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Sample records for 90-minute time-in-bed restriction

  1. Tolerance of Chronic 90-Minute Time-In-Bed Restriction in Older Long Sleepers

    PubMed Central

    Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Kline, Christopher E.; Zielinski, Mark R.; Kripke, Daniel F.; Devlin, Tina M.; Bogan, Richard K.; Wilcox, Sara; Hardin, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the influence of chronic time-in-bed (TIB) restriction on selected health-related outcome variables in older long sleepers. Design: Randomized, controlled trial. Setting: Home-based. Participants: Forty-two older adults (aged 50-70 y) who reported sleeping at least 8.5 hours. Following extensive screening, participants were assessed for 10 weeks. Intervention: During a two-week baseline, participants followed their usual sleep-wake habits. Participants were then randomized to one of two eight-week treatments: (1) TIB restriction, in which participants were asked to follow a fixed sleep schedule with a TIB of 90 minutes less than recorded during baseline or (2) a control treatment, which involved following a fixed sleep schedule (consistent with average baseline) but no TIB restriction. Measurements and Results: Continuous wrist actigraphic sleep estimation indicated that TIB restriction elicited significant reductions in TIB and total sleep time compared with the control treatment and significant (albeit modest) improvements in sleep efficiency and sleep latency. However, compared with the control treatment, TIB restriction elicited no significant change in depression, sleepiness, health-related quality of life, or neurobehavioral performance. Moreover, follow-up assessments for one year indicated that, after completing the experiment, the participants assigned to TIB restriction continued to restrict their TIB (at their own initiative) by an average of approximately one hour. Conclusions: The results suggest good tolerance of chronic moderate TIB restriction, without detrimental effects, among older long sleepers. Citation: Youngstedt SD; Kline CE; Zielinski MR; Kripke DF; Devlin TM; Bogan RK; Wilcox S; Hardin JW. Tolerance of chronic 90-minute time-in-bed restriction in older long sleepers. SLEEP 2009;32(11):1467-1479. PMID:19928386

  2. Negative Effects of Time in Bed Extension: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Reynold, Alexandria M; Bowles, Emily R; Saxena, Arpit; Fayad, Raja; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2014-08-28

    Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown an association of long sleep (≥8 hr) with mortality and multiple morbidities. However, there has been little experimental investigation of the effects of sleep extension. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of time in bed (TIB) extension, on depression, anxiety, sleepiness, and systemic inflammation. Following baseline, 14 healthy sleepers (31.79±10.94 years) were randomized to one of two one-week treatments: (1) a TIB extension treatment involving a fixed sleep schedule in which TIB was increased by 3 hours/night compared with the participants' median baseline TIB; (2) a control treatment involving a fixed schedule in which TIB was the same as the participants' median baseline TIB. Actigraphic recording of sleep was assessed throughout both weeks. Self-reported depression, state anxiety, sleepiness, and sleep quality, as well as blood pressure, and inflammation were assessed at baseline and following the treatment week. Compared with baseline, TIB increased by 127.12±3.92 min and total sleep time increased by 119.88±18.52 min during TIB extension, but decreased slightly in the control treatment. Depression was elevated more following TIB extension (effect size (ES)=-0.86) vs. control (ES=-0.50). Interleukin-6 levels increased by 2-fold following TIB extension (ES=-0.65), but did not change following the control treatment. Sleepiness increased after TIB extension, but decreased after the control treatment. The results revealed negative effects of TIB extension on mood and inflammation. Larger-scale studies involving more prolonged, but less profound sleep extension, are warranted.

  3. A biphasic daily pattern of slow wave activity during a two-day 90-minute sleep wake schedule.

    PubMed

    Duncan, W C; Barbato, G; Fagioli, I; Garcia-Borreguero, D; Wehr, T A

    2009-12-01

    Twenty-four hour sleep patterns were measured in six healthy male volunteers during a 90-minute short sleep-wake (SW 30:60) cycle protocol for 48 hours. Sleep pressure estimates (amount of Slow Wave Sleep [SWS], SWA, and Rate of Synchronization [RoS: the rate of SWA build-up at the beginning of the NREM period]) were compared with the 24-hour patterns of body temperature (Tb24) and sleep propensity. A moderate sleep debt was incurred over the 48 hour study as indicated by decreased levels of 24 hour sleep. On day 1, ultradian patterns of REM and SWS sleep were prominent; on day 2, more prominent were circadian patterns of REM sleep, SWS, Sleep Latency, TST and Tb24. Also on Day 2, biphasic patterns of SWA and RoS were expressed, with peaks occurring during the falling and rising limbs of Tb24. The biphasic peaks in SWA and RoS may be associated with phase-specific interactions of the circadian pacemaker with the sleep homeostat during conditions of moderate sleep pressure. Further research is needed to replicate the finding and to identify biological factors that may underlie the twelve hour pattern in SWA. PMID:20162861

  4. Time in bed, quality of sleep and school functioning of children.

    PubMed

    Meijer, A M; Habekothé, H T; Van Den Wittenboer, G L

    2000-06-01

    This study describes the relationship of time in bed and quality of sleep with concentration and functioning at school. Neurotic and psychosomatic symptoms have been used as control variables. The sample consisted of 449 Dutch children in the seventh and eighth grades of elementary school. The age of the children varied between 9 y 5 mo and 14 y 5 mo. Seven schools participated in the research, with a total of 18 classes. The results indicated that 43% of the children had difficulty getting up in the morning. Furthermore, 15% of the children reported sleep problems and 25% did not feel rested at school. Time in bed and sleep quality show no relationship with concentration. Sleep quality, feeling rested at school and less distinct bedtimes were clearly related to school functioning. Another result was that children who had no difficulty getting up displayed more achievement motivation. Being open to the teacher's influence and achievement motivation depended mainly on sleep characteristics. Not getting bored at school, self-image as a pupil and control over aggressive behaviour were also influenced by gender, age, neuroticism and neurosomaticism.

  5. Time in Bed is Associated with Decreased Physical Activity and Higher BMI in Women Seeking Weight Loss Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hart, Chantelle N; Fava, Joseph L; Subak, Leslee L; Stone, Katie; Vittinghoff, Eric; Demos, Kathryn; O'Brien, Erin; Cairns, Alyssa; Wing, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Short sleep duration is associated with obesity risk. Despite calls to incorporate strategies to enhance sleep within the context of behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment, little is known regarding the association between sleep and body mass index (BMI) among individuals presenting for BWL. Moreover, most research has focused on eating pathways linking sleep and BMI, and have not explored how sleep may impact engagement in physical activity. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether, in a sample of women seeking treatment for weight loss, there was an association between reported time in bed (TIB), higher BMI, lower physical activity, and less favorable dietary composition. Prior to randomization, 318 women completed measures of TIB, eating, and activity; weight and height were measured. Findings demonstrated that report of '6 hours or less' TIB/night was associated with higher BMI and lower reported physical activity compared to the referent (>7 to ≤ 8 hours/night). It was not associated with the number of reported calories consumed each day or with the percent of calories consumed from fat, carbohydrates or protein. Better understanding the role of sleep within the context of BWL treatment in women seems warranted.

  6. Self-Reported Sleep Duration and Time in Bed as Predictors of Physical Function Decline: Results from the InCHIANTI Study

    PubMed Central

    Stenholm, Sari; Kronholm, Erkki; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To characterize elderly persons into sleep/rest groups based on their self-reported habitual total sleeping time (TST) and habitual time in bed (TIB) and to examine the prospective association between sleep/rest behavior on physical function decline. Design: Population-based InCHIANTI study with 6 years follow-up (Tuscany, Italy). Setting: Community. Participants: Men and women aged ≥ 65 years (n = 751). Measurements and Results: At baseline, participants were categorized into 5 sleep/rest behavior groups according to their self-reported TST and TIB, computed from bedtime and wake-up time. Physical function was assessed at baseline and at 3- and 6-year follow-ups as walking speed, the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and self-reported mobility disability (ability to walk 400 m or climb one flight of stairs). Both long (≥ 9 h) TST and long TIB predicted accelerated decline in objectively measured physical performance and greater incidence in subjectively assessed mobility disability, but short (≤ 6 h) TST did not. After combining TST and TIB, long sleepers (TST and TIB ≥ 9 h) experienced the greatest decline in physical performance and had the highest risk for incident mobility disability in comparison to mid-range sleepers with 7-8 h TST and TIB. Subjective short sleepers reporting short (≤ 6 h) TST but long (≥ 9 h) TIB showed a greater decline in SPPB score and had a higher risk of incident mobility disability than true short sleepers with short (≤ 6 h) TST and TIB ≤ 8 hours. Conclusions: Extended time in bed as well as long total sleeping time is associated with greater physical function decline than mid-range or short sleep. TIB offers important additive information to the self-reported sleep duration when evaluating the consequences of sleep duration on health and functional status. Citation: Stenholm S; Kronholm K; Bandinelli S; Guralnik JM; Ferrucci. Self-reported sleep duration and time in bed as predictors of

  7. Time in bed, sleep quality and associations with cardiometabolic markers in children: the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Berentzen, Nina E; Smit, Henriëtte A; Bekkers, Marga B M; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; De Jongste, Johan C; Kerkhof, Marjan; Van Rossem, Lenie; Wijga, Alet H

    2014-02-01

    We investigated associations of time in bed and multiple sleep quality characteristics with cardiometabolic markers in children. Data from the prevention and incidence of asthma and mite allergy study, a population-based prospective birth-cohort study started in 1996-1997 in the Netherlands, were analysed. In total 1481 children aged 11-12 years completed a questionnaire (including questions on sleep) and underwent a medical examination. We measured body mass index, waist circumference, total- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin. Results showed that in girls, some sleep characteristics were related to anthropometrics (body mass index, waist circumference) and cholesterol. Girls who had a long time in bed (11-12.5 h) had 0.16 lower body mass index z-score (95% confidence interval -0.31; -0.01) and 0.99 cm smaller waist circumference (95% confidence interval -2.01; -0.13) compared with girls who spent 10-10.5 h in bed. Girls who went to bed late and rose early had 0.16 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.31) and 0.08 mm higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.01; 0.14) than 'early to bed/early rise' girls. Girls with night-time awakenings had 0.14 mm higher total cholesterol (95% confidence interval 0.03; 0.25) than girls without night-time awakenings. Girls who felt sleepy/tired ≥1 day per week had 0.10 mm lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% confidence interval -0.16; -0.04) and 0.17 mm higher total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (95% confidence interval 0.02; 0.32) than girls who did not feel sleepy. No associations were found for boys. Sleep characteristics were not related to blood pressure and glycated haemoglobin, and effect sizes of the associations in girls were small. Therefore, we consider it premature to propose that improved sleep could reduce cardiovascular risk during childhood.

  8. NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater: 90 Minutes of Spectacular Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/NOAA Electronic Theater presents Earth science observations and visualizations from space in a historical perspective. Fly in from outer space to Ashville and the Conference Auditorium. Zoom through the Cosmos to SLC and site of the 2002 Winter Olympics using 1 m IKONOS 'Spy Satellite' data. Contrast the 1972 Apollo 17 'Blue Marble' image of the Earth with the latest US and International global satellite images that allow us to view our Planet from any vantage point. See the latest spectacular images from NASA/NOAA remote sensing missions like Terra, GOES, TRMM, SeaWiFS, & Landsat 7, of storms & fires like Hurricane Isabel and the LA/San Diego Fire Storms of 2003. See how High Definition Television (HDTV) is revolutionizing the way we do science communication. Take the pulse of the planet on a daily, annual and 30-year time scale. See daily thunderstorms, the annual blooming of the northern hemisphere land masses and oceans, fires in Africa, dust storms in Iraq, and carbon monoxide exhaust from global burning. See visualizations featured on Newsweek, TIME, National Geographic, Popular Science covers & National & International Network TV. Spectacular new global visualizations of the observed and simulated atmosphere and Oceans are shown. See the currents and vortexes in the Oceans that bring up the nutrients blooms in response to El Nino/La Nina climate changes. The Etheater will be presented using the latest High Definition TV (HDTV) and video projection technology on a large screen. See the global city lights, and the great NE US blackout of August 2003 observed by the 'night-vision' DMSP satellite.

  9. Effects of Sleep Restriction on the Human Plasma Metabolome

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Lauren N.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Booth, John N.; Bromley, Lindsay E.; Imperial, Jacqueline G.; Penev, Plamen D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of recurrent sleep restriction on the plasma metabolome of adults with familial risk of type 2 diabetes. Eleven healthy adults (6M/5F; mean [SD] age: 26 [3] years; BMI 23.5 [2.3] kg/m2) with parental history of type 2 diabetes participated in a two-condition, two-period randomized crossover study at the Clinical Resource Center at an academic hospital. Each participant completed two 8-night inpatient sessions with restricted (5.5-h time-in-bed) vs. adequate (8.5-h time-in-bed) sleep opportunity while daily food intake and physical activity were carefully controlled. A combination of two UHPLC/MS/MS platforms and one GC/MS platform was used to measure 362 biochemicals in fasting plasma samples collected from study participants the morning after each 8-night sleep treatment. Relative concentrations of 12 amino acids and related metabolites were increased when sleep was curtailed. Sleep restriction also induced elevations in several fatty acid, bile acid, steroid hormone, and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast, circulating levels of glucose, some monosaccharides, gluconate, and five-carbon sugar alcohols tended to decline when sleep was reduced. Recurrent sleep curtailment affected multiple pathways of intermediary metabolism in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. An elevation in plasma amino acids and related biochemicals was the most pronounced metabolic signature seen in response to 8 nights of sleep restriction. PMID:23954406

  10. Behavioral and physiological consequences of sleep restriction.

    PubMed

    Banks, Siobhan; Dinges, David F

    2007-08-15

    Adequate sleep is essential for general healthy functioning. This paper reviews recent research on the effects of chronic sleep restriction on neurobehavioral and physiological functioning and discusses implications for health and lifestyle. Restricting sleep below an individual's optimal time in bed (TIB) can cause a range of neurobehavioral deficits, including lapses of attention, slowed working memory, reduced cognitive throughput, depressed mood, and perseveration of thought. Neurobehavioral deficits accumulate across days of partial sleep loss to levels equivalent to those found after 1 to 3 nights of total sleep loss. Recent experiments reveal that following days of chronic restriction of sleep duration below 7 hours per night, significant daytime cognitive dysfunction accumulates to levels comparable to that found after severe acute total sleep deprivation. Additionally, individual variability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep restriction appears to be stable, suggesting a trait-like (possibly genetic) differential vulnerability or compensatory changes in the neurobiological systems involved in cognition. A causal role for reduced sleep duration in adverse health outcomes remains unclear, but laboratory studies of healthy adults subjected to sleep restriction have found adverse effects on endocrine functions, metabolic and inflammatory responses, suggesting that sleep restriction produces physiological consequences that may be unhealthy.

  11. Restrictive cardiomyopathy

    MedlinePlus

    Cardiomyopathy - restrictive; Infiltrative cardiomyopathy; Idiopathic myocardial fibrosis ... of the heart lining (endocardium), such as endomyocardial fibrosis and Loeffler syndrome (rare) Iron overload (hemochromatosis) Sarcoidosis ...

  12. "What Do I Teach for 90 Minutes?" Creating a Successful Block-Scheduled English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Carol

    The story of the process that Mundelein High School (located in a northwest suburb of Chicago, Illinois) as it moved from a traditional schedule to a block schedule is described throughout this book as a way to blend theory with practice. The book addresses types of block schedules; key issues for effective preparation; professional development…

  13. Inter-Individual Differences in Neurobehavioural Impairment following Sleep Restriction Are Associated with Circadian Rhythm Phase.

    PubMed

    Sletten, Tracey L; Segal, Ahuva Y; Flynn-Evans, Erin E; Lockley, Steven W; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W

    2015-01-01

    Although sleep restriction is associated with decrements in daytime alertness and neurobehavioural performance, there are considerable inter-individual differences in the degree of impairment. This study examined the effects of short-term sleep restriction on neurobehavioural performance and sleepiness, and the associations between individual differences in impairments and circadian rhythm phase. Healthy adults (n = 43; 22 M) aged 22.5 ± 3.1 (mean ± SD) years maintained a regular 8:16 h sleep:wake routine for at least three weeks prior to laboratory admission. Sleep opportunity was restricted to 5 hours time-in-bed at home the night before admission and 3 hours time-in-bed in the laboratory, aligned by wake time. Hourly saliva samples were collected from 5.5 h before until 5 h after the pre-laboratory scheduled bedtime to assess dim light melatonin onset (DLMO) as a marker of circadian phase. Participants completed a 10-min auditory Psychomotor Vigilance Task (PVT), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS) and had slow eye movements (SEM) measured by electrooculography two hours after waking. We observed substantial inter-individual variability in neurobehavioural performance, particularly in the number of PVT lapses. Increased PVT lapses (r = -0.468, p < 0.01), greater sleepiness (r = 0.510, p < 0.0001), and more slow eye movements (r = 0.375, p = 0.022) were significantly associated with later DLMO, consistent with participants waking at an earlier circadian phase. When the difference between DLMO and sleep onset was less than 2 hours, individuals were significantly more likely to have at least three attentional lapses the following morning. This study demonstrates that the phase of an individual's circadian system is an important variable in predicting the degree of neurobehavioural performance impairment in the hours after waking following sleep restriction, and confirms that other factors influencing performance decrements require further investigation. PMID

  14. Towards standardisation and improved understanding of sleep restriction therapy for insomnia disorder: A systematic examination of CBT-I trial content.

    PubMed

    Kyle, Simon D; Aquino, Maria Raisa Jessica; Miller, Christopher B; Henry, Alasdair L; Crawford, Megan R; Espie, Colin A; Spielman, Arthur J

    2015-10-01

    Sleep restriction therapy is a core element of contemporary cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia and is also effective as a single-component therapeutic strategy. Since its original description, sleep restriction therapy has been applied in several different ways, potentially limiting understanding of key therapeutic ingredients, mode of action, evidence synthesis, and clinical implementation. We sought to examine the quality of reporting and variability in the application of sleep restriction therapy within the context of insomnia intervention trials. Systematic literature searches revealed 88 trials of cognitive-behavioural therapy/sleep restriction therapy that met pre-defined inclusion/exclusion criteria. All papers were coded in relation to their description of sleep restriction therapy procedures. Findings indicate that a large proportion of papers (39%) do not report any details regarding sleep restriction therapy parameters and, for those papers that do, variability in implementation is present at every level (sleep window generation, minimum time-in-bed, sleep efficiency titration criteria, and positioning of sleep window). Only 7% of papers reported all parameters of sleep restriction treatment. Poor reporting and variability in the application of sleep restriction therapy may hinder progress in relation to evidence synthesis, specification of mechanistic components, and refinement of therapeutic procedures for patient benefit. We set out guidelines for the reporting of sleep restriction therapy as well as a research agenda aimed at advancing understanding of sleep restriction therapy. PMID:25771293

  15. Subchronic Sleep Restriction Causes Tissue-Specific Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Neylan, Thomas C.; Grunfeld, Carl; Mulligan, Kathleen; Schambelan, Morris; Schwarz, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Context: Short sleep duration is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Subchronic sleep restriction (SR) causes insulin resistance, but the mechanisms and roles of specific tissues are unclear. Objective: The purpose of this article was to determine whether subchronic SR altered (1) hepatic insulin sensitivity, (2) peripheral insulin sensitivity, and (3) substrate utilization. Design: This was a randomized crossover study in which 14 subjects underwent 2 admissions separated by a washout period. Each admission had 2 acclimatization nights followed by 5 nights of either SR (4 hours time in bed) or normal sleep (8 hours time in bed). Main Outcome Measure/Methods: Insulin sensitivity (measured by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and hepatic insulin sensitivity (measured by stable isotope techniques) were measured. In addition, we assayed stress hormone (24-hour urine free cortisol, metanephrine, and normetanephrine), nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (β-OH butyrate) levels. Resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory quotient (RQ) were measured by indirect calorimetry. Results: Compared to normal sleep, whole-body insulin sensitivity decreased by 25% (P = .008) with SR and peripheral insulin sensitivity decreased by 29% (P = .003). Whereas hepatic insulin sensitivity (endogenous glucose production) did not change significantly, percent gluconeogenesis increased (P = .03). Stress hormones increased modestly (cortisol by 21%, P = .04; metanephrine by 8%, P = .014; normetanephrine by 18%, P = .002). Fasting NEFA and β-OH butyrate levels increased substantially (62% and 55%, respectively). REE did not change (P = 0.98), but RQ decreased (0.81±.02 vs 0.75±0.02, P = .045). Conclusion: Subchronic SR causes unique metabolic disturbances characterized by peripheral, but not hepatic, insulin resistance; this was associated with a robust increase in fasting NEFA levels (indicative of increased lipolysis), decreased RQ, and

  16. Antiretroviral restriction factors.

    PubMed

    Hatziioannou, Theodora; Bieniasz, Paul D

    2011-12-01

    Studies of retroviruses have been instrumental in revealing the existence of an array of antiviral proteins, or restriction factors, and the mechanisms by which they function. Some restriction factors appear to specifically inhibit retrovirus replication, while others have a broader antiviral action. Here, we briefly review current understanding of the mechanisms by which several such proteins exert antiviral activity. We also discuss how retroviruses have evolved to evade or antagonize antiviral proteins, including through the action of viral accessory proteins. Restriction factors, their viral targets and antagonists have exerted evolutionary pressure on each other, resulting in specialization and barriers to cross-species transmission. Potentially, this recently revealed intrinsic system of antiviral immunity might be mobilized for therapeutic benefit.

  17. Neuroaesthetics: range and restrictions.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2013-04-01

    Bullot & Reber (B&R) should be commended for highlighting tensions between scientific aesthetics and art history. The question of how each tradition can learn from the other is timely. While I am sympathetic to their views, their diagnosis of the problem appears exaggerated and their solution partial. They underestimate the reach of scientific aesthetics while failing to identify its inherent restrictions. PMID:23507092

  18. License restrictions at Barnwell

    SciTech Connect

    Autry, V.R.

    1991-12-31

    The State of South Carolina was delegated the authority by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the receipt, possession, use and disposal of radioactive material as an Agreement State. Since 1970, the state has been the principal regulatory authority for the Barnwell Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility operated by Chem-Nuclear Systems, Inc. The radioactive material license issued authorizing the receipt and disposal of low-level waste contains numerous restrictions to ensure environmental protection and compliance with shallow land disposal performance criteria. Low-level waste has evolved from minimally contaminated items to complex waste streams containing high concentrations of radionuclides and processing chemicals which necessitated these restrictions. Additionally, some waste with their specific radionuclides and concentration levels, many classified as low-level radioactive waste, are not appropriate for shallow land disposal unless additional precautions are taken. This paper will represent a number of these restrictions, the rationale for them, and how they are being dealt with at the Barnwell disposal facility.

  19. Chronic Moderate Sleep Restriction in Older Long Sleepers and Older Average Duration Sleepers: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Youngstedt, Shawn D.; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Bootzin, Richard R.; Kripke, Daniel F.; Cooper, Jonnifer; Dean, Lauren R.; Catao, Fabio; James, Shelli; Vining, Caitlyn; Williams, Natasha J.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have consistently shown that sleeping < 7 hr and ≥ 8 hr is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. The risks of short sleep may be consistent with results from experimental sleep deprivation studies. However, there has been little study of chronic moderate sleep restriction and no evaluation of older adults who might be more vulnerable to negative effects of sleep restriction, given their age-related morbidities. Moreover, the risks of long sleep have scarcely been examined experimentally. Moderate sleep restriction might benefit older long sleepers who often spend excessive time in bed (TIB), in contrast to older adults with average sleep patterns. Our aims are: (1) to examine the ability of older long sleepers and older average sleepers to adhere to 60 min TIB restriction; and (2) to contrast effects of chronic TIB restriction in older long vs. average sleepers. Older adults (n=100) (60–80 yr) who sleep 8–9 hr per night and 100 older adults who sleep 6–7.25 hr per night will be examined at 4 sites over 5 years. Following a 2-week baseline, participants will be randomized to one of two 12-week treatments: (1) a sleep restriction involving a fixed sleep-wake schedule, in which TIB is reduced 60 min below each participant’s baseline TIB; (2) a control treatment involving no sleep restriction, but a fixed sleep schedule. Sleep will be assessed with actigraphy and a diary. Measures will include glucose tolerance, sleepiness, depressive symptoms, quality of life, cognitive performance, incidence of illness or accident, and inflammation. PMID:23811325

  20. Calcium metabolism in bone and teeth of rats during exposure to restriction of motor activity and to swimming exercise.

    PubMed

    Zorbas, Y G; Charapakhin, K P; Kuznetsov, N A; Kakurin, V J

    1999-06-01

    The effects of motor activity restriction for 90 days (hypokinesia, HK) and swimming training (T) on calcium metabolism in rat bones and teeth were evaluated. Male Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: untrained vivarium control rats (UVCR), untrained hypokinetic rats (UHKR), trained hypokinetic rats (THKR) and trained vivarium control rats (TVCR). Hypokinesia was obtained keeping the animals for 90 days in small individual cages which restricted their movements in all directions without hindering food and water intakes. Rats of THKR and TVCR were forced to swim for 15 to 90 minutes everyday. On the 1st, 7th, 15th day of a prehypokinetic period and on the 5th, 10th, 20th, 40th, 60th and 90th day of the hypokinetic period, six rats of each group were decapitated. Radioactive calcium was injected to the animals 70 days before autopsy. Calcium and phosphorus in serum, bones (molars, incisors, upper and lower jaws, parietal, scapular, clavicle, pelvic and tibial bones) and in the respective ash residues were measured. Body and bone weights, and radioactive calcium were also determined. Under prolonged exposure to HK (THKR and UHKR groups), bone weights and bone and ash Ca and P concentrations decreased, whereas serum Ca and P and 45Ca resorption increased, in comparison to the respective values in the UVCR and TVCR groups. Swimming exercise apparently did not modify calcium metabolism in the hypokinetic or control rats. PMID:10517263

  1. Acute Sleep Restriction Effects on Emotion Responses in 30- to 36-Month-Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Rebecca H.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R.; LeBourgeois, Monique K.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers’ emotion expression. Ten healthy children (7 females; 30–36 months) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 hrs time in bed/24 hrs) for 5 days before each of two randomly-assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (5 positive, 3 neutral, 3 negative) and completed puzzles (1 solvable, 1 unsolvable). Children’s faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently “taxes” young children’s emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  2. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems.

  3. Acute sleep restriction effects on emotion responses in 30- to 36-month-old children.

    PubMed

    Berger, Rebecca H; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Cares, Stephanie R; LeBourgeois, Monique K

    2012-06-01

    Early childhood is a period of dramatic change in sleep and emotion processing, as well as a time when disturbance in both domains are first detected. Although sleep is recognized as central in emotion processing and psychopathology, the great majority of experimental data have been collected in adults. We examined the effects of acute sleep restriction (nap deprivation) on toddlers' emotion expression. Ten healthy children (seven females; 30-36 months old) followed a strict sleep schedule (≥12.5 h time in bed per 24-h) for 5 days, before each of two randomly assigned afternoon emotion assessments following Nap and No-Nap conditions (resulting in an 11-day protocol). Children viewed emotion-eliciting pictures (five positive, three neutral, three negative) and completed puzzles (one solvable, one unsolvable). Children's faces were video-recorded, and emotion displays were coded. When sleep restricted, children displayed less confusion in response to neutral pictures, more negativity to neutral and negative pictures, and less positivity to positive pictures. Sleep restriction also resulted in a 34% reduction in positive emotion responses (solvable puzzle), as well as a 31% increase in negative emotion responses and a 39% decrease in confused responses (unsolvable puzzle). These findings suggest sleep is a key factor in how young children respond to their world. When sleep restricted, toddlers are neither able to take full advantage of positive experiences nor are they as adaptive in challenging contexts. If insufficient sleep consistently 'taxes' young children's emotion responses, they may not manage emotion regulation challenges effectively, potentially placing them at risk for future emotional/behavioral problems. PMID:21988087

  4. Sleep Restriction Decreases the Physical Activity of Adults at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Bromley, Lindsay E.; Booth, John N.; Kilkus, Jennifer M.; Imperial, Jacqueline G.; Penev, Plamen D.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objective: To test the hypothesis that recurrent sleep curtailment will result in decreased physical activity in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. Design: Two-condition 2-period randomized crossover study. Setting: University General Clinical Research Center. Participants: Eighteen healthy patients with parental history of type 2 diabetes (9 females and 9 males, age 27 yr [standard deviation 3], body mass index 23.7 [2.3] kg/m2). Interventions: Two week-long inpatient sessions with 8.5 or 5.5-hr nighttime sleep opportunity. Participants who exercised regularly (39%) could follow their usual exercise routines during both sessions. Measurements and Results: Sleep and total body movement were measured by wrist actigraphy and waist accelerometry. Subjective mood and vigor was assessed using visual analog scales. The main outcome was the comparison of total activity counts between sleep conditions. Ancillary endpoints included changes in sedentary, light, and moderate plus vigorous activity, and their association with changes in mood and vigor. Daily sleep was reduced by 2.3 hr (P < 0.001) and total activity counts were 31% lower (P = 0.020) during the 5.5-hr time-in-bed condition. This was accompanied by a 24% reduction in moderate-plus-vigorous activity time (P = 0.005) and more sedentary behavior (+21 min/day; P = 0.020). The decrease in daily activity during the 5.5-hr time-in-bed condition was seen mostly in participants who exercised regularly (-39 versus −4% in exercisers versus nonexercisers; P = 0.027). Sleep loss-related declines in physical activity correlated strongly with declines in subjective vigor (R = 0.90; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Experimental sleep restriction results in decreased amount and intensity of physical activity in adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. Citation: Bromley LE; Booth JN; Kilkus JM; Imperial JG; Penev PD. Sleep restriction decreases the physical activity of adults at risk for type 2 diabetes. SLEEP 2012

  5. Optimizing sleep/wake schedules in space: Sleep during chronic nocturnal sleep restriction with and without diurnal naps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollicone, Daniel J.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Dinges, David F.

    2007-02-01

    Effective sleep/wake schedules for space operations must balance severe time constraints with allocating sufficient time for sleep in order to sustain high levels of neurobehavioral performance. Developing such schedules requires knowledge about the relationship between scheduled "time in bed" (TIB) and actual physiological sleep obtained. A ground-based laboratory study in N=93 healthy adult subjects was conducted to investigate physiological sleep obtained in a range of restricted sleep schedules. Eighteen different conditions with restricted nocturnal anchor sleep, with and without diurnal naps, were examined in a response surface mapping paradigm. Sleep efficiency was found to be a function of total TIB per 24 h regardless of how the sleep was divided among nocturnal anchor sleep and diurnal nap sleep periods. The amounts of sleep stages 1+2 and REM showed more complex relationships with the durations of the anchor and nap sleep periods, while slow-wave sleep was essentially preserved among the different conditions of the experiment. The results of the study indicated that when sleep was chronically restricted, sleep duration was largely unaffected by whether the sleep was placed nocturnally or split between nocturnal anchor sleep periods and daytime naps. Having thus assessed that split-sleep schedules are feasible in terms of obtaining physiological sleep, further research will reveal whether these schedules and the associated variations in the distribution of sleep stages may be advantageous in mitigating neurobehavioral performance impairment in the face of limited time for sleep.

  6. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20–40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  7. Dietary restriction with and without caloric restriction for healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhan; Longo, Valter

    2016-01-01

    Caloric restriction is the most effective and reproducible dietary intervention known to regulate aging and increase the healthy lifespan in various model organisms, ranging from the unicellular yeast to worms, flies, rodents, and primates. However, caloric restriction, which in most cases entails a 20-40% reduction of food consumption relative to normal intake, is a severe intervention that results in both beneficial and detrimental effects. Specific types of chronic, intermittent, or periodic dietary restrictions without chronic caloric restriction have instead the potential to provide a significant healthspan increase while minimizing adverse effects. Improved periodic or targeted dietary restriction regimens that uncouple the challenge of food deprivation from the beneficial effects will allow a safe intervention feasible for a major portion of the population. Here we focus on healthspan interventions that are not chronic or do not require calorie restriction. PMID:26918181

  8. Restrictive vs. non-restrictive composition: a magnetoencephalography study

    PubMed Central

    Leffel, Timothy; Lauter, Miriam; Westerlund, Masha; Pylkkänen, Liina

    2014-01-01

    Recent research on the brain mechanisms underlying language processing has implicated the left anterior temporal lobe (LATL) as a central region for the composition of simple phrases. Because these studies typically present their critical stimuli without contextual information, the sensitivity of LATL responses to contextual factors is unknown. In this magnetoencephalography (MEG) study, we employed a simple question-answer paradigm to manipulate whether a prenominal adjective or determiner is interpreted restrictively, i.e., as limiting the set of entities under discussion. Our results show that the LATL is sensitive to restriction, with restrictive composition eliciting higher responses than non-restrictive composition. However, this effect was only observed when the restricting element was a determiner, adjectival stimuli showing the opposite pattern, which we hypothesise to be driven by the special pragmatic properties of non-restrictive adjectives. Overall, our results demonstrate a robust sensitivity of the LATL to high level contextual and potentially also pragmatic factors. PMID:25379512

  9. Restricting retrotransposons: a review.

    PubMed

    Goodier, John L

    2016-01-01

    Retrotransposons have generated about 40 % of the human genome. This review examines the strategies the cell has evolved to coexist with these genomic "parasites", focussing on the non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons of humans and mice. Some of the restriction factors for retrotransposition, including the APOBECs, MOV10, RNASEL, SAMHD1, TREX1, and ZAP, also limit replication of retroviruses, including HIV, and are part of the intrinsic immune system of the cell. Many of these proteins act in the cytoplasm to degrade retroelement RNA or inhibit its translation. Some factors act in the nucleus and involve DNA repair enzymes or epigenetic processes of DNA methylation and histone modification. RISC and piRNA pathway proteins protect the germline. Retrotransposon control is relaxed in some cell types, such as neurons in the brain, stem cells, and in certain types of disease and cancer, with implications for human health and disease. This review also considers potential pitfalls in interpreting retrotransposon-related data, as well as issues to consider for future research. PMID:27525044

  10. Metabolic and hormonal effects of ‘catch-up’ sleep in men with chronic, repetitive, lifestyle-driven sleep restriction

    PubMed Central

    Killick, Roo; Hoyos, Camilla M.; Melehan, Kerri; Dungan, George C.; Poh, Jonathon; Liu, Peter Y.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Acutely restricting sleep worsens insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals whose usual sleep is normal in duration and pattern. The effect of recovery or weekend ‘catch-up’ sleep on insulin sensitivity and metabolically active hormones in individuals with chronic sleep restriction who regularly ‘catch-up’ on sleep at weekends is as yet unstudied. Design 19 men (mean ± SEM age 28.6±2.0years, BMI 26.0±0.8kg/m2) with at least 6 months’ history (5.1±0.9years) of lifestyle driven, restricted sleep during the working week (373±6.6 min/night) with regular weekend ‘catch up’ sleep (weekend sleep extension 37.4±2.3%) completed an in-laboratory, randomised, cross-over study comprising 2 of 3 conditions, stratified by age. Conditions were 3 weekend nights of 10 hours, 6 hours or 10 hours time-in-bed with slow wave sleep suppression using targeted acoustic stimuli. Measurements Insulin sensitivity was measured in the morning following the 3rd intervention night by minimal modelling of 19 samples collected during a 2 hour oral glucose tolerance test. Glucose, insulin, c-peptide, leptin, peptide YY, ghrelin, cortisol, testosterone and luteinising hormone (LH) were measured from daily fasting blood samples; HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and QUICKI were calculated. Results Insulin sensitivity was higher following 3 nights of sleep extension compared to sustained sleep restriction. Fasting insulin, c-peptide, HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, leptin and PYY decreased with ‘catch-up’ sleep, QUICKI and testosterone increased, while morning cortisol and LH did not change. Targeted acoustic stimuli reduced SWS by 23%, but did not alter insulin sensitivity. Conclusions Three nights of ‘catch-up’ sleep improved insulin sensitivity in men with chronic, repetitive sleep restriction. Methods to improve metabolic health by optimising sleep are plausible. PMID:25683266

  11. Antiretroviral restriction factors in mice.

    PubMed

    Nair, Smita; Rein, Alan

    2014-11-26

    One of the most exciting areas in contemporary retrovirus research is the discovery of "restriction factors". These are cellular proteins that act after virus entry to inhibit infection by or replication of retroviruses (and other viruses and intracellular pathogens). We briefly discuss here three antiretroviral restriction factors in mice: Fv1, APOBEC3, and tetherin, touching on both biological and molecular aspects of these restriction systems.

  12. Children's Restrictive Disclosure to Friends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Sliz, Dave

    1988-01-01

    Children's restrictive disclosure to friends, which is a facet of intimate friendship, was investigated. It was found that children in kindergarten, second, and fourth grade showed restrictive disclosure to friends, and that greater disclosure of positive personal information to friends than to nonfriends was exhibited with age. (PCB)

  13. AGU Sonar Data Restriction Panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Council accepted the report of the panel set up in February to study the issue of restriction by the U.S. Navy of access to high-resolution sonar data for the U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone. Panel chairman John Bossier announced that “the Navy has acted in the best interests of the nation” in lifting the restriction order. Only two areas, egress routes to two submarine bases (see “Navy Defines Areas Under Sonar Ban,” in News, this issue), remain restricted.Panel members were Bruce Douglas, Alexander Malahoff, Donald Piepgras, Paul Richards, David Smith and Manik Talwani.

  14. Methionine restriction and lifespan control

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N.

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending lifespan. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with/without adequate nutrition (e.g. particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend lifespan in various model organisms. We discuss beneficial effects of methionine-restricted (MR) diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions. PMID:26663138

  15. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To inform the debate over whether human sleep can be chronically reduced without consequences, we conducted a dose-response chronic sleep restriction experiment in which waking neurobehavioral and sleep physiological functions were monitored and compared to those for total sleep deprivation. DESIGN: The chronic sleep restriction experiment involved randomization to one of three sleep doses (4 h, 6 h, or 8 h time in bed per night), which were maintained for 14 consecutive days. The total sleep deprivation experiment involved 3 nights without sleep (0 h time in bed). Each study also involved 3 baseline (pre-deprivation) days and 3 recovery days. SETTING: Both experiments were conducted under standardized laboratory conditions with continuous behavioral, physiological and medical monitoring. PARTICIPANTS: A total of n = 48 healthy adults (ages 21-38) participated in the experiments. INTERVENTIONS: Noctumal sleep periods were restricted to 8 h, 6 h or 4 h per day for 14 days, or to 0 h for 3 days. All other sleep was prohibited. RESULTS: Chronic restriction of sleep periods to 4 h or 6 h per night over 14 consecutive days resulted in significant cumulative, dose-dependent deficits in cognitive performance on all tasks. Subjective sleepiness ratings showed an acute response to sleep restriction but only small further increases on subsequent days, and did not significantly differentiate the 6 h and 4 h conditions. Polysomnographic variables and delta power in the non-REM sleep EEG-a putative marker of sleep homeostasis--displayed an acute response to sleep restriction with negligible further changes across the 14 restricted nights. Comparison of chronic sleep restriction to total sleep deprivation showed that the latter resulted in disproportionately large waking neurobehavioral and sleep delta power responses relative to how much sleep was lost. A statistical model revealed that, regardless of the mode of sleep deprivation, lapses in behavioral alertness

  16. Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mender, Ilgen; Shay, Jerry W.

    2016-01-01

    While telomerase is expressed in ~90% of primary human tumors, most somatic tissue cells except transiently proliferating stem-like cells do not have detectable telomerase activity (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Telomeres progressively shorten with each cell division in normal cells, including proliferating stem-like cells, due to the end replication (lagging strand synthesis) problem and other causes such as oxidative damage, therefore all somatic cells have limited cell proliferation capacity (Hayflick limit) (Hayflick and Moorhead, 1961; Olovnikov, 1973). The progressive telomere shortening eventually leads to growth arrest in normal cells, which is known as replicative senescence (Shay et al., 1991). Once telomerase is activated in cancer cells, telomere length is stabilized by the addition of TTAGGG repeats to the end of chromosomes, thus enabling the limitless continuation of cell division (Shay and Wright, 1996; Shay and Wright, 2001). Therefore, the link between aging and cancer can be partially explained by telomere biology. There are many rapid and convenient methods to study telomere biology such as Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF), Telomere Repeat Amplification Protocol (TRAP) (Mender and Shay, 2015b) and Telomere dysfunction Induced Foci (TIF) analysis (Mender and Shay, 2015a). In this protocol paper we describe Telomere Restriction Fragment (TRF) analysis to determine average telomeric length of cells. Telomeric length can be indirectly measured by a technique called Telomere Restriction Fragment analysis (TRF). This technique is a modified Southern blot, which measures the heterogeneous range of telomere lengths in a cell population using the length distribution of the terminal restriction fragments (Harley et al., 1990; Ouellette et al., 2000). This method can be used in eukaryotic cells. The description below focuses on the measurement of human cancer cells telomere length. The principle of this method relies on the lack of

  17. Generalized Pump-restriction Theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Sinitsyn, Nikolai A; Chernyak, Vladimir Y

    2008-01-01

    We formulate conditions under which periodic modulations of parameters on a finite graph with stochastic transitions among its nodes do not lead to overall pump currents through any given link. Our theorem unifies previously known results with the new ones and provides a universal approach to explore futher restrictions on stochastic pump effect in non-adiabatically driven systems with detailed balance.

  18. 5 CFR 300.604 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.604 Restrictions. The following time-in-grade restrictions must be met unless... may be advanced without time restriction to positions up to GS-5 if the position to be filled is...

  19. 5 CFR 300.604 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.604 Restrictions. The following time-in-grade restrictions must be met unless... may be advanced without time restriction to positions up to GS-5 if the position to be filled is...

  20. 5 CFR 300.604 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.604 Restrictions. The following time-in-grade restrictions must be met unless... may be advanced without time restriction to positions up to GS-5 if the position to be filled is...

  1. 5 CFR 300.604 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.604 Restrictions. The following time-in-grade restrictions must be met unless... may be advanced without time restriction to positions up to GS-5 if the position to be filled is...

  2. 5 CFR 300.604 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT (GENERAL) Time-In-Grade Restrictions § 300.604 Restrictions. The following time-in-grade restrictions must be met unless... may be advanced without time restriction to positions up to GS-5 if the position to be filled is...

  3. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  4. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  5. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  6. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  7. 49 CFR 215.203 - Restricted cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restricted cars. 215.203 Section 215.203..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Restricted Equipment § 215.203 Restricted cars. (a) This section restricts the operation of any railroad freight car that is— (1) More than...

  8. Overcoming Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Agogino, Adrian K.

    2004-01-01

    Many large distributed system are characterized by having a large number of components (eg., agents, neurons) whose actions and interactions determine a %orld utility which rates the performance of the overall system. Such collectives are often subject to communication restrictions, making it difficult for components which try to optimize their own private utilities, to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. In this article we address that coordination problem and derive four utility functions which present different compromises between how aligned a component s private utility is with the world utility and how readily that component can determine the actions that optimize its utility. The results show that the utility functions specifically derived to operate under communication restrictions outperform both traditional methods and previous collective-based methods by up to 75%.

  9. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-13

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  10. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view.

  11. REBASE - restriction enzymes and methylases.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, R J; Macelis, D

    1998-01-01

    REBASE is a comprehensive database of information about restriction enzymes and their associated methylases, including their recognition and cleavage sites and their commercial availability. Also included is a listing of homing endonucleases. Information from REBASE is available via monthly electronic mailings as well as via anonymous ftp and through the World Wide Web. The REBASE web site, http://www. neb.com/rebase , is where we maintain a web page for every enzyme, reference and supplier. Additionally, there is a search facility, help and NEWS pages, and a complete description of our various services. Specialized files are available that can be used directly by many software packages. PMID:9399870

  12. 9 CFR 78.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.20 General restrictions. Bison may not be...

  13. 9 CFR 78.5 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.5 General restrictions. Cattle may not be...

  14. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  15. 9 CFR 78.5 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.5 General restrictions. Cattle may not be...

  16. 9 CFR 78.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Bison Because of Brucellosis § 78.20 General restrictions. Bison may not be...

  17. Restricted sample variance reduces generalizability.

    PubMed

    Lakes, Kimberley D

    2013-06-01

    One factor that affects the reliability of observed scores is restriction of range on the construct measured for a particular group of study participants. This study illustrates how researchers can use generalizability theory to evaluate the impact of restriction of range in particular sample characteristics on the generalizability of test scores and to estimate how changes in measurement design could improve the generalizability of the test scores. An observer-rated measure of child self-regulation (Response to Challenge Scale; Lakes, 2011) is used to examine scores for 198 children (Grades K through 5) within the generalizability theory (GT) framework. The generalizability of ratings within relatively developmentally homogeneous samples is examined and illustrates the effect of reduced variance among ratees on generalizability. Forecasts for g coefficients of various D study designs demonstrate how higher generalizability could be achieved by increasing the number of raters or items. In summary, the research presented illustrates the importance of and procedures for evaluating the generalizability of a set of scores in a particular research context. PMID:23205627

  18. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view. PMID:26758235

  19. Temperature based Restricted Boltzmann Machines

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guoqi; Deng, Lei; Xu, Yi; Wen, Changyun; Wang, Wei; Pei, Jing; Shi, Luping

    2016-01-01

    Restricted Boltzmann machines (RBMs), which apply graphical models to learning probability distribution over a set of inputs, have attracted much attention recently since being proposed as building blocks of multi-layer learning systems called deep belief networks (DBNs). Note that temperature is a key factor of the Boltzmann distribution that RBMs originate from. However, none of existing schemes have considered the impact of temperature in the graphical model of DBNs. In this work, we propose temperature based restricted Boltzmann machines (TRBMs) which reveals that temperature is an essential parameter controlling the selectivity of the firing neurons in the hidden layers. We theoretically prove that the effect of temperature can be adjusted by setting the parameter of the sharpness of the logistic function in the proposed TRBMs. The performance of RBMs can be improved by adjusting the temperature parameter of TRBMs. This work provides a comprehensive insights into the deep belief networks and deep learning architectures from a physical point of view. PMID:26758235

  20. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  1. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  2. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  3. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  4. 7 CFR 982.14 - Restricted hazelnuts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted hazelnuts. 982.14 Section 982.14... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE HAZELNUTS GROWN IN OREGON AND WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 982.14 Restricted hazelnuts. Restricted hazelnuts...

  5. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly...

  6. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly...

  7. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly...

  8. 50 CFR 648.23 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.23 Gear restrictions. (a) Mesh restrictions and exemptions...°45.0′ 74°53.0′ M24 35°28.0′ 74°52.0′ (4) Mackerel, squid, and butterfish bottom trawling restricted areas. (i) Oceanographer Canyon. No permitted mackerel, squid, or butterfish vessel may fish with...

  9. 36 CFR 13.1176 - Speed restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed restrictions. 13.1176... Operating Restrictions § 13.1176 Speed restrictions. (a) From May 15 through September 30, in designated whale waters the following are prohibited: (1) Operating a motor vessel at more than 20 knots...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1176 - Speed restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Speed restrictions. 13.1176... Operating Restrictions § 13.1176 Speed restrictions. (a) From May 15 through September 30, in designated whale waters the following are prohibited: (1) Operating a motor vessel at more than 20 knots...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1176 - Speed restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Speed restrictions. 13.1176... Operating Restrictions § 13.1176 Speed restrictions. (a) From May 15 through September 30, in designated whale waters the following are prohibited: (1) Operating a motor vessel at more than 20 knots...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1176 - Speed restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Speed restrictions. 13.1176... Operating Restrictions § 13.1176 Speed restrictions. (a) From May 15 through September 30, in designated whale waters the following are prohibited: (1) Operating a motor vessel at more than 20 knots...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1176 - Speed restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Speed restrictions. 13.1176... Operating Restrictions § 13.1176 Speed restrictions. (a) From May 15 through September 30, in designated whale waters the following are prohibited: (1) Operating a motor vessel at more than 20 knots...

  14. Restriction Enzyme Mapping: A Simple Student Practical.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Stephen J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    An experiment that uses the recombinant plasmid pX1108 to illustrate restriction mapping is described. The experiment involves three restriction enzymes and employs single and double restriction enzyme digestions. A list of needed materials, procedures, safety precautions, results, and discussion are included. (KR)

  15. Restricted Schur polynomials and finite N counting

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, Storm

    2009-01-15

    Restricted Schur polynomials have been posited as orthonormal operators for the change of basis from N=4 SYM to type IIB string theory. In this paper we briefly expound the relationship between the restricted Schur polynomials and the operators forwarded by Brown, Heslop, and Ramgoolam. We then briefly examine the finite N counting of the restricted Schur polynomials.

  16. 50 CFR 648.163 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.163 Section 648... Atlantic Bluefish Fishery § 648.163 Gear restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60640, Sept... gear restrictions are necessary to assure that the fishing mortality rate is not exceeded, or to...

  17. 50 CFR 648.163 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.163 Section 648.163... Bluefish Fishery § 648.163 Gear restrictions. If the Council determines through its annual review or framework adjustment process that gear restrictions are necessary to assure that the fishing mortality...

  18. Problem-Solving Test: Restriction Endonuclease Mapping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    The term "restriction endonuclease mapping" covers a number of related techniques used to identify specific restriction enzyme recognition sites on small DNA molecules. A method for restriction endonuclease mapping of a 1,000-basepair (bp)-long DNA molecule is described in the fictitious experiment of this test. The most important fact needed to…

  19. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22...

  20. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22...

  1. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22...

  2. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sales restrictions. 203.20 Section 203.20 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22...

  3. 14 CFR 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted data. 1203.305 Section 1203.305 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly...

  4. Stillbirth and fetal growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Bukowski, Radek

    2010-09-01

    The association between stillbirth and fetal growth restriction is strong and supported by a large body of evidence and clinically employed for the stillbirth prediction. However, although assessment of fetal growth is a basis of clinical practice, it is not trivial. Essentially, fetal growth is a result of the genetic growth potential of the fetus and placental function. The growth potential is the driving force of fetal growth, whereas the placenta as the sole source of nutrients and oxygen might become the rate limiting element of fetal growth if its function is impaired. Thus, placental dysfunction may prevent the fetus from reaching its full genetically determined growth potential. In this sense fetal growth and its aberration provides an insight into placental function. Fetal growth is a proxy for the test of the effectiveness of placenta, whose function is otherwise obscured during pregnancy.

  5. Placental Adaptations in Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Song; Regnault, Timothy R.H.; Barker, Paige L.; Botting, Kimberley J.; McMillen, Isabella C.; McMillan, Christine M.; Roberts, Claire T.; Morrison, Janna L.

    2015-01-01

    The placenta is the primary interface between the fetus and mother and plays an important role in maintaining fetal development and growth by facilitating the transfer of substrates and participating in modulating the maternal immune response to prevent immunological rejection of the conceptus. The major substrates required for fetal growth include oxygen, glucose, amino acids and fatty acids, and their transport processes depend on morphological characteristics of the placenta, such as placental size, morphology, blood flow and vascularity. Other factors including insulin-like growth factors, apoptosis, autophagy and glucocorticoid exposure also affect placental growth and substrate transport capacity. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is often a consequence of insufficiency, and is associated with a high incidence of perinatal morbidity and mortality, as well as increased risk of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in later life. Several different experimental methods have been used to induce placental insufficiency and IUGR in animal models and a range of factors that regulate placental growth and substrate transport capacity have been demonstrated. While no model system completely recapitulates human IUGR, these animal models allow us to carefully dissect cellular and molecular mechanisms to improve our understanding and facilitate development of therapeutic interventions. PMID:25580812

  6. Caloric restriction and genomic stability

    PubMed Central

    Heydari, Ahmad R.; Unnikrishnan, Archana; Lucente, Lisa Ventrella; Richardson, Arlan

    2007-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) reduces the incidence and progression of spontaneous and induced tumors in laboratory rodents while increasing mean and maximum life spans. It has been suggested that CR extends longevity and reduces age-related pathologies by reducing the levels of DNA damage and mutations that accumulate with age. This hypothesis is attractive because the integrity of the genome is essential to a cell/organism and because it is supported by observations that both cancer and immunological defects, which increase significantly with age and are delayed by CR, are associated with changes in DNA damage and/or DNA repair. Over the last three decades, numerous laboratories have examined the effects of CR on the integrity of the genome and the ability of cells to repair DNA. The majority of studies performed indicate that the age-related increase in oxidative damage to DNA is significantly reduced by CR. Early studies suggest that CR reduces DNA damage by enhancing DNA repair. With the advent of genomic technology and our increased understanding of specific repair pathways, CR has been shown to have a significant effect on major DNA repair pathways, such as NER, BER and double-strand break repair. PMID:17942423

  7. Prenatal Depression Restricts Fetal Growth

    PubMed Central

    Diego, Miguel A.; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria; Schanberg, Saul; Kuhn, Cynthia; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Objective To identify whether prenatal depression is a risk factor for fetal growth restriction. Methods Midgestation (18-20 weeks GA) estimated fetal weight and urine cortisol and birth weight and gestational age at birth data were collected on a sample of 40 depressed and 40 non-depressed women. Estimated fetal weight and birthweight data were then used to compute fetal growth rates. Results Depressed women had a 13% greater incidence of premature delivery (Odds Ratio (OR) = 2.61) and 15% greater incidence of low birthweight (OR = 4.75) than non-depressed women. Depressed women also had elevated prenatal cortisol levels (p = .006) and fetuses who were smaller (p = .001) and who showed slower fetal growth rates (p = .011) and lower birthweights (p = .008). Mediation analyses further revealed that prenatal maternal cortisol levels were a potential mediator for the relationship between maternal symptoms of depression and both gestational age at birth and the rate of fetal growth. After controlling for maternal demographic variables, prenatal maternal cortisol levels were associated with 30% of the variance in gestational age at birth and 14% of the variance in the rate of fetal growth. Conclusion Prenatal depression was associated with adverse perinatal outcomes, including premature delivery and slower fetal growth rates. Prenatal maternal cortisol levels appear to play a role in mediating these outcomes. PMID:18723301

  8. Sleep in patients with restrictive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Won, Christine H J; Kryger, Meir

    2014-09-01

    Restrictive lung disease leads to ventilatory defects and diffusion impairments. These changes may contribute to abnormal nocturnal pathophysiology, including sleep architecture disruption and impaired ventilation and oxygenation. Patients with restrictive lung disease may suffer significant daytime fatigue and dysfunction. Hypercarbia and hypoxemia during sleep may impact progression of lung disease and related symptoms. Little is known about the impact of treatment of sleep disruption on sleep quality and overall prognosis in restrictive lung disease. This review discusses the pathophysiology of sleep and comorbid sleep disorders in restrictive lung diseases including interstitial lung disease, neuromuscular disease, and obesity hypoventilation syndrome.

  9. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Restricted experiments: (1) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a... agriculture. (2) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for...

  10. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Restricted experiments: (1) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a... agriculture. (2) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for...

  11. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Restricted experiments: (1) Experiments utilizing recombinant DNA that involve the deliberate transfer of a... agriculture. (2) Experiments involving the deliberate formation of recombinant DNA containing genes for...

  12. 50 CFR 216.35 - Permit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... parts is subject to the provisions of 50 CFR part 14. (d) The permit holder shall not take from the wild... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.35 Permit restrictions. The following restrictions shall apply to...

  13. 50 CFR 216.35 - Permit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... parts is subject to the provisions of 50 CFR part 14. (d) The permit holder shall not take from the wild... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE MAMMALS Special Exceptions § 216.35 Permit restrictions. The following restrictions shall apply to...

  14. 40 CFR 1033.740 - Credit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... restrictions. Use of emission credits generated under this part 1033 or 40 CFR part 92 is restricted depending on the standards against which they were generated. (a) Credits from 40 CFR part 92. NOX and PM credits generated under 40 CFR part 92 may be used under this part in the same manner as NOX and...

  15. 40 CFR 1033.740 - Credit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... restrictions. Use of emission credits generated under this part 1033 or 40 CFR part 92 is restricted depending on the standards against which they were generated. (a) Credits from 40 CFR part 92. NOX and PM credits generated under 40 CFR part 92 may be used under this part in the same manner as NOX and...

  16. 40 CFR 1033.740 - Credit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... restrictions. Use of emission credits generated under this part 1033 or 40 CFR part 92 is restricted depending on the standards against which they were generated. (a) Credits from 40 CFR part 92. NOX and PM credits generated under 40 CFR part 92 may be used under this part in the same manner as NOX and...

  17. 40 CFR 1033.740 - Credit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... restrictions. Use of emission credits generated under this part 1033 or 40 CFR part 92 is restricted depending on the standards against which they were generated. (a) Credits from 40 CFR part 92. NOX and PM credits generated under 40 CFR part 92 may be used under this part in the same manner as NOX and...

  18. 50 CFR 16.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General restrictions. 16.3 Section 16.3..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Introduction § 16.3 General restrictions. Any importation or transportation of...

  19. 50 CFR 16.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false General restrictions. 16.3 Section 16.3..., POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Introduction § 16.3 General restrictions. Any importation or transportation of...

  20. 50 CFR 665.799 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.799 Section 665.799 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.799 Area restrictions. (a) Fishing is prohibited in all no-take MPAs designated in...

  1. 50 CFR 665.266 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.266 Section 665.266 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Area restrictions. Fishing for coral on the WestPac Bed is not allowed. The specific area closed...

  2. 50 CFR 665.799 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.799 Section 665.799 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.799 Area restrictions. (a) Fishing is prohibited in all no-take MPAs designated in...

  3. 50 CFR 665.599 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.599 Section 665... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.599 Area restrictions. Except as provided in § 665.934, fishing is prohibited in all...

  4. 50 CFR 665.599 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.599 Section 665... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Pacific Remote Island Area Fisheries § 665.599 Area restrictions. Except as provided in § 665.934, fishing is prohibited in all...

  5. 50 CFR 665.266 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.266 Section 665.266 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Area restrictions. Fishing for coral on the WestPac Bed is not allowed. The specific area closed...

  6. 50 CFR 665.266 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.266 Section 665.266 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Area restrictions. Fishing for coral on the WestPac Bed is not allowed. The specific area closed...

  7. 50 CFR 648.23 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.23 Gear restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76...) Mackerel, squid, and butterfish bottom trawling restricted areas. (i) Oceanographer Canyon. No permitted mackerel, squid, or butterfish vessel may fish with bottom trawl gear in the Oceanographer Canyon or be...

  8. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance

    PubMed Central

    Wyatt, Gregory A. K.; Kiers, E. Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A.

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  9. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  10. 9 CFR 78.30 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General restrictions. 78.30 Section 78.30 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions...

  11. 9 CFR 78.30 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General restrictions. 78.30 Section 78.30 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions...

  12. 9 CFR 78.30 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false General restrictions. 78.30 Section 78.30 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions...

  13. 9 CFR 78.30 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restrictions. 78.30 Section 78.30 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions...

  14. 7 CFR 3200.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions. 3200.6 Section 3200.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR THE ACQUISITION AND TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.6 Restrictions....

  15. 7 CFR 3200.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions. 3200.6 Section 3200.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR THE ACQUISITION AND TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.6 Restrictions....

  16. 7 CFR 3200.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions. 3200.6 Section 3200.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR THE ACQUISITION AND TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.6 Restrictions....

  17. 7 CFR 3200.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions. 3200.6 Section 3200.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR THE ACQUISITION AND TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.6 Restrictions....

  18. 7 CFR 3200.6 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions. 3200.6 Section 3200.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF PROCUREMENT AND PROPERTY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GUIDELINES FOR THE ACQUISITION AND TRANSFER OF EXCESS PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.6 Restrictions....

  19. 50 CFR 648.142 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.142 Section 648... Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.142 Time restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60636, Sept... October 11 and November 1 through December 31, unless this time period is adjusted pursuant to...

  20. 50 CFR 648.102 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.102 Section 648... Summer Flounder Fisheries § 648.102 Time restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60626... flounder from May 1 through September 30. This time period may be adjusted pursuant to the procedures...

  1. 14 CFR 73.13 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions. 73.13 Section 73.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRSPACE... restricted area between the designated altitudes and during the time of designation, unless he has...

  2. Freedom and Restrictions in Language Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Roy C.

    Since freedom of thought and expression is essential in a democracy, censorship of language is rightly regarded as a threat to all other freedoms. Still, it is inevitable that certain restrictions will occasionally be imposed on language in America and in other societies. Restrictions on language date back to the Ten Commandments, which condemned…

  3. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  4. 49 CFR 236.812 - Speed, restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Speed, restricted. 236.812 Section 236.812 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, restricted. A speed that will permit stopping within one-half the range of vision, but...

  5. 49 CFR 236.812 - Speed, restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Speed, restricted. 236.812 Section 236.812 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, restricted. A speed that will permit stopping within one-half the range of vision, but...

  6. 49 CFR 236.812 - Speed, restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Speed, restricted. 236.812 Section 236.812 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, restricted. A speed that will permit stopping within one-half the range of vision, but...

  7. 49 CFR 236.812 - Speed, restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed, restricted. 236.812 Section 236.812 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, restricted. A speed that will permit stopping within one-half the range of vision, but...

  8. 49 CFR 236.812 - Speed, restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Speed, restricted. 236.812 Section 236.812 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Speed, restricted. A speed that will permit stopping within one-half the range of vision, but...

  9. 9 CFR 80.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS § 80.2 General restrictions. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's disease... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restrictions. 80.2 Section...

  10. 45 CFR 9.5 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions. 9.5 Section 9.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.5 Restrictions. (a) Each individual authorized to use...

  11. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... authority, the conditions provided in this section, including the restriction on affiliate sales of electric... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy...

  12. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... authority, the conditions provided in this section, including the restriction on affiliate sales of electric... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy...

  13. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... authority, the conditions provided in this section, including the restriction on affiliate sales of electric... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy...

  14. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  15. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.506 Gear restrictions. The only fishing gear authorized for use in the reduction fishery...

  16. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  17. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  18. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  19. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.506 Gear restrictions. The only fishing gear authorized for use in the reduction fishery for northern anchovy...

  20. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  1. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  2. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  3. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  4. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  5. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.506 Gear restrictions. The only fishing gear authorized for use in the reduction fishery...

  6. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  7. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Hawaii Fisheries § 665.264 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  8. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  9. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  10. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 660.506 Gear restrictions. The only fishing gear authorized for use in the reduction fishery...

  11. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  12. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  13. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665... Fisheries § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  14. 50 CFR 665.605 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.605 Section 665.605... § 665.605 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for PRIA bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear. Possession of...

  15. 50 CFR 665.264 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.264 Section 665.264 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious coral permit area....

  16. 50 CFR 665.164 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.164 Section 665.164 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... § 665.164 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any precious...

  17. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  18. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  19. 50 CFR 665.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.104 Section 665... § 665.104 Gear restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for American Samoa bottomfish MUS with bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets is prohibited. (b) Possession of gear....

  20. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  1. 50 CFR 665.664 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.664 Section 665.664 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fisheries § 665.664 Gear restrictions. Only selective gear may be used to harvest coral from any...

  2. Restricting mutualistic partners to enforce trade reliance.

    PubMed

    Wyatt, Gregory A K; Kiers, E Toby; Gardner, Andy; West, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Mutualisms are cooperative interactions between members of different species, often involving the trade of resources. Here, we suggest that otherwise-cooperative mutualists might be able to gain a benefit from actively restricting their partners' ability to obtain resources directly, hampering the ability of the restricted partner to survive and/or reproduce without the help of the restricting mutualist. We show that (i) restriction can be favoured when it makes the resources of the restricting individual more valuable to their partner, and thus allows them to receive more favourable terms of trade; (ii) restriction maintains cooperation in conditions where cooperative behaviour would otherwise collapse; and (iii) restriction can lead to either an increase or decrease in a restricted individual's fitness. We discuss the applicability of this scenario to mutualisms such as those between plants and mycorrhizal fungi. These results identify a novel conflict in mutualisms as well as several public goods dilemmas, but also demonstrate how conflict can help maintain cooperation. PMID:26813888

  3. 5 CFR 451.303 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions. 451.303 Section 451.303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS AWARDS Presidential Rank Awards § 451.303 Restrictions. (a) Governmentwide limitations—SES. During any fiscal year— (1) The number of career SES appointees awarded...

  4. 50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession restrictions. 648.25 Section 648.25 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. (a) Atlantic...

  5. 9 CFR 80.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General restrictions. 80.2 Section 80.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ANIMALS § 80.2 General restrictions. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's...

  6. 9 CFR 80.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General restrictions. 80.2 Section 80.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... ANIMALS § 80.2 General restrictions. Domestic animals that are positive to an official Johne's...

  7. 50 CFR 648.142 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.142 Section 648.142... Fishery § 648.142 Time restrictions. Vessels that are not eligible for a moratorium permit under § 648.4(a... bass from May 22 through October 11 and November 1 through December 31, unless this time period...

  8. 50 CFR 648.102 - Time restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Time restrictions. 648.102 Section 648.102... Flounder Fisheries § 648.102 Time restrictions. Unless otherwise specified pursuant to § 648.107, vessels... possession limit may fish for summer flounder from May 1 through September 30. This time period may...

  9. 7 CFR 3550.118 - Grant restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant restrictions. 3550.118 Section 3550.118... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 504 Origination and Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.118 Grant restrictions. (a) Maximum grant. Lifetime assistance to...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.118 - Grant restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grant restrictions. 3550.118 Section 3550.118... AGRICULTURE DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Section 504 Origination and Section 306C Water and Waste Disposal Grants § 3550.118 Grant restrictions. (a) Maximum grant. Lifetime assistance to...

  11. 40 CFR 1033.740 - Credit restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... restrictions. Use of emission credits generated under this part 1033 or 40 CFR part 92 is restricted depending on the standards against which they were generated. (a) Credits from 40 CFR part 92. NOX and PM credits generated under 40 CFR part 92 may be used under this part in the same manner as NOX and...

  12. 28 CFR 804.3 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restrictions. 804.3 Section 804.3 Judicial Administration COURT SERVICES AND OFFENDER SUPERVISION AGENCY FOR THE DISTRICT OF COLUMBIA ACCEPTANCE OF GIFTS § 804.3 Restrictions. (a) The Agency is not authorized to accept gifts of money,...

  13. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  14. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  15. 10 CFR 110.29 - Restricted destinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted destinations. 110.29 Section 110.29 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Licenses § 110.29 Restricted destinations. Afghanistan Andorra Angola Burma (Myanmar) Djibouti India Israel...

  16. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  17. 9 CFR 78.30 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS BRUCELLOSIS Restrictions on Interstate Movement of Swine Because of Brucellosis § 78.30 General restrictions. (a) Brucellosis reactor swine, brucellosis exposed swine, feral swine, sows, and boars may not be moved interstate or...

  18. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  19. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  20. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  1. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  2. 25 CFR 163.12 - Harvesting restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Harvesting restrictions. 163.12 Section 163.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER GENERAL FORESTRY REGULATIONS Forest Management and Operations § 163.12 Harvesting restrictions. (a) Harvesting timber on commercial forest...

  3. 12 CFR 1807.904 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1807.904 Section 1807.904 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.904 Lobbying restrictions. No...

  4. 12 CFR 1807.904 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1807.904 Section 1807.904 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.904 Lobbying restrictions. No...

  5. 12 CFR 1807.904 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1807.904 Section 1807.904 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.904 Lobbying restrictions. No...

  6. 12 CFR 1807.904 - Lobbying restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Lobbying restrictions. 1807.904 Section 1807.904 Banks and Banking COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FUND, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CAPITAL MAGNET FUND Terms and Conditions of Assistance § 1807.904 Lobbying restrictions. No...

  7. 21 CFR 203.20 - Sales restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL PRESCRIPTION DRUG MARKETING Sales Restrictions § 203.20 Sales restrictions. Except as provided in § 203.22 or... drug that was: (a) Purchased by a public or private hospital or other health care entity; or...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.905 Funding restrictions....

  9. 7 CFR 3430.505 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.505 Section 3430.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Funding restrictions. (a) Construction. Funds made available for grants under this subsection shall not...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.505 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.505 Section 3430.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Funding restrictions. (a) Construction. Funds made available for grants under this subsection shall not...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.605 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.605 Section 3430.605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program § 3430.605 Funding restrictions....

  12. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Specialty Crop Research Initiative § 3430.205 Funding restrictions. (a)...

  13. 7 CFR 3430.605 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.605 Section 3430.605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... § 3430.605 Funding restrictions. (a) Facility costs. Funds made available under this subpart shall not...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.305 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.305 Section 3430.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.305 Funding restrictions....

  15. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.905 Funding restrictions....

  16. 7 CFR 3430.505 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.505 Section 3430.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Funding restrictions. (a) Construction. Funds made available for grants under this subsection shall not...

  17. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Specialty Crop Research Initiative § 3430.205 Funding restrictions. (a)...

  18. 7 CFR 3430.305 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.305 Section 3430.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.305 Funding restrictions....

  19. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Program § 3430.905 Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Grant funds awarded...

  20. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COOPERATIVE STATE RESEARCH, EDUCATION... Funding restrictions. (a) Prohibition against construction. Funds made available under this subpart...

  1. 7 CFR 3430.605 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.605 Section 3430.605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program § 3430.605 Funding restrictions....

  2. 7 CFR 3430.705 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.705 Section 3430.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Biomass Research and Development Initiative § 3430.705 Funding restrictions....

  3. 7 CFR 3430.305 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.305 Section 3430.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.305 Funding restrictions....

  4. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Specialty Crop Research Initiative § 3430.205 Funding restrictions. (a)...

  5. 7 CFR 3430.605 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.605 Section 3430.605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program § 3430.605 Funding restrictions....

  6. 7 CFR 3430.705 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.705 Section 3430.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Biomass Research and Development Initiative § 3430.705 Funding restrictions....

  7. 7 CFR 3430.505 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.505 Section 3430.505 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... Funding restrictions. (a) Construction. Funds made available for grants under this subsection shall not...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.705 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.705 Section 3430.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Biomass Research and Development Initiative § 3430.705 Funding restrictions....

  9. 7 CFR 3430.705 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.705 Section 3430.705 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Biomass Research and Development Initiative § 3430.705 Funding restrictions....

  10. 7 CFR 3430.305 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.305 Section 3430.305 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Agriculture and Food Research Initiative § 3430.305 Funding restrictions....

  11. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.905 Funding restrictions....

  12. 7 CFR 3430.605 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.605 Section 3430.605 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program § 3430.605 Funding restrictions....

  13. 7 CFR 3430.205 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.205 Section 3430.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Specialty Crop Research Initiative § 3430.205 Funding restrictions. (a)...

  14. 7 CFR 3430.905 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.905 Section 3430.905 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.905 Funding restrictions....

  15. 45 CFR 9.5 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions. 9.5 Section 9.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.5 Restrictions. (a) Each individual authorized to use...

  16. 45 CFR 9.5 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions. 9.5 Section 9.5 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.5 Restrictions. (a) Each individual authorized to use...

  17. 45 CFR 9.5 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions. 9.5 Section 9.5 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION USE OF HHS RESEARCH FACILITIES BY ACADEMIC SCIENTISTS, ENGINEERS, AND STUDENTS § 9.5 Restrictions. (a) Each individual authorized to use...

  18. 19 CFR 114.31 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions. 114.31 Section 114.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Miscellaneous § 114.31 Restrictions. (a) Mail importations. Carnets shall not be accepted...

  19. 19 CFR 114.31 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Restrictions. 114.31 Section 114.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Miscellaneous § 114.31 Restrictions. (a) Mail importations. Carnets shall not be accepted...

  20. 19 CFR 114.31 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restrictions. 114.31 Section 114.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Miscellaneous § 114.31 Restrictions. (a) Mail importations. Carnets shall not be accepted...

  1. 19 CFR 114.31 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Restrictions. 114.31 Section 114.31 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARNETS Miscellaneous § 114.31 Restrictions. (a) Mail importations. Carnets shall not be accepted...

  2. 24 CFR 850.151 - Project restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.151 Project restrictions. (a) Owner... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Project restrictions. 850.151... owner shall not convert the units in the project to condominium ownership or to a form of...

  3. 24 CFR 850.151 - Project restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.151 Project restrictions. (a) Owner... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Project restrictions. 850.151... owner shall not convert the units in the project to condominium ownership or to a form of...

  4. 24 CFR 850.151 - Project restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.151 Project restrictions. (a) Owner... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Project restrictions. 850.151... owner shall not convert the units in the project to condominium ownership or to a form of...

  5. 24 CFR 850.151 - Project restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.151 Project restrictions. (a) Owner... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Project restrictions. 850.151... owner shall not convert the units in the project to condominium ownership or to a form of...

  6. 24 CFR 850.151 - Project restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DISABILITIES PROGRAM) HOUSING DEVELOPMENT GRANTS Project Management § 850.151 Project restrictions. (a) Owner... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Project restrictions. 850.151... owner shall not convert the units in the project to condominium ownership or to a form of...

  7. An Event Restriction Interval Theory of Tense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beamer, Brandon Robert

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a novel theory of tense and tense-like constructions. It is named after a key theoretical component of the theory, the event restriction interval. In Event Restriction Interval (ERI) Theory, sentences are semantically evaluated relative to an index which contains two key intervals, the evaluation interval and the event…

  8. 46 CFR 182.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of alternative fuels, other than diesel fuel or gasoline, as fuel for an internal combustion engine will be reviewed on... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 182.405 Section 182.405...

  9. 46 CFR 119.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 119.405 Section 119.405 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of a fuel, other than diesel fuel, as an alternative fuel for an internal combustion engine, except gasoline when used as a fuel for outboard motors...

  10. 46 CFR 182.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 182.405 Section 182.405 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of alternative fuels, other than diesel fuel or gasoline, as fuel for an internal combustion engine will be reviewed...

  11. 46 CFR 119.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 119.405 Section 119.405 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of a fuel, other than diesel fuel, as an alternative fuel for an internal combustion engine, except gasoline when used as a fuel for outboard motors...

  12. 46 CFR 119.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 119.405 Section 119.405 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of a fuel, other than diesel fuel, as an alternative fuel for an internal combustion engine, except gasoline when used as a fuel for outboard motors...

  13. 46 CFR 119.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 119.405 Section 119.405 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of a fuel, other than diesel fuel, as an alternative fuel for an internal combustion engine, except gasoline when used as a fuel for outboard motors...

  14. 46 CFR 182.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 182.405 Section 182.405 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of alternative fuels, other than diesel fuel or gasoline, as fuel for an internal combustion engine will be reviewed...

  15. 46 CFR 182.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 182.405 Section 182.405 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of alternative fuels, other than diesel fuel or gasoline, as fuel for an internal combustion engine will be reviewed...

  16. 46 CFR 182.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 182.405 Section 182.405 Shipping...) MACHINERY INSTALLATION Specific Machinery Requirements § 182.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of alternative fuels, other than diesel fuel or gasoline, as fuel for an internal combustion engine will be reviewed...

  17. 46 CFR 119.405 - Fuel restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fuel restrictions. 119.405 Section 119.405 Shipping... Machinery Requirements § 119.405 Fuel restrictions. The use of a fuel, other than diesel fuel, as an alternative fuel for an internal combustion engine, except gasoline when used as a fuel for outboard motors...

  18. 14 CFR 1203.411 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions. 1203.411 Section 1203.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.411 Restrictions. (a) Except as provided by directives issued by...

  19. 14 CFR 1203.411 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions. 1203.411 Section 1203.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.411 Restrictions. (a) Except as provided by directives issued by...

  20. 14 CFR 1203.411 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Restrictions. 1203.411 Section 1203.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.411 Restrictions. (a) Except as provided by directives issued by...

  1. 14 CFR § 1203.411 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restrictions. § 1203.411 Section § 1203.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.411 Restrictions. (a) Except as provided by directives...

  2. 14 CFR 1203.411 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions. 1203.411 Section 1203.411 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION INFORMATION SECURITY PROGRAM Guides for Original Classification § 1203.411 Restrictions. (a) Except as provided by directives issued by...

  3. 40 CFR 258.28 - Liquids restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval and a notice of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Liquids restrictions. 258.28 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.28 Liquids restrictions. (a) Bulk...

  4. 40 CFR 258.28 - Liquids restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval and a notice of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Liquids restrictions. 258.28 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.28 Liquids restrictions. (a) Bulk...

  5. 40 CFR 258.28 - Liquids restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval and a notice of... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Liquids restrictions. 258.28 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.28 Liquids restrictions. (a) Bulk...

  6. 40 CFR 258.28 - Liquids restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval and a notice of... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Liquids restrictions. 258.28 Section... MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.28 Liquids restrictions. (a) Bulk...

  7. Smoking restrictions in private workplaces in Singapore.

    PubMed

    Koh, Y H; Voo, Y O; Yong, L S

    1994-06-01

    This survey aims to determine the number and profile of private workplaces in Singapore which have a smoking restriction policy. The response rate was 43%. Of the companies which responded, 59% had some form of smoking restriction. Private companies are more likely to have a smoking restriction policy: (a) where smoking poses inherent fire risks, such as those dealing with inflammable chemicals or gases; (b) where smoking poses inherent detrimental effects to the quality of the products, such as those dealing with precision electronic microcomponents, where a smoke-free and dust-free environment is essential; (c) are larger companies; and (d) have strong management support in initiating and enforcing smoking restriction. Future programmes should give more emphasis to the service industries such as construction, insurance, banking and finance, and smaller companies (with fewer than 100 employees). They should involve the management who play an important role in implementing smoking restriction at their workplace. PMID:7997897

  8. Measuring the Restrictiveness of Living Environments for Children and Youth: Reconceptualizing Restriction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauktis, Mary E.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; O'Brien, Kirk; Pecora, Peter J.; Doucette, Ann; Thompson, Ronald W.

    2009-01-01

    The "Restrictiveness of Living Environment Scale" has long been the primary way to conceptualize the "restrictiveness" of a child's living situation. However, changes in systems of care and other factors have created a need to revisit how restrictiveness is conceptualized and measured. A measure was created to assess an environment's level of…

  9. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  10. 19 CFR 12.17 - Importation restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.17 Importation restricted. The importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins,...

  11. Restricted treatments, inducements, and research participation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Sarah J L

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, I support the claim that placing certain restrictions on public access to possible new treatments is morally problematic under some exceptional circumstances. Very ill patients may find that all available standard treatments are unacceptable, either because they are ineffective or have serious adverse effects, and these patients may understandably be desperate to try something new even if this means stepping into the unknown. Faced with certain death, it is rational to want to try something new and to chance a dire outcome. Restricting possible new treatments to research trials may put these treatments scientifically, geographically or economically out of reach of these patients. For those who can get access, research restrictions could weaken, though not necessarily eliminate, the value of consent participants of such trials are able to give. Some participants may therefore be exploited for scientific purposes in the name of public interest. There are nonetheless compelling reasons for keeping some restrictive regulation in this area.

  12. 50 CFR 665.99 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.99 Section 665.99 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... Ocean Survey Chart Number 83484....

  13. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... transmission as defined in § 383.5. (d) Tractor-trailer. If an applicant performs the skills test in a... restricted from operating a tractor-trailer combination connected by a fifth wheel that requires a Group...

  14. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... transmission as defined in § 383.5. (d) Tractor-trailer. If an applicant performs the skills test in a... restricted from operating a tractor-trailer combination connected by a fifth wheel that requires a Group...

  15. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... transmission as defined in § 383.5. (d) Tractor-trailer. If an applicant performs the skills test in a... restricted from operating a tractor-trailer combination connected by a fifth wheel that requires a Group...

  16. Restriction/modification polypeptides, polynucleotides, and methods

    DOEpatents

    Westpheling, Janet; Chung, DaeHwan; Huddleston, Jennifer; Farkas, Joel A

    2015-02-24

    The present invention relates to the discovery of a novel restriction/modification system in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii. The discovered restriction enzyme is a HaeIII-like restriction enzyme that possesses a thermophilic activity profile. The restriction/modification system also includes a methyltransferase, M.CbeI, that methylates at least one cytosine residue in the CbeI recognition sequence to m.sup.4C. Thus, the invention provides, in various aspects, isolated CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides, or biologically active fragments thereof; isolated polynucleotides that encode the CbeI or M.CbeI polypeptides or biologically active fragments thereof, including expression vectors that include such polynucleotide sequences; methods of digesting DNA using a CbeI polypeptide; methods of treating a DNA molecule using a M.CbeI polypeptide; and methods of transforming a Caldicellulosiruptor cell.

  17. Restrictions on Database Use: Are They Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molster, H. C.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses restrictions regarding use of bibliographic data bases, cites their rationale in terms of cooperation in input creation, economics and administrative control, and notes their effect on use. (Author/CWM)

  18. 7 CFR 1778.10 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., cost, and are not directly related to correcting the potable water quantity or quality problem. (4) Pay... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.10 Restrictions. (a) Grant...

  19. 7 CFR 1778.10 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., cost, and are not directly related to correcting the potable water quantity or quality problem. (4) Pay... (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.10 Restrictions. (a) Grant...

  20. 42 CFR 73.13 - Restricted experiments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SELECT AGENTS AND TOXINS § 73.13 Restricted experiments. (a) An individual or entity may not conduct, or... recombinant DNA containing genes for the biosynthesis of select toxins lethal for vertebrates at an LD <100...

  1. 19 CFR 12.17 - Importation restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.17 Importation restricted. The importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins,...

  2. 19 CFR 12.17 - Importation restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.17 Importation restricted. The importation into the United States of viruses, serums, toxins,...

  3. 9 CFR 78.5 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Interstate Movement of Cattle Because of Brucellosis § 78.5 General restrictions. Cattle may not be moved interstate except in compliance with this subpart and with 9 CFR part 86. Cattle moved interstate...

  4. Restricting query relaxation through user constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Gaasterland, T.

    1993-07-01

    This paper describes techniques to restrict and to heuristically control relaxation of deductive database queries. The process of query relaxation provides a user with a means to automatically identify new queries that are related to the user`s original query. However, for large databases, many relaxations may be possible. The methods to control and restrict the relaxation process introduced in this paper focus the relaxation process and make it more efficient. User restrictions over the data base domain may be expressed as user constraints. This paper describes how user constraints can restrict relaxed queries. Also, a set of heuristics based on cooperative answering techniques are presented for controlling the relaxation process. Finally, the interaction of the methods for relaxing queries, processing user constraints, and applying the heuristic rules is described.

  5. Methionine restriction and life-span control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung Cheon; Kaya, Alaattin; Gladyshev, Vadim N

    2016-01-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) without malnutrition is associated with longevity in various organisms. However, it has also been shown that reduced calorie intake is often ineffective in extending life span. Selecting optimal dietary regimens for DR studies is complicated, as the same regimen may lead to different outcomes depending on genotype and environmental factors. Recent studies suggested that interventions such as moderate protein restriction with or without adequate nutrition (e.g., particular amino acids or carbohydrates) may have additional beneficial effects mediated by certain metabolic and hormonal factors implicated in the biology of aging, regardless of total calorie intake. In particular, it was shown that restriction of a single amino acid, methionine, can mimic the effects of DR and extend life span in various model organisms. We discuss the beneficial effects of a methionine-restricted diet, the molecular pathways involved, and the use of this regimen in longevity interventions.

  6. Tighten Teens' Nighttime Driving Restrictions: CDC

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160130.html Tighten Teens' Nighttime Driving Restrictions: CDC Midnight cutoff is too ... THURSDAY, July 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Getting U.S. teens out of the driver's seat before midnight would ...

  7. The design of artificial retroviral restriction factors

    SciTech Connect

    Yap, Melvyn W.; Mortuza, Gulnahar B.; Taylor, Ian A.; Stoye, Jonathan P.

    2007-09-01

    In addition to the ability to bind the retroviral capsid protein, the retroviral restriction factors Fv1, Trim5{alpha} and Trim5-CypA share the common property of containing sequences that promote self-association. Otherwise Fv1 and Trim5{alpha} appear unrelated. Mutational analyses showed that restriction was invariably lost when changes designed to disrupt the sequences responsible for multimerization were introduced. A novel restriction protein could be obtained by substituting sequences from the self-associating domain of Fv1 for the Trim5 sequences in Trim5-CypA. Similarly, a fusion protein containing cyclophilin A joined to arfaptin2, a protein known to form extended dimers, was also shown to restrict HIV-1. Hence, multimerization of a capsid-binding domain could be the common minimum design feature for capsid-dependent retroviral restriction factors. However, not all domains that promote multimerization can substitute for the N-terminal domains of Fv1 and Trim5{alpha}. Moreover, only CypA can provide a capsid-binding site with different N-terminal domains. It is suggested that the spatial relationship between the multiple target binding sites may be important for restriction.

  8. REPK: an analytical web server to select restriction endonucleases for terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis.

    PubMed

    Collins, Roy Eric; Rocap, Gabrielle

    2007-07-01

    Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a widespread technique for rapidly fingerprinting microbial communities. Users of T-RFLP frequently overlook the resolving power of well-chosen restriction endonucleases and often fail to report how they chose their enzymes. REPK (Restriction Endonuclease Picker) assists in the rational choice of restriction endonucleases for T-RFLP by finding sets of four restriction endonucleases that together uniquely differentiate user-designated sequence groups. With REPK, users can provide their own sequences (of any gene, not just 16S rRNA), specify the taxonomic rank of interest and choose from a number of filtering options to further narrow down the enzyme selection. Bug tracking is provided, and the source code is open and accessible under the GNU Public License v.2, at http://code.google.com/p/repk. The web server is available without access restrictions at http://rocaplab.ocean.washington.edu/tools/repk.

  9. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... uses Restricted Inhalation hazard to humans. Residue effects on avian species and aquatic organisms.... All granulars and wettable powders Molluscide uses Restricted Effects on aquatic organisms... greater All uses Restricted Acute dermal toxicity; residue effects on avian species (except for...

  10. Fatigue, sleep restriction and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Philip, Pierre; Sagaspe, Patricia; Moore, Nicholas; Taillard, Jacques; Charles, André; Guilleminault, Christian; Bioulac, Bernard

    2005-05-01

    We ran a randomized cross-over design study under sleep-deprived and non-sleep-deprived driving conditions to test the effects of sleep restriction on real driving performance. The study was performed in a sleep laboratory and on an open French highway. Twenty-two healthy male subjects (age = 21.5 +/- 2 years; distance driven per year = 12,225 +/- 4739 km (7641 +/- 2962 miles) [mean +/- S.D.]) drove 1000 km (625 miles) over 10 h during five 105 min sessions on an open highway. Self-rated fatigue and sleepiness before each session, number of inappropriate line crossings from video recordings and simple reaction time (RT) were measured. Total crossings increased after sleep restriction (535 crossings in the sleep-restricted condition versus 66 after non-restricted sleep (incidence rate ratio (IRR): 8.1; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 3.2-20.5; p < 0.001)), from the first driving session. The interaction between the two factors (conditionxtime of day) was also significant (F(5, 105) = 3.229; p < 0.05). Increasing sleepiness score was associated with increasing crossings during the next driving session in the sleep-restricted (IRR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4) but not in the non-restricted condition (IRR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.8-1.3). Increasing self-perceived fatigue was not associated with increasing crossings in either condition (IRR: 0.95; 95% CI: 0.93-0.98 and IRR: 1.0; 95% CI: 0.98-1.02). Rested subjects drove 1000 km with four shorts breaks with only a minor performance decrease. Sleep restriction induced important performance degradation even though time awake (8h) and session driving times (105 min) were relatively short. Major inter-individual differences were observed under sleep restriction. Performance degradation was associated with sleepiness and not fatigue. Sleepiness combined with fatigue significantly affected RT. Road safety campaigns should encourage drivers to avoid driving after sleep restriction, even on relatively short trips especially if they feel

  11. Counteraction of the multifunctional restriction factor tetherin.

    PubMed

    Sauter, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The interferon-inducible restriction factor tetherin (also known as CD317, BST-2 or HM1.24) has emerged as a key component of the antiviral immune response. Initially, tetherin was shown to restrict replication of various enveloped viruses by inhibiting the release of budding virions from infected cells. More recently, it has become clear that tetherin also acts as a pattern recognition receptor inducing NF-κB-dependent proinflammatory gene expression in virus infected cells. Whereas the ability to restrict virion release is highly conserved among mammalian tetherin orthologs and thus probably an ancient function of this protein, innate sensing seems to be an evolutionarily recent activity. The potent and broad antiviral activity of tetherin is reflected by the fact that many viruses evolved means to counteract this restriction factor. A continuous arms race with viruses has apparently driven the evolution of different isoforms of tetherin with different functional properties. Interestingly, tetherin has also been implicated in cellular processes that are unrelated to immunity, such as the organization of the apical actin network and membrane microdomains or stabilization of the Golgi apparatus. In this review, I summarize our current knowledge of the different functions of tetherin and describe the molecular strategies that viruses have evolved to antagonize or evade this multifunctional host restriction factor.

  12. Placental Nutrient Transport and Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Gaccioli, Francesca; Lager, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction refers to the inability of the fetus to reach its genetically determined potential size. Fetal growth restriction affects approximately 5–15% of all pregnancies in the United States and Europe. In developing countries the occurrence varies widely between 10 and 55%, impacting about 30 million newborns per year. Besides having high perinatal mortality rates these infants are at greater risk for severe adverse outcomes, such as hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy and cerebral palsy. Moreover, reduced fetal growth has lifelong health consequences, including higher risks of developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. Numerous reports indicate placental insufficiency as one of the underlying causes leading to altered fetal growth and impaired placental capacity of delivering nutrients to the fetus has been shown to contribute to the etiology of intrauterine growth restriction. Indeed, reduced expression and/or activity of placental nutrient transporters have been demonstrated in several conditions associated with an increased risk of delivering a small or growth restricted infant. This review focuses on human pregnancies and summarizes the changes in placental amino acid, fatty acid, and glucose transport reported in conditions associated with intrauterine growth restriction, such as maternal undernutrition, pre-eclampsia, young maternal age, high altitude and infection. PMID:26909042

  13. Restricted interests and teacher presentation of items.

    PubMed

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items.

  14. Fasting or caloric restriction for Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Anton, Stephen; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with a host of biological changes that contribute to a progressive decline in cognitive and physical function, ultimately leading to a loss of independence, and increased risk of mortality. To date, prolonged caloric restriction (i.e., a reduction in caloric intake without malnutrition) is the only non-genetic intervention that has consistently been found to extend both mean and maximal life span across a variety of species. Most individuals have difficulty sustaining prolonged caloric restriction, which has led to a search for alternative approaches that can produce similar to benefits as caloric restriction. A growing body of evidence indicates that fasting periods and intermittent fasting regimens in particular can trigger similar biological pathways as caloric restriction. For this reason, there is increasing scientific interest in further exploring the biological and metabolic effects of intermittent fasting periods, as well as whether long-term compliance may be improved by this type of dietary approach. This special will highlight the latest scientific findings related to the effects of both caloric restriction and intermittent fasting across various species including yeast, fruit flies, worms, rodents, primates, and humans. A specific emphasis is placed on translational research with findings from basic bench to bedside reviewed and practical clinical implications discussed. PMID:23639403

  15. RESTRICTED INTERESTS AND TEACHER PRESENTATION OF ITEMS

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Corey S; Thompson, Rachel H; Rodriguez, Nicole M

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning), the types of items or activities they select (e.g., preoccupation with a phone book), or the range of items or activities they select (i.e., narrow range of items). We sought to describe the relation between restricted interests and teacher presentation of items. Overall, we observed 5 teachers interacting with 2 pairs of students diagnosed with an ASD. Each pair included 1 student with restricted interests. During these observations, teachers were free to present any items from an array of 4 stimuli selected by experimenters. We recorded student responses to teacher presentation of items and analyzed the data to determine the relation between teacher presentation of items and the consequences for presentation provided by the students. Teacher presentation of items corresponded with differential responses provided by students with ASD, and those with restricted preferences experienced a narrower array of items. PMID:21941381

  16. Newer antidiabetic drugs and calorie restriction mimicry

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Jacob, Jubbin Jagan; Gupta, Yashdeep

    2016-01-01

    De-acceleration of aging and delayed development of age-related morbidity accompanies the restriction of calories (without malnutrition) in laboratory mice, nematodes, yeast, fish, and dogs. Recent results from long-term longitudinal studies conducted on primates have suggested longevity benefits of a 30% restriction of calories in rhesus monkeys as well. Among calorie restricted rhesus monkeys one of the mechanisms for the improvement in lifespan was the reduction in the development of glucose intolerance and cardiovascular disease. Although there are no comparable human studies, it is likely that metabolic and longevity benefits will accompany a reduction in calories in humans as well. However, considering the difficulties in getting healthy adults to limit food intake science has focused on understanding the biochemical processes that accompany calorie restriction (CR) to formulate drugs that would mimic the effects of CR without the need to actually restrict calories. Drugs in this emerging therapeutic field are called CR mimetics. Some of the currently used anti-diabetic agents may have some CR mimetic like effects. This review focuses on the CR mimetic properties of the currently available anti-diabetic agents. PMID:26904485

  17. Optimizing Restriction Site Placement for Synthetic Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Pablo; Memelli, Heraldo; Ward, Charles; Kim, Joondong; Mitchell, Joseph S. B.; Skiena, Steven

    Restriction enzymes are the workhorses of molecular biology. We introduce a new problem that arises in the course of our project to design virus variants to serve as potential vaccines: we wish to modify virus-length genomes to introduce large numbers of unique restriction enzyme recognition sites while preserving wild-type function by substitution of synonymous codons. We show that the resulting problem is NP-Complete, give an exponential-time algorithm, and propose effective heuristics, which we show give excellent results for five sample viral genomes. Our resulting modified genomes have several times more unique restriction sites and reduce the maximum gap between adjacent sites by three to nine-fold.

  18. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR..., produce nuclear weapons materials, or make other military use of nuclear energy; (4) Whether...

  19. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR..., produce nuclear weapons materials, or make other military use of nuclear energy; (4) Whether...

  20. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR..., produce nuclear weapons materials, or make other military use of nuclear energy; (4) Whether...

  1. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR..., produce nuclear weapons materials, or make other military use of nuclear energy; (4) Whether...

  2. 10 CFR 1045.16 - Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria for evaluation of restricted data and formerly restricted data information. 1045.16 Section 1045.16 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR..., produce nuclear weapons materials, or make other military use of nuclear energy; (4) Whether...

  3. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged... facility if the facility is not publicy identified as only an alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment...

  4. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  5. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  6. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  7. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79... movement of sheep and goats, and no sheep or goat may move interstate except in compliance with them. Interstate Movement General Restrictions for Sheep and Goats Note: A CONSISTENT STATE is one whose...

  8. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other space heating equipment with open flames are prohibited from being used on all vessels. (c) Vessels permitted...

  9. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other space heating equipment with open flames are prohibited from being used on all vessels. (c) Vessels permitted...

  10. 7 CFR 400.407 - Restricted access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF... Social Security Account Numbers and Employer Identification Numbers § 400.407 Restricted access. The... obtained pursuant to this subpart, only for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a system of...

  11. 45 CFR 400.44 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Immigration Status and Identification of Refugees Documentation of Refugee Status § 400.44 Restriction. An applicant for asylum is...

  12. 9 CFR 82.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions. 82.20 Section 82.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  13. 9 CFR 82.20 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restrictions. 82.20 Section 82.20 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS EXOTIC NEWCASTLE DIS- EASE...

  14. 32 CFR 701.44 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., and processing the fee for deposit in the Department of Treasury's special account. The cost to the... entitled to 100 microfiche or 100 computer disks, for example. A microfiche containing the equivalent of 100 pages or 100 pages of computer printout however, might meet the terms of the restriction. (e)...

  15. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... use liquefied and non-liquefied gases as cooking fuels by 46 CFR part 147 must meet the requirements... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other...

  16. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... use liquefied and non-liquefied gases as cooking fuels by 46 CFR part 147 must meet the requirements... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other...

  17. 46 CFR 121.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... gases as cooking fuels by 46 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 147 must meet the requirements of... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other space heating equipment...

  18. 46 CFR 121.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... gases as cooking fuels by 46 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 147 must meet the requirements of... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other space heating equipment...

  19. Sex Restricted Scholarships and the Charitable Trust

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Examines three areas of vulnerability of charitable trusts which provide scholarships restricting applicants to one sex. The first area is based on constitutional grounds; the second, under the 1972 amendment to the Education Act; and the third, the entitlement of tax exempt status. (Author/PG)

  20. 50 CFR 665.99 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.99 Section 665.99 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.99...

  1. 50 CFR 665.99 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.99 Section 665.99 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.99...

  2. 50 CFR 665.99 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.99 Section 665.99 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC American Samoa Fisheries § 665.99...

  3. 50 CFR 648.25 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish Fisheries § 648.25 Possession restrictions. Link to an amendment... Atlantic Mackerel, squid, and butterfish framework adjustments to management measures. (a) Within season... the Atlantic Mackerel, Squid, and Butterfish FMP if it finds that action is necessary to meet or...

  4. 45 CFR 3.42 - Restricted activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.42 Restricted activities... contrary to security regulations or Department of Health and Human Services policies, or where...

  5. 45 CFR 3.42 - Restricted activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.42 Restricted activities... contrary to security regulations or Department of Health and Human Services policies, or where...

  6. 45 CFR 3.42 - Restricted activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.42 Restricted activities... contrary to security regulations or Department of Health and Human Services policies, or where...

  7. 45 CFR 3.42 - Restricted activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.42 Restricted activities... contrary to security regulations or Department of Health and Human Services policies, or where...

  8. 9 CFR 80.2 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restrictions. 80.2 Section 80.2 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS JOHNE'S DISEASE IN...

  9. 47 CFR 1.1208 - Restricted proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (except for those directly associated with tariff filings). A party making a written or oral presentation in a restricted proceeding, on a non-ex parte basis, must file a copy of the presentation or, for an oral presentation, a summary of the presentation in the record of the proceeding using...

  10. 45 CFR 3.42 - Restricted activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Facilities and Grounds § 3.42 Restricted activities. (a) Hobbies and sports. A person may undertake hobbies and sports only in designated areas or...

  11. 40 CFR 170.112 - Entry restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (2) Entry-restricted areas in greenhouses are specified in column D in table 2 under § 170.110(c)(4... worn over a layer of clothing. If a chemical-resistant suit is substituted for coveralls, it need not be worn over a layer of clothing. (vii)(A) Gloves shall be of the type specified on the...

  12. 40 CFR 258.28 - Liquids restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 1 CFR part 51. This material is incorporated as it exists on the date of approval and a notice of... 258.28 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES CRITERIA FOR MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILLS Operating Criteria § 258.28 Liquids restrictions. (a) Bulk...

  13. 50 CFR 660.506 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 660.506 Section 660.506 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics...

  14. 50 CFR 660.511 - Catch restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Catch restrictions. 660.511 Section 660.511 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics...

  15. Full Inclusion: The Least Restrictive Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullings, Shirley E.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the phenomenological study was to examine elementary educators' perceptions of full inclusion as the least restrictive environment for students with disabilities. Thirty-six teachers and administrators participated in interviews and responded to multiple-choice survey items. The recorded data from the interviews were…

  16. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy or... electric energy or capacity may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and...

  17. 18 CFR 35.39 - Affiliate restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Sales of Electric Energy, Capacity and Ancillary Services at Market-Based Rates § 35.39 Affiliate... the Seller's market-based rate tariff. (b) Restriction on affiliate sales of electric energy or... electric energy or capacity may be made between a franchised public utility with captive customers and...

  18. 48 CFR 225.7004-1 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restriction. 225.7004-1 Section 225.7004-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM.... 2534, do not acquire a multipassenger motor vehicle (bus) unless it is manufactured in the...

  19. 48 CFR 225.7004-1 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restriction. 225.7004-1 Section 225.7004-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM.... 2534, do not acquire a multipassenger motor vehicle (bus) unless it is manufactured in the...

  20. 48 CFR 225.7004-1 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restriction. 225.7004-1 Section 225.7004-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM.... 2534, do not acquire a multipassenger motor vehicle (bus) unless it is manufactured in the...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7004-1 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restriction. 225.7004-1 Section 225.7004-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM.... 2534, do not acquire a multipassenger motor vehicle (bus) unless it is manufactured in the...

  2. 50 CFR 648.104 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 648.104 Section 648.104 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... pressure or pull of 5 kg (11.02 lb) for mesh size less than 120 mm (4.72 inches) and under a pressure...

  3. 45 CFR 400.44 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Immigration Status and Identification of Refugees Documentation of Refugee Status § 400.44 Restriction. An applicant for asylum is...

  4. 45 CFR 400.44 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Immigration Status and Identification of Refugees Documentation of Refugee Status § 400.44 Restriction. An applicant for asylum is...

  5. 45 CFR 400.44 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Immigration Status and Identification of Refugees Documentation of Refugee Status § 400.44 Restriction. An applicant for asylum is...

  6. 9 CFR 79.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... identification, reporting, and movement restrictions for infected and source flocks and high-risk animals are... infected or source flock that are not scrapie-positive or suspect animals Prohibited 1 Prohibited, 1 except... animals and are not animals from an infected or source flock Flock must be enrolled in the...

  7. Abortion restrictions may undermine welfare reform.

    PubMed

    1999-02-01

    Results from a study conducted by Pennsylvania State University's Population Research Institute indicate that more restrictive abortion laws in the US may have led to an increase in the number of single mothers, even given new welfare reform laws which make unmarried childbearing more costly. Study findings are based upon county rates of female-headed families from the 1980 and 1990 censuses, excluding those in Alaska and Hawaii. By making unmarried childbearing more costly, welfare reform has sparked a demand for abortion, while at the same time abortion laws have restricted access to abortion. An increasing number of unmarried women on welfare have therefore chosen childbearing over abortion. The study found a decline in the number of abortions in counties where abortion laws had become more strict. That states can now require abortion providers to notify the parents of minors who have abortions, to restrict Medicaid funding for abortions, and to establish 24-hour waiting periods has made abortion either a difficult or impossible option for some women. These restrictive abortion laws and geographic barriers to abortion have discouraged women from undergoing the procedure, increasing the number of female-headed families and single mothers. The public policy goal of reducing unmarried childbearing and female-headed families is being undermined by the growing geographic and legal barriers designed to discourage abortion. PMID:12348920

  8. 5 CFR 451.303 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions. 451.303 Section 451.303... career SES appointees awarded the rank of Meritorious Executive may not exceed 5 percent of the career... Professional may not exceed 5 percent of the total number of career appointees to OPM-allocated...

  9. 5 CFR 451.303 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restrictions. 451.303 Section 451.303... career SES appointees awarded the rank of Meritorious Executive may not exceed 5 percent of the career... Professional may not exceed 5 percent of the total number of career appointees to OPM-allocated...

  10. 5 CFR 451.303 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions. 451.303 Section 451.303... career SES appointees awarded the rank of Meritorious Executive may not exceed 5 percent of the career... Professional may not exceed 5 percent of the total number of career appointees to OPM-allocated...

  11. 5 CFR 451.303 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restrictions. 451.303 Section 451.303... career SES appointees awarded the rank of Meritorious Executive may not exceed 5 percent of the career... Professional may not exceed 5 percent of the total number of career appointees to OPM-allocated...

  12. Design implications of extremely restricted patterning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaidyanathan, Kaushik; Liu, Renzhi; Liebmann, Lars; Lai, Kafai; Strojwas, Andzrej J.; Pileggi, Larry

    2014-07-01

    Escalating manufacturing cost and complexity is challenging the premise of affordable scaling. With lithography accounting for a large fraction of wafer costs, researchers are actively exploring several cost-effective alternative lithographic techniques, such as directed self-assembly, self-aligned multiple patterning, etc. However, most of the alternative lithographic techniques are restrictive, and it is important to understand the impact of such pattering restrictions on system-on-chip (SoC) design. To this end, we artificially restricted all layers in a 14 nm process to be pure gratings and observed that the pure gratings approach results in an inefficient SoC design with several process integration concerns. To come up with a technology definition that is mindful of designer requirements, it is essential to undertake a holistic design technology co-optimization (DTCO) considering several SoC design elements, such as standard cell logic, static random access memory bitcells, analog blocks, and physical synthesis. Our DTCO on the IBM 14 nm process with additional 10- and 7-nm node-like pattern restrictions leads us to converge on a set of critical pattern constructs that are required for an efficient and affordable SoC design.

  13. Observing Behavior and Atypically Restricted Stimulus Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, William V.; Dickson, Chata A.; Balsamo, Lyn M.; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y.; Farren, Kevin M.; Wheeler, Emily E.; McIlvane, William J.

    2010-01-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded…

  14. 9 CFR 81.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.3 General restrictions. No farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved... Program. The captive deer, elk, or moose is: (1) Enrolled in the CWD Herd Certification Program and: (i...) The farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose is accompanied by a certificate issued in accordance...

  15. 9 CFR 81.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.3 General restrictions. No farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved... Program. The captive deer, elk, or moose is: (1) Enrolled in the CWD Herd Certification Program and: (i...) The farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose is accompanied by a certificate issued in accordance...

  16. 9 CFR 81.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.3 General restrictions. No farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved... Program. The captive deer, elk, or moose is: (1) Enrolled in the CWD Herd Certification Program and the... moose was captured from a wild population for interstate movement and release, each animal must have...

  17. 9 CFR 81.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.3 General restrictions. No farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved... Program. The captive deer, elk, or moose is: (1) Enrolled in the CWD Herd Certification Program and the... moose was captured from a wild population for interstate movement and release, each animal must have...

  18. 9 CFR 81.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., ELK, AND MOOSE § 81.3 General restrictions. No farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose may be moved... Program. The captive deer, elk, or moose is: (1) Enrolled in the CWD Herd Certification Program and: (i...) The farmed or captive deer, elk, or moose is accompanied by a certificate issued in accordance...

  19. 32 CFR 701.44 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Restrictions. 701.44 Section 701.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  20. 32 CFR 701.44 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restrictions. 701.44 Section 701.44 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY UNITED STATES NAVY REGULATIONS AND OFFICIAL RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY RECORDS AND PUBLICATION OF DEPARTMENT OF THE...

  1. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  2. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  3. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  4. 9 CFR 85.3 - General restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false General restriction. 85.3 Section 85.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS PSEUDORABIES § 85.3...

  5. 50 CFR 648.123 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 648.123 Gear restrictions. (a) Trawl vessel gear restrictions—(1) Minimum mesh size. No owner or... October 31, unless fishing with nets that have a minimum mesh size of 5.0-inch (12.7-cm) diamond mesh... extension) of fewer than 75 meshes, the entire trawl net must have a minimum mesh size of 5.0 inches...

  6. 50 CFR 622.377 - Gillnet restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gillnet restrictions. 622.377 Section 622.377 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... for king mackerel. The minimum allowable mesh size for a gillnet used to fish in the Gulf,...

  7. Mechanisms of Salmonella Typhi Host Restriction.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever, a life-threatening bacterial infection that is very common in the developing world. Recent spread of antimicrobial resistant isolates of S. Typhi makes typhoid fever, a global public health risk. Despite being a common disease, still very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying typhoid fever and S. Typhi pathogenesis. In contrast to other Salmonellae, S. Typhi can only infect humans. The molecular bases of this human restriction are mostly unknown. Recent studies identified a novel pathway that contributes to S. Typhi human restriction and is required for killing S. Typhi in macrophages of nonsusceptible species. The small Rab GTPase Rab32 and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are the critical components of this pathway. These proteins were already well known as important regulators of intracellular membrane transport. In particular, they are central for the transport of enzymes that synthetize melanin in pigment cells. The recent findings that Rab32 and BLOC-3 are required for S. Typhi host restriction point out to a novel mechanism restricting the growth of bacterial pathogen, dependent on the transport of still unknown molecule(s) to the S. Typhi vacuole. The identification of this novel antimicrobial pathway constitutes a critical starting point to study molecular mechanisms killing bacterial pathogens and possibly identify novel antimicrobial molecules. PMID:27193549

  8. 28 CFR 68.51 - Restricted access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restricted access. 68.51 Section 68.51 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE FOR ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS BEFORE ADMINISTRATIVE LAW JUDGES IN CASES INVOLVING ALLEGATIONS OF UNLAWFUL EMPLOYMENT...

  9. 50 CFR 665.799 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.799 Section 665.799 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Western Pacific...

  10. 50 CFR 665.799 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.799 Section 665.799 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Western Pacific Pelagic Fisheries §...

  11. 36 CFR 331.18 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restrictions. 331.18 Section 331.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  12. 36 CFR 331.18 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Restrictions. 331.18 Section 331.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  13. 36 CFR 331.18 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Restrictions. 331.18 Section 331.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  14. 36 CFR 331.18 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Restrictions. 331.18 Section 331.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  15. 36 CFR 331.18 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restrictions. 331.18 Section 331.18 Parks, Forests, and Public Property CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE PROTECTION, USE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FALLS OF THE OHIO NATIONAL WILDLIFE CONSERVATION...

  16. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged... facility if the facility is not publicy identified as only an alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment...

  17. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged... facility if the facility is not publicy identified as only an alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment...

  18. 42 CFR 2.13 - Confidentiality restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS General Provisions § 2.13 Confidentiality restrictions... place where only alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment, or referral is provided may be acknowledged... facility if the facility is not publicy identified as only an alcohol or drug abuse diagnosis, treatment...

  19. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur...

  20. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur...

  1. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur...

  2. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur...

  3. 47 CFR 97.121 - Restricted operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.121 Restricted operation. (a) If the operation of an amateur... characteristics, are used to receive such transmissions, and this fact is made known to the amateur...

  4. 46 CFR 121.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... gases as cooking fuels by 46 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 147 must meet the requirements of § 121.240. The use of these fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting on ferry vessels is prohibited by... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for...

  5. 46 CFR 121.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... gases as cooking fuels by 46 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 147 must meet the requirements of § 121.240. The use of these fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting on ferry vessels is prohibited by... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for...

  6. 46 CFR 121.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... gases as cooking fuels by 46 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) part 147 must meet the requirements of § 121.240. The use of these fuels for cooking, heating, and lighting on ferry vessels is prohibited by... SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 121.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for...

  7. 50 CFR 665.399 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.399 Section 665.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  8. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  9. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  10. 50 CFR 665.465 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Size restrictions. 665.465 Section 665.465 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  11. 50 CFR 665.399 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.399 Section 665.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  12. 50 CFR 665.399 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.399 Section 665.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  13. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  14. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  15. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  16. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  17. 50 CFR 665.399 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.399 Section 665.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  18. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  19. 50 CFR 665.406 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.406 Section 665.406 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  20. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  1. 50 CFR 665.465 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Size restrictions. 665.465 Section 665.465 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  2. 50 CFR 665.465 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Size restrictions. 665.465 Section 665.465 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago Fisheries §...

  3. 50 CFR 665.399 - Area restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Area restrictions. 665.399 Section 665.399 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  4. 50 CFR 665.464 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Gear restrictions. 665.464 Section 665.464 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  5. 50 CFR 665.465 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Size restrictions. 665.465 Section 665.465 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  6. 50 CFR 665.465 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Size restrictions. 665.465 Section 665.465 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES IN THE WESTERN PACIFIC Mariana Archipelago...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.1005 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1005 Funding restrictions. (a) Facility costs. Funds made available under the Sun Grant Program shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility... NIFA to each of the five Centers and the Subcenter under § 3430.1004 for the Sun Grant Program may...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.1005 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1005 Funding restrictions. (a) Facility costs. Funds made available under the Sun Grant Program shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility... NIFA to each of the five Centers and the Subcenter under § 3430.1004 for the Sun Grant Program may...

  9. 7 CFR 3430.1005 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1005 Funding restrictions. (a) Facility costs. Funds made available under the Sun Grant Program shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility... NIFA to each of the five Centers and the Subcenter under § 3430.1004 for the Sun Grant Program may...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.1005 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Sun Grant Program § 3430.1005 Funding restrictions. (a) Facility costs. Funds made available under the Sun Grant Program shall not be used for the construction of a new building or facility... NIFA to each of the five Centers and the Subcenter under § 3430.1004 for the Sun Grant Program may...

  11. A new restriction endonuclease from Citrobacter freundii

    PubMed Central

    Janulaitis, A.A.; Stakenas, P.S.; Lebedenko, E.N.; Berlin, Yu.A.

    1982-01-01

    CfrI, a new restriction endonuclease of unique substrate specificity, has been isolated from a Citrobacter freundii strain. The enzyme recognizes a degenerated sequence PyGGCCPu in double-strand DNA and cleaves it between Py and G residues to yield 5′ -protruding tetranucleotide ends GGCC. Images PMID:6294607

  12. 50 CFR 665.206 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions. (a) Bottom trawls and bottom set gillnets. Fishing for Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish... established to be fishing for Hawaii bottomfish or seamount groundfish MUS in the management subareas is... substances for the purpose of harvesting Hawaii bottomfish and seamount groundfish MUS is prohibited....

  13. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from or in the EEZ from any herring management area, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  14. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  15. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid herring permit in the GOM/GB Exemption Area as defined in § 648.80(a)(17), and in the... a Letter of Authorization. (b) Purse seine gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid...

  16. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid herring permit in the GOM/GB Exemption Area as defined in § 648.80(a)(17), and in the... a Letter of Authorization. (b) Purse seine gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid...

  17. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  18. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid herring permit in the GOM/GB Exemption Area as defined in § 648.80(a)(17), and in the Nantucket... Authorization. (b) Purse seine gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid herring permit in the...

  19. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  20. 50 CFR 648.203 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.203 Gear restrictions. (a) Midwater trawl gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid herring permit in the GOM/GB Exemption Area as defined in § 648.80(a)(17), and in the... a Letter of Authorization. (b) Purse seine gear may only be used by a vessel issued a valid...

  1. 50 CFR 648.204 - Possession restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Atlantic Herring Fishery § 648.204 Possession restrictions. (a) A vessel must be issued and possess a valid limited access herring permit to fish for, possess, or land more than 6,600 lb (3 mt) of Atlantic herring from any herring management area in the EEZ, provided that the area has not been closed due to...

  2. 45 CFR 400.44 - Restriction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM Immigration Status and Identification of Refugees Documentation of Refugee Status § 400.44 Restriction. An applicant for asylum is...

  3. 46 CFR 184.202 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Cooking and Heating § 184.202 Restrictions. (a) The use of gasoline for cooking, heating, or lighting is prohibited on all vessels. (b) Fireplaces or other space heating equipment with open flames are prohibited from being used on all vessels. (c) Vessels permitted...

  4. 50 CFR 665.665 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... § 665.665 Size restrictions. The height of a live coral specimen shall be determined by a straight line measurement taken from its base to its most distal extremity. The stem diameter of a living coral specimen... cm) from the top surface of the living holdfast. (a) Live pink coral harvested from any...

  5. 50 CFR 665.265 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions. The height of a live coral specimen shall be determined by a straight line measurement taken from its base to its most distal extremity. The stem diameter of a living coral specimen shall be... top surface of the living holdfast. (a) Live pink coral harvested from any precious coral permit...

  6. 50 CFR 665.165 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... restrictions. The height of a live coral specimen shall be determined by a straight line measurement taken from its base to its most distal extremity. The stem diameter of a living coral specimen shall be... top surface of the living holdfast. (a) Live pink coral harvested from any precious coral permit...

  7. 36 CFR 327.12 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... health, public safety, maintenance, resource protection or other reasons in the public interest. Entering... by the District Commander. (f) Unless authorized by the District Commander, smoking is prohibited in Visitor Centers, enclosed park buildings and in areas posted to restrict smoking....

  8. 36 CFR 327.12 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... health, public safety, maintenance, resource protection or other reasons in the public interest. Entering... by the District Commander. (f) Unless authorized by the District Commander, smoking is prohibited in Visitor Centers, enclosed park buildings and in areas posted to restrict smoking....

  9. 36 CFR 327.12 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... health, public safety, maintenance, resource protection or other reasons in the public interest. Entering... by the District Commander. (f) Unless authorized by the District Commander, smoking is prohibited in Visitor Centers, enclosed park buildings and in areas posted to restrict smoking....

  10. 36 CFR 327.12 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... health, public safety, maintenance, resource protection or other reasons in the public interest. Entering... by the District Commander. (f) Unless authorized by the District Commander, smoking is prohibited in Visitor Centers, enclosed park buildings and in areas posted to restrict smoking....

  11. 36 CFR 327.12 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... health, public safety, maintenance, resource protection or other reasons in the public interest. Entering... by the District Commander. (f) Unless authorized by the District Commander, smoking is prohibited in Visitor Centers, enclosed park buildings and in areas posted to restrict smoking....

  12. 18 CFR 1304.410 - Navigation restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Navigation restrictions. 1304.410 Section 1304.410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... to reduce wave and wash action....

  13. 18 CFR 1304.410 - Navigation restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Navigation restrictions. 1304.410 Section 1304.410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... to reduce wave and wash action....

  14. 18 CFR 1304.410 - Navigation restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Navigation restrictions. 1304.410 Section 1304.410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... to reduce wave and wash action....

  15. 18 CFR 1304.410 - Navigation restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Navigation restrictions. 1304.410 Section 1304.410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... to reduce wave and wash action....

  16. 18 CFR 1304.410 - Navigation restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Navigation restrictions. 1304.410 Section 1304.410 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL... to reduce wave and wash action....

  17. 50 CFR 648.144 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE NORTHEASTERN UNITED STATES Management Measures for the Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Gear restrictions. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and that land or possess 500 lb (226.8 kg) or...

  18. 50 CFR 648.144 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a black sea bass moratorium permit and... Black Sea Bass Fishery § 648.144 Gear restrictions. Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 60637, Sept. 29, 2011. (a) Trawl gear restrictions—(1) General. (i) Otter trawlers whose owners are issued a...

  19. Predictive factors for intrauterine growth restriction

    PubMed Central

    Albu, AR; Anca, AF; Horhoianu, VV; Horhoianu, IA

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reduced fetal growth is seen in about 10% of the pregnancies but only a minority has a pathological background and is known as intrauterine growth restriction or fetal growth restriction (IUGR / FGR). Increased fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity as well as adult pathologic conditions are often associated to IUGR. Risk factors for IUGR are easy to assess but have poor predictive value. For the diagnostic purpose, biochemical serum markers, ultrasound and Doppler study of uterine and spiral arteries, placental volume and vascularization, first trimester growth pattern are object of assessment today. Modern evaluations propose combined algorithms using these strategies, all with the goal of a better prediction of risk pregnancies. Abbreviations: SGA = small for gestational age; IUGR = intrauterine growth restriction; FGR = fetal growth restriction; IUFD = intrauterine fetal demise; HIV = human immunodeficiency virus; PAPP-A = pregnancy associated plasmatic protein A; β-hCG = beta human chorionic gonadotropin; MoM = multiple of median; ADAM-12 = A-disintegrin and metalloprotease 12; PP-13 = placental protein 13; VEGF = vascular endothelial growth factor; PlGF = placental growth factor; sFlt-1 = soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1; UAD = uterine arteries Doppler ultrasound; RI = resistence index; PI = pulsatility index; VOCAL = Virtual Organ Computer–Aided Analysis software; VI = vascularization index; FI = flow index; VFI = vascularization flow index; PQ = placental quotient PMID:25408721

  20. 5 CFR 330.205 - Employment restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 330.205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS RECRUITMENT, SELECTION, AND PLACEMENT (GENERAL) Reemployment Priority List (RPL) § 330.205 Employment restrictions. (a... eligibility (e.g., Veterans Recruitment Appointee, 30 percent disabled veterans, disabled employees...

  1. 50 CFR 654.22 - Gear restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... restrictions. (a) Trap construction requirements. No person fishing for stone crab may transport on the water or fish with any trap which does not meet the following requirements: (1) Each trap must be... by 61 by 61 cm) or 8.0 ft3 (0.23 m3). (3) The throats (entrances) to all wood and plastic traps...

  2. 32 CFR 171.3 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... WILDFIRE SUPPRESSION AIRCRAFT TRANSFER ACT OF 1996 § 171.3 Restrictions. Aircraft and aircraft parts sold under the Act shall be used only for wildfire suppression purposes and shall not be flown or removed... agreement to assist in wildfire suppression, or for other purposes jointly approved in advance, in...

  3. 32 CFR 171.3 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... WILDFIRE SUPPRESSION AIRCRAFT TRANSFER ACT OF 1996 § 171.3 Restrictions. Aircraft and aircraft parts sold under the Act shall be used only for wildfire suppression purposes and shall not be flown or removed... agreement to assist in wildfire suppression, or for other purposes jointly approved in advance, in...

  4. 32 CFR 171.3 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... WILDFIRE SUPPRESSION AIRCRAFT TRANSFER ACT OF 1996 § 171.3 Restrictions. Aircraft and aircraft parts sold under the Act shall be used only for wildfire suppression purposes and shall not be flown or removed... agreement to assist in wildfire suppression, or for other purposes jointly approved in advance, in...

  5. 32 CFR 171.3 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... WILDFIRE SUPPRESSION AIRCRAFT TRANSFER ACT OF 1996 § 171.3 Restrictions. Aircraft and aircraft parts sold under the Act shall be used only for wildfire suppression purposes and shall not be flown or removed... agreement to assist in wildfire suppression, or for other purposes jointly approved in advance, in...

  6. 32 CFR 171.3 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... WILDFIRE SUPPRESSION AIRCRAFT TRANSFER ACT OF 1996 § 171.3 Restrictions. Aircraft and aircraft parts sold under the Act shall be used only for wildfire suppression purposes and shall not be flown or removed... agreement to assist in wildfire suppression, or for other purposes jointly approved in advance, in...

  7. 7 CFR 2500.106 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 2500.106 Section 2500.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH... Outreach and Assistance For Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Program § 2500.106...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.405 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.405 Section 3430.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative § 3430.405 Funding...

  9. 7 CFR 3430.405 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.405 Section 3430.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative § 3430.405 Funding...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.405 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.405 Section 3430.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative § 3430.405 Funding...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.405 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 3430.405 Section 3430.405 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Organic Agriculture Research and Extension Initiative § 3430.405 Funding...

  12. 7 CFR 2500.106 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 2500.106 Section 2500.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH... Outreach and Assistance For Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Program § 2500.106...

  13. 7 CFR 2500.106 - Funding restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Funding restrictions. 2500.106 Section 2500.106 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) OFFICE OF ADVOCACY AND OUTREACH... Outreach and Assistance For Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Program § 2500.106...

  14. 46 CFR 12.40-13 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ENDORSEMENTS Non-resident Alien Unlicensed Members of the Steward's Department on U.S. Flag Large Passenger Vessels § 12.40-13 Restrictions. (a) A merchant mariner credential issued to a non-resident alien under...), on which the non-resident alien served to meet the requirements of § 12.40-9(a) of this subpart:...

  15. 46 CFR 12.40-13 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENDORSEMENTS Non-resident Alien Unlicensed Members of the Steward's Department on U.S. Flag Large Passenger Vessels § 12.40-13 Restrictions. (a) A merchant mariner credential issued to a non-resident alien under...), on which the non-resident alien served to meet the requirements of § 12.40-9(a) of this subpart:...

  16. 46 CFR 12.40-13 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ENDORSEMENTS Non-resident Alien Unlicensed Members of the Steward's Department on U.S. Flag Large Passenger Vessels § 12.40-13 Restrictions. (a) A merchant mariner credential issued to a non-resident alien under...), on which the non-resident alien served to meet the requirements of § 12.40-9(a) of this subpart:...

  17. 46 CFR 12.40-13 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENDORSEMENTS Non-resident Alien Unlicensed Members of the Steward's Department on U.S. Flag Large Passenger Vessels § 12.40-13 Restrictions. (a) A merchant mariner credential issued to a non-resident alien under...), on which the non-resident alien served to meet the requirements of § 12.40-9(a) of this subpart:...

  18. 46 CFR 12.811 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-Resident Alien Members of the Steward's Department on U.S. Flag Large Passenger Vessels § 12.811 Restrictions. (a) An MMC issued to a non-resident alien under this subpart authorizes service only in the... ownership and control as the foreign flag passenger vessel(s) on which the non-resident alien served to...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  1. 30 CFR 57.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  2. 30 CFR 56.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  5. 30 CFR 56.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  6. 30 CFR 57.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 57.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  7. 30 CFR 56.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  8. 30 CFR 56.4400 - Use restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control Flammable and Combustible Liquids and Gases § 56.4400 Use restrictions. (a) Flammable...

  9. 7 CFR 1778.10 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... expenses. (6) Pay rental for the use of equipment or machinery owned by the rural community. (7) Purchase... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) EMERGENCY AND IMMINENT COMMUNITY WATER ASSISTANCE GRANTS § 1778.10 Restrictions. (a) Grant...

  10. 36 CFR 13.1182 - Noise restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Noise restrictions. 13.1182 Section 13.1182 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  11. 36 CFR 13.1182 - Noise restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Noise restrictions. 13.1182 Section 13.1182 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  12. 36 CFR 13.1182 - Noise restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Noise restrictions. 13.1182 Section 13.1182 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  13. 36 CFR 13.1182 - Noise restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Noise restrictions. 13.1182 Section 13.1182 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  14. 36 CFR 13.1182 - Noise restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Noise restrictions. 13.1182 Section 13.1182 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve...

  15. Mechanisms of Salmonella Typhi Host Restriction.

    PubMed

    Spanò, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) is the cause of typhoid fever, a life-threatening bacterial infection that is very common in the developing world. Recent spread of antimicrobial resistant isolates of S. Typhi makes typhoid fever, a global public health risk. Despite being a common disease, still very little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying typhoid fever and S. Typhi pathogenesis. In contrast to other Salmonellae, S. Typhi can only infect humans. The molecular bases of this human restriction are mostly unknown. Recent studies identified a novel pathway that contributes to S. Typhi human restriction and is required for killing S. Typhi in macrophages of nonsusceptible species. The small Rab GTPase Rab32 and its guanine nucleotide exchange factor BLOC-3 are the critical components of this pathway. These proteins were already well known as important regulators of intracellular membrane transport. In particular, they are central for the transport of enzymes that synthetize melanin in pigment cells. The recent findings that Rab32 and BLOC-3 are required for S. Typhi host restriction point out to a novel mechanism restricting the growth of bacterial pathogen, dependent on the transport of still unknown molecule(s) to the S. Typhi vacuole. The identification of this novel antimicrobial pathway constitutes a critical starting point to study molecular mechanisms killing bacterial pathogens and possibly identify novel antimicrobial molecules.

  16. Restricted Liberty, Parental Choice and Homeschooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merry, Michael S.; Karsten, Sjoerd

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors carefully study the problem of liberty as it applies to school choice, and whether there ought to be restricted liberty in the case of homeschooling. They examine three prominent concerns that might be brought against homeschooling, viz., that it aggravates social inequality, worsens societal conflict and works against…

  17. 49 CFR 383.95 - Restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... combination vehicle for a Group A CDL with the power unit and towed unit connected with a pintle hook or other... vehicle equipped with air over hydraulic brakes, the State must indicate on the CDL, if issued, that the... brake principle. (2) For the purposes of the skills test and the restriction, air over hydraulic...

  18. 50 CFR 16.3 - General restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false General restrictions. 16.3 Section 16.3 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS INJURIOUS WILDLIFE Introduction § 16.3...

  19. 9 CFR 92.3 - Movement restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... of Regions Other Than for BSE § 92.3 Movement restrictions. Whenever the European Commission (EC) establishes a quarantine for a disease in the European Union in a region the Animal and Plant Health... the European Union, such animals and animal products are prohibited importation into the United States....

  20. 50 CFR 665.265 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Size restrictions. The height of a live coral specimen shall be determined by a straight line measurement taken from its base to its most distal extremity. The stem diameter of a living coral specimen... cm) from the top surface of the living holdfast. (a) Live pink coral harvested from any...

  1. 50 CFR 665.165 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... § 665.165 Size restrictions. The height of a live coral specimen shall be determined by a straight line measurement taken from its base to its most distal extremity. The stem diameter of a living coral specimen... cm) from the top surface of the living holdfast. (a) Live pink coral harvested from any...

  2. 50 CFR 665.665 - Size restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fisheries § 665.665 Size restrictions. The height of a live coral specimen shall be determined by a straight line measurement taken from its base to its most distal extremity. The stem diameter of a living coral... (2.54 cm) from the top surface of the living holdfast. (a) Live pink coral harvested from...

  3. 10 CFR 1045.21 - Privately generated restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Identification of Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data Information § 1045.21 Privately generated restricted data. (a) DOE may classify RD which is privately generated by persons not pursuant to Government... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Privately generated restricted data. 1045.21 Section...

  4. 10 CFR 1045.34 - Designation of restricted data classifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Designation of restricted data classifiers. 1045.34 Section 1045.34 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NUCLEAR CLASSIFICATION AND DECLASSIFICATION Generation and Review of Documents Containing Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.34 Designation of restricted data classifiers....

  5. 48 CFR 225.7014 - Restrictions on military construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Restrictions on military..., Appropriations Acts, and Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7014 Restrictions on military construction. (a) For restriction on award of military construction contracts to be performed in the...

  6. 48 CFR 225.7014 - Restrictions on military construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Restrictions on military..., Appropriations Acts, and Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7014 Restrictions on military construction. (a) For restriction on award of military construction contracts to be performed in the...

  7. 48 CFR 225.7014 - Restrictions on military construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Restrictions on military..., Appropriations Acts, and Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7014 Restrictions on military construction. (a) For restriction on award of military construction contracts to be performed in the...

  8. 48 CFR 225.7014 - Restrictions on military construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Restrictions on military..., Appropriations Acts, and Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7014 Restrictions on military construction. (a) For restriction on award of military construction contracts to be performed in the...

  9. 48 CFR 225.7014 - Restrictions on military construction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Restrictions on military..., Appropriations Acts, and Other Statutory Restrictions on Foreign Acquisition 225.7014 Restrictions on military construction. (a) For restriction on award of military construction contracts to be performed in the...

  10. 14 CFR § 1203.305 - Restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted data. § 1203.305 Section Â... PROGRAM Classification Principles and Considerations § 1203.305 Restricted data. Restricted Data or Formerly Restricted Data is so classified when originated or by operation of the law, as required by...

  11. Impact of Five Nights of Sleep Restriction on Glucose Metabolism, Leptin and Testosterone in Young Adult Men

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Amy C.; Dorrian, Jillian; Liu, Peter Y.; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.; Wittert, Gary A.; Harmer, Lee J.; Banks, Siobhan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sleep restriction is associated with development of metabolic ill-health, and hormonal mechanisms may underlie these effects. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of short term sleep restriction on male health, particularly glucose metabolism, by examining adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), cortisol, glucose, insulin, triglycerides, leptin, testosterone, and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Methodology/Principal Findings N = 14 healthy men (aged 27.4±3.8, BMI 23.5±2.9) underwent a laboratory-based sleep restriction protocol consisting of 2 baseline nights of 10 h time in bed (TIB) (B1, B2; 22:00–08:00), followed by 5 nights of 4 h TIB (SR1–SR5; 04:00–08:00) and a recovery night of 10 h TIB (R1; 22:00–08:00). Subjects were allowed to move freely inside the laboratory; no strenuous activity was permitted during the study. Food intake was controlled, with subjects consuming an average 2000 kcal/day. Blood was sampled through an indwelling catheter on B1 and SR5, at 09:00 (fasting) and then every 2 hours from 10:00–20:00. On SR5 relative to B1, glucose (F1,168 = 25.3, p<0.001) and insulin (F1,168 = 12.2, p<0.001) were increased, triglycerides (F1,168 = 7.5, p = 0.007) fell and there was no significant change in fasting homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) determined insulin resistance (F1,168 = 1.3, p = 0.18). Also, cortisol (F1,168 = 10.2, p = 0.002) and leptin (F1,168 = 10.7, p = 0.001) increased, sex hormone binding globulin (F1,167 = 12.1, p<0.001) fell and there were no significant changes in ACTH (F1,168 = 0.3, p = 0.59) or total testosterone (F1,168 = 2.8, p = 0.089). Conclusions/Significance Sleep restriction impaired glucose, but improved lipid metabolism. This was associated with an increase in afternoon cortisol, without significant changes in ACTH, suggesting enhanced adrenal reactivity. Increased cortisol and reduced sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG

  12. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. 1045.45 Section 1045.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential...

  13. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. 1045.45 Section 1045.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential...

  14. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. 1045.45 Section 1045.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential...

  15. 10 CFR 1045.45 - Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Review of unmarked documents with potential restricted data or formerly restricted data. 1045.45 Section 1045.45 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL... Restricted Data and Formerly Restricted Data § 1045.45 Review of unmarked documents with potential...

  16. Counting calories in Drosophila diet restriction.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyung-Jin; Flatt, Thomas; Kulaots, Indrek; Tatar, Marc

    2007-03-01

    The extension of life span by diet restriction in Drosophila has been argued to occur without limiting calories. Here we directly measure the calories assimilated by flies when maintained on full- and restricted-diets. We find that caloric intake is reduced on all diets that extend life span. Flies on low-yeast diet are long-lived and consume about half the calories of flies on high-yeast diets, regardless of the energetic content of the diet itself. Since caloric intake correlates with yeast concentration and thus with the intake of every metabolite in this dietary component, it is premature to conclude for Drosophila that calories do not explain extension of life span. PMID:17125951

  17. An unusual ECG pattern in restrictive cardimyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Selvaganesh, M.; Arul, A.S.; Balasubramanian, S.; Ganesan, N.; Naina Mohammed, S.; Sivakumar, G.S.; Veeramani, S.R.; Jeyasingh, P.; Sathishkumar, S.; Selvaraju, S.

    2015-01-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common type of primary cardiomyopathies. Electrocardiographic recording is abnormal in 99% of patients with RCM. Biatrial enlargement, obliquely elevated ST segment with notched or biphasic late peaking T waves are considered characteristic ECG finding. Significant ST depression with T inversion mimicking subendocardial ischemia has also been reported in patients with RCM and is even suggested as a predictor of sudden cardiac death. We noted a similar ECG pattern in a 16 yr girl with Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. Coronaries were normal, stress perfusion imaging did not show any perfusion defect. This diffuse resting ST depression with T inversion in precordial & inferior leads along with ST elevation in aVR was persistent for more than six months. PMID:26304570

  18. Cold acclimation in food-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Puerta, M L; Abelenda, M

    1987-01-01

    Food intake, body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass and composition of rats exposed at 6 degrees C either with food ad libitum or food-restricted were compared with those of rats in the thermoneutral zone, with food ad libitum. Cold acclimation with food ad libitum increases food intake and prevents body weight gains. IBAT (interscapular BAT) increases its mass and changes its composition after 3 weeks of cold exposure. Cold acclimation with food restriction produces a progressive decrease in body weight. IBAT mass increases after 3 weeks but changes in composition occur sooner. It is concluded that the overfeeding that accompanies cold acclimation is not necessary for non-shivering thermogenesis in BAT.

  19. Dietary Restriction and Nutrient Balance in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Leitão-Correia, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Dietary regimens that favour reduced calorie intake delay aging and age-associated diseases. New evidences revealed that nutritional balance of dietary components without food restriction increases lifespan. Particular nutrients as several nitrogen sources, proteins, amino acid, and ammonium are implicated in life and healthspan regulation in different model organisms from yeast to mammals. Aging and dietary restriction interact through partially overlapping mechanisms in the activation of the conserved nutrient-signalling pathways, mainly the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IIS) and the Target Of Rapamycin (TOR). The specific nutrients of dietary regimens, their balance, and how they interact with different genes and pathways are currently being uncovered. Taking into account that dietary regimes can largely influence overall human health and changes in risk factors such as cholesterol level and blood pressure, these new findings are of great importance to fully comprehend the interplay between diet and humans health. PMID:26682004

  20. A Property Restriction Based Knowledge Merging Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Che, Haiyan; Chen, Wei; Feng, Tie; Zhang, Jiachen

    Merging new instance knowledge extracted from the Web according to certain domain ontology into the knowledge base (KB for short) is essential for the knowledge management and should be processed carefully, since this may introduce redundant or contradictory knowledge, and the quality of the knowledge in the KB, which is very important for a knowledge-based system to provide users high quality services, will suffer from such "bad" knowledge. Advocates a property restriction based knowledge merging method, it can identify the equivalent instances, redundant or contradictory knowledge according to the property restrictions defined in the domain ontology and can consolidate the knowledge about equivalent instances and discard the redundancy and conflict to keep the KB compact and consistent. This knowledge merging method has been used in a semantic-based search engine project: CRAB and the effect is satisfactory.

  1. An unusual ECG pattern in restrictive cardimyopathy.

    PubMed

    Selvaganesh, M; Arul, A S; Balasubramanian, S; Ganesan, N; Naina Mohammed, S; Sivakumar, G S; Veeramani, S R; Jeyasingh, P; Sathishkumar, S; Selvaraju, S

    2015-01-01

    Restrictive cardiomyopathy is the least common type of primary cardiomyopathies. Electrocardiographic recording is abnormal in 99% of patients with RCM. Biatrial enlargement, obliquely elevated ST segment with notched or biphasic late peaking T waves are considered characteristic ECG finding. Significant ST depression with T inversion mimicking subendocardial ischemia has also been reported in patients with RCM and is even suggested as a predictor of sudden cardiac death. We noted a similar ECG pattern in a 16 yr girl with Idiopathic restrictive cardiomyopathy. Coronaries were normal, stress perfusion imaging did not show any perfusion defect. This diffuse resting ST depression with T inversion in precordial & inferior leads along with ST elevation in aVR was persistent for more than six months. PMID:26304570

  2. Affective tone of mothers' statements to restrict their children's eating.

    PubMed

    Pesch, Megan H; Miller, Alison L; Appugliese, Danielle P; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Lumeng, Julie C

    2016-08-01

    Maternal restrictive feeding behaviors have been associated with child weight status. The affective tone of mothers' statements intended to restrict their children's eating has not been examined. The objectives of this study were to describe the affective tone of mothers' restrictive feeding behaviors (positive or negative), and to test the association of child and mother characteristics with rates of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect and Total Restriction. A total of 237 low-income child-mother dyads (mean child age 5.9 years) participated in a videotaped standardized laboratory eating protocol, during which mothers and children were both presented with large servings of cupcakes. A coding scheme was developed to count each restrictive statement with a positive affective tone and each restrictive statement with a negative affective tone. To establish reliability, 20% of videos were double-coded. Demographics and anthropometrics were obtained. Poisson regression models were used to test the association between characteristics of the child and mother with counts of Restriction with Positive Affect, Restriction with Negative Affect, and Total Restriction. Higher rates of Restriction with Positive Affect and Total Restriction were predicted by child obese weight status, and mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity. Higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect were predicted by older child age, child obese weight status, mother non-Hispanic white race/ethnicity, and lower mother education level. In conclusion, in this study mothers of obese (vs. non-obese) children had higher rates of restriction in general, but particularly higher rates of Restriction with Negative Affect. Rather than being told not to restrict, mothers may need guidance on how to sensitively restrict their child's intake. Future studies should consider the contributions of maternal affect to children's responses to maternal restriction. PMID:27090342

  3. Organization of restriction-modification systems.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, G G

    1991-01-01

    The genes for over 100 restriction-modification systems have now been cloned, and approximately one-half have been sequenced. Despite their similar function, they are exceedingly heterogeneous. The heterogeneity is evident at three levels: in the gene arrangements; in the enzyme compositions; and in the protein sequences. This paper summarizes the main features of the R-M systems that have been cloned. PMID:2041731

  4. Kramers' Restricted Closed Shell CCSD Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visscher, Lucas; Dyall, Kenneth G.; Lee, Timothy J.; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A Kramers' restricted version of the closed shell coupled cluster singles doubles theory is presented. The theory may be used in conjunction with 2 or 4-component relativistic reference wavefunctions. The intrinsic treatment of the spin-orbit coupling doubles the number of independent quantities (amplitudes and integrals) relative to a spin-independent formalism. The number of operations required to evaluate the equations is four times larger than in the optimal spin-independent closed shell formalism.

  5. Early postnatal caloric restriction protects adult male intrauterine growth-restricted offspring from obesity.

    PubMed

    Garg, Meena; Thamotharan, Manikkavasagar; Dai, Yun; Thamotharan, Shanthie; Shin, Bo-Chul; Stout, David; Devaskar, Sherin U

    2012-06-01

    Postnatal ad libitum caloric intake superimposed on intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with adult-onset obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We hypothesized that this paradigm of prenatal nutrient deprivation-induced programming can be reversed with the introduction of early postnatal calorie restriction. Ten-month-old male rats exposed to either prenatal nutrient restriction with ad libitum postnatal intake (IUGR), pre- and postnatal nutrient restriction (IPGR), or postnatal nutrient restriction limited to the suckling phase (50% from postnatal [PN]1 to PN21) (PNGR) were compared with age-matched controls (CON). Visceral adiposity, metabolic profile, and insulin sensitivity by hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps were examined. The 10-month-old male IUGR group had a 1.5- to 2.0-fold increase in subcutaneous and visceral fat (P < 0.0002) while remaining euglycemic, insulin sensitive, inactive, and exhibiting metabolic inflexibility (Vo(2)) versus CON. The IPGR group remained lean, euglycemic, insulin sensitive, and active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. The PNGR group was insulin sensitive, similar to IPGR, but less active while maintaining metabolic flexibility. We conclude that IUGR resulted in obesity without insulin resistance and energy metabolic perturbations prior to development of glucose intolerance and T2DM. Postnatal nutrient restriction superimposed on IUGR was protective, restoring metabolic normalcy to a lean and active phenotype. PMID:22461568

  6. Type I restriction enzymes and their relatives.

    PubMed

    Loenen, Wil A M; Dryden, David T F; Raleigh, Elisabeth A; Wilson, Geoffrey G

    2014-01-01

    Type I restriction enzymes (REases) are large pentameric proteins with separate restriction (R), methylation (M) and DNA sequence-recognition (S) subunits. They were the first REases to be discovered and purified, but unlike the enormously useful Type II REases, they have yet to find a place in the enzymatic toolbox of molecular biologists. Type I enzymes have been difficult to characterize, but this is changing as genome analysis reveals their genes, and methylome analysis reveals their recognition sequences. Several Type I REases have been studied in detail and what has been learned about them invites greater attention. In this article, we discuss aspects of the biochemistry, biology and regulation of Type I REases, and of the mechanisms that bacteriophages and plasmids have evolved to evade them. Type I REases have a remarkable ability to change sequence specificity by domain shuffling and rearrangements. We summarize the classic experiments and observations that led to this discovery, and we discuss how this ability depends on the modular organizations of the enzymes and of their S subunits. Finally, we describe examples of Type II restriction-modification systems that have features in common with Type I enzymes, with emphasis on the varied Type IIG enzymes.

  7. Mechanistic insight into Type I restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Youell, James; Firman, Keith

    2012-06-01

    Restriction and modification are two opposing activities that are used to protect bacteria from cellular invasion by DNA (e.g. bacteriophage infection). Restriction activity involves cleavage of the DNA; while modification activity is the mechanism used to "mark" host DNA and involves DNA methylation. The study of Type I restriction enzymes has often been seen as an esoteric exercise and this reflects some of their more unusual properties - non-stoichiometric (non-catalytic) cleavage of the DNA substrate, random cleavage of DNA, a massive ATPase activity, and the ability to both cleave DNA and methylate DNA. Yet these enzymes have been found in many bacteria and are very efficient as a means of protecting bacteria against bacteriophage infection, indicating they are successful enzymes. In this review, we summarise recent work on the mechanisms of action, describe switching of function and review their mechanism of action. We also discuss structural rearrangements and cellular localisation, which provide powerful mechanisms for controlling the enzyme activity. Finally, we speculate as to their involvement in recombination and discuss their relationship to helicase enzymes.

  8. Solitary restriction endonucleases in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Ershova, Anna S.; Karyagina, Anna S.; Vasiliev, Mikhail O.; Lyashchuk, Alexander M.; Lunin, Vladimir G.; Spirin, Sergey A.; Alexeevski, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    Prokaryotic restriction-modification (R-M) systems defend the host cell from the invasion of a foreign DNA. They comprise two enzymatic activities: specific DNA cleavage activity and DNA methylation activity preventing cleavage. Typically, these activities are provided by two separate enzymes: a DNA methyltransferase (MTase) and a restriction endonuclease (RE). In the absence of a corresponding MTase, an RE of Type II R-M system is highly toxic for the cell. Genes of the R-M system are linked in the genome in the vast majority of annotated cases. There are only a few reported cases in which the genes of MTase and RE from one R-M system are not linked. Nevertheless, a few hundreds solitary RE genes are present in the Restriction Enzyme Database (http://rebase.neb.com) annotations. Using the comparative genomic approach, we analysed 272 solitary RE genes. For 57 solitary RE genes we predicted corresponding MTase genes located distantly in a genome. Of the 272 solitary RE genes, 99 are likely to be fragments of RE genes. Various explanations for the existence of the remaining 116 solitary RE genes are also discussed. PMID:22965118

  9. Observing behavior and atypically restricted stimulus control.

    PubMed

    Dube, William V; Dickson, Chata A; Balsamo, Lyn M; O'Donnell, Kristin Lombard; Tomanari, Gerson Y; Farren, Kevin M; Wheeler, Emily E; McIlvane, William J

    2010-11-01

    Restricted stimulus control refers to discrimination learning with atypical limitations in the range of controlling stimuli or stimulus features. In the study reported here, 4 normally capable individuals and 10 individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID) performed two-sample delayed matching to sample. Sample-stimulus observing was recorded with an eye-tracking apparatus. High accuracy scores indicated stimulus control by both sample stimuli for the 4 nondisabled participants and 4 participants with ID, and eye tracking data showed reliable observing of all stimuli. Intermediate accuracy scores indicated restricted stimulus control for the remaining 6 participants. Their eye-tracking data showed that errors were related to failures to observe sample stimuli and relatively brief observing durations. Five of these participants were then given interventions designed to improve observing behavior. For 4 participants, the interventions resulted initially in elimination of observing failures, increased observing durations, and increased accuracy. For 2 of these participants, contingencies sufficient to maintain adequate observing were not always sufficient to maintain high accuracy; subsequent procedure modifications restored it, however. For the 5th participant, initial improvements in observing were not accompanied by improved accuracy, an apparent instance of observing without attending; accuracy improved only after an additional intervention that imposed contingencies on observing behavior. Thus, interventions that control observing behavior seem necessary but may not always be sufficient for the remediation of restricted stimulus control.

  10. Emergency building temperature restrictions. Final evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    1980-11-01

    On July 5, 1979, DOE promulgated final regulations of the Emergency Building Temperature Restrictions program, placing emergency restrictions on thermostat settings for space heating, space cooling, and hot water in commercial, industrial, and nonresidential public buildings. The final regulations restricted space heating to a maximum of 65/sup 0/F, hot water temperature to a maximum of 105/sup 0/F, and cooling temperature to a minimum of 78/sup 0/F. A comprehensive evaluation of the entire EBTF program for a nine-month period from July 16, 1979 is presented. In Chapter 1, an estimate of the population of buildings covered by EBTR is presented. In Chapter 2, EBTR compliance by building type and region is reported. Exemptions are also discussed. In Chapter 3, the simulations of building energy use are explained and the relative impact of various building characteristics and effectiveness of different control strategies are estimated. Finally, in Chapter 4, the methodology for scaling the individual building energy savings to the national level is described, and estimated national energy savings are presented.

  11. Team Formation and Communication Restrictions in Collectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agogino, Adrian K.; Turner, Kagan

    2003-01-01

    A collective of agents often needs to maximize a "world utility" function which rates the performance of an entire system, while subject to communication restrictions among the agents. Such communication restrictions make it difficult for agents which try to pursue their own "private" utilities to take actions that also help optimize the world utility. Team formation presents a solution to this problem, where by joining other agents, an agent can significantly increase its knowledge about the environment and improve its chances of both optimizing its own utility and that its doing so will contribute to the world utility. In this article we show how utilities that have been previously shown to be effective in collectives can be modified to be more effective in domains with moderate communication restrictions resulting in performance improvements of up to 75%. Additionally we show that even severe communication constraints can be overcome by forming teams where each agent of a team shares the same utility, increasing performance an additional 25%. We show that utilities and team sizes can be manipulated to form the best compromise between how "aligned" an agent s utility is with the world utility and how easily an agent can learn that utility.

  12. Food restriction modifies ultrastructure of hippocampal synapses.

    PubMed

    Babits, Réka; Szőke, Balázs; Sótonyi, Péter; Rácz, Bence

    2016-04-01

    Consumption of high-energy diets may compromise health and may also impair cognition; these impairments have been linked to tasks that require hippocampal function. Conversely, food restriction has been shown to improve certain aspects of hippocampal function, including spatial memory and memory persistence. These diet-dependent functional changes raise the possibility that the synaptic structure underlying hippocampal function is also affected. To examine how short-term food restriction (FR) alters the synaptic structure of the hippocampus, we used quantitative electron microscopy to analyze the organization of neuropil in the CA1 stratum radiatum of the hippocampus in young rats, consequent to reduced food. While four weeks of FR did not modify the density, size, or shape of postsynaptic spines, the synapses established by these spines were altered, displaying increased mean length, and more frequent perforations of postsynaptic densities. That the number of perforated synapses (believed to be an indicator of synaptic enhancement) increased, and that the CA1 spine population had on average significantly longer PSDs suggests that synaptic efficacy of axospinous synapses also increased in the CA1. Taken together, our ultrastructural data reveal previously unrecognized structural changes at hippocampal synapses as a function of food restriction, supporting a link between metabolic balance and synaptic plasticity.

  13. Court reaffirms Roe but upholds restrictions.

    PubMed

    1992-01-01

    By a 5-4 margin, the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed on June 29, 1992, "the essential holding in Roe v. Wade" that prior to fetal viability, a woman has a constitutional right to obtain an abortion. After viability, a state may prohibit abortion, but only if it provides exceptions for endangerment to the woman's life or health. The Court said that both the intimate nature of the decision to terminate a pregnancy and the Court's obligation to follow precedent required it to uphold Roe's central holding. At the same time, however, the Court discarded Roe's trimester framework that severely restricted a state's power to regulate abortion in the early stages of pregnancy, saying that the trimester framework "undervalues" the state's interest in potential life, which exists throughout pregnancy. The Court also adopted a more lenient standard for analyzing the constitutionality of abortion restrictions than was permitted under Roe. It said a state may regulate abortion throughout pregnancy, as long as it does not impose an "undue burden" on a woman's right to terminate her pregnancy. The Court defined "undue burden" as a regulation that "has the purpose or effect of placing a substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion of a nonviable fetus." Under Roe, the right to abortion was deemed "fundamental" and could not be restricted unless the state could show a "compelling" interest in doing so.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Transfer orbits in the restricted problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prado, Antonio F. B. A.; Broucke, Roger A.

    1994-11-01

    This paper studies transfer orbits in the planar restricted three-body problem. In particular, we are searching for orbits that can be used in two situations: (1) to transfer a spacecraft from one body back to the same body, known in the literature as the Henon's problem; and (2) to transfer a spacecraft from one body to the respective Lagrangian points L(sub 4) and L(sub 5). To avoid numerical problems during close approaches the global Lamaitre regularization is used. Under this model, the Henon's problem became a Lambert's three body problem, as defined and explained in this paper.

  15. Privacy-preserving restricted boltzmann machine.

    PubMed

    Li, Yu; Zhang, Yuan; Ji, Yue

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  16. Privacy-Preserving Restricted Boltzmann Machine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu

    2014-01-01

    With the arrival of the big data era, it is predicted that distributed data mining will lead to an information technology revolution. To motivate different institutes to collaborate with each other, the crucial issue is to eliminate their concerns regarding data privacy. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving method for training a restricted boltzmann machine (RBM). The RBM can be got without revealing their private data to each other when using our privacy-preserving method. We provide a correctness and efficiency analysis of our algorithms. The comparative experiment shows that the accuracy is very close to the original RBM model. PMID:25101139

  17. Nutritional deficiencies in children on restricted diets.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Midge; Danner, Elaine

    2009-10-01

    Pediatric nutritional deficiencies are associated not only with poverty and developing countries, but also in children in the developed world who adhere to restricted diets. At times, these diets are medically necessary, such as the gluten-free diet for management of celiac disease or exclusion diets in children with food allergies. At other times, the diets are self-selected by children with behavioral disorders, or parent-selected because of nutrition misinformation, cultural preferences, alternative nutrition therapies, or misconceptions regarding food tolerance. Health care providers must be vigilant in monitoring both growth and feeding patterns to identify inappropriate dietary changes that may result in nutritional deficiencies.

  18. Non-integrability of restricted double pendula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachowiak, Tomasz; Szumiński, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    We consider two special types of double pendula, with the motion of masses restricted to various surfaces. In order to get quick insight into the dynamics of the considered systems the Poincaré cross sections as well as bifurcation diagrams have been used. The numerical computations show that both models are chaotic which suggests that they are not integrable. We give an analytic proof of this fact checking the properties of the differential Galois group of the system's variational equations along a particular non-equilibrium solution.

  19. A User-Friendly Method for Teaching Restriction Enzyme Mapping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrman, Patrick

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a teaching progression that enhances learning through low-cost, manipulative transparencies. Discussed is instruction about restriction enzymes, plasmids, cutting plasmids, plasmid maps, recording data, and mapping restriction sites. Mapping wheels for student use is included. (CW)

  20. 77 FR 24760 - Safety Advisory 2012-02; Restricted Speed

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Safety Advisory 2012-02; Restricted Speed AGENCY: Federal Railroad... speed. This safety advisory contains a preliminary discussion of recent train accidents involving a failure to operate at restricted speed and makes recommendations to railroads to ensure...