Science.gov

Sample records for 900-mile sea voyage

  1. Chronicles of the Sea: The History and Literature of Man's Voyages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roderer, Lawrence C.; Lacy, Richard

    In spring 1984, an interdisciplinary course on the history and literature of man's voyages and relationship with the sea was introduced at J. Sargeant Reynolds Community College (JSRCC). The course was team taught from the perspectives of the social sciences and English departments, incorporating fiction and non-fiction sources related to…

  2. Metagenomic sequencing reveals altered metabolic pathways in the oral microbiota of sailors during a long sea voyage.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Ze; Liu, Cuihua; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Dianrong; Qu, Jia; An, Huaijie; Xiong, Ming; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2015-03-16

    Seafaring is a difficult occupation, and sailors face higher health risks than individuals on land. Commensal microbiota participates in the host immune system and metabolism, reflecting the host's health condition. However, the interaction mechanisms between the microbiota and the host's health condition remain unclear. This study reports the influence of long sea voyages on human health by utilising a metagenomic analysis of variation in the microbiota of the buccal mucosa. Paired samples collected before and after a sea-voyage were analysed. After more than 120 days of ocean sailing, the oral microbial diversity of sailors was reduced by approximately 5 fold, and the levels of several pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus pneumonia) increased. Moreover, 69.46% of the identified microbial sequences were unclassified microbiota. Notably, several metabolic pathways were dramatically decreased, including folate biosynthesis, carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid pathways. Clinical examination of the hosts confirmed the identified metabolic changes, as demonstrated by decreased serum levels of haemoglobin and folic acid, a decreased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and homocysteine, which are consistent with the observed microbial variation. Our study suggests that oral mucosal bacteria may reflect host health conditions and could provide approaches for improving the health of sailors.

  3. Metagenomic sequencing reveals altered metabolic pathways in the oral microbiota of sailors during a long sea voyage

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Zhang, Ze; Liu, Cuihua; Qiao, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Dianrong; Qu, Jia; An, Huaijie; Xiong, Ming; Zhu, Zhiming; Zhao, Xiaohang

    2015-01-01

    Seafaring is a difficult occupation, and sailors face higher health risks than individuals on land. Commensal microbiota participates in the host immune system and metabolism, reflecting the host's health condition. However, the interaction mechanisms between the microbiota and the host's health condition remain unclear. This study reports the influence of long sea voyages on human health by utilising a metagenomic analysis of variation in the microbiota of the buccal mucosa. Paired samples collected before and after a sea-voyage were analysed. After more than 120 days of ocean sailing, the oral microbial diversity of sailors was reduced by approximately 5 fold, and the levels of several pathogens (e.g., Streptococcus pneumonia) increased. Moreover, 69.46% of the identified microbial sequences were unclassified microbiota. Notably, several metabolic pathways were dramatically decreased, including folate biosynthesis, carbohydrate, lipid and amino acid pathways. Clinical examination of the hosts confirmed the identified metabolic changes, as demonstrated by decreased serum levels of haemoglobin and folic acid, a decreased neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, and increased levels of triglycerides, cholesterol and homocysteine, which are consistent with the observed microbial variation. Our study suggests that oral mucosal bacteria may reflect host health conditions and could provide approaches for improving the health of sailors. PMID:26154405

  4. C-IMAGE Teachers at Sea Maiden Voyages: Promoting Authentic Scientific Research in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hine, A. C.; Greely, T.; Lodge, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Center for Integrated Modeling & Analysis of Gulf Ecosystems (C-IMAGE) is one of eight consortia participating in the BP/Gulf of Mexico Research Initiative. C-IMAGE is a comprehensive research consortium of 13 national and international universities tasked with evaluating the environmental impacts of the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (DWH) on coastal ecosystems, the water column and the sea floor. The associated C-IMAGE research cruises provide a unique opportunity for Florida's K12 science educators to participate in the data collection and collaboration process alongside marine scientists as a member of the scientific crew. The mission of the C-IMAGE cruises is to help to answer several fundamental questions about the DWH event and subsequent impacts on the plankton population, reef and fish communities and the microbial communities. Deep sea sediment samples, plankton and fishes collected during these expeditions are the data sources. Sampling activities include the use of the SIPPER plankton sampler, multi-core sediment system and long line surveys to assess fish health. While at sea teachers participate in the at sea research and serve as the ship to shore communicator via social media (FB, Twitter, daily blogs) and LIVE video conferencing with formal and informal classrooms. Marine scientists, post-docs and graduate students participating in the C-IMAGE cruises collaborate with the teacher on board to communicate the science, technology and life at sea experiences to educational and general audiences. Upon return to shore, teachers will translate their At Sea learning experience to understandable inquiry-based lessons about the science and technology encompassing the northern Gulf of Mexico ecology, the DWH event and subsequent impacts. Lessons developed from the cruises will inform a future series of C-IMAGE Teacher Professional Developments during Phase 2 of Outreach activities. The results from three Gulf of Mexico expeditions (Aug-Nov) will be

  5. Voyager 2 Jupiter encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A NASA News Release is presented which contains the following: (1) general release; (2) two views of Voyager 2 flight past Jupiter; (3) Voyager mission summary; (4) Voyager 1 science results; (5) Jupiter science objectives; (6) Jupiter the planet and its satellites; (7) Voyager experiments; (8) planet comparison; (9) a list of Voyager science investigators and (10) the Voyager team.

  6. Voyager backgrounder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft and experiments are described. The spacecraft description includes the structure and configuration, communications systems, power supplies, computer command subsystems, and the science platform. The experiments discussed are investigations of cosmic rays, low-energy charged particles, magnetic fields, and plasma waves, along with studies in radio astronomy photopolarimetry. The tracking and data acquisition procedures for the missions are presented.

  7. Voyager Cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Bridges, P. M.; Mullins, K. F.

    1985-01-01

    The Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being mapped at several scales from Voyager 1 and 2 data. The maps include specially formatted color mosaics, controlled photomosaics, and airbrush maps. More than 500 Voyager images of the Jovian and Saturnian satellites were radiometrically processed in preparation for cartographic processing. Of these images, 235 were geometrically transformed to map projections for base mosaic compilations. Special techniques for producing hybrid photomosaic/airbrush maps of Callisto are under investigation. The techniques involve making controlled computer mosaics of all available images with highest resolution images superimposed on lowest resolution images. The mosaics are then improved by airbrushing: seams and artifacts are removed, and image details enhanced that had been lost by saturation in some images. A controlled mosaic of the northern hemisphere of Rhea is complete, as is all processing for a similar mosaic of the equatorial region. Current plans and status of the various series are shown in a table.

  8. Voyager's decade of wonder

    SciTech Connect

    Mclaughlin, W.I. )

    1989-07-01

    The development and implementation of the Voyager missions are reviewed. The interplanetary missions preceding Voyager are discussed, focusing on the technological development leading up to the Voyager spacecraft. The main results from Voyager observations of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus are outlined. Also, consideration is given to the prospects for observations of Neptune.

  9. Voyager cartography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.; Lee, E. M.; Mullins, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    The Jovian and Saturnian satellites are being mapped at several scales from Voyager 1 and 2 data. The maps are especially formatted color mosaics, controlled photomosaics, and airbrush maps. At 1:5,000,000 scale, mapping of Io, Europa, and Ganymede is complete. At 1:15,000,000 scale, mapping of Io and Europa is complete, and mapping of Ganymede is approximately complete. A controlled mosaic of Rhea has been compiled as a Digital Image Model (DIM) in the same format as is being used for Mars. The mosaic is being formatted for publication as a two-sheet set (Lambert Azimuthal Equal Area, Mercator, and Polar Stereographic projections). Magnetic tape copies of the DIM have been distributed to regional Planetary Image Facilities and other interested users. The DIM has a scale of 1/16 degree/pixel, corresponding to approximately 833 m/pixel on Rhea. Details of the status of the various map series are reported quarterly to Planetary Geology Principal Investigators.

  10. Voyager - Humanity's Farthest Journey

    NASA Video Gallery

    After 33 years, NASA's twin Voyager spacecraft are still going strong and still sending home information. This video features highlights of the Voyager journeys to the outer planets, and looks at t...

  11. Voyager's Last Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This video describes Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune. Computer animation and actual data convey Voyager's discoveries such as turbulent storms and dark spots in Neptune's atmosphere, six new moons, Neptune's three rings, and the presence of frozen methane on Triton, as researchers at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory describe Voyager's achievements.

  12. Voyager - 35 Years Later

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video drops in on mission control for NASA's Voyager spacecraft asVoyager 1 sends back data from the far reaches of our solar system.Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech    › Voyager's mission site

  13. Voyage of Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    These animations show NASA's Voyager spacecraft encountering Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune on their grand tour through the solar system. The artist's renderings were made based on navigationa...

  14. Constraining back-arc basin formation in the eastern Coral Sea: preliminary results from the ECOSAT voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seton, M.; Williams, S.; Mortimer, N. N.; Meffre, S.; Moore, J.; Micklethwaite, S.; Zahirovic, S.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Coral Sea region is an underexplored area at the northeastern corner of the Australian plate, where long-lived interaction between the Pacific and Australian plate boundaries has resulted in an intricate assemblage of deep oceanic basins and ridges, continental fragments and volcanic products. A paucity of marine geophysical and geological data from this complex region has resulted in the lack of a clear conceptual framework to describe its formation, ultimately affecting our understanding of the connection between the plate boundaries of the SW Pacific and SE Asia. In particular, the tectonic relationship between two back-arc basins, the Santa Cruz and d'Entrecasteaux Basins, and the South Rennell Trough, has yet to be resolved. In October-November, 2012, we collected 6,200 km of marine magnetic, 6,800 km of gravity and over 13,600 km2 of swath bathymetry data from the eastern Coral Sea onboard the RV Southern Surveyor. A complementary dredging program yielded useful samples from 14 seafloor sites. Our preliminary geochemical interpretation of the dredge samples obtained from the South Rennell Trough reveal volcanic rocks resembling MORB or BABB-type basalts, similar in composition to the recently re-analysed and dated ORSTOM dredges from the area that yielded ~28 Ma MORB-like basalts. Swath bathymetry profiles from the Santa Cruz Basin reveal that the South Rennell Trough extends into this basin, with seafloor spreading fabric being parallel to the trough. Preliminary analysis of the three full and four partial new magnetic anomaly profiles across the Santa Cruz Basin, coupled with limited existing profiles, reveals that the basin may have formed between Chrons 13-18 (~32-38 Ma), with an extinct spreading ridge along the inferred continuation of the South Rennell Trough, consistent with ORSTOM age dates. Our results suggest that the South Rennell Trough is an extinct southwestward propagating spreading ridge, which may have initiated along a pre

  15. Voyager at Uranus: 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The voyager 2 spacecraft begins its initial observations of Uranus November 4, 1985, and makes its final observation February 25, 1996. The data from the infrared interfermometer spectrometer, photopolarimeters, plasma wave, plasma detecter, and ultraviolet spectrometer will be processed to add a large block of infermation to the small amount already known. The trajectory of Voyager 2 is also discussed.

  16. Voyage to Jupiter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, David; Samz, Jane

    This publication illustrates the features of Jupiter and its family of satellites pictured by the Pioneer and the Voyager missions. Chapters included are: (1) "The Jovian System" (describing the history of astronomy); (2) "Pioneers to Jupiter" (outlining the Pioneer Mission); (3) "The Voyager Mission"; (4)…

  17. Voyager at Neptune: 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager mission has taken advantage of a rare planetary alignment that occurs at intervals of about 175 years and affords an extraordinary opportunity: a grand tour by a single spacecraft of the outer planets Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Voyager 2 will fly past Nepture and its large moon Triton on August 24, 1989. The discovery of Neptune, along with its current history is discussed. The imaging challenges, tracking and data acquisition, and the Voyager spacecraft are explained. Data will be gathered on the ring arcs of Neptune, the atmosphere and surface of Neptune, Triton, and Nereid (the smaller moon).

  18. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  19. Voyages to Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D.

    1982-01-01

    The Voyager mission to Saturn is explained in detail. A history of Saturn observations from ancient times to the present is given. The Voyager spacecraft and their instruments are described. An overview of planetary astronomy is presented. The text is supplemented by numerous black and white and color photographs. The Saturn satellites are discussed in detail, and preliminary pictorial maps of the satellites are given.

  20. Voyager: Neptune Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Voyager encounter data are presented in computer animation (CA) and real (R) animation. The highlights include a view of 2 full rotations of Neptune. It shows spacecraft trajectory 'diving' over Neptune and intercepting Triton's orbit, depicting radiation and occulation zones. Also shown are a renegade orbit of Triton and Voyager's encounter with Neptune's Magnetopause. A model of the spacecraft's complex maneuvers during close encounters of Neptune and Triton is presented. A view from Earth of Neptune's occulation experiment is is shown as well as a recreation of Voyager's final pass. There is detail of Voyager's Image Compensation technique which produces Voyager images. Eighteen images were produced on June 22 - 23, 1989, from 57 million miles away. A 68 day sequence which provides a stroboscopic view - colorization approximates what is seen by the human eye. Real time images recorded live from Voyager on 8/24/89 are presented. Photoclinometry produced the topography of Triton. Three images are used to create a sequence of Neptune's rings. The globe of Neptune and 2 views of the south pole are shown as well as Neptune rotating. The rotation of a scooter is frozen in images showing differential motion. There is a view of rotation of the Great Dark Spot about its own axis. Photoclinometry provides a 3-dimensional perspective using a color mosaic of Triton images. The globe is used to indicate the orientation of Neptune's crescent. The east and west plumes on Triton are shown.

  1. Voyager Encounter Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following are presented: computer animation of trajectories for both Voyagers 1 and 2; view of Jupiter during one orbit of Ganymede; computer animation of Voyager 2's encounter with Jupiter and its satellites; time lapse of the planet's rotation and its satellites; stroboscopic sequence of selected frames; cloud motion; Jupiter's Great Red Spot (4/25 - 5/24, 1979) through a violet filter; and the Great Red Spot through a blue filter by Voyager 1. The dynamics of Jupiter's clouds are shown - the whole planet is shown first, then two closer looks are repeated several times. Also included are pans of stills of Jupiter's satellites and a computer simulation tour of Saturn system from POV just behind Voyager, made of 116 images of Saturn through a green filter and of 516 images taken by Voyager 1 (9/12 - 9/14, 1980). Frames are enhanced to show the motion of features in Saturn's rings. Pans of stills of Saturn's satellites are shown. There is computer animation of the planet's system, rings, and Sigma Sagittari. Images on January 14, 1986 are through an orange filter. Uranus's satellites are shown as is computer animation of an August 1989 encounter.

  2. Voyager encounter highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-06-01

    The following are presented: computer animation of trajectories for both Voyagers 1 and 2; view of Jupiter during one orbit of Ganymede; computer animation of Voyager 2's encounter with Jupiter and its satellites; time lapse of the planet's rotation and its satellites; stroboscopic sequence of selected frames; cloud motion; Jupiter's Great Red Spot (4/25 - 5/24, 1979) through a violet filter; and the Great Red Spot through a blue filter by Voyager 1. The dynamics of Jupiter's clouds are shown - the whole planet is shown first, then two closer looks are repeated several times. Also included are pans of stills of Jupiter's satellites and a computer simulation tour of Saturn system from POV just behind Voyager, made of 116 images of Saturn through a green filter and of 516 images taken by Voyager 1 (9/12 - 9/14, 1980). Frames are enhanced to show the motion of features in Saturn's rings. Pans of stills of Saturn's satellites are shown. There is computer animation of the planet's system, rings, and Sigma Sagittari. Images on January 14, 1986 are through an orange filter. Uranus's satellites are shown as is computer animation of an August 1989 encounter.

  3. Voyager 2 Observes Energetic Electrons

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Voyager 2 observations of energetic electrons. Voyager 2 detected a dramatic drop of the flux of electrons as it left the sector region. The intense flux came back as soon ...

  4. Voyager Saturn encounter press briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The briefing reviewed the mission planning of the Voyager project. The near encounter trajectories of both Voyager spacecraft were examined. The Saturn system is discussed with particular emphasis on Saturn's moons.

  5. Voyager Outreach Compilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) video presents a collection of the best videos that have been published of the Voyager mission. Computer animation/simulations comprise the largest portion of the video and include outer planetary magnetic fields, outer planetary lunar surfaces, and the Voyager spacecraft trajectory. Voyager visited the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The video contains some live shots of Jupiter (actual), the Earth's moon (from orbit), Saturn (actual), Neptune (actual) and Uranus (actual), but is mainly comprised of computer animations of these planets and their moons. Some of the individual short videos that are compiled are entitled: The Solar System; Voyage to the Outer Planets; A Tour of the Solar System; and the Neptune Encounter. Computerized simulations of Viewing Neptune from Triton, Diving over Neptune to Meet Triton, and Catching Triton in its Retrograde Orbit are included. Several animations of Neptune's atmosphere, rotation and weather features as well as significant discussion of the planet's natural satellites are also presented.

  6. Voyager Outreach Compilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-09-01

    This NASA JPL (Jet Propulsion Laboratory) video presents a collection of the best videos that have been published of the Voyager mission. Computer animation~ulations comprise the largest portion of the video and include outer planetary magnetic fields, outer planetary lunar surfaces, and the Voyager spacecraft trajectory. Voyager visited the four outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The video contains some live shots of Jupiter (actual), the Earth's moon (from orbit), Saturn (actual), Neptune (actual) and Uranus (actual), but is mainly comprised of computer animations of these planets and their moons. Some of the individual short videos that are compiled are entitled: The Solar System; Voyage to the Outer Planets; A Tour of the Solar System; and the Neptune Encounter. Computerized simulations of Viewing Neptune from Triton, Diving over Neptune to Meet Triton, and Catching Triton in its Retrograde Orbit are included. Several animations of Neptune's atmosphere, rotation and weather features as well as significant discussion of the planet's natural satellites are also presented.

  7. NASA Facts, Voyager.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This document is one of a series of publications of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) on facts about the exploration of Jupiter and Saturn. This NASA mission consists of two unmanned Voyager spacecrafts launched in August and September of 1977, and due to arrive at Jupiter in 1979. An account of the scientific equipment…

  8. 33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... a towing vessel's intended voyage is seaward of the baseline (i.e., the shoreward boundary) of the territorial sea of the U.S., then the owner, master, or operator of the vessel, employed to tow a barge or... forecast weather, including visibility, wind, and sea state for the port of departure, all ports of...

  9. 33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... a towing vessel's intended voyage is seaward of the baseline (i.e., the shoreward boundary) of the territorial sea of the U.S., then the owner, master, or operator of the vessel, employed to tow a barge or... forecast weather, including visibility, wind, and sea state for the port of departure, all ports of...

  10. Triton - Voyager's finale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The investigation of the Neptunian satellite Triton by the Voyager 2 is described with interpretations of the object's nature and composition. The orbit, seasonal cycle, and southern-hemisphere solstice are described, and the composition of the satellite is discussed. Triton's mass and radius are known, and the objects is made up of about 70 percent rock and organics and 30 percent ice by mass. Triton's interior is warm and geologically active considering its distance from the sun, and large amounts of frozen methane and nitrogen are theorized to contribute to the object's high reflectivity. Also noted in the Voyager color images are creeping ice, cryogenic lava, and dark streaks on the south polar cap from nitrogen gas leaks driven by a type of greenhouse effect. Triton represents a class of satellite that has not been observed previously: a moon-sized body in a retrograde inclined orbit from the class of objects that coalesced to form Neptune.

  11. Voyager at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, W. I.; Wolff, D. M.

    1986-01-01

    The engineering changes that had to be made in the Voyager 2 spacecraft in order to enable it to fly beyond the originally planned encounters with Jupiter and Saturn and the underlying engineering strategy leading to the encounter with Uranus are discussed. Fixes of the azimuth actuator failure, receiver failure, and memory failure, and capability upgrades of Image Data Compression, aperture augmentation protective coding, smear reduction, Image Motion Compensation, power management, and contingency planning are summarized. The use of the Computer Command Subsystem in the extension of the voyage is described. The ways in which the strategic priorities, including spacecraft preservation, protection of the near-encounter load, development of new ground and spacecraft capabilities, and repair or circumvention of existing spacecraft faults, were accomplished are reviewed, and the accomplishment of additional tasks is also discussed.

  12. A Bilingual VOYAGER System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    Phonological Modeling Words in the lexicon must be mapped from the abstract phonemic representation to the possible acoustic realizations, taking...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions , searching existing data sources, gathering and...VOYAGER System 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e . TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER

  13. Aspects of Voyager photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Sherman S. C.; Schafer, Francis J.; Jordan, Raymond; Howington, Annie-Elpis

    1987-01-01

    In January 1986, Voyager 2 took a series of pictures of Uranus and its satellites with the Imaging Science System (ISS) on board the spacecraft. Based on six stereo images from the ISS narrow-angle camera, a topographic map was compiled of the Southern Hemisphere of Miranda, one of Uranus' moons. Assuming a spherical figure, a 20-km surface relief is shown on the map. With three additional images from the ISS wide-angle camera, a control network of Miranda's Southern Hemisphere was established by analytical photogrammetry, producing 88 ground points for the control of multiple-model compilation on the AS-11AM analytical stereoplotter. Digital terrain data from the topographic map of Miranda have also been produced. By combining these data and the image data from the Voyager 2 mission, perspective views or even a movie of the mapped area can be made. The application of these newly developed techniques to Voyager 1 imagery, which includes a few overlapping pictures of Io and Ganymede, permits the compilation of contour maps or topographic profiles of these bodies on the analytical stereoplotters.

  14. Voyager 1 'Blue Movie'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This is the original Voyager 'Blue Movie' (so named because it was built from Blue filter images). It records the approach of Voyager 1 during a period of over 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storms shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  15. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  16. 46 CFR 185.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Voyage plan. 185.503 Section 185.503 Shipping COAST...) OPERATIONS Preparations for Emergencies § 185.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels shall prepare a voyage plan: (1) A vessel making an oceans or coastwise voyage; (2) A vessel making a voyage...

  17. Voyager 1 examines Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the Voyager mission to Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus is presented. Scientific instruments onboard the spacecraft are described as well as methods used for their calibration and evaluation during the cruise phase of the mission. Experiments to be performed cover the following areas: imaging science, radio science, cosmic rays, ultraviolet spectroscopy, photopolarimetry, planetary radio astronomy, magnetic fields, low-energy charged particles, plasma science, and infrared radiometry and spectroscopy. A list of the satellites of Jupiter and their diameters, distances, and periods is included.

  18. Gigapan Voyage for Robotic Recon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Susan Y.; Moorse, Theodore Fitzgerald; Park, Eric J.

    2010-01-01

    Gigapan Voyage (GV) is a self-contained remotely-operable Gigapan capturing system that is currently being developed by the Intelligent Robotics Group (IRG) at NASA Ames Research Center. Gigapan Voyage was primarily designed to be integrated onto Johnson Space Center s Lunar Electric Rovers (LER). While on LER, Gigapan Voyage was used by scientists and astronauts during the 2009 and 2010 Desert RATS field tests. The concept behind Gigapan Voyage is to merge all the sub-components of the commercial GigaPan system into an all-in-one system that can capture, stitch, and display Gigapans in an automated way via a simple web interface. The GV system enables NASA to quickly and easily add remote-controlled Gigapan capturing capability onto rovers with minimal integration effort. Key Words: Geology, NASA, Black Point Lava Flow, Robot, K10, LER, Gigapan Voyage, Desert RATS, Intelligent Robotics Group

  19. Voyages Home: "The Wanderer"&"The Odyssey." Thematic Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sekula, Diane

    Sophie and Cody in "The Wanderer" (Sharon Creech) share the duties of recording their journey to an ancestor's birth land. The strong bond of family and accomplishments through the voyage home personified the embodiment of an adventurer. For Sophie and Cody, close family bonds were forged and washed clean by the sea. Odysseus, the…

  20. Amalthea - Voyager imaging results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Davies, M.; Morrison, D.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager images of Amalthea are presented, which reveal an irregular satellite in synchronous rotation relative to Jupiter with dimensions of 270 x 165 x 150 km. The surface appears scarred by large craters and sharp ridges to indicate a history of cosmic battering. Amalthea'a normal surface reflectance is 5-6% with a very red color and a mean opposition angle magnitude of +14. The phase coefficient between phase angles of 0.8 and 42 deg of 0.042 + or - 0.004 mag/deg indicates that the phase integral does not exceed 0.3 and the Bond Albedo is less than 0.02. Several prominent bright spots of 10-50 km across occur on local slopes and ridges, have albedos several times higher than the background, and have a greenish color where the spectrum bends down beyond 0.56 microns.

  1. Amalthea. [Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P.; Veverka, J.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager images have revealed Amalthea to be an irregular object 270 x 165 x 150 km in size. The spin period is probably synchronous with the orbital period of 11.9 hr, with the long axis pointing toward Jupiter. The satellite's surface is heavily scarred by impact craters, the largest of which has a diameter of 90 km (comparable to the mean radius of the satellite). Amalthea is very dark (reflectance about 5-6%) and very red, but isolated bright spots (reflectance up to 20%) occur. The spectrum of these bright spots is less red and may show an absorption feature near 0.6 micron. It is likely that the surface of Amalthea has been severely altered by its environment and by contamination from Io (especially by sulfur). It may, therefore, be very difficult to obtain definitive information on the composition of the intrinsic Amalthea material from remote sensing measurements.

  2. Jupiter and the Voyager mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soderblom, L.; Spall, Henry

    1980-01-01

    In 1977, the United States launched two unmanned Voyager spacecraft that were to take part in an extensive reconnaissance of the outer planets over a 12-year period visiting the environs of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their first encounter was with the complex Jupiter planetary system 400 million miles away. Sweeping by Jupiter and its five moons in 1979, the two spacecraft have sent back to Earth an enormous amount of data that will prove to be vital in understanding our solar system. Voyager 1 is scheduled to fly past Saturn on November 13 of this year; Voyager 2, in August of the following year. 

  3. 46 CFR 122.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Voyage plan. 122.503 Section 122.503 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels shall prepare a voyage plan: (1) A... United States Great Lakes port from a Canadian Great Lakes port. (b) The voyage plan required...

  4. 46 CFR 122.503 - Voyage plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Voyage plan. 122.503 Section 122.503 Shipping COAST... Emergencies § 122.503 Voyage plan. (a) The master of the following vessels shall prepare a voyage plan: (1) A... United States Great Lakes port from a Canadian Great Lakes port. (b) The voyage plan required...

  5. The Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1989-01-01

    The findings made by the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter are reviewed. Data on the bowshock, magnetic field, magnetosphere, rings, plasma sheet, aurora, moons, and dust of Neptune are discussed. Findings made concerning Triton are summarized.

  6. Voyager to the Seventh Planet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Michael

    1986-01-01

    Presents recent findings obtained by the Voyager 2 mission on Uranus. Updates information on the planet's moons, rings, atmosphere, and magnetic field. Illustrations and diagrams of selected aspects of Uranus are included. (ML)

  7. Voyager Encounters Saturn: Scientific Highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Observations generated by Voyager 1's encounter with Saturn are disclosed. Atmospheric conditions, the rings, new moons and the five inner moons are described. Titan, Hyperion and Iapetus are discussed in detail, as is Saturn's magnetosphere.

  8. Triumph of the Voyager mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kerr, R. A.

    1989-01-01

    It had been a long, productive trip. Launched in 1977, the two Voyager spacecraft had visited three giant planets, a dozen major Moons, three ring systems with thousands of rings composed of a myriad of tiny Moonlets. The spacecraft had returned 5 trillion bits of data and over 100,000 photographs. The last encounter in our Solar System by Voyager 2 with Neptune was to be a spectacular finale to the 12-year drama. 

  9. Solar System Voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunier, Serge

    2002-11-01

    In the last few decades, the exploration of our solar system has revealed fascinating details about the worlds that lie beyond our Earth. This lavishly illustrated book invites the reader on a journey through the solar system. After locating our planetary system in the Universe, Brunier describes the Sun and its planets, the large satellites, asteroids, and comets. Photographs and information taken from the latest space missions allow readers to experience spectacular scenes: the lunar plains scarred by asteroid impacts, the frozen deserts of Mars and Europa, the continuously erupting volcanoes of Io and the giant geysers of Triton, the rings of Saturn and the clouds of Venus and Titan, and the powerful crash of the comet Shoemaker-Levy into Jupiter. Inspired by the extraordinary photographs and incisive text, readers of Solar System Voyage will gain a greater appreciation of the hospitable planet we call home. Serge Brunier is chief editor of the journal Ciel et Espace, a photojournalist, and the author of many nonfiction books aimed at both specialists and the general public. His previous books include Space Odyssey (Cambridge, 2002), Glorious Eclipses with Jean-Pierre Luminet (Cambridge, 2000), and Majestic Universe (Cambridge, 1999).

  10. Médecine des voyages

    PubMed Central

    Aw, Brian; Boraston, Suni; Botten, David; Cherniwchan, Darin; Fazal, Hyder; Kelton, Timothy; Libman, Michael; Saldanha, Colin; Scappatura, Philip; Stowe, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Définir la pratique de la médecine des voyages, présenter les éléments fondamentaux d’une consultation complète préalable aux voyages à des voyageurs internationaux et aider à identifier les patients qu’il vaudrait mieux envoyer en consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages. Sources des données Les lignes directrices et les recommandations sur la médecine des voyages et les maladies liées aux voyages publiées par les autorités sanitaires nationales et internationales ont fait l’objet d’un examen. Une recension des ouvrages connexes dans MEDLINE et EMBASE a aussi été effectuée. Message principal La médecine des voyages est une spécialité très dynamique qui se concentre sur les soins préventifs avant un voyage. Une évaluation exhaustive du risque pour chaque voyageur est essentielle pour mesurer avec exactitude les risques particuliers au voyageur, à son itinéraire et à sa destination et pour offrir des conseils sur les interventions les plus appropriées en gestion du risque afin de promouvoir la santé et prévenir les problèmes médicaux indésirables durant le voyage. Des vaccins peuvent aussi être nécessaires et doivent être personnalisés en fonction des antécédents d’immunisation du voyageur, de son itinéraire et du temps qu’il reste avant son départ. Conclusion La santé et la sécurité d’un voyageur dépendent du degré d’expertise du médecin qui offre le counseling préalable à son voyage et les vaccins, au besoin. On recommande à ceux qui donnent des conseils aux voyageurs d’être conscients de l’ampleur de cette responsabilité et de demander si possible une consultation auprès de professionnels de la médecine des voyages pour tous les voyageurs à risque élevé.

  11. NASA's Arctic Voyage 2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's first oceanographic research expedition left Alaska on June 15, 2010. The ICESCAPE mission will head into the Arctic to study sea ice and the changing ocean ecosystem. Listen to the scientis...

  12. The Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartos, Ken; Brundage, William D.

    1989-05-01

    Space program projects involve levels of complexity, coordination, information, knowledge, and sophistication that far exceed the functional levels of most projects. This article consolidates four smaller articles documenting the joint effort of three United States space agencies--National Science Foundation (NSF), National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)--to develop the equipment and the capabilities needed to establish a communications link with a United States satellite (Voyager 2) as it speeds past Neptune in mid-1989, a link that will transmit to earth information that may help scientists better understand the origin, evolution, and present state of the universe. The first article explains the science of radio astronomy and the nature of radio wave transmission; it also discusses information that scientists have acquired from Voyager 2’s travels past Jupiter and from Voyager 1’s travels past Saturn and Uranus. The second article outlines NASA’s deep space network and discusses its capabilities and components. The third article details the complex process of transmitting images from space to scientists on earth. The fourth article describes the history of the Voyager 1 and the Voyager 2 missions and the management processes used to develop and implement these operations.

  13. The Voyager Neptune travel guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohlhase, Charles (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    The Voyager mission to the giant outer planets of our solar system is described. Scientific highlights include interplanetary cruise, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and their vast satellite and ring systems. Detailed plans are provided for the August 1989 Neptune encounter and subsequent interstellar journey to reach the heliopause. As background, the elements of an unmanned space mission are explained, with emphasis on the capabilities of the spacecraft and the scientific sensors. Other topics include the Voyager Grand Tour trajectory design, deep-space navigation, and gravity-assist concepts. The Neptune flyby is animated through the use of computer-generated, flip-page movie frames that appear in the corners of the publication. Useful historical information is also presented, including facts associated with the Voyager mission. Finally, short summaries are provided to describe the major objectives and schedules for several space missions planned for the remainder of the 20th century.

  14. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  15. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  16. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  17. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  18. 46 CFR 80.15 - Ocean voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean voyage. 80.15 Section 80.15 Shipping COAST GUARD... REGISTRY § 80.15 Ocean voyage. An ocean voyage for the purposes of this part means: A voyage on any body of water seaward of the low water mark such as an ocean or arm thereof, other major bodies of water such...

  19. Jupiter - First stop on Voyager's grand tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, D.

    1989-08-01

    The findings concerning Jupiter that were made by the Voyager missions are briefly reviewed. The ring and three new moons around Jupiter, the live volcanoes on Io, and atmospheric phenomena on Jupiter which were observed by Voyager 1 are described. The discoveries regarding Callisto and Europa made by Voyager 2 are briefly summarized.

  20. Voyage of Time: Dark Matter

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-10

    This scene of “Voyage of Time,” contributed by KIPAC’s Ralf Kaehler and Tom Abel, shows how dark matter evolved in the universe to form large-scale structures such as galaxies and galaxy clusters. (SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory)

  1. And Then There Was Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's legendary grand tour of the outer solar system from the mission conception in the early 1970's is described. The search for the heliopause is discussed. This presentation is told in the words of the key members of the Voyager team.

  2. The Voyage of the MIMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Sam; Hooper, Kristina

    1986-01-01

    The Voyage of MIMI is a major educational project housed at Bank Street College (New York) which is directed toward the development of extensive television, computer software, videodisc, and print materials for use in science and mathematics education in grades 5-7. The first series has been completed, and includes a 13-part dramatic television…

  3. Voyager to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The NASA Voyager mission to explore planets of the outer solar system is summarized. The mission schedule and profiles for encounters with Jupiter and Saturn, and possibly with Uranus and Pluto are included along with a description of the spacecraft and its trajectories. Scientific investigations to be made and the instruments carried are also discussed.

  4. "Voyager": An Educational Card Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Ryan

    2003-01-01

    "Voyager" is an educational card game involving scientific satellites, developed for use in schools with children aged 9 to 13 years. The idea of the game is to improve pupils' knowledge about the large number of scientific satellites there are in space in a fun way, while also practising numeracy skills. Several copies of the game were…

  5. Voyager program. Voyager 1 encounter at Jupiter, 5 March 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Highlights of Voyager 1 activity during the observatory and far-encounter phases are summarized. Daily sequence of events for the spacecraft during the period of greatest encounter activity (Feb. 26 through Mar. 7) the near-encounter phase is given. Times shown designate the time of signal reception at Deep Space Network stations. Events listed emphasize activities pertaining to the four remote sensing instruments on the scan platforms. However, the other 7 experiments will continuously collect data throughout the encounter period.

  6. The Voyager program at APL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Barry H.; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    1990-06-01

    An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed.

  7. The Voyager program at APL

    SciTech Connect

    Mauk, B.H.; Keath, E.P.; Krimigis, S.M. )

    1990-06-01

    An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed. 11 refs.

  8. The Voyager program at APL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mauk, Barry H.; Keath, Edwin P.; Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the structure and function of the Applied Physics Laboratory's low-energy charged particle (LECP) instrument used in NASA's Voyager program. The LECP experiment was designed to measure the intensity, energy spectra, composition, angular distributions, and spatial and temporal characteristics of ions and electrons that are encountered by the spacecraft. Scientific findings of previous planetary encounters are noted, and color energy-time spectrograms that summarize the LECP results at each planet are presented and analyzed. Some details of the encounter by Voyager 2 of Neptune are provided, noting that the characteristics of the trajectory that was used provided for close observation of Triton, observations of particle structures, and exploration of Neptune's polar cap. A schematic of Neptune's magnetosphere is provided and analyzed.

  9. Voyager 1: Encounter with Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panagakos, N.

    1980-01-01

    The history of the Voyager Project is reviewed as well as known facts about Saturn and its satellites. Important results of encounters with Jupiter are summarized. Scientific objectives of the flyby of Saturn involve the planet's atmosphere, rings, and magnetic field interactions with the solar wind and satellites. The search for additional satellites, and various aspects of Titan, Rhea, Dione, Mimas, Iapetus, Hyperion, and Enceladas are also of interest. The instruments developed to obtain these goals are described.

  10. Take a Voyage of Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    On December 27, 1831, the "H.M.S. Beagle" left Plymouth Harbor for a round-the-world voyage. On board was would-be botanist Charles Darwin, the best tour guide biology has ever known. In 2009, we will celebrate Darwin's 200th birthday and the 150th anniversary of "The Origin of Species" publication. What better way to prepare for this celebration…

  11. Voyager 1 Near the heliopause

    DOE PAGES

    Borovikov, S. N.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2014-02-18

    Recent observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft show that it is sampling the local interstellar medium (LISM). This is quite surprising because no realistic, steady-state model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the LISM gives an inner heliosheath width as narrow as ~30 AU. This includes models that assume a strong redistribution of the ion energy to the tails in the pickup ion distribution function. We show that the heliopause (HP), which separates the SW from the LISM, is not a smooth tangential discontinuity, but rather a surface subject to Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities which can result in LISM material penetrationmore » deep inside the SW. We also show that the HP flanks are always subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instabilities are considerably suppressed near the HP nose by the heliospheric magnetic field in steady-state models, but reveal themselves in the presence of solar cycle effects. Here we argue that Voyager 1 may be in one such instability region and is therefore observing plasma densities much higher than those in the pristine SW. Lastly, these results may explain the early penetration of Voyager 1 into the LISM. They also show that there is a possibility that the spacecraft may start sampling the SW again before it finally leaves the heliosphere.« less

  12. VOYAGER 1 NEAR THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Borovikov, S. N.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2014-03-01

    Recent observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft show that it is sampling the local interstellar medium (LISM). This is quite surprising because no realistic, steady-state model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the LISM gives an inner heliosheath width as narrow as ∼30 AU. This includes models that assume a strong redistribution of the ion energy to the tails in the pickup ion distribution function. We show that the heliopause (HP), which separates the SW from the LISM, is not a smooth tangential discontinuity, but rather a surface subject to Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities which can result in LISM material penetration deep inside the SW. We also show that the HP flanks are always subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instabilities are considerably suppressed near the HP nose by the heliospheric magnetic field in steady-state models, but reveal themselves in the presence of solar cycle effects. We argue that Voyager 1 may be in one such instability region and is therefore observing plasma densities much higher than those in the pristine SW. These results may explain the early penetration of Voyager 1 into the LISM. They also show that there is a possibility that the spacecraft may start sampling the SW again before it finally leaves the heliosphere.

  13. Voyager 1 View of Callisto

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this picture of Callisto during Voyager's approach to Jupiter's outer large satellite in 1979. Both Galileo and Marius discovered Callisto in 1610. In Greek mythology, Callisto was a nymph loved by Zeus and thus hated by Hera. Hera turned her into a bear, which Zeus placed in the heavens as the constellation Ursa Major. Voyager was 350,000 kilometers from Callisto and took this picture that shows features about seven kilometers wide across the surface. Callisto is a little smaller than Ganymede (Callisto is about the size of Mercury) and it seems that it is composed of a mixture of ice and rock (about 40 percent ice and 60 percent rock and iron). The darker color of Callisto (about half as reflective as Ganymede but still twice as bright as the Moon) implies that the upper surface is 'dirty ice' or water- rich rock frozen on Callisto's cold surface (approximately -243 Fahrenheit degrees at the equator). Callisto's atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide. Far more craters appear on the surface of Callisto than on the surface of Ganymede, leading scientists to believe that Callisto is the oldest of the Galilean satellites. Callisto could date back as far as four billion years ago and has remained relatively unchanged in the history of space.

  14. Titania - Highest Resolution Voyager Picture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This is the highest-resolution picture of Titania returned by Voyager 2. The picture is a composite of two images taken Jan. 24, 1986, through the clear filter of Voyager's narrow-angle camera. At the time, the spacecraft was 369,000 kilometers (229,000 miles) from the Uranian moon; the resolution was 13 km (8 mi). Titania is the largest satellite of Uranus, with a diameter of a little more than 1,600 km (1,000 mi). Abundant impact craters of many sizes pockmark the ancient surface. The most prominent features are fault valleys that stretch across Titania. They are up to 1,500 km (nearly 1,000 mi) long and as much as 75 km (45 mi) wide. In valleys seen at right-center, the sunward-facing walls are very bright. While this is due partly to the lighting angle, the brightness also indicates the presence of a lighter material, possibly young frost deposits. An impact crater more than 200 km (125 mi) in diameter distinguishes the very bottom of the disk; the crater is cut by a younger fault valley more than 100 km (60 mi) wide. An even larger impact crater, perhaps 300 km (180 mi) across, is visible at top. The Voyager project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  15. Voyager 1 Image of Ganymede

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 1 took this picture of Ganymede from a distance of 1.6 million miles. Ganymede is Jupiter's largest satellite with a radius of approximately 2600 kilometers, about 1.5 times that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is the seventh and largest of Jupiter's known satellites and is the third of the Galilean moons. Discovered in 1610 by Galileo and Marius, Ganymede is the largest satellite in the Solar System. It was named after the Greek mythical character, Ganymede, a handsome Trojan boy that Zeus took to Olympus to be a cupbearer for the gods (one of the only humans in Greek mythology who became immortal). Ganymede is larger than Mercury but has only half Mercury's mass. It has a bulk density of only two grams per cubic centimeter, almost half that of Earth's Moon. Ganymede is most likely composed of a mixture of rock and ice. The long white filaments resemble rays associated with impacts on the lunar surface. The various colors of different regions probably represent differing surface materials. Several dots of a single color (blue, green, and orange) on the picture are the result of markings on the camera used for pointing determinations and are not physical markings. Voyager scientists discovered that Ganymede has its own magnetosphere embedded inside Jupiter's large one. JPL manages and controls the Voyager Project for NASA's Office of Space Science.

  16. Jupiter/Voyager data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veverka, J.

    1985-01-01

    The extent to which the unusual spectral properties of Io and Alamathea can be accounted for by sulfur glass or at least by sulfur rich glasses was investigated. Whether or not the temperature dependence of the characteristic spectrum of pure sulfur can be used to set limits on the abundance of sulfur as a surface constituent of Io was also explored. Data from Voyager imaging observations of Saturn's small satellites, of the unusual retrograde satellite Phoebe, and of Hyperion were also reduced, analyzed, and interpreted.

  17. Voyager Sails into Market for Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzo, Kathleen Kennedy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports how the Voyager Universal Literacy core program, which is sailing successively into the market for reading programs, has been the target of several speculations over its secrets of success. Use of the Voyager Universal Literacy program has since spread to 1,000 districts throughout the country since its introduction into the…

  18. Voyager at Neptune - A preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, W.J. Illinois Univ., Urbana )

    1989-12-01

    Data obtained from the Voyager mission to Neptune are discussed. The atmosphere and magnetosphere of Neptune are described. Specific attention is given to Neptune's Great Dark Spot and its systems of thin, dark rings. The Voyager data regarding Neptune's satellites, in particular Triton and Nereid, are examined.

  19. The Voyager encounter with Uranus and Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, Ellis D.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager 2 approaches Uranus at a relative low phase angle and high southerly latitude. Only when the spacecraft is very close to Uranus does the geometry change appreciably. Most of the important observations occur within six hours of closest approach. Voyager flies through an Earth and solar occulation zone and leaves Uranus at a relatively high phase angle of about 145 degrees. There isn't much of an opportunity to look at the equatorial region of the planet. At Neptune, on the other hand, the approach is more nearly equatorial (about 35 deg S lat). Voyager 2 will come much closer to Nepture than to any of the other gas giants as it skims within about 2000 km of Neptune's cloudtops. It will pass through earth and solar occultation zones at both Neptune and its satellite, Triton. Again, Voyager 2 will leave Neptune at about 35 deg S latitude. Voyager operational instrument, interplanetary trajectories and planetary encounters are briefly discussed.

  20. Voyager Briefing: Expectations of the Neptune Encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This NASA KSC video release presents a news briefing held Aug. 4, 1989 at NASA Headquarters three weeks after Voyager 2's official "encounter" with Neptune began. The video is comprised of two slide presentations followed by a short question and answer period. The press conference is moderated by Charles Redmond, (NASA Public Affairs), includes an introduction by Dr. Geoffrey A Briggs (Dir., Solar System Exploration Div.), and features Norman R. Haynes (Voyager Project Manager, JPL) and Dr. Edward C. Stone (Voyager Project Scientist, Cal Tech). Mr. Haynes' presentation centers on Voyager's history, engineering changes, and spacecraft trajectories while Dr. Stone presents the scientific aspects of Voyager, including the 11 scientific investigations planned for the mission, instruments used, and imaging techniques.

  1. Voyager II Encounter with Neptune: Voyager/Neptune Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-08-01

    The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the relative size of the planets, the formation of the solar system, details of atmospheric motion (atmospheric dynamics), the aspects of the magnetic fields, different ring systems, and the Triton satellite. The study evolves around the planets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their temperature and absorption properties of the ice are discussed. Two of the chemicals being absorbed by the ice are ammonia and methane. Also discussed are the belt and zonal circulation models, jet streams, plumes and clouds, magnetic fields, planetary rings, the pressure on Triton, the atmosphere of Titan, Callisto, Aria, Ganymede, Ariel, Miranda, Io, Europa, Amalthea, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Hyperion, Oberon, Titania, and Umbriel. The lecture also contained some computerized simulation and various images from Voyager.

  2. Voyager II Encounter with Neptune: Voyager/Neptune Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The main focus of this lecture is to discuss the relative size of the planets, the formation of the solar system, details of atmospheric motion (atmospheric dynamics), the aspects of the magnetic fields, different ring systems, and the Triton satellite. The study evolves around the planets of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Their temperature and absorption properties of the ice are discussed. Two of the chemicals being absorbed by the ice are ammonia and methane. Also discussed are the belt and zonal circulation models, jet streams, plumes and clouds, magnetic fields, planetary rings, the pressure on Triton, the atmosphere of Titan, Callisto, Aria, Ganymede, Ariel, Miranda, Io, Europa, Amalthea, Rhea, Dione, Tethys, Enceladus, Mimas, Hyperion, Oberon, Titania, and Umbriel. The lecture also contained some computerized simulation and various images from Voyager.

  3. The Argonne Voyager multimedia server

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Judson, I.; Olson, R.; Stevens, R.

    1997-07-01

    With the growing presence of multimedia-enabled systems, one will see an integration of collaborative computing concepts into the everyday environments of future scientific and technical workplaces. Desktop teleconferencing is in common use today, while more complex desktop teleconferencing technology that relies on the availability of multipoint (greater than two nodes) enabled tools is now starting to become available on PCs. A critical problem when using these collaboration tools is the inability to easily archive multistream, multipoint meetings and make the content available to others. Ideally one would like the ability to capture, record, playback, index, annotate and distribute multimedia stream data as easily as one currently handles text or still image data. While the ultimate goal is still some years away, the Argonne Voyager project is aimed at exploring and developing media server technology needed to provide a flexible virtual multipoint recording/playback capability. In this article the authors describe the motivating requirements, architecture implementation, operation, performance, and related work.

  4. Voyager 2 Jupiter Eruption Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie records an eruptive event in the southern hemisphere of Jupiter over a period of 8 Jupiter days. Prior to the event, an undistinguished oval cloud mass cruised through the turbulent atmosphere. The eruption occurs over avery short time at the very center of the cloud. The white eruptive material is swirled about by the internal wind patterns of the cloud. As a result of the eruption, the cloud then becomes a type of feature seen elsewhere on Jupiter known as 'spaghetti bowls'.

    As Voyager 2 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 8 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Violet filter around May 6, 1979. The spacecraft was about 50 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  5. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  6. Voyager 2 to make closest encounter with Saturn in August

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The planned Voyager 2 Saturn mission is described. Information about Saturn obtained from the Voyager 1 encounter is summarized. Data on the satellites and rings of Saturn are tabulated. The video programming schedule for the Voyager 2 Saturn encounter is given. The Voyager science team is listed.

  7. Voyager 1 Explores the "Magnetic Highway"

    NASA Video Gallery

    This set of animations show NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft exploring a new region in our solar system called the "magnetic highway." In this region, the sun's magnetic field lines are connected to int...

  8. Voyager Observations in the Heliosheath: An Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. C.

    2011-12-01

    Voyager 1 and 2 are in the northern and southern latitudes and 119 and 97 AU from the sun, deep within the heliosheath where the interaction between the interstellar and solar winds is evolving rapidly with increasing distance. The Voyagers observe the direction and speed of the solar wind plasma as it approaches the heliopause, the evolution of the magnetic field intensity and the latitudinal extension of the heliospheric current sheet, and the changing intensities of termination shock particles, anomalous cosmic rays, and cosmic rays. Observations indicate that Voyager 1 entered a new region in the heliosheath at 113 AU with essentially no outward plasma flow and small, declining non-radial flows. This doldrums-like pattern suggests that Voyager 1 is nearing the heliopause. An overview of recent observations, interpretations, and estimates of the distance to the heliopause will be discussed.

  9. Voyager-Jupiter radio science data papers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, G. S.; Wood, G. E.

    1980-01-01

    The reduction and interpretation of the radio science data from the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters of the planet Jupiter and its satellites resulted in the preparation of several papers for publication in the special Voyager-Jupiter issue of the Journal of Geophysical Research. The radio science and tracking systems of the Deep Space Network provide the data which makes this research possible. This article lists submitted papers by title, with their authors and with abstracts of their contents.

  10. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Ian D; Browning, Stuart A; Anderson, Atholl J

    2014-10-14

    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800-1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140-1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands.

  11. Climate windows for Polynesian voyaging to New Zealand and Easter Island

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Ian D.; Browning, Stuart A.; Anderson, Atholl J.

    2014-01-01

    Debate about initial human migration across the immense area of East Polynesia has focused upon seafaring technology, both of navigation and canoe capabilities, while temporal variation in sailing conditions, notably through climate change, has received less attention. One model of Polynesian voyaging observes that as tradewind easterlies are currently dominant in the central Pacific, prehistoric colonization canoes voyaging eastward to and through central East Polynesia (CEP: Society, Tuamotu, Marquesas, Gambier, Southern Cook, and Austral Islands) and to Easter Island probably had a windward capacity. Similar arguments have been applied to voyaging from CEP to New Zealand against prevailing westerlies. An alternative view is that migration required reliable off-wind sailing routes. We investigate the marine climate and potential voyaging routes during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA), A.D. 800–1300, when the initial colonization of CEP and New Zealand occurred. Paleoclimate data assimilation is used to reconstruct Pacific sea level pressure and wind field patterns at bidecadal resolution during the MCA. We argue here that changing wind field patterns associated with the MCA provided conditions in which voyaging to and from the most isolated East Polynesian islands, New Zealand, and Easter Island was readily possible by off-wind sailing. The intensification and poleward expansion of the Pacific subtropical anticyclone culminating in A.D. 1140–1260 opened an anomalous climate window for off-wind sailing routes to New Zealand from the Southern Austral Islands, the Southern Cook Islands, and Tonga/Fiji Islands. PMID:25267611

  12. Voyages Through Time: Everything Evolves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Jane; Tarter, Jill; Devore, Edna; Pendleton, Yvonne; O'Sullivan, Kathleen; Burke, Meg

    2004-06-01

    The SETI Institute, the California Academy of Sciences, NASA Ames Research Center, and San Francisco State University have developed standards-based curriculum materials for a one-year high school integrated science course centered on the unifying theme of evolution. Scientists, teachers, curriculum writers, and media specialists are currently finalizing six modules that integrate astronomical, geological, and biological sciences as well as the history of science and technology. The sequence of lessons in each module is designed to promote students' understanding and skills as defined by the National Science Education Standards and Benchmarks for Science Literacy. The modules cover: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, Hominid Evolution, and the Evolution of Technology. The core lessons for all six modules are provided via CD-ROM, including instructional guidelines, science background information, and additional resources (print, audiovisual, software, WWW sites, and databases). These products will be published as a complete set for use as a yearlong science course and will also be available as individual modules for use in discipline-based courses. Evolutionary change is a powerful framework for studying our world and our place therein. It is a story of epic size, capable of inspiring awe and of expanding our sense of time and place. This story is the basis of Voyages Through Time.

  13. Voyager planetary radio astronomy studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staelin, David H.; Eikenberry, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    Analysis of nonthermal radio emission data obtained by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) spectrometers on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft was performed. This PRA data provided unique insights into the radio emission characteristics of the outer planets because of PRA's unique spectral response below the terrestrial ionospheric plasma frequency and its unprecedented proximity to the source. Of those results which were documented or published, this final report surveys only the highlights and cites references for more complete discussions. Unpublished results for Uranus, Neptune, and theoretical Ionian current distributions are presented at greater length. The most important conclusion to be drawn from these observations is that banded spectral emission is common to the radio emission below 1-2 MHz observed from all four Jovian planets. In every case multiple spectral features evolve on time scales of seconds to minutes. To the extent these features drift in frequency, they appear never to cross one another. The Neptunian spectral features appear to drift little or not at all, their evolution consisting principally of waxing and waning. Since other evidence strongly suggests that most or all of this radio emission is occurring near the local magnetospheric electron cyclotron frequency, this implies that this emission preferentially occurs at certain continually changing planetary radii. It remains unknown why certain radii might be favored, unless radial electric field components or other means serve to differentiate radially the magnetospheric plasma density, particle energy vectors, or particle coherence. Calculation of the spatial distribution and intensity of the Io-generated magnetospheric currents are also presented; these currents may be limited principally by wave impedance and local field strengths.

  14. Miranda as seen by Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Flying by in early 1986, Voyager 2 captured this picture of Miranda, which enabled scientists to study this moon of Uranus in much greater detail than ever before. Discovered in 1948 by Gerard Peter Kuiper, Miranda is named for the daughter of the wily Prospero in Shakespeare's 'The Tempest.' It is the eleventh known satellite of Uranus and the innermost large moon of Uranus It was necessary that Voyager 2 passed by Miranda, not for scientific reasons, but simply for the gravity assist it needed to go on to Neptune. Due to the position of the entire Solar System, Miranda provided the energy to throw Voyager 2 to Neptune. Before Voyager, Miranda was largely ignored as it is not the largest moon and did not seem to have any other outstanding qualities. Fortunately, however, Voyager passed close enough to Miranda to provide scientists with fascinating photographs that captivated astronomers. About half ice and half rock, Miranda's surface has terraced layers that indicate both older and new surfaces coexisting. Since the mixing of ancient and recent surfaces is rare in planetary geology, scientists have postulated two explanations for the different ages of the numerous valleys and cliffs on Miranda. One theory is that Miranda could have shattered as many as five times and was then reassembled. Another hypothesis is that partly melted ice upwells forced new surfaces to emerge.

  15. Optical navigation during the Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, J. E.; Owen, W. M., Jr.; Stuve, J. A.; Synnott, S. P.; Vaughan, R. M.

    1990-01-01

    Optical navigation techniques were required to successfully complete the planetary exploration phase of the NASA deep-space Voyager mission. The last of Voyager's planetary encounters, with Neptune, posed unique problems from an optical navigation standpoint. In this paper we briefly review general aspects of the optical navigation process as practiced during the Voyager mission, and discuss in detail particular features of the Neptune encounter which affected optical navigation. New approaches to the centerfinding problem were developed for both stars and extended bodies, and these are described. Results of the optical navigation data analysis are presented, as well as a description of the optical orbit determination system and results of its use during encounter. Partially as a result of the optical navigation processing, results of scientific significance were obtained. These results include the discovery and orbit determination of several new satellites of Neptune and the determination of the size of Triton, Neptune's largest moon.

  16. Voyager Interactive Web Interface to EarthScope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.; Meertens, C. M.; Estey, L.; Weingroff, M.; Hamburger, M. W.; Holt, W. E.; Richard, G. A.

    2004-12-01

    Visualization of data is essential in helping scientists and students develop a conceptual understanding of relationships among many complex types of data and keep track of large amounts of information. Developed initially by UNAVCO for study of global-scale geodynamic processes, the Voyager map visualization tools have evolved into interactive, web-based map utilities that can make scientific results accessible to a large number and variety of educators and students as well as the originally targeted scientists. A portal to these map tools can be found at: http://jules.unavco.org. The Voyager tools provide on-line interactive data visualization through pre-determined map regions via a simple HTML/JavaScript interface (for large numbers of students using the tools simultaneously) or through student-selectable areas using a Java interface to a Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) engine. Students can access a variety of maps, satellite images, and geophysical data at a range of spatial scales for the earth and other planets of the solar system. Students can also choose from a variety of base maps (satellite mosaics, global topography, geoid, sea-floor age, strain rate and seismic hazard maps, and others) and can then add a number of geographic and geophysical overlays, for example coastlines, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, earthquake and volcano locations, stress axes, and observed and model plate motion, as well as deformation velocity vectors representing a compilation of over 5000 geodetic measurements from around the world. The related educational website, "Exploring our Dynamic Planet", (http://www.dpc.ucar.edu/VoyagerJr/jvvjrtool.html) incorporates background materials and curricular activities that encourage students to explore Earth processes. One of the present curricular modules is designed for high school students or introductory-level undergraduate non-science majors. The purpose of the module is for students to examine real data to investigate how plate

  17. Voyager 1 May Have Crossed Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    NASA's intrepid Voyager 1, launched in 1977, may have recently become the first spacecraft to at least temporarily cross the termination shock of the solar system and enter into the heliosheath. Or maybe not. Different teams of scientists recently published conflicting papers about whether the spacecraft has entered this realm. Either way, the scientists agree that Voyager 1 is crossing through unexplored territory and likely will become the first human'made object to cross the termination shock and enter the heliosheath on its way toward the heliopause and interstellar space.

  18. Voyager 1 encounter with the Saturnian system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 Saturn flyby mission of March 1979 is reviewed, with brief discussions of its flight, trajectory, science plan formulation and telemetered data. Analytical results of such data with respect to Saturn's atmosphere, rings, icy satellites, Titan satellite atmosphere and the Saturn magnetosphere, are summarized. The Voyager science investigations comprise imaging science (ISS), infrared radiation (IRIS), photopolarimetry (PPS), ultraviolet spectroscopy (UVS), radio science (RSS), magnetic fields (MAG), plasma particles (PLS), plasma waves (PWS), planetary radio astronomy (PRA), low energy charged particles (LECP), and cosmic-ray particles (CRS).

  19. Enhancing Resilience in Youth through a 10-Day Developmental Voyage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayhurst, Jill; Hunter, John A.; Kafka, Sarah; Boyes, Mike

    2015-01-01

    The present study sought to examine the potential for resilience to be enhanced in a group of youth participating in a developmental voyage, and to identify the factors that contribute to increased resilience following the voyage. Two studies are reported. Study 1 revealed that voyage participants experienced increased resilience over the course…

  20. The Second Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bank Street Coll. of Education, New York, NY.

    This book includes 12 units that have been adapted from the television series "Voyage of the Mimi." Each unit includes the episode, an activity, and an expedition. The episodes introduce and accompany each episode of the television series. The activity is an extension of that episode which can be done in the classroom. Mapping skills, foreign…

  1. The Voyager flights to Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of the mini-Grand Tour to Jupiter and Saturn by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are highlighted. Features of the spacecraft are depicted including the 11 instruments designed to probe the planets and their magnetic environments, the rings of Saturn, the fleets of satellites escorting the planets, and the interplanetary medium. Major scientific discoveries relating to these phenomena are summarized.

  2. The Hemispheric Roots of the Columbian Voyages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Lynda N.

    1991-01-01

    Urges that the search for origins of European exploration extend to Africa and East Asia and their international trade. Cites contributions of India and the Arabs, Chinese, and Malaysians. Emphasizes the importance of mathematics, navigation, and sailing technology. Argues that without these contributions the European voyages would not have been…

  3. The Voyager Journey to Interstellar Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, E. C.

    Launched in 1977 to explore Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the two Voyager spacecraft continued their journeys beyond the planets as they searched for the heliopause, the boundary between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. After traveling more than 23 billion kilometers, Voyager 1 left the heliosphere on August 25, 2012, and began returning the first in-situ observations of local interstellar space. Voyager 1 found a wall of interstellar plasma beyond the heliopause with a density forty times greater than inside and an interstellar magnetic field that is compressed and wrapped around the outside. Voyager 1 also observed the energy spectrum of low energy galactic cosmic ray protons that are excluded from the heliosphere by solar modulation, finding a peak intensity at ˜30 MeV. that is ten times the maximum intensity at 1 AU that occurs at ˜300 MeV. An overview of the journey and the new aspects of the interaction of the sun and the nearby region of the Milky Way will be discussed.

  4. Voyager electronic parts radiation program, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1977-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft is subject to radiation from external natural space, from radioisotope thermoelectric generators and heater units, and from the internal environment where penetrating electrons generate surface ionization effects in semiconductor devices. Methods for radiation hardening and tests for radiation sensitivity are described. Results of characterization testing and sample screening of over 200 semiconductor devices in a radiation environment are summarized.

  5. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 2 near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    The Voyager 2 Planetary Radio Astronomy experiment to Jupiter has confirmed and extended to higher zenomagnetic latitudes results from the identical experiment carried by Voyager 1. The kilometric emissions discovered by Voyager 1 often extended to 1 megahertz or higher on Voyager 2 and often consisted of negatively, or less frequently, positively drifting narrowband bursts. On the basis of tentative identification of plasma wave emissions similar to those detected by Voyager 1, the plasma torus associated with Io appeared somewhat denser to Voyager 2 than it did to Voyager 1. The paper reports on quasi-periodic sinusoidal or impulsive bursts in the broadcast band range of wavelengths (800 to 1800 kHz). A Faraday effect appears at decametric frequencies, which probably results from propagation of the radiation near its sources on Jupiter. Finally, the occurrence of decametric emission in homologous arc families is discussed.

  6. Voyager 2 radio observations of uranus.

    PubMed

    Warwick, J W; Evans, D R; Romig, J H; Sawyer, C B; Desch, M D; Kaiser, M L; Alexander, J K; Carr, T D; Staelin, D H; Gulkis, S; Poynter, R L; Aubier, M; Boischot, A; Leblanc, Y; Lecacheux, A; Pedersen, B M; Zarka, P

    1986-07-04

    Within distances to Uranus of about 6 x 10(6) kilometers (inbound) and 35 x 10(6) kilometers (outbound), the planetary radio astronomy experiment aboard Voyager 2 detected a wide variety of radio emissions. The emission was modulated in a period of 17.24 +/- 0.01 hours, which is identified as the rotation period of Uranus' magnetic field. Of the two poles where the axis of the off-center magnetic dipole (measured by the magnetometer experiment aboard Voyager 2) meets the planetary surface, the one closer to dipole center is now located on the nightside of the planet. The radio emission generally had maximum power and bandwidth when this pole was tipped toward the spacecraft. When the spacecraft entered the nightside hemisphere, which contains the stronger surface magnetic pole, the bandwidth increased dramatically and thereafter remained large. Dynamically evolving radio events of various kinds embedded in these emissions suggest a Uranian magnetosphere rich in magnetohydrodynamic phenomena.

  7. On whether or not voyager 1 has crossed the heliopause

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, L. A.; Gloeckler, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft is currently in the vicinity of the heliopause, which separates the heliosphere from the local interstellar medium. There has been a precipitous decrease in particles accelerated in the heliosphere, and a substantial increase in galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), suggesting easy escape of the former across the heliopause, and entry of the latter. The question is, has Voyager 1 actually crossed the heliopause and is it now in the interstellar medium? We contend that the evidence is inconclusive. The direction of the magnetic field observed by Voyager 1 is unchanged from the direction of the heliospheric magnetic field, and different from the expected direction of the interstellar magnetic field. However, the plasma density, which is measured from observations of plasma waves, is similar to the expected interstellar density and much larger than the solar wind plasma density observed by Voyager 2 (which has a working plasma detector) at smaller heliocentric distances than Voyager 1. In this paper, an analytic model is presented that is based upon and is consistent with all Voyager observations, and in which the higher plasma densities measured by Voyager 1 are due simply to compressed solar wind. Thus both the magnetic field and the plasma density observations are consistent with Voyager 1 still remaining well within the heliosheath. The model has a simple test: Voyager 1 should encounter a magnetic sector boundary crossing, where the behavior of particles accelerated in the heliosphere and the GCRs will be different from what Voyager 1 is now observing.

  8. Planning the Voyager spacecraft's mission to Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plagemann, Stephen H.

    1987-01-01

    The application of the systems engineering process to the planning of the Voyager spacecraft mission is described. The Mission Planning Office prepared guidelines that controlled the use of the project and multimission resources and spacecraft consumables in order to obtain valuable scientific data at an acceptable risk level. Examples of mission planning which are concerned with the design of the Deep Space Network antenna, the uplink window for transmitting computer command subsystem loads, and the contingency and risk assessment functions are presented.

  9. Voyager 2 Movie of Saturn's Moon: Phoebe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Voyager 2 took this photo sequence of Saturn's outer satellite, Phoebe, on Sept. 4, 1981, from 2.2 million kilometers (1.36 million miles) away. The top image is the normal version and the bottom is an enhanced version to increase resolution. This sequence lasts 23.4 hours and contains 35 images. The early images were taken about 43 minutes apart, while the later ones are about 29 minutes apart. There are two significant gaps in the sequence: images 7 and 8 are separated by 2.3 hours and images 19 and 20 are separated by 2.8 hours.

    Because the sunlight is coming from the left, mountains and ridges can best be seen as they reflect the sunlight near the terminator (right side of Phoebe). Other intrinsically bright spots can be seen rotating across the whole disk. In this time-lapse sequence, Phoebe appears to be a lumpy spheroid with possible large mountains sometimes showing on the limb (left side of Phoebe). The photos show that Phoebe is about 220 kilometers (132 miles) in diameter. Its rotation period (length of day) was determined from this set of images to be 9.4 hours (see Thomas, P., et al, 'Phoebe: Voyager 2 Observations', Journal of Geophysical Research, vol. 88, p. 8736, 1 November 1983).

    These images were processed by the Multimission Image Processing Laboratory of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Voyager Project is managed for NASA by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  10. Sequencing Voyager II for the Uranus encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. B.

    1986-01-01

    The process of developing the programmed sequence of events necessary for the Voyager 2 spacecraft to return desired data from its Uranus encounter is discussed. The major steps in the sequence process are reviewed, and the elements of the Mission Sequence Software are described. The design phase and the implementation phase of the sequence process are discussed, and the Computer Command Subsystem architecture is examined in detail. The software's role in constructing the sequences and converting them into onboard programs is elucidated, and the problems unique to the Uranus encounter sequences are considered.

  11. Voyager imaging of Triton's clouds and hazes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rages, Kathy; Pollack, James B.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from a detailed analysis of Voyager images of Triton obtained at the highest solar phase angles; these have been fit to Mie scattering models in order to obtain the mean particle sizes, number densities, and the vertical extent of the two different scattering components of the Triton atmosphere. The 0.001-0.01 optical depths of about 0.17 micron particles are vertically distributed with scale heights of about 10 km throughout Triton. A number of properties of the haze particles in question suggest that they are composed of photochemically produced gases which have condensed in the cold lower atmosphere of Triton.

  12. 46 CFR 252.20 - Subsidized and nonsubsidized voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... approved by the Region Director upon request for a variance by the operator; or (iv) On the final voyage..., idleness, delay or lay-up—(i) Report by operator. The operator shall report promptly to the Region Director... voyages and the facts and circumstances relating to any such period. (ii) Region Director's finding....

  13. Voyager 1 Jupiter Southern Hemisphere Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows a portion of Jupiter in the southern hemisphere over 17Jupiter days. Above the white belt, notice the series of atmospheric vortices headed west. Even these early approach frames show wild dynamics in the roiling environment south of the white belt. Notice the small tumbling white cloud near the center.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 17 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). These images were acquired in the Blue filter around Feb. 1, 1979. The spacecraft was about 37 million kilometers from Jupiter at that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  14. Titania's opposition effect - Analysis of Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, P. C.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Brown, Robert Hamilton; Johnson, T. V.

    1987-01-01

    Voyager 2 obtained images of Titania over phase angles ranging from 0.8 to 150 deg and at sufficient resolution to investigate the photometric behavior of different surface units. The large, relatively narrow opposition surge detected from earth was confirmed and can be successfully modeled with Hapke's (1986) photometric theory. Opposition effects do not vary greatly between bright areas (craters and ejecta) and dark areas, but the brightness of the brighter areas decreases more slowly with increasing phase angle than that of the dark areas. Thus the fresher craters and their ejecta become less prominent in relation to the background as opposition is approached. This effect is best explained by a modest difference in single-scattering albedo.

  15. Europa During Voyager 2 Closest Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    This color image of the Jovian moon Europa was acquired by Voyager 2 during its close encounter on Monday morning, July 9. Europa, the size of our moon, is thought to have a crust of ice perhaps 100 kilometers thick which overlies the silicate crust. The complex array of streaks indicate that the crust has been fractured and filled by materials from the interior. The lack of relief, any visible mountains or craters, on its bright limb is consistent with a thick ice crust. In contrast to its icy neighbors, Ganymede and Callisto, Europa has very few impact craters. One possible candidate is the small feature near the center of this image with radiating rays and a bright circular interior. The relative absence of features and low topography suggests the crust is young and warm a few kilometers below the surface. The tidal heating process suggested for Io also may be heating Europa's interior at a lower rate.

  16. Jules Verne Voyager, Jr: An Interactive Map Tool for Teaching Plate Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamburger, M. W.; Meertens, C. M.

    2010-12-01

    We present an interactive, web-based map utility that can make new geological and geophysical results accessible to a large number and variety of users. The tool provides a user-friendly interface that allows users to access a variety of maps, satellite images, and geophysical data at a range of spatial scales. The map tool, dubbed 'Jules Verne Voyager, Jr.', allows users to interactively create maps of a variety of study areas around the world. The utility was developed in collaboration with the UNAVCO Consortium for study of global-scale tectonic processes. Users can choose from a variety of base maps (including "Face of the Earth" and "Earth at Night" satellite imagery mosaics, global topography, geoid, sea-floor age, strain rate and seismic hazard maps, and others), add a number of geographic and geophysical overlays (coastlines, political boundaries, rivers and lakes, earthquake and volcano locations, stress axes, etc.), and then superimpose both observed and model velocity vectors representing a compilation of 2933 GPS geodetic measurements from around the world. A remarkable characteristic of the geodetic compilation is that users can select from some 21 plates' frames of reference, allowing a visual representation of both 'absolute' plate motion (in a no-net rotation reference frame) and relative motion along all of the world's plate boundaries. The tool allows users to zoom among at least three map scales. The map tool can be viewed at http://jules.unavco.org/VoyagerJr/Earth. A more detailed version of the map utility, developed in conjunction with the EarthScope initiative, focuses on North America geodynamics, and provides more detailed geophysical and geographic information for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. The ‘EarthScope Voyager’ can be accessed at http://jules.unavco.org/VoyagerJr/EarthScope. Because the system uses pre-constructed gif images and overlays, the system can rapidly create and display maps to a large number of users

  17. Dynamic feature analysis for Voyager at the Image Processing Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yagi, G. M.; Lorre, J. J.; Jepsen, P. L.

    1978-01-01

    Voyager 1 and 2 were launched from Cape Kennedy to Jupiter, Saturn, and beyond on September 5, 1977 and August 20, 1977. The role of the Image Processing Laboratory is to provide the Voyager Imaging Team with the necessary support to identify atmospheric features (tiepoints) for Jupiter and Saturn data, and to analyze and display them in a suitable form. This support includes the software needed to acquire and store tiepoints, the hardware needed to interactively display images and tiepoints, and the general image processing environment necessary for decalibration and enhancement of the input images. The objective is an understanding of global circulation in the atmospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. Attention is given to the Voyager imaging subsystem, the Voyager imaging science objectives, hardware, software, display monitors, a dynamic feature study, decalibration, navigation, and data base.

  18. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970... citizen engaging in the voyage shall submit to NOAA a report containing any environmental data...

  19. Voyager's discoveries mount on final rush to Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. A.

    1989-08-01

    On its final approach to Neptune, Voyager 2 detected not only two new moons, designated 1989N5 and 1989N6, but shadows cast by high cyrrus-type clouds on a lower cloud deck in the planet's south polar region. Voyager scientists have also been carefully watching for massive features in Neptune's unexpectedly dynamic atmosphere; such similarities were noted between Jupiter's Great Red Spot and Neptune's Great Dark Spot, a feature comparable to the earth in size, as a 20-22 deg south latitude location. Voyager is programmed to fly about 25,000 miles above Triton on its way out of the plane of the ecliptic. Voyager will be imaging Triton during the end of a 100-year cycle in which its south pole has been subjected to increased solar heating.

  20. Erratum: Voyager Color Photometry of Saturn's Main Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Showalter, Mark R.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We correct a calibration error in our earlier analysis of Voyager color observations of Saturn's main rings at 14 deg phase angle and present thoroughly revised and reanalyzed radial profiles of the brightness of the main rings in Voyager G, V, and UV filters, and ratios of these brightnesses. These results are consistent with more recent HST results at 6 deg phase angle, once allowance is made for plausible phase reddening of the rings. Unfortunately, the Voyager camera calibration factors are simply not sufficiently well known for a combination of the Voyager and HST data to be used to constrain the phase reddening quantitatively. However, some interesting radial variations in reddening between 6-14 deg phase angles are hinted at. We update a ring-and-satellite color vs. albedo plot from Cuzzi and Estrada in several ways. The A and B rings are still found to be in a significantly redder part of color-albedo space than Saturn's icy satellites.

  1. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970... citizen engaging in the voyage shall submit to NOAA a report containing any environmental data...

  2. VOYAGER OBSERVATIONS OF THE DIFFUSE FAR-ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Murthy, Jayant; Henry, Richard Conn; Holberg, Jay B.

    2012-03-01

    The two Voyager spacecraft have completed their planetary exploration mission and are now probing the outer realms of the heliosphere. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers continued to operate well after the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter in 1989. We present a complete database of diffuse radiation observations made by both Voyagers: a total of 1943 spectra (500-1600 A) scattered throughout the sky. These include observations of dust-scattered starlight, emission lines from the hot interstellar medium, and a number of locations where no diffuse radiation was detected, with the very low upper limit of about 25 photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} A{sup -1}. Many of these observations were from late in the mission when there was significantly less contribution from interplanetary emission lines and thus less contamination of the interstellar signal.

  3. IS VOYAGER 1 INSIDE AN INTERSTELLAR FLUX TRANSFER EVENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Schwadron, N. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Plasma wave observations from Voyager 1 have recently shown large increases in plasma density, to about 0.1 cm{sup –3}, consistent with the density of the local interstellar medium. However, corresponding magnetic field observations continue to show the spiral magnetic field direction observed throughout the inner heliosheath. These apparently contradictory observations may be reconciled if Voyager 1 is inside an interstellar flux transfer event—similar to flux transfer events routinely seen at the Earth's magnetopause. If this were the case, Voyager 1 remains inside the heliopause and based on the Voyager 1 observations we can determine the polarity of the interstellar magnetic field for the first time.

  4. 15 CFR 970.2502 - Post voyage report.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL DATA SERVICE DEEP SEABED MINING REGULATIONS FOR EXPLORATION LICENSES Pre-license Exploration § 970... citizen engaging in the voyage shall submit to NOAA a report containing any environmental data...

  5. Getting Your Sea Legs

    PubMed Central

    Stoffregen, Thomas A.; Chen, Fu-Chen; Varlet, Manuel; Alcantara, Cristina; Bardy, Benoît G.

    2013-01-01

    Sea travel mandates changes in the control of the body. The process by which we adapt bodily control to life at sea is known as getting one's sea legs. We conducted the first experimental study of bodily control as maritime novices adapted to motion of a ship at sea. We evaluated postural activity (stance width, stance angle, and the kinematics of body sway) before and during a sea voyage. In addition, we evaluated the role of the visible horizon in the control of body sway. Finally, we related data on postural activity to two subjective experiences that are associated with sea travel; seasickness, and mal de debarquement. Our results revealed rapid changes in postural activity among novices at sea. Before the beginning of the voyage, the temporal dynamics of body sway differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) severity of seasickness. Body sway measured at sea differed among participants as a function of their (subsequent) experience of mal de debarquement. We discuss implications of these results for general theories of the perception and control of bodily orientation, for the etiology of motion sickness, and for general phenomena of perceptual-motor adaptation and learning. PMID:23840560

  6. Triton and Nereid astrographic observations from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes the reduced astrographic observations of Triton and Nereid derived from Voyager 2 imaging data. The data set contains 496 sets of spacecraft-centered fight ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The details of the conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations are given. The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  7. Nick Sagan Reflects on Voyager 1 and the Golden Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    When scientists confirmed on 12 September that NASA's Voyager 1 spacecraft had entered interstellar space (Eos, 94(39), 339, doi:10.1002/2013EO390003), the probe was acknowledged as the first human-made object to travel into that realm. The probe and its twin, Voyager 2, each carry a 12-inch gold-plated copper disk, known as the Golden Record.

  8. The Voyager Spacecraft. [Jupiter-Saturn mission investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The configuration of the Voyager spacecraft is described as well as the subsystems for power, temperature control, attitude control, and propulsion. Major features of Jupiter and Saturn including their atmospheres, surfaces, and natural satellites are discussed. The 13 onboard experiments and their scientific objectives are explained. Other aspects covered include tracking, data acquisition, and the mission control and computing center. Members of the Voyager team and subcontractors are listed.

  9. New Voyager radio spectrograms of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvert, W.; Tsintikidis, D.

    1990-01-01

    New, high-resolution spectrograms of the Voyager-2 radio observations at Uranus were produced from the original, six-second Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) data and these show a number of new features which were not obvious in previous versions. Among these new features are the detailed structure of the so-called broadband-bursty (b-bursty) emissions, unexpected sloping striations in the smooth high-frequency (SHF) component, and the overlap of these two components during the first rotation after closest approach. In addition, a slightly different planetary rotation rate from the b-bursty emissions, was found, and at the initial onset of the SHF component, what appears to be the shadow of a Uranian plasmasphere. These new spectrograms were prepared using a special dithering algorithm to show signal strengths as gray shadings, and the data were also manually cleaned to suppress noise and interference. This produced spectrograms of exceptional quality and certain details of their production on a stand-alone personal computer are also discussed.

  10. Voyager observations of Jovian millisecond radio bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager Planetary Radio Astronomy data collected over 30-day intervals centered on the two close encounters with Jupiter were utilized to study the characteristics of millisecond-duration radio bursts (s-bursts) at frequencies between 5 and 15 MHz. In this frequency range, s-bursts are found to occur almost independently of Central Meridian Longitude and to depend entirely on the phase of Io with respect to the observer's planetocentric line of sight. Individual bursts typically cover a total frequency range of about 1.5 to 3 MHz, and they are usually strongly circularly polarized. Most bursts in a particular s-burst storm will exhibit the same polarization sense (either right-hand or left-hand), and there is some evidence for a systematic pattern in which one polarizations sense is preferred over the other as a function of Io phase and Central Meridian Longitude. These data are all suggestive of a radio source that is located along the instantaneous Io flux tube and that extends over a linear dimension of 5000 km along the field lines in both the northern and southern Hemispheres.

  11. Titan. [Voyager IRIS observation of satellite atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.

    1990-01-01

    Saturn's satellite Titan is the second-largest in the solar system. Its dense atmosphere is mostly molecular nitrogen with an admixture of methane, a surface pressure of 1.5 bars and a surface temperature of 94K. The fundamental driving force in the long-term evolution of Titan's atmosphere is the photolysis of methane in the stratosphere to form higher hydrocarbons and aerosols. The current rate of photolysis and undersaturation of methane in the lower troposphere suggests the presence of a massive ethane-methane-nitrogen ocean. The ocean evolves to a more ethane-rich state over geologic time, driving changes in the atmospheric thermal structure. An outstanding issue concerning Titan's earliest history is the origin of atmospheric nitrogen: was it introduced into Titan as molecular nitrogen or ammonia? Measurement of the argon-to-nitrogen ratio in the present atmosphere provides a diagnostic test of these competing hypotheses. Many of the questions raised by the Voyager encounters about Titan and its atmosphere can be adequately addressed only by an entry probe, such as that planned for the Cassini mission.

  12. Voyager spacecraft images of Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birnbaum, M. M.

    1982-01-01

    The Voyager imaging system is described, noting that it is made up of a narrow-angle and a wide-angle TV camera, each in turn consisting of optics, a filter wheel and shutter assembly, a vidicon tube, and an electronics subsystem. The narrow-angle camera has a focal length of 1500 mm; its field of view is 0.42 deg and its focal ratio is f/8.5. For the wide-angle camera, the focal length is 200 mm, the field of view 3.2 deg, and the focal ratio of f/3.5. Images are exposed by each camera through one of eight filters in the filter wheel on the photoconductive surface of a magnetically focused and deflected vidicon having a diameter of 25 mm. The vidicon storage surface (target) is a selenium-sulfur film having an active area of 11.14 x 11.14 mm; it holds a frame consisting of 800 lines with 800 picture elements per line. Pictures of Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons are presented, with short descriptions given of the area being viewed.

  13. Voyager investigation of the cosmic diffuse background: Observations of rocket-studied locations with Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henry, Richard C.

    1994-01-01

    Attachments to this final report include 2 papers connected with the Voyager work: 'Voyager Observations of Dust Scattering Near the Coalsack Nebula' and 'Search for the Intergalactic Medium'. An appendix of 12 one-page write-ups prepared in connection with another program, UVISI, is also included. The one-page write-ups are: (1) Sky survey of UV point sources to 600 times fainter than previous (TD-1) survey; (2) Diffuse galactic light: starlight scattered from dust at high galactic latitude; (3) Optical properties of interstellar grains; (4) Fluorescence of molecular hydrogen in the interstellar medium; (5) Line emission from hot interstellar medium and/or hot halo of galaxy; (6) Integrated light of distant galaxies in the ultraviolet; (7) Intergalactic far-ultraviolet radiation field; (8) Radiation from recombining intergalactic medium; (9) Radiation from re-heating of intergalactic medium following recombination; (10) Radiation from radiative decay of dark matter candidates (neutrino, etc.); (11) Reflectivity of the asteroids in the Ultraviolet; and (12) Zodiacal light.

  14. From Convicts to Colonists: the Health of Prisoners and the Voyage to Australia, 1823 – 1853

    PubMed Central

    Foxhall, Katherine

    2012-01-01

    From 1815, naval surgeons accompanied all convict voyages from Britain and Ireland to the Australian colonies. As their authority grew, naval surgeons on convict ships increasingly used their medical observations about the health of convicts to make pointed and sustained criticisms of British penal reforms. Beyond their authority at sea, surgeons’ journals and correspondence brought debates about penal reform in Britain into direct conversation with debates about colonial transportation. In the 1830s, naval surgeons’ claims brought them into direct conflict with their medical colleagues on land, as well as with the colonial governor, George Arthur. As the surgeons continued their attempts to combat scurvy, their rhetoric changed. By the late 1840s, as convicts’ bodies betrayed the disturbing effects of separate confinement as they boarded the convict ships, surgeons could argue convincingly that the voyage itself was a space that could medically, physically, and spiritually reform convicts. By the mid 1840s, surgeons took the role of key arbiters of convicts’ potential contribution to the Australian colonies. PMID:21584986

  15. Characteristics of the Termination Shock: Insights from Voyager

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, A.C.; Stone, E.C.

    2005-08-01

    We examine the energy spectra obtained from the cosmic ray instrument on the Voyager 1 spacecraft during 2002/215 through 2005/60. We find that the energy spectra of protons below {approx}20 MeV often resemble two power laws with a relatively hard index at low energies and a softer index at higher energies. The point of intersection of the two power laws is {approx}3 MeV. Beginning in 2005, the low-energy index is typically -1.5, corresponding to a shock strength (compression ratio) of 2.5. We attribute these characteristics to a restricted region of the solar wind termination shock that is sporadically connected to the Voyager 1 spacecraft by the interplanetary magnetic field. The absence of significant spectral variability in 2005 suggests that Voyager 1 entered a region with minimal spatial gradients of the lowest energy ions.

  16. Plasma observations near Jupiter - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridge, H. S.; Belcher, J. W.; Lazarus, A. J.; Sullivan, J. D.; Bagenal, F.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. D.; Vasyliunas, V. M.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary report is presented of the results obtained by the Voyager 2 plasma experiment during the encounter of Voyager 2 with Jupiter from about 100 Jupiter radii before periapsis to about 300 Jupiter radii after periapsis, the instrument being identical to that on Voyager 1. The discussion covers the following: (1) the crossings of the bow shock and magnetopause observed on the inbound and outbound passes; (2) the radial variation of plasma properties in the magnetosphere; (3) variations in plasma properties near Ganymede; (4) corotation and composition of the plasma in the dayside magnetosphere; and (5) plasma sheet crossings observed on the inbound and outbound passes. From the planetary spin modulation of the plasma-electron intensity it is inferred that the plasma sheet is centered at the dipole magnetic equator out to a distance of 40-50 Jupiter radii and deviates from it toward the rotational equator at larger distances.

  17. Reconstruction of the Voyager 2 Neptune Encounter in the ICRF System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The Neptunian system was visited by the Voyager 2 spacecraft in August of 1989. We have re-examined the Voyager mission taking advantage of improvements made in dynamical and observational modelling and data processing.

  18. Changes of microbial populations in a ship's ballast water and sediments on a voyage from Japan to Qatar.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Haruo; Katakura, Ryo; Ishida, Hiroshi

    2005-07-01

    Colony-forming eutrophic marine microorganisms in ballast water were counted in samples taken on board in 2002 and 2003. In the ballast water in Japan, viable cell numbers were highly variable but not by more than 10(5.1) colony-forming units (CFU)ml(-1) regardless of season. Even when ballast water was discharged offshore, values varied but not by more than 10(5.0) CFUml(-1). The effectiveness of the ballast water exchange was unconfirmed, except for the February 2003 voyage. No microbial colonies were counted in the reloaded ballast water in the high seas on that voyage, which contributed to the reduction of the total number of viable cells sampled in the discharged ballast water at the Ras Laffan port in Qatar. In sediment samples, the values of 10(5.2) - 10(6.0) CFUml(-1) were estimated for all seasons in which voyages took place. The maximum of the marine Vibrio species, 110 CFUml(-1), was observed in the ballast water sample taken in July 2003. The estimated total viable cell numbers in sediments were higher than those counted in the ballast water throughout the experiments, indicating the importance of sediment management as well as ballast water management on vessels traveling from Japan.

  19. Performance model of the Argonne Voyager multimedia server

    SciTech Connect

    Disz, T.; Olson, R.; Stevens, R.

    1997-07-01

    The Argonne Voyager Multimedia Server is being developed in the Futures Lab of the Mathematics and Computer Science Division at Argonne National Laboratory. As a network-based service for recording and playing multimedia streams, it is important that the Voyager system be capable of sustaining certain minimal levels of performance in order for it to be a viable system. In this article, the authors examine the performance characteristics of the server. As they examine the architecture of the system, they try to determine where bottlenecks lie, show actual vs potential performance, and recommend areas for improvement through custom architectures and system tuning.

  20. Astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites from Voyager 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1992-12-01

    This article provides the reduced astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites derived from star-satellite imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The data set contains 445 sets of spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations was identical to that used for the Neptunian satellites (Jacobson 1991). The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  1. The Voyager spacecraft /James Watt International Gold Medal Lecture/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heacock, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Voyager Project background is reviewed with emphasis on selected features of the Voyager spacecraft. Investigations by the Thermo-electric Outer Planets Spacecraft Project are discussed, including trajectories, design requirements, and the development of a Self Test and Repair computer, and a Computer Accessed Telemetry System. The design and configuration of the spacecraft are described, including long range communications, attitude control, solar independent power, sequencing and control data handling, and spacecraft propulsion. The development program, maintained by JPL, experienced a variety of problems such as design deficiencies, and process control and manufacturing problems. Finally, the spacecraft encounter with Jupiter is discussed, and expectations for the Saturn encounter are expressed.

  2. The body voyage as visual representation and art performance.

    PubMed

    Olsén, Jan Eric

    2011-01-01

    This paper looks at the notion of the body as an interior landscape that is made intelligible through visual representation. It discerns the key figure of the inner corporeal voyage, identifies its main elements and examines how contemporary artists working with performances and installations deal with it. A further aim with the paper is to discuss what kind of image of the body that is conveyed through medical visual technologies, such as endoscopy, and relate it to contemporary discussions on embodiment, embodied vision and bodily presence. The paper concludes with a recent exhibition by the French artist Christian Boltanski, which gives a somewhat different meaning to the idea of the body voyage.

  3. Astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.

    1992-01-01

    This article provides the reduced astrographic observations of the major Uranian satellites derived from star-satellite imaging data acquired by the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The data set contains 445 sets of spacecraft-centered right ascension and declination observations and includes all of the observations used in Voyager encounter operations. The conversion process from imaging to astrographic observations was identical to that used for the Neptunian satellites (Jacobson 1991). The effect of using the astrographic rather than imaging form in ephemeris improvement is evaluated.

  4. An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast

    PubMed Central

    Johns, Dilys A.; Irwin, Geoffrey J.; Sung, Yun K.

    2014-01-01

    The colonization of the islands of East Polynesia was a remarkable episode in the history of human migration and seafaring. We report on an ocean-sailing canoe dating from close to that time. A large section of a complex composite canoe was discovered recently at Anaweka on the New Zealand coast. The canoe dates to approximately A.D. 1400 and was contemporary with continuing interisland voyaging. It was built in New Zealand as an early adaptation to a new environment, and a sea turtle carved on its hull makes symbolic connections with wider Polynesian culture and art. We describe the find and identify and radiocarbon date the construction materials. We present a reconstruction of the whole canoe and compare it to another early canoe previously discovered in the Society Islands. PMID:25267657

  5. An early sophisticated East Polynesian voyaging canoe discovered on New Zealand's coast.

    PubMed

    Johns, Dilys A; Irwin, Geoffrey J; Sung, Yun K

    2014-10-14

    The colonization of the islands of East Polynesia was a remarkable episode in the history of human migration and seafaring. We report on an ocean-sailing canoe dating from close to that time. A large section of a complex composite canoe was discovered recently at Anaweka on the New Zealand coast. The canoe dates to approximately A.D. 1400 and was contemporary with continuing interisland voyaging. It was built in New Zealand as an early adaptation to a new environment, and a sea turtle carved on its hull makes symbolic connections with wider Polynesian culture and art. We describe the find and identify and radiocarbon date the construction materials. We present a reconstruction of the whole canoe and compare it to another early canoe previously discovered in the Society Islands.

  6. 46 CFR 122.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. 122... OPERATIONS Marine Casualties and Voyage Records § 122.220 Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty. The owner, agent, master, or person in charge of any vessel involved in a marine casualty for which...

  7. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  8. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  9. 33 CFR 151.2055 - Deviation from planned voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2055 Deviation from planned voyage. As long as ballast water exchange (BWE) is an allowable ballast water management option under §§ 151.2025 and 151.2035 of this subpart, the Coast...

  10. Voyager: The grandest tour. The mission to the outer planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    A history and general accomplishments of the Voyager 1 and 2 missions to the outer planets are presented. Over the course of 12 years, these spacecraft drew back the curtain on nearly half the solar system. They brought into sharp focus the faces of the four giant outer planets - Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune - and their families of disparate moons. The Voyagers showed us unimagined worlds: frozen beauty in the rings of Saturn, and molten violence in the explosive sulfur volcanoes on Jupiter's moon Io. They brought us close-ups of the florid and intricate storms of Jupiter itself. Voyager 2 went on to reveal the peculiarities of cockeyed Uranus and its equally skewed rings and moons. Then finally, Neptune, nearly invisible from earth, was unveiled in all its big, blue splendor, circled by shadowy rings and a bright pastel moon called Triton. Both Voyagers are headed toward the outer boundary of the solar system in search of the heliopause, the region where the sun's influence wanes and the beginning of interstellar space can be sensed.

  11. A voyage to Mars: space radiation, aging, and nutrition

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    On exploratory class missions, such as a voyage to Mars, astronauts will be exposed to doses and types of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit where the space shuttle and International Space Station operate. Astronauts who participate in exploratory class missions outside the magne...

  12. Voyages Through Time: Integrated science for high schools, Pamela Harman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harman, Pamela; Devore, Edna

    Investigating the origin and evolution of the universe and life is a compelling theme for teaching science. It engages students in the key questions about change and the evidence for change over time, and offers a unifying theme for integrated science. "Voyages Through Time" is a high school integrated science curriculum on the theme of evolution. Six modules comprise the year-long course: Cosmic Evolution, Planetary Evolution, Origin of Life, Evolution of Life, and Evolution of Technology. A brief overview of the curriculum is presented. Participants conduct one or two activities representative of the six modules. Each workshop participant receives a sampler CD-ROM with a comprehensive overview of the curriculum, standards, and resources including complete lessons for use in the classroom. "Voyages Through Time" is being developed by a US team of scientists, educators, writers, and classroom teachers and students led by the SETI Institute partnered with NASA Ames Research Center, California Academy of Sciences and San Francisco State University. In 2000-2001 school year, "Voyages Through Time" was pilot tested (trialed) in high school classrooms in the San Francisco Bay Area, California. Following revisions, the curriculum was field tested (trialed) in 28 US states in more than 90 schools August 2001-June 2002. The final version is expected to be ready for publication by the beginning of 2003. "Voyages Through Time" is funded by the National Science Foundation (IMD # 9730693), NASA Astrobiology Institute, NASA Fundamental Biology, The Foundation for Microbiology, Educate America, and the Hewlett-Packard Company.

  13. Introducing Students to Darwin via the Voyage of HMS "Beagle"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swab, Janice C.

    2010-01-01

    I use the diary that Darwin wrote during the voyage of HMS Beagle and recent images of a few of the places he visited to illustrate some comparisons between Darwin's world and ours. For today's students, increasingly committed to environmental issues, this may be an especially promising way to introduce Darwin.

  14. The Voyages of Columbus: A Turning Point in World History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Alfred W.; Nader, Helen

    The far-reaching and transforming interactions of the Old World and the New are known today as "the Columbian Exchange." Part 1 of this booklet is an introduction by John J. Patrick dealing with teaching about the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Part 2, "Columbus and Ecological Imperialism," by Alfred W. Crosby, provides an…

  15. The Voyager 2 Encounter with the Uranian System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, E. C.; Miner, E. D.

    1986-01-01

    A series of 12 reports on the Voyager Two experiments in the Uranian system. Reports are included on: (1) imaging science; (2) photometry; (3) infrared; (4) ultraviolet; (5) radio science; (6) magnetic fields; (7) plasma; (8) charged particles; (9) magnetosphere (hot plasma and radiation); (10) radion observations; and (11) plasma waves. An…

  16. Plasma observations near Neptune - Initial results from Voyager 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belcher, J. W.; Bridge, H. S.; Coppi, B.; Gordon, G. S., Jr.; Lazarus, A. J.; Mcnutt, R. L., Jr.; Bagenal, F.; Divers, O.; Eviatar, A.; Ogilvie, K. W.

    1989-01-01

    The plasma science experiment on Voyager 2 made observations of the plasma environment in Neptune's magnetosphere and in the surrounding solar wind. Because of the large tilt of the magnetic dipole and fortuitous timing, Voyager entered Neptune's magnetosphere through the cusp region, the first cusp observations at an outer planet. Thus the transition from the magnetosheath to the magnetosphere observed by Voyager 2 was not sharp but rather appeared as a gradual decrease in plasma density and temperature. The maximum plasma density observed in the magnetosphere is inferred to be 1.4 per cubic centimeter (the exact value depends on the composition), the smallest observed by Voyager in any magnetosphere. The plasma has at least two components; light ions (mass, 1 to 5) and heavy ions (mass, 10 to 40), but more precise species identification is not yet available. Most of the plasma is concentrated in a plasma sheet or plasma torus and near closest approach to the planet. A likely source of the heavy ions is Triton's atmosphere or ionosphere, whereas the light ions probably escape from Neptune. The large tilt of Neptune's magnetic dipole produces a dynamic magnetosphere that changes configuration every 16 hours as the planet rotates.

  17. Voyager 1 and 2 Atlas of Six Saturnian Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batson, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Maps, compiled with data gathered primarily by Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft, are presented which show the diversity among six of the Saturnian moons. Mimas and Enceladus are mapped in detail. Prelimary maps are given for the other four satellites. Diameter, density, albedo, and distance from mother planet, among much more data, is given for each moon.

  18. 33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... voyage of more than 24 hours or when each new master or operator assumes command: (1) Steering-systems. A test of the steering-gear-control system; a test of the main steering gear from the alternative power... applicable; of chafing gear; and of the winch brake, if installed. (6) Propulsion systems. Visual...

  19. A Curriculum Review: The Voyage of the Mimi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Kenneth W.

    1988-01-01

    The curriculum package, "The Voyage of the Mimi," uses computer, videocassette, student text, and workbook for integrated study of the great whales and the impact of social actions on society and the environment. This review suggests that the package also offers many ancillary teaching opportunities. (CB)

  20. The heliosphere neutrals composition: from Voyager UVS to IMAPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Jaffel, L.

    2015-12-01

    For the last 35 years, the Voyagers (V) 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers (UVS) data harvest has covered heliosphere sky-background in-situ measurements, stellar spectrophotometry, and outer planets encounters. Their long and ongoing operation period overlaps with many current and past ultraviolet missions, offering unique opportunities for cross-calibration with other spectrometers. Here we revisit the Voyager UVS calibration to assess the intriguing 243% (V1) and 156% (V2) sensitivity enhancements recently proposed. Using the Saturn Lyman-α airglow, observed in-situ by both Voyagers, and remotely by IUE, we match the Voyager values to IUE, taking into account the shape of the Saturn and sky-background Lyman-α lines observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. For all known ranges of the interplanetary H I density, we show that the V1 and V2 UVS sensitivities at the Lyman-α channels cannot be enhanced by the amounts thus far proposed. Our prescription is to keep the original calibration of the Voyager UVS with an uncertainty that should not exceed 30%, making both instruments some of the most stable EUV/FUV spectrographs of the history of space exploration. This rich heritage from past and current space missions confirms that UV observations of the sky-background are a powerful lever for constraining the neutral composition and large structure of the heliosphere. It also points to the need in the future for fine Doppler-shift measurements and faint emissions detection in order to directly access the microphysical processes that drive the instant shape and composition of the heliosphere that is forced by the magnetized plasmas from solar wind and the local interstellar medium. Future deep space missions should thus include UV capabilities that make use of sensitive, high-resolution technology that allows achieving the highest throughput for extended light sources.

  1. Perspectives on More Than 3 Decades of the Voyager Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2011-05-01

    Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, twin NASA probes that were launched from Cape Canaveral, Fla., in the summer of 1977 during a once-every-175-year alignment of the solar system's giant outer planets, changed our understanding about those planets—Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune—as well as the 4 dozen moons the spacecraft have flown by and the shape of the solar system itself. Today these 722-kilogram probes, whose instruments mostly are still operating after almost 34 years in space, are helping to rewrite the textbooks about the outer edge of our solar system as they continue to race outward from Earth. Voyager 1, currently 17.4 billion kilometers from Earth, and Voyager 2, 14.2 billion kilometers from Earth, are on their way to becoming the first human-made objects to leave the solar system and enter interstellar space, the medium between stars. In exclusive interviews with Eos and during a 27 April news briefing at NASA headquarters in Washington, D. C., Voyager project scientist Ed Stone and several others who have worked on the project discussed mission highlights and the probes' journeys through the heliosheath. This is the final outer layer of a kind of bubble the Sun creates around itself called the heliosphere, a margin where the solar wind is slowed by the pressure of interstellar gas. All the while, the spacecraft, still responsive to ground commands, are sending back data about the solar wind, the magnetic field carried out by the wind, charged particles, and plasma waves.

  2. Meteorological Implications of the First Voyage of Christopher Columbus.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, Randall S.; Hobgood, Jay S.

    1992-02-01

    The log of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus to the New World provides valuable information on the meteorological conditions of September 1492. Comparison and analysis of the descriptive accounts of weather made by Columbus and his pilots to other available Columbian and modern data leads to two distinct perspectives on the Columbian voyage: an examination of the frequency of "calm" events, and an analysis of the lack of tropical storm activity. The major conclusions of the first portion of the study include: 1) The Columbian pilots' descriptions of "cairns" related to travel slower than travel occurring during other portions of the voyage. That rate of travel compares favorably to calm winds and an oceanic current of 0.4 knots, a value close to modern-day values; 2) The frequency of "calm" events experienced by Christopher Columbus in 1492 is significantly higher than the most liberal estimates of calms in the North Atlantic over the last 100 years; and 3) The locations of the Columbian calms are generally in the same region currently experiencing the highest frequency of calms. The main finding of the second portion of the study is that, based on historical hurricane records from 1886 to 1989, the center of a hurricane would have passed within 100 km of Columbus only once in the past 104 years. Inclusion of tropical storms increases this number to four out of 104 years. Therefore, while Columbus may indeed have been fortunate to have avoided severe weather during his voyage, the odds decidedly were in his favor. This Columbian "weather luck" was due to a combination of 1) encountering abnormally strong anticyclonic flow over the eastern North Atlantic, 2) starting late enough in the hurricane season to significantly decrease the probability of experiencing a hurricane, and 3) taking a north and easterly voyage, thereby avoiding the area of maximum hurricane occurrence.

  3. [The corvette "Nordstjernen's" voyage to the opening of the Suez Canal--naval medicine in 1869].

    PubMed

    Ongre, Aksel; Pettersen, Jan Sommerfelt; Munch, Johan Storm

    2002-06-30

    When the Norwegian corvette Nordstjernen was in the North Sea bound for Port Said to be present at the opening of the Suez Canal on 17 November 1869, an officer suffered a rupture of m. triceps brachii when he was drawn into the machinery during a storm. He was put ashore in Harwich; four days after the injury he was hospitalized in Colchester. The voyage was eventful in other ways too. Another officer died from typhoid fever in Ismailia. On the Swedish frigate Vanadis, also present at the opening of the Suez Canal, one of the doctors died from lung infection and was buried in Smyrna; a twelve-feet high column of white marble was taken from the ruins of Aesculap's temple and put on his grave. Denmark was represented by the frigate Sjaelland. During a storm in the North Sea, one seaman fell down on the deck from the foresail yard and suffered contusions and a fracture of the left clavicle. These cases illustrate challenges that faced our ancestors. The accident happened when the ship was in the Netherlands sector of the North Sea as we know it today. Today the Coast Guard could have arranged transport by helicopter and hospitalized the patient in about two hours.

  4. Voyager 2 observations of plasma in the heliosheath.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.; Belcher, J. W.; Tordella, D.; Fraternale, F.; Gallana, L.; Iovieno, M.

    2015-12-01

    Voyager 2 has observed the plasma in the heliosheath since 2007 from 84 to 109 AU. No signs of the stagnation region observed by Voyager 1 have been observed. Instead, the plasma speed have remained relatively constant and the flow has turned tailward. Latest results from 2015 show that the flow is about 80 degrees from radial, with most of the flow in the T direction (using RTN coordinates). Temperature and density averages have remained constant since increases observed in 2011. The plasma parameters are highly variable; we show the distributions of the variabillty with time. We also show compare variations in the magnetic field and plasma on short (few hour) time scales through 2012.

  5. Neptune's wind speeds obtained by tracking clouds in Voyager images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammel, H. B.; Hansen, C. J.; Johnson, T. V.; Beebe, R. F.; De Jong, E. M.; Howell, C. D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Limaye, S. S.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Pollack, J. B.

    1989-01-01

    Images of Neptune obtained by the narrow-angle camera of the Voyager 2 spacecraft reveal large-scale cloud features that persist for several months or longer. The features' periods of rotation about the planetary axis range from 15.8 to 18.4 hours. The atmosphere equatorward of -53 deg rotates with periods longer than the 16.05-hour period deduced from Voyager's planetary radio astronomy experiment (presumably the planet's internal rotation period). The wind speeds computed with respect to this radio period range from 20 meters per second eastward to 325 meters per second westward. Thus, the cloud-top wind speeds are roughly the same for all the planets ranging from Venus to Neptune, even though the solar energy inputs to the atmospheres vary by a factor of 1000.

  6. Voyager 1 Planetary Radio Astronomy Observations Near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. B.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results are reported from the first low frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere. Dramatic new information was obtained both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and also because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio arcs, from above 30 MHz to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Studies in progress are outlined briefly.

  7. Plasma waves near Saturn: Initial results from Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 encounter with Saturn provided the first opportunity to investigate plasma wave interactions in the magnetosphere of Saturn. An overview of the principal results from the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument is presented starting with the initial detection of Saturn and ending about four weeks after closest approach. A survey plot of the electric field intensities detected during the Saturn encounter is shown starting shortly before the inbound shock crossing and ending shortly after the outbound magnetopause crossing. Many intense waves were observed in the vicinity of Saturn. To provide a framework for presenting the observations, the results are discussed more or less according to the sequence in which the data were obtained.

  8. Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy observations near Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Riddle, A. C.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Thieman, J. R.; Carr, T. D.; Gulkis, S.; Boischot, A.

    1979-01-01

    Results from the first low-frequency radio receiver to be transported into the Jupiter magnetosphere are reported. Dramatic new information was obtained, both because Voyager was near or in Jupiter's radio emission sources and because it was outside the relatively dense solar wind plasma of the inner solar system. Extensive radio spectral arcs, from above 30 to about 1 MHz, occurred in patterns correlated with planetary longitude. A newly discovered kilometric wavelength radio source may relate to the plasma torus near Io's orbit. In situ wave resonances near closest approach define an electron density profile along the Voyager trajectory and form the basis for a map of the torus. Detailed studies are in progress and are outlined briefly.

  9. Pressure Pulses at Voyager 2: Drivers of Interstellar Transients?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.; Wang, C.; Liu, Y. D.; Šafránková, J.; Němeček, Z.; Kurth, W. S.

    2017-01-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) crossed the heliopause into the local interstellar medium (LISM) in 2012. The LISM is a dynamic region periodically disturbed by solar transients with outward-propagating shocks, cosmic-ray intensity changes and anisotropies, and plasma wave oscillations. Voyager 2 (V2) trails V1 and thus may observe the solar transients that are later observed at V1. V2 crossed the termination shock in 2007 and is now in the heliosheath. Starting in 2012, when solar maximum conditions reached V2, five possible merged interaction regions (MIRs) have been observed by V2 in the heliosheath. The timing is consistent with these MIRs driving the transients observed by V1 in the LISM. The largest heliosheath MIR was observed by V2 in late 2015 and should reach V1 in 2018.

  10. A plasma density model for Saturn based on Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, John D.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The present combination of ion and electron data sets from both Voyager flybys are to yield the broad view of the Saturn plasma environment indicates that a small, -10 to -20 V spacecraft potential furnishes a plausible basis for reconciliation of differences between observed ion and electron densities. A map of density contours within L = 12 is produced which incorporates all available Voyager thermal plasma data in this region, assuming that the inner mesosphere was stable during the nine months between encounters. The oxygen flux tube content decreases rapidly within L = 5, indicating the occurrence of losses in this region. Neural atom lifetimes in the inner magnetosphere lie in the range of weeks to years, and are a strong function of latitude.

  11. Voyager 1 assessment of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connerney, J. E. P.; Acuna, M. H.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    An estimate of Jupiter's planetary magnetic field is obtained from the Voyager 1 observations of the Jovian magnetosphere. An explicit model for the magnetodisc current system is combined with a spherical harmonic model of the planetary field with both sets of parameters determined simultaneously using a nonlinear generalized inverse methodology. The resulting model fits the observations extremely well throughout the analysis interval (r 20 Jovian radii). The Jovian internal field model obtained from the Voyager 1 data is very similar to the octopole Pioneer 11 models. The best fitting magnetodisc lies in the centrifugal equator, 2/3 of the way between the rotational and magnetic equators, as appropriate for centrifugal loading of the magnetosphere by a cold plasma.

  12. The galilean satellites and Jupiter: Voyager 2 imaging science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Beebe, R.; Boyce, J.; Briggs, G.; Carr, M.; Collins, S.A.; Cook, A.F.; Danielson, G.E.; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Ingersoll, A.; Johnson, T.V.; Masursky, H.; McCauley, J.; Morrison, D.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Strom, R.; Suomi, V.E.; Veverka, J.

    1979-01-01

    Voyager 2, during its encounter with the Jupiter system, provided images that both complement and supplement in important ways the Voyager 1 images. While many changes have been observed in Jupiter's visual appearance, few, yet significant, changes have been detected in the principal atmospheric currents. Jupiter's ring system is strongly forward scattering at visual wavelengths and consists of a narrow annulus of highest particle density, within which is a broader region in which the density is lower. On Io, changes are observed in eruptive activity, plume structure, and surface albedo patterns. Europa's surface retains little or no record of intense meteorite bombardment, but does reveal a complex and, as yet, little-understood system of overlapping bright and dark linear features. Ganymede is found to have at least one unit of heavily cratered terrain on a surface that otherwise suggests widespread tectonism. Except for two large ringed basins, Callisto's entire surface is heavily cratered. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  13. Voyager uplink planning in the interstellar mission era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linick, Susan H.; Weld, Kathryn R.

    1993-01-01

    The Voyager Project has entered its last phase of discovery--the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM). Because of the reduced scope of the project and a lower budget, new ways had to be developed to program two spacecraft with fewer people and to allow for some sequence development flexibility without additional risk. In the previous cruise era, it took a seven-person sequence team 12 weeks to develop a nominal eight week cruise sequence. Today it takes a three-person team six weeks to develop a 13 week sequence load. This paper will describe in detail the sequencing strategy which reduces the volume and frequency of sequence loads, and the new tools and processes developed which reduce the manual effort required to generate these sequences without adding risk.

  14. Voyager detection of nonthermal radio emission from Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    The detection of bursts of nonthermal radio noise from Saturn by the planetary radio astonomy experiment onboard the Voyager spacecraft is discussed. The emissions occur near 200 kHz with a peak flux density comparable to higher frequency Jovian emissions. The radiation is right-hand polarized and is most likely emitted in the extraordinary magnetoionic mode from Saturn's northern hemisphere. Modulation is apparent in the data which is consistent with a planetary rotation period of 10 hr 39.9 min.

  15. Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter: Initial cruise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Riddle, A. C.; Lecacheux, A.; Pearce, J. B.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.; Thieman, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    Jupiter's low-frequency radio emission were detected by the planetary radio astronomy instruments onboard the two Voyager spacecraft. The emission is surprisingly similar in morphology but opposite in polarization to the high-frequency Jovian radio noise that were observed with ground-based telescopes for more than two decades. Several possible explanations for the behavior of the low-frequency emission are examined, but none of them is completely satisfactory.

  16. Io plasma torus ion composition: Voyager, Galileo, and Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerney, Edward G.; Bagenal, Fran; Steffl, Andrew J.

    2017-01-01

    The Io torus produces ultraviolet emissions diagnostic of plasma conditions. We revisit data sets obtained by the Voyager 1, Galileo, and Cassini missions at Jupiter. With the latest version (8.0) of the CHIANTI atomic database we analyze UV spectra to determine ion composition. We compare ion composition obtained from observations from these three missions with a theoretical model of the physical chemistry of the torus by Delamere et al. (2005). We find ion abundances from the Voyager data similar to the Cassini epoch, consistent with the dissociation and ionization of SO2, but with a slightly higher average ionization state for sulfur, consistent with the higher electron temperature measured by Voyager. This reanalysis of the Voyager data produces a much lower oxygen:sulfur ratio than earlier analysis by Shemansky (1988), which was also reported by Bagenal (1994). We derive fractional ion compositions in the center of the torus to be S+/Ne 5%, S++/Ne 20%, S+++/Ne 5%, O+/Ne 20%, O++/Ne 3%, and Σ(On+)/Σ(Sn+) 0.8, leaving about 10-15% of the charge as protons. The radial profile of ion composition indicates a slightly higher average ionization state, a modest loss of sulfur relative to oxygen, and Σ(On+)/Σ(Sn+) 1.2 at about 8 RJ, beyond which the composition is basically frozen in. The Galileo observations of UV emissions from the torus suggest that the composition in June 1996 may have comprised a lower abundance of oxygen than usual, consistent with observations made at the same time by the EUVE satellite.

  17. Mapping the Galilean satellites of Jupiter with Voyager data.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batson, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    The four Galilean satellites of Jupiter are being mapped using image data from the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. The maps are published at several scales and in several versions. Preliminary maps at 1:25,000,000-required for mission planning and preliminary science reports-were compiled within three weeks of data acquisition and have been published. Later maps incorporate Rand Corporation photogrammetric triangulations. - from Authors

  18. Voyager 1 Near the heliopause

    SciTech Connect

    Borovikov, S. N.; Pogorelov, N. V.

    2014-02-18

    Recent observations from the Voyager 1 spacecraft show that it is sampling the local interstellar medium (LISM). This is quite surprising because no realistic, steady-state model of the solar wind (SW) interaction with the LISM gives an inner heliosheath width as narrow as ~30 AU. This includes models that assume a strong redistribution of the ion energy to the tails in the pickup ion distribution function. We show that the heliopause (HP), which separates the SW from the LISM, is not a smooth tangential discontinuity, but rather a surface subject to Rayleigh-Taylor-type instabilities which can result in LISM material penetration deep inside the SW. We also show that the HP flanks are always subject to a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The instabilities are considerably suppressed near the HP nose by the heliospheric magnetic field in steady-state models, but reveal themselves in the presence of solar cycle effects. Here we argue that Voyager 1 may be in one such instability region and is therefore observing plasma densities much higher than those in the pristine SW. Lastly, these results may explain the early penetration of Voyager 1 into the LISM. They also show that there is a possibility that the spacecraft may start sampling the SW again before it finally leaves the heliosphere.

  19. MORE EVIDENCE THAT VOYAGER 1 IS STILL IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-06-20

    The investigators of the Voyager mission currently exploring the heliosheath have concluded and announced that Voyager 1 (V1) has crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. This conclusion is based primarily on the plasma wave observations of Gurnett et al., which reveal a plasma electron density that resembles the density expected in the local interstellar medium. Fisk and Gloeckler have disputed the conclusion that V1 has crossed the heliopause, pointing out that to account for all the V1 observations, particularly the magnetic field direction together with the density, it is necessary to conclude that the higher densities observed by Gurnett et al. are due to compressed solar wind. In this Letter it is shown that the model of Fisk and Gloeckler for the nose region of the heliosheath can account in detail for the intensity and spectral shape of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in the directions of V1 and Voyager 2 (V2). A key feature of the Fisk and Gloeckler model is the existence of a region in the heliosheath where the solar wind is compressed and heated, followed by a region where the solar wind is compressed but cold. The region of cold compressed solar wind provides a unique explanation for the low-energy IBEX observations, and since this is the region where V1 must now reside, the low-energy IBEX observations provide strong evidence that V1 is still in the heliosphere.

  20. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager-2 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Evans, D. R.; Romig, J. H.; Alexander, J. K.; Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.; Aubier, M.; Leblanc, Y.; Lecacheux, A.; Pedersen, B. M.

    1981-01-01

    Voyager-2 planetry radio astronomy measurements obtained near Saturn are discussed. They indicate that Saturnian kilometric radiation is emitted by a strong, dayside source at auroral latitudes in the northern hemisphere and by a weaker (by more than an order of magnitude) source at complementary latitudes in the southern hemisphere. These emissions are variable both due to Saturn's rotation and, on longer time scales, probably due to influences of the solar wind and the satellite Dione. The Saturn electrostatic discharge bursts first discovered by Voyager-1 and attributed to emissions from the B-ring were again observed with the same broadband spectral properties and a 10(h)11(m) + or - 5(m) episodic recurrence period but with an occurrence frequency of only of about 30 percent of that detected with Voyager-1. During the crossing of the ring plane at a distance of 2.88 R sub S, an intense noise event is interpreted to be consequence of the impact/vaporization/ionization of charged micron-size G-ring particles distributed over a total vertical thickness of about 1500 km.

  1. Voyager-to-Galileo Changes, Io's Anti-Jove Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Shown here is a comparison of a Galileo color image (right) of Jupiter's moon Io, with a Voyager mosaic (left) reprojected to the same geometry as the Galileo image. The image on the right was obtained by the Galileo spacecraft's imaging camera on September 7th, 1996; the mosaic on the left was obtained by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979. Color is synthesized from green and violet filters only in both cases, as these are the only two filters that are reasonably similar between Voyager and Galileo. Many surface changes can be seen due to volcanic activity from 1979 to 1996. North is to the top of both frames. Galileo was about 487,000 kilometers (302,000 miles) from Io on September 7, 1996.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Abundances of Jupiter's Trace Hydrocarbons from Voyager and Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, C. A.; Achterberg, R. K.; Romani, P. N.; Allen, M.; Zhang, X.; Teanby, N. A.; Irwin, P. G. J.; Flasar, F. M.

    2010-01-01

    The flybys of Jupiter by the Voyager spacecraft in 1979, and over two decades later by Cassini in 2000, have provided us with unique datasets from two different epochs, allowing the investigation of seasonal change in the atmosphere. In this paper we model zonal averages of thermal infrared spectra from the two instruments, Voyager 1 IRIS and Cassini CIRS, to retrieve the vertical and meridional profiles of temperature, and the abundances of the two minor hydrocarbons, acetylene (C2H2) and ethane (C2H6). The spatial variation of these gases is controlled by both chemistry and dynamics, and therefore their observed distribution gives us an insight into both processes, We find that the two gases paint quite different pictures of seasonal change. Whilst the 2-D cross-section of C2H6 abundance is slightly increased and more symmetric in 2000 (northern summer solstice) compared to 1979 (northern fall equinox), the major trend of equator to pole increase remains. For C2H2 on tile other hand, the Voyager epoch exhibits almost no latitudinal variation, whilst the Cassini era shows a marked decrease polewards in both hemispheres. At the present time, these experimental findings are in advance of interpretation, as there are no published models of 2-D Jovian seasonal chemical variation available for comparison.

  3. Extreme and far ultraviolet astronomy from Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    The instrumental characteristics, observational capabilities and scientific results of the Voyager 1 and 2 ultraviolet spectrometers are reviewed. These instruments provide current and ongoing access to low resolution spectra for a wide variety of astronomical sources in the 500 to 1700 A band. Observations of the brightest OB stars and hot subluminous stars as faint as V = 15 mag, are possible. In the EUV, at wavelengths shortward of 900 A, several new sources have been detected and a host of potential sources ruled out. In the far UV, particularly at wavelengths between 900 and 1200 A, Voyager is capable of observing a wide range of stellar and non-stellar sources. Such observations can often provide a valuable complement to IUE and other data sets at longer wavelengths. The Voyager spectrometers have proved remarkably stable photon counting instruments, capable of extremely long integration times. The long integration times, relatively large field of view, and location in the outer solar system also provide an ideal platform for observations of sources of faint diffuse emission, such as nebulae and the general sky background.

  4. Voyager observations in the outer heliosphere and interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, John D.

    2016-03-01

    The Voyager spacecraft are making the first direct plasma measurements of the heliosheath and interstellar medium. This paper discusses the differences in the heliosheath observations of Voyager 1 (V1) and Voyager 2 (V2), the V1 heliopause crossing, and observations of transient structures in the local interstellar medium (LISM). The heliosheath velocities at V1 are smaller than expected throughout the heliosheath and are zero in the stagnation region, which persists for 8 AU before the heliopause crossing. The V2 flow profile is very different from that at V1; the average speed stays constant at 145 km/s but the flow has turned over 60° from radial. The heliopause crossing region has numerous structures in cosmic rays, termination shock particles, and magnetic field so that the exact heliopause crossing point is still controversial. Solar transients drive shocks which propagate through the LISM, generate anisotropies and intensity changes in the galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) and excite plasma and radio waves.

  5. Infrared observations of the jovian system from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Hanel, R; Conrath, B; Flasar, M; Herath, L; Kunde, V; Lowman, P; Maguire, W; Pearl, J; Pirraglia, J; Samuelson, R; Gautier, D; Gierasch, P; Horn, L; Kumar, S; Ponnamperuma, C

    1979-11-23

    Infrared spectra obtainedfrom Voyager 2 have provided additional data on the Jovian system, complementing those obtained from Voyager 1. The abundance ratio of ethane to acetylene in Jupiter's atmosphere appears to be about three times larger in the polar regions than at lower latitudes. A decidedly hemispherical asymmetry exists, with somewhat higher ratios prevailing in northern latitudes. An overall increase in the abundance ratio by a factor of about 1.7 appears to have occurred between the Voyager 1 and 2 encounters. Global brightness temperature maps of Jupiter at 226 and 602 cm(-1) exhibit a large amount of local- and planetary-scale structure, as well as temporal variability. Although heterogeneous cloud structure and ammonia concentration in the lower troposphere may contribute to the appearance of the 226-cm(-1) map, the detail in the 602-cm(-1) maps probably represents the actual horizontal thermal structure near the tropopause and suggests that dynamical heating and cooling processes are important. Low-latitude surface temperatures on the Galilean satellites rangefrom approximately 80 K on the dark sides to 155 K at the subsolar point on Callisto. Below a thin insulating layer, the thermal inertia of Callisto is somewhat greater than that of Earth's moon. Upper limits on the infrared optical depth of the Jovian ring rangingfrom approximately 3 x 10(-4) at 250 cm(-1) to 3 x 10(-3) at 600 cm(-1) have been found.

  6. More Evidence that Voyager 1 Is Still in the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-06-01

    The investigators of the Voyager mission currently exploring the heliosheath have concluded and announced that Voyager 1 (V1) has crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. This conclusion is based primarily on the plasma wave observations of Gurnett et al., which reveal a plasma electron density that resembles the density expected in the local interstellar medium. Fisk & Gloeckler have disputed the conclusion that V1 has crossed the heliopause, pointing out that to account for all the V1 observations, particularly the magnetic field direction together with the density, it is necessary to conclude that the higher densities observed by Gurnett et al. are due to compressed solar wind. In this Letter it is shown that the model of Fisk & Gloeckler for the nose region of the heliosheath can account in detail for the intensity and spectral shape of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) in the directions of V1 and Voyager 2 (V2). A key feature of the Fisk & Gloeckler model is the existence of a region in the heliosheath where the solar wind is compressed and heated, followed by a region where the solar wind is compressed but cold. The region of cold compressed solar wind provides a unique explanation for the low-energy IBEX observations, and since this is the region where V1 must now reside, the low-energy IBEX observations provide strong evidence that V1 is still in the heliosphere.

  7. Voyage of discovery? A comment on Koch et al. "A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats".

    PubMed

    Andrew, Rose L; Smith, Deane; Gorrell, Jamieson C; Janes, Jasmine K

    2016-12-07

    The origins of feral cats in Australia may be understood with the help of molecular studies, but it is important that hypotheses be tested with appropriate sampling and methodology. We point out several shortcomings in the analysis by Koch et al. (BMC Evol Biol 15:262, 2015; A voyage to Terra Australis: human-mediated dispersal of cats. Dryad Digital Repository, 2015), present a reanalysis of part of the study and discuss the challenges of elucidating the early history of feral cats.

  8. Jules Verne Voyager: A Web Interactive Tool for Comparative Planetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estey, L.; Pappalardo, R.; Meertens, C.

    2004-12-01

    A Web interactive map tool called "Jules Verne Voyager" was originally developed in 1999 by UNAVCO and continues to evolve. The Voyager tool can easily be used for comparative planetology studies by grades 8-14. Thematic mapping datasets, now totaling about 70 Gb, can be accessed by the tool and include global-scale maps of the inner solar system planets and moons, plus Jupiter and the Galilean moons. The map images are viewed on a Web browser created on demand by the server system. On the client-side, only a Java-enabled browser is required, and the Voyager Java applet runs well with common browsers like Netscape, Mozilla, Opera, and Internet Explorer. The applet sends a key-value pair URL to the http://jules.unavco.org server which queues incoming requests and sends them to a bank of computers dedicated to map image creation. The engine for map image creation makes use of the "Generic Mapping Tools" (GMT) software of Paul Wessel and Walter Smith, followed by image conversion of the GMT-created PostScript to GIF for raster image export and display back on the client browser. Because of the GMT-based engine on the server system, the student user can easily create the same type of images from real planetary data that researchers create. The tool also gives a student the ability to switch background datasets and overlay certain other thematic datasets, thus providing a minimal GIS capability. To our knowledge, the map tool has not yet formally been used in a 8-14 classroom environment, though informal use by students and teachers in these grades suggest that it would be well received. The server system is currently capable of handing a moderate level of requests that would result from classroom use; for example, as a system benchmark, over 800 Voyager images were created and served in about an hour during a DLESE 2003 annual meeting workshop. The Voyager map tool is being used by instructors in earth science and comparative planetology as a means to create customized

  9. Voyager electronic parts radiation program. Volume 2: Test requirements and procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanley, A. G.; Martin, K. E.; Price, W. E.

    1978-01-01

    Documents are presented outlining the conditions and requirements of the test program. The Appendixes are as follows: appendix A -- Electron Simulation Radiation Test Specification for Voyager Electronic Parts and Devices, appendix B -- Electronic Piece-Part Testing Program for Voyager, appendix C -- Test Procedure for Radiation Screening of Voyager Piece Parts, appendix D -- Boeing In Situ Test Fixture, and appendix E -- Irradiate - Anneal (IRAN) Screening Documents.

  10. Voyage to the Dark Side: The Tortured Path of United States’ Detainee Interrogation Policy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-13

    USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT VOYAGE TO THE DARK SIDE : THE TORTURED PATH OF UNITED STATES’ DETAINEE INTERROGATION POLICY...2007 2. REPORT TYPE Strategy Research Project 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2007 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Voyage to the Dark Side The...Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Colonel Jon L. Lightner TITLE: Voyage to the Dark Side : The Tortured

  11. Exploring the brain, looking for thoughts: on Asimov's second Fantastic Voyage.

    PubMed

    Cassou-Noguès, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate various concerns which appear in Isaac Asimov's Fantastic Voyage II: Destination Brain. I will disregard his first voyage inside a human body in Fantastic Voyage I, which the author disavows as not being his own work. In contrast, the second voyage is intricate, suggesting problems drawn from a variety of sources. In a nutshell, Asimov's explorers enter the body of a comatose man in order to read his thoughts. The story can be related both to philosophical thought-experiments, such as those of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz and of Herbert Feigl, as well as to personal anxieties peculiar to Asimov.

  12. Cinnarizine for Sea Sickness During a Remote Pacific Ocean Rescue Mission.

    PubMed

    Lyon, Regan F; Rush, Stephen C; Roland, J Thomas; Jethanamest, Daniel; Schwan, Christopher P; Kharon, Chetan U

    2015-01-01

    Motion sickness can be a limiting factor for sea and air missions. We report the experience of a Pararescue (PJ) team on a Pacific Ocean rescue mission in which motion sickness was prevalent. Cinnarizine, an antagonist of H1-histamine receptors, was used to treat affected PJs. We also report findings of a survey of PJs regarding motion sickness. A family of four on a disabled sailboat 900 miles off the coast of Mexico sent out a distress call because their 1-year-old daughter became severely ill with fever and diarrhea. Four PJs were deployed on a C-130, performed a free-fall parachute insertion into the ocean, and boarded the sailboat. All four PJs experienced onset of motion sickness at some point during the early part of the mission and symptoms persisted through the first 24 hours. Three PJs experienced ongoing nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and sensory imbalances. The captain of the sailboat offered the three sick PJs approximately 18mg of cinnarizine two or three times a day with relief of symptoms and improvement on operational effectiveness. A new, anonymous, voluntary survey of Air National Guard PJs and combat rescue officers revealed that 78.4% of Operators have experienced motion sickness at sea. We discuss the current theories on motion sickness, the effect of motion sickness on operational effectiveness, and research on treatment of motion sickness, including the medication cinnarizine.

  13. Voyager photometry of Triton - Haze and surface photometric properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Verbiscer, A.; Veverka, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager whole-disk observations of Triton at 0.41, 0.48, and 0.56 micron filter wavelengths are analyzed using a model which combines an improved version of Hapke's photometric equation with a thin atmospheric haze layer in the appropriate spherical geometry. The model is shown to describe accurately the phase curves over a range of phase angles and to agree with disk-resolved brightness scans along the photometric equator and mirror meridian. According to the model, the photometric parameters of Triton's regolith are reasonably typical of icy satellites, except for the extremely high (close to unity) single-scattering albedo.

  14. Far-ultraviolet extinction determined from Voyager data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Theodore P.; Allen, M. M.; Polidan, R. S.

    1990-01-01

    Data from the Voyager UV spectrometers are used to derive FUV extinction curves for 19 stars, using the pair-comparison method after the removal of the effects of line absorption due to H I and H2. It is shown that the FUV extinction rise continues to the limit of the data at about 925 A, supporting the theoretical prediction by Longo et al. (1989) that the FUV extinction continues to rise toward short wavelengths all the way to the Lyman limit at 912 A.

  15. The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, B. A.; Soderblom, L. A.; Shoemaker, E. M.; Masursky, H.; Johnson, T. V.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Collins, S. A.; Hunt, G. E.; Carr, M. H.; Davies, M. E.; Morrison, D.

    1979-01-01

    The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions - the interaction of cloud systems - display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightening and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanism on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto.

  16. Voyager and the origin of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prentice, A. J. R.

    1981-01-01

    A unified model for the formation of regular satellite systems and the planetary system is outlined. The basis for this modern Laplacian theory is that there existed a large supersonic turbulent stress arising from overshooting convective motions within the three primitive gaseous clouds which formed Jupiter, Saturn, and the Sun. Calculations show that if each cloud possessed the same fraction of supersonic turbulent energy, equal to about 5% of the cloud's gravitational potential energy, then the broad mass distribution and chemistry of all regular satellite and planetary systems can be simultaneously accounted for. Titan is probably a captured moon of Saturn. Several predictions about observations made by Voyager 2 at Saturn are presented.

  17. Uranus satellites - Hapke parameters from Voyager disk-integrated photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helfenstein, P.; Ververka, J.; Thomas, P. C.

    1988-05-01

    An attempt is presently made to obtain improved determinations of the geometric albedos and phase integrals of Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, by fitting Hapke's (1981, 1984, 1986) photometric theory to Voyager whole-disk observations of these satellites. It is analytically established that while Umbriel, Titania and Oberon have large-scale roughness comparable to that of the earth's moon, Ariel is significantly rougher. While the particle single scattering albedo is strikingly different among the satellites, the degrees of regolith particle backscattering are very similar.

  18. Uranus satellites - Hapke parameters from Voyager disk-integrated photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Veverka, Joseph; Thomas, Peter C.

    1988-01-01

    An attempt is presently made to obtain improved determinations of the geometric albedos and phase integrals of Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, by fitting Hapke's (1981, 1984, 1986) photometric theory to Voyager whole-disk observations of these satellites. It is analytically established that while Umbriel, Titania and Oberon have large-scale roughness comparable to that of the earth's moon, Ariel is significantly rougher. While the particle single scattering albedo is strikingly different among the satellites, the degrees of regolith particle backscattering are very similar.

  19. Planetary radio astronomy observations from Voyager 1 near Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warwick, J. W.; Pearce, J. B.; Evans, D. R.; Carr, T. D.; Schauble, J. J.; Alexander, J. K.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Pedersen, M.; Lecacheux, A.

    1981-01-01

    The Voyager 1 planetary radio astronomy experiment detected two distinct kinds of radio emissions from Saturn. The first, Saturn kilometric radiation, is strongly polarized, bursty, tightly correlated with Saturn's rotation, and exhibits complex dynamic spectral features somewhat reminiscent of those in Jupiter's radio emission. It appears in radio frequencies below about 1.2 megahertz. The second kind of radio emission, Saturn electrostatic discharge, is unpolarized, extremely impulsive, loosely correlated with Saturn's rotation, and very broadband, appearing throughout the observing range of the experiment (20.4 kilohertz to 40.2 megahertz). Its sources appear to lie in the planetary rings.

  20. Radio propagation experiments in the outer solar system with Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyler, G. Leonard

    1987-01-01

    The outer solar system's planetary atmospheres, ionospheres, rings, and magnetic fields are under study in light of microwave telecommunications from the two Voyager spacecraft. The use of the hydrogen maser frequency standards on the ground, in conjunction with thermally controlled quartz oscillators aboard the spacecraft, ensures long coherence intervals and allows the application of novel signal processing methods. On this basis, studies of atmospheric structure and scintillation parameters, planetary ring structure, and magnetic control of small ionospheric irregularities have been undertaken; information concerning planetary evolution, composition, and dynamics is thereby obtained.

  1. Preliminary science results of Voyager 1 Saturn encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bane, D.

    1981-01-01

    Preliminary science results of the Voyager 1 encounter of the planet Saturn are reported. On August 22, 1980, the spacecraft was 109 million km (68 million mi) from Saturn. Closest approach to Saturn took place on November 12, at 3:46 p.m. (PDT), when the spacecraft passed 126,000 km (78,000 mi) from the cloud tops. Measurements of the atmosphere, wind speed, radiation, six surrounding rings, and the planet's old and newly found satellites were recorded. The encounter ended December 15, 1980. The spacecraft took more than 17,500 photographs of Saturn and its satellites.

  2. The Effects of Voyaging on the Magnetization of Ship Models.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-05

    time-effect must be analyzed for more accurate prediction of voyage effects. Finally, experiments must be conducted with samples of HY80 steel , for...models were tested by subjecting two sample rods, one of HY1O0 steel and one of HY130 steel to an apparatus for supply of cyclic stress of two amplitudes...Entered) WI UNCLASSIFIED I SECURITY CLASSIFICATION Of T"IS PAGE (Whm Da ffIfete 0. 0.CONTIN(UMD steel , and these were compared with the slope of the

  3. Comparison of Voyager Shocks in Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashmall, Justin; Richardson, John

    2005-08-01

    Solar cycle 23 was notable for two periods of intense solar activity (or `events' as we shall hereafter refer to them): the `Bastille Day Event' of 2000 and the `Halloween Event' of 2003. In this paper we look at the signatures of the interplanetary shocks produced by these events, in particular the plasma parameters, as observed by Voyager 2 (V2) some six months after the events occurred at Sun. We compare these shocks with other large events observed by V2 during the preceding decade. We note that the plasma parameters, most notably the plasma density, are frequently not as might be expected for ``typical'' events.

  4. The jupiter system through the eyes of voyager 1.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Johnson, T V; Ingersoll, A P; Collins, S A; Shoemaker, E M; Hunt, G E; Masursky, H; Carr, M H; Davies, M E; Cook, A F; Boyce, J; Danielson, G E; Owen, T; Sagan, C; Beebe, R F; Veverka, J; Strom, R G; McCauley, J F; Morrison, D; Briggs, G A; Suomi, V E

    1979-06-01

    The cameras aboard Voyager 1 have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanismn on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymnede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto.

  5. The Jupiter system through the eyes of Voyager 1

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Johnson, T.V.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Collins, S.A.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Carr, M.H.; Davies, M.E.; Cook, A.F.; Boyce, J.; Danielson, G.E.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Beebe, R.F.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.G.; McCauley, J.F.; Morrison, D.; Briggs, G.A.; Suomi, V.E.

    1979-01-01

    The cameras aboard Voyager I have provided a closeup view of the Jupiter system, revealing heretofore unknown characteristics and phenomena associated with the planet's atmosphere and the surfaces of its five major satellites. On Jupiter itself, atmospheric motions-the interaction of cloud systems-display complex vorticity. On its dark side, lightning and auroras are observed. A ring was discovered surrounding Jupiter. The satellite surfaces display dramatic differences including extensive active volcanismn on Io, complex tectonism on Ganymnede and possibly Europa, and flattened remnants of enormous impact features on Callisto. Copyright ?? 1979 AAAS.

  6. Survey of electrons in the Uranian magnetosphere - Voyager 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, Edward C., Jr.; Ogilvie, Keith W.; Selesnick, Richard

    1987-01-01

    Results of an analysis of the Voyager 2 plasma-science-experiment electron measurements made during the Uranus encounter are presented. The energy coverage is in the range of 10 to 5950 eV. The large day-night asymmetry together with the spin axis alignment with the solar direction and the large tilt of the planetary magnetic dipole suggest that solar-wind-driven time-dependent magnetospheric convection will be an important transport mechanism within the Uranian magnetosphere. The steady state convection time of the plasma is estimated to be between 1 and 3 days.

  7. Interagency telemetry arraying for Voyager-Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. W.; Brundage, W. D.; Ulvestad, J. S.; Kent, S. S.; Bartos, K. P.

    1990-01-01

    The reception capability of the Deep Space Network (DSN) has been improved over the years by increasing both the size and number of antennas at each complex to meet spacecraft-support requirements. However, even more aperture was required for the final planetary encounters of the Voyager 2 spacecraft. This need was met by arraying one radio astronomy observatory with the DSN complex in the United States and another with the complex in Australia. Following a review of augmentation for the Uranus encounter, both the preparation at the National Radio Astronomy (NRAO) Very Large Array (VLA) and the Neptune encounter results for the Parkes-Canberra and VLA-Goldstone arrays are presented.

  8. 46 CFR 90.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 90.05-10 Section 90.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 90.05-10 Application to vessels on an international voyage. (a) Except for yachts and...

  9. 46 CFR 196.07-1 - Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notice and reporting of casualty and voyage records. 196.07-1 Section 196.07-1 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS OPERATIONS Notice and Reporting of Casualty and Voyage Records § 196.07-1 Notice...

  10. The Columbian Voyages, the Columbian Exchange, and Their Historians. Essays on Global and Comparative History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Alfred W.

    The 500th anniversary of the Columbian discovery of America is upon us, and with it the obligation to assess existing interpretations of the significance of the voyage and establishment of permanent links between the Old and New Worlds. The traditional, or bardic, version of the Columbian voyages and their consequences was the product of narrative…

  11. Voyager 2's encounter with Neptune answered many questions about the 'blue' planet

    SciTech Connect

    Tsurutani, B.T. )

    1990-02-01

    Voyager 2 observations of Neptune from August 1989 are examined. Voyager 2 discovered 6 new moons around Neptune and collected information on the shape and composition of Neptune's rings. The spots and clouds detected in the planet's atmosphere are described. Consideration is given to Neptune's magnetic field and auroras.

  12. Io Plasma Torus Ion Composition: Voyager, Galileo, Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagenal, Fran; Nerney, Edward; Steffl, Andrew Joseph

    2016-10-01

    With JAXA's Hisaki spacecraft in orbit around Earth gathering information on the Io plasma torus and NASA's Juno mission measuring plasma conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, the time is ripe for a re-evaluation of earlier observations of the plasma torus to assess evidence for temporal variations. In particular, we are interested in exploring the ion composition of the torus and whether there is evidence of the ultimate source - the volcanic gases from Io - have deviated from SO2. We use the latest CHIANTI 8.0 atomic database to analyze UV spectra of the torus from Voyager, Galileo and Cassini as well as with the physical chemistry model of Delamere, Steffl and Bagenal (2005). We find that contrary to earlier analyses of Voyager data (e.g. Shemansky 1987; 1988) that produced a composition requiring a neutral source of O/S~4, we find an ion composition that is consistent with the Cassini UVIS data (Steffl et al. 2004) and a neutral O/S~2, consistent with SO2.

  13. Vision and Voyages: Lessons Learned from the Planetary Decadal Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squyres, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    The most recent planetary decadal survey, entitled Vision and Voyages for Planetary Science in the Decade 2013-2022, provided a detailed set of priorities for solar system exploration. Those priorities drew on broad input from the U.S. and international planetary science community. Using white papers, town hall meetings, and open meetings of the decadal committees, community views were solicited and a consensus began to emerge. The final report summarized that consensus. Like many past decadal reports, the centerpiece of Vision and Voyages was a set of priorities for future space flight projects. Two things distinguished this report from some previous decadals. First, conservative and independent cost estimates were obtained for all of the projects that were considered. These independent cost estimates, rather than estimates generated by project advocates, were used to judge each project's expected science return per dollar. Second, rather than simply accepting NASA's ten-year projection of expected funding for planetary exploration, decision rules were provided to guide program adjustments if actual funding did not follow projections. To date, NASA has closely followed decadal recommendations. In particular, the two highest priority "flagship" missions, a Mars rover to collect samples for return to Earth and a mission to investigate a possible ocean on Europa, are both underway. The talk will describe the planetary decadal process in detail, and provide a more comprehensive assessment of NASA's response to it.

  14. On radial heliospheric magnetic fields: Voyager 2 observation and model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2003-05-01

    The heliospheric magnetic field (HMF) direction, on average, conforms well to the Parker spiral. However, numerous examples of events where the HMF is oriented in near-radial directions for many hours have been reported on the basis of observations inside 5 AU from spacecraft such as ISEE-3 and Ulysses. The magnetic field data observed by Voyager 2 from launch in 1977 through the end of 1982 (i.e., between 1 and ˜10 AU) were searched for all instances of radial fields with durations of 6 hours or more. Radial fields of significant durations at large distances are unusual as the Parker spiral is very tightly wound. The radial HMF events in the inner heliosphere typically occur at times when the solar wind speed is declining gradually, while they tend to be associated with steady wind speeds at distances beyond ˜6 AU. The durations of these events appear to be independent of distance and solar cycle, with an average duration of ˜11 hours. They generally are not associated with interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). Possible generation mechanisms of the radial field events related to speed variations near the Sun are investigated by use of a MHD model. We find that a noticeable low-speed plateau of limited duration in solar wind speed near the Sun can produce radial field events having durations of the order of 10 hours in the heliosphere as observed by Voyager 2.

  15. MULTIFRACTAL STRUCTURES DETECTED BY VOYAGER 1 AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Macek, W. M.; Burlaga, L. F. E-mail: anna.wawrzaszek@cbk.waw.pl

    2014-10-01

    To better understand the dynamics of turbulent systems, we have proposed a phenomenological model based on a generalized Cantor set with two rescaling and one weight parameters. In this Letter, using recent Voyager 1 magnetic field data, we extend our two-scale multifractal analysis further in the heliosheath beyond the heliospheric termination shock, and even now near the heliopause, when entering the interstellar medium for the first time in human history. We have identified the scaling inertial region for magnetized heliospheric plasma between the termination shock and the heliopause. We also show that the degree of multifractality decreases with the heliocentric distance and is still modulated by the phases of the solar cycle in the entire heliosphere including the heliosheath. Moreover, we observe the change of scaling toward a nonintermittent (nonmultifractal) behavior in the nearby interstellar medium, just beyond the heliopause. We argue that this loss of multifractal behavior could be a signature of the expected crossing of the heliopause by Voyager 2 in the near future. The results obtained demonstrate that our phenomenological multifractal model exhibits some properties of intermittent turbulence in the solar system plasmas, and we hope that it could shed light on universal characteristics of turbulence.

  16. Encounter with Saturn: Voyager 1 imaging science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.; Beebe, R.; Boyce, J.; Briggs, G.; Bunker, A.; Collins, S.A.; Hansen, C.J.; Johnson, T.V.; Mitchell, J.L.; Terrile, R.J.; Carr, M.; Cook, A.F.; Cuzzi, J.; Pollack, James B.; Edward, Danielson G.; Ingersoll, A.; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Masursky, H.; Shoemaker, E.; Morrison, D.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.; Suomi, V.E.

    1981-01-01

    As Voyager 1 flew through the Saturn system it returned photographs revealing many new and surprising characteristics of this complicated community of bodies. Saturn's atmosphere has numerous, low-contrast, discrete cloud features and a pattern of circulation significantly different from that of Jupiter. Titan is shrouded in a haze layer that varies in thickness and appearance. Among the icy satellites there is considerable variety in density, albedo, and surface morphology and substantial evidence for endogenic surface modification. Trends in density and crater characteristics are quite unlike those of the Galilean satellites. Small inner satellites, three of which were discovered in Voyager images, interact gravitationally with one another and with the ring particles in ways not observed elsewhere in the solar system. Saturn's broad A, B, and C rings contain hundreds of "ringlets," and in the densest portion of the B ring there are numerous nonaxisymmetric features. The narrow F ring has three components which, in at least one instance, are kinked and crisscrossed. Two rings are observed beyond the F ring, and material is seen between the C ring and the planet. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  17. Magnetic field studies at jupiter by voyager 2: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Ness, N F; Acuna, M H; Lepping, R P; Burlaga, L F; Behannon, K W; Neubauer, F M

    1979-11-23

    Data from the Goddard Space Flight Center magnetometers on Voyager 2 have yielded on inbound trajectory observations of multiple crossings of the bow shock and magnetosphere near the Jupiter-sun line at radial distances of 99 to 66 Jupiter radii (RJ) and 72 to 62 RJ, respectively. While outbound at a local hour angle of 0300, these distances increase appreciably so that at the time of writing only the magnetopause has been observed between 160 and 185 RJ. These results and the magnetic field geometry confirm the earlier conclusion from Voyager I studies that Jupiter has an enormous magnetic tail, approximately 300 to 400 RJ in diameter, trailing behind the planet with respect to the supersonic flow of the solar wind. Addi- tional observations of the distortion of the inner magnetosphere by a concentrated plasma show a spatial merging of the equatorial magnetodisk current with the cur- rent sheet in the magnetic tail. The spacecraft passed within 62,000 kilometers of Ganymede (radius = 2,635 kilometers) and observed characteristic fluctuations in- terpreted tentatively as being due to disturbances arising from the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with Ganymede.

  18. Shared Voyage: Learning and Unlearning from Remarkable Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laufer, Alexander; Post, Todd; Hoffman, Edward J.

    2005-01-01

    Shared Voyage is about four remarkable projects: the Advanced Composition Explorer (NASA), the Joint Air-to-Surface Standoff Missile (U.S. Air Force), the Pathfinder Solar-Powered Airplane (NASA), and the Advanced Medium Range Air-to-Air Missile (U.S.Air Force). Each project is presented as a case study comprised of stories collected from key members of the project teams. The stories found in the book are included with the purpose of providing an effective learning source for project management, encouraging the unlearning of outdated project management concepts, and enhancing awareness of the contexts surrounding different projects. Significantly different from project concepts found in most project management literature, Shared Voyage highlights concepts like a will to win, a results-oriented focus, and collaboration through trust. All four project teams researched in this study applied similar concepts; however, they applied them differently, tailoring them to fit the context of their own particular projects. It is clear that the one best way approach which is still the prevailing paradigm in project management literature should be replaced by a new paradigm: Even though general project management principles exist, their successful application depends on the specifics of the situation.

  19. Radiation burdens for humans on prolonged exomagnetospheric voyages.

    PubMed

    Moore, F D

    1992-03-01

    The severity of radiation exposure for astronauts outside the magnetosphere poses a critical unanswered question bearing on the use of manned vehicles in extended exploration of the solar system (moon, Mars). Such prolonged exomagnetospheric voyages (1-3 years) enter a radiologic environment more severe than that of low earth orbit, an annual dose equivalent in the range of 0.3-0.5 Sv (30-50 rem), and a lifetime excess cancer fatality risk of 3-5% due to low linear-energy-transfer components of galactic cosmic radiation alone. To this calculus must be added estimates for high-atomic-number, high-energy particles, the probability of solar particle events, and the limited effectiveness of shielding. For a 3-year Mars voyage these could elevate the dose equivalent to 1.5-2.25 Sv (150-225 rem) total (0.5-0.75 Sv [50-75 rem] annual) and risks to 5-9% excess cancer fatality. Both the mission (civilian scientific research) and the alternatives (unmanned robotic devices) enter the policy decision here. This paper presents a brief review of pertinent physical and biological data and of research urgently needed before reaching a decision on this question.

  20. Magnetic field measurements at Jupiter by Voyagers 1 and 2: Daily plots of 48 second averages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Silverstein, M. J.; Ness, N. F.

    1981-01-01

    A series of 24 hour summary plots of the magnetic field, in 48-s average form, measured in the vicinity of Jupiter by the magnetometers onboard Voyagers 1 and 2 are presented. The Voyager 1 data cover the period from 27 February 1979 (day = 58) to 23 March (day = 82) inclusive, and the Voyager 2 data cover the period from 2 July 1979 (day = 183) to 14 August (day = 226) inclusive. Closest approach to the planet occurred on days 64 (AT 1205 UT) and 190 (AT 2230 UT) for Voyagers 1 and 2, respectively. Also included are: a description of the characteristics of the magnetometers, a brief description of the near-planet trajectories of the two spacecraft, a listing of the bow shock and magnetopause crossing times, and a bibliography containing Voyager-Jupiter related papers and reports.

  1. Voyager measurement of the rotation period of Saturn's magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1981-01-01

    Saturn's radio rotation period was determined using measurements made by the planetary radio astronomy experiment onboard the Voyager spacecraft. The sidereal period deduced, 10 hr 39 min 24 sec ? 7 sec, is within the 10 hr to 11 hr range of optical periods derived from a century of atmospheric spot and Doppler spectroscopy observations. The radio rotation period is presumably that of the planet's magnetic field. A provisional Saturn longitude convention is proposed and equations are provided to compute a longitude ephemeris and to transform between the proposed system and the (10 hr 14 min) system used for the Pioneer 11/Saturn encounter. The degree of longitude smearing which could result over the long term from the merging of data sets organized in this system is evaluated. No evidence of control of the radio emission by any of Saturn's satellites was found.

  2. Oberon - Color photometry from Voyager and its geological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfenstein, Paul; Hillier, John; Weitz, Catherine; Veverka, Joseph

    1991-01-01

    The surface of the Uranian satellite Oberon is characterized on the basis of ground-based and Voyager photometric observations. Disk-integrated phase-curve and disk-resolved data are presented in extensive tables, graphs, maps, and black-and-white and false-color images and discussed in terms of fits to the Hapke (1986) parameters, local variations in albedo and color, and their possible geological significance. It is found that most of the leading hemisphere is covered with dark materials like those in the crater floors, while the trailing hemisphere has patches of the dark material on a surface with a higher proportion of icy materials which are spectrally neutral.

  3. Uranus photochemistry and prospects for Voyager 2 at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atreya, S. K.

    1990-01-01

    CH4 is the only photochemically active constituent in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune. NH3, H2O and H2S are all removed by condensation at pressures greater than 1.5 bars. Although the bulk mole fraction (about 2 percent) of CH4 is 20-30 times its solar value on both planets, it drops to its saturation limit (about 0.0001) at the Uranus tropopause, but remains high (about 2 percent) at the Neptune tropopause. This results in much greater mixing ratios of the product hydrocarbons in the stratosphere of Neptune. On both planets, the photolysis products of CH4 undergo condensation near the tropopause and the upper stratosphere. Voyager observations of the hydrocarbons at Uranus and those planned at Neptune are discussed, along with their implications for upper-atmospheric physics and thermochemistry.

  4. Advanced Receiver tracking of Voyager 2 near solar conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. H.; Hurd, W. J.; Vilnrotter, V. A.; Wiggins, J. D.

    1988-01-01

    The Advanced Receiver (ARX) was used to track the Voyager 2 spacecraft at low Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles near solar conjunction in December of 1987. The received carrier signal exhibited strong fluctuations in both phase and amplitude. The ARX used spectral estimation and mathematical modeling of the phase and receiver noise processes to set an optimum carrier tracking bandwidth. This minimized the mean square phase error in tracking carrier phase and thus minimized the loss in the telemetry signal-to-noise ratio due to the carrier loop. Recovered symbol SNRs and errors in decoded engineering data for the ARX are compared with those for the current Block 3 telemetry stream. Optimum bandwidths are plotted against SEP angle. Measurements of the power spectral density of the solar phase and amplitude fluctuations are also given.

  5. Voyager infrared observations of Uranus' atmosphere - Thermal structure and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Conrath, B. J.; Pirraglia, J. A.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1987-12-01

    Temperatures in the Uranus atmosphere are derived from infrared spectrometer (IRIS) observations for a layer between 60 and 200 mbar, which includes the tropopause, where the vertical profile of temperature has a minimum. The variation with latitude of these temperatures and the implied thermal winds are in the same sense as those previously reported at the lower altitude range. The authors discuss the implications of this for dynamical models of the atmospheric thermal and wind structure. Finally, they use a linear, zonally symmetric model with radiative damping and frictional drag to estimate the magnitude of the frictional damping that is needed to account for the tropopause temperatures derived from IRIS observations and the zonal winds inferred from Voyager imaging data.

  6. Voyager 2 photopolarimeter observations of the Uranian satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Robert M.; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Wallis, Brad D.; Lane, Arthur L.; West, Robert A.

    1987-01-01

    The surfaces of the principal Uranian satellites are characterized on the basis of UV and IR geometric albedos, phase curves, and phase coefficients obtained in full-disk photopolarimetric observations during the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The data are presented in tables and graphs and found to be consistent with a heavily cratered terrain and loosely packed regolith. The Bond albedos are calculated as 0.22 + or - 0.1 for Ariel, 0.07 + or - 0.05 for Umbriel, 0.16 + or - 0.12 for Titania, and 0.19 + or - 0.22 for Oberon. The characteristics of the Uranian satellites indicate compositions (and probably formation conditions and surface-modification mechanisms) distinct from those of the Saturnian and Jovian satellites.

  7. Uranus photochemistry and prospects for Voyager 2 at Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atreya, S. K.

    CH4 is the only photochemically active constituent in the atmospheres of Uranus and Neptune. NH3, H2O and H2S are all removed by condensation at pressures greater than 1.5 bars. Although the bulk mole fraction (about 2 percent) of CH4 is 20-30 times its solar value on both planets, it drops to its saturation limit (about 0.0001) at the Uranus tropopause, but remains high (about 2 percent) at the Neptune tropopause. This results in much greater mixing ratios of the product hydrocarbons in the stratosphere of Neptune. On both planets, the photolysis products of CH4 undergo condensation near the tropopause and the upper stratosphere. Voyager observations of the hydrocarbons at Uranus and those planned at Neptune are discussed, along with their implications for upper-atmospheric physics and thermochemistry.

  8. Voyager spacecraft radio observations of Jupiter - Initial cruise results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Thieman, J. R.; Riddle, A. C.; Pearce, J. B.; Warwick, J. W.; Lecacheux, A.

    1979-01-01

    Low frequency (below 1326 kHz) observations of Jupiter obtained from November, 1977 through June, 1978 by the radio astronomy receivers carried by the two Voyager spacecraft are reported and compared with a large body of higher-frequency ground-based observations. Although the morphology of hectometric wavelength (HOM) emissions strongly resembles that of decametric (DAM) wavelength radio noise, they display opposite polarization. DAM emissions are strongly modulated by Io, whereas HOM emissions exhibit little or no influence from any satellite and appear to be modulated by the rotation phase of the planet. Several single-source models could possibly account for these results, including a model assuming emission at two well-separated frequencies above and below the local electron plasma frequency and the model proposed by Barbosa (1976) in which electrostatic waves at twice the upper hybrid frequency couple to both the ordinary and extraordinary electromagnetic modes. However, neither of these is entirely satisfactory.

  9. Amalthea - Implications of the temperature observed by Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simonelli, D. P.

    1983-01-01

    The temperature profile of Amalthea's surface layer is modeled as a function of location and time of day, assuming a triaxial ellipsoid shape and thermal properties similar to those of the lunar soil. Although the major heat source is direct insolation, temperatures are slightly increased by thermal radiation from Jupiter, sunlight reflected from the planet, and charged particle bombardment. Possible sources of error in the model are discussed in detail, including satellite shape effects, unusually low emissivity, uncommonly rough surface, abnormal thermal inertia, charged particle flux variability, and Joule heating. Voyager 1 IRIS observations suggest that the Amalthean surface has an emissivity near unity, but cannot put any useful limits on the thermal inertia of the Amalthean surface layer.

  10. The Voyager 2 encounter with the Neptunian system

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, E.C.; Miner, E.D. )

    1989-12-15

    An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

  11. Energetic Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Voyager 2 Results.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R E; Chenette, D L; Cummings, A C; Garrard, T L; Stone, E C; Schardt, A W; Trainor, J H; Lal, N; McDonald, F B

    1982-01-29

    Results from the cosmic-ray system on Voyager 2 in Saturn's magnetosphere are presented. During the inbound pass through the outer magnetosphere, the >/= 0.43-million-electron-volt proton flux was more intense, and both the proton and electron fluxes were more variable, than previously observed. These changes are attributed to the influence on the magnetosphere of variations in the solar wind conditions. Outbound, beyond 18 Saturn radii, impulsive bursts of 0.14- to > 1.0- million-electron-volt electrons were observed. In the inner magnetosphere, the charged particle absorption signatures of Mimas, Enceladus, and Tethys are used to constrain the possible tilt and offset of Saturn's internal magnetic dipole. At approximately 3 Saturn radii, a transient decrease was observed in the electron flux which was not due to Mimas. Characteristics of this decrease suggest the existence of additional material, perhaps another satellite, in the orbit of Mimas.

  12. Energetic Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Voyager 1 Results.

    PubMed

    Vogt, R E; Chenette, D L; Cummings, A C; Garrard, T L; Stone, E C; Schardt, A W; Trainor, J H; Lal, N; McDonald, F B

    1981-04-10

    Voyager 1 provided the first look at Saturn's magnetotail and magnetosphere during relatively quiet interplanetary conditions. This report discusses the energetic particle populations of the outer magnetosphere of Saturn and absorption features associated with Titan and Rhea, and compares these observations with Pioneer 11 data of a year earlier. The trapped proton fluxes had soft spectra, represented by power laws E(-gamma) in kinetic energy E, with gamma approximately 7 in the outer magnetosphere and gamma approximately 9 in the magnetotail. Structure associated with the magnetotial was observed as close as 10 Saturn radii (R(s)) on the outbound trajectory. The proton and electron fluxes in the outer magnetosphere and in the magnetotail were variable and appeared to respond to changes in interplanetary conditions. Protons with energies >/= 2 million electron volts had free access to the magnetosphere from interplanetary space and were not stably trapped outside approximately 7.5 R(s).

  13. Albedo dichotomy of Rhea - Hapke analysis of Voyager photometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbiscer, Anne J.; Veverka, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The Hapke (1986) model has been well fitted to both full-disk and disk-resolved Voyager observations. The low phase angle data indicate a substantial opposition effect, and the Hapke analysis results show that while the regolith compaction parameter for Rhea is definitely larger than for Titania, it is comparable to that of the moon. Photometric differences other than albedo are noted between the leading and trailing hemispheres of the satellite. The albedo map of Rhea presented reproduces the observed lightcurve and demonstrates that no terrain or feature in the trailing hemisphere is as bright as any in the leading hemisphere. A quasi-circular low albedo region near the antiapex of motion is discovered.

  14. The voyager 2 encounter with the neptunian system.

    PubMed

    Stone, E C; Miner, E D

    1989-12-15

    An overview of the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune is presented, including a brief discussion of the trajectory, the planned observations, and highlights of the results described in the 11 companion papers. Neptune's blue atmosphere has storm systems reminiscent of those in Jupiter's atmosphere. An optically thin methane ice cloud exists near the 1.5-bar pressure level, and an optically thick cloud exists below 3 bars. Neptune's magnetic field is highly tilted and offset from the planet's center; it rotates with a period of 16.11 hours. Two narrow and two broad rings circle the planet; the outermost of these rings has three optically thicker arc segments. Six new moons were discovered in circular prograde orbits, all well inside Triton's retrograde orbit. Triton has a highly reflective and geologically young surface, a thin nitrogen atmosphere, and at least two active geyser-like plumes.

  15. Lower atmospheric composition of Jupiter from Voyager infrared measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbas, M. M.

    1984-01-01

    The observed spectrum of Jovian atmosphere exhibits spectral features of H2, CH4, C2H6, NH3, H2O, GeH4 and CH3D. Analytical programs were developed for radiative transfer calculations and for retrieval of lower atmospheric composition of Jupiter from the observed infrared spectrum. The program models developed are based line by line transmittance calculations with appropriate convolution of the instrument function. The constituent inversion programs were evaluated for accuracy by analyzing synthetic data for retrievals of NH3 profiles. The inversion programs were employed for retrieval of NH3 profiles from the Voyager infared data with results generally in agreement with the accepted values.

  16. New Access and Analysis Tools for Voyager LECP Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.; Hill, M. E.; Decker, R. B.; Cooper, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Vandegriff, J. D.

    2008-12-01

    The Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) instruments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been returning unique scientific measurements since launching in 1977, most notably observations from the historic tour of the giant planets. As these spacecraft continue on their exit trajectories from the Solar system they have become an interstellar mission and have begun to probe the boundary between the heliosphere and the interstellar cloud and continue to make exciting discoveries. As the mission changed from one focused on discrete encounters to an open ended search for heliospheric boundaries and transitory disturbances, the positions and timing of which are not known, the data processing needs have changed. Open data policies and the push to draw data under the umbrella of emerging Virtual Observatories have added a data sharing component that was not a part of the original mission plans. We present our work in utilizing new, reusable software analysis tools to access legacy data in a way that leverages pre-existing data analysis techniques. We took an existing Applied Physics Laboratory application, Mission Independent Data Layer (MIDL) -- developed originally under a NASA Applied Information Research Program (AISRP) and subsequently used with data from Geotail, Cassini, IMP-8, ACE, Messenger, and New Horizons -- and applied it to Voyager data. We use the MIDL codebase to automatically generate standard data products such as daily summary plots and associated tabulated data that increase our ability to monitor the heliospheric environment on a regular basis. These data products will be publicly available and updated automatically and can be analyzed by the community using the ultra portable MIDL software launched from the data distribution website. The currently available LECP data will also be described with SPASE metadata and incorporated into the emerging Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO).

  17. Voyager 2 in the Uranian system: Imaging science results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.A.; Beebe, R.; Bliss, D.; Boyce, J.M.; Brahic, A.; Briggs, G.A.; Brown, R.H.; Collins, S.A.; Cook, A.F.; Croft, S.K.; Cuzzi, J.N.; Danielson, G.E.; Davies, M.E.; Dowling, T.E.; Godfrey, D.; Hansen, C.J.; Harris, M. Camille; Hunt, G.E.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Krauss, R.J.; Masursky, H.; Morrison, D.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Plescia, J.B.; Pollack, James B.; Porco, C.C.; Rages, K.; Sagan, C.; Shoemaker, E.M.; Sromovsky, L.A.; Stoker, C.; Strom, R.G.; Suomi, V.E.; Synnott, S.P.; Terrile, R.J.; Thomas, P.; Thompson, W.R.; Veverka, J.

    1986-01-01

    Voyager 2 images of the southern hemisphere of Uranus indicate that submicrometersize haze particles and particles of a methane condensation cloud produce faint patterns in the atmosphere. The alignment of the cloud bands is similar to that of bands on Jupiter and Saturn, but the zonal winds are nearly opposite. At mid-latitudes (-70?? to -27??), where winds were measured, the atmosphere rotates faster than the magnetic field; however, the rotation rate of the atmosphere decreases toward the equator, so that the two probably corotate at about -20??. Voyager images confirm the extremely low albedo of the ring particles. High phase angle images reveal on the order of 10 2 new ringlike features of very low optical depth and relatively high dust abundance interspersed within the main rings, as well as a broad, diffuse, low optical depth ring just inside the main ring system. Nine of the newly discovered small satellites (40 to 165 kilometers in diameter) orbit between the rings and Miranda; the tenth is within the ring system. Two of these small objects may gravitationally confine the ?? ring. Oberon and Umbriel have heavily cratered surfaces resembling the ancient cratered highlands of Earth's moon, although Umbriel is almost completely covered with uniform dark material, which perhaps indicates some ongoing process. Titania and Ariel show crater populations different from those on Oberon and Umbriel; these were probably generated by collisions with debris confined to their orbits. Titania and Ariel also show many extensional fault systems; Ariel shows strong evidence for the presence of extrusive material. About half of Miranda's surface is relatively bland, old, cratered terrain. The remainder comprises three large regions of younger terrain, each rectangular to ovoid in plan, that display complex sets of parallel and intersecting scarps and ridges as well as numerous outcrops of bright and dark materials, perhaps suggesting some exotic composition.

  18. Voyager 2 in the uranian system: imaging science results.

    PubMed

    Smith, B A; Soderblom, L A; Beebe, R; Bliss, D; Boyce, J M; Brahic, A; Briggs, G A; Brown, R H; Collins, S A; Cook, A F; Croft, S K; Cuzzi, J N; Danielson, G E; Davies, M E; Dowling, T E; Godfrey, D; Hansen, C J; Harris, C; Hunt, G E; Ingersoll, A P; Johnson, T V; Krauss, R J; Masursky, H; Morrison, D; Owen, T; Plescia, J B; Pollack, J B; Porco, C C; Rages, K; Sagan, C; Shoemaker, E M; Sromovsky, L A; Stoker, C; Strom, R G; Suomi, V E; Synnott, S P; Terrile, R J; Thomas, P; Thompson, W R; Veverka, J

    1986-07-04

    Voyager 2 images of the southern hemisphere of Uranus indicate that submicrometersize haze particles and particles of a methane condensation cloud produce faint patterns in the atmosphere. The alignment of the cloud bands is similar to that of bands on Jupiter and Saturn, but the zonal winds are nearly opposite. At mid-latitudes (-70 degrees to -27 degrees ), where winds were measured, the atmosphere rotates faster than the magnetic field; however, the rotation rate of the atmosphere decreases toward the equator, so that the two probably corotate at about -20 degrees . Voyager images confirm the extremely low albedo of the ring particles. High phase angle images reveal on the order of 10(2) new ringlike features of very low optical depth and relatively high dust abundance interspersed within the main rings, as well as a broad, diffuse, low optical depth ring just inside the main rings system. Nine of the newly discovered small satellites (40 to 165 kilometers in diameter) orbit between the rings and Miranda; the tenth is within the ring system. Two of these small objects may gravitationally confine the e ring. Oberon and Umbriel have heavily cratered surfaces resembling the ancient cratered highlands of Earth's moon, although Umbriel is almost completely covered with uniform dark material, which perhaps indicates some ongoing process. Titania and Ariel show crater populations different from those on Oberon and Umbriel; these were probably generated by collisions with debris confined to their orbits. Titania and Ariel also show many extensional fault systems; Ariel shows strong evidence for the presence of extrusive material. About halfof Miranda's surface is relatively bland, old, cratered terrain. The remainder comprises three large regions of younger terrain, each rectangular to ovoid in plan, that display complex sets of parallel and intersecting scarps and ridges as well as numerous outcrops of bright and dark materials, perhaps suggesting some exotic

  19. Has the Sun Significantly Impacted Recent Voyager Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Intriligator, D. S.; Sun, W.; Detman, T. R.; Dryer, Ph. D., M.; Deehr, C. S.; Intriligator, J.; Webber, W. R.

    2013-12-01

    Using our models HAFSS (HAF Source Surface) and HHMS-PI (Hybrid Heliospheric Modeling System with Pickup Protons) we have been analyzing some of the recent (e.g., July 2012, etc.) solar events to determine if the effects of the events might be seen in the outer heliosphere, heliosheath, etc. Our analyses provide insights into the phenomena in these regions. Both models are three-dimensional (3D) time dependent simulations that use solar observations as input. HAFSS is a kinematic model. HHMS-PI is a numerical magnetohydrodynamic solar wind (SW) simulation model. Both HHMS-PI and HAFSS are ideally suited for these analyses since starting from the Sun they model the slowly evolving background SW and the impulsive, time-dependent events associated with solar activity (e.g., coronal mass ejections (CMEs). HHMS-PI/HAFSS make it possible to track interplanetary shocks as they propagate, interact, and evolve en route to various spacecraft (s/c) where they are observed. Our models have been used to reproduce s/c data from ACE to Ulysses, Cassini, and Voyagers 1 and 2. Our published results in refereed scientific journals showed that: a.) Our models naturally reproduce dynamic 3D spatially asymmetric effects observed throughout the heliosphere. b.) Pre-existing SW background conditions have a strong influence on the propagation of shock waves from solar events. c.) Time-dependence is a crucial aspect of interpreting s/c data. d.) Shock interactions resulting from multiple solar events lead to complicated time-series observations at individual s/c. We believe the answer to the question in the title of this abstract is: Yes, we do think the Sun has significantly impacted recent Voyager observations.

  20. Engineering challenges of in-flight spacecraft - Voyager: A case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, C. P.

    1985-01-01

    Some of the engineering problems encountered during the post-launch phase of interplanetary space missions are described, with emphasis given to the Voyager missions. The major in-flight modifications in Voyager spacecraft's operational capability with respect to communications, payload, and navigation systems are discussed. Attention is given to the instances of 'failure workaround' including: recovery from a failed receiver, recovery from a seized scan platform actuator, and modifications to the Attitude Articulation and Control Subsystem (AACS) software during the Saturn encounter. A detailed line drawing of the Voyager spacecraft is provided.

  1. NASA Now: Space Science: Voyager’s Grand Tour of the Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planetary scientist Lou Mayo discusses what we’re learning from the Voyager missions, where the two spacecraft currently are located, and some of the incredible discoveries made on the long journ...

  2. Vertical mixing and methane photochemistry in the atmosphere of Uranus: Analysis of Voyager UVS occultation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, James

    1991-01-01

    Extensive capabilities were developed in the analysis of ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) absorptive lightcurves. The application of these capabilities to the Voyager UVS data sets from Uranus and Neptune has provided significant findings regarding the stratospheres of these planets. In particular, the direct comparison between photochemical models and UVS measurements accomplished by these efforts is unique, and it helps to guarantee that the information returned by the Voyager 2 spacecraft is being used to the fullest extent possible.

  3. Infrared images of jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the voyager 1 encounter.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Backman, D E; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P; Beichman, C A; Brown, R H; Westphal, J A

    1979-06-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period.

  4. Infrared images of Jupiter at 5-micrometer wavelength during the Voyager 1 encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Terrile, R. J.; Capps, R. W.; Backman, D. E.; Becklin, E. E.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Beichman, C. A.; Brown, R. H.; Westphal, J. A.

    1979-01-01

    A coordinated program to observe Jupiter at high spatial resolution in the 5-micrometer wavelength region was undertaken to support Voyager 1 imaging and infrared radiation experiment targeting. Jupiter was observed over a 5-month period from Palomar and Mauna Kea observatories. The frequency of observations allowed the selection of interesting areas for closer Voyager examination and also provided good short-term monitoring of variations in cloud morphology. Significant global changes in the 5-micrometer distribution are seen over this time period.

  5. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Crude oil washing during a voyage... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing... § 157.10c(b)(2) shall ensure that each cargo tank that is crude oil washed during a voyage other than...

  6. Synthetic Micro/Nanomachines and Their Applications: Towards 'Fantastic Voyage'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Wei

    The 1966 movie Fantastic Voyage captured the world's imagination, portraying a tiny submarine navigating through the human bloodstream and treating life-threatening medical conditions. My PhD research focuses on the synthetic nano/microscale machines to realize the Fantastic Voyage vision. Various biomedical and environmental areas would benefit from the developments of efficient fuel-free and fuel-driven nano/microscale machines. The polymer-based catalytic tubular microengine is synthesized using a template based electrodeposition method. The oxygen bubble propelled microengine harvests the energy from chemical fuels (such as H2O2) and displays very efficient propulsion. It can serve as an ideal platform for diverse biomedical and environmental applications. For example, lectin modified polyaniline based microengines can be used for selective bacteria (E. Coli) isolation from food, clinical and environmental samples; poly(3-aminophenylboronic acid)/Ni/Pt microengine itself provides the 'built in' glucose recognition capability for 'on-the-fly' capture, transport and release of yeast cells. A series of micromotors which can be self-propelled in natural environments without additional chemical fuels are developed, holding great promise for in vivo biomedical applications: the polyaniline/zinc microrockets display effective autonomous motion in extreme acidic environments (such as human stomach); the Al-Ga/Ti based Janus micromotor can be propelled by the hydrogen bubbles generated from the rapid aluminum and water reaction; alkanethiols modified seawater-driven Mg Janus micromotors, which utilize macrogalvanic corrosion and chloride pitting corrosion processes, can be used for environmental oil remediation. Magnetically powered nanoswimmers have attracted considerable attention due to their great biocompatibility. A high-speed magnetically-propelled nanowire swimmer which mimics swimming microorganisms by exploiting the flexible nanowire as artificial flagella

  7. Voyager Observations of the Color of Saturn's Ring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estrada, Paul R.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Morrison, David (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previously unreduced high resolution Voyager 2 images of Saturn's main rings are used to generate reflectivity (I/F) profiles as a function of radius. Ratios of profiles taken from green, violet, orange, and UV filter images are then produced. The I/F ratios are diagnostic of composition, and provide us with information on the rings' present state of compositional evolution. The rings are extremely reddish in color which suggests that they could not be pure water ice. The most likely candidates for the non-icy components are silicates and organics. The sources of these pollutants are of extreme importance in determining the compositional history of the rings. The radial profiles of ring color ratio exhibit several very interesting properties: (a) broad-scale, fairly smooth, color variations which are only weakly correlated with underlying ring structure (optical depth variations) across the outer C ring and inner B ring as well as the Cassini division region. These variations are probably consistent with ballistic transport; (b) fine-scale, noise-Like (but unquestionably real) color variations across at least the outer two-thirds of the B ring. Not only the "redness" but the spectral shape varies. These variations are currently unexplained. Groundbased spectroscopic observations should be pursued to study the implied compositional heterogeneities on at least the larger scales. This data set will be used for modeling of the color and composition of the main rings using ballistic transport and radiative transfer theories.

  8. Standing Alfven wave current system at Io: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.; Neubauer, F. M.; Ness, N. F.

    1980-01-01

    The enigmatic control of the occurrence frequency of Jupiter's decametric emissions by the satellite Io is explained theoretically on the basis of its strong electrodynamic interaction with the corotating Jovian magnetosphere leading to field aligned currents connecting Io with the Jovian ionosphere. Direct measurements of the perturbation magnetic fields due to this current system were obtained by the magnetic field experiment on Voyager 1 on 5 March 1979 when it passed within 20,500 km south of Io. An interpretation in the framework of Alfven waves radiated by Io leads to current estimates of 2.8 million amps. A mass density of 7400 to 13600 proton mass units per Cu cm is derived which compares very favorably with independent observations of the torus composition characterized by 7-9 proton mass units per electron for a local electron density of 1050 to 1500 per cu cm. The power dissipated in the current system may be important for heating the Io heavy ion torus, inner magnetosphere, Jovian ionosphere, and possibly the ionosphere or even the interior of Io.

  9. Plasma observations near uranus: initial results from voyager 2.

    PubMed

    Bridge, H S; Belcher, J W; Coppi, B; Lazarus, A J; McNutt, R L; Olbert, S; Richardson, J D; Sands, M R; Selesnick, R S; Sullivan, J D; Hartle, R E; Ogilvie, K W; Sittler, E C; Bagenal, F; Wolff, R S; Vasyliunas, V M; Siscoe, G L; Goertz, C K; Eviatar, A

    1986-07-04

    Extensive measurements of low-energy positive ions and electrons in the vicinity of Uranus have revealed a fully developed magnetosphere. The magnetospheric plasma has a warm component with a temperature of 4 to 50 electron volts and a peak density of roughly 2 protons per cubic centimeter, and a hot component, with a temperature of a few kiloelectron volts and a peak density of roughly 0.1 proton per cubic centimeter. The warm component is observed both inside and outside of L = 5, whereas the hot component is excluded from the region inside of that L shell. Possible sources of the plasma in the magnetosphere are the extended hydrogen corona, the solar wind, and the ionosphere. The Uranian moons do not appear to be a significant plasma source. The boundary of the hot plasma component at L = 5 may be associated either with Miranda or with the inner limit of a deeply penetrating, solar wind-driven magnetospheric convection system. The Voyager 2 spacecraft repeatedly encountered the plasma sheet in the magnetotail at locations that are consistent with a geometric model for the plasma sheet similar to that at Earth.

  10. Rocket exhaust plume impingement on the Voyager spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerwald, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    In connection with the conduction of the long-duration Voyager missions to the outer planets and the sophisticated propulsion systems required, it was necessary to carry out an investigation to avoid exhaust plume impingement problems. The rarefied gas dynamics literature indicates that, for most engineering surfaces, the assumption of diffuse reemission and complete thermal accommodation is warranted in the free molecular flow regime. This assumption was applied to an analysis of a spacecraft plume impingement problem in the near-free molecular flow regime and yielded results to within a few percent of flight data. The importance of a correct treatment of the surface temperature was also demonstrated. Specular reflection, on the other hand, was shown to yield results which may be unconservative by a factor of 2 or 3. It is pointed out that one of the most difficult portions of an exhaust plume impingement analysis is the simulation of the impinged hardware. The geometry involved must be described as accurately and completely as possible.

  11. Magnetic field experiment for Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behannon, K. W.; Aluna, M. H.; Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Ness, N. F.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1977-01-01

    The magnetic field experiment to be carried on the Voyager 1 and 2 missions consists of dual low field (LFM) and high field magnetometer (HFM) systems. The dual systems provide greater reliability and, in the case of the LFM's, permit the separation of spacecraft magnetic fields from the ambient fields. Additional reliability is achieved through electronics redundancy. The wide dynamic ranges of plus or minus 0.5G for the LFM's and plus or minus 20G for the HFM's, low quantization uncertainty of plus or minus 0.002 gamma in the most sensitive (plus or minus 8 gamma) LFM range, low sensor RMS noise level of 0.006 gamma, and use of data compaction schemes to optimize the experiment information rate all combine to permit the study of a broad spectrum of phenomena during the mission. Planetary fields at Jupiter, Saturn, and possibly Uranus; satellites of these planets; solar wind and satellite interactions with the planetary fields; and the large-scale structure and microscale characteristics of the interplanetary magnetic field are studied. The interstellar field may also be measured.

  12. Jupiter's Atmospheric Temperatures: From Voyager IRIS to Cassini CIRS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Achterberg, Richard K.; Flasar, F. Michael; Fisher, Brendan

    2004-01-01

    Retrievals run on Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer data obtained during the distant Jupiter flyby have been used to generate global temperature maps of the planet in the troposphere and stratosphere. Similar retrievals were performed on Voyager 1 IRIS data and have provided the first detailed IRIS map of the stratosphere. In both data sets, high latitude troposphere temperatures are presented for the first time, and the meridional gradients indicate the presence of circumpolar jets. Thermal winds were calculated for each data set and show strong vertical shears in the zonal winds at low latitudes. The temperatures retrieved from the two spacecraft were also compared with yearly ground-based data obtained over the intervening two decades. Tropospheric temperatures reveal gradual changes at low latitudes, with little obvious seasonal or short-term variation (Orton et al. 1994). Stratospheric temperatures show much more complicated behavior over short timescales, consistent with quasi-quadrennial oscillations at low latitudes, as suggested in prior analyses of shorter intervals of ground- based data (Orton et al. 1991, Friedson 1999). A scaling analysis indicates that meridional motions, mechanically forced by wave or eddy convergence, play an important role in modulating the temperatures and winds in the upper troposphere and stratosphere on seasonal and shorter time scales. At latitudes away from the equator, the mechanical forcing can be derived simply from a temporal record of temperature and its vertical derivative. Ground-based observations with improved vertical resolution and/or long-term monitoring from spacecraft are required for this purpose.

  13. Voyager 2 plasma ion observations in the magnetosphere of Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selesnick, Richard S.; Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Positive ion measurements in the magnetosphere of Uranus have been made by the Voyager 2 plasma science experiment. The paper presents an overview of the entire data set and a detailed analysis of the observations from the inner magnetosphere which complements and extends results reported elsewhere. Densities and temperatures are obtained from an analysis which incorporates details of the instrumental response. These results are then used to calculate flux tube particle and energy content to support the hypothesis that the plasma transport is controlled by a solar wind-driven magnetospheric convection system. Variations in the flux tube content suggest both a local source of plasma, produced from the neutral hydrogen corona of Uranus, and a nonlocal source, convected inwared and heated by adiabatic compression. In each case a proton composition is inferred. Sharp boundaries in the high-energy (approximately 1 keV) plasma population are interpreted in terms of the spatial extent of the magnetospheric convection, with significant shielding of the convection electric field. The convection theory is also used in a simulation of the low-energy (approximately 10 eV) ion component using the neutral hydrogen source, resulting in distribution functions which qualitatively agree with the observations.

  14. Voyager 2 encounter with Ganymede's wake: hydromagnetic and electrodynamic processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, G.F.

    1984-01-01

    Voyager 2's passage through corotation wake region of Ganymede found disturbances in the energetic particle and magnetic field data. To explain the nature of disturbances, an investigation of the interaction of the Jovian plasma with Ganymede is carried out. A series of computer simulations, supported by appropriate theories, are made. Three different aspects of the interaction are studied: (i) A magnetic field model is proposed to describe Alfvenic disturbances caused by Ganymede. Numerical simulations show that the interaction of ensembles of ions with perturbed fields modulates the energies of the ions. The amount of modulation depends on the Alfven mach number of the ambient plasma, the ion energy, and the pitch angle of the ions. (ii) The electrodynamic processes associated with the plasma-Ganymede interaction and the plasma expansion into the cavity are simulated using a particle-in-cell method. The distribution of ions, potentials, ion and electron thermal and drift energies in the wake region are obtained. (iii) Using linear MHD theory, conditions for excitation and growth of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability are investigated. Theoretical conditions for the existence of magnetosonic waves and transverse Alfven waves are also examined.

  15. Voyages...voyages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraceni, Luisa; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four teachers from Norway, Italy, and Hungary have found ways to actively prepare their students for overseas exchanges, using student correspondence, discussion of current events, exercises in formulating questions, and student language skill development projects to elevate the visit above superficial tourism. (MSE)

  16. Using the 11-year Solar Cycle to Predict the Heliosheath Environment at Voyager 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, A.; Opher, M.; Provornikova, E.; Richardson, J. D.; Toth, G.

    2015-12-01

    As Voyager 2 moves further into the heliosheath, the region of subsonic solar wind plasma in between the termination shock and the heliopause, it has observed an increase of the magnetic field strength to large values, all while maintaining magnetic flux conservation. Dr. Burlaga will present these observations in the 2015 AGU Fall meeting (abstract ID: 59200). The increase in magnetic field strength could be a signature of Voyager 2 approaching the heliopause or, possibly, due to solar cycle effects. In this work we investigate the role the 11-year solar cycle variations as well as magnetic dissipation effects have on the heliosheath environments observed at Voyager 1 and 2 using a global 3D magnetohydrodynamic model of the heliosphere. We use time and latitude-dependent solar wind velocity and density inferred from SOHO/SWAN and IPS data and solar cycle variations of the magnetic field derived from 27-day averages of the field magnitude average of the magnetic field at 1 AU from the OMNI database as presented in Michael et al. (2015). Since the model has already accurately matched the flows and magnetic field strength at Voyager 2 until 93 AU, we extend the boundary conditions to model the heliosheath up until Voyager 2 reaches the heliopause. This work will help clarify if the magnetic field observed at Voyager 2 should increase or decrease due to the solar cycle. We describe the solar magnetic field both as a dipole, with the magnetic and rotational axes aligned, and as a monopole, with magnetic field aligned with the interstellar medium to reduce numerical reconnection within the heliosheath, due to the removal of the heliospheric surrent sheet, and at the solar wind - interstellar medium interface. A comparison of the models allows for a crude estimation of the role that magnetic dissipation plays in the system and whether it allows for a better understanding of the Voyager 2 location in the heliosheath.

  17. Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro Key, Joey; Yunes, Nico; Grimberg, Irene

    2015-01-01

    Einstein's Symphony: A Gravitational Wave Voyage Through Space and Time is a gravitational wave astronomy planetarium show in production by a collaboration of scientists, filmmakers, and artisits from the Center for Gravitational Wave Astonomy (CGWA) at the University of Texas at Brownsville (UTB) and Montana State University (MSU). The project builds on the success of the interdisciplinary Celebrating Einstein collaboration. The artists and scientists who created the A Shout Across Time original film and the Black (W)hole immersive art installation for Celebrating Einstein are teaming with the Museum of the Rockies Taylor Planetarium staff and students to create a new full dome Digistar planetarium show that will be freely and widely distributed to planetaria in the US and abroad. The show uses images and animations filmed and collected for A Shout Across Time and for Black (W)hole as well as new images and animations and a new soundtrack composed and produced by the MSU School of Music to use the full capability of planetarium sound systems. The planetarium show will be narrated with ideas drawn from the Celebrating Einstein danced lecture on gravitational waves that the collaboration produced. The combination of products, resources, and team members assembled for this project allows us to create an original planetarium show for a fraction of the cost of a typical show. In addition, STEM education materials for G6-12 students and teachers will be provided to complement and support the show. This project is supported by the Texas Space Grant Consortium (TSGC), Montana Space Grant Consortium (MSGC), and the American Physical Society (APS).

  18. COMPRESSIBLE 'TURBULENCE' OBSERVED IN THE HELIOSHEATH BY VOYAGER 2

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F. E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.co

    2009-09-20

    This paper describes the multiscale structure of the compressible 'turbulence' observed in the high-resolution (48 s) observations of the magnetic field strength B made by Voyager 2 (V2) in the heliosheath behind the termination shock from 2007 DOY 245.0-300.8 and in a unipolar region from 2008 DOY 2.9-75.6. The magnetic field strength is highly variable on scales from 48 s to several hours in both intervals. The distributions of daily averages and 48 s averages of B are lognormal in the post-termination shock (TS) region and Gaussian in the unipolar region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations were greater in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region, at scales less than several hours. The multiscale structure of the increments of B is described by the q-Gaussian distribution of nonextensive statistical mechanics on all scales from 48 s to 3.4 hr in the unipolar region and from 48 s to 6.8 hr in the post-TS region, respectively. The amplitudes of the fluctuations of increments of B are larger in the post-TS region than in the unipolar region at all scales. The probability density functions of the increments of B are non-Gaussian at all scales in the unipolar region, but they are Gaussian at the largest scales in the post-TS region. Time series of the magnitude and direction of B show that the fluctuations are highly compressive. The small-scale fluctuations are a mixture of coherent structures (semi-deterministic structures) and random structures, which vary significantly from day to day. Several types of coherent structures were identified in both regions.

  19. EVIDENCE FOR A SHOCK IN INTERSTELLAR PLASMA: VOYAGER 1

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S. E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com E-mail: william-kurth@uiowa.edu

    2013-11-20

    Voyager 1 (V1) observed electron plasma oscillations preceding a jump by a factor of 1.4 in the magnetic field intensity B near the end of 2012. The frequency of the electron plasma oscillations gives an electron density n{sub e}  = 0.05 cm{sup –3}, which implies that V1 was immersed in plasma from the interstellar medium. The last day on which plasma oscillations were observed is day 332, 2012, and the jump in the B was centered on day 335, 2012 after a data gap in the wave data. The close association between the electron plasma oscillations and the jump in B suggests a causal connection, such as that frequently observed between electron plasma oscillations and interplanetary shocks at 1 AU. Based on the observed parameters and the smooth profile of B(t), the jump in B appears to be associated with a weak, subcritical, laminar, low beta, quasi-perpendicular, resistive, collisionless shock. However, the width of the jump is of the order of 10{sup 4} times that expected for such a stationary shock at 1 AU. The large width of the jump in B might be the result of differences between the structure of shocks in the interstellar medium and the plasma near 1 AU. Alternatively, the subcritical resistive shock might have decayed during a few days after producing the plasma waves, leaving a broad profile in B(t) without significantly changing ambient parameters. Another possibility is that the jump in B is a pressure wave.

  20. Voyager 2 Color Image of Enceladus, Almost Full Disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This color Voyager 2 image mosaic shows the water-ice-covered surface of Enceladus, one of Saturn's icy moons. Enceladus' diameter of just 500 km would fit across the state of Arizona, yet despite its small size Enceladus exhibits one of the most interesting surfaces of all the icy satellites. Enceladus reflects about 90% of the incident sunlight (about like fresh-fallen snow), placing it among the most reflective objects in the Solar System. Several geologic terrains have superposed crater densities that span a factor of at least 500, thereby indicating huge differences in the ages of these terrains. It is possible that the high reflectivity of Enceladus' surface results from continuous deposition of icy particles from Saturn's E-ring, which in fact may originate from icy volcanoes on Enceladus' surface. Some terrains are dominated by sinuous mountain ridges from 1 to 2 km high (3300 to 6600 feet), whereas other terrains are scarred by linear cracks, some of which show evidence for possible sideways fault motion such as that of California's infamous San Andreas fault. Some terrains appear to have formed by separation of icy plates along cracks, and other terrains are exceedingly smooth at the resolution of this image. The implication carried by Enceladus' surface is that this tiny ice ball has been geologically active and perhaps partially liquid in its interior for much of its history. The heat engine that powers geologic activity here is thought to be elastic deformation caused by tides induced by Enceladus' orbital motion around Saturn and the motion of another moon, Dione.

  1. [Sun Simiao's voyage to Chu and Shu regions].

    PubMed

    Song, Zhenmin

    2014-07-01

    During the 4(th)-11(th) years of Zhenguan reign of the Tang Dynasty, Sun Simiao paid a voyage to the regions of Chu (now mostly the Hubei Province) and Shu (now Sichuan Province) for a total of 14 years. In the 4(th) year of Zhenguan, he went to treat the "hydropsy" of Li Gui, the King of Hanyang, hence, the record given as the 9(th) year of Zhenguan by Bei ji qian jin yao fang (Essential Prescriptions for Emergency Worth a Thousand Gold) is not correct. Later, he went to Jiangzhou (now Jiujiang city of Jiangxi Province) to treat Chen Shuping's, the King of Chenxiangdong beriberi due to wind-poisoning. In the 15(th) of July, the 5(th) year of Zhenguan, he himself suffered a swelling pain in his finger when travelling in Shu region, due to a poisonous sting, which was cured by rubbing with the juice from the root and stem of dendelion. In the 7(th) year of Zhenguan, he suffered a facial erysipelas due to over drinking when he was in Neijiang County which was treated by the mayor, Master Li, with various medications to no avail, which was eventually cured by himself. In the 10(th) year of Zhenguan, he treated the Governor of Zizhou Li Wenbo's consuming thirst. He also got a large amount of copper salts in the Counties of Xuanwu and Feiwu nearby. In the 17(th) year of Zhenguan or later, he processed the "Tai yi spiritual powder" in Wei's family of Shu County. After finishing the processing, he returned to Guanzhong (now Shaanxi) at certain period of "August of 17(th) year of Zhenguan", "January of 18(th) year of Zhenguan", or "January of 19(th) year of Zhenguan".

  2. Voyaging on the Seas of Spirit: An Ongoing Journey towards Understanding Disability and Humanity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stienstra, Deborah; Ashcroft, Terri

    2010-01-01

    In an important article in "Disability & Society" Hughes argued that ontology is becoming a "live issue" in disability studies. Different sources, including non-western and aboriginal conceptions of disability and cosmology and the literature on philosophy, religion, palliative and healthcare, suggest that we are missing a critical aspect of…

  3. RADIAL VELOCITY ALONG THE VOYAGER 1 TRAJECTORY: THE EFFECT OF SOLAR CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Borovikov, S. N.; Burlaga, L. F.; Decker, R. A.; Stone, E. C.

    2012-05-01

    As Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 are approaching the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the solar wind (SW) and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-we expect new, unknown features of the heliospheric interface to be revealed. A seeming puzzle reported recently by Krimigis et al. concerns the unusually low, even negative, radial velocity components derived from the energetic ion distribution. Steady-state plasma models of the inner heliosheath (IHS) show that the radial velocity should not be equal to zero even at the surface of the HP. Here we demonstrate that the velocity distributions observed by Voyager 1 are consistent with time-dependent simulations of the SW-LISM interaction. In this Letter, we analyze the results from a numerical model of the large-scale heliosphere that includes solar cycle effects. Our simulations show that prolonged periods of low to negative radial velocity can exist in the IHS at substantial distances from the HP. It is also shown that Voyager 1 was more likely to observe such regions than Voyager 2.

  4. 33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... test of the steering-gear-control system; a test of the main steering gear from the alternative power... forecast weather, including visibility, wind, and sea state for the port of departure, all ports of call... power to control the tow under all foreseeable circumstances....

  5. 33 CFR 164.80 - Tests, inspections, and voyage planning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... forecast weather, including visibility, wind, and sea state for the port of departure, all ports of call...) Data on tides and currents for the port of departure, all ports of call, and the destination, and the river stages and forecast, if appropriate; (iv) Forward and after drafts of the barge or barges...

  6. Voyages in Primary Social Studies: A Story-Based Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Gerry; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Inspired by Brendan's fantastic sea adventures, this article describes a cooperative university-faculty project to redesign the elementary social studies curriculum in Fredericton, New Brunswick. The new plan employs literature (biography, historical novels, travel accounts, myths and legends, religious stories, poetry, and drama) to enliven study…

  7. SkyServer Voyages Website - Using Big Data to Explore Astronomy Concepts in Formal Education Settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meredith, Kate K.; Masters, Karen; Raddick, Jordan; Lundgren, Britt

    2015-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) web interface “SkyServer” has long included online educational materials designed to help students and the public discover the fundamentals of modern astronomy using real observations from the SDSS database. The newly launched SDSS Voyages website updates and expands these activities to reflect new data from subsequent generations of the survey, advances in web technology, and evolving practices in science education. Voyages provides access to quality astronomy, astrophysics, and engineering materials to educators seeking an inquiry approach to fundamental concepts. During this session we will provide an overview of the design and development of Skyserver Voyages and discuss ways to apply this resource at K-12 and university levels.

  8. Re-Analysis of Galileo Cassini & Voyager EUV Observations of the Io Plasma Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerney, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    We present a survey of conditions observed in the Io plasma torus from the Voyager flyby, throughout the Galileo mission (1995 to 2003), & the Cassini flyby of Jupiter (fall 2000 to spring 2001). On the Cassini spacecraft the UVIS instrument made extensive observations of the spatial and temporal variations of torus emissions (Steffl et al. 2004, 2006). We re-analyze the Voyager, Galileo & Cassini EUV observations of torus emissions with a physical chemistry model based on Delamere et al. (2004) to derive modest spatial and temporal variations in torus model parameters (transport time, neutral source, population of hot electrons, ratio of neutral oxygen to sulfur atoms in the source). Torus plasma conditions (Temperature and mixing ratios of the different model species) derived from these emissions are also compared with in situ measurements by the Voyager PLS instruments and ground-based observations of torus emissions.

  9. Small-scale waves on Jupiter: A reanalysis of New Horizons, Voyager, and Galileo data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, A. A.; Li, L.; Reuter, D. C.

    2015-04-01

    Jupiter's equator-encircling mesoscale waves were a distinguishing feature observed during the New Horizons Jupiter flyby. Measured velocities indicated eastward propagation, inconsistent with standing wave models developed after the Voyager encounters. We present revised New Horizons mesoscale wave velocities of 164 to 176 m/s, approximately 90 m/s higher than the tropospheric zonal winds on that date, while Voyager and Galileo mesoscale waves do not show any apparent motion. This is consistent with an eastward propagating inertia-gravity or Kelvin wave, or a wave propagating with the wind at certain altitudes, given proper vertical wind shears. New Horizons high solar phase angle methane band observations show wave crest shadows or aerosol clearing, implying altitudes above the cloud deck for the observed features. New Horizons and Voyager data also indicate that wave trains have lifetimes exceeding two Jovian rotations.

  10. Jupiter's Cloud Distribution Between the Voyager 1 and 2 Encounters: Results from 5-Micrometer Imaging.

    PubMed

    Terrile, R J; Capps, R W; Becklin, E E; Cruikshank, D P

    1979-11-23

    As part of a continuing effort of ground-based support for Voyager target selection, infrared images in the 5-micrometer wavelength region were acquired in preparation for the Voyager 2 flyby of Jupiter. Observations were made during May 1979 from the Palomar 5-meter telescope and the new 3-meter NASA Infrared Telescope Facility at Mauna Kea and are compared to previous observations. Variations seen in the 5-micrometer flux distribution suggest global patterns of clouding over of some Jovian belts and clearing ofothers. These data were used to predict the Jovian cloud distribution at the time of the Voyager 2 encounter in order to target the imaging and infrared experiments to areas free of high obscuring clouds.

  11. The Voyager Universal Literacy System: Results from a Study of Kindergarten Students in Inner-City Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frechtling, Joy A.; Zhang, Xiaodong; Silverstein, Gary

    2006-01-01

    The evaluation of the Voyager Universal Literacy System[R] was designed to provide a rigorous assessment of the effectiveness of the program with beginning readers. Using a quasi-experimental design, researchers conducted a systematic evaluation of changes in 398 kindergarten students' command of early reading skills in 4 Voyager and 4 comparison…

  12. Voyager finds Uranian shepherds and a well-behaved flock of rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, R. A.

    1986-02-01

    Data analysis activities at JPL are reviewed in connection with Voyager 2 observations of the Uranian satellites and rings. Emphasis is given to efforts to confirm the 'shepherding' hypothesis concerning the gravitational interactions of dust particles and boulders with satellites in the process of ring formation. The influence of magnetic fields on the color and elasticity of objects inside the orbit of the moon Miranda is discussed. Some mechanisms for the removal of small dust particles from the inner ring system are proposed. A black and white photograph showing the satellites 1986U8 and 1986U7, two new shepherd satellites discovered by Voyager 2 is provided.

  13. Gain, phase and frequency stability of DSS-42 and DSS-43 vor Voyage Uranus encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, A. G.; Levy, R.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretically rigorous definitions are derived of such parameters as RF signal path length, phase delay, and phase/frequency stability in a Cassegrainian antenna applicable to a narrow bandwidth channel, as well as algorithms for evaluating these parameters. This work was performed in support of the Voyager spacecraft encounter with Uranus in January 1986. The information was needed to provide Voyager/Uranus radio science researchers with a rotational basis for deciding the best strategy to operate the three antennas involved during the crucial 5-hour occultation period of the encounter. Such recommendations are made at the end of the article.

  14. 33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.297 Additional requirements—vessels on international voyages. (a) An owner or operator of a U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional...

  15. 33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.297 Additional requirements—vessels on international voyages. (a) An owner or operator of a U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Additional...

  16. 33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security Requirements § 104.297 Additional requirements—vessels on international voyages. (a) An owner or operator of a U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Additional...

  17. The Three Voyages of Edmond Halley in the Paramore: 1698-1701

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnew, Duncan Carr

    On Thursday, October 20, 1698, a three-masted ship, captained by Edmond Halley with orders “to improve the knowledge of the Longitude and variations of the Compasse,” which he was to observe “with all the accuracy you can,” set sail from Deptford, England, on the first leg of the first voyage ever commissioned for strictly scientific purposes. Halley is now best known as an astronomer and for the comet that bears his name. However, his interests ranged over so many specialties that he is better described now by the 17th century title of “natural philosopher.” Among his various areas of study, the study of the earth took a major place, as shown by his many papers on the trade winds, the tides, and especially the magnetic field. This last interest led him to propose to the Royal Society that he make a voyage around the world “to discover what may be learnt … [of] the variations of the Magneticall Needle.” This ambitious undertaking was later scaled down to cover only the Atlantic Ocean, Halley made two voyages from 1698 to 1700, at one point reaching 52°S in his 52-foot vessel. As a tailpiece he made a third voyage in the summer and fall of 1701 to study the tides and tidal currents of the English Channel.

  18. 33 CFR 157.228 - Isolating Valves: Closed during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks on Tank Vessels Dedicated Clean Ballast Tanks Operations § 157.228 Isolating Valves: Closed during a voyage. (a) The master of each U.S. tank vessel under §...

  19. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05... straight line drawn from Cap des Rosiers to West Point, Anticosti Island and, on the north side of Anticosti Island, the 63rd Meridian; (c) The Commandant or his authorized representative may exempt...

  20. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05... straight line drawn from Cap des Rosiers to West Point, Anticosti Island and, on the north side of Anticosti Island, the 63rd Meridian; (c) The Commandant or his authorized representative may exempt...

  1. 46 CFR 70.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 70.05... straight line drawn from Cap des Rosiers to West Point, Anticosti Island and, on the north side of Anticosti Island, the 63rd Meridian; (c) The Commandant or his authorized representative may exempt...

  2. 76 FR 32323 - Limited Service Domestic Voyage Load Lines for River Barges on Lake Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-06

    ... conditions as issued by the National Weather Service Nearshore Marine Forecasts for Lake Michigan as being an... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 45 RIN 1625-AA17 Limited Service Domestic Voyage Load Lines for River... established in the final rule published on November 18, 2010. Specifically, the weather restrictions based...

  3. Documentation for the machine-readable version of the lick Saturn-Voyager Reference Star Catalogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, W. H., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog is described. The catalog was prepared in order to determine accurate equatorial coordinates for reference stars in a band of sky against which cameras of the Voyager spacecraft were aligned for observations in the region of Saturn during the flyby. Tape contents and characteristics are described and a sample listing presented.

  4. 46 CFR 188.05-10 - Application to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Application to vessels on an international voyage. 188.05-10 Section 188.05-10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-10 Application to vessels on...

  5. 46 CFR 117.10 - Applicability to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Applicability to vessels on an international voyage. 117.10 Section 117.10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS General Provisions § 117.10 Applicability to vessels on...

  6. 46 CFR 117.10 - Applicability to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Applicability to vessels on an international voyage. 117.10 Section 117.10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS General Provisions § 117.10 Applicability to vessels on...

  7. 46 CFR 117.10 - Applicability to vessels on an international voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Applicability to vessels on an international voyage. 117.10 Section 117.10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER... LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT AND ARRANGEMENTS General Provisions § 117.10 Applicability to vessels on...

  8. Direct measurements of the polarization of terrestrial kilometric radiation from Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaiser, M. L.; Alexander, J. K.; Riddle, A. C.; Pearce, J. B.; Warwick, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    Terrestrial radiation measurements obtained with planetary radio astronomy experiments on Voyager-1 and 2 during the early portions of each flight show the signals to be predominantly left-hand circularly polarized. Since these emissions were most probably generated above the Northern Hemisphere auroral zone, it is concluded that the radiation is emitted primarily in the extraordinary mode.

  9. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  10. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  11. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  12. 33 CFR 157.162 - Crude oil washing during a voyage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Cow Operations § 157.162 Crude oil washing during a voyage. The master of a tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10(e), § 157.10a(a)(2),...

  13. New local interstellar spectra for protons, helium and carbon derived from PAMELA and Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisschoff, D.; Potgieter, M. S.

    2016-02-01

    With the cosmic ray observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft outside the dominant modulating influence of the heliosphere, the comparison of computed galactic spectra with experimental data at lower energies is finally possible. Spectra for specifically protons, helium and carbon nuclei, computed by galactic propagation models, can now be compared with observations at low energies from Voyager 1 and at high energies from the PAMELA space detector at Earth. We set out to reproduce the Voyager 1 observations in the energy range of 6 MeV/nuc to 60 MeV/nuc, and the PAMELA spectrum above 50 GeV/nuc, using the GALPROP code, similarly to our previous study for Voyager 1 electrons. By varying the galactic diffusion parameters in the GALPROP plain diffusion model, specifically the rigidity dependence of spatial diffusion, and then including reacceleration, we compute spectra simultaneously for galactic protons, helium and carbon. We present new local interstellar spectra, with expressions for the energy range of 3 MeV/nuc to 100 GeV/nuc, which should be of value for solar modulation modeling.

  14. Voyager observations of the interaction of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, John D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides a brief review and update on the Voyager observations of the interaction of the heliosphere with the interstellar medium. Voyager has found many surprises: (1) a new energetic particle component which is accelerated at the termination shock (TS) and leaks into the outer heliosphere forming a foreshock region; (2) a termination shock which is modulated by energetic particles and which transfers most of the solar wind flow energy to the pickup ions (not the thermal ions); (3) the heliosphere is asymmetric; (4) the TS does not accelerate anomalous cosmic rays at the Voyager locations; and (5) the plasma flow in the Voyagers 1 (V1) and 2 (V2) directions are very different. At V1 the flow was small after the TS and has recently slowed to near zero, whereas at V2 the speed has remained constant while the flow direction has turned tailward. V1 may have entered an extended boundary region in front of the heliopause (HP) in 2010 in which the plasma flow speeds are near zero. PMID:25685423

  15. The Voyage of the Beagle: Field Work Lessons from Charles Darwin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Louis M.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes Charles Darwin's letters to his family during his voyage on H.M.S. Beagle. Relates the information to the development of Darwin's professional identity and the degree to which the concepts, field methods, and research methods revealed in Darwin's personal correspondence are useful to students of educational administration. (MD)

  16. The evolution of the Voyager mission sequence software and trends for future mission sequence software systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Robert N., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The historical background of the spacecraft sequence generation process as it is represented by the Voyager mission to the outer planets is discussed. Present plans for future sequencing methods are examined, including the emphasis on cutting costs and the contrast between the centralized and distributed systems for sequencing. The use of artificial intelligence in mission sequencing is addressed.

  17. Albedo, internal heat, and energy balance of Jupiter, preliminary results of the Voyager infrared investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.; Conrath, B. J.; Herath, L. W.; Kunde, V. G.; Pirraglia, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The in flight calibration of the radiometer and the Michelson interferometer of the Voyager 1 infrared instrument is discussed. The calibrated full disk measurements are applied to derive values of the albedo, the thermal emission and the global energy balance of Jupiter.

  18. 46 CFR 185.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... voyage records maintained by the vessel, including rough and smooth deck and engine room logs, bell books..., records of draft, aids to mariners, night order books, radiograms sent and received, radio logs, crew and passenger lists and counts, articles of shipment, official logs, and other material that might be...

  19. 46 CFR 185.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... voyage records maintained by the vessel, including rough and smooth deck and engine room logs, bell books..., records of draft, aids to mariners, night order books, radiograms sent and received, radio logs, crew and passenger lists and counts, articles of shipment, official logs, and other material that might be...

  20. 46 CFR 185.220 - Records of a voyage resulting in a marine casualty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... voyage records maintained by the vessel, including rough and smooth deck and engine room logs, bell books..., records of draft, aids to mariners, night order books, radiograms sent and received, radio logs, crew and passenger lists and counts, articles of shipment, official logs, and other material that might be...

  1. Calibration of the Voyager Ultraviolet Spectrometers and the Composition of the Heliosphere Neutrals: Reassessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Jaffel, Lotfi; Holberg, J. B.

    2016-06-01

    The data harvest from the Voyagers’ (V 1 and V 2) Ultraviolet Spectrometers (UVS) covers encounters with the outer planets, measurements of the heliosphere sky-background, and stellar spectrophotometry. Because their period of operation overlaps with many ultraviolet missions, the calibration of V1 and V2 UVS with other spectrometers is invaluable. Here we revisit the UVS calibration to assess the intriguing sensitivity enhancements of 243% (V1) and 156% (V2) proposed recently. Using the Lyα airglow from Saturn, observed in situ by both Voyagers, and remotely by International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), we match the Voyager values to IUE, taking into account the shape of the Saturn Lyα line observed with the Goddard High Resolution Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. For all known ranges of the interplanetary hydrogen density, we show that the V1 and V2 UVS sensitivities cannot be enhanced by the amounts thus far proposed. The same diagnostic holds for distinct channels covering the diffuse He i 58.4 nm emission. Our prescription is to keep the original calibration of the Voyager UVS with a maximum uncertainty of 30%, making both instruments some of the most stable EUV/FUV spectrographs in the history of space exploration. In that frame, we reassess the excess Lyα emission detected by Voyager UVS deep in the heliosphere, to show its consistency with a heliospheric but not galactic origin. Our finding confirms results obtained nearly two decades ago—namely, the UVS discovery of the distortion of the heliosphere and the corresponding obliquity of the local interstellar magnetic field (˜ 40^\\circ from upwind) in the solar system neighborhood—without requiring any revision of the Voyager UVS calibration.

  2. My school voyages with PERSEUS - PERSEUS@SCHOOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermeli, Georgia; Papathanassiou, Evangelos; Papatheodorou, George; Streftaris, Nikos; Ioakeimidis, Christos

    2014-05-01

    PERSEUS@SCHOOL is an international environmental education thematic school network which is inspired and supported by the European research project PERSEUS (Policy Oriented Marine Environmental Research in Southern European Seas_http://www.perseus-net.eu) which is funded by EU FP7 Theme "Ocean of Tomorrow" and it is coordinating by the Hellenic Centre for Marine Research (HCMR). The overall scientific objectives of PERSEUS (FP7) research project are to identify the interacting patterns of natural and human-derived pressures on the Mediterranean and Black Seas, assess their impact on marine ecosystems and, using the objectives and principles of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive as a vehicle, to design an effective and innovative research governance framework based on solid scientific knowledge. This research governance framework will engage scientists, policy-makers and the public, thereby reaching a shared understanding and informed decision-making based on sound scientific knowledge. PERSEUS@SCHOOL network is coordinated by the Department of Environmental Education of the 1st Directorate of Secondary Education of Athens and aims to help and enhance environmental education, focusing on clean seas stewardship in schools. Educators along with marine scientists have a role in supporting and inspiring children to acquire the knowledge, skills and inspire their awareness to live and work as responsible and concerned citizens. For this purpose, the network has designed specific pedagogical activities for primary and secondary education - based on PERSEUS key thematic areas i.e. Marine biodiversity, Overfishing, Chemical Marine Pollution - Bioaccumulation - Health, Eutrophication in Marine Waters and Marine Litter. Complementary, two web-monitoring tools will be used by the network; the Jellyfish Spotting campaign and the Marine LitterWatch (MLW) app (Developed by EEA). A special emphasis is given to MLW app, as school students for first time will use it in order to

  3. Magnetic Reconnection in the Heliospheric Current Sheet: The Implications of the Different Environments Seen by the VoyagerSpacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swisdak, M. M.; Drake, J. F.; Opher, M.

    2014-12-01

    The magnetic field abutting the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) is primarily in the azimuthal direction, either east-to-west or west-to-east. Mis-alignment of the solar rotational and magnetic axesleads to the characteristic ballerina-skirt shape of the HCS and during the solar cycle there can be large excursions in the sheet's latitudinal extent. Voyager 2's observations of energetic electrondropouts are related to its crossing of this boundary. Magnetic reconnection is also thought to occur as the HCS compresses and narrows between the termination shock and the heliopause. Near theequator the two HCS field alignments are present in roughly equal amounts, while near the edges the distribution can be considerably skewed. This will lead to substantial differences in the environmentsof the two Voyager spacecraft since Voyager 1 is north of the equator, but firmly in the sector region, while Voyager 2 is south of the equator and skirting the edges of the sector region. We presentparticle-in-cell simulations demonstrating the consequences of the reconnection of asymmetric amounts of flux. In particular, we will discuss Voyager 2's remaining time in the heliosphere -- including theimplications for the solar wind velocity, energetic particle transport, and the expected structure of Voyager 2's heliopause crossing -- and compare it with the data collected from Voyager 1.

  4. NASA Now Minute: Space Science: Voyager’s Grand Tour of the Solar System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Planetary scientist Lou Mayo discusses what we’re learning from theVoyager missions, where the two spacecraft are currently located andsome of the incredible discoveries made on the long journe...

  5. Telecommunications and data acquisition systems support for Voyager missions to Jupiter and Saturn, 1972-1981, prelaunch through Saturn encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Traxler, M. R.; Beauchamp, D. F.

    1983-01-01

    The Deep Space Network has supported the Voyager Project for approximately nine years, during which time implementation, testing, and operational support was provided. Four years of this time involved testing prior to launch; the final five years included network operations support and additional network implementation. Intensive and critical support intervals included launch and four planetary encounters. The telecommunications and data acquisition support for the Voyager Missions to Jupiter and Saturn are summarized.

  6. A new spectrum of Triton near the time of the Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grundy, William M.; Fink, Uwe

    1991-01-01

    A 5200-10,000 A spectrum of Triton that was telescopically obtained during the summer of 1989, just before the Voyager II encounter with the Neptune system, exhibits a measurable 8900 A CH4 ice absorption band. A combination of these data with those of Voyager indicates that the absorption is caused solely by Triton surface CH4 ice. A Hapke-type model for the Triton spectrum (1) sets a 20-micron lower limit on the CH4 ice's mean grain size (although it is suspected that actual grain size is closer to 100 microns), and (2) indicates that CH4 ice is widely distributed on the southern-hemisphere surface of Triton.

  7. Voyager 1 observes low-energy galactic cosmic rays in a region depleted of heliospheric ions.

    PubMed

    Stone, E C; Cummings, A C; McDonald, F B; Heikkila, B C; Lal, N; Webber, W R

    2013-07-12

    On 25 August 2012, Voyager 1 was at 122 astronomical units when the steady intensity of low-energy ions it had observed for the previous 6 years suddenly dropped for a third time and soon completely disappeared as the ions streamed away into interstellar space. Although the magnetic field observations indicate that Voyager 1 remained inside the heliosphere, the intensity of cosmic ray nuclei from outside the heliosphere abruptly increased. We report the spectra of galactic cosmic rays down to ~3 × 10(6) electron volts per nucleon, revealing H and He energy spectra with broad peaks from 10 × 10(6) to 40 × 10(6) electron volts per nucleon and an increasing galactic cosmic-ray electron intensity down to ~10 × 10(6) electron volts.

  8. COMPARISON OF HELIOSPHERIC MODELS WITH OBSERVATIONS OF THE VOYAGER AND IBEX SPACECRAFT

    SciTech Connect

    Strumik, M.; Ratkiewicz, R.; Grygorczuk, J.; Ben-Jaffel, L.

    2011-11-01

    Results of modeling the heliosphere are compared with observations of the Voyager spacecraft and the IBEX mission simultaneously. The MHD solutions are tested against observational data for different strengths and orientations of the local interstellar magnetic field (LIMF) used in the simulations for asymmetric magnetized solar wind flow. We show that the model reproduces approximately the position of the IBEX ribbon and the termination shock crossing distance for Voyager 2, when the LIMF vector lies in the proximity of the hydrogen deflection plane with the inclination angle to the local interstellar flow equal to 39 deg. {+-} 9 deg. and its magnitude is 2.4 {+-} 0.3 {mu}G. In ecliptic coordinates this solution corresponds to the LIMF vector pointing from (longitude, latitude) = (227 deg. {+-} 7 deg., 35 deg. {+-} 7 deg.).

  9. Absolute far-ultraviolet spectrophotometry of hot subluminous stars from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holberg, J. B.; Ali, B.; Carone, T. E.; Polidan, R. S.

    1991-01-01

    Observations, obtained with the Voyager ultraviolet spectrometers, are presented of absolute fluxes for two well-known hot subluminous stars: BD + 28 deg 4211, an sdO, and G191 - B2B, a hot DA white dwarf. Complete absolute energy distributions for these two stars, from the Lyman limit at 912 A to 1 micron, are given. For BD + 28 deg 4211, a single power law closely represents the entire observed energy distribution. For G191 - B2B, a pure hydrogen model atmosphere provides an excellent match to the entire absolute energy distribution. Voyager absolute fluxes are discussed in relation to those reported from various sounding rocket experiments, including a recent rocket observation of BD + 28 deg 4211.

  10. Satellites of Uranus - Disk-integrated photometry from Voyager imaging observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverka, J.; Thomas, P.; Helfenstein, P.; Brown, R. H.; Johnson, T. V.

    1987-12-01

    Voyager 2 imaging observations over a wide range of phase angles are used to determine the fundamental photometric parameters for the five largest satellites of Uranus. Over the spectral range covered by Voyager cameras (approximately 350-600 nm) the disk-averaged colors are moderately gray (no redder than the spectrum of Saturn's satellite Phoebe). Geometric albedos range from 0.19 for Umbriel to 0.40 for Ariel. Phase coefficients determined generally between phase angles of 10 and 60 deg vary from 0.021 mag/deg for Ariel to 0.028 mag/deg for Miranda. Phase integrals lie in the range of 0.5-0.65. The Bond albedos are about 0.1 for Umbriel and about 0.2 for the other satellites.

  11. Jupiter Data Analysis Program: Analysis of Voyager wideband plasma wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurth, W. S.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager plasma wave wideband frames from the Jovian encounters are analyzed. The 511 frames which were analyzed were chosen on the basis of low-rate spectrum analyzer data from the plasma wave receiver. These frames were obtained in regions and during times of various types of plasma or radio wave activity as determined by the low-rate, low-resolution data and were processed in order to provide high resolution measurements of the plasma wave spectrum for use in the study of a number of outstanding problems. Chorus emissions at Jupiter were analyzed. The detailed temporal and spectral form of the very complex chorus emissions near L = 8 on the Voyager 1 inbound passage was compared to both terrestrial chorus emissions as well as to the theory which was developed to explain the terrestrial waves.

  12. Geology and Topography of Ra Patera, Io, in the Voyager era: Prelude to Eruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schenk, Paul M.; McEwen, Alfred; Davies, A. G.; Davenport, Trevor; Jones, Kevin; Fessler, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Voyager era stereo images are used to map the geology and topography of Ra Patera (a major active volcanic center and possible site of sulfur eruptions on Io). The summit of Ra Patera reaches only approx.1 km above the surrounding plains. Pre-Voyager-era lava flows occur on slopes of 0.1-0.3 deg, comparable to the lunar mare. These flows were emplaced at either low viscosities, high eruption rates, or both. A 600- km-long ridged mountain unit (rising to approx. 8 km near Carancho Patera) forms a 60 by 90 km wide plateau approx. 0.5 km high 50 km east of Ra Patera. The new lava flows observed by Galileo flowed around the southern edge of this plateau.

  13. The near real time image navigation of pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Ian M.; Bachman, Nathaniel J.; Taber, William L.; Wang, Tseng-Chan; Acton, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a process for performing image navigation in near real time is described. The process was used to accurately determine the camera pointing for pictures returned by the Voyager 2 spacecraft at Neptune Encounter. Image navigation improves knowledge of the pointing of an imaging instrument at a particular epoch by correlating the spacecraft-relative locations of target bodies in inertial space with the locations of their images in a picture taken at that epoch. More than 8,500 pictures returned by Voyager 2 at Neptune were processed in near real time. The results were used in several applications, including improving pointing knowledge for nonimaging instruments ('C-smithing'), making 'Neptune, the Movie', and providing immediate access to geometrical quantities similar to those traditionally supplied in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record.

  14. Pointing calibration of the MKIVA DSN antennas Voyager 2 Uranus encounter operations support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, R.; Riggs, R. L.; Wood, B.

    1986-01-01

    The MKIVA DSN introduced significant changes to the pointing systems of the 34-meter and 64-meter diameter antennas. To support the Voyager 2 Uranus Encounter, the systems had to be accurately calibrated. Reliable techniques for use of the calibrations during intense mission support activity had to be provided. This article describes the techniques used to make the antenna pointing calibrations and to demonstrate their operational use. The results of the calibrations are summarized.

  15. Zonal mean properties of Jupiter's upper troposphere from Voyager infrared observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierasch, P. J.; Magalhaes, J. A.; Conrath, B. J.

    1986-09-01

    Voyager IRIS spectra of Jupiter are used to derive zonal averages for 270- and 150-mb temperatures, as well as optical depths through the troposphere at two temperatures, ammonia concentrations near the 680-mb level, and the parahydrogen fraction near the 270-mb level. Simple modeling of an axisymmetric circulation incorporating the linear damping of perturbations from a uniform state for both winds and temperature yields results that are consistent with observed thermal wind shears and with the vertical motion field.

  16. What the Voyager infrared investigators hope to learn about the Saturn system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanel, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The Voyager infrared investigation uses a Michelson interferometer (IRIS) covering the spectral range from 200 to 3000 cm/1 (3.3 to 50 micrometers) and a bore sighted radiometer covering the range from 5000 to 25000 cm/1 (0.4 to 2 micrometers). The spectral resolution of the interferometer is 4.3 cm/1 and the field of view is 0.25 deg. Scientific results anticipated from the investigation of the Saturnian system are discussed.

  17. A Study of Saturn's E-Ring Particles Using the Voyager 1 Plasma Wave Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Kurth, W. S.; Gurnett, D. A.; Barbosa, D. D.

    1993-01-01

    The flyby of Voyager 1 at Saturn resulted in the detection of a large variety of plasma waves, e.g., chorus, hiss, and electron cyclotron harmonics. Just before the outbound equator crossing, at about 6.1 R(sub s), the Voyager 1 plasma wave instrument detected a strong, well-defined low-frequency enhancement. Initially it was suggested that plasma waves might be responsible for the spectral feature but more recently dust was suggested as at least a partial contributor to the enhancement. In this report we present evidence which supports the conclusion that dust contributes to the low-frequency enhancement. A new method has been used to derive the dust impact rate. The method relies mainly on the 16-channel spectrum analyzer data. The few wide band waveform observations available (which have been used to study dust impacts during the Voyager 2 ring plane crossing) were useful for calibrating the impact rate from the spectrum analyzer data. The mass and, hence, the size of the dust particles were also obtained by analyzing the response of the plasma wave spectrum analyzer. The results show that the region sampled by Voyager 1 is populated by dust particles that have rms masses of up to few times 10(exp -11) g and sizes of up to a few microns. The dust particle number density is on the order of 10(exp -3) m(exp 3). The optical depth of the region sampled by the spacecraft is 1.04 x 10(exp -6). The particle population is centered about 2500 km south of the equatorial plane and has a north-south thickness of about 4000 km. Possible sources of these particles are the moons Enceladus and Tethys whose orbits lie within the E-ring radial extent. These results are in reasonable agreement with photometric studies and numerical simulations.

  18. Carbon-14 dating of an iron bloom associated with the voyages of Sir Martin Frobisher

    SciTech Connect

    Sayre, E.V.; Harbottle, G.; Stoenner, R.W. Washburn, W.; Olin, J.S.; Fitzhugh, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper recounts the history of the iron bloom associated with the English Elizabethan explorer Sir Martin Frobisher who made 3 voyages to the North American mainland in the 1570's. Specifically the paper deals with the use of proportional counters in carbon-14 dating of the Frobisher iron bloom which is located at the Smithsonian Institution. The procedures for preparing the samples for counting are described. (KRM)

  19. Selecting and implementing scientific objectives. [for Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miner, E. D.; Stembridge, C. H.; Doms, P. E.

    1985-01-01

    The procedures used to select and implement scientific objectives for the Voyager 1 and 2 planetary encounters are described. Attention is given to the scientific tradeoffs and engineering considerations must be addressed at various stages in the mission planning process, including: the limitations of ground and spacecraft communications systems, ageing of instruments in flight, and instrument calibration over long distances. The contribution of planetary science workshops to the definition of scientific objectives for deep space missions is emphasized.

  20. The atmosphere of Saturn - An analysis of the Voyager radio occultation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindal, G. F.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Eshleman, V. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 probes' radio links were used to study both the northern and southern latitudes of Saturn during occultation by that planet, yielding electron number density profiles for the ionosphere, and gas refractivity, number density, pressure, temperature, and ammonia abundance data for the troposphere and stratosphere. From the vertical pressure profiles obtained at different latitudes, it is possible to determine the size and shape of Saturn's isobaric surfaces.

  1. Retrieval of ammonia abundances and cloud opacities on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    Gaseous ammonia abundances and cloud opacities are retrieved from Voyager IRIS 5- and 45-micron data on the basis of a simplified atmospheric model and a two-stream radiative transfer approximation, assuming a single cloud layer with 680-mbar base pressure and 0.14 gas scale height. Brightness temperature measurements obtained as a function of emission angle from selected planetary locations are used to verify the model and constrain a number of its parameters.

  2. Quantitative measurements of Jupiter, Saturn, their rings and satellites made from Voyager imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. A.; Bunker, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft cameras use selenium-sulfur slow scan vidicons to convert focused optical images into sensible electrical signals. The vidicon-generated data thus obtained are the basis of measurements of much greater precision than was previously possible, in virtue of their superior linearity, geometric fidelity, and the use of in-flight calibration. Attention is given to positional, radiometric, and dynamical measurements conducted on the basis of vidicon data for the Saturn rings, the Saturn satellites, and the Jupiter atmosphere.

  3. On the inclusion of the hydrogen dimer in the analysis of Voyager IRIS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Ma, Qiancheng; Lacis, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Empirical formulas are fitted to existing theoretical absorption spectra of H2-H2 pairs in the far-infrared allowing the inclusion of dimer absorption, parameterized with the height dependence of the para-hydrogen profile, in the calculations. Comparison between synthetic and Voyager IRIS spectra shows that once the dimer absorption is included it is now possible to reproduce the hydrogen portion of the IRIS spectrum to within the precision of the measurements.

  4. WHY ARE THE MAGNETIC FIELD DIRECTIONS MEASURED BY VOYAGER 1 ON BOTH SIDES OF THE HELIOPAUSE SO SIMILAR?

    SciTech Connect

    Grygorczuk, J.; Czechowski, A.; Grzedzielski, S.

    2014-07-10

    The solar wind carves a cavity in the interstellar plasma bounded by a surface, called the heliopause (HP), that separates the plasma and magnetic field of solar origin from those of interstellar origin. It is now generally accepted that in 2012 August Voyager 1 (V1) crossed that boundary. Unexpectedly, the magnetic fields on both sides of the HP, although theoretically independent of each other, were found to be similar in direction. This delayed the identification of the boundary as the HP and led to many alternative explanations. Here, we show that the Voyager 1 observations can be readily explained and, after the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) discovery of the ribbon, could even have been predicted. Our explanation relies on the fact that the Voyager 1 and undisturbed interstellar field directions (which we assume to be given by the IBEX ribbon center (RC)) share the same heliolatitude (∼34.°5) and are not far separated in longitude (difference ∼27°). Our result confirms that Voyager 1 has indeed crossed the HP and offers the first independent confirmation that the IBEX RC is in fact the direction of the undisturbed interstellar magnetic field. For Voyager 2, we predict that the difference between the inner and outer magnetic field directions at the HP will be significantly larger than that observed by Voyager 1 (∼30° instead of ∼20°), and that the outer field direction will be close to the RC.

  5. Jupiter's magnetopause, bow shock, and 10-hour modulated magnetosheath: Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Klein, L. W.

    1980-01-01

    Fine scale magnetic field data from the Voyager 1 and 2 magnetopause and bow shock crossings at Jupiter were analyzed. Explicit models of the dawnside magnetopause and bow shock in Jupiter's orbital plane employ an axisymmetric parabola and hyperbola, respectively, and are determined separately for the encounters. A new phenomenon was discovered in the magnetosheath. It is manifested as (5 or) 10 hour quasi-periodic modulation of the direction of the magnetic field in the outbound magnetosheath, predominantly in the northward (N) and southward (S) directions. It was seen to occur during both encounters and appears most evident in Voyager 2 outbound observations, probably due to the extreme tailward extent of the Voyager 2 trajectory through the magnetosheath. The durations of the N to and from S transitions range from tens of minutes to approximately 3 hours. The directional variation of the field during these transitions is fairly well restricted to a plane parallel to the local model magnetopause location. These signatures may be due to magnetosheath field line draping modulated by the large scale motion of the magnetospheric plasma disk.

  6. Analysis of Clumps in Saturn’s F Ring from Voyager and Cassini Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, Robert S.; Hicks, S. K.; Showalter, M. R.; Antonsen, A. K.; Packard, D. R.

    2013-10-01

    Saturn's F ring is well known for its unique and dynamic features that change on timescales from hours to months. Among these features are clumps, localized bright areas spanning ~3-30 degrees in longitude. 34 clumps tracked in Voyager images (Showalter 2004, Icarus, 171, 356-371) were found to live for several months and have a ~100 km spread in semi-major axis around the F ring core. Several clumps appeared to "split" during their lifetimes. Unfortunately, the poor resolution of the Voyager images and limited temporal and longitudinal coverage prevented a more detailed analysis. In this study, we performed a similar analysis using six years' worth of images from the Cassini Orbiter. We tracked 96 clumps and found similar angular widths, lifetimes, and semi-major axes to those observed by Voyager. However, the number of clumps present at one time appears to have decreased and the clumps are generally less bright; there are also many fewer extremely bright clumps. The better quality images allowed us to investigate five "splitting" clumps and we found that the apparent splits were often caused by the passage of the inner shepherd moon Prometheus. We further found that the birth and death of clumps appears uncorrelated with the position of Prometheus or with other features such as "mini-jets" or "jets" often found in the ring. We speculate on the changes in the population of embedded moonlets that may have resulted in these changes.

  7. A report on SHARP (Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype) and the Voyager Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, R. G. (Editor); Atkinson, D. J.; James, M. L.; Lawson, D. L.; Porta, H. J.

    1990-01-01

    The development and application of the Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) for the operations of the telecommunications systems and link analysis functions in Voyager mission operations are presented. An overview is provided of the design and functional description of the SHARP system as it was applied to Voyager. Some of the current problems and motivations for automation in real-time mission operations are discussed, as are the specific solutions that SHARP provides. The application of SHARP to Voyager telecommunications had the goal of being a proof-of-capability demonstration of artificial intelligence as applied to the problem of real-time monitoring functions in planetary mission operations. AS part of achieving this central goal, the SHARP application effort was also required to address the issue of the design of an appropriate software system architecture for a ground-based, highly automated spacecraft monitoring system for mission operations, including methods for: (1) embedding a knowledge-based expert system for fault detection, isolation, and recovery within this architecture; (2) acquiring, managing, and fusing the multiple sources of information used by operations personnel; and (3) providing information-rich displays to human operators who need to exercise the capabilities of the automated system. In this regard, SHARP has provided an excellent example of how advanced artificial intelligence techniques can be smoothly integrated with a variety of conventionally programmed software modules, as well as guidance and solutions for many questions about automation in mission operations.

  8. Voyager observations of O(+6) and other minor ions in the solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Villanueva, Louis; Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Lazarus, Alan J.; Steinberg, John T.

    1994-01-01

    The plasma science (PLS) experiments on the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft began making measurements of the solar wind shortly after the two launches in the fall of 1977. In reviewing the data obtained prior to the Jupiter encounters in 1979, we have found that the large dynamic range of the PLS instrument generally allows a clean separation of signatures of minor ions (about 2.5% of the time) during a single instrument scan in energy per charge. The minor ions, most notably O(+6), are well separated from the protons and alpha particles during times when the solar wind Mach number (ratio of streaming speed to thermal speed) is greater than approximately 15. During the Earth to Jupiter cruise we find that the average ratio of alpha particle number density to that of oxygen is 66 +/- 7 (Voyager 1) and 71 +/- 17 (Voyager 2). These values are consistent with the value 75 +/- 20 inferred from the Ion Composition Instrument on ISEE 3 during the period spanning 1978 and 1982. We have inferred an average coronal temperature of (1.7 +/- 0.1) x 10(exp 6) K based on the ratio of O(+7) to O(+6) number densities. Our observations cover a period of increasing solar activity. During this time we have found that the alpha particle to proton number density ratio is increasing with the solar cycle, the oxygen to proton ratio increases, and the alpha particle to oxygen ratio remains relatively constant in time.

  9. New local interstellar spectra for protons, Helium and Carbon computed from Voyager 1 and PAMELA observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisschoff, Driaan; Potgieter, Marius

    2016-07-01

    The comparison of computed galactic spectra with experimental, in situ data at lower energies is finally possible with the cosmic ray observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft outside the dominant modulating influence of the heliosphere. Galactic spectra computed by galactic propagation models and considered to be local interstellar spectra (LIS), for specifically protons, Helium and Carbon nuclei, can now be compared with observations at low energies (less than 100 MeV/nuc) from Voyager 1 and at high energies (above 30 GeV/nuc) from the PAMELA space detector at the Earth. We set out to reproduce the Voyager 1 observations beyond the heliopause using the GALPROP code and the PAMELA spectra at the Earth via a comprehensive solar modulation model. By varying the galactic diffusion parameters in the GALPROP plain diffusion model, specifically the rigidity dependence of spatial diffusion, and then including reacceleration in Galactic space, we compute spectra simultaneously for galactic protons, Helium and Carbon. These LIS are then used as input to a full 3D solar modulation model to test the spectra against the PAMELA measurements. We present new LIS, with expressions for the energy range of 3 MeV/nuc to 100 GeV/nuc, which should be most valuable for further solar modulation modelling.

  10. The Dynamics of the Heliosphere from 1961 TO Voyagers i and II in 2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    2011-12-01

    The first MHD models of the heliosphere were produced in 1961, illustrating the theoretical shape of the heliosphere in the two extremes of an interstellar wind without interstellar magnetic field and an interstellar magnetic field without a wind. The lack of information on the density and velocity of the solar wind, and on the interstellar wind and magnetic field, precluded any real estimate of the dimensions of the heliosphere at that time. The plasma detector on the Mariner II voyage to Venus in 1962 brought the realities into focus, measuring wind densities of 5 ions/cc and velocities of 300 - 700 km/sec. The subsequent exploration of the solar wind has filled in the picture in considerable detail. Most recently, Voyagers I and II have determined the dimensions of the heliosphere, as well as suggesting unanticipated dynamical effects in the heliosheath. For instance, rapid reconnection of the magnetic sector structure into separate magnetic bubbles is predicted. Then the curious 4 AU region of vanishing radial wind velocity requires explanation. We have also learned that the anomalous cosmic rays are not accelerated in the terminal shock, at least in the regions penetrated by the Voyagers. So there is much yet to be understood, much like the situation in 1961 fifty years ago.

  11. Grant Proposal for the Continuation of the Voyager Interstellar Mission: LECP Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Lanzerotti, Louis J.; Ip, Wing-H.; Decker, Robert B.; Keath, Edwin P.; Mauk, Barry H.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Gloeckler, George; Hamilton, Douglas C.

    1996-01-01

    This proposal documents the plans of the Low Energy Charged Particle (LECP) investigation team for participation in NASA's Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) as the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft explore the outer reaches of the heliosphere and search for the termination shock and the heliopause. The proposal covers the four year period from 1 January 1997 to 31 December 2000. The LECP instruments on Voyager 1 and 2 measure in situ intensities of charged particles with energies from about 30 keV to 100 MeV for ions, and about 20 keV to greater than 10 MeV for electrons. The instruments provide detailed spectral, angular, and compositional information about the particles. Composition is available for greater than 200 keV/nuc using multi-parameter measurements. Angular information is obtained by a mechanically scanned platform that rotates at various commanded rates. Measurements of low energy ion and electron intensities versus time and spatial location within the heliosphere contain an abundance of information regarding various transport and acceleration processes on both local (approx. 1 hr, approx. 0.01 AU) and global (approx. 11 yrs, approx. 100 AU) scales. The LECP instruments provide unique observations of such dynamical processes, and we anticipate that it will return critical information regarding the boundaries of the heliosphere. Several recent and exciting discoveries based on LECP measurements emphasize the important role that low energy charged particle distributions play in physical processes in the interplanetary medium. Yet, at the same time, these discoveries also underscore the fact that our understanding of processes in the outer heliosphere is, in most cases, incomplete, and in others, only rudimentary at best. Among the discoveries referred to above are the following: (1) Shocks: Examination of greater than 30 keV ion intensities have revealed: (a) a total absence of acceleration beyond only -100-200 keV at a strong transient shock in May 1991 at 35

  12. John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina": notes on the publication history of the London (1709) edition.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Marcus B; Simpson, Sallie W

    2008-01-01

    John Lawson's "A New Voyage to Carolina," an important source document for American colonial natural history, was first printed in 1709 in "A New Collection of Voyages and Travels," a two-volume set that also contained travel books translated by John Stevens. Lawson's publishers were leaders in the book trade of early eighteenth century London, and the "New Voyage" is typical of the resurgent popular interest in foreign travel narratives and exotic flora and fauna that began in the late 1600s. The "New Collection" was among the earliest examples of books published in serial instalments or fascicles, a marketing strategy adopted by London booksellers to broaden the audience and increase sales. Analysis of London issues of the "New Voyage" indicates that the 1709, 1711, 1714, and 1718 versions are simply bindings of the original, unsold sheets from the 1709 "New Collection" edition, differing only by new title-pages, front matter, and random stop-press corrections of type-set errors. Lawson's "New Voyage" illustrates important aspects of the British book trade during the hand press period of the early eighteenth century.

  13. SEAC 2011 Stars and Stones: Voyages in Archaeoastronomy and Cultural Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimenta, F.; Ribeiro, N.; Silva, F.; Campion, N.; Joaquinito, A.; Tirapicos, L.

    2015-05-01

    Since Prehistory the sky has always been integrated as part of the cosmovision of human societies. The sky played a fundamental role not only in the orientation in space, time organization, ritual practices or celestial divination but also as an element of power. Migrations and voyages are intrinsic to humankind, they opened the routes for cultural diffusion and trade, but also for power dominance. Following these routes is also to follow cultural diversity and how human societies met or clashed. The sky and astronomical phenomena provided the tools for time reckoning, calendar organization and celestial navigation that supported those voyages. Astronomy gives us today the capacity to reproduce the sky, opening a window through which we can glimpse how those societies perceived, integrated and manipulated the sky into their world-views and their myths and, ultimately, into their social organization. A voyage is always a meeting of different worlds and eventually a process to accept diversity and thus we challenged the participants of the 19th meeting of the European Society for Astronomy in Culture to present their papers in the form of a voyage or an encounter for the following topics: - Techniques of celestial navigation and orientation of the past. Astronomical navigation and nautical instruments in the XIVth, XVth and XVIth centuries; - Expressions of astronomical knowledge in architecture and monuments, rock art, archaeology and landscape. People migration, a meeting between different cultures; - History of astronomy. An encounter between different conceptions; - Astronomy and the Jesuits. A meeting between different worlds; - Astronomy in antiquity. A meeting between different knowledge; - Ethno-astronomy, Cultural Astronomy and myths, voyages in space and in time through different cultures; - To where is Archaeoastronomy voyaging? A round table about Archaeoastronomy, Cultural Astronomy and Education. The 19th meeting of the European Society for Astronomy in

  14. Radiation Transport of Heliospheric Lyman-alpha from Combined Cassini and Voyager Data Sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pryor, W.; Gangopadhyay, P.; Sandel, B.; Forrester, T.; Quemerais, E.; Moebius, E.; Esposito, L.; Stewart, I.; McClintock, W.; Jouchoux, A.; Colwell, J.; Izmodenov, V.; Malama, Y.; Shemansky, D.; Ajello, J.; Hansen, C.; Bzowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Heliospheric neutral hydrogen scatters solar Lyman-alpha radiation from the Sun with '27-day' intensity modulations observed near Earth due to the Sun's rotation combined with Earth's orbital motion. These modulations are increasingly damped in amplitude at larger distances from the Sun due to multiple scattering in the heliosphere, providing a diagnostic of the interplanetary neutral hydrogen density independent of instrument calibration. This paper presents Cassini data from 2003-2004 obtained downwind near Saturn at approximately 10 AU that at times show undamped '27-day' waves in good agreement with the single-scattering models of Pryor et al., 1992. Simultaneous Voyager 1 data from 2003- 2004 obtained upwind at a distance of 88.8-92.6 AU from the Sun show waves damped by a factor of -0.21. The observed degree of damping is interpreted in terms of Monte Carlo multiple-scattering calculations (e.g., Keller et al., 1981) applied to two heliospheric hydrogen two-shock density distributions (discussed in Gangopadhyay et al., 2006) calculated in the frame of the Baranov-Malama model of the solar wind interaction with the two-component (neutral hydrogen and plasma) interstellar wind (Baranov and Malama 1993, Izmodenov et al., 2001, Baranov and Izmodenov, 2006). We conclude that multiple scattering is definitely occurring in the outer heliosphere. Both models compare favorably to the data, using heliospheric neutral H densities at the termination shock of 0.085 cm(exp -3) and 0.095 cm(exp -3). This work generally agrees with earlier discussions of Voyager data in Quemerais et al., 1996 showing the importance of multiple scattering but is based on Voyager data obtained at larger distances from the Sun (with larger damping) simultaneously with Cassini data obtained closer to the Sun.

  15. Estimation of a genetically viable population for multigenerational interstellar voyaging: Review and data for project Hyperion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cameron M.

    2014-04-01

    Designing interstellar starships for human migration to exoplanets requires establishing the starship population, which factors into many variables including closed-ecosystem design, architecture, mass and propulsion. I review the central issues of population genetics (effects of mutation, migration, selection and drift) for human populations on such voyages, specifically referencing a roughly 5-generation (c. 150-year) voyage currently in the realm of thought among Icarus Interstellar's Project Hyperion research group. I present several formulae as well as concrete numbers that can be used to help determine populations that could survive such journeys in good health. I find that previously proposed such populations, on the order of a few hundred individuals, are significantly too low to consider based on current understanding of vertebrate (including human) genetics and population dynamics. Population genetics theory, calculations and computer modeling determine that a properly screened and age- and sex-structured total founding population (Nc) of anywhere from roughly 14,000 to 44,000 people would be sufficient to survive such journeys in good health. A safe and well-considered Nc figure is 40,000, an Interstellar Migrant Population (IMP) composed of an Effective Population [Ne] of 23,400 reproductive males and females, the rest being pre- or post-reproductive individuals. This number would maintain good health over five generations despite (a) increased inbreeding resulting from a relatively small human population, (b) depressed genetic diversity due to the founder effect, (c) demographic change through time and (d) expectation of at least one severe population catastrophe over the 5-generation voyage.

  16. IBEX Observations provide strong Evidence that Voyager 1 is still in the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2015-09-01

    After plasma wave measurements by Voyager 1 (V1) revealed a surprisingly high value for the plasma electron density, a value close to that expected in the local interstellar medium, all principal investigators of the Voyager mission currently exploring the heliosheath suddenly reversed their position on the location of V1. They concluded unanimously, and NASA announced that V1 has crossed the heliopause and is now in local interstellar space. We have disputed this conclusion, pointing out that to account for all the V1 observations, particularly of the magnetic field direction together with the density, it is necessary to conclude that the higher densities observed by V1 are due to compressed solar wind. In this paper we show that our model for the nose region of the heliosheath can account in detail for the spectral shapes and intensities of Energetic Neutral Hydrogen (ENH) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) looking in the directions of V1 and Voyager 2 (V2). A key feature of our model is the existence of a region, the hot heliosheath, where the outward-moving solar wind is gradually compressed and thus heated, followed by a region, the cold heliosheath, where the solar wind is still compressed but now cold. It is the existence of this cold heliosheath, the region of cold but high-density solar wind, which provides a unique and simple explanation for the low-energy IBEX ENH differential intensities. Finally, since this cold heliosheath is the region where V1 must now reside, the low-energy IBEX observations provide strong evidence that V1 is still in the heliosphere.

  17. A study of the solar wind from the Voyager spacecraft, 1977-1992

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villanueva, Louis

    A reanalysis was performed on the solar wind ion data from the Plasma Science (PLS) Instrument on each of the Voyager 1 and the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The analysis was carried out using an automated fitting routine created by the author. While the solar wind number density was confirmed to be proportional to r-2, where r is the heliocentric distance, it was discovered that the thermal speed was proportional to r-1/3. No systematic variation with distance was seen in the velocity. Temporal variation in the solar wind parameters was sought using 11 years of Voyager data. The most prominent periods detected were 25.4 days (solar sidereal rotation) and 146.3 days which appears not to be correlated with observations of other solar phenomena. The reanalysis included a program for detecting proton double streaming. The behavior of double streaming protons was compared to that of single stream protons and alpha particles. It is was found that the magnitude of the velocity difference between double streaming protons can be as large as twice the Alfven speed. This is in contrast to alpha particles and protons whose difference in speed is bounded by the Alfven speed. Finally, it was discovered that the PLS instrument was capable of clearly detecting other ions, namely O(+6) and O(+7) during times of cool, low-speed, high density, plasma streams. The total oxygen flux densities were found to deviate from a linear relation with the alpha particle flux densities at low fluxes. Using the ratio of the O(+6) and O(+7) number densities, the author computed a temperature for the solar corona of 1.7 x 106 K, which is in good agreement with that found by others.

  18. Saturn's upper atmosphere during the Voyager era: Reanalysis and modeling of the UVS occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervack, Ronald J.; Moses, Julianne I.

    2015-09-01

    The Voyager 1 and 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) solar and stellar occultation dataset represents one of the primary, pre-Cassini sources of information that we have on the neutral upper atmosphere of Saturn. Despite its importance, however, the full set of occultations has never received a consistent, nor complete, analysis, and the results derived from the initial analyses over thirty years ago left questions about the temperature and density profiles unanswered. We have reanalyzed all six of the UVS occultations (three solar and three stellar) to provide an up-to-date, pre-Cassini view of Saturn's upper atmosphere. From the Voyager UVS data, we have determined vertical profiles for H2, H, CH4, C2H2, C2H4, and C2H6, as well as temperature. Our analysis also provides explanations for the two different thermospheric temperatures derived in earlier analyses (400-450 K versus 800 K) and for the unusual shape of the total density profile noted by Hubbard et al. (1997). Aside from inverting the occultation data to retrieve densities and temperatures, we have investigated the atmospheric structure through a series of photochemical models to infer the strength of atmospheric mixing and other physical and chemical properties of Saturn's mesopause region during the Voyager flybys. We find that the data exhibit considerable variability in the vertical profiles for methane, suggesting variations in vertical winds or the eddy diffusion coefficient as a function of latitude and/or time in Saturn's upper atmosphere. The results of our reanalysis will provide a useful baseline for interpreting new data from Cassini, particularly in the context of change over the past three decades.

  19. Triton's surface properties - A preliminary analysis from ground-based, Voyager photopolarimeter subsystem, and laboratory measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buratti, B. J.; Lane, A. L.; Gibson, J.; Burrows, H.; Nelson, R. M.; Bliss, D.; Smythe, W.; Garkanian, V.; Wallis, B.

    1991-01-01

    The surface properties of Triton were investigated using data from the ground-based and Voyager photopolarimeter subsystem (PPS) observations of Triton's phase curve. The results indicate that Triton has a high single-scattering albedo (0.96 +/-0.01 at 0.75 micron) and an unusually compacted surface, possibly similar to that of Europa. Results also suggest that Triton's single-particle phase function and the macroscopically rough character of its surface are similar to those of most other icy satellites.

  20. INTERPRETATION OF THE DISTURBANCE IN GALACTIC COSMIC RAYS OBSERVED ON VOYAGER 1 BEYOND THE HELIOPAUSE

    SciTech Connect

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kóta, J.

    2014-10-10

    We present a possible explanation for the transient increase in the galactic cosmic ray flux observed by Voyager 1 (V1) beyond the heliopause, in 2013 March. We suggest that this disturbance may be caused by a propagating disturbance in the interstellar magnetic field, of heliospheric origin. A model in which a magnetic disturbance, propagating outward from the heliosphere into the very-local interstellar plasma, affects the galactic cosmic rays is presented. We also discuss the possibility that this event is related to the plasma-wave event observed some 25 days later by the PWS experiment on V1.

  1. Analysis of Voyager spectra of the beta Cephei star nu Eridani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porri, A.; Stalio, R.; Ali, B.; Polidan, R. S.; Morossi, C.

    1994-01-01

    Voyager 500-1700 A spectrophotometric observations of the beta Cephei star nu Eri are presented and discussed. The Voyager observations were obtained in 1981 and cover six pulsation cycles of the star. These data are supplemented with a set of nine International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) SWP high-resolution observations covering one, earlier epoch, pulsation cycle. Light curves are derived from the Voyager data at 1055 and 1425 A. These light curves are found to be consistent in both shape and period with published optical curves. The 1055 A light curve also exhibits a phenomenon not seen in the optical curves: a small but highly significant systematic increase in the flux of the maximum light phases while maintaining a constant minimum light level over the interval of observation. Substantially larger errors in the longer wavelength data preclude discussion of this phenomenon in the 1425 A light curve. Examination of the far-UV continuum in nu Eri during this period shows that the color temperature is lower for the brighter maxima. Analysis of the far-UV continuum at maximum and minimum light yields an effective temperature difference between these two phases of 2200 + or - 750 K. Spectroscopically, three prominent features are seen in the Voyager data: a feature at 985 A mostly due to a blend of C III 977 A, H I Ly gamma 972 A, and N III 990 A; a feature at 1030 A due to H I Ly beta 1026 A and C II 1037 A; and the Si IV resonance doublet near 1400 A. A comparison of the 912-1700 A spectral region in nu Eri with a set of standard, i.e., nonpulsating stars, shows that nu Eri closely resembles the standard both in continuum shape and spectral line strengths with the possible exception of a slight flux excess between 912 and 975 A. The equivalent width of the 985 A feature is shown to vary in strength over the pulsation cycle in antiphase with the light curve and variations seen in the C IV 1548-1551 lines from the IUE data. This behavior of the 985 A feature is

  2. Merging of vortices in the atmosphere of Jupiter - An analysis of Voyager images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mac Low, M.-M.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    The present study of interactions between Jupiter spots, using the Voyager 2 cylindrical projection mosaics, notes that collisions between spots are irreversible, in contrast with solitary wave-type interactions. In 23 of 27 cases, interactions lead to a merging of the two original spots. Interactions of spots with filamentary regions usually lead to a disappearance of the spot; filamentary regions are noted to be the major source of spots. Stable spots do not generate other spots, instead destroying each other by merging. Most spots are anticyclonic, and lie in cyclonic shear zones.

  3. Far ultraviolet reflection spectrum of Uranus - Results from the Voyager encounter

    SciTech Connect

    Yelle, R.V.; Doose, L.R.; Mcconnell, J.C.; Strobel, D.F.

    1989-02-01

    The present analysis of the 1250-1700 A region Uranus spectrum obtained by Voyager's US spectrometer characterizes these observation results as due primarily to solar light reflected from an H2 Rayleigh and Raman scattering atmosphere with small but measurable hydrocarbon absorption. The hydrocarbon abundances obtained are substantially lower than those at comparable levels of the Saturn or Jupiter atmospheres; it is suggested, in one-dimensional terms, that this is due to diffusive separation, in conjunction with photochemical depletion caused by a very low eddy-diffusion coefficient. Strong latitudinal variations in the hydrocarbon abundances are suggested in the subsolar, polar stratosphere. 38 references.

  4. DISCONNECTION FROM THE TERMINATION SHOCK: THE END OF THE VOYAGER PARADOX

    SciTech Connect

    McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2012-10-10

    The most recent Voyager 1 observations show rapidly increasing galactic cosmic ray fluxes with simultaneously decreasing anomalous cosmic ray fluxes. While this has been suggested to somehow herald the imminent crossing of the heliopause, which bounds the heliosphere, we show that such observations should naturally arise from the heliosphere's global magnetic topology. For a blunt termination shock, there must be a region of magnetic flux, still inside the heliopause, but beyond the last magnetic connection point to the termination shock, with poorer access for the shock-accelerated anomalous cosmic rays and better access for the galactic cosmic rays entering the heliosphere.

  5. C/H ratio in Jupiter from the Voyager infrared investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gautier, D.; Bezard, B.; Marten, A.; Baluteau, J.P.; Scott, N.; Chedin, A.; Kunde, V.; Hanel, R.

    1982-06-15

    From a selection of Voyager IRIS spectra corresponding to cloud-free areas of Jupiter, we have determined the CH/sub 4//H/sub 2/ volume ratio in the atmosphere of this planet as equal to (1.95 +- 0.22)10/sup -3/ which corresponds to 2.07 +- 0.24 times the solar value of Lambert (C/H = 4.7 x 10/sup -4/). Estimate of errors includes both instrument noise and systematic uncertainties. Implications of this result on the formation and evolution of Jupiter are discussed.

  6. The far ultraviolet reflection spectrum of Uranus - Results from the Voyager encounter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yelle, R. V.; McConnell, J. C.; Strobel, D. F.

    1989-02-01

    The present analysis of the 1250-1700 A region Uranus spectrum obtained by Voyager's US spectrometer characterizes these observation results as due primarily to solar light reflected from an H2 Rayleigh and Raman scattering atmosphere with small but measurable hydrocarbon absorption. The hydrocarbon abundances obtained are substantially lower than those at comparable levels of the Saturn or Jupiter atmospheres; it is suggested, in one-dimensional terms, that this is due to diffusive separation, in conjunction with photochemical depletion caused by a very low eddy-diffusion coefficient. Strong latitudinal variations in the hydrocarbon abundances are suggested in the subsolar, polar stratosphere.

  7. A voyage to Mars: A challenge to collaboration between man and machines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Statler, Irving C.

    1991-01-01

    A speech addressing the design of man machine systems for exploration of space beyond Earth orbit from the human factors perspective is presented. Concerns relative to the design of automated and intelligent systems for the NASA Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) missions are largely based on experiences with integrating humans and comparable systems in aviation. The history, present status, and future prospect, of human factors in machine design are discussed in relation to a manned voyage to Mars. Three different cases for design philosophy are presented. The use of simulation is discussed. Recommendations for required research are given.

  8. Phenomenology of Neptune's radio emissions observed by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedersen, B. M.; Lecacheux, A.; Zarka, P.; Aubier, M. G.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.

    1992-01-01

    The Neptune flyby in 1989 added a new planet to the known number of magnetized planets generating nonthermal radio emissions. We review the Neptunian radio emission morphology as observed by the planetary radio astronomy experiment on board Voyager 2 during a few weeks before and after closest approach. We present the characteristics of the two observed recurrent main components of the Neptunian kilometric radiation, i.e., the 'smooth' and the 'bursty' emissions, and we describe the many specific features of the radio spectrum during closest approach.

  9. Stratospheric ethane on Neptune - Comparison of groundbased and Voyager IRIS retrievals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kostiuk, Theodor; Romani, Paul; Espenak, Fred; Bezard, Bruno

    1992-01-01

    Near-simultaneous ground and spacecraft measurements of 12-micron ethane emission spectra during the Voyager encounter with Neptune have furnished bases for the determination of stratospheric ethane abundance and the testing and constraining of Neptune methane-photochemistry models. The ethane retrievals were sensitive to the thermal profile used. Contribution functions for warm thermal profiles peaked at higher altitudes, as expected, with the heterodyne functions covering lower-pressure regions. Both constant- and nonconstant-with-height profiles remain candidate distributions for Neptune's stratospheric ethane.

  10. Saturn's rings through a microscope - Particle size constraints from the Voyager PPS scan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; Nicholson, Philip D.

    1990-01-01

    The Voyager-2 photopolarimeter PPS experiment obtained the highest resolution of any ring observation of Saturn, profiling the variation of optical depth in radial steps of about 100 meters. A detailed treatment of the PPS statistics is presented here, and it is shown how these statistics can be related to the particle size distribution. An expression for the excess noise in the scan due to large particles is obtained, and the observed noise is used to constrain the upper end of the size distribution through the rings. It is shown that the Cassini Division and the C Ring have the smallest proportion of large particles, while the A ring has the largest proportion.

  11. Remote sensing of the magnetic moment of Uranus - Predictions for Voyager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, T. W.; Dessler, A. J.

    1985-03-01

    The current understanding of the power transfer mechanisms by which power is supplied to a planet's magnetosphere by the kinetic energy of planetary spin and the energy flux of the impinging solar wind is applied to the case of Uranus, in order to predict the detectability of radio and auroral emissions by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) and UV spectrometer (UVS) instruments of the Voyager spacecraft. The power available for the two energy transfer phenomena cited is a function of Uranus' magnetic moment, which is presently derived for each power source as a function of the date of first detection of radio emissions by the PRA or auroral emissions by the UVS.

  12. The far ultraviolet reflection spectrum of Uranus - Results from the Voyager encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yelle, Roger V.; Doose, Lyn R.; Mcconnell, John C.; Strobel, Darrell F.

    1989-01-01

    The present analysis of the 1250-1700 A region Uranus spectrum obtained by Voyager's US spectrometer characterizes these observation results as due primarily to solar light reflected from an H2 Rayleigh and Raman scattering atmosphere with small but measurable hydrocarbon absorption. The hydrocarbon abundances obtained are substantially lower than those at comparable levels of the Saturn or Jupiter atmospheres; it is suggested, in one-dimensional terms, that this is due to diffusive separation, in conjunction with photochemical depletion caused by a very low eddy-diffusion coefficient. Strong latitudinal variations in the hydrocarbon abundances are suggested in the subsolar, polar stratosphere.

  13. Stone adze compositions and the extent of ancient Polynesian voyaging and trade.

    PubMed

    Collerson, Kenneth D; Weisler, Marshall I

    2007-09-28

    The last region on Earth settled by humans during prehistory was East Polynesia. Hawaiian oral histories mention voyaging from Hawai'i to Tahiti and back via the Tuamotus, an open ocean journey of several thousands of kilometers. The trace element and isotope chemistries of a stone adze recovered from the Tuamotu Archipelago are unlike those of sources in central Polynesia but are similar to the Kaho'olawe Island hawaiite, in the Hawaiian Islands, supporting the oral histories. Other adzes collected from the low coral islands of the northwest Tuamotus have sources in the Marquesas, Austral and Society Islands, and the Pitcairn Group, confirming that trade was widespread within East Polynesia.

  14. Geometry of the Saturn system from the 3 July 1989 occultation of 28 Sgr and Voyager observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, Richard G.; Nicholson, Philip D.; Cooke, Maren L.; Elliot, J. L.; Matthews, Keith; Perkovic, Olga; Tollestrup, Eric; Harvey, Paul; Chanover, Nancy J.; Clark, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    The pole direction and radius scale for the ring system of Saturn are presently determined by combining the July 3, 1989 observations of 28 Sgr's occultation by Saturn with Voyager 1 and 2 photopolarimeter occultation measurements. The computation of ring-orbit models is separately conducted via a sky-plane method and a solar system barycentric vector approach; the results obtained by both methods are in excellent agreement. If Voyager trajectory uncertainties are assumed to be negligible, these observations can be used to determine the precession rate of the pole of Saturn about the solar system's invariable pole.

  15. A new look at the Saturn system: The Voyager 2 images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, B.A.; Soderblom, L.; Batson, R.; Bridges, P.; Inge, J.; Masursky, H.; Shoemaker, E.; Beebe, R.; Boyce, J.; Briggs, G.; Bunker, A.; Collins, S.A.; Hansen, C.J.; Johnson, T.V.; Mitchell, J.L.; Terrile, R.J.; Cook, A.F.; Cuzzi, J.; Pollack, James B.; Danielson, G.E.; Ingersoll, A.P.; Davies, M.E.; Hunt, G.E.; Morrison, D.; Owen, editors, Timothy W.; Sagan, C.; Veverka, J.; Strom, R.; Suomi, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    Voyager 2 photography has complemented that of Voyager 1 in revealing many additional characteristics of Saturn and its satellites and rings. Saturn's atmosphere contains persistent oval cloud features reminiscent of features on Jupiter. Smaller irregular features track out a pattern of zonal winds that is symmetric about Saturn's equator and appears to extend to great depth. Winds are predominantly eastward and reach 500 meters per second at the equator. Titan has several haze layers with significantly varying optical properties and a northern polar "collar" that is dark at short wavelengths. Several satellites have been photographed at substantially improved resolution. Enceladus' surface ranges from old, densely cratered terrain to relatively young, uncratered plains crossed by grooves and faults. Tethys has a crater 400 kilometers in diameter whose floor has domed to match Tethys' surface curvature and a deep trench that extends at least 270?? around Tethys' circumference. Hyperion is cratered and irregular in shape. Iapetus' bright, trailing hemisphere includes several dark-floored craters, and Phoebe has a very low albedo and rotates in the direction opposite to that of its orbital revolution with a period of 9 hours. Within Saturn's rings, the "birth" of a spoke has been observed, and surprising azimuthal and time variability is found in the ringlet structure of the outer B ring. These observations lead to speculations about Saturn's internal structure and about the collisional and thermal history of the rings and satellites. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  16. Radio science ground data system for the Voyager-Neptune encounter, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kursinski, E. R.; Asmar, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The Voyager radio science experiments at Neptune required the creation of a ground data system array that includes a Deep Space Network complex, the Parkes Radio Observatory, and the Usuda deep space tracking station. The performance requirements were based on experience with the previous Voyager encounters, as well as the scientific goals at Neptune. The requirements were stricter than those of the Uranus encounter because of the need to avoid the phase-stability problems experienced during that encounter and because the spacecraft flyby was faster and closer to the planet than previous encounters. The primary requirement on the instrument was to recover the phase and amplitude of the S- and X-band (2.3 and 8.4 GHz) signals under the dynamic conditions encountered during the occultations. The primary receiver type for the measurements was open loop with high phase-noise and frequency stability performance. The receiver filter bandwidth was predetermined based on the spacecraft's trajectory and frequency uncertainties.

  17. Solar Modulation of the Local Interstellar Spectrum with Voyager 1, AMS-02, PAMELA, and BESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, C.; Bindi, V.; Consolandi, C.; Whitman, K.

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, the increasing precision of direct cosmic rays measurements opened the door to high-sensitivity indirect searches of dark matter and to more accurate predictions for radiation doses received by astronauts and electronics in space. The key ingredients in the study of these phenomena are the knowledge of the local interstellar spectrum (LIS) of galactic cosmic rays and the understanding of how the solar modulation affects the LIS inside the heliosphere. Voyager 1, AMS-02, PAMELA, and BESS measurements of proton and helium fluxes provide valuable information, allowing us to shed light on the shape of the LIS and the details of the solar modulation during solar cycles 22-24. A new parametrization of the LIS is presented, based on the latest data from Voyager 1 and AMS-02. Using the framework of the force-field approximation, the solar modulation parameter is extracted from the time-dependent fluxes measured by PAMELA and BESS. A modified version of the force-field approximation with a rigidity-dependent modulation parameter is introduced, yielding better fits than the force-field approximation. The results are compared with the modulation parameter inferred by neutron monitors.

  18. Photographer: Voyager 1 Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and Three of its four largest satellites are

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Photographer: Voyager 1 Jupiter, its Great Red Spot and Three of its four largest satellites are visible here. The spacecraft was 28.4 million kilometers (17.5 million miles) from the planet at this time. The inner-most large satellite, Io, can be seen against Jupiter's disk. Io is distinguished by its bright, brown-yellow surface. To the right of Jupiter is the satellite Europa, also very bright but with fainter surface markings. The darkest satellite, Callisto (still nearly twice as bright as Earth's Moon), is barely visible a the bottom left of the picture. Callisto shows a bright patch in its northern hemisphere. All three orbit Jupiter in the equatorial plane, and appear in their present position because Voyager is above the plane. All three satellites show the same face to Jupiter always -- just as Earth's Moon always shows us the same face. In this photo we see the sides of the satellites that always face away from the planet. Jupiters' colorfully banded atmosphere displays complex patterns highlighted by the Great Red Spot, a large, circulating atmospheric distrubance. This black-and-white photo was taken through a violet filter. (JPL ref: P-21083 1-22 B/W)

  19. Synoptic observations of Jupiter's radio emissions: Average Statistical properties observed by Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, J. K.; Carr, T. D.; Thieman, J. R.; Schauble, J. J.; Riddle, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Observations of Jupiter's low frequency radio emissions collected over one month intervals before and after each Voyager encounter were analyzed. Compilations of occurrence probability, average power flux density and average sense of circular polarization are presented as a function of central meridian longitude, phase of Io, and frequency. The results are compared with ground based observations. The necessary geometrical conditions are preferred polarization sense for Io-related decametric emission observed by Voyager from above both the dayside and nightside hemispheres are found to be essentially the same as are observed in Earth based studies. On the other hand, there is a clear local time dependence in the Io-independent decametric emission. Io appears to have an influence on average flux density of the emission down to below 2 MHz. The average power flux density spectrum of Jupiter's emission has a broad peak near 9MHz. Integration of the average spectrum over all frequencies gives a total radiated power for an isotropic source of 4 x 10 to the 11th power W.

  20. Modeling the Solar Wind at the Ulysses, Voyager, and New Horizons Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, T. K.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Elliott, H. A.; McComas, D. J.

    2016-11-01

    The outer heliosphere is a dynamic region shaped largely by the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. While interplanetary magnetic field and plasma observations by the Voyager spacecraft have significantly improved our understanding of this vast region, modeling the outer heliosphere still remains a challenge. We simulate the three-dimensional, time-dependent solar wind flow from 1 to 80 astronomical units (au), where the solar wind is assumed to be supersonic, using a two-fluid model in which protons and interstellar neutral hydrogen atoms are treated as separate fluids. We use 1 day averages of the solar wind parameters from the OMNI data set as inner boundary conditions to reproduce time-dependent effects in a simplified manner which involves interpolation in both space and time. Our model generally agrees with Ulysses data in the inner heliosphere and Voyager data in the outer heliosphere. Ultimately, we present the model solar wind parameters extracted along the trajectory of the New Horizons spacecraft. We compare our results with in situ plasma data taken between 11 and 33 au and at the closest approach to Pluto on 2015 July 14.

  1. Voyager 1 and 2 Observations of the Local Interstellar Magnetic Field and Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, J. D.; Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2015-12-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) observed compressive interstellar turbulence in the local interstellar medium (LISM) with a Kolmogorov spectrum from 2013.36 to 2014.64. Observations of the magnetic field by V1 during 2015 will be presented. Preliminary heliosheath observations by Voyager 2 (V2) indicate that the magnetic field strength (B) began to increase in mid-2011, possibly reaching 0.3 nT during mid-2012. A similar increase in B was observed by V1 shortly before it crossed the heliopause. However, it is possible that the strong magnetic fields observed by V2, if confirmed, were associated with increasing solar activity. The plasma speed was lowest during the middle of 2012, but there was no clear relationship between V and B. The magnetic flux continued to be conserved by V2 during 2011 and 2012, whereas the magnetic flux at V1 decreased in the heliosheath with increasing distance. At least 30 magnetic holes, magnetic humps and other microscale features were observed in the heliosheath by V2 during 2012. Such features were not observed by V1 in the LISM.

  2. The Bastille day Shock and Merged Interaction Region at 63 au: Voyager 2 Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Richardson, J. D.; Lepping, R. P.

    2001-12-01

    A transient flow system containing several streams and shocks associated with the Bastille Day 2000 solar event was observed by the WIND and ACE spacecraft at 1 AU. Voyager 2 (V2) at 63 AU observed this flow system after it moved through the interplanetary medium and into the distant heliosphere, where the interstellar pickup protons strongly influence the MHD structures and flow dynamics. We discuss the Voyager 2 magnetic and plasma observations of this event. Increases in the magnetic field strength B, density N, temperature T and speed V were observed at the front of a stream at V2, consistent with presence of a shock related to the Bastille Day shock at 1 AU. However, the jumps occurred in a 16.9-hour data gap, so that the shock was not observed directly, and the properties of the candidate shock cannot be determined precisely. The candidate shock was followed by a merged interaction region (MIR) that moved past V2 for at least 10 days. The first part of this MIR contains a structure that might be a magnetic cloud. Just ahead of the shock there was an abrupt increase in density associated with a decrease in temperature such that the solar wind thermal pressure was constant across it. Just behind the shock there was an abrupt decrease in density associated with a net increase in magnetic field strength. This appears to be a pressure balanced structure in which the interstellar pickup protons make a significant contribution.

  3. Turbulence in the solar wind: spectra from Voyager 2 data at 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraternale, F.; Gallana, L.; Iovieno, M.; Opher, M.; Richardson, J. D.; Tordella, D.

    2016-02-01

    Fluctuations in the flow velocity and magnetic fields are ubiquitous in the Solar System. These fluctuations are turbulent, in the sense that they are disordered and span a broad range of scales in both space and time. The study of solar wind turbulence is motivated by a number of factors all keys to the understanding of the Solar Wind origin and thermodynamics. The solar wind spectral properties are far from uniformity and evolve with the increasing distance from the sun. Most of the available spectra of solar wind turbulence were computed at 1 astronomical unit, while accurate spectra on wide frequency ranges at larger distances are still few. In this paper we consider solar wind spectra derived from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 AU from the sun. Voyager 2 data are an incomplete time series with a voids/signal ratio that typically increases as the spacecraft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979), making the analysis challenging. In order to estimate the uncertainty of the spectral slopes, different methods are tested on synthetic turbulence signals with the same gap distribution as V2 data. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents between -2.1 and -1.1, depending on frequency subranges. Probability density functions (PDFs) and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency.

  4. Ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae: Comparison of OAO A-2, IUE, and Voyager Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondo, Yoji; Mccluskey, George E.; Silvis, Jeffery M. S.; Polidan, Ronald S.; Mccluskey, Carolina P. S.; Eaton, Joel A.

    1994-01-01

    The six-band ultraviolet light curves of beta Lyrae obtained with the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO) A-2 in 1970 exhibited a very unusual behavior. The secondary minimum deepened at shorter wavelength, indicating that one was not observing light variations caused primarily by the eclipses of two stars having a roughly Planckian energy distribution. It was then suggested that the light variations were caused by a viewing angle effect of an optically thick, ellipsoidal circumbinary gas cloud. Since 1978 beta Lyrae has been observed with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. We have constructed ultraviolet light curves from the IUE archival data for comparison with the OAO A-2 results. We find that they are in substantial agreement with each other. The Voyager ultraviolet spectrometer was also used to observe this binary during a period covered by IUE observations. The Voyager results agree with those of the two other satellite observatories at wavelengths longer than about 1350 A. However, in the wavelength region shorter than the Lyman-alpha line at 1216 A, the light curves at 1085 and 965 A show virtually no light variation except an apparent flaring near phase 0.7, which is also in evidence at longer wavelengths. We suggest that the optically thick circumbinary gas cloud, which envelops the two stars completely, assumes a roughly spherical shape when observed at these shorter wavelengths.

  5. Charles Darwin's beagle voyage, fossil vertebrate succession, and "the gradual birth & death of species".

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Paul D

    2010-01-01

    The prevailing view among historians of science holds that Charles Darwin became a convinced transmutationist only in the early spring of 1837, after his Beagle collections had been examined by expert British naturalists. With respect to the fossil vertebrate evidence, some historians believe that Darwin was incapable of seeing or understanding the transmutationist implications of his specimens without the help of Richard Owen. There is ample evidence, however, that he clearly recognized the similarities between several of the fossil vertebrates he collected and some of the extant fauna of South America before he returned to Britain. These comparisons, recorded in his correspondence, his diary and his notebooks during the voyage, were instances of a phenomenon that he later called the "law of the succession of types." Moreover, on the Beagle, he was following a geological research agenda outlined in the second volume of Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology, which implies that paleontological data alone could provide an insight into the laws which govern the appearance of new species. Since Darwin claims in On the Origin of Species that fossil vertebrate succession was one of the key lines of evidence that led him to question the fixity of species, it seems certain that he was seriously contemplating transmutation during the Beagle voyage. If so, historians of science need to reconsider both the role of Britain's expert naturalists and the importance of the fossil vertebrate evidence in the development of Darwin's ideas on transmutation.

  6. Detection of dust impacts by the Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, David R.

    1993-01-01

    The Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument detected large numbers of dust particles during the Voyager 2 encounter with Neptune. The signatures of these impacts are analyzed in some detail. The major conclusions are described. PRA detects impacts from all over the spacecraft body, not just the PRA antennas. The signatures of individual impacts last substantially longer than was expected from complementary Plasma Wave Subsystem (PWS) data acquired by another Voyager experiment. The signatures of individual impacts demonstrate very rapid fluctuations in signal strength, so fast that the data are limited by the speed of response of the instrument. The PRA detects events at a rate consistently lower than does the Plasma Wave subsystem. Even so, the impact rate is so great near the inbound crossing of the ring plane that no reliable estimate of impact rate can be made for this period. The data are consistent with the presence of electrons accelerated by ions within an expanding plasma cloud from the point of impact. An ancillary conclusion is that the anomalous appearance of data acquired at 900 kHz appears to be due to an error in processing the PRA data prior to their delivery rather than due to overload of the PRA instrument.

  7. Voyager Observations of Magnetic Fields and Cosmic Rays in the Heliosheath

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Stone, E.; McDonald, F. B.

    2011-01-01

    The major features of the profile of greater than 70 MeV/nuc cosmic ray intensity (CRI) observed by Voyager 1 (VI) in the heliosheath from 2005.8-2010.24 are described by the empirical "CR-B" relation as the cumulative effect of variations of the magnetic field strength B. The CRI profile observed by Voyager 2 (V2) from 2008.60 to 2010.28 in the heliosheath is also described by the CR-B relation. On a smaller scale, of the order of a hundred days, a sequence on CRI decreases observed by V 1 during 2006 was interpreted as the effect of a propagating interplanetary shock first interacting with the termination shock, then moving past V1, and finally reflecting from the heliopause and propagating back to V1. Our observations show that the second CRI decrease in this sequence began during the passage of a "Global Merged Interaction Region" (GMIR), 40 days after the arrival of the GMIR and its possible shock. The first and third CRI decreases in the sequence were associated with local enhancements of B. The magnetic field observations associated with the second sequence of 3 cosmic ray intensity decreases observed by V 1 in 2007/2008 are more difficult to reconcile with the scenario of Webber et al. (2009) and the CR-B relation. The discrepancy might indicate the importance of latitudinal effects

  8. Spectra and correlations in the solar wind from Voyager 2 around 5 AU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallana, Luca; Fraternale, Federico; Iovieno, Michele; Magli, Enrico; Fosson, Sophie; Opher, Merav; Richardson, John; Tordella, Daniela

    2014-11-01

    Solar wind spectra deduced from the data recorded by the Voyager 2 mission during 1979 at about 5 astronomical units from the sun are considered. The data are time series which contain voids that typically become larger and irregularly sparse as the craft moves away from the sun (45% missing data in 1979). By extracting complete subsets and filling gaps with different techniques (polynomial interpolation, Rybicki (AJ 1992) and compressed sensing (e.g. Candes et al. CPAM 2006) reconstruction methods, global DFT for irregularly spaced data) we obtain velocity and magnetic field fluctuations between 10-5 and 10-2 Hz in the MHD inertial range of solar wind. Spectra of all variables show a power law scaling with exponents in between -1.5 and -1.8. PDFs and correlations indicate that the flow has a significant intermittency. The reliability of the reconstruction methods used is analyzed by introducing the same sequence of gaps observed in the Voyager data into a reference dataset extracted from direct numerical simulations of incompressible Navier-Stokes turbulence as well as from synthetic turbulence, and then by comparing the statistics obtained with those of the complete reference dataset.

  9. Salish Sea

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Health of the Salish Sea Report is a collaboration between EPA and Environment Canada to examine the health of the Salish Sea ecosystem in Washington and British Columbia, encompassing the Puget Sound and Georgia Basin.

  10. Introduction: SIPEX-2: A study of sea-ice physical, biogeochemical and ecosystem processes off East Antarctica during spring 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meiners, Klaus M.; Golden, Ken M.; Heil, Petra; Lieser, Jan L.; Massom, Rob; Meyer, Bettina; Williams, Guy D.

    2016-09-01

    This editorial introduces a suite of articles resulting from the second Sea Ice Physics and Ecosystems eXperiment (SIPEX-2) voyage by presenting some background information on the study area and Antarctic sea-ice conditions, and summarising the key findings from the project. Using the Australian icebreaker RV Aurora Australis, SIPEX-2 was conducted in the area between 115-125°E and 62-66°S off East Antarctica during September to November 2012. This region had been sampled during two previous experiments, i.e. ARISE in 2003 (Massom et al., 2006a) and SIPEX in 2007 (Worby et al., 2011a). The 2012 voyage combined traditional and newly developed sampling methods with satellite and other data to measure sea-ice physical properties and processes on large scales, which provided context for biogeochemical and ecological case studies. The specific goals of the SIPEX-2 project were to: (i) measure the spatial variability in sea-ice and snow-cover properties over small- to regional-length scales; (ii) improve understanding of sea-ice kinematic processes; and (iii) advance knowledge of the links between sea-ice physical characteristics, sea-ice biogeochemical cycling and ice-associated food-web dynamics. Our field-based activities were designed to inform modelling approaches and to improve our capability to assess impacts of predicted changes in Antarctic sea ice on Southern Ocean biogeochemical cycles and ecosystem function.

  11. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  12. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The skies of the Bering Sea were relatively clear again in this SeaWiFS image showing a band of aquamarine colored water. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Bering Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Much of the Bering Sea is clear in this SeaWiFS image. The large expanse of bright aquamarine water is clearly visible. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. PREFACE: 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference: Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zank, G. P.

    2015-01-01

    The 13th Annual International Astrophysics Conference was held in scenic Myrtle Beach, South Carolina, USA, during the week of 10-14 March 2014. The meeting drew nearly 80 participants from all over the world, representing a wide range of interests and expertise in the interplanetary medium, the solar wind, observations, and theory. The theme of the meeting was Voyager, IBEX, and the Interstellar Medium. This decade may one day be viewed as the golden age in the exploration of the large-scale heliosphere and the local interstellar medium (LISM). Voyager 1 and 2 and IBEX are yielding remarkable new discoveries about the boundaries of the solar wind - LISM region and the interstellar medium. Hitherto, our basic understanding of the interstellar medium has been provided by telescope observations across multiple wavelengths that are typically integrated over many parsecs. For the first time, with these three spacecraft, we are making detailed measurements of the interstellar plasma, energetic particles (charged and neutral), magnetic field, and plasma waves in situ or with very short integration distances. IBEX provides insight into the global characteristics of the very local interstellar medium and Voyager 1 has just crossed the heliopause and is now in the interstellar medium. Remarkable results can be anticipated as discoveries over the next decade are made and the physics of the interstellar medium unfolds. As described in the papers in this volume, the new observations are already challenging theoretical models. The 13th Annual International Conference focused on the physics of the solar wind - LISM boundaries and the emerging physics of the local interstellar medium. To address this, astrophysicists and space physicists assembled to share their combined expertise to address in a highly interdisciplinary fashion the physics of the interaction between the solar wind and the interstellar medium. We thank Adele Corona and ICNS for her continued excellent

  15. Voyage on the SS "School Library Leadership": Collaboration in Teaching and Learning at the University of Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Judith L.; Ballard, Susan D.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes the SS "School Library Leadership" maiden voyage, which departed from the University of Vermont (UVM) during the 2010 fall semester. Twelve intrepid sailors followed their sense of adventure into uncharted waters with cocaptains Judy Kaplan and Susan Ballard in an online collaboration that provided a powerful…

  16. Measurements of wind vectors, eddy momentum transports, and energy conversions in Jupiter's atmosphere from Voyager 1 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beebe, R. F.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Hunt, G. E.; Muller, J.-P.; Mitchell, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    Voyager 1 narrow-angle images were used to obtain displacements of features down to 100 to 200 km in size over intervals of 10 hours. A global map of velocity vectors and longitudinally averaged zonal wind vectors as functions of the latitude, is presented and discussed

  17. ChemVoyage: A Web-Based, Simulated Learning Environment with Scaffolding and Linking Visualization to Conceptualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRae, Christopher; Karuso, Peter; Liu, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The Web is now a standard tool for information access and dissemination in higher education. The prospect of Web-based, simulated learning platforms and technologies, however, remains underexplored. We have developed a Web-based tutorial program (ChemVoyage) for a third-year organic chemistry class on the topic of pericyclic reactions to…

  18. Large-scale variations of the interplanetary magnetic field: Voyager 1 and 2 observations between 1-5 AU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.; Klein, L. W.; Neubauer, F. M.

    1981-01-01

    Observations by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft of the interplanetary magnetic field between 1 and 5 AU were used to investigate the large scale structure of the IMF in a period of increasing solar activity. The Voyager spacecraft found notable deviations from the Parker axial model. These deviations are attributed both to temporal variations associated with increasing solar activity, and to the effects of fluctuations of the field in the radial direction. The amplitude of the latter fluctuations were found to be large relative to the magnitude of the radial field component itself beyond approximately 3 AU. Both Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 observed decreases with increasing heliocentric distance in the amplitude of transverse fluctuations in the averaged field strength (B) which are consistent with the presence of predominantly undamped Alfven waves in the solar wind, although and necessarily implying the presence of them. Fluctuations in the strength of B (relative to mean field strength) were found to be small in amplitude, with a RMS which is approximately one third of that for the transverse fluctuations and they are essentially independent of distance from the Sun.

  19. Voyager Observations in the Distant Heliosheath - an Analogy With ISEE-3 Observations in theDeep Geomagnetic Tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Ian

    2015-04-01

    We suggest an analogy between energetic particle and magnetic field observations made by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in the distant heliosheath at 122 AU in August 2012 and those made in the distant geomagnetic tail by the Energetic Particle Anisotropy Spectrometer (EPAS) on the ISEE 3 spacecraft in 1982-1983, including remarkable similarities in the behavior of the energetic particle intensities and anisotropies despite large differences in the time and distance scales.The analogy suggests that Voyager 1 may have moved not into the interstellar medium from heliosheath but instead into a region equivalent to the “lobes” of the geomagnetic tail. This region may be composed of heliospheric field lines which have reconnected with the interstellar medium beyond the spacecraft and so are open to the entry of cosmic rays, while heliospheric particles (e.g., Anomalous Cosmic Rays) are free to escape, leaving only a weak population of large pitch-angle ACRs with “pancake” distributions similar to those also seen by ISEE 3 in the lobes of the tail. If this is the case, the actual heliopause (equivalent to the magnetopause), where the ambient interstellar medium is entered, lies beyond the current distance of Voyager 1.Temporary variations in the energetic particle and magnetic field intensities at Voyager over a period of around 27 days prior to the final boundary crossing are interpreted as the boundary twice approaching Voyager 1 and then retreating Sunward before the final crossing occurred. Similar features were frequently observed in the deep tail due to tail dynamics and “flapping” in the solar wind. The 27 day interval suggests that rotation of the heliosphere may have contributed to this boundary motion.Energetic particles in the tail are accelerated by reconnection in the plasma sheet which can lead to the formation of plasmoids. Both are elements of some recent models of the heliopause.

  20. The Occurence Rate, Polarization Character, and Intensity of Broadband Jovian Kilometric Radiation. [Voyager Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.; Kaiser, M. L.

    1980-01-01

    The major observational features of one new component of Jupiter's radio emission spectrum, the broadband kilometer-wavelenth radiation or bKOM are described. The Voyager planetary radio astronomy experiments reveal that the overall occurrence morphology, total power, and polarization character of bKOM are strong functions of the latitude and/or local time geometry of the observations. The post-encounter data show a decline in the mean occurrence rates and power level of bKOM and, in particular, a depletion in the occurrence rate at those same longitudes where the detection rate is a maximum before encounter. Additionally, the polarization sense undergoes a permanent reversal in sign after encounter, whereas the time-averaged wave axial ratio and degrees of polarization remain relatively unchanged. No evidence of any control by Io is found. The strong dependence of the morphology on local time suggests a source whose beam is nearly fixed relative to the Jupiter-sun line.

  1. Strong Temporal Variation Over One Saturnian Year: From Voyager to Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Achterberg, Richard K.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Smith, Mark A.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Flasar, F. Michael; Jiang, Xun; Baines, Kevin H.; Morales-Juberias, Raul; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; DelGenio, Anthony D.; West, Robert A.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the combined spacecraft observations of Saturn acquired over one Saturnian year (approximately 29.5 Earth years), from the Voyager encounters (1980-81) to the new Cassini reconnaissance (2009-10). The combined observations reveal a strong temporal increase of tropic temperature (approximately 10 Kelvins) around the tropopause of Saturn (i.e., 50 mbar), which is stronger than the seasonal variability (approximately a few Kelvins). We also provide the first estimate of the zonal winds at 750 mbar, which is close to the zonal winds at 2000 mbar. The quasi-consistency of zonal winds between these two levels provides observational support to a numerical suggestion inferring that the zonal winds at pressures greater than 500 mbar do not vary significantly with depth. Furthermore, the temporal variation of zonal winds decreases its magnitude with depth, implying that the relatively deep zonal winds are stable with time.

  2. Survey of low energy plasma electrons in Saturn's magnetosphere: Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Ogilvie, K. W.; Scudder, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The low energy plasma electron environment within Saturn's magnetosphere was surveyed by the Plasma Science Experiment (PLS) during the Voyager encounters with Saturn. Over the full energy range of the PLS instrument (10 eV to 6 keV) the electron distribution functions are clearly non-Maxwellian in character; they are composed of a cold (thermal) component with Maxwellian shape and a hot (suprathermal) non-Maxwellian component. A large scale positive radial gradient in electron temperature is observed, increasing from less than 1 eV in the inner magnetosphere to as high as 800 eV in the outer magnetosphere. Three fundamentally different plasma regimes were identified from the measurements: (1) the hot outer magnetosphere, (2) the extended plasma sheet, and (3) the inner plasma torus.

  3. Strong Temporal Variation Over One Saturnian Year: From Voyager to Cassini

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liming; Achterberg, Richard K.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Smith, Mark A.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Nixon, Conor A.; Orton, Glenn S.; Flasar, F. Michael; Jiang, Xun; Baines, Kevin H.; Morales-Juberías, Raúl; Ingersoll, Andrew P.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.; Del Genio, Anthony D.; West, Robert A.; Ewald, Shawn P.

    2013-01-01

    Here we report the combined spacecraft observations of Saturn acquired over one Saturnian year (~29.5 Earth years), from the Voyager encounters (1980–81) to the new Cassini reconnaissance (2009–10). The combined observations reveal a strong temporal increase of tropic temperature (~10 Kelvins) around the tropopause of Saturn (i.e., 50 mbar), which is stronger than the seasonal variability (~a few Kelvins). We also provide the first estimate of the zonal winds at 750 mbar, which is close to the zonal winds at 2000 mbar. The quasi-consistency of zonal winds between these two levels provides observational support to a numerical suggestion inferring that the zonal winds at pressures greater than 500 mbar do not vary significantly with depth. Furthermore, the temporal variation of zonal winds decreases its magnitude with depth, implying that the relatively deep zonal winds are stable with time. PMID:23934437

  4. The ISS as a platform for a fully simulated mars voyage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narici, Livio; Reitz, Guenther

    2016-07-01

    The ISS can mimic the impact of microgravity, radiation, living and psychological conditions that astronauts will face during a deep space cruise, for example to Mars. This suggests the ISS as the most valuable "analogue" for deep space exploration. NASA has indeed suggested a 'full-up deep space simulation on last available ISS Mission: 6/7 crew for one year duration; full simulation of time delays & autonomous operations'. This idea should be pushed further. It is indeed conceivable to use the ISS as the final "analogue", performing a real 'dry-run' of a deep space mission (such as a mission to Mars), as close as reasonably possible to what will be the real voyage. This Mars ISS dry run (ISS4Mars) would last 500-800 days, mimicking most of the challenges which will be undertaken such as length, isolation, food provision, decision making, time delays, health monitoring diagnostic and therapeutic actions and more: not a collection of "single experiments", but a complete exploration simulation were all the pieces will come together for the first in space simulated Mars voyage. Most of these challenges are the same that those that will be encountered during a Moon voyage, with the most evident exceptions being the duration and the communication delay. At the time of the Mars ISS dry run all the science and technological challenges will have to be mostly solved by dedicated works. These solutions will be synergistically deployed in the dry run which will simulate all the different aspects of the voyage, the trip to Mars, the permanence on the planet and the return to Earth. During the dry run i) There will be no arrivals/departure of spacecrafts; 2) Proper communications delay with ground will be simulated; 3) Decision processes will migrate from Ground to ISS; 4) Permanence on Mars will be simulated. Mars ISS dry run will use just a portion of the ISS which will be totally isolated from the rest of the ISS, leaving to the other ISS portions the task to provide the

  5. Voyager Saturnian ring measurements and the early history of the solar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfven, H.; Axnaes, I.; Brenning, N.; Lindquist, P. A.

    1985-01-01

    The mass distribution in the Saturnian ring system is investigated and compared with predictions from plasma cosmogony. According to this theory, the matter in the rings was once a magnetized plasma, in which gravitation is balanced by the centrifugal and electromagnetic forces. As the plasma is neutralized, the electromagnetic forces disappear and the matter falls in to 2/3 of the original saturnocentric distance. This causes the cosmogonic shadow effect, demonstrated for the large scale structure of the Saturnian ring system. It is shown that many structures of the present ring system can be understood as shadows and antishadows of cosmogonic origin. These appear in the form of double rings centered around a position a factor 0.64 (slightly 2/3) closer to Saturn than the causing feature. Voyager data agree with an accuracy 1%.

  6. Radio Jupiter after Voyager: An overview of the Planetary Radio Astronomy observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boischot, A.; Lecacheux, A.; Kaiser, M. L.; Desch, M. D.; Alexander, J. K.; Warwick, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    Jupiter's low frequency radio emission morphology as observed by the Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) instrument onboard the Voyager spacecraft is reviewed. The PRA measurement capabilities and limitations are summarized following over two years of experience with the instrument. As a direct consequence of the PRA spacecraft observations, unprecedented in terms of their sensitivity and frequency coverage, at least three previous unrecognized emission components were discovered: broadband and narrow band kilometric emission and the lesser arc decametric emission. Their properties are reviewed. In addition, the fundamental structure of the decameter and hectometer wavelength emission, which is believed to be almost exclusively in the form of complex but repeating arc structures in the frequency time domain, is described. Dramatic changes in the emission morphology of some components as a function of Sun-Jupiter-spacecraft angle (local time) are described. Finally, the PRA in suit measurements of the Io plasma torus hot to cold electron density and temperature ratios are summarized.

  7. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    SciTech Connect

    Pearl, J.C.; Conrath, B.J.; Hanel, R.A.; Pirraglia, J.A.; Coustenis, A. Paris, Observatoire, Meudon )

    1990-03-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus. 39 refs.

  8. Properties of scatterers in the troposphere and lower stratosphere of Uranus based on Voyager imaging data

    SciTech Connect

    Rages, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Tomasko, M.G.; Doose, L.R. NASA, Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA Arizona Univ., Tucson )

    1991-02-01

    Scalar and vector radiative transfer and microphysical models are presently constructed from photometrically and geometrically corrected Voyager images of Uranus defining spatially-resolved intensities over a range of phase angles for two latitude bands. The methane ice cloud occupying 1.2-1.3 bar is of 0.7 optical depth at 22.5 deg S, rising to 2.4 at 65 deg S; the volume absorption coefficient of the cloud particles is 50 percent greater at the low latitude than at the high, assuming constant mean cloud particle size. The scattering model also includes photochemically-produced stratospheric hydrocarbon ices in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, as well as an optically thick hydrogen sulfide cloud. 34 refs.

  9. Photometry from Voyager 2 - Initial results from the Uranian atmosphere, satellites, and rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, A. L.; West, R. A.; Nelson, R. M.; Wallis, B. D.; Buratti, B. J.; Horn, L. J.; Hord, C. W.; Esposito, L. W.; Simmons, K. E.; Graps, A. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of Voyager 2 photopolarimetry (PPS) surveys of Uranus, the ring system, occultation experiments and observations of the Uranian moons are reported. Dual-channel photometry and polarimetry data obtained of the atmosphere at various emission and phase angles are delineated and compared with characteristics of the Saturn and Jupiter atmospheres. The results of temperature, UV absorption and density profile calculations are also discussed. Extensive ring dimensional data, based on two occultation experiments, are provided in tabular form noting that the rings contain no dust. Finally, the geometric albedos of the five major moons and the phase curve of the moon Titania are presented. The latter data indicate that Titanian surface features are not the result of recent events such as volcanism or ice slurry outflows.

  10. The atmosphere of Titan - an analysis of the Voyager 1 radio occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindal, G. F.; Wood, G. E.; Hotz, H. B.; Sweetnam, D. N.; Eshleman, V. R.; Tyler, G. L.

    1983-02-01

    The equatorial atmosphere of Titan was probed by means of two coherently related radio signals transmitted from Voyager 1 at 13.0 and 3.6 cm wavelengths during the November 12, 1980 occultation of the spacecraft by the Saturn satellite. An analysis of the differential dispersive frequency measurements did not reveal any ionization layers in the upper atmosphere of Titan. The gas refractivity data, which extend from the surface to about 200 km altitude, were interpreted in two different ways. In the first, it is assumed that N2 makes up virtually all of the atmosphere, with small amounts of CH4 and other hydrocarbons present. In the second interpretation of the refractivity data, it is assumed that the 3.5 km altitude level corresponds to the bottom of a CH4 cloud layer and that N2 and CH4 were perfectly mixed below this level.

  11. Properties of scatterers in the troposphere and lower stratosphere of Uranus based on Voyager imaging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rages, K.; Pollack, J. B.; Tomasko, M. G.; Doose, L. R.

    1991-02-01

    Scalar and vector radiative transfer and microphysical models are presently constructed from photometrically and geometrically corrected Voyager images of Uranus defining spatially-resolved intensities over a range of phase angles for two latitude bands. The methane ice cloud occupying 1.2-1.3 bar is of 0.7 optical depth at 22.5 deg S, rising to 2.4 at 65 deg S; the volume absorption coefficient of the cloud particles is 50 percent greater at the low latitude than at the high, assuming constant mean cloud particle size. The scattering model also includes photochemically-produced stratospheric hydrocarbon ices in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, as well as an optically thick hydrogen sulfide cloud.

  12. Cryogenic temperature control by means of energy storage materials. [for long space voyages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodzka, P. G.; Picklesimer, E. A.; Connor, L. E.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the concept of thermal control by means of physical or chemical reaction heats for applications involving the storage of cryogens during long-term space voyages. The investigation included some preliminary experimental tests of energy storage material (ESM) effectiveness. The materials considered can store and liberate large amounts of thermal energy by means of mechanisms such as sensible heat, heat of fusion, and physical or chemical reaction heat. A differential thermal analysis was utilized in the laboratory tests. Attention is given to the evaluation of cryogenic ESM thermal control concepts, the experimental determination of phase change materials characteristics, and adsorption ESMs. It is found that an ESM shield surrounded by multiple layer insulation provides the best protection for a cryogen store.

  13. Changes on Io between Voyager 1 and Galileo's second orbit around an unnamed vent North of

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Detail of changes around a probable vent about 650 kilometers north of Prometheus on Jupiter's moon Io as seen in images obtained by the Voyager 1 spacecraft in April 1979 (left) and the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo spacecraft on September 7th, 1996 (right). The re-arranging of dark and light radial surface patterns may be a result of plume fallout. North is to the top of both images which are approximately 400 kilometers square.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  14. Evidence for disequilibrium of ortho and para hydrogen on Jupiter from Voyager IRIS measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conrath, B. J.; Gierasch, P. J.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminary results of an analysis of the ortho state/para state ratio (parallel/antiparallel) for molecular H2 in the Jovian atmosphere using Voyager IR spectrometer (IRIS) data are reported. The study was undertaken to expand the understanding of the thermodynamics of a predominantly H2 atmosphere, which takes about 100 million sec to reach equilibrium. IRIS data provided 4.3/cm resolution in the 300-700/cm spectral range dominated by H2 lines. Approximately 600 spectra were examined to detect any disequilibrium between the hydrogen species. The results indicate that the ortho-para ratio is not in an equilibrium state in the upper Jovian troposphere. A thorough mapping of the para-state molecules in the upper atmosphere could therefore aid in mapping the atmospheric flowfield.

  15. Voyager measurements of hydrogen Lyman-α diffuse emission from the Milky Way.

    PubMed

    Lallement, Rosine; Quémerais, Eric; Bertaux, Jean-Loup; Sandel, Bill R; Izmodenov, Vlad

    2011-12-23

    Doppler-shifted hydrogen Lyman-alpha (Lyα) emission from galaxies is currently measured and used in cosmology as an indicator of star formation. Until now, the Milky Way emission has not been detected, owing to far brighter local sources, including the H (hydrogen) glow, i.e., solar Lyα radiation backscattered by interstellar atoms that flow within the solar system. Because observations from the Voyager spacecraft, now leaving the heliosphere, are decreasingly affected by the H glow, the ultraviolet spectrographs are detecting Lyα diffuse emission from our Galaxy. The surface brightness toward nearby star-forming regions is about 3 to 4 rayleighs. The escape fraction of the radiation from the brightest H II regions is on the order of 3% and is highly spatially variable. These results will help in constraining models of Lyα radiation transfer in distant galaxies.

  16. Analysis of pre-flight modulator voltage calibration data for the Voyager plasma science experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nastov, Ognen

    1988-01-01

    The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) modulator calibration (MVM) data analysis was undertaken in order to check the correctness of the fast A/D converter formulas that connect low voltage monitor signals (MV) with digital outputs (DN), to determine the proportionality constants between the actual modulator grid potential (V) and the monitor voltage (MV), and to establish an algorithm to link the digitized readouts (DN) with the actual grid potential (V). The analysis results are surprising in that the derived conversion constants deviate by fairly significant amounts from their nominal values. However, it must be kept in mind that the test results which were used for analysis may be very imprecise. Even if it is assumed that the test result errors are very large, they do no appear to be capable to account for all discrepancies between the theoretical expectations and the results of the analysis. Measurements with the flight spare instrument appear to be the only means of investigating these effects further.

  17. Shocks in the solar wind between 1 and 8.5 AU: Voyager 1 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazis, P. R.

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made of all interplanetary shocks detected by the plasma science experiment aboard the Voyager 1 spacecraft between 1.2 and 8.5 AU. Shock normals and shock velocities are determined. The variation of shock frequency and various shock parameters with heliocentric distance is discussed. The results indicate that beyond 1.2 AU, the vast majority of shocks were associated with interaction regions between high and low speed streams; of 95 events, only 1 was clearly associated with a transient event. Forward shocks were more numerous and seemed to form closer to the sun than reverse shocks. Forward shocks were stronger than reverse shocks. The energy balance of three shocks is examined. A close agreement is found between the measured and the predicted pressure ratios across these shocks. The contribution of shocks to the global energy balance is discussed. Shocks are found to have a significant effect in heating the solar wind.

  18. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Uranus, as determined from Voyager IRIS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.; Hanel, R. A.; Pirraglia, J. A.; Coustenis, A.

    1990-01-01

    The albedo, T(eff), and energy balance of Uranus are presently derived from Voyager IR Spectrometer and Radiometer data. By obtaining the absolute phase curve of Uranus, it has become possible to evaluate the Bond albedo without making separate determinations of the geometric albedo and phase integral. An orbital mean value for the bolometric Bond albedo of 0.3 + or - 0.049 yields an equilibrium temperature of 58.2 + or - 1.0 K. Thermal spectra from pole-to-pole latitude coverage establish a T(eff) of 59.1 + or - 0.3 K, leading to an energy balance of 1.06 + or - 0.08 for Uranus.

  19. The albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune, as determined from Voyager data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearl, J. C.; Conrath, B. J.

    1991-01-01

    Data from the Voyager infrared spectrometer and radiometer (IRIS) investigation are used in determining the albedo, effective temperature, and energy balance of Neptune. From broadband radiometric observations made at phase angles of 14 deg and 134 deg, together with measurements at intermediate phase angles from the literature, an orbital mean value of 0.290 +/-0.067 is obtained for the bolometric Bond albedo. This yields an equilibrium temperature Teq = 46.6 +/-1.1 K. From thermal spectra obtained over latitudes from pole to pole an effective temperature Teff = 59.3 +/-0.8 K is derived. This represents a substantial improvement over previously determined values. The energy balance of Neptune is therefore E = 2.61 +/-0.28, which is in agreement with previous results. The reduced uncertainty in this value is due to the improved determination of the effective temperature.

  20. Voyages Guided by the Skies: Ancient Concepts of Exploring and Domesticating Time and Space across Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappenglück, Michael A.

    2015-05-01

    Persistence and change are necessary for the stability and development of both the human individual and the human society, since the beginnings of human history. Man needs a static framework which, related to his self-awareness, defines a topocentric system of perception, evaluation, order, and meaning. He also requires a dynamic impetus, which allows exceeding the limits of special world views, shifting of perspectives and transformations of individual as well as social approaches to life. Travelling especially helped to broaden man's horizon and mind. Across cultures voyages guided by the skies are linked with practical concepts of exploring and domesticating time and space, but also figuratively with the life's journey and with other worlds, being expressed by mythic, ritual and later scientific language.

  1. Celebrating one year of atmospheric evolution on Titan since Voyager with Cassini/CIRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Bampasidis, G.; Vinatier, S.; Achterberg, R.; Lavvas, P.; Nixon, C.; Jennings, D.; Teanby, N.; Flasar, F. M.; Carlson, R.; Orton, G.; Romani, P.; Guandique, E. A.

    2012-04-01

    Seven years after Cassini's Saturn orbit insertion, we have in hand almost a complete picture of the stratospheric evolution within a Titanian year by combining Voyager 1 Infrared Radiometer Spectrometer (IRIS) measurements from 1980, Cassini Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) continuous recordings from 2004 to 2010 and the intervening ground-based and space-borne observations with ISO (Coustenis et al. 2003). We have re-analyzed the Voyager 1/IRIS data acquired during the 1980 encounter, 30 years (one Titan revolution) before 2010, with the most recent spectroscopic data releases and haze descriptions (Vinatier et al. 2010, 2012) by using our radiative transfer code (ART). The re-analysis confirms the V1/IRIS retrievals by Coustenis & Bezard (1995) and updates the abundances for all molecules and latitudes based on new temperature, haze and spectroscopic parameters. ART was also applied to all available CIRS spectral averages corresponding to more than 70 flybys binned over 10° in latitude for both medium (2.5 cm-1) and higher (0.5 cm-1) resolutions and from nadir and limb data both. In these spectra, we search for variations in temperature (following the method in Achterberg et al. 2011) and composition at northern (around 50°N), equatorial and southern (around 50°S) latitudes as the season on Titan progresses and compare them to the new V1/IRIS, ISO and other ground-based reported composition values (Coustenis et al., 2012, in prep). Other latitudes were examined in previous papers (e.g. Coustenis et al. 2010). With this study we search for interannual stratospheric thermal and chemical variations at a time when the season is exactly the same as the one of the Voyager flyby and until it moves towards northern summer solstice which will be observed by the Cassini extended Solstice mission. We find significant temperature variations, essentially a decrease with time during the Cassini mission. Little departure from the original V1/IRIS abundances at the

  2. MAGNETIC FIELD STRENGTH FLUCTUATIONS IN THE HELIOSHEATH: VOYAGER 1 OBSERVATIONS DURING 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F. E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the ''microscale fluctuations'' of the magnetic field strength B on a scale of several hours observed by Voyager1 (V1) in the heliosheath during 2009. The microscale fluctuations of B range from coherent to stochastic structures. The amplitude of microscale fluctuations of B during 1 day is measured by the standard deviation (SD) of 48 s averages of B. The distribution of the daily values of SD is lognormal. SD(t) from day of year (DOY) 1 to 331, 2009, is very intermittent. SD(t) has a 1/f or 'pink noise' spectrum on scales from 1 to 100 days, and it has a broad multifractal spectrum f({alpha}) with 0.57 {<=} {alpha} {<=} 1.39. The time series of increments SD(t + {tau}) - SD(t) has a pink noise spectrum with {alpha}' = 0.88 {+-} 0.14 on scales from 1 to 100 days. The increments have a Tsallis (q-Gaussian) distribution on scales from 1 to 165 days, with an average q = 1.75 {+-} 0.12. The skewness S and kurtosis K have Gaussian and lognormal distributions, respectively. The largest spikes in K(t) and S(t) are often associated with a change in B across a data gap and with identifiable physical structures. The 'turbulence' observed by V1 during 2009 was weakly compressible on average but still very intermittent, highly variable, and highly compressible at times. The turbulence observed just behind the termination shock by Voyager 2 was twice as strong. These observations place strong constraints on any model of 'turbulence' in the heliosheath.

  3. Magnetic Field Strength Fluctuations in the Heliosheath: Voyager 1 Observations during 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the "microscale fluctuations" of the magnetic field strength Beta on a scale of several hours observed by Voyager I (VI) in the heliosheath during 2009. The microscale fluctuations of Beta range from coherent to stochastic structures. The amplitude of microscale fluctuations of Beta during 1 day is measured by the standard deviation (SD) of 48 s averages of B. The distribution of the daily values of SD is lognormal. SD(t) from day of year (DOY) I to 331, 2009, is very intermittent. SD(t) has a 1/f or "pink noise" spectrum on scales from I to 100 days, and it has a broad multi fractal spectrum f(alpha) with 0.57 much < alpha much < 1.39. The time series of increments SD(t + r) - SD(t) has a pink noise spectrum with alpha' = 0.88 +/- 0.14 on scales from 1 to 100 days. The increments have a Tsallis (q-Gaussian) distribution on scales from 1 to 165 days, with an average q = 1.75 +/- 0.12. The skewness S and kurtosis K have Gaussian and lognormal distributions, respectively. The largest spikes in K(t) and Set) are often associated with a change in Beta across a data gap and with identifiable physical structures. The "turbulence" observed by VI during 2009 was weakly compressible on average but still very intermittent, highly variable, and highly compressible at times. The turbulence observed just behind the termination shock by Voyager 2 was twice as strong. These observations place strong constraints on any model of "turbulence" in the heliosheath.

  4. Magnetic Field Strength Fluctuations in the Heliosheath: Voyager 1 Observations During 2009

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brulaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the microscale fluctuations of the magnetic field strength B on a scale of several hours observed by Voyager1 (V1) in the heliosheath during 2009. The microscale fluctuations of B range from coherent to stochastic structures. The amplitude of microscale fluctuations of B during 1 day is measured by the standard deviation (SD) of 48 s averages of B. The distribution of the daily values of SD is lognormal. SD(t) from day of year (DOY) 1 to 331, 2009, is very intermittent. SD(t) has a 1/f or "pink noise" spectrum on scales from 1 to 100 days, and it has a broad multifractal spectrum f(alpha) with 0.57 less than or equal to alpha less than or equal to 1.39. The time series of increments SD(t + tau) -- SD(t) has a pink noise spectrum with alpha(1) = 0.88 plus or minus 0.14 on scales from 1 to 100 days. The increments have a Tsallis (q-Gaussian) distribution on scales from 1 to 165 days, with an average q = 1.75 plus or minus 0.12. The skewness S and kurtosis K have Gaussian and lognormal distributions, respectively. The largest spikes in K(t) and S(t) are often associated with a change in B across a data gap and with identifiable physical structures. The "turbulence" observed by V1 during 2009 was weakly compressible on average but still very intermittent, highly variable, and highly compressible at times. The turbulence observed just behind the termination shock by Voyager 2 was twice as strong. These observations place strong constraints on any model of turbulence in the heliosheath.

  5. Mortality of live export cattle on long-haul voyages: pathologic changes and pathogens.

    PubMed

    Moore, S Jo; O'Dea, Mark A; Perkins, Nigel; Barnes, Anne; O'Hara, Amanda J

    2014-03-01

    The cause of death in 215 cattle on 20 long-haul live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East, Russia, and China was investigated between 2010 and 2012 using gross, histologic, and/or molecular pathology techniques. A quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used to detect nucleic acids from viruses and bacteria known to be associated with respiratory disease in cattle: Bovine coronavirus (Betacoronavirus 1), Bovine herpesvirus 1, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 and 2, Bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Bovine parainfluenza virus 3, Histophilus somni, Mycoplasma bovis, Mannheimia haemolytica, and Pasteurella multocida. The most commonly diagnosed cause of death was respiratory disease (107/180, 59.4%), followed by lameness (n = 22, 12.2%), ketosis (n = 12, 6.7%), septicemia (n = 11, 6.1%), and enteric disease (n = 10, 5.6%). Two thirds (130/195) of animals from which lung samples were collected had histologic changes and/or positive qRT-PCR results indicative of infectious lung disease: 93 out of 130 (72%) had evidence of bacterial infection, 4 (3%) had viral infection, and 29 (22%) had mixed bacterial and viral infections, and for 4 (3%) the causative organism could not be identified. Bovine coronavirus was detected in up to 13% of cattle tested, and this finding is likely to have important implications for the management and treatment of respiratory disease in live export cattle. Results from the current study indicate that although overall mortality during live export voyages is low, further research into risk factors for developing respiratory disease is required.

  6. Studies using IMP, Voyager and Pioneer cosmic ray data to determine the size of the heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, John A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use the cosmic ray data from the IMP, Voyager and Pioneer spacecraft in the heliosphere out to approximately 65 AU to estimate the size of the heliosphere. We used several techniques to develop a consistent picture of the size of the heliosphere. The first method used a response function approach which determined the intensity as a function of time by scaling the modulation effect as they move outward and eventually reach the boundary of the heliosphere. In this model the effects of transient cosmic ray disturbances is included. A second approach using the perturbation method in which drifts are considered as a perturbation to the standard diffusion-convection modulation models was not fully developed. In a third approach the location of the modulation boundary beyond the termination shock was estimated using observations of the intensity and radial gradients between Voyager 2 and Pioneer 10 along with new estimates of the interstellar intensity of more than 70 MeV galactic cosmic rays. Using this method we found that for 7 years, from 1983 to 1990, the modulation boundary remained constant at 83 +/- 5 AU. We infer from these studies that a modulation boundary can be estimated only by extrapolating the observed radial gradients when the solar magnetic field polarity is such that cosmic-ray particles are drifting in the heliosphere inward toward the Earth along the neutral sheet. The boundary distance is larger than the estimates of the location of the termination shock at 67 +/- 5 AU using the same method. Two other studies partially supported by this grant are attached. The first deals with the recovery period of the greater than 70 MeV cosmic rays in the outer heliosphere from 1992-1995. In the second paper we compare the rigidity dependence of the 11-year cosmic ray variation at the Earth in two cycles of opposite solar magnetic field polarity.

  7. Smart Voyage Planning Model Sensitivity Analysis Using Ocean and Atmospheric Models Including Ensemble Methods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    climatology dataset. The parameters are the same as for the NOGAPS winds and WW3 sea /swell data. E. BATHYMETRY The OTSR bathymetry data was...model improvements; and ensemble post-processing methods. An SVP trial was also conducted at sea onboard USS PRINCETON (CG-59) with goals of...improvements; and ensemble post-processing methods. An SVP trial was also conducted at sea onboard USS PRINCETON (CG-59) with goals of Concept of Operations

  8. All at sea without a clock - Longitude from lunar distances.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floyd, D. J. E.

    2005-12-01

    I present a brief history of the ``Lunar Distance" technique for determining Longitude at sea, as developed by Astronomer Royal Neville Maskelyne (1732-1811) and others. I illustrate this history using images and results from a recent (2001) BBC History project to re-enact part of Captain James Cook's first voyage, from near-shipwreck on the east coast Australia, back to the relative safety of Batavia (modern-day Djakarta). I demonstrate the practical use of Lunars to determine longitude at sea, illustrated through comparison to GPS coordinates obtained along the voyage. During windows of lunar visibility, using new tables drawn up at HMNAO, we were able to match or exceed Maskelyne's stated accuracy of 30 nautical miles (0.5 degrees). Close to New Moon, dependent on our own skills of dead-reckoning, we prove far less able navigators than Cook and his cohort! I acknowledge the enormous assistance of Catherine Hohenkerk of the HMNAO, Tanya Batchelor of the BBC, George Huxtable, John Jeffrey, and John Selwyn-Gilbert in researching this subject. I gratefully acknowledge funding from the BBC, and HM Bark Endeavour Foundation for the use of their glorious ship, the Endeavour.

  9. Photographer : JPL Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Photographer : JPL Range : 106,250,000 km. ( 66 million miles) P-22830C This, Voyager 1 image shows Saturn and three of its satellites. A series of dark and light cloud bands appears through high altitude haze in the northern hemisphere. Cosiderable structure can be seen in the rings. The Cassini division, between the A-ring and B-ring, is readily visible. The shadow of rings on the planet's disk can also be seeen. The three satellites visible are, left to right, Enceladus (off the left edge of rings), Dione (just below the planet), and Tethys (at right edge of frame). The spacecraft will make its closest approach, 124,200 km. (77,174 miles) abovr the cloud tops, at 3:45 pm PST on Nov. 12, 1980. Nine months later, in August 1981, Voyager 2 will encounter Saturn and then continue on to Uranus.

  10. Heat stress: a major contributor to poor animal welfare associated with long-haul live export voyages.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Malcolm P; Cambridge, Heather; Foster, Susan F; McGreevy, Paul D

    2014-02-01

    Recent investigations by the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry into high mortalities on live export voyages from Australia to the Middle East during the Northern hemisphere summer suggest that animal welfare may be compromised by heat stress. The live export industry has generated a computer model that aims to assess the risk of heat stress and to contain mortality levels on live export ships below certain arbitrary limits. Although the model must be complied with under Australian law, it is not currently available for independent scientific scrutiny, and there is concern that model and the mandated space allowances are inadequate. This review appraises the relevant literature on heat stress in sheep and cattle, including laboratory studies aimed at mimicking the ambient temperatures and humidity levels likely to be encountered on live export voyages. Animal welfare is likely to be very poor as a result of heat stress in some shipments.

  11. Caspian Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In this Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from December 3, 2001, winter sea ice can be seen forming in the shallow waters of the northern Caspian (left) and Aral (upper right) Seas. Despite the inflow of the Volga River (upper left), the northern portion of the Caspian Sea averages only 17 feet in depth, and responds to the region's continental climate, which is cold in winter and hot and dry in the summer. The southern part of the Sea is deeper and remains ice-free throughout the winter. The dirty appearance of the ice may be due to sediment in the water, but may also be due to wind-driven dust. The wind in the region can blow at hurricane-force strength and can cause the ice to pile up in hummocks that are anchored to the sea bottom. The eastern portion of the Aral Sea is also beginning to freeze. At least two characteristics of the Aral Sea 'compete' in determining whether its waters will freeze. The Sea is shallow, which increases the likelihood of freezing, but it is also very salty, which means that lower temperatures are required to freeze it than would be required for fresh water. With average December temperatures of 18oF, it's clearly cold enough to allow ice to form. As the waters that feed the Aral Sea continue to be diverted for agriculture, the Sea becomes shallower and the regional climate becomes even more continental. This is because large bodies of water absorb and retain heat, moderating seasonal changes in temperature. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  12. Investigating Global Ion and Neutral Atom Populations with IBEX and Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Florinski, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this project was to investigate pickup ion (PUI) production in the solar wind and heliosheath (the region between the termination shock and the heliopause) and compute the distributed energetic neutral atom fluxes throughout the helioshpere. The simulations were constrained by comparing the model output against observations from Ulysses, New Horizons, Voyager 1 and 2, and IBEX space probes. As evidenced by the number of peer reviewed journal publications resulting from the project (13 plus three submitted) and their citation rate (156 citations over three years), the project has made a lasting contribution to the field. The outcome is a significant improvement of our understanding of the pickup ion production and distribution in the distant heliosphere. The team has accomplished the entire set of tasks A-H set forth in the proposal. Namely, the transport modeling framework has been augmented with two populations of pickup ions (PUIs), the boundary conditions for the plasma and interstellar neutral hydrogen were verified against Ulysses and New Horizons PUI and an optimal set of velocity diffusion parameters established. The multi-component fluxes of PUIs were computed and isotropic velocity distributions generated for each cell in the computer simulation that covered the heliosphere from 1.5 AU to the heliopause. The distributions were carefully compared with in situ measurements at 3 AU (Ulysses), 12 AU (New Horizons), and 80-90 AU (Voyager 1 and 2) as well as those inferred from ENA fluxes measured by Cassini and IBEX (Wu et al., 2016). Some examples of modeldata comparison are shown in Figure 1. We have used coupled MHD-plasma and kinetic-neutral code to investigate the likely range of plasma and magnetic field parameters in the local interstellar medium (LISM), based on the assumption that the shape of the IBEX ribbon could be used to determine the orientation of the interstellar magnetic field. While the magnetic field is believed to be

  13. Nonlinear cosmic ray Galactic transport in the light of AMS-02 and Voyager data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aloisio, R.; Blasi, P.; Serpico, P. D.

    2015-11-01

    Context. Features in the spectra of primary cosmic rays (CRs) provide invaluable information on the propagation of these particles in the Galaxy. In the rigidity region around a few hundred GV, these features have been measured in the proton and helium spectra by the PAMELA experiment and later confirmed with a higher significance by AMS-02. We investigate the implications of these data sets for the scenario in which CRs propagate under the action of self-generated waves. Aims: We show that the recent data on the spectrum of protons and helium nuclei as collected with AMS-02 and Voyager are in very good agreement with the predictions of a model in which the transport of Galactic CRs is regulated by self-generated waves. We also study the implications of the scenario for the boron-to-carbon ratio: although a good overall agreement is found, at high energy we find marginal support for a (quasi) energy independent contribution from the grammage, which we argue may come from the sources themselves. Methods: The transport equation for both primary and secondary nuclei is solved together with an equation for the evolution of the self-generated waves and a background of pre-existing waves. The solution for this system of nonlinear equations is found with an iterative method elaborated by the same authors in a previous work on this topic. Results: A break in the spectra of all nuclei is found at a rigidity of a few hundred GV, as a result of a transition from self-generated waves to pre-existing waves with a Kolmogorov power spectrum. Neither the slope of the diffusion coefficient, nor its normalization are free parameters. Moreover, at rigidities below a few GV, CRs are predicted to be advected with the self-generated waves at the local Alfvén speed. This effect, predicted in our previous work, provides an excellent fit to the Voyager data on the proton and helium spectra at low energies, providing additional support to the model.

  14. An Analysis of Neptune's Stratospheric Haze Using High-Phase-Angle Voyager Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moses, Julianne I.; Rages, Kathy; Pollack, James B.

    1995-01-01

    We have inverted high-phase-angle Voyager images of Neptune to determine the atmospheric extinction coefficient as a function of altitude and the scattering phase function at a reference altitude. Comparisons between theoretical model and observations help separate the contributions from molecular Rayleigh and aerosol scattering and help determine the variation of the aerosol size, concentration, and scattering properties with altitude. Further comparisons between models and data allow us to place constraints on the location and composition of the hazes, the concentration and downward flux of certain condensible hydrocarbon gases, the eddy diffusion coefficient in the lower stratosphere, and the thermal profile in parts of Neptune's stratosphere. We find that a distinct stratospheric haze layer exists near 12(sub -1, sup +1) mbar in Neptune's lower stratosphere, most probably due to condensed ethane. The derived stratospheric haze production rate of 1.0(sub -0.3, sup +0.2) x 10(exp -15) g cm(exp -2) sec(exp -1) is substantially lower than photochemical model predictions. Evidence for hazes at higher altitudes also exists. Unlike the situation on Uranus, large particles (0.08-0.11 microns) may be present at high altitudes on Neptune (e.g., near 0.5 mbar), well above the region in which we expect the major hydrocarbon species to condense. Near 28 mbar, the mean particle size is about 0.13(sub -0.02, sup +0.02) microns with a concentration of 5(sub -3, sup +3) particles cm(exp -3). The cumulative haze extinction optical depth above 15 mbar in the clear filter is approx. 3 x 10(exp -3), and much of this extinction is due to scattering rather than absorption; thus, if our limb-scan sites are typical, the hazes cannot account for the stratospheric temperature inversion on Neptune and may not contribute significantly to atmospheric heating. We compare the imaging results with the results from other observations, including those of the Voyager Photopolarimeter Subsystem

  15. The Plasma Depletion Layer Beyond the Heliopause: Evidence, Implications, and Predictions for Voyager 2 and New Horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairns, Iver H.; Fuselier, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    A plasma depletion layer (PDL) is predicted beyond the heliopause, analogous to the PDLs observed sunwards of planetary magnetopauses: draping of interstellar medium (ISM) magnetic field lines over the heliopause should increase the magnetic field strength and, perpendicular ion temperature, cause density depletions by allowing plasma ions (and electrons) with large parallel temperatures to escape along {\\boldsymbol{B}}, and increase the temperature anisotropy until limited by wave instabilities. Published Voyager 1 magnetometer and plasma wave data provide strong evidence for the coupled magnetic amplification (≈ 30 % ) and density depletion (≈ 50 % ) expected for a weak PDL. The predicted reduction in parallel temperature is ≈ 50 % . The locations on the sky of the PDL and the points on the heliopause of maximum magnetic draping and total pressure are predicted using the ISM magnetic field direction obtained from the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) ribbon. The IBEX ribbon overlies the former, as expected, while the latter lies within the ridge of maximum, non-ribbon, globally distributed flux. The PDL should be strongest along the ISM field line passing through these points and the Sun–ISM velocity vector. Based on their trajectories, Voyager 2 and New Horizons should observe a much stronger PDL (stronger magnetic amplification, density depletion, and changes in temperature) than Voyager 1. Finally, the reduced cosmic ray fluxes observed near 90° pitchangle by Voyager 1 beyond the heliopause appear qualitatively consistent with wave–particle interactions transferring perpendicular particle energy to parallel energy where the PDL is strong, followed by magnetic focusing as particles propagate into weaker magnetic field regions.

  16. A seasonal climate model of the atmospheres of the giant planets at the Voyager encounter time. I - Saturn's stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bezard, B.; Gautier, D.

    1985-02-01

    A radiative seasonal model of Saturn's stratosphere which incorporates a multilayer radiative transfer treatment in the far-infrared (wavelength greater than 7 microns) with opacities due to H2-He, CH4, C2H6, and C2H2 is presented. The model predicts a strong hemispheric asymmetry at the Voyager encounter times as a consequence of seasonally variable insolation, and polar regions are found to undergo seasonal amplitudes as high as 30 K in the upper stratosphere. Ring obscuration is shown to have a substantial effect on the heat balance at midlatitudes. Calculations agree closely with the Voyager 1 and 2 radio occultation ingress profiles recorded at 76 deg S and 36.5 deg N for CH4/H2 = 0.0035 + 0.0014 or -0.001; the estimated errors take into account modeling uncertainties. The possible role of aerosols in the stratospheric heating is analyzed. It is shown that the Voyager 2 egress profile (31 deg S) cannot be reproduced by calculations. Some constraints on the CH4 mixing ratio and on the C2H6 and C2H2 vertical distributions are derived.

  17. Measuring the local ISM along the sight lines of the two Voyager spacecraft with HST/STIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachary, Julia; Redfield, Seth; Linsky, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    In August 2012, Voyager 1 crossed the heliopause, becoming the first human-made object to exit the Solar System. This milestone signifies the beginning of an important new era for local interstellar medium (LISM) discoveries. We present measurements of the structure and composition of the LISM by using high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope spectra of nearby stars that lie along the same lines of sight as the respective paths of the Voyager spacecraft. We provide a comprehensive inventory of LISM absorption in the near-ultraviolet (2600-2800Å) and the far-ultraviolet (1200-1500Å). The LISM absorption profiles are used to make comparisons between each pair of closely spaced (<15°) sight lines. With these fits, we can make measurements of the physical properties of the LISM, including temperature, turbulence, electron density, and dust composition. As both HST and Voyager reach the end of their lifetimes, we now have the opportunity to synthesize their respective independent and complementary observations, combining in-situ measurements with the shortest possible line-of-sight measurements to provide an unprecedented study of the galactic ISM surrounding the Sun.We would like to acknowledge NASA HST Grant GO-13658 awarded by the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., for NASA, under contract NAS 5-26555.

  18. Interplanetary Lyman-alpha observations with UVS on Voyager - Data, first analysis, implications for the ionization lifetime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J. L.; Chassefiere, E.; Sandel, B.

    1991-01-01

    A fraction of the measurements of the interplanetary Lyman-alpha background collected by the Ultraviolet Spectrometer during the cruise of Voyager 1 and 2 between 1977 and 1983 is presented and compared with results from current models of the interaction between the sun and the neutral interstellar gas. An analysis of two sets of data indicates that the same H atom lifetime cannot fit all the data. The actual ionization rate is inferred from the intensity gradient in the maximum emissivity region observed from a sidewind Voyager position at 6 AU, yielding a lifetime of about 1 exp 6 s at 1 AU, whereas the upwind/downwind intensity ratio in the inner solar system favors 2 x 10 exp 6 s, as measured by Voyager, Prognoz, and Pioneer Venus instruments. It is proposed that there is an excess of Ly-alpha emission in the downwind region which forces the model toward excessively high values of the lifetime. Possible explanations are discussed, like incorrect modeling or an additional source of H atoms.

  19. Evaluation of radiation interference in the Voyager Sun Sensor's cadmium sulfide detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, T. C.; Divita, E. L.

    1978-01-01

    The simulation of radiation interference effects and the results of a radiation interference test on two Voyager Sun Sensor prototype detector assemblies are reported. The derivation of test levels and requirements are discussed and show that cobalt 60 gamma radiation is an effective and practical simulator of the ionization dose rate effects induced by high-energy electron flux incident on the spacecraft at a rate of 3.7 x 10 to the 8th e/sq cm-sec (10 rad(Si)/s) during closest approach to Jupiter. The test results provide information that is used to confirm an analytic correlation, and to predict satisfactory performance of a spacecraft sun sensing device having stringent angular resolution requirements. The measured detector response shows that at dose rates incident on the detector elements of 2 rad(Si)/sec, which is four times that expected during Jupiter encounter, the radiation-induced angle error is almost an order of magnitude less than that allowed by the acceptance criteria.

  20. Generation and Scattering of Radiation Observed by Voyager in the Outer Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spangler, Steven R.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2003-01-01

    Excellent progress was made under this grant on the generation and scattering of the 2-3 kHz radio emissions observed by the Voyager spacecraft in the outer heliosphere. These are the most powerful radio emissions produced in our solar system, surpassing even those of Jupiter and the Sun. The widely-held hypothesis pursued is that the radiation is generated near the electron plasma frequency f(sub p) or near 2f(sub p) as a shock wave traverses the heliosheath regions and/or heliopause predicted in the interaction region between the solar wind and the local interstellar medium. (Note that f (sup 2) (sub p) is proportional to the plasma density.) The traveling shock wave is plausibly associated with a global merged interaction region (GMIR). Accordingly, this so-called GMIR model is strongly analogous to the common interpretation of type II solar radio bursts and to radio emissions associated with Earth's bow shock, with coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and Earth's magnetosphere playing the role of a GMIR, respectively. Accordingly, Dr Cairns work on type II bursts, Earth's foreshock, and stochastic growth theory (not described in detail) strongly aided and complemented the research progress on the 2-3 kHz emissions described.

  1. IBEX: The Evolving Global View and Synergies with In Situ Voyager Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McComas, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) has now returned nearly seven years of observations, which comprise 14 full sets of energy resolved all-sky maps and provide the global view of our Sun's interaction with very local part of the galaxy. With such a long baseline of observations, we are able to examine time variations in the outer heliosphere as it responds to both 11-year solar cycle variations and longer term secular evolution of the three dimensional solar wind. Now that we have collected over half a solar cycle of observations, IBEX is beginning to show us how the heliosphere - our home in the galaxy - varies in time as well as space. In this talk we present the most recent observations and review some other recent discoveries from IBEX. We also examine the synergy between the global view provided by IBEX and the in situ observations form the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Finally, we discuss the incredible improvement in interstellar observations - and our understanding of the local interstellar medium - that the Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) will provide.

  2. Photometry from voyager 2: initial results from the neptunian atmosphere, satellites, and rings.

    PubMed

    Lane, A L; West, R A; Hord, C W; Nelson, R M; Simmons, K E; Pryor, W R; Eposito, L W; Horn, L J; Wallis, B D; Buratti, B J; Brophy, T G; Yanamandra-Fisher, P; Colwell, J E; Bliss, D A; Mayo, M J; Smythe, W D

    1989-12-15

    The Voyager photopolarimeter successfully accomplished its objectives for the Neptune encounter, performing measurements on the planet, several of its satellites, and its ring system. A photometric map of Neptune at 0.26 micrometer (microm) shows the planet to be bland, with no obvious contrast features. No polar haze was observed. At 0.75 microm, contrast features are observed, with the Great Dark Spot appearing as a low-albedo region and the bright companion as being substantially brighter than its surroundings, implying it to be at a higher altitude than the Great Dark Spot. Triton's linear phase coefficients of 0.011 magnitudes per degree at 0.26 microm and 0.013 magnitudes per degree at 0.75 microm are consistent with a solid-surface object possessing high reflectivity. Preliminary geometric albedos for Triton, Nereid, and 1989N2 were obtained at 0.26 and 0.75 microm. Triton's rotational phase curve shows evidence of two major compositional units on its surface. A single stellar occultation of the Neptune ring system elucidated an internal structure in 1989N1R, in the approximately 50-kilometer region of modest optical depth. 1989N2R may have been detected. The deficiency of material in the Neptune ring system, when compared to Uranus', may imply the lack of a "recent" moon-shattering event.

  3. Photometry from Voyager 2: Initial results from the Neptunian atmosphere, satellites, and rings

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, A.L.; West, R.A.; Nelson, R.M.; Horn, L.J.; Buratti, B.J.; Wallis, B.D.; Yanamandra-Fisher, P.; Bliss, D.A.; Mayo, M.J.; Smythe, W.D. )

    1989-12-15

    The Voyager photopolarimeter successfully accomplished its objectives for the Neptune encounter, performing measurements on the planet, several of its satellites, and its ring system. A photometric map of Neptune at 0.26 micrometer ({mu}m) shows the planet to be bland, with no obvious contrast features. No polar haze was observed. At 0.75 {mu}m, contrast features are observed, with the Great Dark Spot appearing as a low-albedo region and the bright companion as being substantially brighter than its surroundings, implying it to be at a higher altitude than the Great Dark Spot. Triton's linear phase coefficients of 0.011 magnitudes per degree at 0.26 {mu}m and 0.013 magnitudes per degree at 0.75 {mu}m are consistent with a solid-surface object possessing high reflectivity. Preliminary geometric albedos for Triton, Nereid, and 1989N2 were obtained at 0.26 and 0.75 {mu}m. Triton's rotational phase curve shows evidence of two major compositional units on its surface. A single stellar occultation of the Neptune ring system elucidated an internal structure in 1989N1R, in the {approximately}50-kilometer region of modest optical depth. 1989N2R may have been detected. The deficiency of material in the Neptune ring system, when compared to Uranus', may imply the lack of a recent moon shattering event.

  4. Uses of wonder in popular science: Cosmos: A Personal Voyage and the origin of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helsing, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    This paper analyses the use of wonder in the TV-series Cosmos: A Personal Voyage (1980). Popular science has been studied extensively (e.g. Broks 2006; Leane 2007; Perrault 2013), and wonder has been studied moderately (e.g. Daston & Park 1998; Fuller 2006; Vasalou 2015). However, there are very few studies of wonder in popular science. This paper explores how and why wonder is used in Cosmos, with the wider aim of understanding uses of wonder in popular science. The studies that discuss wonder in popular science (Fahnestock 1986; Perrault 2013) argue that wonder is used to enthuse the audience about science, but they do not discuss why wonder has this ability, nor whether wonder has other functions. This paper argues that Fuller's (2006) psychological and evolutionary account of wonder can elucidate why wonder has the ability to enthuse; it discerns three senses of 'wonder' (related to objects, emotions and attitudes); and it discusses other functions of wonder (existential, aesthetic and ethical). Due to the centrality of astrobiological questions in Cosmos, this paper also highlights the relation of these questions to the senses and functions of wonder in Cosmos.

  5. Voyager 1 Observations of Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Local Interstellar Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B. C.; Lal, N.; Webber, W. R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A.

    2017-01-01

    Voyager 1 crossed into the local interstellar medium in August 2012. The low-energy part of the energy spectra of Galactic cosmic rays (GCRs) was revealed for the first time, previously having been excluded from observation by the effects of solar modulation. We present the GCR energy spectra of most elements from H through Ni from 3 to a few hundred MeV nuc-1, and also of electrons from 2.7 to 74 MeV, for a period exceeding two years. We find that the H and He spectra have the same energy dependence between 3 and 346 MeV nuc-1, with a broad maximum in the10-50 MeV nuc-1 range and a H/He ratio of 12.2 +/- 0.9. The observed local interstellar gradient of 3-346 MeV H is - 0 . 009 +/- 0 . 055 %/AU. The energy spectrum of electrons (e- + e+) is consistent with E - 1 . 30 +/- 0 . 05. Propagation model fits to the observed spectra allow estimates of the energy density of GCRs and the ionization rates of atomic H, which will be presented and discussed. The propagation model fits also provide improved estimates of the elemental abundances in the source of Galactic cosmic rays. Work was supported by NASA grants NNN12AA01C, NNX13AC47G, NNX10AE78G, NNX16AF27G, and NNX15AU79G.

  6. Remote sensing of the magnetic moment of uranus: predictions for voyager.

    PubMed

    Hill, T W; Dessler, A J

    1985-03-22

    Power is supplied to a planet's magnetosphere from the kinetic energy of planetary spin and the energy flux of the impinging solar wind. A fraction of this power is available to drive numerous observable phenomena, such as polar auroras and planetary radio emissions. In this report our present understanding of these power transfer mechanisms is applied to Uranus to make specific predictions of the detectability of radio and auroral emissions by the planetary radio astronomy (PRA) and ultraviolet spectrometer (UVS) instruments aboard the Voyager spacecraft before its encounter with Uranus at the end of January 1986. The power available for these two phenomena is (among other factors) a function of the magnetic moment of Uranus. The date of earliest detectability also depends on whether the predominant power source for the magnetosphere is planetary spin or solar wind. The magnetic moment of Uranus is derived for each power source as a function of the date of first detection of radio emissions by the PRA instrument or auroral emissions by the UVS instrument. If we accept the interpretation of ultraviolet observations now available from the Earth-orbiting International Ultraviolet Explorer satellite, Uranus has a surface magnetic field of at least 0.6 gauss, and more probably several gauss, making it the largest or second-largest planetary magnetic field in the solar system.

  7. Plasma-wave observations at Uranus from Voyager 2. Progress report for period ending February 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Gurnett, D.A.; Kurth, W.S.; Scarf, F.L.; Poynter, R.L.

    1986-03-26

    Radio emissions from Uranus were detected by the Voyager 2 plasma-wave instrument about 5 days before closest approach at frequencies of 31.1 and 56.2 khz. The bow shock was identified by an abrupt broadband burst of electrostatic turbulence about 10 hours before closest approach at a radial distance of 23.5 ru. Once inside of the magnetosphere, strong whistler mode hiss and chorus emissions were observed at radial distances less than about 8 R/sub u/, in the same region where the energetic-particle instruments detected intense fluxes of energetic electrons. A variety of other plasma waves, such as (f sub c) electron-cyclotron waves, were also observed in this same region. At the ring plane crossing, the plasma wave instrument detected a large number of impulsive events that are interpreted as impacts of micron-sized dust particles on the spacecraft. The maximum impact rate was about 20 to 30 impacts/sec, and the north-south thickness of the impact region was about 4000 km. This paper presents an overview of the principal results from the plasma-wave instrument, starting with the first detection of radio emissions from Uranus, and ending a few days after closest approach.

  8. Photometry from voyager 2: initial results from the uranian atmosphere, satellites, and rings.

    PubMed

    Lane, A L; Hord, C W; West, R A; Esposito, L W; Simmons, K E; Nelson, R M; Wallis, B D; Buratti, B J; Horn, L J; Graps, A L; Pryor, W R

    1986-07-04

    The Voyager 2 photopolarimeter successfully completed the Uranus encounter, acquiring new data on the planet's atmosphere, its principal satellites, and its ring system. Spatially resolved photometry of the atmosphere at 0.27 micrometer shows no enhancement in absorption toward the pole, unlike the case for Jupiter and Saturn. Stellar occultation measurements indicate the temperature at the 1-millibar level over the north pole is near 90 kelvins. The geometric albedos of the five large satellites of Uranus were measured at 0.27 and 0.75 micrometer and indicate the presence of low albedo, spetrally flat absorbing material. Titania seems to have a fluffy surface, as indicated by its phase curve. The nine ground-based rings were detected, and their internal structure, optical depths, and positions were determined. The sharp edges of the in ring made it possible to measure its edge thickness (less than 150 meters) and particle sizes (less than 30 meters); little or no dust was detcted. New narrow rings and partial rings (arcs) were measured, and the narrow component of the eta ring was found to be discontinuous.

  9. Heliospheric magnetic field strength out to 66 AU: Voyager 1, 1978-1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F.; Wang, Y.-M.; Sheeley, N. R.

    1998-10-01

    We discuss Voyager 1 (V1) observations of the heliospheric magnetic field strength from 1978 through 1996. During this period the distance of V1 from the Sun increased from ~3 AU to 66 AU and its heliographic latitude increased from ~5°S to 33°N. The magnetic field strength profile observed by V1 is consistent with Parker's spiral field model when one considers (1) the solar cycle variation of the observed magnetic field strength at 1 AU, B1(t) (which is a measure of the source field strength) and (2) the latitudinal and solar cycle variations of the solar wind speed, V(t,θ). Both B1(t) and V(t,θ) make significant contributions to the variation of the magnetic field strength variations observed by V1. There is no evidence for a ``magnetic flux deficit'' increasing with distance from the Sun. There is a solar cycle variation of the magnetic field strength in the outer heliosphere, which will affect the modulation of cosmic rays.

  10. Observations of Suprathermal Power Law Tails with ACE, Ulysses, MESSENGER, and Voyager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gloeckler, G.; Fisk, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Observations of ubiquitous, suprathermal power law tails with the unique spectral index of -5 on the velocity distributions of solar wind and pickup ions raise important questions and have far reaching consequences. The question of how these tails are formed during quiet times, when no shocks are present, was previously addressed and is briefly reviewed here. One consequence of the existence of these tails during quiet times is that sufficiently energetic particles are always readily available for further acceleration by shocks. To study the evolution of suprathermal tails over a large range of heliocentric distances, we will use proton spectra measured with ACE, Ulysses and Voyager during quiet times as well as upstream and downstream of quasi-stationary and traveling shocks. To look for the first time at suprathermal tails at distances closer to the Sun than 1 AU, we will present our preliminary results from the FIPS instrument on the Mercury MESSENGER Mission. Applying thermodynamic constraints on non-adiabatic heating of upstream particles by a shock, we obtain the downstream -5 power law spectra that are observed and derive an expression for the tail pressure jump across the shock.

  11. Evidence for a distant ( 8700 R sub J) Jovian magnetotail: Voyager 2 observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Burlaga, L. F.; Desch, M. D.; Klein, L. W.

    1982-01-01

    A correlative survey of magnetometer (MAG) and Planetary Radio Astronomy (PRA) 1.2 kHz continuum radiation measurements from Voyager 2 provide evidence for at least eight distant Jovian magnetotail sightings occurring about once a month over the first 2/3 of 1981 at distances of approximately 5,000 to 9,000 R sub J. The occurrences of these events are in good agreement with prior Plasma Wave Science and Plasma Science identifications. Observations of these distant magnetotail, or tail filament, encounters appear most prevalent in both MAC and PRA data sets when the spacecraft was closest to the Jupiter-Sun axis at approximately 6,500 R sub J from the planet; the PRA events are also most intense during those times. A specific tail encounter occurring in mid-February 1981 is analyzed and shown to possess a remarkably symmetric magnetic field signature and to have a bipolar field structure in the central region. The bipolarity is characteristic of most of the eight events.

  12. Particle size distributions in Saturn's rings from Voyager 1 radio occultation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marouf, E. A.; Tyler, G. L.; Zebker, H. A.; Simpson, R. A.; Eshleman, V. R.

    1983-01-01

    Information on Saturn ring particle sizes obtained with the Voyager 1 ring occultation experiment is discussed. The theory underlying the determination of the particle size distribution is presented, including differential extinction and inversion of the scattered signal. Experimental observations and results for the observed spectra, differential cross sections, suprameter and sub- to suprameter size distributions are presented. The size and mass distributions both cut off sharply at about 4-5 m; the mass distribution peaks over the 3-4 m size range for four ring system features at 1.35, 1.51, 2.01, and 2.12 Saturn radii. A power-law type model is consistent with the data over a limited size range of 0.01 to 1 m. The fractional contribution of the suprameter particles to the microwave opacity for the four features appears to be about 1/3, 1/3, 2/3, and 1, respectively, and their cumulative surface mass per unit area are about 11, 16, 41, and 132 g/sq cm if the particles are solid water ice.

  13. Properties and dynamics of Jupiter's gossamer rings from Galileo, Voyager, Hubble and Keck images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showalter, Mark R.; de Pater, Imke; Verbanac, Giuli; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Burns, Joseph A.

    2008-05-01

    We present a comprehensive examination of Jupiter's "gossamer" rings based on images from Voyager, Galileo, the Hubble Space Telescope and the W.M. Keck Telescope. We compare our results to the simple dynamical model of Burns et al. [Burns, J.A., Showalter, M.R., Hamilton, D.P., Nicholson, P.D., de Pater, I., Ockert-Bell, M., Thomas, P., 1999. Science 284, 1146-1150] in which dust is ejected from Amalthea and Thebe and then evolves inward under Poynting-Robertson drag. The ring follows many predictions of the model rather well, including a linear reduction in thickness with decreasing radius. However, some deviations from the model are noted. For example, additional material appears to be concentrated just interior to the orbits of the two moons. At least in the case of Amalthea's ring, that material is in the same orbital plane as Amalthea's inclined orbit and may be trapped at the Lagrange points. Thebe's ring shows much larger vertical excursions from the model, which may be related to perturbations by several strong Lorentz resonances. Photometry is consistent with the dust obeying a relatively flat power-law size distribution, very similar to dust in the main ring. However, the very low backscatter reflectivity of the ring, and the flat phase curve of the ring at low phase angles, require that the ring be composed of distinctly non-spherical particles.

  14. Survey of the plasma electron environment of Jupiter: A view from Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scudder, J. D.; Sittler, E. C., Jr.; Bridge, H. S.

    1980-01-01

    The plasma environment within Jupiter's bow shock is considered in terms of the in situ, calibrated electron plasma measurements made between 10 eV and 5.95 keV by the Voyager plasma science experiment (PLS). Measurements were analyzed and corrected for spacecraft potential variations; the data were reduced to nearly model independent macroscopic parameters of the local electron density and temperature. It is tentatively concluded that the radial temperature profile within the plasma sheet is caused by the intermixing of two different electron populations that probably have different temporal histories and spatial paths to their local observation. The cool plasma source of the plasma sheet and spikes is probably the Io plasma torus and arrives in the plasma sheet as a result of flux tube interchange motions or other generalized transport which can be accomplished without diverting the plasma from the centrifugal equator. The hot suprathermal populations in the plasma sheet have most recently come from the sparse, hot mid-latitude "bath" of electrons which were directly observed juxtaposed to the plasma sheet.

  15. Infrared polar brightening on Jupiter. III - Spectrometry from the Voyager 1 IRIS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, S. J.; Caldwell, J.; Rivolo, A. R.; Wagener, R.; Orton, G. S.

    1985-01-01

    Spectra from the Voyager 1 IRIS experiment confirm the existence of enhanced infrared emission near Jupiter's north magnetic pole in March 1979. The spectral characteristics of the enhanced emission are consistent with a Planck source function. A temperature-pressure profile is derived for the region near the north magnetic pole, from which quantitative abundance estimates of minor species are made. Some species previously detected on Jupiter, including CH3D, C2H2, and C2H6, have been observed again near the pole. Newly discovered species, not previously observed on Jupiter, include C2H4, C3H4, and C6H6. All of these species except CH3D appear to have enhanced abundances at the north polar region with respect to midlatitudes. Upper limits are determined for C4H2 and C3H8. The quantitative results are compared with model calculations based on ultraviolet results from the IUE satellite. The plausibility of the C6H6 identification is discussed in terms of the literature on C2H2 polymerization. The relation of C6H6 to cuprene is also discussed.

  16. The D/H ratio in Saturn's atmosphere from Voyager IRIS spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Courtin, R.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Bezard, B.; Hanel, R.

    1985-01-01

    A selection of 1656 spectra recorded between 180 and 2300 mm in the 20 to 40 N latitude range by the Voyager interferometer IRIS were analyzed. The CH3D/H2 and CH4/H2 ratios are determined from a best fit of the radiances measured in the nu6 and nu4 fundamental bands, respectively centered at 1161 and 1304 mm. Results are CH3D/H2 = 3.9 + or - 2.5 times 10 to the minus 7th power and CH4/H2 = 4.5 + 2.4, -1.9 x 0.001. The uncertainty includes random errors due to instrumental noise and possible systematic errors in the assumed temperature profile and spectroscopic parameters. The D/H isotopic ratio is determined from abundance ratios from the expression D/H = 1/4f (CH3D/H2)/(CH4/H2) where f accounts for equilibrium deuterium fractionation between the molecular hydrogen and methane phases. Beer and Taylor (1973, 1978) estimated f = 1.37 + or - 0.07 for Jupiter assuming a wide range of convective velocities and neglecting catalytic effects from dust particles. The same value was adopted for Saturn and yields D/H = 1.6 +1.3, -1.2 times 10 to the minus 5th power.

  17. Detailed analysis of low energy plasma data under the Voyager Uranus data analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.; Belcher, John W.; Bagenal, Frances; Richardson, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Research effort included the PLS data analysis program where modifications to the data fitting procedure and elimination of possible noise and electron contamination were made. The analysis code corrections were used in checking the Neptune data gathered during the Voyager 2 encounter and for analyzing selected plasma spectra from the warm Io torus. A major task accomplished was the summary of Uranus-related research in the U.S. National Report to the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics for the 1987 - 1990 quadrennium. A limited amount of work was accomplished on assessing the Pedersen conductivity of the ionosphere and comparing it with inferred values from shielding by the Uranian ring current. Under this grant there has been a great deal of effort expended on identifying and classifying plasma waves and oscillations in the magnetosheath and solar wind downstream from Uranus. Large amplitude oscillations in plasma parameters are found in the magnetosheath, with density changes of up to a factor of ten occurring on times scales of minutes. New algorithms developed for analyzing the inbound bow shock crossing of Neptune will probably be applied to a more detailed analysis of the Uranus shock in the near future.

  18. Energetic-ion acceleration and transport in the upstream region of Jupiter: Voyager 1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Zwickl, R. D.; Carbary, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lepping, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    Long-lived upstream energetic ion events at Jupiter appear to be very similar in nearly all respects to upstream ion events at Earth. A notable difference between the two planetary systems is the enhanced heavy ion compositional signature reported for the Jovian events. This compositional feature has suggested that ions escaping from the Jovian magnetosphere play an important role in forming upstream ion populations at Jupiter. In contrast, models of energetic upstream ions at Earth emphasize in situ acceleration of reflected solar wind ions within the upstream region itself. Using Voyager 1 and 2 energetic ( approximately 30 keV) ion measurements near the magnetopause, in the magnetosheath, and immediately upstream of the bow shock, the compositional patterns are examined together with typical energy spectra in each of these regions. A model involving upstream Fermi acceleration early in events and emphasizing energetic particle escape in the prenoon part of the Jovian magnetosphere late in events is presented to explain many of the features in the upstream region of Jupiter.

  19. Voyager observations of lower hybrid noise in the Io plasma torus and anomalous plasma heating rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbosa, D. D.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kurth, W. S.; Scarf, F. L.

    1985-01-01

    A study of Voyager 1 electric field measurements obtained by the plasma wave instrument in the Io plasma torus has been carried out. A survey of the data has revealed the presence of persistent peaks in electric field spectra in the frequency range 100-600 Hz consistent with their identification as lower hybrid noise for a heavy-ion plasma of sulfur and oxygen. Typical wave intensities are 0.1 mV/m, and the spectra also show significant Doppler broadening, Delta omega/omega approximately 1. A theoretical analysis of lower hybrid wave generation by a bump-on-tail ring distribution of ions is given. The model is appropriate for plasmas with a superthermal pickup ion population present. A general methodology is used to demonstrate that the maximum plasma heating rate possible through anomalous wave-particle heat exchange is less than approximately 10 to the -14th ergs per cu cm per s. Although insufficient to meet the power requirement of the EUV-emitting warm torus, the heating rate is large enough to maintain a low-density (0.01-0.1 percent) superthermal electron population of keV electrons, which may lead to a small but significant anomalous ionization effect.

  20. Micron-Sized Particles Detected in the Vicinity of Jupiter by the Voyager Plasma Wave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsintikidis, D.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Granroth, L. J.

    1996-01-01

    Wideband waveform data obtained by the plasma wave instruments onboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft have been used to study micron-sized dust particles in the vicinity of Jupiter. The technique used was developed during the flybys of Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and makes use of the fact that a particle striking the spacecraft at 10-20 km/s causes a voltage pulse in the plasma wave receiver. The waveform of the voltage pulse is much different than the waveform of plasma waves and provides a highly reliable method of detecting micron-sized dust particles. Although the dust impact rate observed in the vicinity of Jupiter is much lower than the rates at Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, the particles are easily detectable. Approximately 1200 48-second frames of wideband waveform data were examined in the vicinity of Jupiter. Dust impact signatures were found in approximately 20% of these frames. The peak impact rates are about 1 impact per second, and the peak number densities are about 10(exp -5) m(exp -3). Most of the impacts occurred near the equatorial plane at radial distances less than about 35 R(sub j) from Jupiter. Analysis of the detection threshold indicates that the particles have masses greater than 10(exp -11) g, which corresponds to particles with diameters of a few micrometers or larger.

  1. A Voyage around the Recumbent Stone Circles of North-East Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henty, Liz

    2015-05-01

    This paper details new archaeoastronomical research undertaken at the Recumbent Stone Circles (RSCs) of Scotland. Research to date has concentrated on the recumbent arrangement and the major theorists such as Thom, Ruggles and Burl, proposed that the recumbent and pillars are aligned to the lunar standstills or the passage of the moon over the recumbent. This research took a different voyage around the circles, which included checking all the stones of the circle for solar and stellar alignments as well as lunar alignments. It looks at nine RSCs, using both new plans drawn up by RCAHMS and plans published by Thom. The research was prompted by preliminary research, reported on at SEAC 2010, which detailed fieldwork completed at three sites. Because of the earlier focus on the recumbent, the RSCs have generally been interpreted in terms of a lunar narrative. By contrast, the aims of this research were to examine the circle in its entirety examining each circle stone for possible solar, lunar and stellar alignments using the dates of 2500 BC and 2000 BC. The results for all the circle stones showed that there were just as many solar as lunar alignments and that some stellar alignments may have been important symbolically.

  2. Voyager 2 observations of energetic particle variations in the Ganymede wake region - A possible acceleration mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tariq, G.F.; Armstrong, T. P.; Collison, T. H.

    1983-01-01

    Voyager 2's passage through the downstream corotation region of Ganymede found disturbances in the field and particle environment. Large fluctuations in the intensities and energy spectra of ions in the 0.1-to 4.0-MeV interval were also observed with the low energy charged particle experiment. All ion species were evidently affected, up through medium (C, N, O) nuclei. Electrons intensities, while disturbed, did not behave similarly to the ions. These effects are probably associated with the wake produced by the absorption of Jovian magnetospheric corotating plasma by Ganymede. A two-dimensional theoretical model for perturbed field in the wake region is proposed and it is shown by direct numerical simulation of exact particle trajectories that such perturbations are capable of modulating the charged particle energies to about the observed amount for the observed magnetic and plasma parameters. Analysis shows that the energization process is dependent on the pitch angles of the energetic ions and the process itself is nonadiabatic (the Larmor radius is approximately the size of the disturbance region).

  3. Arabian Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... sometimes results in copious phytoplankton production and oxygen depletion of the subsurface waters. Although red phytoplankton fluorescences have been associated with the low oxygen concentrations in the intermediate and deep waters of the Arabian Sea, ...

  4. The Context for IMAP: Voyager and INCA Observations of the Heliosheath at E > 5 keV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios M.

    2016-04-01

    The basic premise of the proposed Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe (IMAP) is detailed scientific understanding of the Heliosheath (HS) and beyond, a region of space explored in situ by Voyager 1 (V1) since 2004, Voyager 2 (V2) since 2007, and remotely via energetic neutral atoms (ENA) by the Cassini/INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 and IBEX since 2009. The IMAP instrumentation proposed for this purpose combines and extends the IBEX and INCA ENA energy ranges (0.3- 20 keV and 3-200 keV, for low and high energy, respectively). All three missions-Voyagers, Cassini/INCA, and IBEX- have made discovery-class measurements in the HS, the Voyagers providing in situ ion intensities at E > 30 keV, while INCA images ENA in the range 5 < E < 55 keV, and IBEX 0.3 < E < 6 keV. The partial overlap in energy coverage between Voyager ions and INCA ENA allows for the possibility of observing the intensity and time evolution of ions in the HS, thought to give rise to the ENAs via charge-exchange, and the resultant ENA images in the inner heliosphere and their spatial and/or temporal variability. Unfortunately, no such "ground truth" ion measurements are possible at Voyager in the ENA energy range imaged by IBEX. Some of the key findings from the Voyager and Cassini/INCA measurements are as follows: (1) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50 %) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically >10. (2) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels.. (3) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2015, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter. (4) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS

  5. Sea Legs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, Kenneth C.

    Forty-foot, storm-swept seas, Spitzbergen polar bears roaming vast expanses of Arctic ice, furtive exchanges of forbidden manuscripts in Cold War Moscow, the New York city fashion scene, diving in mini-subs to the sea floor hot srings, life with the astronauts, romance and heartbreak, and invading the last bastions of male exclusivity: all are present in this fast-moving, non-fiction account of one woman' fascinating adventures in the world of marine geology and oceanography.

  6. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations and δ13C values during 2011-2012 voyage: Mediterranean, Atlantic Ocean, southern Indian Ocean and New Zealand to Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longinelli, A.; Langone, L.; Ori, C.; Giglio, F.; Selmo, E.; Sgavetti, M.

    2013-10-01

    During the 2011-2012 hemispheric voyage of the M/V Italica from Italy to the Atlantic Ocean, southern Indian Ocean, New Zealand and Antarctica, atmospheric CO2 concentrations were continuously recorded and 52 air samples collected in 4-L Pyrex flasks for the measurement of the δ13C of atmospheric CO2. In the case of CO2 concentrations, new data include the following: 1) in the Adriatic, between Ravenna and Otranto, CO2 was never measured in order to avoid the expected heavy contribution from industrial plants; the 2011 measurements fully confirm this contribution; 2) in the Atlantic, along the Moroccan coast, high values of up to 415 ppmv were recorded, apparently due to considerable industrial development in Morocco; 3) minor CO2 concentrations were also recorded along other sections of the African coast north of the Equator, whereas relatively low constant values were recorded south of the Equator; 4) in the southern Indian Ocean, CO2 concentrations were measured almost along a parallel, yielding homogeneous values not much higher than the mean values recorded at NOAA stations in nearby areas. With only one exception, the δ13C values were systematically less negative than -9‰ (VPDB), the mean values for the three oceanic sections being the following: Atlantic Ocean -8.64 ± 0.20‰; Indian Ocean -8.54 ± 0.06‰; New Zealand to Antarctica -8.49 ± 0.02‰. A small but progressive increase in δ13C values with increasing latitude was in good agreement with the expected trend. The homogeneity of such values between New Zealand and Antarctica was remarkable, as these samples had been collected in particularly rough oceanic conditions with high winds. In spite of these particular environmental conditions these values were very close to those of samples collected in the same area in 2009 and 2010 in conditions of calm sea and low wind. This similarity contrasts sharply with the theory and models of air-sea gas exchange.

  7. A New Model of Titan's Upper Atmospheric Structure Derived from Voyager UVS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervack, R. J., Jr.; Sandel, B. R.

    1996-09-01

    Solar occultation and airglow data obtained by the Voyager 1 Ultraviolet Spectrometer (UVS) during the November 1980 flyby of Titan are the primary sources of information we have on Titan's upper atmosphere. Analysis of the occultation data yielded exospheric temperatures and number densities for N_2 and the primary hydrocarbons, while the airglow data were used to infer the various energy sources in the upper atmosphere. These data have since been the observational basis for photochemical and radiative transfer models of Titan's thermosphere. Recently, however, discrepancies between the occultation and airglow data have been noted, and attempts to reconcile them have been unsuccessful. Because the structure of the upper atmosphere inferred from the solar occultation data is the basis for modeling of the airglow emissions, a reanalysis of the solar occultation data was deemed necessary. We have developed a more sophisticated procedure than previously employed to reanalyze the solar occultation data. We utilize a Monte Carlo model of the UVS detector assembly and specially-designed observational sequences to understand better the nonlinear performance of the UVS when observing the sun. This, coupled with advances in occultation analysis techniques, allows us to more accurately infer the structure of Titan's upper atmosphere. Preliminary results indicate that the hydrocarbon densities from the earlier analysis may be too high. This could affect both the upper boundary conditions for photochemical models as well as the opacity used in radiative transfer models. It is also in the direction necessary to resolve the discrepancies between the two UVS data sets. We will present detailed results of this work during the DPS meeting.

  8. Argo - A Voyage Through the Outer Solar System: An Innovative New Frontiers Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stansberry, John A.; Hansen, C.; Hammel, H.; Spilker, L.; Spilker, T.; Aljabri, A.; Banfield, D.; Brown, M.; Colwell, J.; Dougherty, M.; Hendrix, A.; Khurana, K.; McEwen, A.; McNutt, R.; Paige, D.; Satter, C.; Showalter, M.; Strange, N.

    2008-09-01

    Recent, ongoing, and planned space missions exist for terrestrial planets, gas giant systems, and Pluto, but not for the ice giant systems and the rest of the outer Solar System. Argo will fill this major gap by encountering the Neptune system and then continuing on to encounter a large (or otherwise interesting) Kuiper Belt Object (KBO). Exploration of the Neptune system has been stymied by a perception that a flagship-class orbiter is required for major scientific progress. Yet our understanding of the Neptune system has improved dramatically since Voyager. By capitalizing on that new knowledge and using current technology, the Argo flyby will revolutionize our knowledge of Neptune, its atmosphere, magnetosphere and rings, and Triton and other moons. A close flyby of Triton will allow high-resolution mapping, near-IR spectral maps, and radio and solar occultations for atmospheric studies. The Neptune gravity-assist allows access to a huge cone ( 4000x greater than for New Horizons) of the Kuiper Belt, including many potential, known KBO targets to choose from. Combined with New Horizons’ exploration of Pluto and a KBO, Argo's study of Triton (a captured dwarf-planet) and another KBO will double the number of KBOs/dwarf-planets with detailed spacecraft studies. Argo combines a focused science package, current instrument technology, and current spacecraft technology with several launch opportunities that exist in the next decade, and provides a mission concept that fits within the expected New Frontiers cost envelope. Our mission concept includes avenues for cost savings in development, operations, and the launch vehicle. Argo will require nuclear power, so the concept will be submitted for the fourth New Frontiers (not the current NF03) call.

  9. Voyager 1 observations of the interstellar magnetic field and the transition from the heliosheath

    SciTech Connect

    Burlaga, L. F.; Ness, N. F. E-mail: nfnudel@yahoo.com

    2014-04-01

    Voyager 1 (V1) has been observing interstellar magnetic fields for more than one year beginning ≈2012/209, when V1 crossed a current sheet, a 'CS0' having the structure of a tangential discontinuity. The inclination of this current sheet is consistent with an interstellar magnetic field B draped on a blunt heliopause. Two other current sheets (sector boundaries) were observed at ≈2012/167 and ≈2011/276 with high inclinations (99° ± 10° and 89° ± 10°, respectively). From 2013.0 to ≈2013.6, the difference between the azimuthal angle λ of B from the Parker spiral angle at the latitude 34.°6 of V1 was λ – λ{sub P} = 22° ± 3° and the corresponding difference of the elevation angle δ was δ – δ{sub P} = 23° ± 8°. During 2012, the deviation from the Parker spiral angle was somewhat smaller. The interstellar magnetic field has a 'west to east polarity,' opposite to the direction of planetary motions. The magnitude of B varied smoothly in the range 0.38-0.59 nT with an average B = 0.486 ± 0.045 after 2012/237.7. The transition from heliosheath to interstellar magnetic fields is related to a 'two-step' increase in the cosmic ray intensity observed by V1 from ≈2012.30 to ≈2012.65. The first step increase began near the end of an unusual 'away-polarity' sector, and it reached a plateau when V1 moved into a 'toward-polarity' sector that ended at CS0. The second step increase began slowly after V1 crossed CS0, and it ended abruptly at 2012/237.728.

  10. Galactic Cosmic Rays in the Local Interstellar Medium: Voyager 1 Observations and Model Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummings, A. C.; Stone, E. C.; Heikkila, B. C.; Lal, N.; Webber, W. R.; Jóhannesson, G.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Orlando, E.; Porter, T. A.

    2016-11-01

    Since 2012 August Voyager 1 has been observing the local interstellar energy spectra of Galactic cosmic-ray nuclei down to 3 MeV nuc-1 and electrons down to 2.7 MeV. The H and He spectra have the same energy dependence between 3 and 346 MeV nuc-1, with a broad maximum in the 10-50 MeV nuc-1 range and a H/He ratio of 12.2 ± 0.9. The peak H intensity is ˜15 times that observed at 1 AU, and the observed local interstellar gradient of 3-346 MeV H is -0.009 ± 0.055% AU-1, consistent with models having no local interstellar gradient. The energy spectrum of electrons (e - + e +) with 2.7-74 MeV is consistent with E -1.30±0.05 and exceeds the H intensity at energies below ˜50 MeV. Propagation model fits to the observed spectra indicate that the energy density of cosmic-ray nuclei with >3 MeV nuc-1 and electrons with >3 MeV is 0.83-1.02 eV cm-3 and the ionization rate of atomic H is in the range of 1.51-1.64 × 10-17 s-1. This rate is a factor >10 lower than the ionization rate in diffuse interstellar clouds, suggesting significant spatial inhomogeneity in low-energy cosmic rays or the presence of a suprathermal tail on the energy spectrum at much lower energies. The propagation model fits also provide improved estimates of the elemental abundances in the source of Galactic cosmic rays.

  11. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perovich, D.; Gerland, S.; Hendricks, S.; Meier, Walter N.; Nicolaus, M.; Richter-Menge, J.; Tschudi, M.

    2013-01-01

    During 2013, Arctic sea ice extent remained well below normal, but the September 2013 minimum extent was substantially higher than the record-breaking minimum in 2012. Nonetheless, the minimum was still much lower than normal and the long-term trend Arctic September extent is -13.7 per decade relative to the 1981-2010 average. The less extreme conditions this year compared to 2012 were due to cooler temperatures and wind patterns that favored retention of ice through the summer. Sea ice thickness and volume remained near record-low levels, though indications are of slightly thicker ice compared to the record low of 2012.

  12. Aral Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This series of MODIS images shows the dwindling Aral Sea. Once one of the world's largest freshwater lakes, the Aral Sea has decreased by as much as 60% over the past few decades due to diversion of the water to grow cotton and rice. These diversion have dropped the lake levels, increased salinity, and nearly decimated the fishing industry. The previous extent of the lake is clearly visible as a whitish perimeter in these image from April 16, May 18, and June 3, 2002. s. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  13. Black Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Black Sea in eastern Russia is experiencing an ongoing phytoplankton bloom. This image, the most recent in a series that began in early may, shows the waters to be even more colorful than before. part of the increased brightness may be due to the presence of sun glint , especially in the center of the sea. However, more organisms appear to be present as well, their photosynthetic pigments reflecting different wavelengths of light.This Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image was captured on June 15, 2002.

  14. A Consistent Ribbon Structure for the Io Plasma Torus at the Voyager 1 and Galileo J0 Epochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, William H.; Peterson, C. A.; Marconi, M. L.

    2008-09-01

    The peak density structure for the plasma torus electrons and heavy ions occurs radially near and inside of Io's orbit. This structure has been documented remotely by ground-based observations at the dawn and dusk ansae in S+ (6716 Å, 6731 Å) and S++ (9531 Å) emissions and from Voyager 2 UVS observations at the 35 degree pre-dawn and pre-dusk ansae for S++ (685Å) emission. It has also been documented by in situ observations by the Voyager 1 PLS instrument for the O+, S+, S++ ions and electrons at pre-dusk local-times and by the Galileo PWS and PLS instruments for electrons at noon local-time. The focus of this presentation is to compare the radial location of the peak density structure for the S+ ions (so-called ribbon feature) acquired at different local-times from ground-based (Schneider and Trauger, Ap. J. 450, 450, 1995) and Voyager (Bagenal, JGR 99, 11043, 1994) measurements and inferred from Galileo measurements (Gurnett et al., Science, 274, 391, 1996; Frank and Paterson, JGR 99, 11043, 2000). This is accomplished by the application of a newly developed more accurate, four-dimensional (three spatial dimensions and local-time) empirical model for the plasma torus. This model includes System III longitudinal asymmetries and also local-time asymmetries created by a dawn-dusk electric field that is equipotential along the magnetic field lines and has an adjustable magnitude and direction. It is found that all of the measurements can be fit by a set of different magnitudes and directions for the dawn-dusk electric field and that a limited range of such solutions is possible for the three measurements that allow a consistent radial location for the S+ ribbon feature, resolving a long-standing issue for the plasma torus (Bagenal et al., GRL 24, 2119, 1997). Information will be presented to illustrate the nature of these solutions.

  15. The 3-D effects in the long-term solar wind speed rise observed by Voyager 2 in early 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pizzo, V. J.; Paularena, K. I.; Richardson, J. D.; Lazarus, A. J.; Belcher, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    In early 1994, Voyager 2 at 42-43 AU near heliolatitude 10 deg S observed over a period of approximately 100 days a remarkable sequence of quasi-recurrent stream fronts, wherein the background (ambient) speed rose steadily from approximately 450 to approximately 550 km/s while the mean period of the streams decreased from the usual 25 days down to approximately 20 days. A qualitative explanation for this effect can be derived from IMP observations, which show that the amplitude of the stream structure at 1 AU increased monotonically in late 1993, concurrent with major secular evolution in the corona. The reduction in period, then, amounts to a doppler shift due to the progressive overtaking of successively faster streams in the sequence. Attempts to model this process quantitatively with 1-D dynamic simulations falter on three accounts: (1) the reduction in period is overestimated, (2) the simulation predicts many more fronts surviving to 43 AU than are observed by Voyager; (3) the density variations are much too large. It is argued that inclusion of the 3-D geometry in the simulation would resolve most all these shortcomings. Using a series of calculations executed with 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D MHD models of hypothetical tilted-dipole flows, we show that: (1) the radial propagation velocities of 3-D fronts are less than those of 1-D or 2-D fronts, owing to the tilt of (and increased shearing across) the interaction surfaces hence the overtaking rate of successive streams is reduced; (2) in a tilted-dipole geometry, the reverse fronts should largely disappear from the equatorial plane by 43 AU, effectively halving the number of fronts to be observed (see companion paper on predominance of forward fronts at Voyager); and (3) the density enhancements would be much smaller than predicted by a 1-D model.

  16. Heliosheath ENA images by Cassini/INCA and in-situ hot plasma ion measurements by Voyagers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krimigis, Stamatios; Roelof, Edmond; Mitchell, Donald; Decker, Robert; Dialynas, Konstantinos

    2016-07-01

    The advent of Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) imaging, (the result of charge-exchange with energetic ions), has revealed the global nature of the heliosheath (HS) at both high ( > 5 keV, Cassini from 10 AU) and low (< 6 keV, IBEX from 1 AU) energies. Voyager 1 (V1) entered the HS in December 2004 at 94 AU and crossed the heliopause (HP) in August 2012 at 121.6 AU, while Voyager 2 (V2) has been in the HS since August 2007. Thus the properties of the HS along the V1, V2 trajectories are now well-established. Portions of the global HS have been imaged by the Cassini/ INCA (Ion and Neutral CAmera) since 2003 with a full image available since 2009, when IBEX global imaging observations also became available. The presence of the two Voyagers measuring ions locally in the HS contemporaneously with INCA global imaging through ENA in overlapping energy bands provides a powerful tool for examining the spatial, temporal, and spectral evolution of the source hot plasma ions and the global variability of the neutral component. Some of the key findings from the Voyagers and INCA measurements are as follows: (a) The HS contains a hot plasma population that carries a substantial part (30-50%) of the total pressure at E > 5 keV, the rest residing below that range, resulting in a beta (particle/magnetic pressure) always > 1, typically > 10. (b) The width of the HS in the direction of V1 is ˜~ 30 AU, but is thought to be larger (40-70 AU) in the southern ecliptic where V2 currently travels. (c) The ENA intensities at E > 5 keV exhibit a correlation with the solar cycle (SC) over the period 2003 to 2014, with minimum intensities in the anti-nose direction observed ˜~ 1.5 yrs after solar minimum followed by a recovery thereafter, and (d) The in situ ion measurements at V2 within the HS also show a similar SC dependence. The totality of the observations, together with the near-contemporaneous variability in intensities of ions in situ in the HS and ENA in the inner heliosphere suggests

  17. DSN 70-meter antenna X-band gain, phase, and pointing performance, with particular application for Voyager 2 Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Bathker, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    The gain, phase, and pointing performance of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 70 m antennas are investigated using theoretical antenna analysis computer programs that consider the gravity induced deformation of the antenna surface and quadripod structure. The microwave effects are calculated for normal subreflector focusing motion and for special fixed-subreflector conditions that may be used during the Voyager 2 Neptune encounter. The frequency stability effects of stepwise lateral and axial subreflector motions are also described. Comparisons with recently measured antenna efficiency and subreflector motion tests are presented. A modification to the existing 70 m antenna pointing squint correction constant is proposed.

  18. Voyager radio occultation by the Uranian rings: Structure, dynamics, and particle sizes. Ph.D. Thesis Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gresh, Donna Leigh

    1990-01-01

    Diffraction of Voyager 2's 3.6 and 13 cm wavelength microwaves by the Uranian rings is removed through an inverse Fresnel transform filtering procedure that accommodates the significant eccentricity of the rings. Resulting 50 m resolution profiles at two observation longitudes: (1) reveal remarkably detailed and longitudinally varying structure, (2) provide eccentricity gradient profiles of Rings alpha, beta, and epsilon which bring into question current theoretical models for observed rigid precession, and (3) suggest that two possible unseen satellites may confine some of the very sharp edges observed via resonant interactions.

  19. Lick Jupiter-Voyager reference star catalogue (Klemola, Morabito, and Taraji 1978): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The machine-readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog contains accurate equatorial coordinates for 4983 stars in a band of sky against which cameras of the Voyager spacecraft were pointed for observations in the region of Jupiter during the flyby. All of the reference stars are in the range 6 hr 00 min to 8 hr 04 min in right ascension (1950), declination zones +16 to +23 degrees, and 8 hr to 31 min to 8 hr 57 min, zones +08 to +14 degrees. Mean errors of the positions are about 0.4 sec.

  20. Lick Saturn-Voyager reference star catalogue (Klemola, Taraji, and Ocampo 1979): Documentation for the machine-readable version

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, Wayne H., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The machine readable version of the catalog, as it is currently being distributed from the Astronomical Data Center, is described. The catalog contains accurate equatorial coordinates for 4551 stars in a band of sky against which cameras of the Voyager spacecraft were pointed for observations in the region of Saturn during the flyby. All of the reference stars are in the range 12(exp h) 40(exp m) to 14(exp h) 12(exp m) in right ascension (1950) and +02 to -09 degs in declination. Mean errors of the positions are about 0.25 sec.

  1. An analysis of the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer occultation data at Uranus - Inferring heat sources and model atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevens, Michael H.; Strobel, Darrell F.; Herbert, Floyd

    1993-01-01

    Heat source information is derived here from the Voyager 2 Ultraviolet Spectrometer occultation data of Uranus. Analytic functions for the local heat dependence on altitude are used to obtain a temperature profile by solving the heat equation. The stellar entrance and exit occultation and a solar occultation are used to infer the thermal and density structure of the atmosphere. The least squares fit solution to the solar occultation data gives one source located at 1.8 x 10 exp -5 microbar with a strength of 0.056 +/- 0.01 erg/sq cm/s. Latitudinal temperature gradients are obtained.

  2. Particle sizes of the Uranus delta ring's inner diffuse companion through comparison of RSS and PPS Voyager occultation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hui, John; Horn, Linda J.; Lane, Arthur L.

    1991-01-01

    In January, 1976, Voyager 2's photopolarimeter and UV spectrometer observed Delta Sagitarii and Beta Persei during their occultation by the Uranian delta ring. An inner diffuse companion of this ring was detected and found to have an average width of 12 km. By comparing the widths and equivalent depths of the two sets of data, it is established that the particles making the greatest contribution to the integrated opacities of the companion are of greater-than-several-cm sizes. The particles appear to be located away from the photopolarimetry edges, where there may be particles smaller than those observed elsewhere.

  3. [Functional status of submariners after short-time submarine raid in the sea].

    PubMed

    Kalmanov, A S; Pisarev, A A; Khankevich, Yu R; Bloshchinskii, I A; Valskii, A V

    2015-10-01

    Short-time sea submarine raids (from a few days to a few weeks), performed during one working cycle, negatively influence on the functional state of the submariners organism. Upon returning to the point of basing the crew involved in the maintenance of the material and performs preparations for further access to the sea. Due to the high workload and lack of time personnel are not held in any correctional and rehabilitation activities, and therefore the time for the next release in the sea functional condition and functional reserves of the body does not have time to fully recover. The transfer of the submarine crew and referral to medical and psychological rehabilitation assumed only after the end of the operating cycle after the crew the task of further voyage. Based on the assessment of the functional systems of the submarine after a short voyage concluded on the need to develop a set of remedial measures for the recovery of submarine crews during inter-cruise period.

  4. An assistant ship surgeon's account of cholera at sea.

    PubMed

    Goodyer, Bronwen E J

    2008-09-01

    The diary of Thomas Graham, a naval ship surgeon, brings the voyage of HMS troopship Apollo in 1849 to life. A year after England's second great cholera outbreak, the pervasive fear of the disease became a reality onboard when cholera broke out. The intended voyage from England to China was diverted to South America where the ship was put into quarantine. So bad were the conditions onboard that the Times correspondent wrote: 'I have never seen a convict-ship in which the convicts were not more comfortably lodged'. Graham's writing provides an insightful record of life at sea in the mid-nineteenth century and the circumstances that led to this cholera outbreak, namely the overcrowding and poor hygiene. He wrote about the current beliefs and assumptions surrounding the disease; that the foul air was to blame. He also noted the varied methods taken to confine patients and treat the disease. The diary is supported by evidence from naval records and newspaper articles. Graham's writing gives us a glimpse into the life of a man who saw the world from a perspective inaccessible to us and the experience of observing newly discovered continents, cultures and wildlife, which he meticulously recorded. This was Graham's last piece of writing as he died unexpectedly of malaria shortly after the journey's end. The diary encapsulates the struggle to overcome disease and the tragic plight a humble ship surgeon shared with the crew.

  5. [Epidemics on the sea: migrants journeys in the nineteenth century].

    PubMed

    Sabbatani, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    In the nineteenth century travelling by ship became faster due to the introduction of the steam engine. Population growth, economic crises and food shortages forced millions of Italians to consider migration towards the Americas as a real opportunity. Travel conditions on ships and steamers were particularly difficult. People were crammed into dormitories where ventilation was poor, food was insufficient, hygiene was appalling and promiscuity was rife. Under such conditions, epidemics of cholera, typhus and measles were all too likely to develop, but mycobacterium tuberculosis also proliferated. The health authorities attempted to block the spread of epidemics by means of either health licenses - papers certifying good health of the crew and passengers, which had to be exhibited on arrival - or quarantine, involving the ship and all its contents, if infectious diseases were detected or suspicious deaths occurred during the ship's voyage. In this article the particularly unfortunate stories of Italian immigrants, who boarded ships and steamers, are reported. In the second half of the nineteenth century, but also in the first decades of the twentieth, millions of Italians whose aim was to reach the Americas paid a very high price. Italy did not provide acceptable living conditions for millions of farmers and town-dwellers, and migration in search of work was in many cases the only solution. Although many during their sea voyages became ill or died of starvation or infectious diseases, migration, supported by hope, continued.

  6. [Problematic medical and psychological issues concerning rehabilitation of crews during the after-sea-dutymen period].

    PubMed

    Liseenko, A N; Artemenko, E S; Demeev, Ya A; Shchur, M S

    2015-09-01

    The analysis of the causes of lack of effective functioning of the medical and psychological rehabilitation of crew of the Navy in the Pacific Fleet is performed. Possible ways of solving existing problematic issues are suggested. For determination of fatigue and overwork it was suggested to undertake mandatory initial medical and psychological screening examination of crews immediately before the return to the naval base, using a simple and affordable methods of testing. Medical and psychological rehabilitation of soldiers after the long sea voyages proposed to take immediate military sanatorium of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (on the territorial principle).

  7. 33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... flag vessel, which is subject to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, (SOLAS... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements-vessels..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security...

  8. 33 CFR 104.297 - Additional requirements-vessels on international voyages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... flag vessel, which is subject to the International Convention for Safety of Life at Sea, 1974, (SOLAS... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements-vessels..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS Vessel Security...

  9. Sea Clutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-28

    OE-10, 47i- 476, (1985). 15. S. Tang and 0. H. Shemdin , "Measurement of High-frequency Waves using a Wave Fol- lower," J. Geophys. Res. 88. 9832...DESCRIPTION OF THE SEA SURFACE ................................................................... 2 The Wave Spectrum...Very Low Grazing Angles ......................................................................... 16 At HF and mm- Wave Frequencies

  10. Intensity Variations of Suprathermal Heliosheath Ions Measured at Voyagers 1 and 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hill, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    Both Voyagers 1 (V1) and 2 (V2) are in the inner heliosheath (HSH) behind the termination shock (TS). V1 crossed the TS during day 351 of 2004 and V2 crossed during days 242-245 of 2007. From 2004/351 to 2009/230, V1 moved in helioradius over 94-111 AU at heliographic latitude N34°, and from 2007/242 to 2009/230, V2 moved over 84-90 AU at S28°. Throughout V2's two-year HSH cruise, the V2/LECP instrument has measured quasi-recurrent (15-35 day) variations in the intensities of suprathermal ions (30 keV-few MeV in 8 energy intervals). Comparable variations are not been seen in the V1/LECP ion data. To help understand these HSH ion data in terms of what was occurring on the sun a year or so earlier, we examined synoptic polar coronal hole maps from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG). Our focus was on possible relations between HSH ion intensity variations and equatorward extensions of polar coronal holes that produce stream interaction regions in the solar wind, which can propagate into the outer heliosphere and into the TS/HSH. The results are promising, not only in helping explain the presence of the quasi-periodic intensity variations at V2 and the lack thereof at V1, but also in enabling us to predict what V1 and V2 are likely to see at their respective latitudes in the future. Another aspect of the V2 data that we will report on is the possible presence, albeit intermittent, of another ion species besides protons in the ~30-200 keV total energy range. Specifically, the angular distributions of the lower energy channels show convective signatures that indicate a mixture protons and helium ions. We are using the HSH plasma flow velocity measured by V2/PLS and modeling the LECP response to confirm these preliminary results and provide estimates of low-energy HSH helium intensities.

  11. New Observations of the Heliospheric Magnetic Field from the Voyager Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlaga, L. F.

    2007-12-01

    We review recent observations of variations of the heliospheric magnetic field B(t) made by Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2), and we discuss the boundary conditions needed for models to explain the observations. Usually, observations from a spacecraft close to the Sun, such as ACE, WIND or Ulysses are used as input to a time- dependent model. Generally, the predicted profile B(t) can be compared directly with the observed profile only when either V1 or V2 is approximately radially aligned with a near-Sun spacecraft; this happens rarely and only for a brief time interval. The Bastille Day events illustrate this situation. In the absence of radial alignment of the spacecraft it is possible to predict the development of a global structure (a GMIR) with data from ACE or WIND, if they obtain a representative sample the flows that merge to form a GMIR. When latitudinal gradients are small and when there is statistical homogeneity in the azimuthal direction, it is possible to predict the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations of B(t) observed by V1 or V2 during a year or so. We illustrate this situation with observations from the recent solar maximum and the declining phase of the solar cycle. Predictions of detailed observations made by V1 and V2 under general conditions (e.g., when there is a large latitudinal gradient) require boundary conditions as a function of time on a surface, such as a Sun-centered sphere with a radius of 1 AU. These conditions can only be provided by global solar observations. We suggest the feasibility of such an approach, using V2 observations for 2005 and 2006. The prediction of observations in the heliosheath requires the solution of the 3-D boundary problem for the supersonic solar wind and propagation of solar wind through the termination shock into the heliosphere. The properties of B(t) observed in the heliosheath have not yet been predicted.

  12. New Observations of the Heliospheric Magnetic Field from the Voyager Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlaga, Leonard F.

    2007-01-01

    We review recent observations of variations of the heliospheric magnetic field B(t) made by Voyager 1 and 2 (V1 and V2), and we discuss the boundary conditions needed for models to explain the observations. Usually, observations from a spacecraft close to the Sun, such as ACE, WIND or Ulysses are used as input to a time-dependent model. Generally, the predicted profile B(t) can be compared directly with the observed profile only when either V1 or V2 is approximately radially aligned with a near-Sun spacecraft; this happens rarely and only for a brief time interval. The Bastille Day events illustrate this situation. In the absence of radial alignment of the spacecraft it is possible to predict the development of a global structure (a GMIR) with data from ACE or WIND, if they obtain a representative sample the flows that merge to form a GMIR. When latitudinal gradients are small and when there is statistical homogeneity in the azimuthal direction, it is possible to predict the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations of B(t) observed by V1 or V2 during a year or so. We illustrate this situation with observations from the recent solar maximum and the declining phase of the solar cycle. Predictions of detailed observations made by V1 and V2 under general conditions (e.g., when there is a large latitudinal gradient) require boundary conditions as a function of time on a surface, such as a Sun-centered sphere with a radius of 1 AU. These conditions can only be provided by global solar observations. We suggest the feasibility of such an approach, using V2 observations for 2005 and 2006. The prediction of observations in the heliosheath requires the solution of the 3-D boundary problem for the supersonic solar wind and propagation of solar wind through the termination shock into the heliosphere. The properties of B(t) observed in the heliosheath have not yet been predicted.

  13. Low-Energy Charged Particles in Saturn's Magnetosphere: Results from Voyager 1.

    PubMed

    Krimigis, S M; Armstrong, T P; Axford, W I; Bostrom, C O; Gloeckler, G; Keath, E P; Lanzerotti, L J; Carbary, J F; Hamilton, D C; Roelof, E C

    1981-04-10

    The low-energy charged particle instrument on Voyager 1 measured low-energy electrons and ions (energies >/= 26 and >/= 40 kiloelectron volts, respectively) in Saturn's magnetosphere. The first-order ion anisotropies on the dayside are generally in the corotation direction with the amplitude decreasing with decreasing distance to the planet. The ion pitch-angle distributions generally peak at 90 degrees , whereas the electron distributions tend to have field-aligned bidirectional maxima outside the L shell of Rhea. A large decrease in particle fluxes is seen near the L shell of Titan, while selective particle absorption (least affecting the lowest energy ions) is observed at the L shells of Rhea, Dione, and Tethys. The phase space density of ions with values of the first invariant in the range approximately 300 to 1000 million electron volts per gauss is consistent with a source in the outer magnetosphere. The ion population at higher energies (>/= 200 kiloelectron volts per nucleon) consists primarily of protons, molecular hydrogen, and helium. Spectra of all ion species exhibit an energy cutoff at energies >/= 2 million electron volts. The proton-to-helium ratio at equal energy per nucleon is larger (up to approximately 5 x 10(3)) than seen in other magnetospheres and is consistent with a local (nonsolar wind) proton source. In contrast to the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Earth, there are no lobe regions essentially devoid of particles in Saturn's nighttime magnetosphere. Electron pitch-angle distributions are generally bidirectional andfield-aligned, indicating closed field lines at high latitudes. Ions in this region are generally moving toward Saturn, while in the magnetosheath they exhibit strong antisunward streaming which is inconsistent with purely convective flows. Fluxes of magnetospheric ions downstream from the bow shock are present over distances >/= 200 Saturn radii from the planet. Novel features identified in the Saturnian magnetosphere include a

  14. Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP): The fiscal year 1989 SHARP portability evaluations task for NASA Solar System Exploration Division's Voyager project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, David J.; Doyle, Richard J.; James, Mark L.; Kaufman, Tim; Martin, R. Gaius

    1990-01-01

    A Spacecraft Health Automated Reasoning Prototype (SHARP) portability study is presented. Some specific progress is described on the portability studies, plans for technology transfer, and potential applications of SHARP and related artificial intelligence technology to telescience operations. The application of SHARP to Voyager telecommunications was a proof-of-capability demonstration of artificial intelligence as applied to the problem of real time monitoring functions in planetary mission operations. An overview of the design and functional description of the SHARP system is also presented as it was applied to Voyager.

  15. Interaction of eddies and mean zonal flow on Jupiter as inferred from Voyager 1 and 2 images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, A. P.; Beebe, R. F.; Mitchell, J. L.; Garneau, G. W.; Yagi, G. M.; Muller, J.-P.

    1981-01-01

    Voyagers 1 and 2 narrow angle frames are used to obtain displacements of features at resolutions of 130 km over time intervals of 1 Jovian rotation. It is shown that the mean zonal velocity profile does not change by a measurable amount between Voyagers 1 and 2, which is consistent with previous observations. It is also shown that the curvature of the velocity profile vanes varies with latitudes in the range from -3 beta to +2 beta. The barotropic stability criterion is violated at 10 latitudes between + and - 60 deg, and the rate of conversion of eddy kinetic energy into zonal mean kinetic energy is in the range from 1.5 to 3.0 per sq Wm for a layer 2.5 bar deep. The rate of energy conversion is more than 10% of the total infrared heat flux for Jupiter, as compared to the earth where it is only 0.1% of the infrared, which suggests that the two planets possess fundamentally different thermomechanical energy cycles.

  16. The masses of Uranus and its major satellites from Voyager tracking data and earth-based Uranian satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Campbell, J. K.; Taylor, A. H.; Synnott, S. P.

    1992-06-01

    Improved values for the masses of the Uranian system and the satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, and Miranda are obtained on the basis of an analysis of the Doppler-tracking data and star-satellite imaging from the Voyager 2 spacecraft combined with earth-based astrometric satellite observations. Masses are expressed as the product, the universal gravitational constant times the mass of the body, in units of (cu km/sq s). The satellite masses are (4.4 +/- 0.5) for Miranda, (90.3 +/- 8.0) for Ariel, (78.2 +/- 9.0) for Umbriel, (235.3 +/- 6.0) for Titania, and (201.1 +/- 5.0) for Oberon. Quoted errors are standard errors and are the present assessment of the true rather than the formal errors. The Uranus rotational pole orientation angles and gravity harmonic coefficients were fixed at the values determined by French et al. (1988) from stellar occultations of the Uranian rings observed from both the earth and Voyager 2 and from the occultation of the spacecraft radio signal.

  17. The masses of Uranus and its major satellites from Voyager tracking data and earth-based Uranian satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, R. A.; Campbell, J. K.; Taylor, A. H.; Synnott, S. P.

    1992-01-01

    Improved values for the masses of the Uranian system and the satellites Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, and Miranda are obtained on the basis of an analysis of the Doppler-tracking data and star-satellite imaging from the Voyager 2 spacecraft combined with earth-based astrometric satellite observations. Masses are expressed as the product, the universal gravitational constant times the mass of the body, in units of (cu km/sq s). The satellite masses are (4.4 +/- 0.5) for Miranda, (90.3 +/- 8.0) for Ariel, (78.2 +/- 9.0) for Umbriel, (235.3 +/- 6.0) for Titania, and (201.1 +/- 5.0) for Oberon. Quoted errors are standard errors and are the present assessment of the true rather than the formal errors. The Uranus rotational pole orientation angles and gravity harmonic coefficients were fixed at the values determined by French et al. (1988) from stellar occultations of the Uranian rings observed from both the earth and Voyager 2 and from the occultation of the spacecraft radio signal.

  18. The collecting activities of James Cuninghame FRS on the voyage of Tuscan to China (Amoy) between 1697 and 1699

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Charles E.; Oswald, Philip H.

    2015-01-01

    James Cuninghame's visit to China (1697–99) yielded a great deal of valuable information on both natural and artificial objects as well as items of contemporaneous trade interest (for example china clay and a scarlet dye). However, the circumstances surrounding the voyage have long been unclear. Although it has previously been assumed that Cuninghame must have travelled on an East India Company vessel, it now seems that he was aboard Tuscan, one of two private trading ships (interlopers) bound for Amoy under the command of Henry Gough. After an incident in La Palma (Canary Islands), only Tuscan proceeded to China after her release by the Spanish authorities. Study of surviving correspondence between Cuninghame and a Canarian cleric, Juan Bautista Poggio, has contributed to a better understanding of the events in the early part of the voyage. Cuninghame made extensive natural history collections during the six months that Tuscan remained in Amoy, before returning to England in 1699, where his specimens delighted his London supporters, James Petiver and Hans Sloane.

  19. Net current measurements and secondary electron emission characteristics of the Voyager plasma science experiment and their impact on data interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnutt, Ralph L., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    The Voyager Plasma Science (PLS) instrument is capable of returning integral (DC) current measurements, similar in some respects to measurements made with a Langmuir probe or a retarding potential analyzer, although there are significant differences. The integral measurements were made during a calibration sequence in the solar wind, during Cruise Science Maneuvers, and within the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn by Voyager 1. After the failure of the PLS experiment following the Saturn encounter, that instrument was placed in the DC return mode returning possibly usable data from early 1981 through early 1985. The DC return measurements are difficult to interpret and are above threshold values only for relatively large fluxes; the determination of the measured current level is dependent on the operating temperature of the preamplifiers which further complicates the interpretation. Nevertheless, these measurements can be used to determine the efficiency of the suppressor grid at preventing the loss of secondary electrons off the collector plate. Some DC return measurements have been invaluable in aiding in the interpretation of some electron plasma measurements not previously understood. It is found that electron spectra can be significantly modified by the presence of second generation secondary electrons produced by either first generation secondaries or photoelectrons on the support ring of the negative high voltage modulator grid within the instrument housing.

  20. Fantastic voyage: live long enough to live forever. The science behind radical life extension questions and answers.

    PubMed

    Kurzweil, Ray; Grossman, Terry

    2009-01-01

    Putting an end to human aging is now becoming a reality, and immortality is no longer just a dream. Through what we are calling "Fantastic Voyage," we provide a guide to achieving life extension through various means, thereby slowing down aging and disease processes. The three components of Fantastic Voyage are: Bridge One--Aggressively applying today's knowledge. Bridge Two--Putting biotechnology, such as gene technologies, to use with therapeutic cloning and rejuvenation medicine. Bridge Three--Putting nanotechnology to use by developing a means to rebuild our bodies and brains with nanobots. Many of these technology solutions can be simulated today through the use of targeted supplements, designed to address the specific needs of an individual, such as insulin resistance, cholesterol and homocysteine levels, and inflammation. To slow aging now, we propose a program of supplementing aggressively, eating foods that impede aging and disease processes, and reversing inflammation through diet. We also provide guidance to customize each program to the specific needs of the individual. Emerging technologies in rational drug design, tissue engineering, gene therapy, and nanobots (among others) promise a future of automated life extension. The use of such technologies, and the resulting dramatic increases in productivity in all areas of human endeavor, will enable us to live in a world in which all our physical needs can be met.

  1. Phasing the antennas of the Very Large Array (VLA) for reception of telemetry from Voyager 2 at Neptune encounter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulvestad, J. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope is being instrumented at 8.4 GHz to receive telemetry from Voyager 2 during its encounter with Neptune in 1989. The procedure in which the 27 antennas have their phases adjusted in near real time so that the signals from the individual elements of the array can be added coherently is examined. Calculations of the expected signal to noise ratio, tests of the autophasing process at the VLA, and off-line simulations of that process are all presented. Various possible procedures for adjusting the phases are considered. It is shown that the signal to noise ratio at the VLA is adequate for summing the signals from the individual antennas with less than 0.1 dB of loss caused by imperfect coherence among the antennas. Tropospheric variations during the summer of 1989 could cause enough loss of coherence to make the losses higher than 0.1 dB. Experiments show that the losses caused by the troposphere can probably be kept below 0.2 dB if the time delay inherent in the phase adjustment process is no longer than approx. 5 secs. This relatively small combining loss meets the goal estabished to minimize the bit error rate in the Voyager telemetry and implies adequate autophasing of the VLA.

  2. The abundance and distribution of water vapor in the Jovian troposphere as inferred from Voyager IRIS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlson, Barbara E.; Lacis, Andrew A.; Rossow, William B.

    1992-01-01

    The Voyager IRIS spectra of the Jovian North Equatorial Belt (NEB) hot spots are reanalyzed using a radiative transfer model which includes the full effects of anisotropic multiple scattering by clouds. The atmospheric model includes the three thermochemically predicted cloud layers, NH3, NH4SH, and H2O. Spectrally dependent cloud extinction is modeled using Mie theory and the refractive indices of NH3 ice, NH4SH ice, water, and H2O ice. The upper tropospheric temperature profile, gas abundances, height-dependent parahydrogen profile, and vertical distribution of NH3 cloud opacity are retrieved from an analysis of the far-infrared (180-1200/cm) IRIS observations. With these properties constrained, the 5-micron (1800-2300/cm) observations are analyzed to determine the atmospheric and cloud structure of the deeper atmosphere (P of greater than 1.5 bars). The results show that the abundance of water is at least 1.5 times solar with 2 times solar (0.00276 mixing ratio relative to H2) providing the best-fit to the Voyager IRIS hot spot observations.

  3. Micron-Sized Dust Particles Detected in the Outer Solar System by the Voyager 1 and 2 Plasma Wave Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurnett, D. A.; Ansher, J. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Granroth, L. J.

    1997-01-01

    During the Voyager 1 and 2 flybys of the outer planets it has been demonstrated that the plasma wave instrument can detect small dust particles striking the spacecraft. In this paper, we examine the Voyager plasma wave data for dust impacts in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 6 to 60 astronomical units (AU). The results show that a small but persistent level of dust impacts exists out to at least 30 to 50 AU. The average number density of these particles is about 2 x 10(exp -8)/cu m, and the average mass of the impacting particles is believed to be a few times 10(exp -11) g, which corresponds to particle diameters in the micron range. Possible sources of these particles are planets, moons, asteroids, comets, and the interstellar medium. Of these, comets appear to be the most likely source. The number densities are only weakly dependent on ecliptic latitude, which indicates that the particles probably do not originate from planets, moons, or asteroids. Comparisons with interstellar dust fluxes measured in the inner regions of the solar system by the Ulysses spacecraft indicate that the particles are not of interstellar origin.

  4. From Sea to Shining Sea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Deep down in the depths of the sea, beautiful fish, mysterious ocean life, and unusual plants glimmer and glow in the eerie atmosphere of an ever-changing ocean. This article describes how, with this vision and a purpose in mind, three teachers pulled open classroom walls and joined forces so their second graders could create a mammoth 30 x 75"…

  5. Floating plastic debris in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Orejón, Luis F; Sardá, Rafael; Ramis-Pujol, Juan

    2016-09-01

    In two sea voyages throughout the Mediterranean (2011 and 2013) that repeated the historical travels of Archduke Ludwig Salvator of Austria (1847-1915), 71 samples of floating plastic debris were obtained with a Manta trawl. Floating plastic was observed in all the sampled sites, with an average weight concentration of 579.3 g dw km(-2) (maximum value of 9298.2 g dw km(-2)) and an average particle concentration of 147,500 items km(-2) (the maximum concentration was 1,164,403 items km(-2)). The plastic size distribution showed microplastics (<5 mm) in all the samples. The most abundant particles had a surface area of approximately 1 mm(2) (the mesh size was 333 μm). The general estimate obtained was a total value of 1455 tons dw of floating plastic in the entire Mediterranean region, with various potential spatial accumulation areas.

  6. Acceleration and transport of anomalous cosmic rays: Investigating the spectral evolution at Voyager 1 beyond the termination shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senanayake, Udara K.

    Interstellar neutral atoms entering the heliosphere could become ionized by photo-ionization or charge exchange with solar-wind ions. These newly created ions are picked up by the solar wind and carried to the termination shock (TS) where they are believed to be accelerated by the diffusive shock acceleration process to high energies (˜1-100 MeV n-1). The accelerated ions are known as anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs). When NASA's space probe, Voyager 1 crossed the TS in 2004, the measured ACR spectra did not match the theoretical prediction of a continuous power law, and the source of the high-energy ACRs was not observed. However, over the next few years, in the declining phase of the solar cycle, the spectra began to evolve into the expected power-law profile. The model developed here is based on the suggestion that ACRs are still accelerated at the shock, but away from the Voyager crossing points. First, we study ACR acceleration using a three-dimensional, non-spherical model of the heliosphere that is axisymmetric with respect to the interstellar flow direction. A semi-analytic model of the plasma and magnetic field backgrounds is developed to permit an investigation over a wide range of parameters under controlled conditions. The model is applied to helium ACRs, whose phase-space trajectories are stochastically integrated backward in time until a pre-specified, low-energy boundary of 0.5 MeV n-1, is reached. Next, we propose that the solar cycle had an important effect on the evolving of the spectra in the heliosheath. To investigate this, a magnetohydrodynamic background model with stationary solar-wind inner boundary conditions was used to model the transport of helium and oxygen ions. In addition, we developed a charge consistent stochastic model to simulate multiply charged oxygen ACRs. It is shown that the spectral evolution of ACRs in the heliosheath at Voyager 1 could be explained by combining intermediate-energy particles arriving from the heliotail

  7. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2037 If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water...

  8. Darwin’s legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle’s voyage

    PubMed Central

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle’s voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly. PMID:24574856

  9. 33 CFR 151.2037 - If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ballast water management practices because of its voyage and/or safety concerns, will I be prohibited from..., MUNICIPAL OR COMMERCIAL WASTE, AND BALLAST WATER Ballast Water Management for Control of Nonindigenous Species in Waters of the United States § 151.2037 If my vessel cannot conduct ballast water...

  10. Darwin's legacy to rove beetles (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae): A new genus and a new species, including materials collected on the Beagle's voyage.

    PubMed

    Chatzimanolis, Stylianos

    2014-01-01

    A species of xanthopygine rove beetles is described and figured here as Darwinilus sedarisi gen. n. and sp. n. The holotype was collected by Charles Darwin in Bahía Blanca, Argentina on the Beagle's voyage. The contributions of Charles Darwin to rove beetle systematics are summarized briefly.

  11. Titan's atmosphere from Voyager infrared observations. III - Vertical contributions of hydrocarbons and nitriles near Titan's north pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coustenis, A.; Bezard, B.; Gautier, D.; Marten, A.; Samuelson, R.

    1991-01-01

    Voyager 1 IR spectra have been used to infer the Titan north polar region minor stratospheric constituents' temperature structure and vertical distribution. The mixing ratios of the species C4H2, C2H6, C3H4, HCN, HC3N, and C2N2 increase with altitude, implying upper stratosphere (and higher) formation regions. When compared with abundances obtained near the equator, it is found that the HC3N and C2N2 nitriles, together with such hydrocarbons as C2H4, C3H4, and C4H2, are substantially enhanced over the north polar region. A factor-of-2 (minimum) depletion of CO2 relative to the equator is noted; it is judged that current photochemical models are inadequate bases for interpretation of these observations.

  12. Characteristics of type III bursts in the solar wind from simultaneous observations on board ISEE-3 and Voyager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lecacheux, A.; Steinberg, J.-L.; Hoang, S.; Dulk, G. A.

    1989-01-01

    The properties of solar type III bursts observed aboard ISEE-3 and Voyager that originate behind the sun are analyzed and compared to those originating on the near side. The measurement of the burst parameters and the correction for proximity effects are described. The diminution of flux densities, the increase of source sizes, the difference of source azimuths and elevations, the change of spectral properties, and the anomalous delays in burst arrival time at one spacecraft relative to another are determined. Many of the observations imply that the beaming of type III radiation is much more widespread at all frequencies than has been derived from statistical studies. The effective beam appears to consist of at least two components: a Gaussian core of half width about 60 deg, and a very broad halo that extends to 180 deg with an amplitude of a few percent.

  13. The tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in Jupiter's Great Red Spot, from Voyager IRIS observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Bezard, Bruno; Owen, Tobias; Gautier, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The tropospheric abundances of NH3 and PH3 in Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) are presently determined on the basis of a group of Voyager IRIS spectra, and compared with those of the surrounding South Tropical Zone (STZ) obtained from another two groups of IRIS spectra, in order to characterize the GRS's chemistry and dynamics. Although the GRS is believed to be a region of strong vertical transport, NH3 depletion is surprisingly found to occur below the tropopause within the GRS. Since one of the STZ's selections has a temperature-pressure profile similar to that of the GRS below the 300 mbar level, condensation cannot explain the low NH3 abundance in the GRS.

  14. DSS 43 antenna gain analysis for Voyager Uranus encounter: 8.45-GHz radio science data correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slobin, S. D.; Imbriale, W. A.

    1987-01-01

    A malfunction of the Deep Space Network (DSN) 64-meter antenna in Australia forced the antenna to operate with a mispositioned subreflector during the Voyager Uranus encounter period (January 24, 1986). Because of changing main reflector shape and quadripod position as a function of elevation angle, the antenna gain and pointing were not as expected, and the 8.45 GHz received signal level changed during the pass. The study described here used the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) analysis to determine actual antenna gain and pointing during that period in an attempt to reconstruct the radio science data. It is found that the 1.4 dB of signal variation can be accounted for by antenna geometry changes and pointing error. Suggested modifications to the values measured during the pass are presented. Additionally, an extremely useful tool for the analysis of gravity deformed reflectors was developed for use in future antenna design and analysis projects.

  15. Melting Ice, Rising Seas

    NASA Video Gallery

    Sea level rise is an indicator that our planet is warming. Much of the world's population lives on or near the coast, and rising seas are something worth watching. Sea level can rise for two reason...

  16. Mammals of the Sea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naturescope, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Presents information on sea mammals, including definitions and characteristics of cetaceans, pinnipeds, and sirenians. Contains descriptions of the teaching activities "Whale Music,""Draw A Whale to Scale,""Adopt a Sea Mammal," and "Sea Mammal Sleuths." (TW)

  17. Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Cavalieri, Donald J.

    2005-01-01

    Sea ice covers vast areas of the polar oceans, with ice extent in the Northern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 7 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September to approximately 15 x 10(exp 6) sq km in March and ice extent in the Southern Hemisphere ranging from approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) sq km in February to approximately 18 x 10(exp 6) sq km in September. These ice covers have major impacts on the atmosphere, oceans, and ecosystems of the polar regions, and so as changes occur in them there are potential widespread consequences. Satellite data reveal considerable interannual variability in both polar sea ice covers, and many studies suggest possible connections between the ice and various oscillations within the climate system, such as the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and Antarctic Oscillation, or Southern Annular Mode. Nonetheless, statistically significant long-term trends are also apparent, including overall trends of decreased ice coverage in the Arctic and increased ice coverage in the Antarctic from late 1978 through the end of 2003, with the Antarctic ice increases following marked decreases in the Antarctic ice during the 1970s. For a detailed picture of the seasonally varying ice cover at the start of the 21st century, this chapter includes ice concentration maps for each month of 2001 for both the Arctic and the Antarctic, as well as an overview of what the satellite record has revealed about the two polar ice covers from the 1970s through 2003.

  18. Cook Island artifact geochemistry demonstrates spatial and temporal extent of pre-European interarchipelago voyaging in East Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Weisler, Marshall I; Bolhar, Robert; Ma, Jinlong; St Pierre, Emma; Sheppard, Peter; Walter, Richard K; Feng, Yuexing; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Kirch, Patrick V

    2016-07-19

    The Cook Islands are considered the "gateway" for human colonization of East Polynesia, the final chapter of Oceanic settlement and the last major region occupied on Earth. Indeed, East Polynesia witnessed the culmination of the greatest maritime migration in human history. Perennial debates have critiqued whether Oceanic settlement was purposeful or accidental, the timing and pathways of colonization, and the nature and extent of postcolonization voyaging-essential for small founding groups securing a lifeline between parent and daughter communities. Centering on the well-dated Tangatatau rockshelter, Mangaia, Southern Cook Islands, we charted the temporal duration and geographic spread of exotic stone adze materials-essential woodworking tools found throughout Polynesia- imported for more than 300 y beginning in the early AD 1300s. Using a technique requiring only 200 mg of sample for the geochemical analysis of trace elements and isotopes of fine-grained basalt adzes, we assigned all artifacts to an island or archipelago of origin. Adze material was identified from the chiefly complex on the Austral Islands, from the major adze quarry complex on Tutuila (Samoa), and from the Marquesas Islands more than 2,400 km distant. This interaction is the only dated example of down-the-line exchange in central East Polynesia where intermediate groups transferred commodities attesting to the interconnectedness and complexity of social relations fostered during postsettlement voyaging. For the Cook Islands, this exchange may have lasted into the 1600s, at least a century later than other East Polynesian archipelagos, suggesting that interarchipelago interaction contributed to the later development of social hierarchies.

  19. Arctic Sea Ice Thickness - Past, Present And Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadhams, P.

    2007-12-01

    In November 2005 the International Workshop on Arctic Sea Ice Thickness: Past, Present and Future was held at Rungstedgaard Conference Center, near Copenhagen, Denmark. The proceedings of the Workshop were subsequently published as a book by the European Commission. In this review we summarise the conclusions of the Workshop on the techniques which show the greatest promise for thickness monitoring on different spatial and temporal scales, and for different purposes. Sonic methods, EM techniques, buoys and satellite methods will be considered. Some copies of the book will be available at the lecture, and others can be ordered from the European Commission. The paper goes on to consider early results from some of the latest measurements on Arctic sea ice thickness done in 2007. These comprise a trans-Arctic voyage by a UK submarine, HMS "Tireless", equipped with a Kongsberg 3002 multibeam sonar which generates a 3-D digital terrain map of the ice underside; and experiments at the APLIS ice station in the Beaufort Sea carried out by the Gavia AUV equipped with a GeoSwath interferometric sonar. In both cases 3-D mapping of sea ice constitutes a new step forward in sea ice data collection, but in the case of the submarine the purpose is to map change in ice thickness (comparing results with a 2004 "Tireless" cruise and with US and UK data prior to 2000), while for the small AUV the purpose is intensive local mapping of a few ridges to improve our knowledge of their structure, as part of a multisensor programme

  20. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…