. Health-care professionals stated that they are hampered by the disjointed structure of the health-care system and that they would benefit from a more efficient allocation of responsibilities made possible through tools that did not require extensive training or certification. Eyetracking-based cognitive assessments were thought to strongly complement this system, yet it was thought that difficulty would be faced in gaining the support and increased uptake by health-care professionals due to the nonintuitive relationship between eyetracking and cognition. Conclusion The findings suggest that health-care professionals are receptive to the use of eyetracking technology to assess for cognitive health as it would conserve resources by allowing frontline staff to administer assessments with minimal training. PMID:26109860

  12. How do scientists perceive the current publication culture? A qualitative focus group interview study among Dutch biomedical researchers

    PubMed Central

    Schipper, K; Bouter, L M; Maclaine Pont, P; de Jonge, J; Smulders, Y M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biomedical scientist's perception of the prevailing publication culture. Design Qualitative focus group interview study. Setting Four university medical centres in the Netherlands. Participants Three randomly selected groups of biomedical scientists (PhD, postdoctoral staff members and full professors). Main outcome measures Main themes for discussion were selected by participants. Results Frequently perceived detrimental effects of contemporary publication culture were the strong focus on citation measures (like the Journal Impact Factor and the H-index), gift and ghost authorships and the order of authors, the peer review process, competition, the funding system and publication bias. These themes were generally associated with detrimental and undesirable effects on publication practices and on the validity of reported results. Furthermore, senior scientists tended to display a more cynical perception of the publication culture than their junior colleagues. However, even among the PhD students and the postdoctoral fellows, the sentiment was quite negative. Positive perceptions of specific features of contemporary scientific and publication culture were rare. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the current publication culture leads to negative sentiments, counterproductive stress levels and, most importantly, to questionable research practices among junior and senior biomedical scientists. PMID:26888726

  13. Heart disease education and prevention program targeting immigrant Latinos: using focus group responses to develop effective interventions.

    PubMed

    Moreno, C; Alvarado, M; Balcazar, H; Lane, C; Newman, E; Ortiz, G; Forrest, M

    1997-12-01

    Although research has provided considerable knowledge concerning the positive effects of behavioral change on morbidity and mortality from heart disease and related risk factors, some segments of the population have not benefited equitably from this information. In April 1995, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) conducted seven focus groups to determine knowledge and attitudes about heart disease and associated risk factors, identify media usage and preferences, and assess publications usage and preferences among Spanish-speaking Latino immigrants residing in the Washington, D.C., metropolitan area. This information was gathered to assist in the development of key messages and strategies for the NHLBI Latino Community Cardiovascular Disease Prevention and Outreach Initiative, Salud para su Corazón--a heart disease prevention and education campaign. Findings from these focus groups indicate that Latinos may not benefit from heart disease prevention messages developed for the general population because of language and cultural differences. The researchers concluded that health education and disease prevention programs targeting the Latino community should develop educational materials and interventions that address language preferences and cultural values. Furthermore, to be effective, these programs should show people how to make positive behavioral changes based on their current circumstances, while remaining sensitive to the fact that Latino immigrants face major life adjustments and many are still greatly influenced by their country of origin.

  14. Attitudes and beliefs about deceased organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community in Australia: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Angelique F; Alyami, Ali; Allen, Richard D M; Howard, Kirsten; Craig, Jonathan C; Chadban, Steve J; Irving, Michelle; Tong, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To describe the beliefs and attitudes to organ donation in the Arabic-speaking community. Design Arabic-speaking participants were purposively recruited to participate in 6 focus groups. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Participants 53 participants, aged 19–77 years, and originating from 8 countries, participated in 1 of 6 focus groups. Participants identified as Christian (73%), Islam (26%), Buddhist (2%) or did not identify with any religion (2%). Results 6 themes (with subthemes) were identified; religious conviction; invisibility of organ donation; medical suspicion; owning the decision; and reciprocal benefit. Conclusions Although organ donation is considered a generous life-saving ‘gift’, representative members of the Arabic-speaking community in Australia were unfamiliar with, unnerved by and sceptical about the donation process. Making positive decisions about organ donation would likely require resolving tensions between respecting family, community and religious values versus their individual autonomy. Providing targeted education about the process and benefits of organ donation within the Arabic community may clarify ambiguities surrounding cultural and religious-based views on organ donation, reduce taboos and suspicion towards donation, and in turn, lead to increased organ donation rates. PMID:26787253

  15. People with dementia and carers' experiences of dementia care and services: Outcomes of a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Caroline L; Roe, Brenda; Jasper, Rowan; Jolley, David; Challis, David J

    2015-11-01

    An ageing population and an associated increase in the prevalence of dementia are of increasing concern in the United Kingdom and worldwide. Recently, the United Kingdom and other European countries implemented national dementia strategies to address this. This paper reports on the outcomes of a focus group study involving people with dementia and carers on their experiences of dementia care and support services in relation to government and third sector agencies' objectives and recommendations. Three focus groups comprising carers and people with dementia (n = 27) were undertaken covering topics related to experiences, service receipt, information sharing and service development. Some participants experienced difficulties or delays in receiving a dementia diagnosis and in accessing appropriate care. The provision of training, timeliness of information, access to appropriate advice, and consistent and flexible services were deemed important. The findings suggest that some issues raised by participants were highlighted in earlier policy objectives and recommendations but remain of central concern. The projected growth in the number of people with dementia coupled with reduced availability of informal care and increased demand for services emphasises the need to transform dementia care in the United Kingdom.

  16. Neonatal Intensive Care Nurses' Perceptions of Parental Participation in Infant Pain Management: A Comparative Focus Group Study.

    PubMed

    Axelin, Anna; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Eriksson, Mats; Pölkki, Tarja; Korhonen, Anne; Franck, Linda S

    2015-01-01

    This comparative focus group study explored nurses' experiences and perceptions regarding parental participation in infant pain management in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A total of 87 nurses from 7 NICUs in Finland, Sweden, and the United States participated in focus-group interviews (n = 25). Data were analyzed using deductive and inductive thematic analysis. Nurses' experiences and perceptions varied considerably, from nurses being in control, to nurses sharing some control with parents, to nurse-parent collaboration in infant pain management. When nurses controlled pain management, parents were absent or passive. In these cases, the nurses believed this led to better pain control for infants and protected parents from emotional distress caused by infant pain. When nurses shared control with parents, they provided information and opportunities for participation. They believed parent participation was beneficial, even if it caused nurses or parents anxiety. When nurses collaborated with parents, they negotiated the optimal pain management approach for an individual infant. The collaborative approach was most evident for the nurses in the Swedish NICUs and somewhat evident in the NICUs in Finland and the United States. Further research is needed to address some nurses' perceptions and concerns and to facilitate greater consistency in the application of evidence-based best practices.

  17. Patients' and clinicians' experiences of consultations in primary care for sleep problems and insomnia: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Dyas, Jane V; Apekey, Tanefa A; Tilling, Michelle; Ørner, Roderick; Middleton, Hugh; Siriwardena, A Niroshan

    2010-01-01

    Background Insomnia affects around one-third of adults in the UK. Many sufferers seek help from primary care. Aim To explore patients' and primary care practitioners' expectations, experiences, and outcomes of consultations for sleep difficulties, as a basis for improving the treatment of insomnia in primary care. Design of study A qualitative phenomenological approach. Method Separate focus groups for GPs and nurse prescribers and patients recruited from eight general practices that were in a quality improvement collaborative. Constant comparative analysis was used. Results Emergent themes from 14 focus groups comparing participating patients (n = 30) and practitioners (n = 15), provided insights on presentation, beliefs, expectations, and management of sleep problems. Patients initially tried to resolve insomnia themselves; consulting was often a last resort. Patients felt they needed to convince practitioners that their sleep difficulties were serious. They described insomnia in terms of the impact it was having on their life, whereas clinicians tended to focus on underlying causes. By the time patients consulted, many expected a prescription. Clinicians often assumed this was what patients wanted, and felt this would hamper patients' ability to take non-drug treatments seriously. Clinicians expected patients who were already on sleeping tablets to be resistant to stopping them, whereas patients were often open to alternatives. Conclusion Better management of insomnia should take into account the perceptions and interactions of patients and practitioners. Practitioners need to empathise, listen, elicit patients' beliefs and expectations, assess sleep better, and offer a range of treatments, including cognitive and behavioural therapies, tailored to individual needs. Practitioner education should incorporate understanding of patients' decision-making processes, the clinicians' role during the consultation, and how to negotiate and deliver strategies for resolving

  18. Perceptions of quality in primary health care: perspectives of patients and professionals based on focus group discussions

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The EUprimecare project-team assessed the perception of primary health care (PHC) professionals and patients on quality of organization of PHC systems in the participating countries: Estonia, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Lithuania and Spain. This article presents the aggregated opinions, expectations and priorities of patients and professionals along some main dimensions of quality in primary health care, such as access, equity, appropriateness and patient- centeredness. Methods The focus group technique was applied in the study as a qualitative research method for exploration of attitudes regarding the health care system and health service. Discussions were addressing the topics of: general aspects of quality in primary health care; possibilities to receive/provide PHC services based on both parties needs; determinant factors of accessibility to PHC services; patient centeredness. The data sets collected during the focus group discussions were evaluated using the method of thematic analysis. Results There were 14 focus groups in total: a professional and a patient group in each of the seven partner countries. Findings of the thematic analysis were summarized along the following dimensions: access and equity, appropriateness (coordination, continuity, competency and comprehensiveness) and patient centeredness. Conclusions This study shows perceptions and views of patients in interaction with PHC and opinion of professionals working in PHC. It serves as source of criteria with relevance to everyday practice and experience. The criteria mentioned by patients and by health care professionals which were considered determining factors of the quality in primary care were quite similar among the investigated countries. However, the perception and the level of tolerance regarding some of the criteria differed among EUprimecare countries. Among these dissimilar criteria we especially note the gate-keeping role of GPs, the importance of nurses' competency and

  19. Fit for the frontline? A focus group exploration of auditory tasks carried out by infantry and combat support personnel.

    PubMed

    Bevis, Zoe L; Semeraro, Hannah D; van Besouw, Rachel M; Rowan, Daniel; Lineton, Ben; Allsopp, Adrian J

    2014-01-01

    In order to preserve their operational effectiveness and ultimately their survival, military personnel must be able to detect important acoustic signals and maintain situational awareness. The possession of sufficient hearing ability to perform job-specific auditory tasks is defined as auditory fitness for duty (AFFD). Pure tone audiometry (PTA) is used to assess AFFD in the UK military; however, it is unclear whether PTA is able to accurately predict performance on job-specific auditory tasks. The aim of the current study was to gather information about auditory tasks carried out by infantry personnel on the frontline and the environment these tasks are performed in. The study consisted of 16 focus group interviews with an average of five participants per group. Eighty British army personnel were recruited from five infantry regiments. The focus group guideline included seven open-ended questions designed to elicit information about the auditory tasks performed on operational duty. Content analysis of the data resulted in two main themes: (1) the auditory tasks personnel are expected to perform and (2) situations where personnel felt their hearing ability was reduced. Auditory tasks were divided into subthemes of sound detection, speech communication and sound localization. Reasons for reduced performance included background noise, hearing protection and attention difficulties. The current study provided an important and novel insight to the complex auditory environment experienced by British infantry personnel and identified 17 auditory tasks carried out by personnel on operational duties. These auditory tasks will be used to inform the development of a functional AFFD test for infantry personnel.

  20. Child and Family-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: Pilot Study of Group Treatment Format

    PubMed Central

    West, Amy E.; Jacobs, Rachel H.; Westerholm, Robert; Lee, Adabel; Carbray, Julie; Heidenreich, Jodi; Pavuluri, Mani N.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: This study is a preliminary report of a group adaptation of child- and family-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CFF-CBT) for pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD). Methods: CFF-CBT group treatment was provided to twenty six families who had children with a diagnosis of PBD ranging between six- and twelve-years-old. Results: Results indicated that CFF-CBT was feasible and acceptable to families. CFF-CBT resulted in significant improvement in manic, but not depressive, symptoms and in children’s psychosocial functioning post-treatment. In addition, although not statistically significant, parents reported an increased ability to cope with their child’s illness. Results of this study suggest that group psychosocial treatment provided alongside pharmacotherapy may help attain remission of symptoms, as well as increase overall psychosocial coping and well-being in both children and parents. Conclusion: Future work must include a more rigorous test of CFF-CBT in a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19718425

  1. Preventing HIV infection among young immigrant Latino men: results from focus groups using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Wilkin, Aimee; Alegría-Ortega, Jose; Montaño, Jaime

    2006-04-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to problem identification and exploration, a total of 74 Latino men (mean age 22.3, range 18-37) residing in an urban city in northwest North Carolina participated in one of eight focus groups on sexual health. Among the findings of this study, >75% of participants reported Mexico as their country of origin; other participants reported being from Central and South American countries. Qualitative data analysis identified 13 themes, which were grouped into the following three domains: 1) psychosocial factors identified as influencing sexual risk health behaviors; 2) system-level barriers to sexual health; and 3) characteristics of potentially effective HIV prevention intervention approaches. The study findings suggest that community-based, male-centered interpersonal networks that provide individual and group education and skill-building and incorporate curanderos (Latino healers) and bilingual experts may be important elements of potentially effective intervention approaches to reach Latino men, who have been inaccessible to conventional HIV prevention programs.

  2. Recommendations for patient engagement in guideline development panels: A qualitative focus group study of guideline-naïve patients

    PubMed Central

    Mullins, C. Daniel; Gronseth, Gary S.; Gagliardi, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient and consumer engagement in clinical practice guideline development is internationally advocated, but limited research explores mechanisms for successful engagement. Objective To investigate the perspectives of potential patient/consumer guideline representatives on topics pertaining to engagement including guideline development group composition and barriers to and facilitators of engagement. Setting and participants Participants were guideline-naïve volunteers for programs designed to link community members to academic research with diverse ages, gender, race, and degrees of experience interacting with health care professionals. Methods Three focus groups and one key informant interview were conducted and analyzed using a qualitative descriptive approach. Results Participants recommended small, diverse guideline development groups engaging multiple patient/consumer stakeholders with no prior relationships with each other or professional panel members. No consensus was achieved on the ideal balance of patient/consumer and professional stakeholders. Pre-meeting reading/training and an identified contact person were described as keys to successful early engagement; skilled facilitators, understandable speech and language, and established mechanisms for soliciting patient opinions were suggested to enhance engagement at meetings. Conclusions Most suggestions for effective patient/consumer engagement in guidelines require forethought and planning but little additional expense, making these strategies easily accessible to guideline developers desiring to achieve more meaningful patient and consumer engagement. PMID:28319201

  3. Decision making, beliefs, and attitudes toward hysterectomy: a focus group study with medically underserved women in Texas.

    PubMed

    Groff, J Y; Mullen, P D; Byrd, T; Shelton, A J; Lees, E; Goode, J

    2000-01-01

    Variations in hysterectomy rates have been associated with assorted physician and patient characteristics, and the disproportionate rate of hysterectomies in African American women has been attributed to a higher prevalence of leiomyomas. The role of women's beliefs and attitudes toward hysterectomy and participation in decision making for medical treatment has not been explored as a source of variance. The purposes of this qualitative study were to explore these constructs in a triethnic sample of women to understand beliefs, attitudes, and decision-making preferences among underserved women; to facilitate development of a quantitative survey; and to inform development of interventions to assist women with such medical decisions. Twenty-three focus groups were conducted with 148 women from community sites and public health clinics. Thirteen self-identified lesbians participated in three groups. Analysis of audiotaped transcripts yielded four main themes: perceived outcomes of hysterectomy, perceived views of men/partners, opinions about healthcare providers, decision-making process. Across groups, the women expressed similar expectations from hysterectomy, differing only in the degree to which dimensions were emphasized. The women thought men perceived women with hysterectomy as less desirable for reasons unrelated to childbearing. Attitudes toward physicians were negative except among Hispanic women. All women expressed a strong desire to be involved in elective treatment decisions and would discuss their choice with important others. Implications for intervention development include enhancing women's skills and confidence to evaluate treatment options and to interact with physicians around treatment choices and creation of portable educational components for important others.

  4. Preventing HIV infection among young immigrant Latino men: results from focus groups using community-based participatory research.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Wilkin, Aimee; Alegría-Ortega, Jose; Montaño, Jaime

    2006-01-01

    Latinos in the United States have been disproportionately affected by the intersecting epidemics of HIV and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) approach to problem identification and exploration, a total of 74 Latino men (mean age 22.3, range 18-37) residing in an urban city in northwest North Carolina participated in one of eight focus groups on sexual health. Among the findings of this study, >75% of participants reported Mexico as their country of origin; other participants reported being from Central and South American countries. Qualitative data analysis identified 13 themes, which were grouped into the following three domains: 1) psychosocial factors identified as influencing sexual risk health behaviors; 2) system-level barriers to sexual health; and 3) characteristics of potentially effective HIV prevention intervention approaches. The study findings suggest that community-based, male-centered interpersonal networks that provide individual and group education and skill-building and incorporate curanderos (Latino healers) and bilingual experts may be important elements of potentially effective intervention approaches to reach Latino men, who have been inaccessible to conventional HIV prevention programs. PMID:16623070

  5. Can ill-structured problems reveal beliefs about medical knowledge and knowing? A focus-group approach

    PubMed Central

    Roex, Ann; Clarebout, Geraldine; Dory, Valerie; Degryse, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Background Epistemological beliefs (EB) are an individual's cognitions about knowledge and knowing. In several non-medical domains, EB have been found to contribute to the way individuals reason when faced with ill-structured problems (i.e. problems with no clear-cut, right or wrong solutions). Such problems are very common in medical practice. Determining whether EB are also influential in reasoning processes with regard to medical issues to which there is no straightforward answer, could have implications for medical education. This study focused on 2 research questions: 1. Can ill-structured problems be used to elicit general practice trainees' and trainers' EB? and 2. What are the views of general practice trainees and trainers about knowledge and how do they justify knowing? Methods 2 focus groups of trainees (n = 18) were convened on 3 occasions during their 1st year of postgraduate GP training. 2 groups of GP trainers (n = 11) met on one occasion. Based on the methodology of the Reflective Judgement Interview (RJI), participants were asked to comment on 11 ill-structured problems. The sessions were audio taped and transcribed and an adapted version of the RJI scoring rules was used to assess the trainees' reasoning about ill-structured problems. Results Participants made a number of statements illustrating their EB and their importance in clinical reasoning. The level of EB varied widely form one meeting to another and depending on the problem addressed. Overall, the EB expressed by trainees did not differ from those of trainers except on a particular ill-structured problem regarding shoulder pain. Conclusion The use of focus groups has entailed some difficulties in the interpretation of the results, but a number of preliminary conclusions can be drawn. Ill-structured medical problems can be used to elicit EB. Most trainees and trainers displayed pre-reflective and quasi-reflective EB. The way trainees and doctors view and justify knowledge are likely to be

  6. Virtual worlds to support patient group communication? A questionnaire study investigating potential for virtual world focus group use by respiratory patients

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Michael J.; Taylor, Dave; Vlaev, Ivo; Elkin, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances in communication technologies enable potential provision of remote education for patients using computer-generated environments known as virtual worlds. Previous research has revealed highly variable levels of patient receptiveness to using information technologies for healthcare-related purposes. This preliminary study involved implementing a questionnaire investigating attitudes and access to computer technologies of respiratory outpatients, in order to assess potential for use of virtual worlds to facilitate health-related education for this sample. Ninety-four patients with a chronic respiratory condition completed surveys, which were distributed at a Chest Clinic. In accordance with our prediction, younger participants were more likely to be able to use, and have access to a computer and some patients were keen to explore use virtual worlds for healthcare-related purposes: Of those with access to computer facilities, 14.50% expressed a willingness to attend a virtual world focus group. Results indicate future virtual world health education facilities should be designed to cater for younger patients, because this group are most likely to accept and use such facilities. Within the study sample, this is likely to comprise of people diagnosed with asthma. Future work could investigate the potential of creating a virtual world asthma education facility. PMID:28239187

  7. Virtual worlds to support patient group communication? A questionnaire study investigating potential for virtual world focus group use by respiratory patients.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Michael J; Taylor, Dave; Vlaev, Ivo; Elkin, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in communication technologies enable potential provision of remote education for patients using computer-generated environments known as virtual worlds. Previous research has revealed highly variable levels of patient receptiveness to using information technologies for healthcare-related purposes. This preliminary study involved implementing a questionnaire investigating attitudes and access to computer technologies of respiratory outpatients, in order to assess potential for use of virtual worlds to facilitate health-related education for this sample. Ninety-four patients with a chronic respiratory condition completed surveys, which were distributed at a Chest Clinic. In accordance with our prediction, younger participants were more likely to be able to use, and have access to a computer and some patients were keen to explore use virtual worlds for healthcare-related purposes: Of those with access to computer facilities, 14.50% expressed a willingness to attend a virtual world focus group. Results indicate future virtual world health education facilities should be designed to cater for younger patients, because this group are most likely to accept and use such facilities. Within the study sample, this is likely to comprise of people diagnosed with asthma. Future work could investigate the potential of creating a virtual world asthma education facility.

  8. “It’s not like a fat camp” — A focus group study of adolescents’ experiences on group-based obesity treatment

    PubMed Central

    Engström, Anna; Abildsnes, Eirik; Mildestvedt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background The health burden related to obesity is rising among children and adolescents along with the general population worldwide. For the individual as well as the society this trend is alarming. Several factors are driving the trend, and the solution seems to be multifaceted because long-lasting treatment alternatives are lacking. This study aims to explore adolescents’ and young adults’ motivation for attending group-based obesity treatment and social and environmental factors that can facilitate or hinder lifestyle change. Methods In this study, we arranged three focus groups with 17 participants from different obesity treatment programs in the west and south of Norway. The content in these programs differed, but they all used Motivational Interviewing as a teaching method. We conducted a data-driven analysis using systematic text condensation. Self-determination theory has been used as an explanatory framework. Results We identified four major themes: 1) motivation, 2) body experience and self-image, 3) relationships and sense of belonging, and 4) the road ahead. Many of the participants expressed external motivation to participate but experienced increasing inner motivation and enjoyment during the treatment. Several participants reported negative experiences related to being obese and appreciated group affiliation and sharing experiences with other participants. Conclusion Motivation may shift during a lifestyle course. Facilitating factors include achieving and experiencing positive outcomes as well as gaining autonomy support from other course participants and friends. Obstacles to change were a widespread obesogenic environment as well as feelings of guilt, little trust in personal achievements and non-supporting friends. PMID:27834179

  9. A culturally competent approach to cancer news and education in an inner city community: focus group findings.

    PubMed

    Marks, Jonnie P; Reed, Wornie; Colby, Kay; Dunn, R A; Mosavel, M; Ibrahim, Said A

    2004-01-01

    Ethnic minorities who live in socioeconomically disenfranchised communities suffer disproportionately from many health problems including cancer. In an effort to reduce these disparities, many health-care practitioners and scholars have promoted "culturally competent" health education efforts. One component of culturally competent education is a grounded knowledge base. To obtain knowledge about the cancer-related ideas of members of one African American community, researchers conducted focus groups with public housing residents and used the findings to develop a five-part television news series about breast, prostate, and cervix cancers. We found that participants gathered information from the folk, popular, and professional health sectors and constructed their cancer-related ideas from this information. Furthermore, experiences of racism, sexism, and classism colored their beliefs and behaviors regarding the prevention, detection, and treatment of common cancers. For this community "cancer" represents a giant screen upon which individual fears and societal ethnic, political, and economic tensions are projected.

  10. The collective voice: Legitimation strategies in focus group discussions with nurses in municipal palliative care for older people in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rahm, Henrik; Andersson, Magdalena; Edberg, Anna-karin

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores focus group discussions of registered nurses in municipal palliative care for older people, using data collected by researchers with an interest in health sciences. The linguistically based discourse analyis builds on a combination of Bakhtinian notions of dialogicity, the Other and addressivity, the use of quotations, and also van Leeuwen's framework for legitimation in discourse. The aim is to investigate strategies of addressing and legitimizing palliative care. Three types of narrative are discerned: the cautionary tale, fictionalization of professional experiences and the enactment of a fictive dialogue. The other professions involved (physicians, assistant nurses) are positioned as the Other as a means of legitimizing the perspectives of the registered nurses. As the patients and their next of kin are the objects of professional activities, the notion of the Third (connecting to the Other) is proposed. The objectification is a manifestation of commitment with routinized and professional distance to the patients.

  11. Bringing a Network-Oriented Approach to Domestic Violence Services: A Focus Group Exploration of Promising Practices.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Banyard, Victoria; Woulfe, Julie; Ash, Sarah; Mattern, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Despite powerful evidence that informal social support contributes to survivors' safety and well-being, mainstream domestic violence (DV) programs have not developed comprehensive models for helping isolated survivors re-engage with these networks. Although many advocates use network-oriented strategies informally, they often do so without resources, funding, or training. This qualitative focus group study explored advocates' use and perceptions of network-oriented strategies. Advocates working in a range of DV programs across one state described the importance of network-oriented work and articulated its five dimensions, including helping survivors build their capacity to form healthy relationships, identify helpful and harmful network members, re-engage with existing networks, develop new relationships, and respond more effectively to network members.

  12. Quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers compensated by workers' compensation in Quebec: a focus group study of physiotherapy professionals.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Anne; Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of work-related physical disability in the province of Quebec in Canada. The authors conducted a focus group study with physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists working with patients whose treatments are compensated by the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board with the goal of exploring quality of care and ethical issues. Three main themes were identified: (1) systemic factors, (2) complexity in treatment decisions and (3) inequality of care. Although physiotherapy professionals strive to give these patients the best possible care, patients might not always be provided with optimal or equal treatment. When compared with other patients, there appear to be differences with respect to access to care and types of services offered to injured workers, raising equity concerns. Factors that shape and constrain quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers need to be addressed to improve care for these patients.

  13. Quality of Physiotherapy Services for Injured Workers Compensated by Workers' Compensation in Quebec: A Focus Group Study of Physiotherapy Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of work-related physical disability in the province of Quebec in Canada. The authors conducted a focus group study with physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists working with patients whose treatments are compensated by the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board with the goal of exploring quality of care and ethical issues. Three main themes were identified: (1) systemic factors, (2) complexity in treatment decisions and (3) inequality of care. Although physiotherapy professionals strive to give these patients the best possible care, patients might not always be provided with optimal or equal treatment. When compared with other patients, there appear to be differences with respect to access to care and types of services offered to injured workers, raising equity concerns. Factors that shape and constrain quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers need to be addressed to improve care for these patients. PMID:25947032

  14. [How do adolescents in Germany define cyberbullying? A focus-group study of adolescents from a German major city].

    PubMed

    Höher, Jonas; Scheithauer, Herbert; Schultze-Krumbholz, Anja

    2014-01-01

    A steadily growing number of empirical research on cyberbullying exists retaining the traditional definition of bullying. However, whether this scientific and theoretical definition represents youths' perceptions and experiences with cyberbullying is a subject of further investigation. Scenarios of cyberbullying incidents were used and later discussed in three focus groups with 20 adolescents (55 % boys, 45 % girls, 11-16 years old). Thematic and content analyses laid focus on the following questions: (1) Which terms are used by the adolescents to describe the behaviors in the incidents? (2) What are the roles of traditional bullying definition criteria (i. e. intention, repetition, and power imbalance) and two additional cyberbullying-specific criteria (i. e. anonymity and publicity)? (3) How are the behaviors perceived in comparison to each other? Results show that German adolescents perceive "cybermobbing" as the best term to describe the presented incidents. Impersonation was not perceived as cyberbullying by the adolescents, but rather viewed as a criminal act. In addition, adolescents perceived the intent to harm, the impact on the victim, and repetition relevant for defining cyberbullying. Moreover, analyses revealed an interdependence between criteria which suggests that anonymity and publicity have an effect on the severity of the behavior, however they were not essential for the definition of cyberbullying.

  15. Why Patients Delay Their First Contact with Health Services After Stroke? A Qualitative Focus Group-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Bonniec, Alice; Haesebaert, Julie; Derex, Laurent; Porthault, Sylvie; Préau, Marie; Schott, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite national and local French information campaigns, when acute stroke occurs, waiting times before calling mobile emergency medical services (EMS) to receive appropriate treatment (i.e. thrombolysis) and decrease the risk of physical disability, remain long. We aimed to identify the representations of stroke in the general population and to determine barriers to and facilitators for rapidly contacting EMS. Method We conducted a qualitative study among the general population with 10 focus groups, 5 comprising employed people (N = 29) and 5 comprising retirees (N = 32). The themes discussed were general knowledge about stroke and its risk factors, symptoms, appropriate management and the awareness that stroke is an emergency issue. Results In addition to a lack of knowledge about stroke, other barriers to rapidly contacting the EMS were difficulties in recognizing symptoms and understanding that these symptoms constitute an emergency. Furthermore, when faced with stroke, a feeling of inevitability and fatalism about the consequences of a stroke was highlighted. Participants were unaware of the existence of an effective treatment and they mistrusted medical competences. Finally, we found a strong presence and participant appreciation of common knowledge, resulting in the sharing of experiences of stroke. This could partly compensate for the lack of specific knowledge about symptom recognition and appropriate action. Conclusion Information campaigns should not only inform the public about stroke symptoms in order to ensure people act appropriately, but should also focus on increasing public awareness about the fact that an effective treatment exists. PMID:27275948

  16. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming–online gambling link

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyoun S.; Wohl, Michael J. A.; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games. Methods To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games). Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person’s personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12–14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks. PMID:28092197

  17. Barriers and Recommended Interventions to Prevent Melioidosis in Northeast Thailand: A Focus Group Study Using the Behaviour Change Wheel

    PubMed Central

    Suntornsut, Pornpan; Wongsuwan, Nittayasee; Malasit, Mayura; Kitphati, Rungreung; Michie, Susan; Peacock, Sharon J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Melioidosis, an often fatal infectious disease in Northeast Thailand, is caused by skin inoculation, inhalation or ingestion of the environmental bacterium, Burkholderia pseudomallei. The major underlying risk factor for melioidosis is diabetes mellitus. Recommendations for melioidosis prevention include using protective gear such as rubber boots and gloves when in direct contact with soil and environmental water, and consuming bottled or boiled water. Only a small proportion of people follow such recommendations. Methods Nine focus group discussions were conducted to evaluate barriers to adopting recommended preventive behaviours. A total of 76 diabetic patients from northeast Thailand participated in focus group sessions. Barriers to adopting the recommended preventive behaviours and future intervention strategies were identified using two frameworks: the Theoretical Domains Framework and the Behaviour Change Wheel. Results Barriers were identified in the following five domains: (i) knowledge, (ii) beliefs about consequences, (iii) intention and goals, (iv) environmental context and resources, and (v) social influence. Of 76 participants, 72 (95%) had never heard of melioidosis. Most participants saw no harm in not adopting recommended preventive behaviours, and perceived rubber boots and gloves to be hot and uncomfortable while working in muddy rice fields. Participants reported that they normally followed the behaviour of friends, family and their community, the majority of whom did not wear boots while working in rice fields and did not boil water before drinking. Eight intervention functions were identified as relevant for the intervention: (i) education, (ii) persuasion, (iii) incentivisation, (iv) coercion, (v) modeling, (vi) environmental restructuring, (vii) training, and (viii) enablement. Participants noted that input from role models in the form of physicians, diabetic clinics, friends and families, and from the government via mass media

  18. From the mouths of social media users: A focus group study exploring the social casino gaming-online gambling link.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyoun S; Wohl, Michael J A; Gupta, Rina; Derevensky, Jeffrey

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The potential link between social casino gaming and online gambling has raised considerable concerns among clinicians, researchers and policy makers. Unfortunately, however, there is a paucity of research examining this potential link, especially among young adults. This represents a significant gap given young adults are frequently exposed to and are players of social casino games. Methods To better understand the potential link between social casino games and online gambling, we conducted three focus groups (N = 30) at two large Canadian Universities with college students who were avid social media users (who are regularly exposed to social casino games). Results Many participants spontaneously mentioned that social casino games were a great opportunity to build gambling skills before playing for real money. Importantly, some participants expressed a belief that there is a direct progression from social casino gaming to online gambling. Conversely, others believed the transition to online gambling depended on a person's personality, rather than mere exposure to social casino games. While many young adults in our focus groups felt immune to the effects of social casino games, there was a general consensus that social casino games may facilitate the transition to online gambling among younger teenagers (i.e., 12-14 yr olds), due to the ease of accessibility and early exposure. Discussion The results of the present research point to the need for more study on the effects of social casino gambling as well as a discussion concerning regulation of social casino games in order to minimize their potential risks.

  19. What British women say matters to them about donating an aborted fetus to stem cell research: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Pfeffer, Naomi

    2008-06-01

    This is the first investigation into what matters to British women when they think about donating an aborted fetus to research, and how stem cell research and therapies might influence their views. Tissue derived from the aborted fetus is considered "the right tool for the job" in some stem cell laboratories. Research using tissue derived from aborted fetuses is permitted in Britain, while deliberate abortion to provide fetal tissue for research is illegal. Investigators are advised to seek women's agreement to donate the fetus after they have signed the consent form for the abortion, and stem cell researchers seek fetuses aborted under the 'social' grounds of the Abortion Act 1967. This research was based on focus groups with women who had both had a termination and had not had a termination. It found that initial enthusiasm for the donation of the aborted fetus for medical research, which was understood as a good thing, diminished as participants gained information and thought more carefully about the implications of such a decision. Lack of knowledge about how aborted fetuses are treated as scientific objects in the stem cell laboratory provoked concerns about mishandling, and invoked in some participants what we have called the duty of care which women feel towards babies and children. The duty of care might apply to other research using aborted fetuses. But what makes stem cell research more troubling is its association with renewal, regeneration, and immortality which participants understood as somehow reinstating and even developing the fetus' physical existence and social biography, the very thing abortion is meant to eliminate. By the end of the focus groups, participants had co-produced a tendency to refuse to donate aborted fetuses.

  20. Health Care Professionals’ Understandings of Cross-Cultural Interaction in End-of-Life Care: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Sandra; Ågård, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective The academic debate on cross-cultural interaction within the context of end-of-life care takes for granted that this interaction is challenging. However, few empirical studies have actually focused on what health care professionals think about this interaction. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ understandings of cross-cultural interaction during end-of-life care. Methods Sixty end-of-life care professionals were recruited from eleven care units in Sweden to take part in focus group interviews. These interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results The health care professionals interviewed talked about cross-cultural interaction in end-of-life care as interaction that brings about uncertainty, stress and frustration even though they had limited experience of this type of interaction. The focus group discussions brought attention to four specific challenges that they expected to meet when they care for patients with migrant backgrounds since they took for granted that they would have an ethno-cultural background that is different to their own. These challenges had to do with communication barriers, ‘unusual’ emotional and pain expressions, the expectation that these patients’ families would be ‘different’ and the anticipation that these patients and their families lack knowledge. At the core of the challenges in question is the idea that cross-cultural interaction means meeting “the unknown”. In addition, the end-of-life care professionals interviewed talked about patients whose backgrounds they did not share in homogenizing terms. It is against this backdrop that they worried about their ability to provide end-of-life care that is individualized enough to meet the needs of these patients. Conclusions The study suggests that end-of-life care professionals who regard cross-cultural interaction in this manner could face actual challenges when caring for patients whose backgrounds they regard as

  1. Nurses using physical restraints: Are the accused also the victims? – A study using focus group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Claudia KY

    2007-01-01

    Background To date, the literature has provided an abundance of evidence on the adverse outcomes of restraint use on patients. Reportedly, nurses are often the personnel who initiate restraint use and attribute its use to ensuring the safety of the restrained and the others. A clinical trial using staff education and administrative input as the key components of a restraint reduction program was conducted in a rehabilitation setting to examine whether there were any significant differences in the prevalence of restraint use pre- and post-intervention. Subsequent to the implementation of the intervention program, focus group interviews were conducted to determine the perspective of the nursing staff on the use of restraints and their opinions of appropriate means to reduce their use. Method Registered nurses working in units involved in the study were invited to participate in focus group interviews on a voluntary basis. Twenty-two registered nurses (three males [13.6%] and nineteen females [86.4%]) attended the four sessions. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Other than the author, another member of the project team validated the findings from the data analysis. Results Four themes were identified. Participants experienced internal conflicts when applying physical restraints and were ambivalent about their use, but they would use restraints nonetheless, mainly to prevent falls and injuries to patients. They felt that nurse staffing was inadequate and that they were doing the best they could. They experienced pressure from the management level and would have liked better support. Communication among the various stakeholders was a problem. Each party may have a different notion about what constitutes a restraint and how it can be safely used, adding further weight to the burden shouldered by staff. Conclusion Studies about restraints and restraint use have mostly focused on nurses' inadequate and often inaccurate knowledge about the use of

  2. How-To Data Collection Series: The Evolution of the Focused Discussion Group--From Non-Participant to One of the Crew

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calderon, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    This article is part of The Weekly Qualitative Report's occasional series on "How-To Collect Qualitative Data." The qualitative data collection method described is that of focused discussion groups (FDG's). This method involves the moderator, or scripter as is the preferred term in focused discussion groups, to move beyond that of a…

  3. Where Are the Adults? The Attitudes of Parents, Teachers, Clergy, Coaches, and Youth Workers on Teen Pregnancy. A Focus Group Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Washington, DC.

    In 1997, the National Campaign To Prevent Teen Pregnancy convened nine focus groups of parents of teens and other adults who work with teens such as teachers, clergy, coaches, youth recreation specialists, youth-serving organization staff, and community outreach workers. This report publishes the results of these focus groups, which involved 57…

  4. Scanning for satisfaction or digging for dismay? Comparing findings from a postal survey with those from a focus group-study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite growing support for mixed methods approaches we still have little systematic knowledge about the consequences of combining surveys and focus groups. While the methodological aspects of questionnaire surveys have been researched extensively, the characteristics of focus group methodology are understudied. We suggest and discuss whether the focus group setting, as compared to questionnaire surveys, encourages participants to exaggerate views in a negative direction. Discussion Based on an example from our own research, where we conducted a survey as a follow up of a focus group study, and with reference to theoretical approaches and empirical evidence from the literature concerning survey respondent behaviour and small group dynamics, we discuss the possibility that a discrepancy in findings between the focus groups and the questionnaire reflects characteristics of the two different research methods. In contrast to the survey, the focus group study indicated that doctors were generally negative to clinical guidelines. We were not convinced that this difference in results was due to methodological flaws in either of the studies, and discuss instead how this difference may have been the result of a general methodological phenomenon. Summary Based on studies of how survey questionnaires influence responses, it appears reasonable to claim that surveys are more likely to find exaggerated positive views. Conversely, there are some indications in the literature that focus groups may result in complaints and overly negative attitudes, but this is still an open question. We suggest that while problematic issues tend to be under-communicated in questionnaire surveys, they may be overstated in focus groups. We argue for the importance of increasing our understanding of focus group methodology, for example by reporting interesting discrepancies in mixed methods studies. In addition, more experimental research on focus groups should be conducted to advance the

  5. Factors that influence vaccination decision-making by parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Harmsen, Irene A; Ruiter, Robert A C; Paulussen, Theo G W; Mollema, Liesbeth; Kok, Gerjo; de Melker, Hester E

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parents have become more disparaging towards childhood vaccination. One group that is critical about the National Immunization Program (NIP) and participates less comprises parents with an anthroposophical worldview. Despite the fact that various studies have identified anthroposophists as critical parents with lower vaccination coverage, no research has been done to explore the beliefs underlying their childhood vaccination decision-making. We conducted a qualitative study using three focus groups (n = 16) of parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center. Our findings show that participants did not refuse all vaccinations within the Dutch NIP, but mostly refused the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccination decisions are influenced by participants' lifestyle, perception of health, beliefs about childhood diseases, perceptions about the risks of diseases, perceptions about vaccine effectiveness and vaccine components, and trust in institutions. Parents indicated that they felt a need for more information. Sufficient references should be provided to sources containing more information about childhood vaccination, especially about the effectiveness of vaccines and vaccine components and the risks, such as possible side effects and benefits of vaccination. This may satisfy parents' information needs and enable them to make a sufficiently informed choice whether or not to vaccinate their child.

  6. Factors That Influence Vaccination Decision-Making by Parents Who Visit an Anthroposophical Child Welfare Center: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Harmsen, Irene A.; Ruiter, Robert A. C.; Paulussen, Theo G. W.; Mollema, Liesbeth; Kok, Gerjo; de Melker, Hester E.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parents have become more disparaging towards childhood vaccination. One group that is critical about the National Immunization Program (NIP) and participates less comprises parents with an anthroposophical worldview. Despite the fact that various studies have identified anthroposophists as critical parents with lower vaccination coverage, no research has been done to explore the beliefs underlying their childhood vaccination decision-making. We conducted a qualitative study using three focus groups (n = 16) of parents who visit an anthroposophical child welfare center. Our findings show that participants did not refuse all vaccinations within the Dutch NIP, but mostly refused the Mumps, Measles, and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccination decisions are influenced by participants' lifestyle, perception of health, beliefs about childhood diseases, perceptions about the risks of diseases, perceptions about vaccine effectiveness and vaccine components, and trust in institutions. Parents indicated that they felt a need for more information. Sufficient references should be provided to sources containing more information about childhood vaccination, especially about the effectiveness of vaccines and vaccine components and the risks, such as possible side effects and benefits of vaccination. This may satisfy parents' information needs and enable them to make a sufficiently informed choice whether or not to vaccinate their child. PMID:23209917

  7. Problem-based learning case writing by students based on early years clinical attachments: a focus group evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Idowu, Yewande; Easton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate the perception of medical students of the new approach to problem-based learning which involves students writing their own problem-based learning cases based on their recent clinical attachment, and team assessment. Design Focus group interviews with students using purposive sampling. Transcripts of the audio recordings were analysed using thematic analysis. Setting Imperial College School of Medicine, London. Participants Medical students in the second year of the MBBS course, who attended the problem-based learning case writing session. Main outcome measures To elicit the students’ views about problem-based learning case writing and team assessment. Results The following broad themes emerged: effect of group dynamics on the process; importance of defining the tutor’s role; role of summative assessment; feedback as a learning tool and the skills developed during the process. Conclusions Overall the students found the new approach, writing problem-based learning cases based on patients seen during their clinical attachments, useful in helping them to gain a better understanding about the problem-based learning process, promoting creativity and reinforcing the importance of team work and peer assessment which are vital professional skills. Further tutor development and guidance for students about the new approach was found to be important in ensuring it is a good learning experience. We hope this evaluation will be of use to other institutions considering introducing students’ case writing to problem-based learning. PMID:26981255

  8. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among students in a New Zealand university. Results of focus group interviews.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Hilde; Wadsworth, Daniel P; Penny, Suzi; van Assema, Patricia; Page, Rachel

    2013-06-01

    The '5+ a day' fruit and vegetable servings recommendation was introduced in New Zealand in 1994, but consumption has remained low in young adults ever since. This study aimed to identify psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption among New Zealand university students approximately a decade after the guidelines' introduction. Twenty-nine students, aged 18-24 years, took part in focus group interviews. Important determinants included taste and health awareness/knowledge. Flatmates and partners had the greatest social influence. Cost and availability were major barriers to consumption. To improve consumption participants suggested: cooking sessions providing quick/easy recipes; more-varied nutritional information; 'made-to-measure' interventions; increasing awareness of cheap sources of fruit/vegetables; and increasing campus availability of fruit. Determinants including a negative attitude, a lack of self-efficacy and an unawareness of dietary guidelines/health consequences should be considered when developing interventions for this group, whilst a variety of different delivery channels should be used. Participants in the study were not representative of all university students, who generally have a different lifestyle to other young adults and specific determinants for fruit/vegetable consumption. Consequently, additional research is required among other young adults and university students with lower fruit and vegetable intake, so that promotional strategies can be specifically targeted.

  9. The role of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in Germany – A focus group study of GPs

    PubMed Central

    Joos, Stefanie; Musselmann, Berthold; Miksch, Antje; Rosemann, Thomas; Szecsenyi, Joachim

    2008-01-01

    Background There has been a marked increase in the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in recent years worldwide. In Germany, apart from 'Heilpraktiker' (= state-licensed, non-medical CAM practitioners), some general practitioners (GPs) provide CAM in their practices. This paper aims to explore the attitudes of GPs about the role of CAM in Germany, in relation to the healthcare system, quality of care, medical education and research. Furthermore, experiences of GPs integrating CAM in their daily practice were explored. Methods Using a qualitative methodological approach 3 focus groups with a convenience sample of 17 GPs were conducted. The discussions were transcribed verbatim and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results The majority of the participating GPs had integrated one or more CAM therapies into their every-day practice. Four key themes were identified based on the topics covered in the focus groups: the role of CAM within the German healthcare system, quality of care, education and research. Within the theme 'role of CAM within the healthcare system' there were five categories: integration of CAM, CAM in the Statutory Health Insurance, modernisation of the Statutory Health Insurance Act, individual healthcare services and 'Heilpraktiker'. Regarding quality of care there were two broad groups of GPs: those who thought patients would benefit from standardizing CAM and those who feared that quality control would interfere with the individual approach of CAM. The main issues identified relating to research and education were the need for the development of alternative research strategies and the low quality of existing CAM education respectively. Conclusion The majority of the participating GPs considered CAM as a reasonable complementary approach within primary care. The study increased our understanding of GPs attitudes about the role of CAM within the German healthcare system and the use of 'Heilpraktiker' as a competing CAM

  10. Exploring Design Requirements for Repurposing Dental Virtual Patients From the Web to Second Life: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Antoniou, Panagiotis E; Athanasopoulou, Christina A; Dafli, Eleni

    2014-01-01

    Background Since their inception, virtual patients have provided health care educators with a way to engage learners in an experience simulating the clinician’s environment without danger to learners and patients. This has led this learning modality to be accepted as an essential component of medical education. With the advent of the visually and audio-rich 3-dimensional multi-user virtual environment (MUVE), a new deployment platform has emerged for educational content. Immersive, highly interactive, multimedia-rich, MUVEs that seamlessly foster collaboration provide a new hotbed for the deployment of medical education content. Objective This work aims to assess the suitability of the Second Life MUVE as a virtual patient deployment platform for undergraduate dental education, and to explore the requirements and specifications needed to meaningfully repurpose Web-based virtual patients in MUVEs. Methods Through the scripting capabilities and available art assets in Second Life, we repurposed an existing Web-based periodontology virtual patient into Second Life. Through a series of point-and-click interactions and multiple-choice queries, the user experienced a specific periodontology case and was asked to provide the optimal responses for each of the challenges of the case. A focus group of 9 undergraduate dentistry students experienced both the Web-based and the Second Life version of this virtual patient. The group convened 3 times and discussed relevant issues such as the group’s computer literacy, the assessment of Second Life as a virtual patient deployment platform, and compared the Web-based and MUVE-deployed virtual patients. Results A comparison between the Web-based and the Second Life virtual patient revealed the inherent advantages of the more experiential and immersive Second Life virtual environment. However, several challenges for the successful repurposing of virtual patients from the Web to the MUVE were identified. The identified challenges

  11. A teachable moment communication process for smoking cessation talk: description of a group randomized clinician-focused intervention

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Effective clinician-patient communication about health behavior change is one of the most important and most overlooked strategies to promote health and prevent disease. Existing guidelines for specific health behavior counseling have been created and promulgated, but not successfully adopted in primary care practice. Building on work focused on creating effective clinician strategies for prompting health behavior change in the primary care setting, we developed an intervention intended to enhance clinician communication skills to create and act on teachable moments for smoking cessation. In this manuscript, we describe the development and implementation of the Teachable Moment Communication Process (TMCP) intervention and the baseline characteristics of a group randomized trial designed to evaluate its effectiveness. Methods/Design This group randomized trial includes thirty-one community-based primary care clinicians practicing in Northeast Ohio and 840 of their adult patients. Clinicians were randomly assigned to receive either the Teachable Moments Communication Process (TMCP) intervention for smoking cessation, or the delayed intervention. The TMCP intervention consisted of two, 3-hour educational training sessions including didactic presentation, skill demonstration through video examples, skills practices with standardized patients, and feedback from peers and the trainers. For each clinician enrolled, 12 patients were recruited for two time points. Pre- and post-intervention data from the clinicians, patients and audio-recorded clinician‒patient interactions were collected. At baseline, the two groups of clinicians and their patients were similar with regard to all demographic and practice characteristics examined. Both physician and patient recruitment goals were met, and retention was 96% and 94% respectively. Discussion Findings support the feasibility of training clinicians to use the Teachable Moments Communication Process. The next steps

  12. Patients' and health professionals' views on primary care for people with serious mental illness: focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Lester, Helen; Tritter, Jonathan Q; Sorohan, Helen

    2005-01-01

    Objective To explore the experience of providing and receiving primary care from the perspectives of primary care health professionals and patients with serious mental illness respectively. Design Qualitative study consisting of six patient groups, six health professional groups, and six combined focus groups. Setting Six primary care trusts in the West Midlands. Participants Forty five patients with serious mental illness, 39 general practitioners (GPs), and eight practice nurses. Results Most health professionals felt that the care of people with serious mental illness was too specialised for primary care. However, most patients viewed primary care as the cornerstone of their health care and preferred to consult their own GP, who listened and was willing to learn, rather than be referred to a different GP with specific mental health knowledge. Swift access was important to patients, with barriers created by the effects of the illness and the noisy or crowded waiting area. Some patients described how they exaggerated symptoms (“acted up”) to negotiate an urgent appointment, a strategy that was also employed by some GPs to facilitate admission to secondary care. Most participants felt that structured reviews of care had value. However, whereas health professionals perceived serious mental illness as a lifelong condition, patients emphasised the importance of optimism in treatment and hope for recovery. Conclusions Primary care is of central importance to people with serious mental illness. The challenge for health professionals and patients is to create a system in which patients can see a health professional when they want to without needing to exaggerate their symptoms. The importance that patients attach to optimism in treatment, continuity of care, and listening skills compared with specific mental health knowledge should encourage health professionals in primary care to play a greater role in the care of patients with serious mental illness. PMID:15843427

  13. When and Why Placebo-Prescribing Is Acceptable and Unacceptable: A Focus Group Study of Patients' Views

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, Felicity L.; Aizlewood, Lizzi; Adams, Alison E. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Surveys of doctors suggest that they use placebos and placebo effects clinically to help patients. However, patients' views are not well-understood. We aimed to identify when and why placebo-prescribing in primary care might be acceptable and unacceptable to patients. Methods A purposive diverse sample of 58 English-speaking adults (18 men; aged 19–80 years) participated in 11 focus groups. Vignettes describing doctors prescribing placebos in primary care were used to initiate discussions. Data were analyzed inductively. Results Participants discussed diverse harms and benefits of placebo-prescribing for individual patients, carers, healthcare providers, and society. Two perspectives on placebo-prescribing were identified. First, the “consequentialist” perspective focused on the potential for beneficial outcomes of placebo-prescribing. Here, some participants thought placebos are beneficial and should be used clinically; they often invoked the power of the mind or mind-body interactions. Others saw placebos as ineffective and therefore a waste of time and money. Second, the “respecting autonomy” perspective emphasized the harms caused by the deceptive processes thought necessary for placebo-prescribing. Here, participants judged placebo-prescribing unacceptable because placebo-prescribers deceive patients, thus a doctor who prescribes placebos cannot be trusted and patients' autonomy is compromised. They also saw placebo-responders as gullible, which deterred them from trying placebos themselves. Overall, the word “placebo” was often thought to imply “ineffective”; some participants suggested alternative carefully chosen language that could enable doctors to prescribe placebos without directly lying to patients. Conclusions Negative views of placebos derive from beliefs that placebos do not work and/or that they require deception by the doctor. Positive views are pragmatic in that if placebos work then any associated processes (e

  14. Effects of marketing group and production focus on quality and variability of adipose tissue and bellies sourced from a commercial processing facility.

    PubMed

    Overholt, M F; Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D

    2016-12-01

    Objectives were to determine the effects of marketing group on quality and variability of belly and adipose tissue quality traits of pigs sourced from differing production focuses (lean vs. quality). Pigs ( = 8,042) raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn with 2 barns per production focus marketed per season. Data were collected on 7,684 carcasses at a commercial abattoir. Fresh belly characteristics, American Oil Chemists' Society iodine value (AOCS-IV), and near-infrared iodine value were measured on a targeted 50, 10, and 100% of carcasses, respectively. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS 9.4 with production focus as the whole-plot factor and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Barn (block), season, and sex were random variables. A multivariance model was fit using the REPEATED statement with the marketing group × production focus interaction as the grouping variable. Variances for production focus and marketing groups were calculated using the MEANS procedure. Homogeneity of variance was tested on raw data using the Levene's test of the GLM procedure. Among quality focus carcasses, marketing group 3 bellies weighed less ( ≤ 0.03) than those from either marketing group 1 or 2, but there was no difference ( ≥ 0.99) among marketing groups of the lean focus carcasses. There was no effect ( ≥ 0.11) of production focus on fresh belly measures, SFA, or iodine value (IV), but lean focus carcasses had decreased ( = 0.04) total MUFA and increased ( < 0.01) total PUFA compared with quality focus carcasses. Marketing group did not affect ( ≥ 0.10) fresh belly dimensions, total SFA, total MUFA, total PUFA, or IV. Belly weight, flop score, width, and all depth measurements were less variable ( ≤ 0.01); whereas, belly length, total SFA, and total MUFA were more variable ( < 0.0001) in lean focus carcasses than in quality focus carcasses. There was no

  15. Web Search Behavior and Information Needs of People With Multiple Sclerosis: Focus Group Study and Analysis of Online Postings

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Cinzia; Confalonieri, Paolo; Baroni, Isabella; Traversa, Silvia; Hill, Sophie J; Synnot, Anneliese J; Oprandi, Nadia; Filippini, Graziella

    2014-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and their family members increasingly seek health information on the Internet. There has been little exploration of how MS patients integrate health information with their needs, preferences, and values for decision making. The INtegrating and Deriving Evidence, Experiences, and Preferences (IN-DEEP) project is a collaboration between Italian and Australian researchers and MS patients, aimed to make high-quality evidence accessible and meaningful to MS patients and families, developing a Web-based resource of evidence-based information starting from their information needs. Objective The objective of this study was to analyze MS patients and their family members’ experience about the Web-based health information, to evaluate how they asses this information, and how they integrate health information with personal values. Methods We organized 6 focus groups, 3 with MS patients and 3 with family members, in the Northern, Central, and Southern parts of Italy (April-June 2011). They included 40 MS patients aged between 18 and 60, diagnosed as having MS at least 3 months earlier, and 20 family members aged 18 and over, being relatives of a person with at least a 3-months MS diagnosis. The focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim (Atlas software, V 6.0). Data were analyzed from a conceptual point of view through a coding system. An online forum was hosted by the Italian MS society on its Web platform to widen the collection of information. Nine questions were posted covering searching behavior, use of Web-based information, truthfulness of Web information. At the end, posts were downloaded and transcribed. Results Information needs covered a comprehensive communication of diagnosis, prognosis, and adverse events of treatments, MS causes or risk factors, new drugs, practical, and lifestyle-related information. The Internet is considered useful by MS patients, however, at the beginning or in a later stage of the

  16. SmartMom Text Messaging for Prenatal Education: A Qualitative Focus Group Study to Explore Canadian Women’s Perceptions

    PubMed Central

    Munro, Sarah; Hui, Amber; Salmons, Vanessa; Solomon, Carolyn; Gemmell, Emily; Torabi, Nahal

    2017-01-01

    Background We engaged Canadian women in the development of a prenatal education program delivered via one-way text messaging called SmartMom. SmartMom is the first peer-reviewed, evidence-based mHealth program for prenatal education in Canada and the first to be endorsed by the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada. Objective To explore women’s preferences for a prenatal education program by text messaging. Methods We conducted a qualitative focus group study in three Canadian communities in the Northern Health Authority. Women completed a demographic questionnaire, participated in a guided discussion about their pregnancy information-seeking behavior, reviewed a printed copy of the SmartMom text messages, and then engaged in a moderated discussion about their perceptions of the usability of the SmartMom program. Open-ended questions explored women’s perceptions regarding the message content, acceptability of receiving information by text message, positive health behaviors they might engage in after receiving a message, modifiable program factors, and intention to use the program. Thematic analysis of transcribed audio recordings was undertaken and modifications were made to the SmartMom program based on these findings. Results A total of 40 women participated in seven focus groups in three rural northern communities. The vast majority had a mobile phone (39/40, 98%), used text messages “all the time” (28/40, 70%), and surfed the Internet on their phone (37/40, 93%). Participants perceived SmartMom to be highly acceptable and relevant. The text message modality reflected how participants currently sought pregnancy-related information and provided them with local information tailored to their gestational age, which they had not received through other pregnancy resources. Women recommended adding the opportunity to receive supplemental streams of messages tailored to their individual needs, for example, depression, pregnancy after previous

  17. Lay perceptions of predictive testing for diabetes based on DNA test results versus family history assessment: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background This study assessed lay perceptions of issues related to predictive genetic testing for multifactorial diseases. These perceived issues may differ from the "classic" issues, e.g. autonomy, discrimination, and psychological harm that are considered important in predictive testing for monogenic disorders. In this study, type 2 diabetes was used as an example, and perceptions with regard to predictive testing based on DNA test results and family history assessment were compared. Methods Eight focus group interviews were held with 45 individuals aged 35-70 years with (n = 3) and without (n = 1) a family history of diabetes, mixed groups of these two (n = 2), and diabetes patients (n = 2). All interviews were transcribed and analysed using Atlas-ti. Results Most participants believed in the ability of a predictive test to identify people at risk for diabetes and to motivate preventive behaviour. Different reasons underlying motivation were considered when comparing DNA test results and a family history risk assessment. A perceived drawback of DNA testing was that diabetes was considered not severe enough for this type of risk assessment. In addition, diabetes family history assessment was not considered useful by some participants, since there are also other risk factors involved, not everyone has a diabetes family history or knows their family history, and it might have a negative influence on family relations. Respect for autonomy of individuals was emphasized more with regard to DNA testing than family history assessment. Other issues such as psychological harm, discrimination, and privacy were only briefly mentioned for both tests. Conclusion The results suggest that most participants believe a predictive genetic test could be used in the prevention of multifactorial disorders, such as diabetes, but indicate points to consider before both these tests are applied. These considerations differ with regard to the method of assessment (DNA test or obtaining

  18. Identifying Barriers to Healthcare to Reduce Health Disparity in Zuni Indians Using Focus Group Conducted by Community Health Workers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vallabh O.; Ghahate, Donica M; Bobelu, Jeanette; Sandy, Phillip; Newman, Sara; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Faber, Thomas; Zager, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The Zuni Pueblo is home to an economically disadvantaged population, which faces a public health challenge from the interrelated epidemics of obesity, diabetes and kidney disease. Efforts to decrease the impact of these epidemics have been complicated by historical, economic and cultural barriers, which may limit health-care utilization. The NIH supported Zuni Health Initiative (ZHI) conducted a study to identify barriers to heath care in the Zuni Pueblo. Community health representatives (CHRs) led 14 one-hour focus group sessions at which a total of 112 people participated posed unique questions that took into account the Zuni culture to elicit information on perceived barriers to health care. Audiotapes were translated and transcribed by bilingual ZHI staff. We reduced the text to thematic categories, constructed a coding dictionary and inserted the text into NVivo 9 program. We identified nine themes emerged regarding the barriers experienced in receiving health care and adhering to medical advice. These included distance; transportation; embarrassment; relating to healthcare professionals; navigating the medical system; awareness of available resources; waiting times; adhering to medication; and incentives in health promotion. In conclusion the implementation of culturally appropriate community based health promotion programs and preventive screening techniques will improve access to health care and diminish health disparities. PMID:24528897

  19. Dating norms and dating violence among ninth graders in Northeast Georgia: reports from student surveys and focus groups.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Patricia M; Orpinas, Pamela

    2012-06-01

    This mixed-methods study describes the norms supporting male-to-female and female-to-male dating violence in a diverse sample of ninth graders. The quantitative study, based on student surveys (n = 624), compared norms supporting dating violence by sex, race/ethnicity, and dating status, and it examined the relation between dating violence norms and physical aggression and victimization. The qualitative study, based on 12 focus groups, explored participants' views of dating aggression. Findings revealed more support for female-to-male aggression, greater acceptance of norms supporting dating violence by non-White students, a strong association between norms and physical aggression but only in males, and a high correlation between victimization and perpetration. Participants rejected male-to-female dating aggression because of peer pressure not to hit girls, parents' beliefs that denounce dating violence, the superior physical advantage of boys over girls, and legal consequences. Results highlight the importance of culturally sensitive and gender-specific interventions.

  20. Recommendations from multi-disciplinary focus groups on cascade testing and genetic counseling for fragile X-associated disorders.

    PubMed

    McConkie-Rosell, Allyn; Abrams, Liane; Finucane, Brenda; Cronister, Amy; Gane, Louise W; Coffey, Sarah M; Sherman, Stephanie; Nelson, Lawrence M; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Hessl, David; Chiu, Sufen; Street, Natalie; Vatave, Ajay; Hagerman, Randi J

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to report the outcome of a collaborative project between the Fragile X Research and Treatment Center at the Medical Investigation of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (M.I.N.D.) Institute at the University of California at Davis, the National Fragile X Foundation (NFXF), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). The objective of this collaboration was to develop and disseminate protocols for genetic counseling and cascade testing for the multiple disorders associated with the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) mutation. Over the last several years, there has been increasing insight into the phenotypic range associated with both the premutation and the full mutation of the FMR1 gene. To help develop recommendations related to screening for fragile X-associated disorders, four, two day advisory focus group meetings were conducted, each with a different theme. The four themes were: (1) fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS); (2) premature ovarian failure (POF) and reproductive endocrinology; (3) psychiatric, behavioral and psychological issues; and (4) population screening and related ethical issues.

  1. Difficulties and Problematic Steps in Teaching the Onstep Technique for Inguinal Hernia Repair, Results from a Focus Group Interview

    PubMed Central

    Andresen, Kristoffer; Laursen, Jannie

    2016-01-01

    Background. When a new surgical technique is brought into a department, it is often experienced surgeons that learn it first and then pass it on to younger surgeons in training. This study seeks to clarify the problems and positive experiences when teaching and training surgeons in the Onstep technique for inguinal hernia repair, seen from the instructor's point of view. Methods. We designed a qualitative study using a focus group to allow participants to elaborate freely and facilitate a discussion. Participants were surgeons with extensive experience in performing the Onstep technique from Germany, UK, France, Belgium, Italy, Greece, and Sweden. Results. Four main themes were found, with one theme covering three subthemes: instruction of others (experience, patient selection, and tailored teaching), comfort, concerns/fear, and anatomy. Conclusion. Surgeons receiving a one-day training course should preferably have experience with other types of hernia repairs. If trainees are inexperienced, the training setup should be a traditional step-by-step programme. A training setup should consist of an explanation of the technique with emphasis on anatomy and difficult parts of the procedure and then a training day should follow. Surgeons teaching surgery can use these findings to improve their everyday practice. PMID:27144225

  2. Looking Upstream: Findings from Focus Groups on Public Perceptions of Source Water Quality in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    In association with the development of new microbial tests for source water quality (SWQ), focus groups with members of the public were conducted to gain insight into their perceptions of SWQ, behaviours and contaminants they think pose the greatest threat to its quality, and what/how they want to know about SWQ. Discussions revealed a low concern about SWQ in general, and in particular about microbial contamination. Participants identified behaviours that threaten SWQ, barriers to changing behaviour and suggestions for inducing change. A strong desire was expressed for water quality information to be interpreted and communicated in terms of how SWQ may impact human health and how their actions should be altered in response to test results. The information can be used to inform communication strategies and possibly impact policies associated with water quality testing and implementation of new tests. More broadly, awareness of the public's understanding and beliefs about source water can be used in working with the public to adopt water-friendly behaviours, influence the content and methods of communicating with the public about water issues and water quality, and could contribute to the direction of future research and investment into water technologies to align with the public's priorities.

  3. Influencing factors of screen time in preschool children: an exploration of parents' perceptions through focus groups in six European countries.

    PubMed

    De Decker, E; De Craemer, M; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Wijndaele, K; Duvinage, K; Koletzko, B; Grammatikaki, E; Iotova, V; Usheva, N; Fernández-Alvira, J M; Zych, K; Manios, Y; Cardon, G

    2012-03-01

    Preschoolers already spend significant proportions of their waking hours being sedentary. Screen time (i.e. television/DVD viewing and computer use) has been negatively associated with several health outcomes but interventions aiming to reduce preschoolers' sedentary behaviour are scarce. This study aimed to explore parents' perceptions of their preschool children's screen time. One hundred twenty-two parents of low and medium-high socioeconomic status from six European countries with children between 4 and 6 years old were involved in 24 focus groups. Following a qualitative content analysis, the available information and key findings were centrally analysed. Results showed that children tend to like watching television (TV) and most parents do not express worries about their children's TV viewing time. Education is considered to be the main benefit of watching TV and in general, parents only have informal rules about TV viewing. Computer and active games use are less frequent compared with TV viewing. No univocal results are found about the influence of siblings or friends on children's screen time. Weather conditions and parental habits at home are the most important factors influencing children's screen time. Alternatives for screen activities and information on how to set rules for screen time should be provided to parents to assist them in decreasing their preschool children's screen time.

  4. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    PubMed

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2015-12-27

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  5. Preliminary validity of the barriers to treatment adherence questionnaire in fibromyalgia: combining quantitative and focus group data.

    PubMed

    Dobkin, Patricia L; De Civita, Mirella; Bernatsky, Sasha; Filipski, Marta; Sita, Aurelio; Baron, Murray

    2009-10-01

    The goals of this study were to (1) provide preliminary reliability and validity of the Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire, developed for patients with fibromyalgia, and (2) examine barriers to adherence and general adherence to multimodal treatment during a 3-mo. period. A secondary goal was to explore in a focus discussion group format patients' perceptions of the adherence process and ways of managing the treatment program. 39 fibromyalgia patients were followed while participating in a combined outpatient program of physiotherapy, occupational therapy, nursing, and cognitive behavioral therapy. The Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire demonstrated good reliability. Construct validity of the Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire was supported through significant positive correlations with the General Adherence Scale at Months 1 and 3. In addition, a significant change was observed in scores on the Barriers to Treatment Adherence Questionnaire for the physiotherapy component of treatment, with scores decreasing between Months 2 and 3. Addressing barriers to improve adherence may maximize the benefit of treatment programs.

  6. What does "a gene for heart disease" mean? A focus group study of public understandings of genetic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Bates, Benjamin R; Templeton, Alan; Achter, Paul J; Harris, Tina M; Condit, Celeste M

    2003-06-01

    There is growing concern in the medical community about potential genetic determinism in the patient population. Limited information about the public understanding of genetic factors in disease formation is available. To access public perceptions of potentially deterministic phrasing of genetic risk factors, we sought to establish interpretations of the phrase, "a gene for heart disease." Focus groups in urban, suburban, and rural communities were conducted from July through October, 2001 in Georgia. A total of 108 participants were recruited. Participants were recruited to balance sex and racial representation. We used three outcome measures for participants understandings of the phrase: (1) participants' statements of the meaning of the phrase; (2) the level of determinism assigned to genetic factors by participants; and (3) participant reports of the health consequences of having "a gene for heart disease." Participants did not report a single interpretation of the phrase. There were dominant participant interpretations under each outcome measure: (1) "a gene for heart disease" was interpreted as meaning genetic and environmental factors both played roles in disease formation; (2) genetic predisposition was perceived as heightened, not absolute, risk; (3) the perceived health impact was a greater risk of becoming sick. Minority interpretations were found under each measure. Overall, naming "a gene for heart disease" does not appear to have a deterministic impact on a plurality of participants' perceptions of risks associated with genetic factors. Genetic fatalism in patient populations may be confined to a sizable minority. Important considerations for provider intervention and patient education are indicated.

  7. From protection of privacy to control of data streams: a focus group study on biobanks in the information society.

    PubMed

    Snell, K; Starkbaum, J; Lauß, G; Vermeer, A; Helén, I

    2012-01-01

    Most people in Europe do not know what biobanks are. In this study, public perceptions of biobanks and collection of genetic and health data were analyzed in relation to other technologies and digital networks where personal information is compiled and distributed. In this setting, people contextualized biobanks in line with their daily experiences with other technologies and data streams. The analysis was based on 18 focus group discussions conducted in Austria, Finland and Germany. We examined the ways in which people frame and talk about problems and benefits of information distribution in digital networks and biobanks. People identify many challenges associated with collection of personal data in the information society. The study showed that instead of privacy - which has been the key term of bioethical debates on biobanks - the notions of control and controllability are most essential for people. From the viewpoint of biobanks, issues of controllability pose challenges. In the information society, people have become accustomed to controlling personal data, which is particularly difficult in relation to biobanks. They expressed strong concerns over the controllability of the goals and benefits of biobanks.

  8. A focus group study of the use of video-recorded simulated objective structured clinical examinations in nurse practitioner education.

    PubMed

    Barratt, Julian

    2010-05-01

    The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a common method of clinical skills assessment used for advanced nurse practitioner students across the United Kingdom. The purpose of an advanced nursing OSCE is to assess a nurse practitioner student's competence and safety in the performance of commonly used advanced clinical practice skills. Students often feel nervous when preparing for and participating in an OSCE. Consideration of these identified anxieties led to the development of an alternative method of meeting students' OSCE learning and preparation needs; namely video-recorded simulated OSCEs. Video-recording was appealing for the following reasons: it provides a flexible usage of staff resources and time; OSCE performance mistakes can be rectified; it is possible to use the same video-recordings with multiple cohorts of students, and the recordings can be made conveniently available for students with video streaming on internet-based video-sharing sites or virtual learning environments. The aim of the study was to explore the value of using such recordings amongst nurse practitioner students, via online and face-to-face focus groups, to see if they are a suitable OSCE educational preparation technique. The study findings indicate that simulated OSCE video-recordings are an effective method for supporting nurse practitioner educational development.

  9. The learning experiences of senior student nurses who take on the role of standardised patient: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra; Tan, Khoon Kiat; Ignacio, Jeanette; Palham, Sabrina; Dawood, Rabiah Binte Mohamed; Liaw, Sok Ying

    2014-11-01

    The use of clinical simulation involving standardised patients is increasing in nursing education programmes. In this study, we sought to identify whether participation in simulation through taking on the role of standardised patients benefited student nurses in terms of knowledge and skill development, and if so, how. Data was collected in two focus group interviews with fifteen senior undergraduate nursing students in 2011 and subjected to processes of thematic analysis. Four main themes were identified--seeing the nurse through the eyes of the patient, using observation skills, using reflection and evaluation. Being in the standardised patients role provided students with the opportunity to apply the clinical skills of observation, reflection and evaluation to gain new insights into their own practice, particularly their communication skills. Although there were unique learning opportunities for senior student nurses offered by their experience as standardised patient, more research is need to determine how well this knowledge is translated into practice as they take on the role of registered nurses in the future.

  10. Barriers and facilitators for return to work in cancer survivors with job loss experience: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    van Egmond, M P; Duijts, S F A; Loyen, A; Vermeulen, S J; van der Beek, A J; Anema, J R

    2015-11-25

    Over 50% of cancer survivors lose their job or quit working. Cancer survivors who experience job loss may face different challenges regarding return to work, compared to cancer survivors with employers. This qualitative study aimed to explore barriers and facilitators for return to work in cancer survivors with job loss and in insurance physicians who assist cancer survivors in their return to work. We conducted five focus groups and one interview (cancer survivors, N = 17; insurance physicians, N = 23). Topics included, among others, experience of job loss and barriers and facilitators for return to work. Data were audio recorded and analysed using thematic analysis. Our main finding was that cancer survivors experienced a double loss: loss of job on top of loss of health. As a result, cancer survivors feared for job applications, lacked opportunities to gradually increase work ability, and faced reluctance from employers in hiring them. Insurance physicians expressed a need for more frequent and longer consultations with cancer survivors with job loss. We conclude that cancer survivors who experience double loss encounter specific barriers in the return to work process. This calls for a tailored approach regarding return to work support.

  11. Focus Group Evaluation of “Secret Feelings”: A Depression Fotonovela for Latinos With Limited English Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cabassa, Leopoldo J.; Contreras, Sandra; Aragón, Rebeca; Molina, Gregory B.; Baron, Melvin

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined reactions of Latino adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) to a culturally and linguistically adapted depression fotonovela, titled “Secret Feelings.” Fotonovelas are popular health education tools that use posed photographs, text bubbles with simple text, and dramatic narratives to engage audiences and raise their awareness and knowledge about specific health issues. Four focus groups (N = 32) were conducted at an adult school program (e.g., GED classes). Content analysis was used to generate themes from transcripts and memos. “Secret Feelings” was viewed as an entertaining, engaging, and educational tool that helped combat stigma toward depression and its treatments in the Latino community. Despite learning about depression, participants reported they wanted more information about the causes of depression, the process of recovery, and felt that the story did not shift their apprehensions toward antidepressants. The findings suggest that “Secret Feelings” is a promising depression literacy tool for Latinos with LEP that can raise awareness and knowledge about depression and its treatments, reduce stigma toward depression and antidepressant medications, and model appropriate help-seeking behaviors. PMID:21807951

  12. Looking Upstream: Findings from Focus Groups on Public Perceptions of Source Water Quality in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Henrich, Natalie; Holmes, Bev; Prystajecky, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    In association with the development of new microbial tests for source water quality (SWQ), focus groups with members of the public were conducted to gain insight into their perceptions of SWQ, behaviours and contaminants they think pose the greatest threat to its quality, and what/how they want to know about SWQ. Discussions revealed a low concern about SWQ in general, and in particular about microbial contamination. Participants identified behaviours that threaten SWQ, barriers to changing behaviour and suggestions for inducing change. A strong desire was expressed for water quality information to be interpreted and communicated in terms of how SWQ may impact human health and how their actions should be altered in response to test results. The information can be used to inform communication strategies and possibly impact policies associated with water quality testing and implementation of new tests. More broadly, awareness of the public’s understanding and beliefs about source water can be used in working with the public to adopt water-friendly behaviours, influence the content and methods of communicating with the public about water issues and water quality, and could contribute to the direction of future research and investment into water technologies to align with the public’s priorities. PMID:26540561

  13. Barriers to and Suggestions on Improving Utilization of Eye Care in High-Risk Individuals: Focus Group Results.

    PubMed

    Elam, Angela R; Lee, Paul P

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To understand barriers facing high-risk individuals and to solicit the suggestions of these individuals, especially nonusers, on how to change the eye care delivery system to better meet their needs. Methods. Four focus groups were conducted. All discussion was audiotaped and transcribed. Content analysis was performed by the authors and with the assistance of qualitative software, NUD(*)IST Vivo. Results. The most frequently cited barriers include (1) cost, (2) trust, (3) communication, (4) clinic accessibility (transportation/distance), and (5) doctor-patient relationship. In underutilizers, trust was the most identified barrier to care. Suggestions on increasing educational opportunities/awareness of eye care and addressing cost and insurance issues as a means of improving trust and communications were most frequently offered, including using the Department of Social Services as a focal point for eye care education and assessment. Discussion. Trust is a major barrier to eye care, especially among underutilizers of disadvantaged populations. Increasing trust and eye care education at the community and individual levels is essential to increasing eye care utilization.

  14. ICU nurses and physicians dialogue regarding patients clinical status and care options—a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Kvande, Monica; Lykkeslet, Else; Storli, Sissel Lisa

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nurses and physicians work side-by-side in the intensive care unit (ICU). Effective exchanges of patient information are essential to safe patient care in the ICU. Nurses often rate nurse-physician communication lower than physicians and report that it is difficult to speak up, that disagreements are not resolved and that their input is not well received. Therefore, this study explored nurses’ dialogue with physicians regarding patients’ clinical status and the prerequisites for effective and accurate exchanges of information. We adopted a qualitative approach, conducting three focus group discussions with five to six nurses and physicians each (14 total). Two themes emerged. The first theme highlighted nurses’ contributions to dialogues with physicians; nurses’ ongoing observations of patients were essential to patient care discussions. The second theme addressed the prerequisites of accurate and effective dialogue regarding care options, comprising three subthemes: nurses’ ability to speak up and present clinical changes, establishment of shared goal and clinical understanding, and open dialogue and willingness to listen to each other. Nurses should understand their essential role in conducting ongoing observations of patients and their right to be included in care-related decision-making processes. Physicians should be willing to listen to and include nurses’ clinical observations and concerns.

  15. A focus Group Study of Medical Students’ Views of an Integrated Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Curriculum: Students Teaching Teachers

    PubMed Central

    Lie, Désirée; Shapiro, Johanna; Pardee, Sarah; Najm, Wadie

    2008-01-01

    Background: Student views of new curricula can shape training outcomes. This qualitative study elicited student opinions of CAM instruction to examine and distill best strategies. Methods: 49 second, third and fourth year students participated in focus groups using a predefined question route. Interviews were audio taped and transcribed. Results: Students successfully differentiated CAM curricula from other academic content and were supportive of a longitudinal integrated approach. They had positive disposition toward CAM use for themselves but this did not necessarily translate into patient recommendations. They agreed that goals of the CAM curriculum should center on awareness of patient use and evidence and information relevant to clinical practice. They advocated a case-based, hands-on, experiential strategy vs lectures. Students proposed greater institutional commitment to strengthen curricular effectiveness. The majority did not intend to practice CAM modalities but valued skills to assess them. Patient-centeredness was recognized. As training progressed, students exhibited a growing tendency to evaluate CAM efficacy, and therefore value, exclusively according to evidence. Conclusions: In-depth student input allowed examination of the effectiveness of a CAM curriculum, permitting improvement and assessment of program effectiveness. PMID:19823690

  16. The End-of-Life Experience in Long-Term Care: Five Themes Identified from Focus Groups with Residents, Family Members, and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munn, Jean C.; Dobbs, Debra; Meier, Andrea; Williams, Christianna S.; Biola, Holly; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: We designed this study to examine the end-of-life (EOL) experience in long-term care (LTC) based on input from key stakeholders. Design and Methods: The study consisted of 10 homogeneous focus groups drawn from a purposive sample of LTC residents (2 groups; total n = 11), family caregivers (2 groups; total n = 19), paraprofessional staff…

  17. Cost and Impact of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in South Africa: Focusing the Program on Specific Age Groups and Provinces

    PubMed Central

    Kripke, Katharine; Thambinayagam, Ananthy; Pillay, Yogan; Loykissoonlal, Dayanund; Bonnecwe, Collen; Barron, Peter; Kiwango, Eva; Castor, Delivette

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012, South Africa set a goal of circumcising 4.3 million men ages 15–49 by 2016. By the end of March 2014, 1.9 million men had received voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In an effort to accelerate progress, South Africa undertook a modeling exercise to determine whether circumcising specific client age groups or geographic locations would be particularly impactful or cost-effective. Results will inform South Africa’s efforts to develop a national strategy and operational plan for VMMC. Methods and Findings The study team populated the Decision Makers’ Program Planning Tool, Version 2.0 (DMPPT 2.0) with HIV incidence projections from the Spectrum/AIDS Impact Module (AIM), as well as national and provincial population and HIV prevalence estimates. We derived baseline circumcision rates from the 2012 South African National HIV Prevalence, Incidence and Behaviour Survey. The model showed that circumcising men ages 20–34 offers the most immediate impact on HIV incidence and requires the fewest circumcisions per HIV infection averted. The greatest impact over a 15-year period is achieved by circumcising men ages 15–24. When the model assumes a unit cost increase with client age, men ages 15–29 emerge as the most cost-effective group. When we assume a constant cost for all ages, the most cost-effective age range is 15–34 years. Geographically, the program is cost saving in all provinces; differences in the VMMC program’s cost-effectiveness across provinces were obscured by uncertainty in HIV incidence projections. Conclusion The VMMC program’s impact and cost-effectiveness vary by age-targeting strategy. A strategy focusing on men ages 15–34 will maximize program benefits. However, because clients older than 25 access VMMC services at low rates, South Africa could consider promoting demand among men ages 25–34, without denying services to those in other age groups. Uncertainty in the provincial estimates makes them

  18. Perceptions Toward a Smoking Cessation App Targeting LGBTQ+ Youth and Young Adults: A Qualitative Framework Analysis of Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Darly; Wong, Katy; Shuh, Alanna; Abramowicz, Aneta

    2016-01-01

    Background The prevalence of smoking among lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer, and other sexual minority (LGBTQ+) youth and young adults (YYA) is significantly higher compared with that among non-LGBTQ+ persons. However, in the past, interventions were primarily group cessation classes that targeted LGBTQ+ persons of all ages. mHealth interventions offer an alternate and modern intervention platform for this subpopulation and may be of particular interest for young LGBTQ+ persons. Objective This study explored LGBTQ+ YYA (the potential users’) perceptions of a culturally tailored mobile app for smoking cessation. Specifically, we sought to understand what LGBTQ+ YYA like and dislike about this potential cessation tool, along with how such interventions could be improved. Methods We conducted 24 focus groups with 204 LGBTQ+ YYA (aged 16-29 years) in Toronto and Ottawa, Canada. Participants reflected on how an app might support LGBTQ+ persons with smoking cessation. Participants indicated their feelings, likes and dislikes, concerns, and additional ideas for culturally tailored smoking cessation apps. Framework analysis was used to code transcripts and identify the overarching themes. Results Study findings suggested that LGBTQ+ YYA were eager about using culturally tailored mobile apps for smoking cessation. Accessibility, monitoring and tracking, connecting with community members, tailoring, connecting with social networks, and personalization were key reasons that were valued for a mobile app cessation program. However, concerns were raised about individual privacy and that not all individuals had access to a mobile phone, users might lose interest quickly, an app would need to be marketed effectively, and app users might cheat and lie about progress to themselves. Participants highlighted that the addition of distractions, rewards, notifications, and Web-based and print versions of the app would be extremely useful to mitigate some of their concerns

  19. ‘Doing the hard yards’: carer and provider focus group perspectives of accessing Aboriginal childhood disability services

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite a high prevalence of disability, Aboriginal Australians access disability services in Australia less than non-Aboriginal Australians with a disability. The needs of Aboriginal children with disability are particularly poorly understood. They can endure long delays in treatment which can impact adversely on development. This study sought to ascertain the factors involved in accessing services and support for Aboriginal children with a disability. Methods Using the focus group method, two community forums, one for health and service providers and one for carers of Aboriginal children with a disability, were held at an Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Service (ACCHS) in the Sydney, metropolitan area of New South Wales, Australia. Framework analysis was applied to qualitative data to elucidate key issues relevant to the dimensions of access framework. Independent coding consistency checks were performed and consensus of analysis verified by the entire research team, several of whom represented the local Aboriginal community. Results Seventeen health and social service providers representing local area government and non-government-funded health and social service organisations and five carers participated in two separate forums between September and October 2011. Lack of awareness of services and inadequate availability were prominent concerns in both groups despite geographic proximity to a major metropolitan area with significant health infrastructure. Carers noted racism, insufficient or non-existent services, and the need for an enhanced role of ACCHSs and AHWs in disability support services. Providers highlighted logistical barriers and cultural and historical issues that impacted on the effectiveness of mainstream services for Aboriginal people. Conclusions Despite dedicated disability services in an urban community, geographic proximity does not mitigate lack of awareness and availability of support. This paper has enumerated a number of

  20. Registered Nurses’ Perceptions about the Situation of Family Caregivers to Patients with Heart Failure - A Focus Group Interview Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure is a growing public health problem associated with poor quality of life and significant morbidity and mortality. The majority of heart failure care is provided by family caregivers, and is associated with caregiver burden and reduced quality of life. Research emphasizes that future nursing interventions should recognize the importance of involving family caregivers to achieve optimal outcomes. Aims The aims of this study are to explore registered nurses’ perceptions about the situation of family caregivers to patients with heart failure, and registered nurses’ interventions, in order to improve family caregivers’ situation. Methods The study has a qualitative design with an inductive approach. Six focus group interviews were held with 23 registered nurses in three hospitals and three primary health care centres. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Results Two content areas were identified by the a priori study aims. Four categories and nine sub-categories emerged in the analysis process. The content area “Family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “To be unburdened” and “To comprehend the heart failure condition and its consequences”. The content area “Interventions to improve family caregivers' situation” includes two categories: “Individualized support and information” and “Bridging contact”. Conclusions Registered nurses perceive family caregivers' situation as burdensome, characterized by worry and uncertainty. In the PHCCs, the continuity and security of an RN as a permanent health care contact was considered an important and sustainable intervention to better care for family caregivers' worry and uncertainty. In the nurse-led heart failure clinics in hospitals, registered nurses can provide family caregivers with the opportunity of involvement in their relative's health care and address congruence and relationship quality within the family through the use of "Shared care

  1. Have restricted working hours reduced junior doctors’ experience of fatigue? A focus group and telephone interview study

    PubMed Central

    Morrow, Gill; Burford, Bryan; Carter, Madeline; Illing, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of the UK Working Time Regulations (WTR) on trainee doctors’ experience of fatigue. Design Qualitative study involving focus groups and telephone interviews, conducted in Spring 2012 with doctors purposively selected from Foundation and specialty training. Final compliance with a 48 h/week limit had been required for trainee doctors since August 2009. Framework analysis of data. Setting 9 deaneries in all four UK nations; secondary care. Participants 82 doctors: 53 Foundation trainees and 29 specialty trainees. 36 participants were male and 46 female. Specialty trainees were from a wide range of medical and surgical specialties, and psychiatry. Results Implementation of the WTR, while acknowledged as an improvement to the earlier situation of prolonged excessive hours, has not wholly overcome experience of long working hours and fatigue. Fatigue did not only arise from the hours that were scheduled, but also from an unpredictable mixture of shifts, work intensity (which often resulted in educational tasks being taken home) and inadequate rest. Fatigue was also caused by trainees working beyond their scheduled hours, for reasons such as task completion, accessing additional educational opportunities beyond scheduled hours and staffing shortages. There were also organisational, professional and cultural drivers, such as a sense of responsibility to patients and colleagues and the expectations of seniors. Fatigue was perceived to affect efficiency of skills and judgement, mood and learning capacity. Conclusions Long-term risks of continued stress and fatigue, for doctors and for the effective delivery of a healthcare service, should not be ignored. Current monitoring processes do not reflect doctors’ true working patterns. The effectiveness of the WTR cannot be considered in isolation from the culture and context of the workplace. On-going attention needs to be paid to broader cultural issues, including the relationship between

  2. How do general practitioners implement decision-making regarding COPD patients with exacerbations? An international focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Laue, Johanna; Melbye, Hasse; Halvorsen, Peder A; Andreeva, Elena A; Godycki-Cwirko, Maciek; Wollny, Anja; Francis, Nick A; Spigt, Mark; Kung, Kenny; Risør, Mette Bech

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore the decision-making of general practitioners (GPs) concerning treatment with antibiotics and/or oral corticosteroids and hospitalization for COPD patients with exacerbations. Methods Thematic analysis of seven focus groups with 53 GPs from urban and rural areas in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, the Netherlands, and Hong Kong. Results Four main themes were identified. 1) Dealing with medical uncertainty: the GPs aimed to make clear medical decisions and avoid unnecessary prescriptions and hospitalizations, yet this was challenged by uncertainty regarding the severity of the exacerbations and concerns about overlooking comorbidities. 2) Knowing the patient: contextual knowledge about the individual patient provided a supplementary framework to biomedical knowledge, allowing for more differentiated decision-making. 3) Balancing the patients’ perspective: the GPs considered patients’ experiential knowledge about their own body and illness as valuable in assisting their decision-making, yet felt that dealing with disagreements between their own and their patients’ perceptions concerning the need for treatment or hospitalization could be difficult. 4) Outpatient support and collaboration: both formal and informal caregivers and organizational aspects of the health systems influenced the decision-making, particularly in terms of mitigating potentially severe consequences of “wrong decisions” and concerning the negotiation of responsibilities. Conclusion Fear of overlooking severe comorbidity and of further deteriorating symptoms emerged as a main driver of GPs’ management decisions. GPs consider a holistic understanding of illness and the patients’ own judgment crucial to making reasonable decisions under medical uncertainty. Moreover, GPs’ decisions depend on the availability and reliability of other formal and informal carers, and the health care systems’ organizational and cultural code of conduct. Strengthening the

  3. GRI workshop on LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues: Focus-group recommendations summary. Topical report, April 29 and 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-07

    GRI organized and conducted the Workshop on LNG Vehicle Technology, Economics, and Safety Issues on April 29 and 30, 1992, in Houston, Texas. The workshop included various presentations, a tour of Houston Metro (LNG bus project) facilities, and focus group discussions. The report documents the recommendations generated by the focus group. There were five separate focus groups with an average of ten members each. They met for 2-1/2 hours to discuss LNG vehicle issues and evolve recommendations for GRI R and D. Fifty-three recommendations were generated and prioritized (through voting) by the focus groups. The report consolidates these recommendations. Recommendations relative to the LNG fuel composition issue received the most votes, followed by consolidated recommendations pertaining to gas venting elimination, safety codes, and odorants or leak detectors. Component development recommendations (in order of votes) included the refueling nozzle, fuel level gage, refueling pump and meter, vehicle pump/regulator/vaporizer, and vehicle tank.

  4. Brief Report: Effects of Solution-Focused Brief Therapy Group-Work on Promoting Post-Traumatic Growth of Mothers Who Have a Child with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-01-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control…

  5. Evaluating a Web-Based Health Risk Assessment With Tailored Feedback: What Does an Expert Focus Group Yield Compared to a Web-Based End-User Survey?

    PubMed Central

    Vosbergen, Sandra; Mahieu, Guy R; Laan, Eva K; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Jaspers, Monique WM

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasingly, Web-based health applications are developed for the prevention and management of chronic diseases. However, their reach and utilization is often disappointing. Qualitative evaluations post-implementation can be used to inform the optimization process and ultimately enhance their adoption. In current practice, such evaluations are mainly performed with end-user surveys. However, a review approach by experts in a focus group may be easier to administer and might provide similar results. Objective The aim of this study was to assess whether industrial design engineers in a focus group would address the same issues as end users in a Web-based survey when evaluating a commercial Web-based health risk assessment (HRA) with tailored feedback. Methods Seven Dutch companies used the HRA as part of their corporate health management strategy. Employees using the HRA (N=2289) and 10 independent industrial designers were invited to participate in the study. The HRA consisted of four components: (1) an electronic health questionnaire, (2) biometric measurements, (3) laboratory evaluation, and (4) individually tailored feedback generated by decision support software. After participating in the HRA as end users, both end users and designers evaluated the program. End users completed an evaluation questionnaire that included a free-text field. Designers participated in a focus group discussion. Constructs from user satisfaction and technology acceptance theories were used to categorize and compare the remarks from both evaluations. Results We assessed and qualitatively analyzed 294 remarks of 189 end users and 337 remarks of 6 industrial designers, pertaining to 295 issues in total. Of those, 137 issues were addressed in the end-user survey and 148 issues in the designer focus group. Only 7.3% (10/137) of the issues addressed in the survey were also addressed in the focus group. End users made more remarks about the usefulness of the HRA and prior

  6. Effects of marketing group and production focus on quality and variability of adipose tissue and bellies sourced from a commercial processing facility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives were to determine the effects of marketing group on quality and variability of belly and adipose tissue quality traits of pigs sourced from differing production focuses (lean vs. quality). Pigs (N = 8,042) raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (cold and hot) were used. Three groups wer...

  7. Growing a Faculty Writing Group on a Traditionally Teaching-Focused Campus: A Model for Faculty Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampton-Farmer, Cheri; Laverick, Erin; Denecker, Christine; Tulley, Christine E.; Diederich, Nicole; Wilgus, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    When expectations for scholarly productivity increase at comprehensive universities, faculty writing groups can provide the tools, motivation, and support necessary to achieve both administrative and faculty goals. Narratives from members of a faculty writing group experiencing a shift in institutional expectations for scholarship reveal tangible…

  8. Linguistic Focus of Language Related Episodes in Intermediate and Advanced EFL Learners' Group-Based Interactions: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohammadnia, Zhila; Khalili, Abdolreza

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated linguistic focus of language related episodes (LREs),in Iranian EFL classrooms. Eighteen male participants in the advanced and intermediate levels from Urmia branch of Academic Centre of Education, Culture and Research (ACECR) participated in the study. They were assigned to intermediate and advanced levels with one…

  9. Parent and child perspectives on the nature of anxiety in children and young people with autism spectrum disorders: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Ozsivadjian, Ann; Knott, Fiona; Magiati, Iliana

    2012-03-01

    Anxiety disorders are common among children and young people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Despite growing knowledge about the prevalence, phenomenology and treatment of anxiety disorders, relatively little is understood about the nature and impact of anxiety in this group and little is known about autism-specific factors that may have a role in the increased prevalence of anxiety disorders. In this exploratory study, we report on a series of five focus groups with 17 parents of children and adolescents with ASD and anxiety. Across groups, parents gave strikingly similar descriptions of the triggers and behavioural signs associated with anxiety. Another consistent finding was that many parents reported that their children had great difficulty expressing their worries verbally and most showed their anxiety through changes in their behaviour. The impact of anxiety was reported to often be more substantial than the impact of ASD itself. The implications of the focus group findings are discussed in relation to existing literature.

  10. Illinois Community College System Programs and Services for Underrepresented Groups--Fiscal Year 2002. Focus Area: Recruitment and Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Community Coll. Board, Springfield.

    This 2002 Underrepresented Groups Report discusses initiatives and strategies designed to increase participation among minorities, women, and individuals with disabilities in the Illinois Community College System (ICCS). The demographic data presented is from credit students. The typical male/female distribution on ICCS is 55.4% female and 44.4%…

  11. Development of a Directly Observed Therapy (DOT) Adherence Intervention for Adolescents with HIV-1: Application of Focus Group Methodology to Inform Design, Feasibility and Acceptability

    PubMed Central

    Garvie, Patricia A.; Lawford, Joanne; Flynn, Patricia M.; Gaur, Aditya H.; Belzer, Marvin; McSherry, George D.; Hu, Chengcheng

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To obtain input from adolescents with HIV-1 infection to inform the design of a community-based modified directly observed therapy (MDOT) antiretroviral adherence intervention. Methods Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) protocol 1036A conducted three focus groups with 17 adolescents aged 17 to 22 years (10 females, 65% African-American) from three geographically distinct US PACTG sites. Focus group sessions were scripted, audio-taped, and transcribed verbatim. A coding dictionary was developed and validated; Ethnograph v5.08 was used to summarize coded data across and within the three sites. Prevalent themes were identified via frequencies and are reported as percents. Results Adolescents specified: the MDOT provider should be familiar to the participant and empathic; the MDOT location should be mutually agreed upon, flexible, and private; and participant and provider communication should be bidirectional, preferably by phone. Ideally the MDOT program should be continued until adolescents independently demonstrate adherence and include a weaning phase as a test of skill-acquisition. The most commonly endorsed barrier to the proposed program was MDOT would be an invasion of privacy. Initially, following introduction to the purpose of the focus group, all but one adolescent expressed MDOT could benefit someone other than themselves; however, at conclusion of the focus group discussion, a significant shift in openness to the intervention occurred whereby 11 participants indicated they would consider participation in a MDOT program if offered. Conclusions Focus group feedback clarified the feasibility, logistics, and patient concerns about the design and implementation of a proposed MDOT intervention for adolescents with HIV-1 infection who struggle with medication adherence PMID:19167660

  12. Focus on Methodology: Beyond paper and pencil: Conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings.

    PubMed

    Raffaelli, Marcela; Armstrong, Jessica; Tran, Steve P; Griffith, Aisha N; Walker, Kathrin; Gutierrez, Vanessa

    2016-06-01

    Computer-assisted data collection offers advantages over traditional paper and pencil measures; however, little guidance is available regarding the logistics of conducting computer-assisted data collection with adolescents in group settings. To address this gap, we draw on our experiences conducting a multi-site longitudinal study of adolescent development. Structured questionnaires programmed on laptop computers using Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviewing (ACASI) were administered to groups of adolescents in community-based and afterschool programs. Although implementing ACASI required additional work before entering the field, we benefited from reduced data processing time, high data quality, and high levels of youth motivation. Preliminary findings from an ethnically diverse sample of 265 youth indicate favorable perceptions of using ACASI. Using our experiences as a case study, we provide recommendations on selecting an appropriate data collection device (including hardware and software), preparing and testing the ACASI, conducting data collection in the field, and managing data.

  13. Alaska Native and Rural Youths' Views of Sexual Health: A Focus Group Project on Sexually Transmitted Diseases, HIV/AIDS, and Unplanned Pregnancy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leston, Jessica D.; Jessen, Cornelia M.; Simons, Brenna C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The disparity in rates of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, and unplanned pregnancy between Alaska Native (AN) and non-AN populations, particularly among young adults and females, is significant and concerning. Focus groups were conducted to better understand the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs of rural Alaska youth…

  14. Evaluating Bang for the Buck: A Cost-Effectiveness Comparison Between Individual Interviews and Focus Groups Based on Thematic Saturation Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namey, Emily; Guest, Greg; McKenna, Kevin; Chen, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Evaluators often use qualitative research methods, yet there is little evidence on the comparative cost-effectiveness of the two most commonly employed qualitative methods--in-depth interviews (IDIs) and focus groups (FGs). We performed an inductive thematic analysis of data from 40 IDIs and 40 FGs on the health-seeking behaviors of African…

  15. School Health Promotion to Increase Empowerment, Gender Equality and Pupil Participation: A Focus Group Study of a Swedish Elementary School Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadin, Katja Gillander; Weiner, Gaby; Ahlgren, Christina

    2013-01-01

    A school health promotion project was carried out in an elementary school in Sweden where active participation, gender equality, and empowerment were leading principles. The objective of the study was to understand challenges and to identify social processes of importance for such a project. Focus group interviews were conducted with 6 single-sex…

  16. Some Reasons Why Rural Workers Do Not Find Work in Tight Labor Markets: Results from Focus Groups Meetings in Rural Michigan. Staff Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moser, Colletta H.; Begashaw, Getachew W.

    A study examined barriers to employment for rural Michigan residents, especially during an economic boom. Four focus groups conducted in four nonmetropolitan growth counties in Michigan indicated that educated, skilled workers were seeking to enter the labor force or to work more hours, even though community leaders, newspapers, and job developers…

  17. Using Multidisciplinary Focus Groups to Inform the Development of mI SMART: A Nurse-Led Technology Intervention for Multiple Chronic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Jennifer A; Theeke, Laurie A; Theeke, Elliott; Mallow, Brian K

    2016-01-01

    Used as integrated tools, technology may improve the ability of healthcare providers to improve access and outcomes of care. Little is known about healthcare teams' preferences in using such technology. This paper reports the findings from focus groups aimed at evaluating a newly developed primary care technology platform. Focus groups were completed in academic, outpatient, and community settings. Focus groups were attended by 37 individuals. The participants included professionals from multiple disciplines. Both prescribing (N = 8) and nonprescribing healthcare team members (n = 21) completed the focus groups and survey. The majority were practicing for more than 20 years (44.8%) in an outpatient clinic (62%) for 20-40 hours per week (37.9%). Providers identified perceived obstacles of patient use as ability, willingness, and time. System obstacles were identified as lack of integration, lack of reimbursement, and cost. The positive attributes of the developed system were capability for virtual visits, readability, connectivity, user-friendliness, ability to capture biophysical measures, enhanced patient access, and incorporation of multiple technologies. Providers suggested increasing capability for biophysical and symptom monitoring for more common chronic conditions. Technology interventions have the potential to improve access and outcomes but will not be successful without the input of users.

  18. "Breakfast, Lunch and Dinner": Attitudes to Infant Feeding amongst Children in a Scottish Primary School--A Qualitative Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Bridie; Richards, Helen; Jones, Anni; Hoddinott, Pat

    2004-01-01

    "Setting" A single primary school which serves a mixed socioeconomic area in the north of Scotland. "Method" Parents gave demographic details about their family and information about whether their children had been breastfed. Twenty- three children, aged 6, took part in three focus groups which were conducted by two…

  19. Underreporting Discrimination among Arab American and Muslim American Community College Students: Using Focus Groups to Unravel the Ambiguities within the Survey Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shammas, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Using a mixed methods approach, the researcher gathered a set of narrative responses from focus groups that supported the claim of underreporting campus discrimination on a survey. Multiple studies have shown that underrepresented minority students are likely to bond with same-ethnic peers in a racially tense campus climate. This mixed method is a…

  20. Exploring the Knowledge, Attitudes, Beliefs, and Communication Preferences of the General Public regarding HPV: Findings from CDC Focus Group Research and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Allison L.; Shepeard, Hilda

    2007-01-01

    Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is the most common sexually transmitted virus in the United States, causing genital warts, cervical cell abnormalities, and cervical cancer in women. To inform HPV education efforts, 35 focus groups were conducted with members of the general public, stratified by gender, race/ethnicity, and urban/rural…

  1. Choosing Content and Methods: Focus Group Interviews with Faculty Teachers in Norwegian Pre-Service Subject Teacher Education in Design, Art, and Crafts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gulliksen, Marte S.; Hjardemaal, Finn R.

    2016-01-01

    The study is aimed at generating knowledge on how faculty teachers reflect and justify their choice of subject content logic in teacher education, exemplified by a concurrent pre-service Subject Teacher Education in design, art, and crafts. Focus-group interviews generated data. Three topics were discussed: too many choices, different logics, and…

  2. "I Would Rather Be Size 10 Than Have Straight A's": A Focus Study Group of Adolescent Girls' Wish To Be Thinner.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiggemann, Marika; Gardiner, Maria; Slater, Amy

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the body concerns of adolescent girls (N=67), together with the underlying motivations for wishes to be thinner. Results of focus group studies reveal that sociocultural influences exerted the strongest pressures to be thin. The girls displayed an unexpected sophistication in their conceptualization of the role of both media effects…

  3. Can We Improve the Measurement of Attitudes towards the Welfare State? A Constructive Critique of Survey Instruments with Evidence from Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goerres, Achim; Prinzen, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    There is a large and growing literature on welfare state attitudes, most of which is built on random-sample population surveys with standardised closed-question items. This article criticises the existing survey instruments, especially those that are used within the International Social Survey Programme, in a novel approach with focus group data…

  4. Translational Researchers' Perceptions of Data Management Practices and Data Curation Needs: Findings from a Focus Group in an Academic Health Sciences Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardyn, Tania P.; Resnick, Taryn; Camina, Susan K.

    2012-01-01

    How translational researchers use data is becoming an important support function for libraries to understand. Libraries' roles in this increasingly complex area of Web librarianship are often unclearly defined. The authors conducted two focus groups with physicians and researchers at an academic medical center, the UCLA David Geffen School of…

  5. Using Multidisciplinary Focus Groups to Inform the Development of mI SMART: A Nurse-Led Technology Intervention for Multiple Chronic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Theeke, Laurie A.; Theeke, Elliott; Mallow, Brian K.

    2016-01-01

    Used as integrated tools, technology may improve the ability of healthcare providers to improve access and outcomes of care. Little is known about healthcare teams' preferences in using such technology. This paper reports the findings from focus groups aimed at evaluating a newly developed primary care technology platform. Focus groups were completed in academic, outpatient, and community settings. Focus groups were attended by 37 individuals. The participants included professionals from multiple disciplines. Both prescribing (N = 8) and nonprescribing healthcare team members (n = 21) completed the focus groups and survey. The majority were practicing for more than 20 years (44.8%) in an outpatient clinic (62%) for 20–40 hours per week (37.9%). Providers identified perceived obstacles of patient use as ability, willingness, and time. System obstacles were identified as lack of integration, lack of reimbursement, and cost. The positive attributes of the developed system were capability for virtual visits, readability, connectivity, user-friendliness, ability to capture biophysical measures, enhanced patient access, and incorporation of multiple technologies. Providers suggested increasing capability for biophysical and symptom monitoring for more common chronic conditions. Technology interventions have the potential to improve access and outcomes but will not be successful without the input of users. PMID:27504199

  6. Boys to Men: Entertainment Media. Messages about Masculinity: A National Poll of Children, Focus Groups, and Content Analysis of Entertainment Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heintz-Knowles, Katharine; Li-Vollmer, Meredith; Chen, Perry; Harris, Tarana; Haufler, Adrienne; Lapp, Joan; Miller, Patti

    Boys are especially active users of media, and researchers have suggested that the cumulative impact of media, such as television, movies, and music videos, may make them some of the most influential forces in boys' lives. This report presents the findings of a national poll of 1,200 young people (ages 10 to 17) and focus groups in which boys…

  7. Transition to Kindergarten for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Focus Group Study With Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…

  8. Exploring Perspectives of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities and Histories of Challenging Behaviors about Family Relationships: An Emergent Topic in a Grounded Theory Focus Group Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Julie F.; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie; Maramaldi, Peter; Barnhill, L. Jarrett

    2016-01-01

    The perspectives of individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) about family relationships are underrepresented in the literature. The topic of family relationships emerged in a grounded theory exploratory focus group study that involved thirty dually diagnosed participants with moderate or mild intellectual disabilities and histories of…

  9. Parent Training and Parent Support: The Efficacy of a Parent-Focused Parent Training Support Group for Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Disruptive Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattuso, Jonna L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of parents' participation in a supplemental parent-focused parent education/support group following participation in a pre-existing parent training program. For the purpose of this study, the term "parent" will be used for the child's primary caregiver(s). Parents participated in a…

  10. "Una mujer trabaja doble aqui": Vignette-based focus groups on stress and work for Latina blue-collar women in eastern North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Easter, Michele M; Linnan, Laura A; Bentley, Margaret E; DeVellis, Brenda M; Meier, Andrea; Frasier, Pamela Y; Kelsey, Kristine S; Campbell, Marci K

    2007-01-01

    Latina women are a growing percentage of the working population, and very little is known about their health needs and interests. The purpose of this article is to share qualitative research results gathered from Latina women with a particular focus on exploring stress and health. This project was a substudy of Health Works in the Community, a 5-year CDC-funded multiple risk-factor reduction trial using participatory action research approaches to address smoking, healthy eating, stress, and physical activity among blue-collar women from 12 manufacturing work sites in rural, eastern North Carolina. Five focus groups were conducted with trained, bilingual facilitators using a vignette-based moderator guide that appeared particularly effective with this population. Results from the focus groups are used to make recommendations for future research with Latinas and for developing effective work-site-based interventions to address issues of stress and health within this population.

  11. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored

  12. Improving Self-Help E-Therapy for Depression and Anxiety Among Sexual Minorities: An Analysis of Focus Groups With Lesbians and Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Anthony; Pitts, Marian; Mitchell, Anne; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Background E-therapies for depression and anxiety rarely account for lesbian and gay users. This is despite lesbians and gay men being at heightened risk of mood disorders and likely to benefit from having access to tailored self-help resources. Objective We sought to determine how e-therapies for depression and anxiety could be improved to address the therapeutic needs of lesbians and gay men. Methods We conducted eight focus groups with lesbians and gay men aged 18 years and older. Focus groups were presented with key modules from the popular e-therapy “MoodGYM”. They were asked to evaluate the inclusiveness and relevance of these modules for lesbians and gay men and to think about ways that e-therapies in general could be modified. The focus groups were analyzed qualitatively using a thematic analysis approach to identify major themes. Results The focus groups indicated that some but not all aspects of MoodGYM were suitable, and suggested ways of improving e-therapies for lesbian and gay users. Suggestions included avoiding language or examples that assumed or implied users were heterosexual, improving inclusiveness by representing non-heterosexual relationships, providing referrals to specialized support services and addressing stigma-related stress, such as “coming out” and experiences of discrimination and harassment. Focus group participants suggested that dedicated e-therapies for lesbians and gay men should be developed or general e-therapies be made more inclusive by using adaptive logic to deliver content appropriate for a user’s sexual identity. Conclusions Findings from this study offer in-depth guidance for developing e-therapies that more effectively address mental health problems among lesbians and gay men. PMID:25761775

  13. Why We Belong - Exploring Membership of Healthcare Professionals in an Intensive Care Virtual Community Via Online Focus Groups: Rationale and Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Margaret; Jackson, Debra; Elliott, Doug

    2016-01-01

    Background Many current challenges of evidence-based practice are related to ineffective social networks among health care professionals. Opportunities exist for multidisciplinary virtual communities to transcend professional and organizational boundaries and facilitate important knowledge transfer. Although health care professionals have been using the Internet to form virtual communities for many years, little is known regarding “why” they join, as most research has focused on the perspective of “posters,” who form a minority of members. Objective Our aim was to develop a comprehensive understanding of why health care professionals belong to a virtual community (VC). Methods A qualitative approach will be used to explore why health care professionals belong to an intensive care practice-based VC, established since 2003. Three asynchronous online focus groups will be convened using a closed secure discussion forum. Participants will be recruited directly by sending emails to the VC and a Google form used to collect consent and participant demographics. Participants will be stratified by their online posting behaviors between September 1, 2012, and August 31, 2014: (1) more than 5 posts, (2) 1-5 posts, or (3) no posts. A question guide will be used to guide participant discussion. A moderation approach based on the principles of focus group method and e-moderation has been developed. The main source of data will be discussion threads, supported by a research diary and field notes. Data analysis will be undertaken using a thematic approach and framed by the Diffusion of Innovation theory. NVivo software will be used to support analyses. Results At the time of writing, 29 participants agreed to participate (Focus Group 1: n=4; Focus Group 2: n=16; Focus Group 3: n=9) and data collection was complete. Conclusions This study will contribute to a growing body of research on the use of social media in professional health care settings. Specifically, we hope

  14. Understanding the role of gender in body image research settings: participant gender preferences for researchers and co-participants in interviews, focus groups and interventions.

    PubMed

    Yager, Zali; Diedrichs, Phillippa C; Drummond, Murray

    2013-09-01

    Participant gender preferences for body image researchers, interventionists and focus group and intervention co-participants have been largely ignored, despite recognition that such characteristics can influence the nature and quality of data collected and intervention effects. To address this, Australian women (n=505) and men (n=220) completed a questionnaire about their preferences for interviewers and focus group facilitators, for teachers delivering school-based interventions, and for co-participants in these settings. Women predominantly preferred female interviewers and teachers, and mixed-sex co-participants, but most had no preference for focus group facilitators. Body dissatisfied women were more likely to prefer female researchers and single-sex co-participants. Most men did not have specific preferences, however, body dissatisfied men were more likely to report a gender preference for interviewers and teachers. Professional capabilities, personal qualities and appearance were regarded as important researcher characteristics. These findings have important implications for body image research, particularly among high-risk groups.

  15. Perceived benefits, barriers, and strategies of family meals among children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and their parents: focus-group findings.

    PubMed

    Rovner, Alisha J; Mehta, Sanjeev N; Haynie, Denise L; Robinson, Elizabeth M; Pound, Heidi J; Butler, Deborah A; Laffel, Lori M; Nansel, Tonja R

    2010-09-01

    Dietary management of type 1 diabetes mellitus has become much less restrictive and more flexible in recent years due to contemporary insulin regimens, which may afford families of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus greater ease in sharing family meals. Although these treatment advancements might facilitate family meals, overall demands of diabetes management can influence family's perceived or actual ability to do so. Youths with type 1 diabetes mellitus (ages 8 to 20 years) and parents participated in separate focus groups. Thirty-five youths with type 1 diabetes mellitus (mean age=15.1+/-3.6 years) and their parents participated in 21 focus groups (12 youth groups, nine parent groups). Although there was substantial variability in how often family meals occurred, both parents and youths consistently perceived family meals as valuable and enjoyable. The major barrier to family meals discussed by both youths and parents was busy schedules. Strategies for having family meals that were discussed by parents included shopping to ensure availability of the foods needed to prepare meals, planning, and cooking meals in advance, and using simplified cooking methods. These findings suggest that a family-focused approach to nutrition interventions in this population, as opposed to one targeting the child with diabetes only, can improve the chance for successful dietary change.

  16. Internet-Delivered Targeted Group Intervention for Body Dissatisfaction and Disordered Eating in Adolescent Girls: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Brooke E.; Paxton, Susan J.; McLean, Sian A.; Wertheim, Eleanor H.

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated a targeted intervention designed to alleviate body image and eating problems in adolescent girls that was delivered over the internet so as to increase access to the program. The program consisted of six, 90-minute weekly small group, synchronous on-line sessions and was facilitated by a therapist and manual. Participants were…

  17. Cost justification of clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team: focus on diagnosis-related group cases.

    PubMed

    Bertch, K E; Hatoum, H T; Willett, M S; Witte, K W

    1988-11-01

    We used a novel approach to cost-justify clinical pharmacy services on a general surgery team in nine diagnosis-related group cases. The clinical pharmacist monitored nine patients longitudinally on a general surgery team from admission to discharge and intervened in their therapeutic management. Each recommendation was analyzed for rationale, acceptance, perceived impact on quality and/or cost of patient care, whether self-initiated or solicited, and impact on patient outcome. Types of recommendations and outcomes were categorized by process and outcome measurement criteria. Total cost avoidance per patient was calculated using costs of drug therapy, laboratory tests, and length of stay. Accounting for cost of clinical pharmacy services, net cost avoidance per patient was calculated. The clinical pharmacist made 101 recommendations on nine patients. Physicians accepted 82 percent of the recommendations; 77 percent of the recommendations were self-initiated and 23 percent were solicited. Recommendations had a perceived impact on cost, quality, or both at 13, 31, and 56 percent, respectively. Most recommendations (79 percent) brought patient therapy to a level of conformance with current standards of practice as documented in the medical literature. Recommendations that potentially preserved a major organ function by preventing drug-induced toxicity or the exacerbation of existing problems constituted 16 percent of the total. None of the accepted recommendations adversely affected patient outcome and 23 percent directly resulted in a measurable positive outcome in patient care. A total of four hospital days was potentially saved for two cases. Based on objective outcome criteria, a 1.9-day increase in therapeutic control was documented per patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Patient and health professional views on rehabilitation practices and outcomes following total hip and knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis:a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is worldwide variation in rehabilitation practices after total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and no agreement on which interventions will lead to optimal short and long term patient outcomes. As a first step in the development of clinical practice guidelines for post-acute rehabilitation after THA and TKA, we explored experiences and attitudes about rehabilitation practices and outcomes in groups of individuals identified as key stakeholders. Methods Separate focus groups and interviews were conducted with patients (THA or TKA within past year) and three health professional groups: allied health professionals (AHPs), orthopaedic surgeons, and other physicians, in Canada and the United States. Pairs of moderators led the focus groups using a standardized discussion guide. Discussions were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. A content analysis within and across groups identified key themes. Results Eleven focus groups and eight interviews took place in six sites. Patients (n = 32) varied in age, stage of recovery, and surgical and rehabilitation experiences. Health professionals (n = 44) represented a range of disciplines, practice settings and years of experience. Six key themes emerged: 1) Let's talk (issues related to patient-health professional and inter-professional communication); 2) Expecting the unexpected (observations about unanticipated recovery experiences); 3) It's attitude that counts (the importance of the patient's positive attitude and participation in recovery); 4) It takes all kinds of support (along the continuum of care); 5) Barriers to recovery (at patient, provider and system levels), and 6) Back to normal (reflecting diversity of expected outcomes). Patients offered different, but overlapping views compared to health professionals regarding rehabilitation practices and outcomes following THA and TKA. Conclusion Results will inform subsequent phases of guideline development and ensure stakeholders

  19. Challenges of a healthy lifestyle for socially disadvantaged people of Dutch, Moroccan and Turkish origin in the Netherlands: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Teuscher, Dorit; Bukman, Andrea J; van Baak, Marleen A; Feskens, Edith J M; Renes, Reint Jan; Meershoek, Agnes

    2015-10-20

    Lifestyle interventions often fail to successfully reach individuals with lower socio-economic status (SES), possibly because of the individual behavioural orientation to health behaviour and because limited research has included the target groups' perspectives in the development of interventions. Certainly, in order to make lifestyle interventions more applicable, target groups' viewpoints should to be taken into account. In order to tailor an effective lifestyle intervention to groups with lower SES of different ethnic origins, 14 focus group interviews were conducted with Turkish, Moroccan and Dutch male and female groups. The target groups' responses highlight their viewpoint and their dilemmas with regard to physical activity behaviour and healthy eating. Exploration of the target groups' behaviour in terms of their own logic revealed three prominent themes. Firstly, some individuals find it difficult to maintain healthy eating habits and regular physical activities, as their concept of a healthy life comprises competing values and activities. Secondly, social norms and social practices of others influence health behaviour. Thirdly, respondents' answers reflect how they deal with the dilemma of competing values and norms. They use different ways of reasoning to make sense of their own (health) behaviour. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that considering physical activity and eating as collective social practices rather than as determinants of health will provide new opportunities to initiate healthy lifestyles and to make lifestyle interventions more applicable to target groups' realities.

  20. Simultaneous natural speech and AAC interventions for children with childhood apraxia of speech: lessons from a speech-language pathologist focus group.

    PubMed

    Oommen, Elizabeth R; McCarthy, John W

    2015-03-01

    In childhood apraxia of speech (CAS), children exhibit varying levels of speech intelligibility depending on the nature of errors in articulation and prosody. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) strategies are beneficial, and commonly adopted with children with CAS. This study focused on the decision-making process and strategies adopted by speech-language pathologists (SLPs) when simultaneously implementing interventions that focused on natural speech and AAC. Eight SLPs, with significant clinical experience in CAS and AAC interventions, participated in an online focus group. Thematic analysis revealed eight themes: key decision-making factors; treatment history and rationale; benefits; challenges; therapy strategies and activities; collaboration with team members; recommendations; and other comments. Results are discussed along with clinical implications and directions for future research.

  1. Engaging African American men in empirically based marriage enrichment programs: lessons from two focus groups on the ProSAAM project.

    PubMed

    Hurt, Tera R; Beach, Steven R H; Stokes, LaTrena A; Bush, Perdeta L; Sheats, Kameron J; Robinson, Shayla G

    2012-07-01

    To better meet the needs of eligible African American men who were reluctant to enroll in a 5-year study called the Program for Strong African American Marriages (ProSAAM), we employed two focus groups to listen to the voices of a sample of the population being recruited and to explore their feedback about taking part in such a marriage enrichment program and how best to recruit other African American men. We explain our application of the focus group results to our recruitment of African American married couples for ProSAAM. The positive outcomes from the implementation of these results can provide potential ideas for those seeking innovative means to improve recruitment of African American men to programs that strengthen marital relationships.

  2. Is unimpeded marketing for breast milk substitutes responsible for the decline in breastfeeding in the Philippines? An exploratory survey and focus group analysis.

    PubMed

    Sobel, Howard L; Iellamo, Alessandro; Raya, René R; Padilla, Alexander A; Olivé, Jean-Marc; Nyunt-U, Soe

    2011-11-01

    Infant mortality and morbidity risk is linked to formula usage. The proportion of Filipino infant formula users rose 6% between 2003 and 2008. It is hypothesized this rise resulted from aggressive formula industry marketing. We conducted a household survey between April and December 2006 and focus groups in April-May 2007 in The Philippines to examine the association between mothers' exposure to advertising and other information sources and formula feeding decisions. Sixteen barangays (communities) were randomly selected from three purposively selected disadvantaged rural, urban and mixed municipalities. A total of 345 households had children under 24-months age: 114, 142 and 89 households from the rural, urban and mixed municipalities, respectively. In addition 38 respondents participated in 3 focus groups of 10-15 participants each, from three selected barangays. After adjusting for education and economic indicators logistic regression analysis showed that, children were more likely to be given formula if their mother recalled advertising messages, or a doctor, or mother or relative recommended it. Those using formula were 6.4 (1.8-23.1) times more likely to stop breastfeeding before 12 months. The focus groups described how television advertisements, doctors and medical representatives enticed them to use formula. We conclude that two factors were strongly associated with the decision to formula feed: self-reported advertising exposure, and physicians' recommendations.

  3. "Hey, mom, thanks!": use of focus groups in the development of place-specific materials for a community environmental action campaign.

    PubMed

    Green, Lesley; Fullilove, Mindy; Evans, David; Shepard, Peggy

    2002-04-01

    We examined the relevance of five strategies to reduce the risk of exposure to environmental hazards for African-American and Hispanic children living in Northern Manhattan in New York City. Researchers conducting a community-wide intervention to increase awareness of environmental health hazards identified five strategies for keeping children healthy, preventing asthma, and promoting children's growth and development. These strategies were based on current scientific knowledge of environmental health and were tested and refined through a series of focus groups. The 14 focus groups were conducted with women of childbearing age living in the communities under study. The purpose of the focus groups was to test the relevancy of the five strategies and to obtain data to inform the intervention's social action campaign. Here authors discuss the process of identifying strategies for risk reduction and incorporating community residents' perceptions of risk into health risk messages. The authors argue that broader social and historical contexts are important in shaping community members' interpretations of risk and subsequent response to health education campaigns.

  4. Focus Group Discussions in Community-Based Participatory Research to Inform the Development of a Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Educational Intervention for Latinas in San Diego

    PubMed Central

    Garcini, Luz; Sanchez, Olga; Hernandez, Irma; Navarro, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of formative focus groups as a community-based participatory research (CBPR) method in developing cancer education programs. Two focus groups were conducted according to CBPR principles, in order to develop a community-competent human papillomavirus (HPV)/cervical cancer educational program for Latinas living in the USA/Mexico border region. Focus group participants were 18 female Mexican American community health advisors. Participants reported that there is limited information and many myths about HPV and the vaccine in the Latino/Latina community, along with many barriers to acceptance of HPV/cervical cancer-related information. Furthermore, participants discussed their recommendations for the development of a culturally appropriate HPV educational program. From these data, we have a better understanding of the HPV/cervical cancer educational approach that will be most accepted in the community and what key information needs to be provided to women who participate in the program, which reinforces the importance of the CBPR approach to the formative phase of cancer education program development. PMID:23857185

  5. Developing the IDEFICS community-based intervention program to enhance eating behaviors in 2- to 8-year-old children: findings from focus groups with children and parents.

    PubMed

    Haerens, L; De Bourdeaudhuij, I; Barba, G; Eiben, G; Fernandez, J; Hebestreit, A; Kovács, E; Lasn, H; Regber, S; Shiakou, M; De Henauw, S

    2009-06-01

    One purpose of 'identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants' (IDEFICS) is to implement a standardized community-based multi-component healthy eating intervention for younger children in eight different countries. The present study describes important influencing factors for dietary behaviors among children aged 2-8 years old in order to determine the best approaches for developing the dietary components of the standardized intervention. Twenty focus groups with children (74 boys, 81 girls) and 36 focus groups with 189 parents (28 men, 161 women) were conducted. Only in two countries, children mentioned receiving nutrition education at school. Rules at home and at school ranged from not allowing the consumption of unhealthy products to allowing everything. The same diversity was found for availability of (un)healthy products at home and school. Parents mentioned personal (lack of time, financial constraints, preferences), socio-environmental (family, peer influences), institutional (school policies) and physical-environmental (availability of unhealthy products, price, season) barriers for healthy eating. This focus group research provided valuable information to guide the first phase in the IDEFICS intervention development. There was a large variability in findings within countries. Interventions should be tailored at the personal and environmental level to increase the likelihood of behavioral change.

  6. Identifying preferences for mobile health applications for self-monitoring and self-management: Focus group findings from HIV-positive persons and young mothers

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, Nithya; Swendeman, Dallas; Comulada, W. Scott; Estrin, Deborah; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2012-01-01

    Objective Self-management of risk behaviors is a cornerstone of future population health interventions. Using mobile phones for routine self-monitoring and feedback is a cost-efficient strategy for self-management and ecological momentary interventions (EMI). However, mobile health applications need to be designed to be highly attractive and acceptable to a broad range of user groups. To inform the design of an adaptable mobile health application we aimed to identify the dimensions and range of user preferences for application features by different user groups. Methods Five focus group interviews were conducted: two (n = 9; n = 20) with people living with HIV (PLH) and three with young mothers (n = 6; n = 8; n = 10). Thematic analyses were conducted on the focus group sessions’ notes and transcripts. Results Both groups considered customization of reminders and prompts as necessary, and goal setting, motivational messaging, problem solving, and feedback as attractive. For PLH, automated and location-based reminders for medication adherence and sharing data with healthcare providers were both acceptable and attractive features. Privacy protection and invasiveness were the primary concerns, particularly around location tracking, illegal drug use, and sexual partner information. Concerns were ameliorated by use scenario or purpose, monetary incentives, and password protection. Privacy was not a major concern to mothers who considered passwords burdensome. Mothers’ preferences focused on customization that supports mood, exercise and eating patterns, and especially using the mobile phone camera to photograph food to increase self-accountability. Conclusions Individualization emerged as the key feature and design principle to reduce user burden and increase attractiveness and acceptability. Mobile phone EMI uniquely enables individualization, context-aware and real-time feedback, and tailored intervention delivery. PMID:22704234

  7. Brief report: effects of solution-focused brief therapy group-work on promoting post-traumatic growth of mothers who have a child with ASD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Yan, Ting-ting; Du, Ya-song; Liu, Xiao-hong

    2014-08-01

    The study evaluated the impact of solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) group-work on the post-traumatic growth (PTG) of mothers who have a child with ASD. A quasi-experimental design was used in which 43 mothers participated. 18 mothers in 2 SFBT groups (n = 9 in each group) received a 6-session SFBT group therapy while 25 mothers in a control group received no treatment. The Post-traumatic Growth Inventory was used to measure the PTG levels of the participants at baseline, post-treatment and 6-month follow-up assessments. Mothers who attended SFBT group-work reported higher PTG scores both at post-treatment (t = 4.065, p = .001) and 6-month follow-up (t = 2.980, p = .006) assessments. Further investigations to prove whether SFBT in groups can increase the positivity of clients would promote the use of SFBT.

  8. The NASA/NSERC Student Airborne Research Program Land Focus Group - a Paid Training Program in Multi-Disciplinary STEM Research for Terrestrial Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kefauver, S. C.; Ustin, S.; Davey, S. W.; Furey, B. J.; Gartner, A.; Kurzweil, D.; Siebach, K. L.; Slawsky, L.; Snyder, E.; Trammell, J.; Young, J.; Schaller, E.; Shetter, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    The Student Airborne Research Program (SARP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the National Suborbital Education and Research Center (NSERC) is a unique six week multidisciplinary paid training program which directly integrates students into the forefront of airborne remote sensing science. Students were briefly trained with one week of lectures and laboratory exercises and then immediately incorporated into ongoing research projects which benefit from access to the DC-8 airborne platform and the MODIS-ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) sensor. Students were split into three major topical categories of Land, Ocean, and Air for the data collection and project portions of the program. This poster details the techniques and structure used for the student integration into ongoing research, professional development, hypothesis building and results as developed by the professor and mentor of the Land focus group. Upon assignment to the Land group, students were issued official research field protocols and split into four field specialty groups with additional specialty reading assignments. In the field each group spent more time in their respective specialty, but also participated in all field techniques through pairings with UC Davis research team members using midday rotations. After the field campaign, each specialty group then gave summary presentations on the techniques, preliminary results, and significance to overall group objectives of their specialty. Then students were required to submit project proposals within the bounds of Land airborne remote sensing science and encouraging, but not requiring the use of the field campaign data. These proposals are then reviewed by the professor and mentor and students are met with one by one to discuss the skills of each student and objectives of the proposed research project. The students then work under the supervision of the mentor and benefit again from professor feedback in a formal

  9. ‘Maybe they should regulate them quite strictly until they know the true dangers’: a focus group study exploring UK adolescents’ views on e‐cigarette regulation

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Filippo; Hilton, Shona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and aims Regulation of electronic cigarettes has moved to the top of the addiction policy agenda, as demonstrated by the recent focus across the United Kingdom on introducing age‐of‐sale restrictions. However, the views of those affected by such regulation remain largely unexplored. This paper presents the first detailed qualitative exploration of adolescents’ perceptions of existing, and opinions about potential e‐cigarette regulation. Methods Sixteen focus groups, including a total of 83 teenagers between the ages of 14 and 17 years, were conducted in deprived, mixed and affluent urban areas in Scotland and England between November 2014 and February 2015. Transcripts were imported into Nivivo 10, coded thematically and analysed. Results Participants critically considered existing evidence and competing interests in regulatory debates and demonstrated sophisticated understanding of the advantages and disadvantages of regulation. They overwhelmingly supported strong e‐cigarette regulation and endorsed restrictions on sales to minors, marketing and e‐cigarette use in public places. Concern about potential health harms of e‐cigarette use and marketing increasing the acceptability of vaping and smoking led these adolescents to support regulation. Conclusions In focus group discussions, a sample of UK adolescents exposed to particular communications about e‐cigarettes supported strict regulation of e‐cigarettes, including banning sales to minors and use in indoor public areas. PMID:26948979

  10. Legal risk management and injury in the fitness industry: the outcomes of focus group research and a national survey of fitness professionals.

    PubMed

    Keyzer, Patrick; Coyle, Ian R; Dietrich, Joachim; Norton, Kevin; Sekendiz, Betul; Jones, Veronica; Finch, Caroline F

    2014-06-01

    The Australian Fitness Industry Risk Management (AFIRM) Project was set up to explore the operation of rules and regulations for the delivery of safe fitness services. This article summarises the results of recent focus group research and a national survey of risk management practices by the AFIRM Project. Our focus group research in four States identified the following most important concerns: (1) the competency of fitness professionals; (2) the effectiveness of pre-exercise screening and the management of de-conditioned clients; (3) poor supervision of fitness service users and incorrect use of equipment; (4) fitness trainers failing to remain within their scope of practice; (5) equipment misuse (as distinct from incorrect use); and (6) poor fitness training environments. This information was then used to develop 45 specific items for a questionnaire that was disseminated throughout the fitness industry. The survey, which is the largest ever conducted in the Australian fitness industry (n = 1,178), identified similar concerns. Our research indicates that efforts to improve risk management in the fitness industry should focus, first and foremost, on the development and monitoring of safety policy, and improvements in the education and training of fitness instructors to ensure that they can incorporate risk management practices.

  11. Language of motivation and emotion in an internet support group for smoking cessation: explorative use of automated content analysis to measure regulatory focus.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, Jan-Are K; Vambheim, Sara M; Wynn, Rolf; Wangberg, Silje C

    2014-01-01

    The present study describes a novel approach to the identification of the motivational processes in text data extracted from an Internet support group (ISG) for smoking cessation. Based on the previous findings that a "prevention" focus might be more relevant for maintaining behavior change, it was hypothesized that 1) language use (ie, the use of emotional words) signaling a "promotion" focus would be dominant in the initiating stages of the ISG, and 2) that the proportion of words signaling a prevention focus would increase over time. The data were collected from the ISG site, spanning 4 years of forum activity. The data were analyzed using the Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count application. The first hypothesis - of promotion focus dominance in the initiating stages - was not supported during year 1. However, for all the other years measured, the data showed that a prevention failure was more dominant compared with a promotion failure. The results indicate that content analysis could be used to investigate motivational and language-driven processes in ISGs. Understanding the interplay between self-regulation, lifestyle change, and modern communication channels could be of vital importance in providing the public with better health care services and interventions.

  12. Group-Based Compassion-Focused Therapy as an Adjunct to Outpatient Treatment for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Allison Catherine; Wisniewski, Lucene; Martin-Wagar, Caitlin; Hoffman, Ellen

    2016-05-30

    The current study sought to assess the acceptability and feasibility of a compassion-focused therapy (CFT) group as an adjunct to evidence-based outpatient treatment for eating disorders, and to examine its preliminary efficacy relative to treatment as usual (TAU). Twenty-two outpatients with various types of eating disorders were randomly assigned to 12 weeks of TAU (n = 11) or TAU plus weekly CFT groups adapted for an eating disorder population (CFT + TAU; n = 11). Participants in both conditions completed measures of self-compassion, fears of compassion, shame and eating disorder pathology at baseline, week 4, week 8 and week 12. Additionally, participants receiving the CFT group completed measures assessing acceptability and feasibility of the group. Results indicated that the CFT group demonstrated strong acceptability; attendance was high and the group retained over 80% of participants. Participants rated the group positively and indicated they would be very likely to recommend it to peers with similar symptoms. Intention-to-treat analyses revealed that compared to the TAU condition, the CFT + TAU condition yielded greater improvements in self-compassion, fears of self-compassion, fears of receiving compassion, shame and eating disorder pathology over the 12 weeks. Results suggest that group-based CFT, offered in conjunction with evidence-based outpatient TAU for eating disorders, may be an acceptable, feasible and efficacious intervention. Furthermore, eating disorder patients appear to see benefit in, and observe gains from, working on the CFT goals of overcoming fears of compassion, developing more self-compassion and accessing more compassion from others. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Reducing disparities in diabetes among African-American and Latino residents of Detroit: the essential role of community planning focus groups.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Edith C; Willis, Sharla K; Odoms-Young, Angela M; Guzman, J Ricardo; Allen, Alex J; Two Feathers, Jackie; Loveluck, Jimena

    2004-01-01

    Diabetes is prevalent among African-American and Latino Detroit residents, with profound consequences to individuals, families, and communities. The REACH Detroit Partnership engaged eastside and southwest Detroit families in focus groups organized by community, age, gender, and language, to plan community-based participatory interventions to reduce the prevalence and impact of diabetes and its risk factors. Community residents participated in planning, implementing, and analyzing data from the focus groups and subsequent planning meetings. Major themes included: 1) diabetes is widespread and risk begins in childhood, with severe consequences for African Americans and Latinos; 2) denial and inadequate health care contribute to lack of public awareness about pre-symptomatic diabetes; 3) diabetes risks include heredity, high sugar, fat and alcohol intake, overweight, lack of exercise, and stress; and 4) cultural traditions, lack of motivation, and lack of affordable, accessible stores, restaurants, and recreation facilities and programs, are barriers to adopting preventive lifestyles. Participants identified community assets and made recommendations that resulted in REACH Detroit's multi-level intervention design and programs. They included development of: 1) family-oriented interventions to support lifestyle change at all ages; 2) culturally relevant community and health provider education and materials; 3) social support group activities promoting diabetes self-management, exercise, and healthy eating; and 4) community resource development and advocacy.

  14. Acknowledging adult bias: a focus-group approach to utilizing beauty salons as health-education portals for inner-city adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Alexis; Harris, Diana

    2007-04-01

    To assess the feasibility of using beauticians as health literacy agents and beauty salons as health-education portals for adolescent, inner-city, African American girls, the authors conducted focus groups with 25 women: salon clients, salon owners, and medical students. Facilitators to program development included (a) beautician-client relationships, (b) teens' access to health information, and (c) beauticians as information resources. Barriers included (a) adult opinions of teen behaviors, (b) teen mistrust of adults, and (c) low health literacy of beauticians. In developing a health-education program for this population, beauticians and salons may be excellent health information agents and portals if barriers including beautician poor health literacy, adolescent mistrust in adults, and adults' anti-adolescent bias are improved. Program implementation must not solely focus on teens but should also include adult salon users, with the goal of reaching the teens first through these adults and, with time and trust, reaching the teens directly.

  15. Combination of micropreparative solution isoelectric focusing and high-performance liquid chromatography for differentiation of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative Candida parapsilosis group from vascular catheter.

    PubMed

    Vykydalová, Marie; Horká, Marie; Růžička, Filip; Duša, Filip; Moravcová, Dana; Kahle, Vladislav; Slais, Karel

    2014-02-17

    This study utilizes the high-performance liquid chromatography technique in combination with the new micropreparative solution isoelectric focusing fractionation on non-woven fabric strip for the characterization and differentiation of biofilm-positive and biofilm-negative forms of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto on the basis of the changes in the composition of their cell-surface. Treatment of yeasts by boiling in distilled water relased surface substances from yeasts cells. Consequently, the optimized procedure has been used for fast identification of the highly pathogenic biofilm-positive Candida parapsilosis group in real clinical material - sonicate from vascular catheters. Moreover, the capillary isoelectric focusing was used as supporting and control technique. Obtained results suggest that this new method can be used to distinguish between biofilm-positive and negative forms of Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto.

  16. Registered nurses' thoughts on blended learning in a postgraduate course in cancer care--content analyses of web surveys and a focus group interview.

    PubMed

    Arving, Cecilia; Wadensten, Barbro; Johansson, Birgitta

    2014-06-01

    Purpose of the research was to describe registered nurses' (RNs) (n = 53) thoughts on the blended learning format in a 'specialist nursing programme in cancer care'. The study was conducted in autumn 2007 and 2008. A content analysis of answers to open-ended questions in a web-based questionnaire and a focus group interview were carried out. The analysis revealed that the RNs appreciated blended learning. The web lectures facilitated learning and gave RNs access to the education at any time. However, according to the RNs, knowledge is gained through interaction between RNs and teachers, and this aspect needed to be improved. The RNs also thought that the content of the seminars on campus should focus on evidence-based nursing knowledge and practical skills, not just taught as stable facts and procedures. The result from the present study could help to improve the design and content of advanced nursing courses using a blended learning format.

  17. Health-care seeking behaviour and the use of traditional medicine among persons with type 2 diabetes in south-western Uganda: a study of focus group interviews

    PubMed Central

    Atwine, Fortunate; Hultsjö, Sally; Albin, Björn; Hjelm, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Health-care seeking behaviour is important as it determines acceptance of health care and outcomes of chronic conditions but it has been investigated to a limited extent among persons with diabetes in developing countries. The aim of the study was to explore health-care seeking behaviour among persons with type 2 diabetes to understand reasons for using therapies offered by traditional healers. Methods Descriptive study using focus-group interviews. Three purposive focus-groups were conducted in 2011 of 10 women and 7 men aged 39–72 years in Uganda. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and qualitatively analysed according to a method described for focus-groups. Results Reasons for seeking help from traditional healers were symptoms related to diabetes such as polydipsia, fatigue and decreased sensitivity in lower limbs. Failure of effect from western medicine was also reported. Treatment was described to be unknown extracts, of locally made products taken as herbs or food, and participants had sought help from different health facilities with the help of relatives and friends. Conclusion The pattern of seeking care was inconsistent, with a switch between different health care providers under the influence of the popular and folk sectors. Despite beliefs in using different healthcare providers seeking complementary and alternative medicine, participants still experienced many physical health problems related to diabetes complications. Health professionals need to be aware of the risk of switches between different health care providers, and develop strategies to initiate health promotion interventions to include in the care actors of significance to the patient from the popular, folk and professional sectors, to maintain continuity of effective diabetes care. PMID:26090034

  18. Endurance of aloneness among Tibetan indigenous women in Western China: application of repeat focus group discussions as a tool for empowerment and for data collection.

    PubMed

    Ljunggren, Anethe; Johansson, Eva; Wang, Chunglei; Pettersson, Karen Odberg

    2009-09-01

    In this article we describe Tibetan indigenous women's perceptions and experiences of their own health and life situation in Shichuan Province, China. Fifteen focus group discussions (FGDs) and 10 interviews were conducted. Repeat FGDs were used to empower the women and as a tool to collect data. Content analysis was used to analyze the data, and three subthemes were identified: 'shouldering responsibility in family life,' "enduring reproductive hardship and ill health" and "reflecting on the future." The main theme, "experiencing aloneness," contained two dimensions: "strength for surviving under extreme living conditions" and "negative influence on women's endeavor to maintain a healthy behavior."

  19. 90 Minutes on a Sunday Afternoon or: The Proof of the Special MT Issue Is in...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinel, Adrian

    2002-01-01

    This article was written as a result of the author reading "MT177," a special issue dedicated to the teaching of "proof" in mathematics. He used the ideas in this special issue for planning his session "mathematical reasoning and proof," which was part of a weekend course for primary trainees. It consisted of three activities: (1) How many…

  20. Evaluating direct-to-consumer marketing of race-based pharmacogenomics: a focus group study of public understandings of applied genomic medication.

    PubMed

    Bates, Benjamin R; Poirot, Kristan; Harris, Tina M; Condit, Celeste M; Achter, Paul J

    2004-01-01

    Some medical providers have advocated applied genomics, including the use of genetically linked racial phenotypes in medical practice, raising fear that race-based medication will become justified. As with other emerging medical genetic technologies, pharmaceutical companies may advertise these treatments. Researchers fear that consumers will uncritically accept pharmaceutical messages and demand the product. In this exploratory study, we examined public reactions to advertisements for applied genomic medications. A focus group methodology was employed. Participants tended to resist the message and generated warrants for doing so, indicating critical reception of the messages. Message accepters also provided warrants. Warrants for resistance and acceptance differ between self-identified racial groups. Consumers, health care providers, and pharmaceutical corporations will benefit from a better understanding of direct-to-consumer advertisements as medical communication. Our study concludes that both advocates and opponents of direct-to-consumer advertisements should recognize that potential consumers of pharmacogenomics act as critical consumers of health advertising discourse.