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Sample records for 9070-9073 9080-9085 9090

  1. 18 CFR 367.9090 - Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses. 367.9090 Section 367.9090 Conservation of Power and Water... advertising message. If references are used, copies of the advertising message must be readily available....

  2. 18 CFR 367.9090 - Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses. 367.9090 Section 367.9090 Conservation of Power and Water... advertising message. If references are used, copies of the advertising message must be readily available....

  3. 18 CFR 367.9090 - Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses. 367.9090 Section 367.9090 Conservation of Power and Water... advertising message. If references are used, copies of the advertising message must be readily available....

  4. Bicolumnar 90-90 Plating of Low-Energy Distal Humeral Fractures in the Elderly Patient

    PubMed Central

    Leigey, Daniel F.; Farrell, Dana J.; Siska, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Fragility fractures of the distal humerus in elderly patients, especially the low transcondylar fracture pattern, can be difficult to optimally manage. Although the fractures are typically low energy resulting in either extra-articular or simple intra-articular patterns, gaining fixation into the distal fragments can be difficult with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) using traditional 90-90 or parallel plating techniques. Anatomy preserving reconstruction with ORIF is preferred over total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) if possible. In this study, 15 patients were managed with a bicolumnar 90-90 plating construct as a novel method of enhancing distal fixation in these fractures. Fourteen patients went on to radiographic union at an average of 77 days after surgery with an average arc of motion of 105°. One patient was lost to follow-up. Bicolumnar 90-90 plating of distal humerus fractures in elderly patients may represent a viable alternative to traditional ORIF or TEA. PMID:25360342

  5. Bicolumnar 90-90 plating of low-energy distal humeral fractures in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Daniel F; Farrell, Dana J; Siska, Peter A; Tarkin, Ivan S

    2014-09-01

    Fragility fractures of the distal humerus in elderly patients, especially the low transcondylar fracture pattern, can be difficult to optimally manage. Although the fractures are typically low energy resulting in either extra-articular or simple intra-articular patterns, gaining fixation into the distal fragments can be difficult with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) using traditional 90-90 or parallel plating techniques. Anatomy preserving reconstruction with ORIF is preferred over total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) if possible. In this study, 15 patients were managed with a bicolumnar 90-90 plating construct as a novel method of enhancing distal fixation in these fractures. Fourteen patients went on to radiographic union at an average of 77 days after surgery with an average arc of motion of 105°. One patient was lost to follow-up. Bicolumnar 90-90 plating of distal humerus fractures in elderly patients may represent a viable alternative to traditional ORIF or TEA.

  6. Bicolumnar 90-90 plating of low-energy distal humeral fractures in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Leigey, Daniel F; Farrell, Dana J; Siska, Peter A; Tarkin, Ivan S

    2014-09-01

    Fragility fractures of the distal humerus in elderly patients, especially the low transcondylar fracture pattern, can be difficult to optimally manage. Although the fractures are typically low energy resulting in either extra-articular or simple intra-articular patterns, gaining fixation into the distal fragments can be difficult with open reduction internal fixation (ORIF) using traditional 90-90 or parallel plating techniques. Anatomy preserving reconstruction with ORIF is preferred over total elbow arthroplasty (TEA) if possible. In this study, 15 patients were managed with a bicolumnar 90-90 plating construct as a novel method of enhancing distal fixation in these fractures. Fourteen patients went on to radiographic union at an average of 77 days after surgery with an average arc of motion of 105°. One patient was lost to follow-up. Bicolumnar 90-90 plating of distal humerus fractures in elderly patients may represent a viable alternative to traditional ORIF or TEA. PMID:25360342

  7. Laboratory testing of geomembrane for waste containment EPA Method 9090, March 1995. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Whitlock, R.W.

    1995-05-15

    This report describes the work performed by TRI/Environmental, Inc. (TRI) to determine the chemical compatibility of one geomembrane and one seamed geomembrane with four synthetically generated leachates. The objective was to determine the resistance of the geomembrane to changes caused by exposure to the leachates. Changes in physical and mechanical properties were measured after exposure to the leachates at 23 C and 50 C for 30, 60, 90 and 120 days. Exposures were performed in accordance with the exposure regimen specified in US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 9090A. Methods, results and discussion are provided. Test results are also provided in the Tables of Results which accompany this report.

  8. 18 CFR 367.9090 - Account 909, Informational and instructional advertising expenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Account 909... Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE PUBLIC UTILITY... related to billings. (3) Printing of informational booklets, dodgers, bulletins, and other similar...

  9. 76 FR 41395 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company GE90-76B; GE90-77B; GE90-85B; GE90-90B; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ...-34-AD; Amendment 39-16753; AD 2011-15-06] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... received on the proposal and the FAA's response to each comment. Request Two commenters, General Electric...): 2011-15-06 General Electric Company: Amendment 39-16753; Docket No. FAA-2010-1024;...

  10. 75 FR 80370 - Airworthiness Directives; General Electric Company GE90-76B; GE90-77B; GE90-85B; GE90-90B; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; General Electric... adding the following new airworthiness directive (AD): General Electric Company: Docket No. FAA-2010-1024.... Affected ADs (b) None. Applicability (c) This AD applies to General Electric Company GE90-76B; GE90-...

  11. LACIE: An experiment in global crop forecasting. [united states of america and u.s.s.r.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Hall, F. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Both the accuracy and efficiency with which LACIE crop survey estimates were made have shown significant improvement in three years. In the U.S. and U.S.S.R. winter wheat regions, the original accuracy goals were met or exceeded, with 90/90 estimates achieved in the United States 1.5 to 2 months before harvest. Additionally, all available accuracy parameters indicate 90/90 estimates for the U.S.S.R. total crop. Key technology problems were identified during phase 2 with spring wheat in the United States and Canada which prevented the attainment of 90/90 accuracies in these regions. Technology solutions developed and tested in phase 3 partly resolved these issues with a significant improvement realized in the accuracy of the spring wheat area estimates.

  12. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). First interim phase 3 evaluation report. [Great Plains and U.S.S.R.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. LACIE acreage estimates were in close agreement with SRS estimates, and an operational system with a 14 day LANDSAT data turnaround could have produced an accurate acreage estimate (one which satisfied the 90/90 criterion) 1 1/2 to 2 months before harvest. Low yield estimates, resulting from agromet conditions not taken into account in the yield models, caused production estimates to be correspondingly low. However, both yield and production estimates satisfied the LACIE 90/90 criterion for winter wheat in the yardstick region.

  13. A resolution designating the period beginning on September 13, 2009, and ending on September 19, 2009, as "National Polycystic Kidney Disease Awareness Week", and supporting the goals and ideals of a National Polycystic Kidney Disease Awareness Week to raise public awareness and understanding of polycystic kidney disease and the impact polycystic kidney disease has on patients and future generations of their families.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Kohl, Herb [D-WI

    2009-08-05

    08/07/2009 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S9090-9091) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Increased amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance in Escherichia coli blood isolates, Spain.

    PubMed

    Oteo, Jesús; Campos, José; Lázaro, Edurne; Cuevas, Oscar; García-Cobos, Silvia; Pérez-Vázquez, María; de Abajo, F J

    2008-08-01

    To determine the evolution and trends of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid resistance among Escherichia coli isolates in Spain, we tested 9,090 blood isolates from 42 Spanish hospitals and compared resistance with trends in outpatient consumption. These isolates were collected by Spanish hospitals that participated in the European Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System network from April 2003 through December 2006. PMID:18680650

  15. Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE). Phase 1: Evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    It appears that the Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment over the Great Plains, can with a reasonable expectation, be a satisfactory component of a 90/90 production estimator. The area estimator produced more accurate area estimates for the total winter wheat region than for the mixed spring and winter wheat region of the northern Great Plains. The accuracy does appear to degrade somewhat in regions of marginal agriculture where there are small fields and abundant confusion crops. However, it would appear that these regions tend also to be marginal with respect to wheat production and thus increased area estimation errors do not greatly influence the overall production estimation accuracy in the United States. The loss of segments resulting from cloud cover appears to be a random phenomenon that introduces no significant bias into the estimates. This loss does increase the variance of the estimates.

  16. A simulation study of Large Area Crop Inventory Experiment (LACIE) technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ziegler, L. (Principal Investigator); Potter, J.

    1979-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The LACIE performance predictor (LPP) was used to replicate LACIE phase 2 for a 15 year period, using accuracy assessment results for phase 2 error components. Results indicated that the (LPP) simulated the LACIE phase 2 procedures reasonably well. For the 15 year simulation, only 7 of the 15 production estimates were within 10 percent of the true production. The simulations indicated that the acreage estimator, based on CAMS phase 2 procedures, has a negative bias. This bias was too large to support the 90/90 criterion with the CV observed and simulated for the phase 2 production estimator. Results of this simulation study validate the theory that the acreage variance estimator in LACIE was conservative.

  17. [Surgical treatment of subtrochanteric fractures in children].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Vargas, R; Rincón-Cardozo, D F; Camacho-Casas, J A

    2016-01-01

    Subtrochanteric fractures in children are rare events, occur in only 4% of all femur fractures, most injuries occur as a result of high energy trauma, being young males patient the most affected. The management of this type of injury is controversial, there are many forms of treatment, including the use of plaster spica 90-90, closed reduction and use of elastic or rigid intramedullary nails, open reduction and plate placement and external fixators. Most suggest that children under 10 should be preferred non-operative and for older than 12 surgical management is indicated, but the discussion is between 6 and 12 years old. Through this article we present the treatment of such entity with a proximal fracture plate using a minimally invasive technique. PMID:27627774

  18. Molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses of canine parvovirus in domestic dogs and cats in Beijing, 2010-2013.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Gao, Xin-Tao; Hou, Shao-Hua; Guo, Xiao-Yu; Yang, Xue-Shong; Yuan, Wei-Feng; Xin, Ting; Zhu, Hong-Fei; Jia, Hong

    2015-10-01

    Fifty-five samples (15.62%) collected from dogs and cats were identified as canine parvovirus (CPV) infection in Beijing during 2010-2013. The nucleotide identities and aa similarities were 98.2-100% and 97.7-100%, respectively, when compared with the reference isolates. Also, several synonymous and non-synonymous mutations were also recorded for the first time. New CPV-2a was dominant, accounting for 90.90% of the samples. Two of the 16 samples collected from cats were identified as new CPV-2a (12.5%), showing nucleotide identities of 100% with those from dogs. Twelve samples (15.78%) collected from completely immunized dogs were found to be new CPV-2a, which means CPV-2 vaccines may not provide sufficient protection for the epidemic strains.

  19. Effects of Using Multimedia Situational Teaching in Establish Nurse-Patient Relationship for New Nurses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Chen, Hui-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, endless stream of news for medical violence to make Nurse-Patient Relationship (NPR) was valued. This study is using Multimedia Situation Teaching (MST) to intervene in Nursing training process keep 6 months, probe the effects of new nurses to establish of NPR. Choose 11 new nurses in a medical ward for the study. Using Therapeutic Interpersonal substantive capacity questionnaire survey effects of new nurses establish NPR. After intervention, 94.45% of new nurses can use positive attitude to establish NPR, 90.90% of new nurses represent MST can effectively convey the right attitude in a clinical situation. Using MST can effectively improve new nurses established NPR, we can further enhance the quality of Nursing care, reduce the incidence of medical violence. PMID:27332277

  20. Shape Changing Airfoil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Eric A.

    2005-01-01

    Scoping of shape changing airfoil concepts including both aerodynamic analysis and materials-related technology assessment effort was performed. Three general categories of potential components were considered-fan blades, booster and compressor blades, and stator airfoils. Based on perceived contributions to improving engine efficiency, the fan blade was chosen as the primary application for a more detailed assessment. A high-level aerodynamic assessment using a GE90-90B Block 4 engine cycle and fan blade geometry indicates that blade camber changes of approximately +/-4deg would be sufficient to result in fan efficiency improvements nearing 1 percent. Constraints related to flight safety and failed mode operation suggest that use of the baseline blade shape with actuation to the optimum cruise condition during a portion of the cycle would be likely required. Application of these conditions to the QAT fan blade and engine cycle was estimated to result in an overall fan efficiency gain of 0.4 percent.

  1. [Surgical treatment of subtrochanteric fractures in children].

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Vargas, R; Rincón-Cardozo, D F; Camacho-Casas, J A

    2016-01-01

    Subtrochanteric fractures in children are rare events, occur in only 4% of all femur fractures, most injuries occur as a result of high energy trauma, being young males patient the most affected. The management of this type of injury is controversial, there are many forms of treatment, including the use of plaster spica 90-90, closed reduction and use of elastic or rigid intramedullary nails, open reduction and plate placement and external fixators. Most suggest that children under 10 should be preferred non-operative and for older than 12 surgical management is indicated, but the discussion is between 6 and 12 years old. Through this article we present the treatment of such entity with a proximal fracture plate using a minimally invasive technique.

  2. Econometric models for predicting confusion crop ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Umberger, D. E.; Proctor, M. H.; Clark, J. E.; Eisgruber, L. M.; Braschler, C. B. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Results for both the United States and Canada show that econometric models can provide estimates of confusion crop ratios that are more accurate than historical ratios. Whether these models can support the LACIE 90/90 accuracy criterion is uncertain. In the United States, experimenting with additional model formulations could provide improved methods models in some CRD's, particularly in winter wheat. Improved models may also be possible for the Canadian CD's. The more aggressive province/state models outperformed individual CD/CRD models. This result was expected partly because acreage statistics are based on sampling procedures, and the sampling precision declines from the province/state to the CD/CRD level. Declining sampling precision and the need to substitute province/state data for the CD/CRD data introduced measurement error into the CD/CRD models.

  3. Effects of Using Multimedia Situational Teaching in Establish Nurse-Patient Relationship for New Nurses.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jing-Yi; Chen, Hui-Fen

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, endless stream of news for medical violence to make Nurse-Patient Relationship (NPR) was valued. This study is using Multimedia Situation Teaching (MST) to intervene in Nursing training process keep 6 months, probe the effects of new nurses to establish of NPR. Choose 11 new nurses in a medical ward for the study. Using Therapeutic Interpersonal substantive capacity questionnaire survey effects of new nurses establish NPR. After intervention, 94.45% of new nurses can use positive attitude to establish NPR, 90.90% of new nurses represent MST can effectively convey the right attitude in a clinical situation. Using MST can effectively improve new nurses established NPR, we can further enhance the quality of Nursing care, reduce the incidence of medical violence.

  4. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on hams shortly after vacuum packaging by spray application of lauric arginate.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2009-12-01

    This study measured and compared the short-term efficacy levels of lauric arginate (LAE) as a postlethality treatment against Listeria monocytogenes present on varied surfaces of large-diameter hams. Preliminary in vitro work demonstrated a 5-log inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 5,000- and 9,090-ppm LAE solutions within 180 min at 4.4 and 23 degrees C. Six different whole-muscle ham types were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ca. 7-log CFU per ham and spray treated with between 15 and 29 ml of a 9,090-ppm LAE solution, or an equal volume of water (control), prior to vacuum packaging. After 48 h at 4.4 degrees C, populations were recovered from ham and interior packaging surfaces by using a surface rinse method with Dey-Engley neutralizing broth followed by plating on modified Oxford medium. Logarithmic reductions of L. monocytogenes exceeding 2 log CFU/cm(2) of ham surfaces were achieved by LAE treatment on all ham types. Hams with 1,129 cm(2) of surface area that had been processed by drenching in liquid smoke had 3.84 and 2.67 CFU/cm(2) 48 h following treatment with 18 ml of water or LAE, respectively, but increasing treatment volumes to 22 ml significantly reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes levels to 0.65 log CFU/cm(2). This study demonstrated the efficacy of LAE against L. monocytogenes on several ham types, thereby validating it as a postlethality treatment for inactivation of the pathogen.

  5. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on hams shortly after vacuum packaging by spray application of lauric arginate.

    PubMed

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J

    2009-12-01

    This study measured and compared the short-term efficacy levels of lauric arginate (LAE) as a postlethality treatment against Listeria monocytogenes present on varied surfaces of large-diameter hams. Preliminary in vitro work demonstrated a 5-log inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 5,000- and 9,090-ppm LAE solutions within 180 min at 4.4 and 23 degrees C. Six different whole-muscle ham types were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ca. 7-log CFU per ham and spray treated with between 15 and 29 ml of a 9,090-ppm LAE solution, or an equal volume of water (control), prior to vacuum packaging. After 48 h at 4.4 degrees C, populations were recovered from ham and interior packaging surfaces by using a surface rinse method with Dey-Engley neutralizing broth followed by plating on modified Oxford medium. Logarithmic reductions of L. monocytogenes exceeding 2 log CFU/cm(2) of ham surfaces were achieved by LAE treatment on all ham types. Hams with 1,129 cm(2) of surface area that had been processed by drenching in liquid smoke had 3.84 and 2.67 CFU/cm(2) 48 h following treatment with 18 ml of water or LAE, respectively, but increasing treatment volumes to 22 ml significantly reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes levels to 0.65 log CFU/cm(2). This study demonstrated the efficacy of LAE against L. monocytogenes on several ham types, thereby validating it as a postlethality treatment for inactivation of the pathogen. PMID:20003733

  6. Clonal distribution of pneumococcal serotype 19F isolates from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sparding, Nadja; Dayie, Nicholas T K D; Mills, Richael O; Newman, Mercy J; Dalsgaard, Anders; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Slotved, Hans-Christian

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Pneumococcal strains are classified according to their capsular polysaccharide and more than 90 different serotypes are currently known. In this project, three distinct groups of pneumococcal carriage isolates from Ghana were investigated; isolates from healthy children in Tamale and isolates from both healthy and children attending the outpatient department at a hospital in Accra. The isolates were previously identified and characterized by Gram staining, serotyping and susceptibility to penicillin. In this study, isolates of the common serotype 19F were further investigated by Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). Overall, 14 different Sequence Types (STs) were identified by MLST, of which nine were novel based on the international MLST database. Two clones within serotype 19F seem to circulate in Ghana, a known ST (ST 4194) and a novel ST (ST 9090). ST 9090 was only found in healthy children in Accra, whereas ST 4194 was found equally in all children studied. In the MLST database, other isolates of ST 4194 were also associated with serotype 19F, and these isolates came from other West African countries. The majority of isolates were penicillin intermediate resistant. In conclusion, two clones within serotype 19F were found to be dominating in pneumococcal carriage in Accra and Tamale in Ghana. Furthermore, it seems as though the clonal distribution of serotype 19F may be different from what is currently known in Ghana in that many new clones were identified. This supports the importance of continued monitoring of pneumococcal carriage in Ghana and elsewhere when vaccines, e.g., PCV-13, have been introduced to monitor the possible future spread of antimicrobial resistant clones.

  7. Comparison between computed tomography multislice and high-field magnetic resonance in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with renal masses

    PubMed Central

    Baldari, Diana; Capece, Sergio; Mainenti, Pier Paolo; Tucci, Anna Giacoma; Klain, Michele; Cozzolino, Immacolata; Salvatore, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Background Renal masses are a common finding in diagnostic imaging; these lesions usually are solid or cystic, benign or malignant, and the correct diagnosis may be difficult. The aim of our study was the comparison of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) and high-field magnetic resonance (MR) in the diagnostic evaluation of renal masses. Methods We studied 29 patients, 16 men and 13 women aged 8-85 years (mean 61±17 years) with histo-cytological diagnosis of renal masses (n=31), of which the majority (74%; n=23) was represented by malignant lesions [renal cell carcinoma (Ca) =16, chromophobe renal cell Ca =2, squamous cell Ca =1, urothelial Ca =2, lymphoma =1, Wilms tumor =1]; the remaining 8 masses (26%) were benign (pyelonephritis =2, simple cyst =1, hematic cyst =1, lipoma =1 and oncocytoma =3). All patients underwent MSCT and MR (3.0 Tesla) before and after contrast injection; the images were evaluated in double-blind by two expert radiologists. The results of the images were then compared with the histo-cytological data to calculate the values of diagnostic accuracy for both methods in the identification and characterization of renal masses. The benign or malignant nature of the lesions was established according to the regularity of the margins, presence or absence of significant contrast enhancement, infiltration of perirenal fat and vascular invasion. The concordance of the results of the two imaging techniques was then calculated using the coefficient Kappa Cohen. Results For both identification and characterization of renal masses, MSCT and MR showed comparable values of diagnostic accuracy with a significant concordance (k=1); in particular, the diagnostic accuracy of MSCT/MR was 100%/100% for lesion identification, 90%/90% for lesion characterization in terms of benign or malignant nature, 97%/97% for the evaluation of lesion edges, 90%/90% for the assessment of lesion contrast enhancement, 93%/93% for the evaluation of peri-renal fat infiltration

  8. Tetrabromobisphenol A contamination and emission in printed circuit board production and implications for human exposure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyu; Guo, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Peng; Deng, Jingjing; Lin, Kuangfei

    2014-05-30

    The emission of and exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) during the production of printed circuit boards (PCBs) were evaluated in this study. TBBPA was determined in production wastes (fine solid waste, rinsing water, effluent and sludge) and environmental samples (dust and PM10) from a typical PCB plant. The TBBPA concentrations of the solid and liquid wastes were on the order of 10(2)-10(4)ng/g and 10(1)-10(2)ng/L, respectively. The highest emission to the environment was exhibited by the fine solid waste (187-1220μg/kg-PCB), suggesting the need for strict control of its production and disposal. Regarding the environmental samples, the TBBPA contents of dust (125-9090ng/g) and PM10 (12.3-1640pg/m(3)) were higher than other values reported worldwide, indicating that PCB production was a non-negligible source of TBBPA for the occupational environment. TBBPA contamination mainly occurred in the form of sedimentary dust rather than suspended particulate matter. According to our estimation, worker exposures to TBBPA via dust ingestion, dust dermal absorption and PM10 inhalation varied widely by process, with the greatest exposures being 1930, 431 and 96.5pg/kg-bw/day, respectively. The exposure via dust represented most of the overall exposure via the above three pathways in PCB workshops.

  9. Nongassing long-lasting electro-osmotic pump with polyaniline-wrapped aminated graphene electrodes.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rudra; Jahan, Kousar; Nagarale, Rajaram K; Sharma, Ashutosh

    2015-01-14

    An efficient nongassing electro-osmotic pump (EOP) with long-lasting electrodes and exceptionally stable operation is developed by using novel flow-through polyaniline (PANI)-wrapped aminated graphene (NH2-G) electrodes. The NH2-G/PANI electrode combines the excellent oxidation/reduction capacity of PANI with the exceptional conductivity and inertness of NH2-G. The flow rate varies linearly with voltage but is highly dependent on the electrode composition. The flow rates at a potential of 5 V for pristine NH2-G and PANI electrodes are 71 and 100 μL min(-1) cm(-2), respectively, which increase substantially by the use of NH2-G/PANI electrode. It increased from 125 to 182 μL min(-1) cm(-2) as the fraction of aniline increased from 66.63 to 90.90%. The maximum flux obtained is 40 μL min(-1) V(-1) cm(-2) with NH2-G/PANI-90.9 electrodes. The assembled EOP remained exceptionally stable until the electrode columbic capacity was fully utilized. The prototype shown here delivered 8.0 μL/min at a constant applied voltage of 2 V for over 7 h of continuous operation. The best EOP produces a maximum stall pressure of 3.5 kPa at 3 V. These characteristics make it suitable for a variety of microfluidic/device applications.

  10. Clinical and radiographic assessment of mineral trioxide aggregate and calcium hydroxide as apexification agents in traumatized young permanent anterior teeth: A comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Damle, S. G.; Bhattal, Hiteshwar; Damle, Dhanashree; Dhindsa, Abhishek; Loomba, Ashish; Singla, Sumit

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and traditionally used calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in inducing root end formation of immature roots of traumatized young permanent anterior teeth. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 22 nonvital, immature permanent maxillary incisors. Samples were allotted into two groups - Group I MTA and Group II Ca(OH)2 Success rate was determined based upon the time duration required for apical barrier formation. The canals were obturated using gutta-percha points in MTA group, after 24 h, whereas in Ca(OH)2 group, obturation was carried out after radiographic confirmation of the apical barrier. The clinical and radiographic evaluation was carried out at a follow-up periods of 3, 6, and 9 months and statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS version 15.0 statistical analysis software (Chi-square test and fisher exact test). Results: In MTA Group, barrier formation was observed in 90.90% of the patients after 9 months whereas in Ca(OH)2 Group, the same was observed in 81.81%. The mean time required for barrier formation in MTA group was 4.90 months and 5.33 months in Ca(OH)2 group. Conclusion: MTA and Ca(OH)2, as medicaments for apexification, were comparable in terms of the evaluation parameters. However, MTA was beneficial in terms of immediate obturation of immature roots with wide open apices. PMID:27274351

  11. Systems stunning with CO(2) gas on Manchego light lambs: Physiologic responses and stunning effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Bórnez, Rocío; Linares, María Belén; Vergara, Herminia

    2009-05-01

    Effect of four stunning treatments using different CO(2) concentrations and exposure times (G1: 80%90s; G2: 90%90s; G3: 90%60s; G4: 80%60s) on hormonal, haematological and biochemical parameters in Manchego breed light lambs and their stunning effectiveness (% animals correctly stunned) was studied. An electrically stunned control treatment (G5) was used. G1 showed the highest plasmatic hormonal, red cell distribution (RDW) and lactate levels. Haemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean cell haemoglobin (HbCM), glucose, lactate deshydrogenase (LDH), sodium, potassium and creatine kinase (CK) were highest in G5. Stunning effectiveness was maximum (100%) in G3 and G5, only 50% in G1 and G2 and minimum (30%) in G4. A discriminant analysis showed a function for discriminating between G5 and the gas stunned groups, and another one for discriminating between gas stunned groups. Only potassium and adrenaline variables marked the difference among groups.

  12. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    evaluated for potential contamination bias by using the same approach developed by Olsen and others (2010). Some data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for the Southern California Coastal Drainages study unit were included to supplement the GAMA-PBP data. The detection frequency and upper threshold of potential contamination bias (BD-90/90) were determined from field-blank and equipment-blank data for each trace element. The BD-90/90 is the 90th percentile concentration of potential extrinsic contamination calculated by using the binomial probability distribution for greater than 90 percent confidence. Additionally, data from laboratory blanks and blind blanks analyzed by the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) during water years 2010 through 2013, and compiled by the USGS Branch of Quality Systems (BQS), were considered for each trace element. These results were compared to each constituent’s reporting level to determine whether an SRL was necessary to minimize the potential for detections in the groundwater samples, attributed principally to contamination bias. Results of the evaluation were used to set SRLs for trace-element data for about 1,135 samples of groundwater collected by the GAMA-PBP between October 2009 and March 2013. Ten trace elements analyzed (Sb, As, Be, B, Cd, Li, Se, Ag, Tl, and U) had blank results that did not necessitate establishing SRLs during this review or the review by Olsen and others (2010). Five trace elements analyzed (Al, Ba, Cr, Sr, and V) had blank results that necessitated establishing an SRL during the previous review but did not need an SRL starting October 2009. One trace element (Fe) had field and laboratory-blank results that necessitated keeping the previous SRL (6 micrograms per liter [μg/L]). Two trace elements (Ni and W) had quality-control results that warranted decreasing the previous SRL, and five trace elements (Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, and Zn) had field, laboratory, or blind blank results

  13. Treatment of Onychomycosis – a Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Pajaziti, Laura; Vasili, Ermira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of the nail unit. Anatomical and physiological characteristics of the nail apparatus impose the need for long-term treatment to achieve complete cure. Goal: The main goal of this project is to study the effectiveness of several treatment protocols for onychomycosis based on Scoring Clinical Index for Onychomycosis (SCIO). Material and methods: The study included 133 patients with onychomycosis, diagnosed by KOH microscopy and culture. Based on disease severity, patients were grouped into groups with SCIO values: 6-9, and 12-16. These groups were randomly subdivided to 5 subgroups according to the given treatment protocols: fluconazole 150 mg 1x weekly, itraconazole continual therapy, itraconazole pulse therapy, terbinafine 250 mg/d, and terbinafine + ciclopirox 8% lacquer, respectively. The cure rate was evaluated at the end of 48 week. Results: The obtained cure rates according to the above mentioned protocols were: 92.30%, 81.81%, 83.33%, 90.90%, and 100%, respectively for groups of patients with SCIO values 6 – 9. Within patients with SCIO values 12-16, were achieved cure rates as follows: 78.57%, 78.57%, 75%, 80%, and 86.66%. Conclusions: There was no statistically significant difference in cure rate between five treatment protocols applied in this study. In patients with high SCIO values is expected a decrease in cure rate. PMID:26261386

  14. Beta planar source quality assurance with the Fricke xylenol gel dosimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alva-Sánchez, Mirko S.; de Oliveira, Lucas N.; Petchevist, Paulo C.; Moreira, Marco V.; de Almeida, Adelaide

    2014-03-01

    Beta therapy is employed in post surgery to treat lesions such as pterygia, keloid and glioblastoma. The beta source most used for these purposes is 90/90Y, whose quality assurance is a challenge, because the detectors currently used for this evaluation do not satisfy the spatial resolution, the effective atomic number and the tissue equivalent conditions. The Fricke xylenol gel (FXG) has been used in several applications in radiotherapy due to its better characteristics. This dosimeter is associated with the Fe(II) to Fe(III) oxidation, post ionizing irradiation, being the final Fe(III) concentration linearly depended on the absorbed dose. The goal of this present work is to show that the FXG, with atomic effective number (Zeff) of 7.75 and high resolution (<1 mm), accomplishes quality assurance for rectangular and square planar 90Sr/90Y sources. In order to demonstrate the quality assurance, calibration curves, percentage depth dose and beam profile from exposed FXG samples were analyzed and from these results, we demonstrate the potential use of the FXG dosimeter for beta source quality control.

  15. Preference elicitation approach for measuring the willingness to pay for liver cancer treatment in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Donghun

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The Korean government has expanded the coverage of the national insurance scheme for four major diseases: cancers, cardiovascular diseases, cerebrovascular diseases, and rare diseases. This policy may have a detrimental effect on the budget of the national health insurance agency. Like taxes, national insurance premiums are levied on the basis of the income or wealth of the insured. Methods Using a preference elicitation method, we attempted to estimate how much people are willing to pay for insurance premiums that would expand their coverage for liver cancer treatment. Results We calculated the marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) through the marginal rate of substitution between the two attributes of the insurance premium and the total annual treatment cost by adopting conditional logit and mixed logit models. Conclusions The effects of various other terms that could interact with socioeconomic status were also estimated, such as gender, income level, educational attainment, age, employment status, and marital status. The estimated MWTP values of the monthly insurance premium for liver cancer treatment range from 4,130 KRW to 9,090 KRW. PMID:26523270

  16. Astym Therapy Improves Bilateral Hamstring Flexibility and Achilles Tendinopathy in a Child with Cerebral Palsy: A Retrospective Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Nicole A.; Alstat, Lucas R.; Van Zant, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this case report was to describe the use of Astym therapy to improve hamstring flexibility and Achilles tendinopathy in a child with cerebral palsy. CASE DESCRIPTION An eight-year-old female with cerebral palsy was referred to physical therapy for the treatment of bilateral hamstring inflexibility and Achilles tendinopathy. Treatment focused on an Astym therapy protocol of eccentric exercise, stretching, active and passive range of motion, gait training, and a home exercise program. The patient underwent a total of 11 physical therapy treatment sessions. OUTCOMES At the conclusion of treatment, the patient demonstrated improved resting muscle tone in bilateral lower extremities with active 90/90 hamstring flexibility measured at 165° and ankle dorsiflexion active range of motion of 5° without pain at 0° and 90° knee flexion. The patient exhibited an improved gait pattern with even stride length and diminished genu recurvatum, decreased pain with standing and walking, discontinued use of ankle–foot orthoses, and improved activity tolerance and overall function for daily activities. DISCUSSION The results of this case report indicate that physical therapy rehabilitation utilizing an Astym therapy protocol can successfully achieve gains in flexibility and strength and allow for improved function of bilateral lower extremities in a patient with cerebral palsy. CONCLUSION Based on the findings of this case report, clinicians should consider the use of Astym therapy in treating musculoskeletal soft tissue dysfunction in pediatric patients with cerebral palsy. PMID:27790051

  17. Combined inhibition of heat shock proteins 90 and 70 leads to simultaneous degradation of the oncogenic signaling proteins involved in muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Alice; Juengst, Brendon; Sheridan, Kathleen; Danella, John F.; Williams, Heinric

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays a critical role in the survival of cancer cells including muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The addiction of tumor cells to HSP90 has promoted the development of numerous HSP90 inhibitors and their use in clinical trials. This study evaluated the role of inhibiting HSP90 using STA9090 (STA) alone or in combination with the HSP70 inhibitor VER155008 (VER) in several human MIBC cell lines. While both STA and VER inhibited MIBC cell growth and migration and promoted apoptosis, combination therapy was more effective. Therefore, the signaling pathways involved in MIBC were systematically interrogated following STA and/or VER treatments. STA and not VER reduced the expression of proteins in the p53/Rb, PI3K and SWI/SWF pathways. Interestingly, STA was not as effective as VER or combination therapy in degrading proteins involved in the histone modification pathway such as KDM6A (demethylase) and EP300 (acetyltransferase) as predicted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. This data suggests that dual HSP90 and HSP70 inhibition can simultaneously disrupt the key signaling pathways in MIBC. PMID:26556859

  18. The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility: targets, methods and outputs

    PubMed Central

    Oke, Muse; Carter, Lester G.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Liu, Huanting; McMahon, Stephen A.; Yan, Xuan; Kerou, Melina; Weikart, Nadine D.; Kadi, Nadia; Sheikh, Md. Arif; Schmelz, Stefan; Dorward, Mark; Zawadzki, Michal; Cozens, Christopher; Falconer, Helen; Powers, Helen; Overton, Ian M.; van Niekerk, C. A. Johannes; Peng, Xu; Patel, Prakash; Garrett, Roger A.; Prangishvili, David; Botting, Catherine H.; Coote, Peter J.; Dryden, David T. F.; Barton, Geoffrey J.; Schwarz-Linek, Ulrich; Challis, Gregory L.; Taylor, Garry L.; White, Malcolm F.

    2010-01-01

    The Scottish Structural Proteomics Facility was funded to develop a laboratory scale approach to high throughput structure determination. The effort was successful in that over 40 structures were determined. These structures and the methods harnessed to obtain them are reported here. This report reflects on the value of automation but also on the continued requirement for a high degree of scientific and technical expertise. The efficiency of the process poses challenges to the current paradigm of structural analysis and publication. In the 5 year period we published ten peer-reviewed papers reporting structural data arising from the pipeline. Nevertheless, the number of structures solved exceeded our ability to analyse and publish each new finding. By reporting the experimental details and depositing the structures we hope to maximize the impact of the project by allowing others to follow up the relevant biology. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10969-010-9090-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20419351

  19. Combination of heat shock protein 90 and focal adhesion kinase inhibitors synergistically inhibits the growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Webber, Philip J; Park, Chanhee; Qui, Min; Ramalingam, Suresh S; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian; Du, Yuhong

    2015-01-01

    Discovery of effective drug combinations is a promising strategy to improve patient survival. This study explores the impact of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibition in combination with focal adhesion kinase (FAK) inhibitor on the growth of non-small cell lung cancer cells (NSCLC cells). Our data show that 17-N-Allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17-AAG), a well-studied Hsp90 inhibitor, synergized with FAK inhibitor, PF-573228, on the growth inhibition of NSCLC cells. This combination effect was confirmed using additional chemically distinct Hsp90 inhibitor, STA-9090, which is currently undergoing phase 3 clinical evaluation. Co-treatment of NSCLC cells with Hsp90 and FAK inhibitors significantly enhanced the inhibition on long-term colony formation compared to that with single agent. Inhibition of FAK exacerbated the G2 cell cycle arrest and annexin-V apoptotic staining induced by 17-AAG. Further mechanistic studies revealed that the combination of Hsp90 and FAK inhibitors reduced the activity of canonical proliferative and survival Akt-mTOR signaling, and increased pro-apoptotic caspase activation. Interestingly, FAK inhibition alone induced feedback activation of pro-survival Erk signaling, which was abrogated by co-treatment with Hsp90 inhibitors. Both Hsp90 and FAK inhibitors are undergoing clinical evaluation. Our studies suggest the tandem of Hsp90 and FAK inhibitors may provide an effective treatment option for NSCLC patients.

  20. Analyses of Total Alkaloid Extract of Corydalis yanhusuo by Comprehensive RP × RP Liquid Chromatography with pH Difference

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hongling; Wang, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    A comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) reverse phase (RP) liquid chromatography (LC) method is developed for alkaloid analysis. This offline comprehensive 2D method is developed using different pH values. With a pH value of 10.5, most alkaloids appear in the form of neutral molecules possessing high retention factors based on their polarity, while the alkaloid polarity order is changed when the pH value decreased to 3.0. The performance of pH modulated 2D LC is demonstrated with 8 alkaloid standards which resulted in orthogonal separation. The developed method is then applied to total alkaloid separation in Corydalis yanhusuo. The first-dimension separation is carried out using methanol and water containing 1.0% ammonium hydroxide and a strong base-resistant RP column, which afforded a peak capacity of 94. The second-dimension analysis is carried out with a surface positive charge column providing a peak capacity of 205 using a mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and water with 0.15% formic acid. 2D analyses of total alkaloid extract from C. yanhusuo afford a total peak capacity of 9090. Sixteen compounds were tentatively identified based on their ultraviolet spectrum and MS/MS analyses. The proposed method provides an alternative approach to achieve high peak capacity for analysis of alkaloid extract. PMID:27722008

  1. Biosorption of lead (II) ions by NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arimurti, Devita Dwi; Heraldy, Eddy; Lestari, Witri Wahyu

    2016-02-01

    This research studied the removal of Pb(II) ions from aqueous solutions using NaOH-activated apple (Malus domestica) juice residue. Biosorbent was characterized with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). The effects of biosorbent dosage, pH, contact time and initial metal ion concentration had been investigated in batch-adsorption method. The biosorption kinetic data were analyzed by pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics model. Freundlich and Langmuir's isotherm were used to describe the biosorption process. The optimum conditions of Pb(II) adsorption was observed at 60 min of contact time, pH 4, and 0.1 g biosorbent dosage in 25 ml solution. The biosorption kinetics followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, resulted biosorption constant rate of 0.184 g.mg-1.min-1. The Langmuir isotherm model exhibited the best fit to experimental data. The maximum biosorption capacity of Pb(II) determined according to the Langmuir model was 90.90 mg.g-1 at 302 K, with the adsorption energy of 26.429 kJ.mol-1.

  2. Heat Shock Protein 90 (Hsp90) Expression and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zagouri, Flora; Bournakis, Evangelos; Koutsoukos, Konstantinos; Papadimitriou, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Hsp90 is an abundant protein in mammalian cells. It forms several discrete complexes, each containing distinct groups of co-chaperones that assist protein folding and refolding during stress, protein transport and degradation. It interacts with a variety of proteins that play key roles in breast neoplasia including estrogen receptors, tumor suppressor p53 protein, angiogenesis transcription factor HIF-1alpha, antiapoptotic kinase Akt, Raf-1 MAP kinase and a variety of receptor tyrosine kinases of the erbB family. Elevated Hsp90 expression has been documented in breast ductal carcinomas contributing to the proliferative activity of breast cancer cells; whilst a significantly decreased Hsp90 expression has been shown in infiltrative lobular carcinomas and lobular neoplasia. Hsp90 overexpression has been proposed as a component of a mechanism through which breast cancer cells become resistant to various stress stimuli. Therefore, pharmacological inhibition of HSPs can provide therapeutic opportunities in the field of cancer treatment. 17-allylamino,17-demethoxygeldanamycin is the first Hsp90 inhibitor that has clinically been investigated in phase II trial, yielding promising results in patients with HER2-overexpressing metastatic breast cancer, whilst other Hsp90 inhibitors (retaspimycin HCL, NVP-AUY922, NVP-BEP800, CNF2024/BIIB021, SNX-5422, STA-9090, etc.) are currently under evaluation. PMID:24280702

  3. Orthogonal Double Plating and Autologous Bone Grafting of Postoperative Humeral Shaft Nonunion – A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Metikala, Sreenivasulu; Bhogadi, Prabhudheer

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Nonunion following surgical stabilization of humeral shaft fractures, although infrequent, remains a challenge as limited surgical options are available. The difficulties in re-fixation are due to osteolysis produced by the loose implant components and disuse osteopenia of the entire bone segment. We share our experience in the management of a long standing diaphyseal nonunion of humerus following titanium LCP fixation. Case Report: A 58 years old woman presented with 20 months old nonunion following titanium LCP fixation of her closed humeral shaft fracture, done elsewhere. The interesting intraoperative findings, noteworthy, are about the extensive metallosis and the gross cortical defect measuring 10cm x 1cm x 1cm, corresponding to the foot print of the previous plate with exposed medullary canal. It was managed by debridement, dual plate fixation using 9 holed and 12 holed stainless steel LCPs in an orthogonal fashion and autologous bone grafting. The nonunion healed in 5 months and she regained all the movements except for terminal 10° of elbow extension and 15° of shoulder abduction at her final follow up of 30 months. According to Stewart and Hundley classification the final result was found to be good. Conclusion: We recommend the judicious use of long and short plates in 90-90 orientation along with autogenous bone grafting in the management of a long standing humeral shaft nonunion having extensive cortical resorption following surgical stabilization by plating. PMID:27299099

  4. Biomechanical Concepts for Fracture Fixation.

    PubMed

    Bottlang, Michael; Schemitsch, Christine E; Nauth, Aaron; Routt, Milton; Egol, Kenneth A; Cook, Gillian E; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2015-12-01

    Application of the correct fixation construct is critical for fracture healing and long-term stability; however, it is a complex issue with numerous significant factors. This review describes a number of common fracture types and evaluates their currently available fracture fixation constructs. In the setting of complex elbow instability, stable fixation or radial head replacement with an appropriately sized implant in conjunction with ligamentous repair is required to restore stability. For unstable sacral fractures with vertical or multiplanar instabilities, "standard" iliosacral screw fixation is not sufficient. Periprosthetic femur fractures, in particular Vancouver B1 fractures, have increased stability when using 90/90 fixation versus a single locking plate. Far cortical locking combines the concept of dynamization with locked plating to achieve superior healing of a distal femur fracture. Finally, there is no ideal construct for syndesmotic fracture stabilization; however, these fractures should be fixed using a device that allows for sufficient motion in the syndesmosis. In general, orthopaedic surgeons should select a fracture fixation construct that restores stability and promotes healing at the fracture site, while reducing the potential for fixation failure.

  5. Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance Australian Enterobacteriaceae Sepsis Outcome Programme annual report, 2014.

    PubMed

    Bell, Jan M; Turnidge, John D; Coombs, Geoffrey W; Daley, Denise A; Gottlieb, Thomas; Robson, Jenny; George, Narelle

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Group on Antimicrobial Resistance performs regular period-prevalence studies to monitor changes in antimicrobial resistance in selected enteric Gram-negative pathogens. The 2014 survey was the second year to focus on blood stream infections. During 2014, 5,798 Enterobacteriaceae species isolates were tested using commercial automated methods (Vitek 2, BioMérieux; Phoenix, BD) and results were analysed using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints (January 2015). Of the key resistances, non-susceptibility to the third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone, was found in 9.0%/9.0% of Escherichia coli (CLSI/EUCAST criteria) and 7.8%/7.8% of Klebsiella pneumoniae, and 8.0%/8.0% K. oxytoca. Non-susceptibility rates to ciprofloxacin were 10.4%/11.6% for E. coli, 5.0%/7.7% for K. pneumoniae, 0.4%/0.4% for K. oxytoca, and 3.5%/6.5% in Enterobacter cloacae. Resistance rates to piperacillin-tazobactam were 3.2%/6.8%, 4.8%/7.2%, 11.1%/11.5%, and 19.0%/24.7% for the same 4 species respectively. Fourteen isolates were shown to harbour a carbapenemase gene, 7 blaIMP-4, 3 blaKPC-2, 3 blaVIM-1, 1 blaNDM-4, and 1 blaOXA-181-lke. PMID:27522134

  6. Foot-Ankle Fractures and Injury Probability Curves from Post-mortem Human Surrogate Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Chirvi, Sajal; Pintar, Frank A; Uppal, Harmeeth; Schlick, Michael; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Voo, Liming; Merkle, Andrew; Kleinberger, Michael

    2016-10-01

    This purpose of this study was to replicate foot-ankle injuries seen in the military and derive human injury probability curves using the human cadaver model. Lower legs were isolated below knee from seventeen unembalmed human cadavers and they were aligned in a 90-90 posture (plantar surface orthogonal to leg). The specimens were loaded along the tibia axis by applying short-time duration pulses, using a repeated testing protocol. Injuries were documented using pre- and post-test X-rays, computed tomography scans, and dissection. Peak force-based risk curves were derived using survival analysis and accounted for data censoring. Fractures were grouped into all foot-ankle (A), any calcaneus (B), and any tibia injuries (C), respectively. Calcaneus and/or distal tibia/pilon fractures occurred in fourteen tests. Axial forces were the greatest and least for groups C and B, respectively. Times attainments of forces for all groups were within ten milliseconds. The Weibull function was the optimal probability distribution for all groups. Age was significant (p < 0.05) for groups A and C. Survival analysis-based probability curves were derived for all groups. Data are given in the body of paper. Age-based, risk-specific, and continuous distribution probability curves/responses guide in the creation of an injury assessment capability for military blast environments.

  7. Operative management of Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Ramji Lal; Gupta, Pratiksha

    2014-01-01

    Hoffa fracture is a rare injury consisting of unicondylar tangential posterior fracture of the distal femur and only very few cases have been reported in the literature. These fractures are due to high energy trauma and conservative treatment generally yields poor results, but rigid internal fixation allows early functional rehabilitation and decreases the incidence of complications. The purpose of the study was to prospectively analyse the clinico-radiological and functional outcome following open surgical treatment. From July 2005 to July 2010, 22 patients (14 males and 8 females) were recruited from Emergency and outpatient department having closed and open Hoffa fracture of the femoral condyle. All patients were operated under general or spinal anesthesia. Post-operatively, all the patients were followed for 12 months. Fractures were united in a mean time of 10 weeks (range from 6 - 16 weeks) depending on the type of fracture pattern. Fractures were reduced anatomically in all except in one patient. During follow-up, there were no losses of reduction or fixation. Full weight bearing were started in the mean time of 8.8 weeks. Mean duration of hospital stay were 9.8 days. Complications were stiffness and pain in one patient, collateral laxity in one patient and progression of arthritis in one patient. The results were excellent in 90.90% and good in 9.09% patients. Finally, we conclude that the early anatomical reduction and rigid fixation with screws provide best results and minimal complications. PMID:25130151

  8. Management of ovarian cysts with percutaneous aspiration and methotrexate injection

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pratiksha; Huria, Anju

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate ultrasonographic-guided cyst aspiration and methotrexate injection in the management of simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected patients. Subjects and Methods: This prospective study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in Government Medical College and Hospital, Chandigarh, from November 2007 to October 2009. It included 132 female patients (age range, 15–72 years; mean, 38.7 years) with simple or endometriotic ovarian cysts (3.0–10.6 cm) at ultrasonic examinations. We performed puncture and aspiration followed by methotrexate injection into the cyst. All patients were followed for 12 months. None was lost to follow-up. Results: At follow-up ultrasonography, cysts had disappeared in 120 patients (90.90%) and persisted in 12 patients (9%). No major complications were observed in our study population during or after the procedure. Only 10 patients reported mild pelvic pain, and four others reported dizziness or nausea during or after the procedure. Malignant cells were not found in any of the cases at cytologic examination. We did not observe any cases of infection after the procedure. Conclusion: Ultrasonography-guided transabdominal aspiration of cyst fluid and subsequent methotrexate injection appears to be an alternative treatment for both simple and endometriotic ovarian cysts in selected cases. PMID:27185974

  9. Central vascular catheter infections in a Hospital of Central Italy.

    PubMed

    Lombardi, Silvia; Scutell, Massimiliano; Felice, Valentina; Di Campli, Emanuela; Di Giulio, Mara; Cellini, Luigina

    2014-01-01

    The insertion and the permanence of central venous catheters (CVC) represent potential sources of infection contracted in hospital. The evaluation of the risk of CVC-associated infections was evaluated in a retrospective study during the period 2007-2010 in a Hospital of Central Italy. A total of 514 CVC were collected and examined by microbiological techniques and, among the examined patients, 450 CVC blood cultures were collected. Cultures were performed collecting a portion of 5-6 cm of intravenous catheters in liquid medium and spread on selective media for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts; blood specimens were obtained through peripheral venous punctures and analyzed by a commercial automated system. 308/514 (59.90%) samples were positive to the microbiological culture. Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis and other coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS) were the prevalent Gram-positive bacteria. Among Gram-negative bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonaceae were the main bacteria isolated. A higher prevalence of Gram-positive bacteria was observed in Neonatal Pathology (90.90%). The Intensive Care Unit (ICU) showed 73.10% of positive cultures with 54.12% of Gram-positive isolates. Among positive blood cultures (38%), Gram-positive bacteria were the main bacteria isolated. The high prevalence of catheter-related infections requires accurate surveillance and the assumption of preventive measures in particular during catheter insertion. PMID:24531170

  10. Performance Assessment of the BluePoint MycoID Plus Kit for Identification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Including Rifampin- and Isoniazid-resistant Isolates, and Nontuberculous Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Jung-Yien; Chang, Tsung-Chain; Chiu, Wei-Yih; Yu, Chong-Jen; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2015-01-01

    The performance of the BluePoint MycoID plus kit (Bio Concept Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan), which was designed to simultaneously detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), rifampin- and isoniazid-resistant MTB, and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) was first evaluated with 950 consecutive positive cultures in Mycobacterium Growth Indicator Tube (MGIT) system (BACTEC, MGIT 960 system, Becton-Dickinson, Sparks) from clinical respiratory specimens. The discrepant results between kit and culture-based identification were finally assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and clinical diagnosis. The accuracy rate of this kit for identification of all Mycobacterium species was 96.3% (905/940). For MTB identification, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of the kit were 99.7%, 99.3%, 99.0% and 99.8%, respectively. For rifampicin-resistant MTB identification, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV of the kit were 100.0%, 99.4%, 91.3%, and 100.0%, respectively, while the corresponding values of isoniazid-resistant MTB identification were 82.6%, 99.4%, 95.0%, and 97.6%, respectively. In identifying specific NTM species, the kit correctly identified 99.3% of M. abscessus (147/148) complex, 100% of M. fortuitum (32/32), M. gordonae (38/38), M. avium (39/39), M. intracellulare (90/90), M. kansasii (36/36), and M. avium complex species other than M. avium and M. intracellulare (94/94). In conclusions, the diagnostic value of the BluePoint MycoID plus kit was superior to culture method for recoveries and identification of NTM to species level. In addition, the diagnostic accuracy of BluePoint MycoID plus kit in MTB identification was similar to conventional culture method with high accuracy rate of rifampicin-resistant M. tuberculosis identification. PMID:25938668

  11. Fluorescent immunochromatography for rapid and sensitive typing of seasonal influenza viruses.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Akira; Takayama, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Namiko; Kajiwara, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tamura, Tsuruki; Yamada, Jitsuho; Hashimoto, Masako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Kida, Hiroshi; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow tests also known as Immunochromatography (IC) is an antigen-detection method conducted on a nitrocellulose membrane that can be completed in less than 20 min. IC has been used as an important rapid test for clinical diagnosis and surveillance of influenza viruses, but the IC sensitivity is relatively low (approximately 60%) and the limit of detection (LOD) is as low as 10³ pfu per reaction. Recently, we reported an improved IC assay using antibodies conjugated with fluorescent beads (fluorescent immunochromatography; FLIC) for subtyping H5 influenza viruses (FLIC-H5). Although the FLIC strip must be scanned using a fluorescent reader, the sensitivity (LOD) is significantly improved over that of conventional IC methods. In addition, the antibodies which are specific against the subtypes of influenza viruses cannot be available for the detection of other subtypes when the major antigenicity will be changed. In this study, we established the use of FLIC to type seasonal influenza A and B viruses (FLIC-AB). This method has improved sensitivity to 100-fold higher than that of conventional IC methods when we used several strains of influenza viruses. In addition, FLIC-AB demonstrated the ability to detect influenza type A and influenza type B viruses from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity (Type A: sensitivity 98.7% (74/75), specificity 100% (54/54), Type B: sensitivity 100% (90/90), specificity 98.2% (54/55) in nasal swab samples) in comparison to the results of qRT-PCR. And furthermore, FLIC-AB performs better in the detection of early stage infection (under 13 h) than other conventional IC methods. Our results provide new strategies to prevent the early-stage transmission of influenza viruses in humans during both seasonal outbreaks and pandemics.

  12. Anti-coccidial effect of Commiphora molmol in the domestic rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus domesticus L.).

    PubMed

    Baghdadi, Hanadi B; Al-Mathal, Ebtesam M

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of oleo-gum-resin of Commiphora monlmol Engler (Family: Burceraceae) known as Myrrh and the commercial extract known as Mirazid as a treatment against hepatic coccidiosis induced by the parasite Eimeria stiedae in domestic rabbits. Rabbits were infected with 1000 parasite sporulated oocysts and subjected to two treatment regimens, using crude myrrh suspension and the oleo-resin extract, mirazid, each administered at 500 mg/kg rabbit body weight. Treatments of infected rabbits resulted in significant reduction of the mean oocyst numbers in rabbit faeces by 52.38% in the crude-treated rabbits and by 90.90% mirazid-treated rabbits, compared to the untreated infected rabbits at day 21 post-infection (pi). At day 28 pi no oocysts parasite were observed in the faeces of rabbits. Both treatments resulted in significant recovery of infected rabbits from all symptoms of infection compared to the untreated infected group and healthy control groups. Histopathological examination of liver showed remarkable improvement in all histopathological parameters in G5 and G8 compared with the infected untreated G2. These included an almost complete healing of the hemorrhagic tissue and partial healing of the endothelial lining and hepatocytes encircling the central vein, the hepatocytes laminate regained their original radial shape and disappearance of fat vacuoles from the tissue and remarkable reduction in lymphocytes infiltration, decreased hyperplasia of the epithelial cells with significant decreasing of the parasite stage numbers. Results also indicate that mirazid was more effective than crude myrrh, probably due to higher content of purified active ingredients. PMID:21268535

  13. CO(2) stunning procedure on Manchego light lambs: Effect on meat quality.

    PubMed

    Vergara, H; Bórnez, R; Linares, M B

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the effect of different gas stunning methods (concentration of CO(2)/time of exposure (G1: 80%90s; G2: 90%90s; G3: 90%60s; G4: 80%60s) on the initial meat quality of Manchego breed light lambs (25kg live weight) and at 7days post-mortem, assessed by pH, colour coordinates, water holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss (CL), drip loss (DL) shear force (SF) and lipid oxidation. An electrically stunned control group (G5) was used. Stunning method had a significant effect on pH values (P<0.001) as well as on pH decline (P<0.01). The lowest pH was found at 24h post-slaughter in G1 and the highest one on G5. The greatest drop in pH (pH(0)-pH(24)) was found in G1 and G5 while the smallest in G3. In general values of colour coordinates, WHC and DL were similar in all groups. Stunning method affected CL (P<0.001) at 7 days post-slaughter, with the lowest values being found in G1. Significant differences among groups were found (P<0.05) in SF values at both post-mortem times, with less tender meat in groups stunned with 80% CO(2), especially in G1. A significant effect (P<0.001) due to the type of stunning was found at 24h on lipid oxidation, with the highest value in G5. After ageing this parameter was lowest (P<0.05) in G1 and G4.

  14. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  15. Improving antibiotic adherence in treatment of acute upper respiratory infections: a quality improvement process

    PubMed Central

    Hingorani, Rittu; Mahmood, Maryam; Alweis, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 25 million people in the United States visit their primary care physician each year for acute respiratory infections (ARI). They are a common cause of unnecessary prescription of antibiotics; despite well-validated national treatment guidelines, around 73% of adults with ARI are prescribed antibiotics in the United States. Inappropriate use of antibiotics has profound implications. Methods Our aim was to increase adherence to antibiotic guidelines for treatment of ARI in an internal medicine outpatient practice. We used a package of active and passive interventions to improve physician awareness of treatment guidelines; these included short sessions of didactic teaching, antibiotic guidelines posters in patient examination rooms and staff areas, clinical decision support (CDS) tools integrated into the electronic medical record system, guideline adherence report cards for providers, and reiteration of CDS tool use and guideline adherence at monthly group meetings. Process measures were the rate of use of CDS tools for the management of ARI and patient callbacks within 72 h for the same issue. Outcome measures were compliance with antibiotic prescribing guidelines. Results Our low-cost interventions led to a significant improvement in ARI treatment guideline adherence. There was improvement in compliance with treatment guidelines for sinusitis (90.90% vs. 57.58%, p<0.001), pharyngitis (64.28% vs. 25.00%, p=0.003), upper respiratory infection (96.18% vs. 73.68%, p=0.008), and the aggregated measure of ARI (91.25% vs. 78.6%, p<0.001). Rate of CDS tool usage was 40.5% with a 72-h callback rate of 0.05%. Conclusion Simple, low-cost interventions can improve appropriate antibiotic use for ARI and change the prescribing habits of providers in an outpatient setting. Provider and patient education is a vital component of antibiotic stewardship. Simple interventions for common outpatient conditions can have a positive impact on patient outcomes and

  16. The Influence of the 1-(3-Trifluoromethyl-Benzyl)-1H-Pyrazole-4-yl Moiety on the Adenosine Receptors Affinity Profile of Pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]Triazolo[1,5-c]Pyrimidine Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Federico, Stephanie; Redenti, Sara; Sturlese, Mattia; Ciancetta, Antonella; Kachler, Sonja; Klotz, Karl-Norbert; Cacciari, Barbara; Moro, Stefano; Spalluto, Giampiero

    2015-01-01

    A new series of pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (PTP) derivatives has been developed in order to explore their affinity and selectivity profile at the four adenosine receptor subtypes. In particular, the PTP scaffold was conjugated at the C2 position with the 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-1H-pyrazole, a group believed to confer potency and selectivity toward the human (h) A2B adenosine receptor (AR) to the xanthine ligand 8-(1-(3-(trifluoromethyl)benzyl)-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)-1,3-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione (CVT 6975). Interestingly, the synthesized compounds turned out to be inactive at the hA2B AR but they displayed affinity at the hA3 AR in the nanomolar range. The best compound of the series (6) shows both high affinity (hA3 AR Ki = 11 nM) and selectivity (A1/A3 and A2A/A3 > 9090; A2B/A3 > 909) at the hA3 AR. To better rationalize these results, a molecular docking study on the four AR subtypes was performed for all the synthesized compounds. In addition, CTV 6975 and two close analogues have been subjected to the same molecular docking protocol to investigate the role of the 1-(3-trifluoromethyl-benzyl)-1H-pyrazole on the binding at the four ARs. PMID:26625265

  17. Fluorescent Immunochromatography for Rapid and Sensitive Typing of Seasonal Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Akira; Takayama, Katsuyoshi; Nomura, Namiko; Kajiwara, Naoki; Okamatsu, Masatoshi; Yamamoto, Naoki; Tamura, Tsuruki; Yamada, Jitsuho; Hashimoto, Masako; Sakoda, Yoshihiro; Suda, Yoshihiko; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Kida, Hiroshi; Shibasaki, Futoshi

    2015-01-01

    Lateral flow tests also known as Immunochromatography (IC) is an antigen-detection method conducted on a nitrocellulose membrane that can be completed in less than 20 min. IC has been used as an important rapid test for clinical diagnosis and surveillance of influenza viruses, but the IC sensitivity is relatively low (approximately 60%) and the limit of detection (LOD) is as low as 10³ pfu per reaction. Recently, we reported an improved IC assay using antibodies conjugated with fluorescent beads (fluorescent immunochromatography; FLIC) for subtyping H5 influenza viruses (FLIC-H5). Although the FLIC strip must be scanned using a fluorescent reader, the sensitivity (LOD) is significantly improved over that of conventional IC methods. In addition, the antibodies which are specific against the subtypes of influenza viruses cannot be available for the detection of other subtypes when the major antigenicity will be changed. In this study, we established the use of FLIC to type seasonal influenza A and B viruses (FLIC-AB). This method has improved sensitivity to 100-fold higher than that of conventional IC methods when we used several strains of influenza viruses. In addition, FLIC-AB demonstrated the ability to detect influenza type A and influenza type B viruses from clinical samples with high sensitivity and specificity (Type A: sensitivity 98.7% (74/75), specificity 100% (54/54), Type B: sensitivity 100% (90/90), specificity 98.2% (54/55) in nasal swab samples) in comparison to the results of qRT-PCR. And furthermore, FLIC-AB performs better in the detection of early stage infection (under 13h) than other conventional IC methods. Our results provide new strategies to prevent the early-stage transmission of influenza viruses in humans during both seasonal outbreaks and pandemics. PMID:25650570

  18. Adsorption of hexavalent chromium onto montmorillonite modified with hydroxyaluminum and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bingjie; Luo, Hanjin

    2010-11-01

    Aluminum hydroxypolycation and cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTMAB) were chosen to synthesize inorganic-organic pillared montmorillonite. Three different methods were employed for the intercalation. The characteristics of natural and modified montmorillonite were determined with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS), and zeta potential. It was found that aluminum hydroxypolycation and CTMAB had either entered the interlayer or sorbed on the external surface of the clay. Different intercalation orders can result in different structures. Batch adsorption of hexavalent chromium (Cr 6+) onto modified montmorillonite was also investigated. The experimental data revealed that if aluminum hydroxypolycation was intercalated before CTMAB, the adsorption capacity was better than that of intercalated simultaneously or CTMAB pre-intercalated. The pH of the solution and environmental temperature had significant influences on the adsorption of Cr 6+. The optimal pH for the removal was about 4, and the temperature of 298 K was best suitable. All adsorption processes were rapid during the first 5 min and reached equilibrium in 20 min. The adsorption kinetics can be described quite well by pseudo-second-order model. The adsorption rates of ACM, CAM and ACCOM were 3.814, 0.915, and 3.143 mg/g/min, respectively. The adsorption capacities of Cr 6+ at 298 K on ACM, CAM, and ACCOM inferred from the Langmuir model were 11.970, 6.541, and 9.090 mg/g, respectively. The adsorption of Cr 6+ on modified montmorillonite was mainly induced by the surface charge and the complexation reaction between CTMA + and hexavalent chromium species at the edge of the clay particle.

  19. Comparative evaluation on the performance of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Valipour, A; Raman, V K; Badaliansgholikandi, G

    2012-10-01

    Constructed wetlands have been used successfully for treatment of wastewater during the last decades. The bio-rack and shallow pond systems are well engineered wetland process in wastewater treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the potential use of bio-rack and shallow pond systems for domestic wastewater treatment either in presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) or heavy metal salts. The sewage treatment performance indicates 75.15% & 80.93% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 86.59% & 90.90% biological oxygen demand (BOD5), 27.54% & 15.98% total dissolved solids (TDS), 73.13% & 70.31% total suspended solids (TSS), 8.86% & 3.61% Chlorides, 70.22% & 74.18% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 31.71% & 41.24% phosphate (PO4-P), 92.11% & 96.45% most probable number (MPN) and 93.05% & 98.24% total viable count (TVC) reduction at 10 & 21 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. Likewise, the Phragmites sp. and water hyacinth can tolerate TDS up to 9000 and 2000 mg/L. The reduction in TDS is minor (14 & 19%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68 & 65%, 69 & 67%, 67 & 63%, 71 & 69% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn in bio-rack and shallow pond system respectively. The overall studies indicate the better treatment efficiency in bio-rack system at low foot print area (91 m2) compared to shallow pond system. PMID:25151708

  20. Treatment of anastomotic leaks with metallic stent after esophagectomies.

    PubMed

    Eizaguirre, E; Larburu, S; Asensio, J I; Rodriguez, A; Elorza, J L; Loyola, F; Urdapilleta, G; Navascués, J M E

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis and the treatment of anastomotic leak after esophagectomy are the keys to reduce the morbidity and mortality after this surgery. The stent plays an important role in the treatment of the leakage and in the prevention of reoperation. We have analyzed the database of the section of the esophagogastric surgery of Donostia University Hospital from June 2003 to May 2012. It is a retrospective study of 113 patients with esophagectomy resulting from tumor, and 24 (21.13%) of these patients developed anastomotic leak. Of these 24 patients, 13 (54.16%) have been treated with a metallic stent and 11 (45.84%) without a stent. The average age of the patients was 55.69 and 62.45 years, respectively. All patients treated with and without a stent have been males. Eight (61.5%) stents were placed in the neck and five (38.5%) in the chest. However, among the 11 fistulas treated without a stent, 9 patients had cervical anastomosis (81.81%) and 2 patients (18.18%) had anastomosis in the chest. Twelve patients (92.30%) with a stent preserve digestive continuity, and 10 patients (90.90%) were treated without a stent. One patient died in the stent group and one in the nonstent group. The treatment with metallic stent of the anastomotic leak after esophagectomy is an option that can prevent reoperation in these patients, but it does not decrease the average of the hospital stay. The stent may be more useful in thoracic anastomotic leaks.

  1. A combined liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry method for the residual detection of veterinary drugs in porcine muscle, milk, and eggs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dan; Park, Zee-Yong; Park, Jin-A; Kim, Seong-Kwan; Jeong, Daun; Cho, Sang-Hyun; Shim, Jae-Han; Kim, Jin-Suk; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shin, Ho-Chul

    2016-06-01

    A liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS) method was developed for monitoring and detection of four different drugs, namely acetanilide, pentylenetetrazole, phenacetin, and tetramethrin in porcine muscle, pasteurized milk, and table egg samples. For acetanilide and pentylenetetrazole, the samples were extracted with 0.1 % formic acid in acetonitrile, followed by defatting with n-hexane, partitioning at -20 °C for 1 h, centrifugation, and filtration, whereas the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe "QuEChERS" method was used for phenacetin and tetramethrin. The final extracts were combined and analyzed in a single chromatographic run using an XBridge(TM) analytical column and 0.1 % formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in ultrapure water (A) and 0.1 % formic acid and 10 mM ammonium formate in methanol (B) as the mobile phase. Owing to the unavailability of internal standards, matrix-matched calibrations were used for analyte quantification with coefficients of determination (R (2)) ≥ 0.9865. The intra- and inter-day accuracies ranged from 60.75 to 90.90 % and from 63.75 to 89.30 %, respectively, while the respective analytical precisions were 1.48-17.44 % (23.3 % for porcine sample spiked with phenacetin) and 1.97-15.78 %. The limits of quantification (LOQ) were between 0.5 and 2.5 ng/g in the matrices tested. Food samples purchased from local markets in Seoul were analyzed using the developed method and none of the tested drugs was detected. PMID:27178050

  2. Hybrid III Lower Leg Injury Assessment Reference Curves Under Axial Impacts Using Matched-Pair Tests.

    PubMed

    Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank; Banerjee, Anjishnu; Schlick, Michael; Chirvi, Sajal; Uppal, Hermeeth; Merkle, Andrew; Voo, Liming; Kleinberg, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to derive injury probability curves applicable to the Hybrid III dummy (also termed the Anthropomorphic Test Device, ATD) lower leg under axial impacts for military applications. A matched-pair approach was used. Axial impacts were delivered to below knee foot-ankle complex preparations of the lower leg of the ATD using pendulum and custom vertical accelerator devices. Military boot was used in some tests. Post mortem human surrogate (PMHS) preparations were used as matched-pair tests for injury outcomes. The alignment was such that the foot-ankle complex was orthogonal to the leg (below knee tibia-fibula complex), termed as the normal 90-90 posture. Injury outcomes from the biological surrogate focused on calcaneus and or distal tibia fractures with or without the involvement of articular surfaces. Peak lower tibia load cell forces were obtained from matched-pair dummy tests. Injury and force data were paired, censoring was assigned based on injury outcomes and survival analysis was done using the Weibull distribution to derive dummy-based probability curves. Mean peak forces were extracted at 5, 10, 20 and 50% probability levels. Normalized confidence interval sizes (NCIS) at ± 95% level were computed to determine the tightness-of-fit of the confidence bands. The NCIS data ranged from 0.34 to 0.78 and a peak force of 8.2 kN was associated at the ten percent injury probability level. Other data and curves are given in the body of the paper. The present Injury Assessment Reference Curves and Values (IARC and IARV) may be used in future tests for advancing safety in military environments. These survival analysis processes and IARC and IARV data may also be used in other applications. PMID:25996722

  3. Second oestrus synchronization and precocious embryo viability after puberty induction in gilts by the use of gonadotrophin treatment.

    PubMed

    do Lago, V; Vianna, Wl; Gama, Rd; Campos Rosseto, A; Pinese, Me; Sant'anna Moretti, A

    2005-04-01

    The use of exogenous gonadotrophins in puberty inducement and ovulation synchronization is a technique that has a positive influence on the management of swine. The purpose of this study was to verify the effects of a second gonadotrophin treatment [equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and luteinizing hormone (LH), intramuscularly (i.m.)] upon the second oestrus synchronization and fertility in gilts. Seventy-one NAIMA (Pen Ar Lan) gilts had their first oestrus (puberty inducement) induced by a hormonal treatment (eCG and LH). Then, they were randomly distributed into two treatments, with (T1) and without (C) gonadotrophin treatment at the second oestrus. The animals were fed with a single ration (16% of crude protein and 3286.73 kcal ME/kg), and timed artificial insemination performed at the second oestrus. Gilts were slaughtered for embryo recovery and ovary examination about 5 days after insemination. There was no evidence of a difference in the percentage of the second oestrus expression (T1 - 90.90% and C - 86.84%), the duration of the oestrus cycle (T1 - 19.62 +/- 0.82 days and C - 19.67 +/- 4.14 days), the percentage of follicular cysts (T1 - 15.15% and C - 18.42%) and number of ovulations (T1 - 14.60 +/- 5.7 and C - 13.23 +/- 4.8) between treatments (p > 0.05). However, the hormonal treatment (T1) showed minor oestrus dispersion and embryo viability (T1 - 8.4 +/- 5.6 and C - 11.2 +/- 4.6) (p < 0.05). These results indicate that the better synchronization and expression of the second oestrus when using gonadotrophins (eCG and LH) is followed by a lower embryo viability, which is probably the consequence of the heterogeneous follicle recruitment during the injection of eCG.

  4. Photometric redshift estimation for quasars by integration of KNN and SVM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Bo; Ding, Hong-Peng; Zhang, Yan-Xia; Zhao, Yong-Heng

    2016-05-01

    The massive photometric data collected from multiple large-scale sky surveys offer significant opportunities for measuring distances of celestial objects by photometric redshifts. However, catastrophic failure is an unsolved problem with a long history and it still exists in the current photometric redshift estimation approaches (such as the k-nearest neighbor (KNN) algorithm). In this paper, we propose a novel two-stage approach by integration of KNN and support vector machine (SVM) methods together. In the first stage, we apply the KNN algorithm to photometric data and estimate their corresponding z phot. Our analysis has found two dense regions with catastrophic failure, one in the range of z phot ɛ [0.3, 1.2] and the other in the range of zphot ɛ [1.2, 2.1]. In the second stage, we map the photometric input pattern of points falling into the two ranges from their original attribute space into a high dimensional feature space by using a Gaussian kernel function from an SVM. In the high dimensional feature space, many outliers resulting from catastrophic failure by simple Euclidean distance computation in KNN can be identified by a classification hyperplane of SVM and can be further corrected. Experimental results based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasar data show that the two-stage fusion approach can significantly mitigate catastrophic failure and improve the estimation accuracy of photometric redshifts of quasars. The percents in different |δz| ranges and root mean square (rms) error by the integrated method are 83.47%, 89.83%, 90.90% and 0.192, respectively, compared to the results by KNN (71.96%, 83.78%, 89.73% and 0.204).

  5. Epidemiological Study of Road Traffic Accident Cases from Western Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Badrinarayan; Sinha (Mishra), Nidhi D; Sukhla, SK; Sinha, AK

    2010-01-01

    Background: Road Traffic Accident (RTA) is one among the top five causes of morbidity and mortality in South-East Asian countries.(1) Its socioeconomic repercussions are a matter of great concern. Efficient addressing of the issue requires quality information on different causative factors. Research Question: What are different epidemiological determinants of RTA in western Nepal? Objective: To examine the factors associated with RTA. Study Design: Prospective observational. Setting: Study was performed in a tertiary healthcare delivery institute in western Nepal. Participants: 360 victims of RTA who reported to Manipal Teaching hospital in one year. Study Variables: Demographic, human, vehicular, environmental and time factors. Statistical analysis: Percentages, linear and logarithmic trend and Chi-square. Results: Most of the victims i.e. 147 (40.83%) were young (15 to 30 years); from low i.e. 114 (31.66%) and mid i.e. 198 (55%) income families and were passengers i.e. 153 (42.50%) and pedestrians i.e. 105 (29.16%). Sever accidents leading to fatal outcome were associated with personal problems (P<0.01, χ2 - 8.03), recent or on-day conflicts (P<0.001, χ2 - 18.88) and some evidence of alcohol consumptions (P<0.001, χ2 - 30.25). Increased prevalence of RTA was also noticed at beginning i.e. 198 (55%) and end i.e. 69 (19.16%) of journey; in rainy and cloudy conditions (269 i.e. 74.72%) and in evening hours (3 to 7 p.m. 159 i.e. 44.16%). Out of 246 vehicles involved; 162 (65.85%) were old and ill maintained. The contributions of old vehicle to fatal injuries were 33 (50%). Head injury was found in 156 (43.33 %) cases and its associated case fatality rate was 90.90%. In spite of a good percentage receiving first aid i.e. 213 (59.16%) after RTA; there was a notable delay (174 i.e. 48.33% admitted after 6 h) in shifting the cases to the hospitals. The estimated total days lost due to hospital stay was 4620 with an average of 12.83 days per each case. Conclusion: Most

  6. Initiatives of Application of the Bakun-Wentworth's Method for the Estimation of Macroseismic Parameters in the Northern South America and the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez Capera, A.; Bindi, D.; Cifuentes, H.; Choy, J.; Chuy Rodriguez, T.; Garcia, J.; Massa, M.; Palme, C.; Pierristal, G.; Salcedo Hurtado, E.; Sanchez Vasquez, A.

    2013-05-01

    ; available online in http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistórica/), Venezuela (http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve) and Caribbean Region, in the future it is expected to propose models for macroseismic intensity attenuations of regional character especially in Colombia and in Venezuela in the Cumaná region. This region has a rich earthquake history. In this topic of the regional calibration of intensity attenuation relationships, the situation is challenging because several historical and recent earthquakes in this region are attributed to subduction zones. It is therefore necessary to involve focal depth. This is still an open problem.

  7. Speckle tracking echocardiography in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and overlapping obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Carmen; van Essen, Fabian; Linnhoff, Fabian; Schueler, Robert; Hammerstingl, Christoph; Nickenig, Georg; Skowasch, Dirk; Weber, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Background COPD and congestive heart failure represent two disease entities of growing global burden that share common etiological features. Therefore, we aimed to identify the degree of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in COPD as a function of COPD severity stages and concurrently placed particular emphasis on the presence of overlapping obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Methods A total of 85 COPD outpatients (64.1±10.4 years, 54.1% males) and 20 controls, matched for age, sex, and smoking habits, underwent speckle tracking echocardiography for LV longitudinal strain imaging. Complementary 12-lead electrocardiography, laboratory testing, and overnight screening for sleep-disordered breathing using the SOMNOcheck micro® device were performed. Results Contrary to conventional echocardiographic parameters, speckle tracking echocardiography revealed significant impairment in global LV strain among COPD patients compared to control smokers (−13.3%±5.4% vs −17.1%±1.8%, P=0.04). On a regional level, the apical septal LV strain was reduced in COPD (P=0.003) and associated with the degree of COPD severity (P=0.02). With regard to electrocardiographic findings, COPD patients exhibited a significantly higher mean heart rate than controls (71.4±13.0 beats per minute vs 60.3±7.7 beats per minute, P=0.001) that additionally increased over Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.01). Albeit not statistically significant, COPD led to elevated N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels (453.2±909.0 pg/mL vs 96.8±70.0 pg/mL, P=0.08). As to somnological testing, the portion of COPD patients exhibiting overlapping OSA accounted for 5.9% and did not significantly vary either in comparison to controls (P=0.07) or throughout the COPD Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages (P=0.49). COPD-OSA overlap solely correlated with nocturnal hypoxemic events, whereas LV performance status was unrelated to coexisting OSA. Conclusion

  8. Pulmonary effects of passive smoking: the Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, D; Aggarwal, AN; Jindal, SK

    2003-01-01

    There are only a few studies done on pulmonary effects of passive smoking from India, which are summarized in this paper. Several vernacular tobacco products are used in India, bidis (beedis) being the commonest form of these. Bidis contain a higher concentration of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids compared to the standard cigarettes (e.g., the sum of total nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids was 37.5 mg in bidi compared to 14–16 mg in Indian or American cigarettes in one study). A large study performed on 9090 adolescent school children demonstrated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. The odds ratio for being asthmatic in ETS-exposed as compared to ETS-unexposed children was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.33–2.31). Nearly one third of the children in this study reported non-specific respiratory symptoms and the ETS exposure was found to be positively associated with the prevalence of each symptom. Passive smoking was also shown to increase morbidity and to worsen the control of asthma among adults. Another study demonstrated exposure to ETS was a significant trigger for acute exacerbation of asthma. Increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness was also demonstrated among the healthy nonsmoking adult women exposed to ETS. Passive smoking leads to subtle changes in airflow mechanics. In a study among 50 healthy nonsmoking women passively exposed to tobacco smoke and matched for age with 50 unexposed women, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were marginally lower among the passive smokers (mean difference 0.13 L and 0.20 L-1, respectively), but maximal mid expiratory flow (FEF25–75%), airway resistance (Raw) and specific conductance (sGaw) were significantly impaired. An association between passive smoking and lung cancer has also been described. In a study conducted in association with the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the exposure to ETS during childhood was

  9. Pulmonary effects of passive smoking: the Indian experience

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, D; Aggarwal, AN; Jindal, SK

    2003-01-01

    There are only a few studies done on pulmonary effects of passive smoking from India, which are summarized in this paper. Several vernacular tobacco products are used in India, bidis (beedis) being the commonest form of these. Bidis contain a higher concentration of nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids compared to the standard cigarettes (e.g., the sum of total nicotine and minor tobacco alkaloids was 37.5 mg in bidi compared to 14–16 mg in Indian or American cigarettes in one study). A large study performed on 9090 adolescent school children demonstrated environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure to be associated with an increased risk of asthma. The odds ratio for being asthmatic in ETS-exposed as compared to ETS-unexposed children was 1.78 (95% CI: 1.33–2.31). Nearly one third of the children in this study reported non-specific respiratory symptoms and the ETS exposure was found to be positively associated with the prevalence of each symptom. Passive smoking was also shown to increase morbidity and to worsen the control of asthma among adults. Another study demonstrated exposure to ETS was a significant trigger for acute exacerbation of asthma. Increased bronchial hyper-responsiveness was also demonstrated among the healthy nonsmoking adult women exposed to ETS. Passive smoking leads to subtle changes in airflow mechanics. In a study among 50 healthy nonsmoking women passively exposed to tobacco smoke and matched for age with 50 unexposed women, forced expiratory volume in first second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were marginally lower among the passive smokers (mean difference 0.13 L and 0.20 L-1, respectively), but maximal mid expiratory flow (FEF25–75%), airway resistance (Raw) and specific conductance (sGaw) were significantly impaired. An association between passive smoking and lung cancer has also been described. In a study conducted in association with the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the exposure to ETS during childhood was

  10. Present Status of Historical Seismicity Studies in Colombia and Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarabia, A.; Cifuentes, H.; Altez Ortega, R.; Palme, C.; Dimate, C.

    2013-05-01

    After the publication of the SISRA (CERESIS-1985) regional project, a unified catalog of seismic parameters and intensities for South America, researchers in historical seismicity have continued advancing on different scales in the area of this study of seismic hazard. The most important initiatives carried out in this area in Colombia and Venezuela can be grouped as follows: a) Reviews of destructive earthquakes in national and international historic archives, principally by Altez and FUNVISIS in Venezuela and Espinosa, Salcedo, and Sarabia et al in Colombia, leading to the preparation of seismologic catalogues, scientific and dissemination articles, reports, books, among others. b) Organization and systematization of historic information to develop public domain data bases and information, specifically the Historic Seismologic Teleinformation System in Venezuela, carried out between 2004 and 2008 under the coordination of Christl Palme and accessible on-line: http://sismicidad.ciens.ula.ve. As well, the "Historia Sísmica de Colombia 1550-1830" (Seismic History in Colombia 1550-1830) data base, in CD-ROM, by Espinosa Baquero (2003) and the historic seismicity information system of Colombia (Servicio Geológico Colombiano-Universidad Nacional de Colombia), published on the internet in 2012: http://agata.ingeominas.gov.co:9090/SismicidadHistorica/. c) Macroseismic studies for the development of intensity attenuation equations and the quantification and revaluation of basic historic earthquake parameters using isoseismal maps (Rengifo et al., Palme et al., Salcedo et al., among others) and procedures such as Boxer and Bakun & Wentworth (Palme et al., Dimaté, among others), which have produced significant changes in the parameters of some of the large earthquakes. d) Symposiums of researchers to promote interest and development in the discipline, including Jornadas Venezolanas de Sismología Histórica (Venezuelan Congress of Historical Seismology), held

  11. Positive and negative predictive values of HLA-DR and CD34 in the diagnosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia and other types of acute myeloid leukemia with recurrent chromosomal translocations.

    PubMed

    Promsuwicha, Orathai; Auewarakul, Chirayu U

    2009-12-01

    The predictive value of HLA-DR and CD34 in the diagnosis of four distinct genetic entities of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is presently not established. We evaluated the positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively), sensitivity, specificity, and correlation coefficients of HLA-DR and CD34 in AML patients with t(15;17), t(8;21), inv(16), and abn(11q23). In AML with t(15;17) (n = 64), HLA-DR was expressed in 4.68% and CD34 was expressed in 15.62% and none of the cases expressed both HLA-DR and CD34. In AML with t(8;21) (n = 99), HLA-DR, CD34 or both antigens were expressed in the majority of cases (90.90%, 80.80%, and 79.79%, respectively). AML patients with inv(16) (n = 18) and abn(11q23) (n = 31) also highly expressed HLA-DR and CD34. Eight cases of t(8;21) and 1 case of abn(11q23) did not express either antigen. The highest correlation between CD34 and HLA-DR expression values was observed in cases with t(8;21) (r = 0.72) with the lowest correlation in inv(16) (r = 0.035). The PPV and NPV of HLA-DR-negativity plus CD34-negativity to predict t(15;17) was 85% and 100%, respectively, with 100% sensitivity and 92.74% specificity. The PPV and NPV of other myeloid markers such as CD117, MPO and CD11c to diagnose t(15;17) were much lower than those of HLA-DR and CD34. It was concluded that the absence of double negativity of HLA-DR and CD34 strongly predicts against t(15;17). Rare HLA-DR-positive/CD34-negative cases exist in patients with t(15;17) and 8% of t(8;21) cases expressed neither antigen. Further studies should determine whether HLA-DR-positive t(15;17) and HLA-DR-negative/CD34-negative t(8;21) represent a special entity associated with significant prognostic relevance.

  12. Performance and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon'.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Nikolaidis, Pantelis Theodoros; Stiefel, Michael; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander

    2016-10-31

    The performance and sex differences of long-distance triathletes competing in 'Ironman Hawaii' are well investigated. However, less information is available with regards to triathlon races of the Ironman distance held under extreme environmental conditions (e.g. extreme cold) such as the 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' which started in 2003. In 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon', athletes swim at a water temperature of ~13-15°C, cycle at temperatures of ~5-20°C and run at temperatures of ~12-28°C in the valley and of ~2-12°C at Mt. Gaustatoppen. This study analysed the performance trends and sex differences in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' held from 2003 to 2015 using mixed-effects regression analyses. During this period, a total of 175 women (10.6%) and 1,852 men (89.4%) successfully finished the race. The number of female (r² = 0.53, P = 0.0049) and male (r² = 0.37, P = 0.0271) finishers increased and the men-to-women ratio decreased (r² = 0.86, P < 0.0001). Men were faster than women in cycling (25.41 ± 2.84 km/h versus 24.25 ± 2.17 km/h) (P < 0.001), but not in swimming (3.06 ± 0.62 km/h vs. 2.94 ± 0.57 km/h), running (7.43 ± 1.13 km/h vs. 7.31 ± 0.93 km/h) and overall race time (874.57 ± 100.62 min vs. 899.95 ± 90.90 min) (P > 0.05). Across years, women improved in swimming and both women and men improved in cycling and in overall race time (P < 0.001). In running, however, neither women nor men improved (P > 0.05). In summary, in 'Isklar Norseman Xtreme Triathlon' from 2003 to 2015, the number of successful women increased across years, women achieved a similar performance to men in swimming, cycling and overall race time, and women improved across, years in swimming, cycling and overall race time.

  13. Prediction of In-Season Shoulder Injury From Preseason Testing in Division I Collegiate Football Players

    PubMed Central

    Pontillo, Marisa; Spinelli, Bryan A.; Sennett, Brian J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Collegiate football is a high-demand sport in which shoulder injuries are common. Research has described the incidence of these injuries, with little focus on causative factors or injury prevention. Hypothesis: Football athletes who score lower on preseason strength and functional testing are more likely to sustain an in-season shoulder injury. Study Design: Prospective, cohort study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: Twenty-six collegiate football players underwent preseason testing with a rotational profile for shoulder range of motion, isometric strength of the rotator cuff at 90° elevation and external rotation in the 90/90 position, fatigue testing (prone-Y, scaption, and standing cable press), and the Closed Kinetic Chain Upper Extremity Stability Test (CKCUEST). Data collected postseason included the type of shoulder injury and the side injured. Logistic regression was used to determine if the testing measures predicted injury, and a receiver operating characteristic curve was constructed to examine the relationship of CKCUEST to injury. Results: Six athletes sustained shoulder injuries during the season. Predictor variables could significantly predict whether that player would sustain an injury during the season for both the right and left shoulders (P < 0.05). The variables that were significantly correlated with injury of the right side were forward elevation strength, prone-Y to fatigue, and the CKCUEST (P < 0.05); on the left, only the CKCUEST was significant (P < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the CKCUEST was 0.86 (ϵ = 0.87, P = 0.01). Using a score of 21 touches, the CKCUEST had a sensitivity of 0.83, a specificity of 0.79, and an odds ratio of 18.75 in determining whether a player sustained a shoulder injury. Conclusion: For this sample, the combination of preseason strength, fatigue, and functional testing was able to identify football players who would sustain a shoulder injury during the

  14. Generation and analysis of a 29,745 unique Expressed Sequence Tags from the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) assembled into a publicly accessible database: the GigasDatabase

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Although bivalves are among the most-studied marine organisms because of their ecological role and economic importance, very little information is available on the genome sequences of oyster species. This report documents three large-scale cDNA sequencing projects for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas initiated to provide a large number of expressed sequence tags that were subsequently compiled in a publicly accessible database. This resource allowed for the identification of a large number of transcripts and provides valuable information for ongoing investigations of tissue-specific and stimulus-dependant gene expression patterns. These data are crucial for constructing comprehensive DNA microarrays, identifying single nucleotide polymorphisms and microsatellites in coding regions, and for identifying genes when the entire genome sequence of C. gigas becomes available. Description In the present paper, we report the production of 40,845 high-quality ESTs that identify 29,745 unique transcribed sequences consisting of 7,940 contigs and 21,805 singletons. All of these new sequences, together with existing public sequence data, have been compiled into a publicly-available Website http://public-contigbrowser.sigenae.org:9090/Crassostrea_gigas/index.html. Approximately 43% of the unique ESTs had significant matches against the SwissProt database and 27% were annotated using Gene Ontology terms. In addition, we identified a total of 208 in silico microsatellites from the ESTs, with 173 having sufficient flanking sequence for primer design. We also identified a total of 7,530 putative in silico, single-nucleotide polymorphisms using existing and newly-generated EST resources for the Pacific oyster. Conclusion A publicly-available database has been populated with 29,745 unique sequences for the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. The database provides many tools to search cleaned and assembled ESTs. The user may input and submit several filters, such as

  15. Results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effects of a mobile SMS-based intervention on treatment adherence in HIV/AIDS-infected Brazilian women and impressions and satisfaction with respect to incoming messages

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Thiago Martini; Barbosa, Bárbara Jaqueline Peres; e Costa, Durval Alex Gomes; Sigulem, Daniel; de Fátima Marin, Heimar; Filho, Adauto Castelo; Pisa, Ivan Torres

    2013-01-01

    adherence, and 10 (90.90%) responded that they would like to continue receiving SMS messages. SMS messaging can help Brazilian women living with HIV/AIDS to adhere to antiretroviral therapy for a period of at least 4 months. In general, the results are encouraging because the SMS messages stimulated more participants in the intervention group to be adherent to their treatment, and the patients were satisfied with the messages received, which were seen as reminders, incentives and signs of affection by the health clinic for a marginalized population. PMID:22296762

  16. a Study of Orientational Ordering in Solid Deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Myron Eugene, Jr.

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies were performed on samples of solid Deuterium with para concentrations X in the range 0.05 < X < 0.07 at temperatures between 0.032K and 3.0K and at a Larmor frequency of 5.88 MHz. This range of temperatures and concentrations includes the first order transition to the long range orientational ordered state. The spin-lattice relaxation times for both ortho (I = 2) and para (I = 1) D(,2) species were measured by the intensity of solid echos generated by the pulse sequence 90(,0)-t-90(,0)-150(mu)s-90(,90). In addition, the solid echoes themselves were digitized which, through the use of the fast Fourier transform, provided both the lineshapes of the two species, and the secondmoments M(,2) of their absorption lines. The secondmoments and relaxation times for both species are reported as functions of temperature at concentrations X = 0.05, 0.33, 0.46, 0.56 in the disordered phase, and for concentrations X = 0.65 and 0.70 which are above the concentration at which the long range order transition is observed. The results are discussed in terms of existing models (Washburn, 1983b) of spin-lattice relaxation in solid H(,2). At all concentrations below which the transition to a long range ordered phase does not occur (X < 0.58), the temperature dependence of the lineshape, secondmoment, and spin-lattice relaxation times is quite smooth. This finding is in agreement with the results of Candela (1983) and does not support the contention of some investigators (Sullivan, 1978, 1979) (Cochran, 1980) that at low temperatures in this concentration range D(,2) undergoes a phase transition to a "quadrupolar glass" phase. The relaxation times for T < 0.5K in the long range ordered phase (X > 0.59) seem to suggest the emergence of a mechanism providing intrinsic spin-lattice relaxation for the ortho molecules. Previous measurements in the cubic phase have been confined to higher temperatures, and measurements at comparable temperatures have

  17. Effects of 22 novel CYP2D6 variants found in Chinese population on the metabolism of dapoxetine

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-ai; Gu, Er-min; Zhou, Quan; Yuan, Lingjing; Hu, Xiaoxia; Cai, Jianping; Hu, Guoxin

    2016-01-01

    Background CYP2D6 is one of the most important members of the cytochrome P450 superfamily. Its genetic polymorphism significantly influences the efficacy and safety of some drugs, which might cause adverse effects and therapeutic failure. Methods and results The aim of this research was mainly to explore the catalytic activities of 22 newly reported CYP2D6 isoforms (2D6*87, *88, *89, *90, *91, *92, *93, *94, *95, *96,*97, *98, *R25Q, F164L, E215K, F219S, V327M, D336N, V342M, R344Q, R440C, R497C) on dapoxetine in vitro. The research was designed with an appropriate incubation system in test tubes and carried out in the constant temperature water. Through detecting its two metabolites desmethyldapoxetine and dapoxetine-N-oxide, the available data were obtained to explain the influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism on the substrate drug dapoxetine. As a result, the intrinsic clearance (Vmax/Km) values of most variants were significantly altered when compared with the counterpart of CYP2D6*1, with most of these variants exhibiting either reduced Vmax and/or increased Km values. For dapoxetine demethylation pathway (which produces desmethyldapoxetine), 2D6*89 and E215K exhibited no markedly decreased relative clearance of 92.81% and 97.70%, respectively. The relative clearance of rest 20 variants exhibited decrease in different levels, ranging from 20.44% to 90.90%. For the dapoxetine oxidation pathway (which produces dapoxetine-N-oxide), the relative clearance values of three variants, 2D6*90, *94, and V342M, exhibited no markedly increased relative clearance of 106.17%, 107.78%, and 109.98%, respectively; the rest 19 variants exhibited significantly decreased levels ranging from 27.56% to 84.64%. In addition, the kinetic parameters of two CYP2D6 variants (2D6*92 and 2D6*96) could not be detected, due to the defect of the CYP2D6 gene. Conclusion As the first report of all aforementioned alleles for dapoxetine metabolism, these data may help in the clinical assessment of the

  18. Updated study reporting levels (SRLs) for trace-element data collected for the California Groundwater Ambient Monitoring and Assessment (GAMA) Priority Basin Project, October 2009-March 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, Tracy A.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Fram, Miranda S.; Belitz, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    evaluated for potential contamination bias by using the same approach developed by Olsen and others (2010). Some data collected by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program for the Southern California Coastal Drainages study unit were included to supplement the GAMA-PBP data. The detection frequency and upper threshold of potential contamination bias (BD-90/90) were determined from field-blank and equipment-blank data for each trace element. The BD-90/90 is the 90th percentile concentration of potential extrinsic contamination calculated by using the binomial probability distribution for greater than 90 percent confidence. Additionally, data from laboratory blanks and blind blanks analyzed by the National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) during water years 2010 through 2013, and compiled by the USGS Branch of Quality Systems (BQS), were considered for each trace element. These results were compared to each constituent’s reporting level to determine whether an SRL was necessary to minimize the potential for detections in the groundwater samples, attributed principally to contamination bias. Results of the evaluation were used to set SRLs for trace-element data for about 1,135 samples of groundwater collected by the GAMA-PBP between October 2009 and March 2013. Ten trace elements analyzed (Sb, As, Be, B, Cd, Li, Se, Ag, Tl, and U) had blank results that did not necessitate establishing SRLs during this review or the review by Olsen and others (2010). Five trace elements analyzed (Al, Ba, Cr, Sr, and V) had blank results that necessitated establishing an SRL during the previous review but did not need an SRL starting October 2009. One trace element (Fe) had field and laboratory-blank results that necessitated keeping the previous SRL (6 micrograms per liter [μg/L]). Two trace elements (Ni and W) had quality-control results that warranted decreasing the previous SRL, and five trace elements (Cu, Pb, Mn, Mo, and Zn) had field, laboratory, or blind blank results

  19. The Type Ia Supernova Rate in Redshift 0.5-0.9 Galaxy Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharon, Keren; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Maoz, Dan; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Foley, Ryan J.; Silverman, Jeffrey M.; Ebeling, Harald; Ma, Cheng-Jiun; Ofek, Eran O.; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Donahue, Megan; Ellis, Richard S.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Kirshner, Robert P.; Mulchaey, John S.; Sarajedini, Vicki L.; Voit, G. Mark

    2010-08-01

    Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with programs GO-10493 and GO-10793, and with archival programs GO-9033, GO-9090, GO-9290, GO-9292, GO-9722, GO-9744, GO-9836, and GO-10509. Based in part on data collected at the Subaru telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan. Some of the data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA; it was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  20. Late Afternoon at Taruntius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-08-01

    of surface features on planets and their natural satellites, including the Earth's Moon, are allocated by the "IAU Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature" and published on the web in the "Gazetteer of Planetary Nomenclature". [2]: The NACO image was exposed on April 30, 2002, at 09:42 hrs UT. The geometrical circumstances of this observation were the following: the Moon was located at (Azimuth Az = 266° Elevation h = +62°) in the sky above the VLT at the Paranal Observatory; the Earth (Paranal) was located at ( Az = 263° h = +50°) and the Sun at ( Az = 268° h = +7°) in the lunar sky above the Cameron crater. The distance from Paranal to the Moon was about 370,000 km. [3]: Acknowledgment: The Clementine Basemap Mosaic was compiled for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under the direction of Dr. Alfred S. McEwen, principal Investigator (now with the University of Arizona). The DoD/BMDO Clementine spacecraft was built and operated by the Naval Research Laboratory, with remote-sensing instruments from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The field shown in PR Photo 19c/02 was reproduced from a 0.5-km full resolution frame (BM14N045) for which a browse page is available on the web; the file itself is at: http://pdsimage.wr.usgs.gov/CDROMS/cl_3015/bm90_90/bm14n045.img. Another image of the Taruntius area with 100-metre pixels is available at http://pdsimage.wr.usgs.gov/CDROMS/cl_3003/bi00_35n/bi03n045.img. A comprehensive collection of data gathered by the instruments onboard Clementine may be found via the Clementine Navigator of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Planetary Data System. Clementine also obtained images of a small fraction of the lunar surface by means of a High Resolution Camera (HRC) with a nominal resolution of 7 to 20 metres. However, none of these covered the area shown in the NACO photo. [4]: Acknowledgment: The image of the entire Moon shown at the upper left of PR