Science.gov

Sample records for 90th mission flown

  1. Growth and development of plants flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Peterson, C.; Lemay, R.

    1984-01-01

    Pre-germinated pine seedlings and germinating oat and mung bean seeds were flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission. Overall, the seedlings grew and developed well in space. Some oat and mung bean roots, however, grew upward. Lignin content was slightly lower in flight tissues and protein content was higher.

  2. The Greatest Missions Never Flown: Anticipatory Discourse and the "Projectory" in Technological Communities.

    PubMed

    Messeri, Lisa; Vertesi, Janet

    2015-01-01

    This article introduces the concept of the sociotechnical projectory to explore the importance of future-oriented discourse in technical practice. It examines the case of two flagship NASA missions that, since the 1960s, have been continually proposed and deferred. Despite the missions never being flown, it argues that they produced powerful effects within the planetary science community as assumed "end-points" to which all current technological, scientific, and community efforts are directed. It asserts that attention to the social construction of technological systems requires historical attention to how actors situate themselves with respect to a shared narrative of the future.

  3. Molecular Substrate Alteration by Solar Wind Radiation Documented on Flown Genesis Mission Array Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calaway, Michael J.; Stansbery, Eileen K.

    2006-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft sampling arrays were exposed to various regimes of solar wind during flight that included: 313.01 days of high-speed wind from coronal holes, 335.19 days of low-speed inter-stream wind, 191.79 days of coronal mass ejections, and 852.83 days of bulk solar wind at Lagrange 1 orbit. Ellipsometry measurements taken at NASA s Johnson Space Center show that all nine flown array materials from the four Genesis regimes have been altered by solar wind exposure during flight. These measurements show significant changes in the optical constant for all nine ultra-pure materials that flew on Genesis when compared with their non-flight material standard. This change in the optical constant (n and k) of the material suggests that the molecular structure of the all nine ultra-pure materials have been altered by solar radiation. In addition, 50 samples of float-zone and czochralski silicon bulk array ellipsometry results were modeled with an effective medium approximation layer (EMA substrate layer) revealing a solar radiation molecular damage zone depth below the SiO2 native oxide layer ranging from 392 to 613 . This bulk solar wind radiation penetration depth is comparable to the depth of solar wind implantation depth of Mg measured by SIMS and SARISA.

  4. American ASTP crewmen receive box of spruce seeds to be flown on mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    American ASTP crewmen Vance D. Brand (left), Thomas P. Stafford (second from left) and Donald K. Slayton (right) receive a box of genetically superior white spruce seeds from Glenn a Kovar (second from right), USDA Forest Service project coordinator. The seeds, enough to plant an acre of trees, will be presented to the Soviet ASTP cremen during the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Apollo-Soyuz Test Project docking-in-Earth-orbit mission in July 1975.

  5. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  6. Changes in miRNA expression profile of space-flown Caenorhabditis elegans during Shenzhou-8 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Dan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Lei; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of molecular biology have demonstrated that small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have a broad effect on gene expression networks and play a key role in biological responses to environmental stressors. However, little is known about how space radiation exposure and altered gravity affect miRNA expression. The "International Space Biological Experiments" project was carried out in November 2011 by an international collaboration between China and Germany during the Shenzhou-8 (SZ-8) mission. To study the effects of spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we explored the expression profile miRNA changes in space-flown C. elegans. Dauer C. elegans larvae were taken by SZ-8 spacecraft and experienced the 16.5-day shuttle spaceflight. We performed miRNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that 23 miRNAs were altered in a complex space environment and different expression patterns were observed in the space synthetic and radiation environments. Most putative target genes of the altered miRNAs in the space synthetic environment were predicted to be involved in developmental processes instead of in the regulation of transcription, and the enrichment of these genes was due to space radiation. Furthermore, integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that twelve genes were differently regulated by seven miRNAs. These genes may be involved in embryonic development, reproduction, transcription factor activity, oviposition in a space synthetic environment, positive regulation of growth and body morphogenesis in a space radiation environment. Specifically, we found that cel-miR-52, -55, and -56 of the miR-51 family were sensitive to space environmental stressors and could regulate biological behavioural responses and neprilysin activity through the different isoforms of T01C4.1 and F18A12.8. These findings suggest that C. elegans responded to spaceflight by altering the expression of miRNAs and some target

  7. Changes in miRNA expression profile of space-flown Caenorhabditis elegans during Shenzhou-8 mission.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Gao, Ying; Huang, Lei; Sun, Yeqing

    2014-04-01

    Recent advances in the field of molecular biology have demonstrated that small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs) have a broad effect on gene expression networks and play a key role in biological responses to environmental stressors. However, little is known about how space radiation exposure and altered gravity affect miRNA expression. The "International Space Biological Experiments" project was carried out in November 2011 by an international collaboration between China and Germany during the Shenzhou-8 (SZ-8) mission. To study the effects of spaceflight on Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), we explored the expression profile miRNA changes in space-flown C. elegans. Dauer C. elegans larvae were taken by SZ-8 spacecraft and experienced the 16.5-day shuttle spaceflight. We performed miRNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that 23 miRNAs were altered in a complex space environment and different expression patterns were observed in the space synthetic and radiation environments. Most putative target genes of the altered miRNAs in the space synthetic environment were predicted to be involved in developmental processes instead of in the regulation of transcription, and the enrichment of these genes was due to space radiation. Furthermore, integration analysis of the miRNA and mRNA expression profiles confirmed that twelve genes were differently regulated by seven miRNAs. These genes may be involved in embryonic development, reproduction, transcription factor activity, oviposition in a space synthetic environment, positive regulation of growth and body morphogenesis in a space radiation environment. Specifically, we found that cel-miR-52, -55, and -56 of the miR-51 family were sensitive to space environmental stressors and could regulate biological behavioural responses and neprilysin activity through the different isoforms of T01C4.1 and F18A12.8. These findings suggest that C. elegans responded to spaceflight by altering the expression of miRNAs and some target

  8. Results of the joint utilization of laser integrated experiments flown on payload GAS-449 aboard Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    The high peak power neodymium YAG laser and the HeNe laser aboard GAS-449 have demonstrated the survivability of the devices in the micro-gravity, cosmic radiation, thermal, and shock environment of space. Some pharmaceuticals and other materials flown in both the active and passive status have demonstrated reduction in volume and unusual spectroscopic changes. X-ray detectors have shown cosmic particle hits with accompanying destruction at their interaction points. Some scattering in the plates is in evidence. Some results of both active and passive experiments on board the GAS-449 payload are evaluated.

  9. On the 90th Birthday of Rem Viktorovich Khokhlov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    July 15th 2016 marked the 90th birthday of Rem Viktorovich Khokhlov, a prominent Russian physicist, talented organiser of national and world science and higher education, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University, vice-president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, founder and head of the Department of Wave Processes. He tragically died on 8 August 1977 trying to conquer the highest peak of the Pamir Mountains.

  10. [The 90th anniversary of Novocherkassk military hospital].

    PubMed

    Benia, F M; Matsko, B G

    2010-02-01

    The article is devoted to the 90th anniversary of Novocherkassk military hospital of Northern Caucasus military region (Rostov area). Military hospital is a modern treatment-prophylaxis institute. Quality of treatment of military service men, members of their families, reserve officers, civil staff is permanently increasing. Treatment-diagnostic units are equipped by modern facilities. 60 physicians and nurses have highest and first qualified categories. More then 10 years the staff of hospital realizes the medical aid to wounded and ill persons, coming from theatres of the armed conflicts.

  11. Post flight operation of a high peak power neodymium YAG laser aboard the G-449 payload flown on Space Shuttle Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd Yag laser flown on board the G-449 payload completed its postflight testing successfully. There was no indication that the laser had undergone any electronic or optical component failure. A postflight video was taken immediately following the return of the payload to the laboratory. Early anticipation of vibration and temperature changes contributed to the successful operation of the laser. Photographic material resulting from post flight videotape are presented. NASA safety reviews and recommendations supplied the insights which helped contribute to the successful operation of the Nd Yag laser. The safety review data is part of the technical presentation and gives some insight into why the system survived the severe environment of temperature and vibration during the flight of Space Shuttle 61-C.

  12. Five biomedical experiments flown in an Earth orbiting laboratory: Lessons learned from developing these experiments on the first international microgravity mission from concept to landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, C. M.; Lashbrook, J. J.; Callahan, P. X.; Schaefer, R. L.

    1993-01-01

    There are numerous problems associated with accommodating complex biological systems in microgravity in the flexible laboratory systems installed in the Orbiter cargo bay. This presentation will focus upon some of the lessons learned along the way from the University laboratory to the IML-1 Microgravity Laboratory. The First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) mission contained a large number of specimens, including: 72 million nematodes, US-1; 3 billion yeast cells, US-2; 32 million mouse limb-bud cells, US-3; and 540 oat seeds (96 planted), FOTRAN. All five of the experiments had to undergo significant redevelopment effort in order to allow the investigator's ideas and objectives to be accommodated within the constraints of the IML-1 mission. Each of these experiments were proposed as unique entities rather than part of the mission, and many procedures had to be modified from the laboratory practice to meet IML-1 constraints. After a proposal is accepted by NASA for definition, an interactive process is begun between the Principal Investigator and the developer to ensure a maximum science return. The success of the five SLSPO-managed experiments was the result of successful completion of all preflight biological testing and hardware verification finalized at the KSC Life Sciences Support Facility housed in Hangar L. The ESTEC Biorack facility housed three U.S. experiments (US-1, US-2, and US-3). The U.S. Gravitational Plant Physiology Facility housed GTHRES and FOTRAN. The IML-1 mission (launched from KSC on 22 Jan. 1992, and landed at Dryden Flight Research Facility on 30 Jan. 1992) was an outstanding success--close to 100 percent of the prelaunch anticipated science return was achieved and, in some cases, greater than 100 percent was achieved (because of an extra mission day).

  13. US experiments flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Volume 1: Mission description, experiments K-7-01 - K-7-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Cosmos 2044 was launched on September 15, 1989, containing radiation dosimetry experiments and a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, ten adult male Wistar rats, insects, amphibians, protozoa, cell cultures, worms, plants and fish. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in the Soviet Union for a mission duration of 14 days, as planned. The major research objectives were: (1) Study adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; (2) Study physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases; (3) Study the tissue regeneration processes of mammals; (4) Study the development of single-celled organisms, cell cultures and embryos in microgravity; (5) Study radiation characteristics during the mission and investigate doses, fluxes and spectra of cosmic radiation for various types of shielding. American and Soviet specialists jointly conducted 29 experiments on this mission including extensive preflight and post flight studies with rhesus monkeys, and tissue processing and cell culturing post flight. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included development of flight and ground-based hardware, the preparation of rat tissue sample procedures, the verification testing of hardware and experiment procedures, and the post flight analysis of biospecimens and data for the joint experiments. The U.S. investigations included four primate experiments, 24 rat experiments, and one radiation dosimetry experiment. Three scientists investigated tissue repair during flight for a subgroup of rats injured preflight by surgical intervention. A description of the Cosmos 2044 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and post flight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and U.S.S.R. is also described, along with

  14. 75 FR 34303 - 90th Anniversary of the Department of Labor Women's Bureau, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Proclamation 8533--90th Anniversary of the Department of Labor Women's Bureau, 2010 Proclamation 8534--King... President ] Proclamation 8533 of June 10, 2010 90th Anniversary of the Department of Labor Women's Bureau... women have played a vital role in the growth and vitality of our Nation's economy. They have...

  15. Evgenii Frolovich Mishchenko (on the 90th anniversary of his birth)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anosov, Dmitry V.; Aseev, Sergei M.; Gamkrelidze, Revaz V.; Konovalov, Sergey P.; Nikol'skii, Mikhail S.; Rozov, Nikolai Kh

    2012-04-01

    The 9th of March 2012 was the 90th anniversary of the birth of the prominent Russian mathematician Academician Evgenii Frolovich Mishchenko, one of the creators of modern mathematical control theory and the theory of oscillations.

  16. Enacements by the 90th Congress Concerning Education and Training, First Session 1967, Part 2--Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Texts of major education and training laws amended by the first session of the 90th Congress are included in this appendix to ED 029 096: (1) Elementary and Secondary Education Act, (2) Public Law 874, (3) Public Law 815, (4) Adult Education Act, (5) Cooperative Research Act, (6) Higher Education Act, (7) National Defense Education Act, (8)…

  17. Relativistic correlating basis sets for actinide atoms from 90Th to 103Lr.

    PubMed

    Noro, Takeshi; Sekiya, Masahiro; Osanai, You; Koga, Toshikatsu; Matsuyama, Hisashi

    2007-12-01

    For 14 actinide atoms from (90)Th to (103)Lr, contracted Gaussian-type function sets are developed for the description of correlations of the 5f, 6d, and 7s electrons. Basis sets for the 6d orbitals are also prepared, since the orbitals are important in molecular environments despite their vacancy in the ground state of some actinides. A segmented contraction scheme is employed for the compactness and efficiency. Contraction coefficients and exponents are so determined as to minimize the deviation from accurate natural orbitals of the lowest term arising from the 5f(n-1)6d(1)7s(2) configuration. The spin-free relativistic effects are considered through the third-order Douglas-Kroll approximation. To test the present correlating sets, all-electron calculations are performed on the ground state of (90)ThO molecule. The calculated spectroscopic constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values.

  18. 33 CFR Appendix A to Part 209 - Public Law 90-483, 90th Congress, S. 3710, August 13, 1968

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Public Law 90-483, 90th Congress...—Public Law 90-483, 90th Congress, S. 3710, August 13, 1968 An act authorizing the construction, repair, and preservation of certain public works on rivers and harbors for navigation, flood control, and...

  19. Hematological measurements in rats flown on Spacelab shuttle, SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lange, R. D.; Andrews, R. B.; Gibson, L. A.; Congdon, C. C.; Wright, P.; Dunn, C. D.; Jones, J. B.

    1987-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that a decrease in red cell mass occurs in astronauts, and some studies indicate a leukocytosis occurs. A life science module housing young and mature rats was flown on shuttle mission Spacelab 3 (SL-3), and the results of hematology studies of flight and control rats are presented. Statistically significant increases in the hematocrit, red blood cell counts, and hemoglobin determinations, together with a mild neutrophilia and lymphopenia, were found in flight animals. No significant changes were found in bone marrow and spleen cell differentials or erythropoietin determinations. Clonal assays demonstrated an increased erythroid colony formation of flight animal bone marrow cells at erythropoietin doses of 0.02 and 1.0 U/ml but not 0.20 U/ml. These results agree with some but vary from other previously published studies. Erythropoietin assays and clonal studies were performed for the first time.

  20. Composite materials flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Pete E.; Dursch, Harry W.; Pippin, H. Gary

    1995-01-01

    Organic composite test specimens were flown on several LDEF experiments. Both bare and coated composites were flown. Atomic oxygen eroded bare composite material, with the resins being recessed at a greater rate than the fibers. Selected coating techniques protected the composite substrate in each case. Tensile and optical properties are reported for numerous specimens. Fiberglass and metal matrix composites were also flown.

  1. US experiment flown on the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1667

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hines, John W. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    Two male young-adult rhesus monkeys were flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1667 for seven days from July 10-17, 1985. Both animals were instrumented to record neurophysiological parameters. One animal, Gordyy, was additionally instrumented to record cardiovascular changes. Space capsule and environmental parameters were very similar to those of previous missions. On Cosmos 1514, which flew for five days in 1983, one animal was fitted with a left carotid artery cuff to measure blood pressure and flow velocity. An additional feature of Cosmos 1667 was a postflight control study using the flight animal. Intermittent postural tilt tests were also conducted before and after spaceflight and synchronous control studies, to simulate the fluid shifts associated with spaceflight. The experiment results support the conclusion derived from Cosmos 1514 that significant cardiovascular changes occur with spaceflight. The changes most clearly seen were rapid initial decreases in heart rate and further decreases with continued exposure to microgravity. The triggering mechanism appeared to be a headward shift in blood and tissue fluid volume which, in turn, triggered adaptive cardiovascular changes. Adaptive changes took place rapidly and began to stabilize after the first two days of flight. However, these changes did not plateau in the animal by the last day of the mission.

  2. 3 CFR 8533 - Proclamation 8533 of June 10, 2010. 90th Anniversary of the Department of Labor Women’s Bureau, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Proclamations Proclamation 8533 of June 10, 2010 Proc. 8533 90th Anniversary of the Department of Labor Women’s..., American women have played a vital role in the growth and vitality of our Nation’s economy. They have... and enriching our national life. Today, there are more women in America’s workforce than ever...

  3. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  4. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  5. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  6. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  7. 14 CFR 91.181 - Course to be flown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Course to be flown. 91.181 Section 91.181 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC... § 91.181 Course to be flown. Unless otherwise authorized by ATC, no person may operate an...

  8. Effects of atomic oxygen on polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamenetzky, Rachel R.; Linton, Roger C.; Finckenor, Miria M.; Vaughn, Jason A.

    1995-01-01

    Diverse polymeric materials, including several variations of Kapton, were flown on STS-46 as part of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials Experiment (EOIM-3). These materials were flown in the cargo bay and exposed to the space environment July 31 - August 8, 1992, including 40 hours of direct atomic oxygen impingement. The atomic oxygen exposure was approximately 2.2 x 10(exp 20) atoms/sq cm. Polymeric materials flown on EOIM-3 include coated and uncoated Kapton, Tefzel ETFE, Lexan, FEP and TFE Teflon, bulk Halar and PEEK, S383 silicone and Viton elastomeric seal material. Analyses performed included thickness measurements using Dektak and eddy current methods, mass loss, resistance, permeability, hardness, and FTIR. The effects of stress and the space environment on Kapton were also evaluated. Previous EOIM missions on STS-5 and STS-8 and the Long Duration Exposure Facility also contained polymeric material samples. Data from these previous flights are shown for comparison, as well as ground simulation of space environment effects using both thermal energy flow tubes and 5 eV neutral atomic oxygen beam facilities. Reaction efficiencies for the various atomic oxygen exposure conditions are discussed.

  9. X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i=1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Rajnish; Shehla,; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production cross sections for the M{sub k} (k= ξ, δ, α, β, ζ, γ, m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}) groups of X-rays have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i =1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model based photoionisation cross sections and recently reported values of the M-shell X-ray emission rates, fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields. Further, the energies of the prominent (M{sub i}-S{sub j}) (S{sub j}=N{sub j}, O{sub j} and i =1-3, j =1-7) resonant Raman scattered (RRS) peaks at different incident photon energies have also been evaluated using the neutral-atom electron binding energies (E{sub sj}) based on the relaxed orbital relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model.

  10. Changes in pituitary growth hormone cells prepared from rats flown on Spacelab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R.; Hymer, W. C.; Farrington, M.; Fast, T.; Hayes, C.; Motter, K.; Patil, L.; Vasques, M.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of exposure to microgravity on pituitary gland was investigated by examining cells isolated from anterior pituitaries of rats flown on the 7-day Spacelab 3 mission and, subsequently, cultured for 6 days. Compared with ground controls, flight cells contained more intracellular growth hormone (GH); however, the flight cells released less GH over the 6-day culture period and after implantation into hypophysectomized rats than did the control cells. Compared with control rats, glands from large rats (400 g) contained more somatotrophs (44 percent compared with 37 percent in control rats); small rats (200 g) showed no difference. No major differences were found in the somatotroph ultrastructure (by TEM) or in the pattern of the immunoactive GH variants. However, high-performance liquid chromatography fractionation of culture media indicated that flight cells released much less of a biologically active high-molecular weight GH variant, suggesting that space flight may lead to secretory dysfunction.

  11. As-Flown Shuttle Micro-Meteoroid Orbital Debris (MMOD) Assessment History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.; Kerr, Justin H.

    2012-01-01

    The final flight of the Space Shuttle program was completed on July 21st of 2011. The reusable nature of the Orbiter vehicles has provided NASA with a unique opportunity to inspect and sample spacecraft surfaces exposed to the MMOD environment in low Earth orbit. This paper will provide details of MMOD damages found on Orbiter surfaces after recent flights, as well as putting these damages in context by providing historical comparisons of recent damage to previous flights. The Bumper threat assessment computer code is used by NASA to determine spacecraft MMOD penetration risk. The tool was used before each mission to estimate pre-flight MMOD risk for the Shuttle Program Office using planned vehicles attitudes and exposure times. This paper summarizes the efforts of the authors to assess the expected number MMOD impacts of selected particles sizes of 52 shuttle missions ranging from STS-50 (1992) through STS-133 (2011) using as-flown attitude data. The missions encompass the Shuttle/Mir precursors to the International Space Station (ISS) as well as the ISS assembly flights. The paper includes a comparison of observed MMOD impact damage to the predicted number of impacts from Bumper code assessments. This data can be used to validate engineering models of the orbital debris and micrometeoroid environment, such NASA s ORDEM debris model and MEM meteoroid model.

  12. Genetic and Proteomics Analyses of Space Flown Mice Skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terada, Masahiro; Takahashi, Rika; Yamada, Shin; Masaya, Seki; Higashibata, Akira; Majima, Hideyuki J.; Ohira, Yoshinobu; Mukai, Chiaki; Ishioka, Noriaki

    2013-02-01

    Many astronauts stay in the International Space Station (ISS) for a long period of time. Therefore, the development of astronaut health care technologies is very important. Especially, an understanding of the effects of the space environment, such as microgravity and radiation, on protein, gene, and mineral metabolism is important for developing countermeasures against the adverse effects experienced by astronauts who are in space for long periods of time. Since December 2009, the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) has initiated a human research study to investigate the effects of long-term space flight on gene expression and mineral metabolism by analyzing hair samples from ISS crew members who have been in space (experiment nicknamed “HAIR”). As animal control experiments, we could have an opportunity to analyze rodents samples by participating the tissue sharing program of space-flown mice organized by Italian Space Agency (AGI) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It will reasonably complement human hair experiment because we able to conduct more detailed skin analysis which is enable in human experiment. The purpose of this flown-mice experiment is to study the effects of long-term exposure to space environment. In this experiment, we analyzed mice skin contained hair roots. The samples were taken from space-flown (3-month and 2-week) and 3-month hindlimb suspensioned and 3-month 2G exposed mice, and ground-control mice. For the skin contained hair roots, the extracted and amplified RNA was used to DNA microarray analysis, and was further analyzed with expression on the interesting genes by real time Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. And the extracted protein was used to Mass Spectrometer analysis. Data analysis on the specimen are in progress.

  13. Honoring the 90th birthday of Academician I M Khalatnikov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 21 October 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenshchik, Aleksandr Yu; Pokrovsky, Valery L.; Khriplovich, Iosif B.

    2010-06-01

    21 October 2009, in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division was held honoring the 90th birthday of Academician I M Khalatnikov. The following talks were given at the session: (1) Andreev A F (Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Momentum deficit in quantum glasses" (2) Kamenshchik A Yu (Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna, Italy; Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow) "The problem of singularities and chaos in cosmology" (3) Pokrovsky V L (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow; Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, USA) "I M Khalatnikov's works on scattering of high-energy particles" (4) Khriplovich I B (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk) "Screening and antiscreening of charge in gauge theories." Brief versions of talks 2-4 are given below. • The problem of singularities and chaos in cosmology, A Yu Kamenshchik Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 301-309 • Above the barriers (I M Khalatnikov's works on the scattering of high-energy particles), V L Pokrovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 309-314 • Screening and antiscreening of charge in gauge theories, I B Khriplovich Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 315-316

  14. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Special session of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk Editorial Board celebrating the 90th anniversary of the journal(19 November 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Vitalii L.; Dremin, Igor M.; Shirkov, Dmitrii V.; Smirnov, Boris M.; Aleksandrov, Evgenii B.; Vershovskii, Anton K.; Maksimov, Evgenii G.; Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2009-06-01

    A special session of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) Editorial Board (UFN's oral issue) celebrating the 90th anniversary of the journal and the 50th anniversary of its English version (first under the title Soviet Physics-Uspekhi and then under the current title Physics-Uspekhi) took place on November 19, 2008 in the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Ginzburg V L (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow), Aksent'eva M S (Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, RAS, Moscow) "On the history of UFN (introductory talk)"; (2) Dremin I M (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "The physics of the Large Hadron Collider"; (3) Shirkov D V (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region) "Pair correlations and spontaneous symmetry breaking"; (4) Smirnov B M (Institute for High Temperatures, RAS, Moscow) "Modeling of gas-discharge plasma"; (5) Sadovskii M V (Institute of Electrophysics, RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg) "High-temperature superconductivity in iron-based layered compounds"; (6) Aleksandrov E B (All-Russian Research Center, S I Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg) Physical limits in the metrology of a magnetic field by atomic spectroscopy techniques"; (7) Maksimov E G (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Microscopic studies of the nature of the ferroelectric transition"; (8) Fortov V E (Institute for High Energy Density, RAS, Moscow) "Extreme states of matter". Articles based on reports 1-4 and 6-8 are published below in this special issue of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal devoted to the jubilees of the Russian and English versions of the journal.

  15. Physical, chemical and biological characteristics of space flown tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esyanti, Rizkita R.; Dwivany, Fenny M.; Almeida, Maria; Swandjaja, Leonita

    2016-11-01

    Several research showed that space flown treated seeds had a different characteristic with that of ground treated seed, which eventually produced a different characteristic of growth and productivity. Research was conducted to study the physical, chemical and biological properties, such as the rate of germination and the growth of tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) space flown seeds compared with that of control one. Observations of physical properties using a SEM showed that there were pores on the surface of some tomato space flown seeds. Observations using a stereo and inverted microscope showed that the coat layer of space flown seeds was thinner than control seeds. The total mineral content in the control seeds (22.88%) was averagely higher than space flown seeds (18.66%), but the average carbohydrate content in control seed was lower (15.2 ± 2.79%) than the space flown seeds (9.02 ± 1.87%). The level of auxin (IAA) of control seeds (142 ± 6.88 ppm) was averagely lower than the space flown seeds (414 ± 78.84 ppm), whereas the level of cytokinins (zeatin) for the control seeds (381 ± 68.86 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (68 ± 9.53 ppm), and the level of gibberellin (GA3) for the control seeds (335 ± 10.7 ppm) was higher than the space flown seeds (184 ± 7.4 ppm). The results of this study showed that the physical and chemical properties of tomato space flown seeds were generally different compare with that to control seeds, so that it might also be resulted in different germination and growth characteristic. The germination test showed that space flown seeds had lower germination rate compare to control. The growth pattern indicated that planted space flown seeds generally grew better than control. However, those data were more homogenous in control seeds compare to that in space flown tomato seeds.

  16. Description of the meteoroid detection experiment flown on the Pioneer 10 and 11 Jupiter flyby missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oneal, R. L. (Compiler)

    1974-01-01

    The meteoroid detection experiment has the objective of measuring the population of 10 to the minus 9th power and 10 to the minus 8th power grams mass particles in interplanetary space with emphasis on making these measurements in the Asteroid Belt. The instrument design, which uses the pressurized-cell-penetration detection technique, and the tests involved in obtaining a flight-qualified instrument are described. The successful demonstration of flight-quality penetration detectors to function properly under long-term simulated space environments is also described.

  17. Evaluation of certain material films flown on the Space Shuttle Mission 46, EOIM-3 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John; Clatterbuck, Carroll; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Nine film samples were carried aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle to complement the 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-III)' experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on materials and to monitor the gaseous environment in the shuttle bay. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07E-20 atoms/sq cm have been reported. The changes have been verified using X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurements, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples including Kapton, Tefzel, Aclar, Polyacrylonitrile film, and Llumalloy films have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared with results from other similar experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 gm/atom.

  18. Preliminary results for an aeromagnetic survey flown over Italy using the HALO (High Altitude and LOng range) research aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesur, V.; Gebler, A.; Schachtschneider, R.

    2012-12-01

    In June 2012 the GEOHALO mission was flown over Italy using the high altitude and long-range German research aircraft HALO (Gulfstream jet - G550). One goal of the mission was to demonstrate the feasibility of using geodetic and geophysical instrumentation on such fast flying aircraft. Several types of data were acquired including gravity, GNSS signals (reflectometry, spectrometry and occultation), laser altimetry and magnetic data. The magnetic data were collected through two independent acquisition chains placed inside under-wing containers. Each chain included a total intensity cesium magnetometer, a three-component fluxgate magnetometer, several temperature censors and a digitizer. Magnetic and temperature data were collected at a 10 Hz sampling rate. Seven parallel profiles, each around 1000 km long, were flown over the Apennine peninsula from north-west to south-east. The flight altitude was about 3500 m and the survey line spacing around 40 km. These long profiles were complemented by four crossing profiles, and a repeated flight line at a higher altitude (approx. 10500 m). The ground speed during the flight was generally around 125 m/s (450 km/h). The output from the first steps of the magnetic data processing will be shown. The measured magnetic data appear to be consistent with the expected signal.

  19. Effect of flight in mission SL-3 on interferon-gamma production by rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, C. L.; Williams, J. A.; Mandel, A. D.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1985-01-01

    Rats flown in Space Shuttle mission SL-3 were sacrificed after flight and spleens were removed. Cultures of spleen cells were challenged with the mitogen concanavalin-A to attempt to induce interferon-gamma. Most control, ground-based rats had spleen cells that produced moderate titers of interferon-gamma. Spleen cells from flown rats did not produce interferon-gamma in most cases, and one flown rat produced minimally detectable amounts of interferon. These data suggest that interferon-gamma production was inhibited in rats flown in mission SL-3 immediately upon return to earth.

  20. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  1. Spitzer Space Telescope mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kwok, Johnny H.; Garcia, Mark D.; Bonfiglio, Eugene; Long, Stacia M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper gives a description of the mission design, launch, orbit, and navigation results for the Spitzer space telescope mission. The Spitzer telescope was launched by the Delta II Heavy launch vehicle into a heliocentric Earth trailing orbit. This orbit is flown for the first time and will be used by several future astronomical missions such as Kepler, SIM, and LISA. This paper describes the launch strategy for a winter versus a summer launch and how it affects communications. It also describes how the solar orbit affects the design and operations of the Observatory. It describes the actual launch timeline, launch vehicle flight performance, and the long term behavior of the as flown orbit. It also provides the orbit knowledge from in-flight navigation data.

  2. The US Experiments Flown on the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Grindeland, Richard E. (Editor); Ballard, Rodney W. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Cosmos 1887, a biosatellite containing biological and radiation experiments from the Soviet Union, the United States and seven other countries, was launched on September 29, 1987. One Rhesus monkey's feeder stopped working two days into the flight and a decision was made to terminate the mission after 12 1/2 days. The biosatellite returned to Earth on October 12, 1987. A system malfunction, during the reentry procedure, caused the Cosmos 1887 spacecraft to land approximately 1800 miles beyond the intended landing site and delayed the start of the postflight procedures by approximately 44 hours. Further information on the conditions at landing and postflight activities is included in the Mission Operations portion of this document. U.S. and U.S.S.R. specialists jointly conducted 26 experiments on this mission, including the postflight transfer of data, hardware and biosamples to the U.S.

  3. Viking 75 project: Viking lander system primary mission performance report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooley, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    Viking Lander hardware performance during launch, interplanetary cruise, Mars orbit insertion, preseparation, separation through landing, and the primary landed mission, with primary emphasis on Lander engineering and science hardware operations, the as-flown mission are described with respect to Lander system performance and anomalies during the various mission phases. The extended mission and predicted Lander performance is discussed along with a summary of Viking goals, mission plans, and description of the Lander, and its subsystem definitions.

  4. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on COSMOS 2044.

    PubMed

    Keil, L; Evans, J; Grindeland, R; Krasnov, I

    1992-08-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, we obtained pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on COSMOS 2044. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to stimulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27% (P less than 0.05) in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (micrograms hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33% (P less than 0.05) compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the COSMOS 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  5. Pituitary oxytocin and vasopressin content of rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R.; Krasnov, I.

    1992-01-01

    Preliminary studies in rats (COSMOS 1887) suggested that levels of posterior pituitary hormones were reduced by exposure to spaceflight. To confirm these preliminary findings, pituitary tissue from rats flown for 14 days on Cosmos 2044 is obtained. Posterior pituitary content of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in these tissues as well as those from ground-based controls. The synchronous control group had feeding and lighting schedules synchronized to those in the spacecraft and were maintained in flight-type cages. Another group was housed in vivarium cages; a third group was tail suspended (T), a method used to simulate microgravity. Flight rats showed an average reduction of 27 in pituitary OT and VP compared with the three control groups. When hormone content was expressed in terms of pituitary protein (microg hormone/mg protein), the average decrease in OT and VP for the flight animals ranged from 20 to 33 percent compared with the various control groups. Reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP were similar to preliminary measurements from the Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to result from exposure to spaceflight. These data suggest that changes in the rate of hormone secretion or synthesis may have occurred during exposure to microgravity.

  6. Commemoration of the 90th anniversary of the birth of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 May 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    On 25 May 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), devoted to the 90th anniversary of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov's birthday, was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the PSD RAS contains the following reports: (1) Mesyats G A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Introduction. Greetings"; (2) Ritus V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "A D Sakharov: personality and fate"; (3) Altshuler B L (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Scientific and public legacy of A D Sakharov today"; (4) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "The path of a genius: Sakharov at KB-11"; (5) Novikov I D (Astrocosmic Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Wormholes and the multielement Universe"; (6) Azizov E A (National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Tokamaks: 60 years later"; (7) Kardashev N S (Astrocosmic Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmic interferometers"; (8) Lukash V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "From the cosmological model to the Hubble flux formation"; (9) Grishchuk L P (Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow; School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom) "Cosmological Sakharov oscillations and quantum mechanics of the early Universe". Articles based on reports 2-4, 6, 8, and 9 are published below. The content of report 5 is close to papers "Multicomponent Universe and astrophysics of wormholes" by I D Novikov, N S Kardashev, A A Shatskii [Phys. Usp. 50 965 (2007)] and "Dynamic model of a wormhole and the Multiuniverse model" by A A Shatskii, I D Novikov, N S Kardashev [Phys. Usp. 51 457 (2008)]. The content of report 7 is close to the paper "Radioastron - a radio telescope

  7. The spacelab scientific missions: A comprehensive bibliography of scientific publications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Marsha (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    November 1993 represented the 10-year anniversary of the flight of Spacelab 1 mission, with the first precursor mission (OSTA-1) being launched 2 years earlier. Since that time, a total of 27 Shuttle missions has been flown, using the Spacelab system as a facility for conducting scientific research in space. The missions flown to date have allowed a total of approximately 500 Principle Investigator class investigations to be conducted in orbit. These investigations have constituted major scientific efforts in astronomy/astrophysics, atmospheric science, Earth observation, life sciences, microgravity science, and space plasma physics. An initial survey of the scientific products gleaned from Spacelab missions already flown was sent to the Principle Investigators. In that survey, information was gathered from the investigators on the scientific highlights of their investigations and statistical measurements of overall success -- such as papers published. This document is a compilation of the papers that have been published to date in referred literature.

  8. Outgassing of Flown and Unflown MIR Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harvey, Gale A.; Kinard, William H.; Wilson, Linda A.

    2000-01-01

    A solar panel array with more than ten years space exposure was removed from the Mir core module in November 1997, and an eight panel section was returned to Earth in January 1998. Several solar cells were removed from panel eight of the returned array and placed in a high vacuum system with a residual gas analyzer (200 amu mass spectrometer) and a cold finger. Similar unflown solar cells of the same vintage were later obtained from Energia. Several of the unflown cells were also placed in the vacuum system and outgassed residues were collected on the LN2 cold finger. Almost 3 mg of outgassed residue was collected -from a string of three unflown solar cells over a period of 94 hours under vacuum. The collected residue was weighed with a microbalance, and then the residue was analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy, and by gas chromatograph-mass spectroscopy. About 25 outgassed constituents were separated by the gas chromatograph, and a high-resolution mass spectrum was obtained of each constituent. Molecular identifications have been made for the constituents. The constituents are primarily cyclic siloxanes, and several of the constituents are isomers of the same molecule. Most of the outgassed constituents have a molecular mass of about 500 amu. Almost one mg of residue was extracted from one sq cm of coverglass/adhesive from a flown solar cell by soaking in isopropyl alcohol for 30 minutes. The gas chromatograph separated about 20 constituents. The constituents are mostly cyclic siloxanes with linear branches, hydrocarbons, and phthalates. The typical molecular mass is about 600 amu. These identifications of specific outgassing molecules have resulted in a more complete understanding of the SiO(x) contamination on the Mir solar cell coverglasses, and on the MEEP experiment trays and optical specimens during the Shuttle-Mir Phase One flight experiment program. Adjusted outgassing rates based on the data reported here, and/or measured outgassing rates and specific molecular

  9. Analysis of heliographic missions complementary to ISPM. [International Solar Polar Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driver, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    Five concepts were formulated, analyzed, and compared for satisfying heliographic science mission objectives both with and without a concurrent International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) Spacecraft. Key astrodynamic constraints and performance factors are known from literature for the Lagrange point mission and the sun-synchronous earth orbit mission, but are set forth in this paper for the three solar orbiting missions concepts considered. Any of these five missions should be doable at modest cost since no strong cost drivers were encountered in the analyses. The mission to be flown depends on mission capability to meet science measurement needs more than on strong economic factors. Each mission offers special advantages for particular measurement emphasis. Based on selected qualitative mission discriminators, an overall 'best mission' was selected and described in some detail.

  10. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  11. Astronaut Returns Space-Flown Flag to NRAO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    A NASA Astronaut who carried a flag bearing the logo of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) on last month's Shuttle flight returned that flag to the observatory on Friday, April 12, at a ceremony in Socorro. Dr. John M. Grunsfeld, payload commander of the STS-109 flight, also addressed students at the New Mexico State Science Fair on Saturday, April 13, on the campus of New Mexico Tech in Socorro. Dr. John M. Grunsfeld: Click on image for larger view Dr. John M. Grunsfeld Grunsfeld, an astronomer who observed with NRAO's Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope in 1991, carried the 3-by-5-foot NRAO flag aboard Columbia during the March 1-12 mission to service the Hubble Space Telescope. The NRAO flag, made by Socorro resident Dora Spargo, had been sent to the observatory's facilities in Socorro; Tucson, AZ; Green Bank, WV; and Charlottesville, VA, where NRAO employees signed it prior to the flight. "With our signatures on that flag, we all felt like we were riding along with John aboard the Shuttle," said NRAO Director Paul Vanden Bout. "We are proud that NRAO was represented on a mission that was so important to astronomy," Vanden Bout added. During the flight, Grunsfeld performed three of the five spacewalks in which crew members successfully upgraded the Hubble Space Telescope. The astronauts left the space observatory with a new power unit, a new camera and new solar arrays. The upgrades, said Grunsfeld, leave the orbiting telescope with "its discovery potential significantly increased." STS-109 was Grunsfeld's fourth space flight and his second visit to Hubble. A research astronomer who received his bachelor's degree in physics from MIT and a Ph.D from the University of Chicago in 1988, Grunsfeld was selected to the astronaut corps in 1992. His first space flight, in 1995, featured astronomical observations using the Astro observatory, a three-telescope facility aboard the Shuttle Endeavour. In 1997, Grunsfeld rode Atlantis on a 10-day mission to the

  12. Morphological and molecular changes of maize plants after seeds been flown on recoverable satellite.

    PubMed

    Mei, M; Qiu, Y; Sun, Y; Huang, R; Yao, J; Zhang, Q; Hong, M; Ye, J

    1998-01-01

    Dry seeds of Zea mays, heterozygous for Lw1/lw1 alleles, sandwiched between nuclear track detectors aboard Chinese satellite for 15 days, were recovered and mutations in morphological characters on plants developed from these seeds, as well as their selected progenies, were investigated. The dosimetric results indicated that 85% of the seeds received at least 1 hit with Z > or = 20. About 10% of plants developed from flown seeds and 40% of observed selfed lines from the first generation plants showed some morphological changes, such as yellow stripes displayed on leaves, dwarf, anomogensis of floral organs and yellow-green seedlings, when compared with those from ground control. Using yellow stripes on leaves as the main endpoint for evaluating mutation induced in space environment, the frequency of stripe occurrence was 4.6% in the first generation plants, comparable with the results obtained from Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) mission (Mei et al., 1994), but much lower than those from ground based 60 Co-gamma treatment at a dose of 100 Gy, which reached 35.5% in the selfed lines of the second generation. One hundred and ten random primers were screened in RAPD analysis to detect the variation on genomic DNA of plants with stripes on leaves. Of these primers, 10.9% were able to generate polymorphic bands between mutated plants and control, also, common band patterns in several progenies with the same mutation phenotype were observed. These results demonstrated that space radiation environment could induce inheritable mutagenic effects on plant seeds, and verified the change in genetic material in the mutants. Further study will be needed for a better understand of the nature and mechanism of this induction of mutation.

  13. Biological and metabolic response in STS-135 space-flown mouse skin.

    PubMed

    Mao, X W; Pecaut, M J; Stodieck, L S; Ferguson, V L; Bateman, T A; Bouxsein, M L; Gridley, D S

    2014-08-01

    There is evidence that space flight condition-induced biological damage is associated with increased oxidative stress and extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling. To explore possible mechanisms, changes in gene expression profiles implicated in oxidative stress and in ECM remodeling in mouse skin were examined after space flight. The metabolic effects of space flight in skin tissues were also characterized. Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-135) was launched at the Kennedy Space Center on a 13-day mission. Female C57BL/6 mice were flown in the STS-135 using animal enclosure modules (AEMs). Within 3-5 h after landing, the mice were euthanized and skin samples were harvested for gene array analysis and metabolic biochemical assays. Many genes responsible for regulating production and metabolism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were significantly (p < 0.05) altered in the flight group, with fold changes >1.5 compared to AEM control. For ECM profile, several genes encoding matrix and metalloproteinases involved in ECM remodeling were significantly up-/down-regulated following space flight. To characterize the metabolic effects of space flight, global biochemical profiles were evaluated. Of 332 named biochemicals, 19 differed significantly (p < 0.05) between space flight skin samples and AEM ground controls, with 12 up-regulated and 7 down-regulated including altered amino acid, carbohydrate metabolism, cell signaling, and transmethylation pathways. Collectively, the data demonstrated that space flight condition leads to a shift in biological and metabolic homeostasis as the consequence of increased regulation in cellular antioxidants, ROS production, and tissue remodeling. This indicates that astronauts may be at increased risk for pathophysiologic damage or carcinogenesis in cutaneous tissue.

  14. Evaluation of Space Power Materials Flown on the Passive Optical Sample Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; deGroh, Kim K.; Skowronski, Timothy J.; McCollum, Tim; Pippin, Gary; Bungay, Corey

    1999-01-01

    Evaluating the performance of materials on the exterior of spacecraft is of continuing interest, particularly in anticipation of those applications that will require a long duration in low Earth orbit. The Passive Optical Sample Assembly (POSA) experiment flown on the exterior of Mir as a risk mitigation experiment for the International Space Station was designed to better understand the interaction of materials with the low Earth orbit environment and to better understand the potential contamination threats that may be present in the vicinity of spacecraft. Deterioration in the optical performance of candidate space power materials due to the low Earth orbit environment, the contamination environment, or both, must be evaluated in order to propose measures to mitigate such deterioration. The thirty two samples of space power materials studied here include solar array blanket materials such as polyimide Kapton H and SiO(x) coated polyimide Kapton H, front surface aluminized sapphire, solar dynamic concentrator materials such as silver on spin coated polyimide and aluminum on spin coated polyimide, CV 1144 silicone, and the thermal control paint Z-93-P. The physical and optical properties that were evaluated prior to and after the POSA flight include mass, total, diffuse, and specular reflectance, solar absorptance, and infrared emittance. Additional post flight evaluation included scanning electron microscopy to observe surface features caused by the low Earth orbit environment and the contamination environment, and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry to identify contaminant type and thickness. This paper summarizes the results of pre- and post-flight measurements, identifies the mechanisms responsible for optical properties deterioration, and suggests improvements for the durability of materials in future missions.

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice.

    PubMed

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling in Slow-Type Calf Soleus Muscle of 30 Days Space-Flown Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gambara, Guido; Salanova, Michele; Ciciliot, Stefano; Furlan, Sandra; Gutsmann, Martina; Schiffl, Gudrun; Ungethuem, Ute; Volpe, Pompeo; Gunga, Hanns-Christian; Blottner, Dieter

    2017-01-01

    Microgravity exposure as well as chronic disuse are two main causes of skeletal muscle atrophy in animals and humans. The antigravity calf soleus is a reference postural muscle to investigate the mechanism of disuse-induced maladaptation and plasticity of human and rodent (rats or mice) skeletal musculature. Here, we report microgravity-induced global gene expression changes in space-flown mouse skeletal muscle and the identification of yet unknown disuse susceptible transcripts found in soleus (a mainly slow phenotype) but not in extensor digitorum longus (a mainly fast phenotype dorsiflexor as functional counterpart to soleus). Adult C57Bl/N6 male mice (n = 5) flew aboard a biosatellite for 30 days on orbit (BION-M1 mission, 2013), a sex and age-matched cohort were housed in standard vivarium cages (n = 5), or in a replicate flight habitat as ground control (n = 5). Next to disuse atrophy signs (reduced size and myofiber phenotype I to II type shift) as much as 680 differentially expressed genes were found in the space-flown soleus, and only 72 in extensor digitorum longus (only 24 genes in common) compared to ground controls. Altered expression of gene transcripts matched key biological processes (contractile machinery, calcium homeostasis, muscle development, cell metabolism, inflammatory and oxidative stress response). Some transcripts (Fzd9, Casq2, Kcnma1, Ppara, Myf6) were further validated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Besides previous reports on other leg muscle types we put forth for the first time a complete set of microgravity susceptible gene transcripts in soleus of mice as promising new biomarkers or targets for optimization of physical countermeasures and rehabilitation protocols to overcome disuse atrophy conditions in different clinical settings, rehabilitation and spaceflight. PMID:28076365

  17. A crinkly leaf and delay flowering mutant of tobacco obtained from recoverable satellite-flown seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Liu-Ti; Zheng, Shao-Qing; Huang, Xue-Lin

    Dry seeds of Nicotiana tabacum (L) cv. K346 were flown with a recoverable satellite, the Chinese "Shen Zhou III" for 162 h. After spaceflight, a crinkly leaf and delay flowering mutant of tobacco ( T-cldf), which phenotype differed from the ground control (K346), was obtained from the seedlings after 48 d of the recoverable satellite-flown seeds germination. Major characteristics of T-cldf phenotype included crinkly leaf with outgrowth of the adaxial surface among the secondary veins and delay flowering. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis showed that five polymorphic bands were detected between T-cldf and ground control. The results suggested that recoverable satellite-flown condition could bring inheritable mutagenic effects on tobacco seeds and maybe used as a tool for accelerating the progress in tobacco breeding.

  18. Spaceflight Effects on Hemopoiesis of Lower Vertebrates Flown on Foton-M2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domaratskaya, E. I.; Payushina, O. V.; Butorina, M. N.; Nikonova, T. M.; Grigorian, E. N.; Mitashov, V. I.; Tairbekov, M. G.; Almeida, E.; Khrushchov, N. G.

    2006-01-01

    Intact and operated newts Pleumdeles waltl flown on Foton-M2 for 16 days were used to study the effects of spaceflight as well as tail amputation and lensectomy on their hemopoiesis. The flight did not produce noticeable changes in the peripheral blood of nonoperated newts. However, in operated animals, the number of lymphocytes increased whereas that of neutrophils decreased. There were no morphological differences in hemopoietic organs (liver and spleen) between flown non-operated and operated animals or their controls. However, in both non-operated and operated newts the liver weight and the number of hemopoietic cells in it increased. In contrast to nonoperated newts, space-flown mammals typically showed significant changes in blood cell counts. Experiments with BrdU incorporation revealed labeled cells in the hemopoietic area of the liver as well as in blood and spleen. This observation gives evidence that the BrdU label can be used to study proliferation of hemopoietic cells.

  19. Changes in subcellular morphologies, defense enzyme and genetic characteristics in earth-grown tomato seedlings propagated from six year Mir-flown seeds and 27 day recovery satellite-flown seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jinying; Liu, Min; Xue, Huai; Pan, Yi; Han, Xinyun; Kan, Sheng; Nechitailo, Galina S.

    Subcellular, changes of enzymes activities and genetic characteristics were compared between Earth-grown plants from the original tomato seeds, 6-year long-term flown in the Mir and 27- day short-term flown in the satellite. In some Mir-flown plants, the lamellae's structure of some chloroplasts became curved and loose, and some mitochondrial outer membranes were broken. In some satellite-flown plants, the number of mitochondria increased, the lamellae's structure of some chloroplasts became curved and loose, and some mitochondrial cristae disappeared. The number of starch grains per chloroplast in Mir-flown plants and satellite-flown plants increased significantly compared with the ground control. The number of chloroplasts per leaf cell in Mir-flown plants and satellite-flown plants decreased significantly compared with the ground control. The activities of three defense enzymes SOD, POD and CAT in the satellite -flown plants increased significantly as compared with those of the ground controls and the Mir-flown plants, but the content of MDA decreased significantly. Coefficients of variation of the activities of SOD, POD, CAT and the content of MDA in the satellite -flown plants were lest, and those in the Mir-flown plants were maximum. Among the 90 pair of SSR primers used for the genome DNA PCR analyses, the total number of SSR bands in the Mir-flown plants was the same 90 bands as in the control. Different DNA band types were generated from 7 pairs of SSR primers with a 7.78% polymorphism between the control and the 15 Mir-flown plants. Of 8 polymorphic bands, the SSR fragment size in 4 bands was larger and 4 smaller in the Mir-flown plants than that in the control. Different DNA band types were generated from 5 pairs of SSR primers with a 5.56% polymorphism between the control and one satellite-flown plant. The total number of SSR bands in one satellite-flown plant was 95 bands, of which 90 bands were the same with the ground control and 5 bands were

  20. Effects of space exposure on metals flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pippin, H. Gary; Bourassa, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    This report includes measurements on copper, aluminum, and stainless steel from the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). Summaries of the performance of a variety of metals flown on LDEF are presented. An extensive list of references directs the reader to other detailed investigations. The influence of contamination on a number of measurements is documented.

  1. Space Environment Effects on Stability of Medications Flown on Space Shuttles and the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Vernie; Du, Jianping; Crady, Camille; Satterfield, Rick; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to assess physical and chemical degradation of select pharmaceutical formulations from the Shuttle and ISS medical kits. Eleven pharmaceuticals dispensed as different dosage forms were selected based on their physical / chemical characteristics and susceptibility to environmental factors such as, temperature, humidity and light sensitivity. When available, ground-controls of the study medications with matching brand and lot numbers were used for comparison. Samples retrieved from flight were stored along with their matching controls in a temperature and humidity controlled environmental chamber. Temperature, humidity, and radiation data from the Shuttle and ISS were retrieved from onboard HOBO U12 Temp/RH Data Loggers, and from passive dosimeters. Physical and chemical analyses of the pharmaceuticals were conducted using validated United States Pharmacopeia (USP) methods. Results indicated degradation of 6 of the 11 formulations returned from space flights. Four formulations, Amoxicillin / Clavulanate, promethazine, sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim, and ciprofloxacin tablets depicted discoloration after flight. Chemical content analyses using High or Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC / UPLC) methods revealed that dosage forms of Amoxicillin / Clavulanate, promethazine, sulfamethoxazole / trimethoprim, lidocaine, ciprofloxacin and mupirocin contained less than 95% of manufacturer s labeled claim of active drug compound. Shuttle and ISS environments affect stability and shelf life of certain mediations flown on these missions. Data analysis is in progress to examine the effect of specific space flight environmental factors on pharmaceutical stability. The degradation profiles generated from ground studies in analog environments will be useful in establishing predictive shelf-life profiles for medications intended for use during long-term space exploration missions.

  2. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the other requirements in this subpart outlined...

  3. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the other requirements in this subpart outlined...

  4. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the other requirements in this subpart outlined...

  5. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the other requirements in this subpart outlined...

  6. 14 CFR 417.233 - Analysis for an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system. 417.233 Section 417.233 Aeronautics and Space... with a wind weighting safety system. For each launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind weighting safety system, in addition to the other requirements in this subpart outlined...

  7. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and... Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting... analysis required for the launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind...

  8. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and... Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting... analysis required for the launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and... Analysis Methodologies and Products for an Unguided Suborbital Launch Vehicle Flown With a Wind Weighting... analysis required for the launch of an unguided suborbital launch vehicle flown with a wind...

  10. Tracking and data system support for the Mariner Mars 1971 mission. Volume 3: Orbit insertion through end of primary mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnum, P. W.; Renzetti, N. A.; Textor, G. P.; Kelly, L. B.

    1973-01-01

    The Tracking and Data System (TDS) Support for the Mariner Mars 1971 Mission final report contains the deep space tracking and data acquisition activities in support of orbital operations. During this period a major NASA objective was accomplished: completion of the 180th revolution and 90th day of data gathering with the spacecraft about the planet Mars. Included are presentations of the TDS flight support pass chronology data for each of the Deep Space Stations used, and performance evaluation for the Deep Space Network Telemetry, Tracking, Command, and Monitor Systems. With the loss of Mariner 8 at launch, Mariner 9 assumed the mission plan of Mariner 8, which included the TV mapping cycles and a 12-hr orbital period. The mission plan was modified as a result of a severe dust storm on the surface of Mars, which delayed the start of the TV mapping cycles. Thus, the end of primary mission date was extended to complete the TV mapping cycles.

  11. Altered carbohydrate, lipid, and xenobiotic metabolism by liver from rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, A. H. Jr; Hoel, M.; Wang, E.; Mullins, R. E.; Hargrove, J. L.; Jones, D. P.; Popova, I. A.; Merrill AH, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1990-01-01

    To determine the possible biochemical effects of prolonged weightlessness on liver function, samples of liver from rats that had flown aboard Cosmos 1887 were analyzed for protein, glycogen, and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. Among the parameters measured, the major differences were elevations in the glycogen content and hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activities for the rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and decreases in the amount of microsomal cytochrome P-450 and the activities of aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine N-demethylase, cytochrome P-450-dependent enzymes. These results support the earlier finding of differences in these parameters and suggest that altered hepatic function could be important during spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period.

  12. Mutations in cauliflower and sprout broccoli grown from seeds flown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hong; Huang, Congli; Zhang, Keping; Sun, Yeqing

    2010-11-01

    Cauliflower and sprout broccoli are widely planted vegetables particularly in Fujian Province, China. To study the mutation in these two types of vegetables induced from spaceflight, we flew the seeds on the 20th Chinese recoverable satellite which orbited the Earth for 18 days. After returning to the Earth, the cauliflower seeds were planted for two generations and the sprout broccoli seeds for one generation at the Xiamen Agriculture Research Institute. Of the 12 cauliflowers planted for the first generation, two showed significant phenotypical changes in both the size of the plant and the weight of the flower head. In addition, most of the space flown plants were found to be resistant to the black rot attack in the field. Cauliflowers planted for the second generation from the seeds in one of the two plants that displayed phenotypical changes in the first generation showed similar mutations. For the first generation of sprout broccoli, the rate of emergence from the flown seeds was lower than that of the control by 30%. No significant changes in the phenotype between the sprout broccolis planted from the flown seeds and the control were observed except one of the mutated sprout broccolis showed a change in the appearance in the lesser bud of the chief flower head. Results of the study demonstrated that DNA damages in some of the genes may have occurred in the seeds flown in space, and some of the changes in the genes may have inherited from the first to the second generation. The improved resistance to the black rot attack and increased size of the flower head are apparently beneficial.

  13. Inhibited interferon-gamma but normal interleukin-3 production from rats flown on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gould, Cheryl L.; Lyte, Mark; Williams, Joann; Mandel, Adrian D.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1987-01-01

    Rats were flown on Space Shuttle SL-3 for one week. When spleen cells were removed from these rats and challenged with concanavalin-A, interferon-gamma production was severely inhibited, while interleukin-3 production was unaffected compared to ground-based control rats. These data indicate that there is a defect in interferon-gamma production in rats that have been exposed to spaceflight. This defect could contribute to, and be one reason for, immunosuppression observed after spaceflight.

  14. The influence of physique on dose conversion coefficients for idealised external photon exposures: a comparison of doses for Chinese male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2017-03-22

    For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations. The organ dose conversion coefficients for each phantom were calculated and compared for four idealized external photon exposures from 15 keV to 10 MeV, using the Monte Carlo method. The dosimetric results for the three deformable Chinese reference male phantom (DCRM) phantoms indicated that variations in physique can cause as much as a 20% difference in the organ dose conversion coefficients. When the photon energy was <50 keV, the discrepancy was greater. The irradiation geometry and organ position can also affect the difference in radiological dosimetry between individuals with different physiques. Hence, it is difficult to predict the conversion coefficients of the phantoms from the anthropometric parameters alone. Nevertheless, the complex organ conversion coefficients presented in this report will be helpful for evaluating the radiation risk for large groups of people with various physiques.

  15. Plasma wave experiment for the ISEE-3 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarf, F. L.

    1983-01-01

    Sensitive, high resolution plasma probes for analysis of the distribution functions and plasma wave instruments for measurements of electromagnetic and electrostatic wave modes are commonly flown together to provide information on plasma instabilities and wave particle interactions. Analysis of the data for the ISEE 3 mission is provided.

  16. NASA Instrument Cost Model for Explorer-Like Mission Instruments (NICM-E)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habib-Agahi, Hamid; Fox, George; Mrozinski, Joe; Ball, Gary

    2013-01-01

    NICM-E is a cost estimating relationship that supplements the traditional NICM System Level CERs for instruments flown on NASA Explorer-like missions that have the following three characteristics: 1) fly on Class C missions, 2) major development led and performed by universities or research foundations, and 3) have significant level of inheritance.

  17. Heat Pipe Performance-2 (HPP-2) experiment aboard mission STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis' middeck, Astronaut Donald R. McMonagle, mission commander, works with the Heat Pipe Performance (HPP-2) experiment during STS-66 mission. HPP-2 was flown to investigate the thermal performance and fluid dynamics of heat pipes operating with asymmetric and multiple heating zones under microgravity condition.

  18. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  19. National Space Transportation Systems Program mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, M. A., Jr.; Aldrich, A. D.; Lunney, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    The major activities and accomplishments of this first Spacelab mission using Orbiter vehicle 102. The significant configuration differences incorporated prior to STS-9 include the first use of the 3 substack fuel cells, the use of 5 cryo tanks sets and the addition of a galley and crew sleep stations. These differences combined with the Spacelab payload resulted in the heaviest landing weight yet flown. The problems that occurred are cited and a problem tracking list of all significant anomalies tht occurred during the mission is included. Scientific results of experiments conducted are highlighted.

  20. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  1. Apollo Soyuz, mission evaluation report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Apollo Soyuz mission was the first manned space flight to be conducted jointly by two nations - the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The primary purpose of the mission was to test systems for rendezvous and docking of manned spacecraft that would be suitable for use as a standard international system, and to demonstrate crew transfer between spacecraft. The secondary purpose was to conduct a program of scientific and applications experimentation. With minor modifications, the Apollo and Soyuz spacecraft were like those flown on previous missions. However, a new module was built specifically for this mission - the docking module. It served as an airlock for crew transfer and as a structural base for the docking mechanism that interfaced with a similar mechanism on the Soyuz orbital module. The postflight evaluation of the performance of the docking system and docking module, as well as the overall performance of the Apollo spacecraft and experiments is presented. In addition, the mission is evaluated from the viewpoints of the flight crew, ground support operations, and biomedical operations. Descriptions of the docking mechanism, docking module, crew equipment and experiment hardware are given.

  2. Analyses of plasma for metabolic and hormonal changes in rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Mullins, Richard E.; Grindeland, Richard E.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Plasmas samples from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for the levels of key metabolites, electrolytes, enzymes, and hormones. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in glucose, cholesterol, phosphate, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase and decreased levels of thyroxine. Most of these differences were not mimicked by tail suspension of ground-based rats; however, both flight and suspended rats exhibited inhibited testosterone secretion. Corticosterone, immunoreactive growth hormone, and prolactin showed inconsistent differences from the various control groups, suggesting that the levels of these hormones were not due to actual or simulated microgravity.

  3. Problems in analysis of data from muscles of rats flown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, M. E.; Henriksen, E.; Jacob, S.; Satarug, S.; Cook, P.

    1988-01-01

    Comparison of hindlimb muscles of rats flown on Spacelab-3 or tail-traction-suspended showed that 11-17 h reloading post-flight might have altered the results. Soleus atrophied, plantaris, gastrocnemius and extensor digitorum longus grew slower, and tibialis anterior grew normally. In both flight and simulated soleus and plantaris, higher tyrosine and greater glutamine/glutamate ratio indicated negative protein balance and increased glutamine production, respectively, relative to controls. Aspartate was lower in these muscles. Reloading generally decreased tyrosine, but increased aspartate and glutamine/glutamate. These data showed that at 12 h of reloading after flight is characterized by reversal to varying extents of effects of unloading.

  4. Transmittance measurements of ultra violet and visible wavelength interference filters flown aboard LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Thomas A.; Smajkiewicz, Ali

    1991-01-01

    A set of ten interference filters for the UV and VIS spectral region were flown on the surface of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Tray B-8 along with earth radiation budget (ERB) components from the Eppley Laboratory. Transmittance changes and other degradation observed after the return of the filters to Barr are reported. Substrates, coatings, and (where applicable) cement materials are identified. In general, all filters except those containing lead compounds survived well. Metal dielectric filters for the UV developed large numbers of pinholes which caused an increase in transmittance. Band shapes and spectral positioning, however, did not change.

  5. 7 CFR 2.8 - Delegations of authority to agency heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the United States flag be flown at half-staff. 2.8 Section 2.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half-staff. Pursuant to section 5 of Proclamation... order that the United States flag shall be flown at half-staff on buildings and grounds under his or...

  6. 7 CFR 2.8 - Delegations of authority to agency heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the United States flag be flown at half-staff. 2.8 Section 2.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half-staff. Pursuant to section 5 of Proclamation... order that the United States flag shall be flown at half-staff on buildings and grounds under his or...

  7. 7 CFR 2.8 - Delegations of authority to agency heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the United States flag be flown at half-staff. 2.8 Section 2.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half-staff. Pursuant to section 5 of Proclamation... order that the United States flag shall be flown at half-staff on buildings and grounds under his or...

  8. 7 CFR 2.8 - Delegations of authority to agency heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the United States flag be flown at half-staff. 2.8 Section 2.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half-staff. Pursuant to section 5 of Proclamation... order that the United States flag shall be flown at half-staff on buildings and grounds under his or...

  9. 7 CFR 2.8 - Delegations of authority to agency heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the United States flag be flown at half-staff. 2.8 Section 2.8 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of... heads to order that the United States flag be flown at half-staff. Pursuant to section 5 of Proclamation... order that the United States flag shall be flown at half-staff on buildings and grounds under his or...

  10. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  11. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 2: Mission handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) for support of future space missions is defined. Some 20 generic missions are defined each representative of the types of missions expected to be flown in the future. These include the service and update of communications satellites, emergency repair of surveillance satellites, and passenger transport of a six man crew rotation/resupply service to a deep space command post. The propulsive and functional capabilities required of the MOTV to support a particular mission are described and data to enable the user to determine the number of STS flights needed to support the mission, mission peculiar equipment requirements, parametrics on mission phasing and requirements, ground and flight support requirements, recovery considerations, and IVA/EVA trade analysis are presented.

  12. An Overview of the StarLight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lay, Oliver; Blackwood, Gary; Dubovitsky, Serge; Duren, Riley

    2004-01-01

    An overview of the Starlight Mission is presented. Mission summary: June 2006 launch to heliocentric orbit; Nominal 6 month mission with option of additional 6 month extension; Validate autonomous formation flying system: range control to 10 cm bearing, control to 4 arcmin; Demonstrate formation flying optical interferometry.The original 3 spacecraft design did not fit the budget. 2 spacecraft concept demonstrates all key areas of formation flying interferometry. Collector flown on the surface of a virtual paraboloid, with combiner at the focus. It Gives a baseline of 125 m with a fixed delay of only 14 m.

  13. Lessons Learned from NASA UAV Science Demonstration Program Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegener, Steven S.; Schoenung, Susan M.

    2003-01-01

    During the summer of 2002, two airborne missions were flown as part of a NASA Earth Science Enterprise program to demonstrate the use of uninhabited aerial vehicles (UAVs) to perform earth science. One mission, the Altus Cumulus Electrification Study (ACES), successfully measured lightning storms in the vicinity of Key West, Florida, during storm season using a high-altitude Altus(TM) UAV. In the other, a solar-powered UAV, the Pathfinder Plus, flew a high-resolution imaging mission over coffee fields in Kauai, Hawaii, to help guide the harvest.

  14. Retinal changes in rats flown on Cosmos 936 - A cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Corbett, R.; Turnbill, C.; Black, S.; Dayhoff, D.; Mcgourty, J.; Lee, R.; Harrison, G.; Savik, L.

    1980-01-01

    Ten rats, five centrifuged during flight to simulate gravity and five stationary in flight and experiencing hypogravity, orbited the Earth. No differences were noted between flight-stationary and flight-centrifuged animals, but changes were seen between these two groups and ground controls. Morphological alterations were observed comparable to those in the experiment flown on Cosmos 782 and to the retinal cells exposed to high-energy particles at Berkeley. Affected cells in the outer nuclear layer showed swelling, clearing of cytoplasm, and disruption of the membranes. Tissue channels were again found, similar to those seen on 782. After space flight, preliminary data indicated an increase in cell size in montages of the nuclear layer of both groups of flight animals. This experiment shows that weightlessness and environmental conditions other than cosmic radiation do not contribute to the observed damage of retinal cells.

  15. Reduction of spermatogonia and testosterone in rat testes flown on Space Lab-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, Delbert E.; Stevenson, J.; Black, S.; Sapp, W.; Williams, C.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of space flight on rat testes were investigated. The weight, spermatogonial cell count, and testosterone levels in six rats flown on Space Lab-3 were measured. It is observed that compared to ground control rats the average weight loss was 7.1 percent and the spermatogonial cell count decreased by 7.5 percent. The data reveal that the testosterone level for large control rats was 9.13 ng/ml and 0.31 ng/ml for flight rats; and 2.54 ng/ml and 0.233 ng/ml for smaller control and flight rats, respectively. It is noted that spermatogenesis and testosterone production are reduced during spaceflight.

  16. Observations of limb flares with a soft X-ray telescope. [flown on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, E. G.

    1976-01-01

    The structure and evolution of 26 limb flares have been observed with a soft X-ray telescope flown on Skylab. The results are: (1) One or more well defined loops were the only structures of flare intensity observed during the rise phase and near flare maximum, except for knots which were close to the resolution of the telescope; (2) the flare core features were always sharply defined during rise phase; and (3) for the twenty events which contained loops, the geometry of the structure near maximum was that of a loop in ten cases, a loop with a spike at the top in four cases, a cusp or triangle in four cases, and a cusp combined with a spike in another two cases. Based on observation of the original film, it is suggested that flares which underwent large scale deformations had become unstable to MHD kinks. This implies that these flares occurred in magnetic flux tubes through which significant currents were flowing.

  17. Analysis of systems hardware flown on LDEF: New findings and comparison to other retrieved spacecraft hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dursch, Harry; Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail; Blue, Donald; Hansen, Patricia

    1995-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was retrieved in 1990 after spending 69 months in low-earth-orbit (LEO). A wide variety of mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical systems, subsystems, and components were flown on LDEF. The Systems Special Investigation Group (Systems SIG) was formed by NASA to investigate the effects of the 69 month exposure on systems related hardware and to coordinate and collate all systems analysis of LDEF hardware. This report is the Systems SIG final report which updates earlier findings and compares LDEF systems findings to results from other retrieved spacecraft hardware such as Hubble Space Telescope. Also included are sections titled (1) Effects of Long Duration Space Exposure on Optical Scatter, (2) Contamination Survey of LDEF, and (3) Degradation of Optical Materials in Space.

  18. Differences in glycogen, lipids, and enzymes in livers from rats flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrill, Alfred H., Jr.; Wang, Elaine; Laroque, Regina; Mullins, Richard E.; Morgan, Edward T.; Hargrove, James L.; Bonkovsky, Herbert L.; Popova, Irina A.

    1992-01-01

    Livers from rats flown aboard Cosmos 2044 were analyzed for protein, carbohydrate (glycogen), and lipids as well as the activities of a number of key enzymes involved in metabolism of these compounds and xenobiotics. The major differences between the flight group and the synchronous control were elevations in microsomal protein, liver glycogen content, tyrosine aminotransferase, and tryptophan oxygenase and reductions in sphingolipids and the rate-limiting enzyme of heme biosynthesis delta-aminolevulinic acid synthase. These results provide further evidence that spaceflight has pronounced and diverse effects on liver function; however, some of the results with samples from Cosmos 2044 differed notably from those from previous spaceflights. This may be due to conditions of spaceflight and/or the postflight recovery period for Cosmos 2044.

  19. A comparative study of seminiferous tubular epithelium from rats flown on Cosmos 1887 and SL3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sapp, Walter J.; Williams, Carol S.; Kato, K.; Philpott, Delbert E.; Stevenson, J.; Serova, L. V.

    1989-01-01

    Space flight, with its unique environmental constraints such as immobilization, decreased and increased pressures, and radiation, is known to affect testicular morphology and spermatogenesis. Among the several biological experiments and animals on board COSMOS 1887 Biosputnik flight were 10 rats, from which were collected testicular tissue. Average weights of flight tests were 6.4 pct. below that of the vivarium control when normalized for weight loss/100 grams body weight. Counts of surviving spermatogonia per tubule cross section indicated an average of 39 spermatogonia for flight animals, 40 for synchronous controls and 44 for the vivarium controls. Serum testosterone was significantly decreased when compared to basal controls but the decrease was not significant when compared in vivarium and synchronous control groups. The significant decrease in spermatogonia and the decrease in serum testosterone are similar to that in animals flown on Space Lab 3 (Challenger Shuttle).

  20. In-Flight Assessment of a Pursuit Guidance Display Format for Manually Flown Precision Instrument Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moralez, Ernesto, III; Tucker, George E.; Hindson, William S.; Frost, Chad R.; Hardy, Gordon H.

    2004-01-01

    In-flight evaluations of a pursuit guidance display system for manually flown precision instrument approaches were performed. The guidance system was integrated into the RASCAL JUH-60A Black Hawk helicopter. The applicability of the pursuit guidance disp1aFs to the operation of Runway Independent Aircraft (RIA) is made evident because the displays allow the pilot to fly a complex, multi-segment, descending, decelerating approach trajectory. The complex trajectory chosen for this in-flight assessment began from a downwind abeam position at 110 knots and was hand-flown to a 50 ft decision altitude at 40 knots using a rate-command/attitude-hold plus turn-coordination control system. The elements of the pursuit guidance format displayed on a 10-inch liquid crystal display (LCD) flat panel consisted of a flightpath vector and a "leader" aircraft as the pursuit guidance element. Approach guidance was based primarily on carrier-phase differential Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation, and secondarily on both medium accuracy inertial navigation unit states and air data computer states. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) concepts were applied to the construction of display elements such as lateral/vertical deviation indicators and a tunnel that indicated to the pilot, in real-time, the performance with respect to RNP error bounds. The results of the flight evaluations of the guidance display show that precise path control for operating within tight RNP boundaries (RNP 0.007NM/24ft for initial approach, RNP 0.008NM/19ft for intermediate approach, and RNP 0.002NM/9ft for final approach) is attainable with minimal to moderate pilot workload.

  1. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  2. 2007 Ikhana Western States and Southern California Emergency UAS Fire Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent

    2008-01-01

    Four demonstration and four emergency fire imaging missions completed: a) Thermal infrared imagery delivered in near real-time (5 to 15 minutes) to: 1) SoCal Emergency: FEMA, NIFC, NorthCom, California EOC; 2) Demo Flights: NIFC, Individual Fire Incident Commands. Imagery used for tactical and strategic decision making. Air Traffic Control gave excellent support. Mission plans flown in reverse. Real time requests for revisits of active fires. Added new fire during mission. Moved fire loiter points as fires moved. Real-time reroute around thunderstorm activity. Pre & Post flight telecons with FAA were held to review mission and discuss operational improvements. No issues with air traffic control during the 8 fire missions flown.

  3. Dorsal raphe nucleus of brain in the rats flown in space inflight and postflight alteration of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, I.

    The structure of brain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was studied in the rats flown in space aboard Space Shuttle "Columbia" (STS-58, SLS-2 program) and dissected on day 13 of the mission ("inflight" rats) and in 5-6 hours after finishing 14-day flight ("postflight" rats). The brain of "inflight" rats were excised after decapitation, sectioned sagitally halves of brain were fixed by immersion in 2,5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer pH 7.3 at 4°C and kept in the flight at 4°C. After landing the brain frontal 0.5 mm sections from DRN area were osmificated and embedded in araldite at NASA ARC. The brains of "postflight": and control rats were underwent to the same procedure. Electronmicroscopical analysis, computer morphometry and glial cell count were performed at Moscow. In DRN neuropil of "inflight" rats the most part of axo-dendritic synapses were surrounded by glia cell processes and had decreased electron density of pre- and postsynaptic membrane and pronounced diminution of synaptic vesicle amount while dendrites were characterized by decrease in matrix electron density and microtubule quantity that in total indicates the decline of afferent flow reaching DRN neurons in microgravity. In DRN neurons of "inflight" rats all mitochondria were characterized by evenly increased dimensions, decreased matrix electron density, small amount of short and far- between located cristae and enlarged intermembrane and intercristae spaces, that in total points out low level of coupling of oxidation to phosphorilation, decrease in energy supply of neuron. Amount of ribosome in cytoplasm was significantly decreased indicating lower lever of biosynthetic processes. The last is supported by diminished dimensions of neuronal body, nucleus and nucleolus (place of r RNA synthesis), cross section area of that were reduced in DRN neurons of "inflight" rats by 18.8 % (p < 0.01), 11.1 % and 26.6 % (p <0,005) correspondingly. Ultrastructure and dimensions of intracellular

  4. Some Activities of MISSE 6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) is to study the performance of novel materials when subjected to the synergistic effects of the harsh space environment for several months. In this paper, a few laser and optical elements from NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) that have been flown on MISSE 6 mission will be discussed. These items were characterized and packed inside a ruggedized Passive Experiment Container (PEC) that resembles a suitcase. The PEC was tested for survivability due to launch conditions. Subsequently, the MISSE 6 PEC was transported by the STS-123 mission to International Space Station (ISS) on March 11, 2008. The astronauts successfully attached the PEC to external handrails and opened the PEC for long term exposure to the space environment. The plan is to retrieve the MISSE 6 PEC by STS-128 mission in August 2009.

  5. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  6. Precourt presents a flag, flown on Mir to NASA Administrator Goldin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    STS-91 Mission Commander Charles J. Precourt (at microphone) presents an American flag, a special tool, and an optical disc to NASA Administrator Dan Goldin following Discovery's landing at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility, as Phase I Shuttle/Mir Program Manager Frank Culbertson and the other members of the STS-91 flight crew look on. This landing not only concluded the STS-91 mission, but Phase I of the joint U.S.-Russian International Space Station Program as well. The flag rode aboard Mir from the beginning of the Phase I program and was brought back to Earth by the STS-91 crew. Discovery's main gear touchdown on Runway 15 was at 2:00:00 p.m. EDT on June 12, 1998, on orbit 155 of the mission. The wheels stopped at 2:01:00 p.m. EDT, for a total mission-elapsed time of 9 days, 19 hours, 55 minutes and 1 second. The 91st Shuttle mission was the 44th KSC landing in the history of the Space Shuttle program and the 15th consecutive landing at KSC. Besides Commander Precourt, the STS-91 flight crew also included Pilot Dominic L. Gorie and Mission Specialists Wendy B. Lawrence, Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, Janet Lynn Kavandi and Valery Victorovitch Ryumin of the Russian Space Agency. Astronaut Andrew S. W. Thomas also returned to Earth from Mir as an STS-91 crew member after 141 days in space.

  7. Screening, cataloging and indexing of earth resource aircraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Data obtained from 30 earth resources aircraft missions, flown between September 1, 1973 and September 1, 1974, were screened, cataloged, and indexed using microfilm copy. The manhours required for completing the task are presented, and problems encountered during the project are reported. It is concluded that a cataloging and indexing report of remote sensor data can be prepared on a timely basis for a relatively low cost from microfilm. Recommendations are given in order to further facilitate the task.

  8. Engineering support for an ultraviolet imager for the ISTP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torr, Douglas G.

    1991-01-01

    Design and development activities were carried out for the Ultraviolet Imager (UVI) to be flown on the Polar Spacecraft of the INternational Solar Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) Mission. The following tasks were performed: (1) design and fabrication of prototype/engineering model of the UVI imager; (2) preliminary design review; (3) vacuum ultraviolet filter design; (4) auroral energy deposition code; (5) model of LBH vehicle glow; (6) laboratory measurement program of collision cross-sections; and (7) support of ISTP meetings.

  9. Geospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Geospace Missions - Understanding and being able to predict the behavior of the Earth's near space environment, called Geospace, is important for several reasons. These include the fact that most of the space-based commercial, military, and space research assets are exposed to this environment and that investigating fundamental plasma processes at work through out the solar system can most readily be accomplished in Geospace, the only place we can access the processes. NASA missions that are directed toward understanding, characterizing, and predicting the Geospace environment are described in this presentation. Emphasis is placed on those missions that investigate those phenomena that most affect life and society. The significance of investigating ionospheric irregularities, the radiation belt dynamics with the LWS Geospace Mission will be discussed.

  10. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  11. The MXT X-Ray Telescope on Board the SVOM Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Götz, D.

    2016-10-01

    We present the Microchannel X-ray Telescope to be flown on the SVOM mission. The MXT telescope is a compact an light focussing X-ray (0.2-10 keV) instrument based on the coupling of a micropore optics in a narrow field "Lobster -Eye" and a pn CCD.

  12. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37°C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37°C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  13. Detection of DNA Damage by Space Radiation in Human Fibroblasts Flown on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37 degrees Centigrade in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damages with the gamma-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional gamma-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate gamma rays at 37 degrees Centigrade. Cells exposed to chronic gamma rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET (Linear Energy Transfer) protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  14. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblasts flown on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-02-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board spacecraft since the discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation is challenging due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and due to the difficulty in distinguishing the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in their lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, are attributed primarily to their exposure to space radiation. In this study, cultured human fibroblasts were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 37 °C in space for 14 days before being fixed for analysis of DNA damage with the γ-H2AX assay. The 3-dimensional γ-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed several foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern only in the Day 14 flight samples. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, cultured human fibroblasts were exposed to low dose rate γ rays at 37 °C. Cells exposed to chronic γ rays showed similar foci size distribution in comparison to the non-exposed controls. The cells were also exposed to low- and high-LET protons, and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. Our results suggest that in G1 human fibroblasts under the normal culture condition, only a small fraction of large size foci can be attributed to high-LET radiation in space.

  15. Atomic Oxygen and Space Environment Effects on Aerospace Materials Flown with EOIM-3 Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.; Clatterbuck, Carroll H.; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1996-01-01

    Polymer materials samples mounted on a passive carrier tray were flown aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle as complement to the EOIM-3 (Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials) experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on the materials and to measure the gaseous shuttle bay environment. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07 x 10(exp 20) atoms/cm(exp 2) are being reported. The changes have been verified using Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurement, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples, including Kapton, Delrin, epoxies, Beta Cloth, Chemglaze Z306, silver Teflon, silicone coatings, 3M tape and Uralane and Ultem, PEEK, Victrex (PES), Polyethersulfone and Polymethylpentene thermoplastic, have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the oxygen fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared to results from other experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 g/atom. The results indicate that the reaction efficiencies of the reported materials can be grouped in about three ranges of values. The least affected materials which have efficiencies varying from 1 to 10(exp 25) g/atom, include silicones, epoxies, Uralane and Teflon. A second group with efficiency from 10 to 45(exp 25) g/atom includes additional silicone coatings, the Chemglaze Z306 paint and Kapton. The third range from 50 to 75(exp 25) includes organic compound such as Pentene, Peek, Ultem, Sulfone and a 3M tape. A Delrin sample had the highest reaction efficiency of 179(exp 25) g/atom. Two samples, the aluminum Beta cloth X389-7 and the epoxy fiberglass G-11 nonflame retardant, showed a slight mass increase.

  16. Germination, growth rates, and electron microscope analysis of tomato seeds flown on the LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammond, Ernest C., Jr.; Bridgers, Kevin; Brown, Cecelia Wright

    1995-01-01

    The tomato seeds were flown in orbit aboard the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) for nearly six years. During this time, the tomato seeds received an abundant exposure to cosmic radiation and solar wind. Upon the return of the LDEF to earth, the seeds were distributed throughout the United States and 30 foreign countries for analysis. The purpose of the experiment was to determine the long term effect of cosmic rays on living tissue. Our university analysis included germination and growth rates as well as Scanning Electron Microscopy and X-ray analysis of the control as well as Space-exposed tomato seeds. In analyzing the seeds under the Electron Microscope, usual observations were performed on the nutritional and epidermis layer of the seed. These layers appeared to be more porous in the Space-exposed seeds than on the Earth-based control seeds. This unusual characteristic may explain the increases in the space seeds growth pattern. (Several test results show that the Space-exposed seeds germinate sooner than the Earth-Based seeds. Also, the Space-exposed seeds grew at a faster rate). The porous nutritional region may allow the seeds to receive necessary nutrients and liquids more readily, thus enabling the plant to grow at a faster rate. Roots, leaves and stems were cut into small sections and mounted. After sputter coating the specimens with Argon/Gold Palladium Plasma, they were ready to be viewed under the Electron Microscope. Many micrographs were taken. The X-ray analysis displayed possible identifications of calcium, potassium, chlorine, copper, aluminum, silicon, phosphate, carbon, and sometimes sulfur and iron. The highest concentrations were shown in potassium and calcium. The Space-exposed specimens displayed a high concentration of copper and calcium in the two specimens. There was a significantly high concentration of copper in the Earth-based specimens, whereas there was no copper in the Space-exposed specimens.

  17. Initial Satellite Formation Flight Results from the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Trevor; Ottenstein, Neil; Palmer, Eric; Farahmand, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the underlying dynamics of formation flying in a high-eccentricity orbit such as that of the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The GPS-based results used for MMS navigation is summarized, as well as the procedures that are used to design the maneuvers used to place the spacecraft into a tetrahedron formation and then maintain it. The details of how to carry out these maneuvers are then discussed. Finally, the numerical results that have been obtained concerning formation flying for the MMS mission to date (e.g. tetrahedron sizes flown, maneuver execution error, fuel usage, etc.) are presented in detail.

  18. Final Science Reports of the US Experiments Flown on the Russian Biosatellite Cosmos 2229

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, James P. (Editor); Skidmore, Michael G. (Editor); Helwig, Denice A. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    Cosmos 2229 was launched on December 29, 1992, containing a biological payload including two young male rhesus monkeys, insects, amphibians, and cell cultures. The biosatellite was launched from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia for a mission duration of 11.5 days. The major research objectives were: (1) Study of adaptive response mechanisms of mammals during flight; and (2) Study of physiological mechanisms underlying vestibular, motor system and brain function in primates during early and later adaptation phases. American scientists and their Russian collaborators conducted 11 experiments on this mission which included extensive preflight and postflight studies with rhesus monkeys. Biosamples and data were subsequently transferred to the United States. The U.S. responsibilities for this flight included the development of experiment protocols, the fabrication of some flight instrumentation and experiment-specific ground-based hardware, the conducting of preflight and postflight testing and the analysis of biospecimens and data for the U.S. experiments. A description of the Cosmos 2229 mission is presented in this report including preflight, on-orbit and postflight activities. The flight and ground-based bioinstrumentation which was developed by the U.S. and Russia is also described, along with the associated preflight testing ot the U.S. hardware. Final Science Reports for the experiments are also included.

  19. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  20. Four NASA submillimeter-wavelength space-astrophysics missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahoney, M. J.

    1991-01-01

    For several years studies have been conducted at the NASA/Jet Propulsion Laboratory on four passively-cooled submillimeter-wavelength, space observatories. Two exploratory missions were studied: a 2.5-m Submillimeter Explorer (SMME) and a more ambitious 3.7-m Submillimeter Imager and Line Survey (SMILS). Only one of these missions would actually be flown, and its goal would be to perform a high-spectral-resolution survey of several hundreds of sources at wavelengths between 100 and about 750 microns with modest angular resolution. Following either SMME or SMILS, the Large Deployable Reflector (LDR) and/or the Synthesis Array for Lunar Submillimeter Astronomy (SALSA) would be flown. LDR is a 10- to 20-m diameter telescope with greatly increased sensitivity and imaging capabilities compared to the exploratory missions. SALSA is a lunar-based array consisting of twelve 3.5-m diameter telescopes with a maximum baseline of nearly 1-km. With operating wavelengths between 30 and 500 microns, SALSA would achieve 10 milliarcsecond angular resolution, and thus could explore source structure in much greater detail than the other missions. The purpose of this paper is to present the current conceptual designs for these missions, and to discuss the most recent payload analysis.

  1. Aquarius and the Aquarius/SAC-D Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2010-01-01

    Aquarius is a combination L-band radiometer and scatterometer designed to map the salinity field at the ocean surface from space. It will be flown on the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA space agency (NASA) and Argentine space agency (CONAE). The mission is composed of two parts: (a) The Aquarius instrument being developed as part of NASA.s Earth System Science Pathfinder (ESSP) program; and (b) SAC-D the fourth spacecraft service platform in the CONAE Satellite de Aplicaciones Cientificas (SAC) program. The primary focus of the mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variations of the salinity field in the open ocean. The mission also meets the needs of the Argentine space program for monitoring the environment and for hazard detection and includes several instruments related to these goals.

  2. Manned Space-Flight Experiments: Gemini V Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    This compilation of papers constitutes an interim report on the results of experiments conducted during the Gemini V manned space flight. The results of experiments conducted on Gemini III and IV manned space flights have been published previously in a similar interim report, "Manned Space Flight Experiments Symposium, Gemini Missions III and IV," which is available upon request from MSC Experiments Program Office, Houston, Texas (Code EX, Attention of R. Kinard). The Gemini V mission provided the greatest opportunity to date for conducting experiments; the increased mission duration of eight days provided this added capability. The total mission experiment complement was seventeen. Five experiments were designed to obtain basic scientific knowledge, five were medical, and seven were technological and engineering in nature. Six of the experiments had flown previously on Gemini IV, and eleven were new. The results of the experiments, including real-time modification to preflight plans made necessary by abnormal spacecraft system operation, are presented.

  3. The Search-coil Magnetometer for the THOR mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraoui, Fouad; Pinçon, Jean-louis; Jannet, Guillaume; Mansour, Malik; Henri, Pierre; Chalumeau, Gilles; Hachemi, Tedjani; Jeandet, Alexis; Briand, Nicolas; Le Contel, Olivier; Rezeau, Laurence

    2016-04-01

    Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) is the first mission ever flown in space fully dedicated to plasma turbulence. The search-coil magnetometer (SCM) of THOR is a triaxial dual-band antenna dedicated to measuring the magnetic field fluctuations in the frequency range [1Hz,4kHz] and [1,200]kHz. THOR/SCM has a long heritage from earlier space missions such as Cluster, Themis, MMS, BepiColombo, Taranis, Solar orbiter and Solar Probe. In comparison to those missions, the SCM of THOR has a higher sensitivity level, which makes it capable of measuring very low amplitude magnetic fluctuations, in particular in the solar wind. Those measurements are crucial to address the problem of turbulence and energy dissipation at electron scales, a central goal of the THOR mission.

  4. US plant and radiation dosimetry experiments flown on the Soviet satellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, M. R. (Editor); Souza, K. A. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    Experiments included: 30 young male Wistar SPF rats used for wide range physiological studies; experiments with plants, fungi, insects, and mammalian tissue cultures; radiation physics experiments; a heat convection study; a rat embryology experiment in which an attempt was made to breed 2 male and 5 female rats during the flight; and fertile quail eggs used to determine the effects of spaceflight on avian embryogenesis. Specimens for US experiments were initially prepared at the recovery site or in Moscow and transferred to US laboratories for complete analyses. An overview of the mission focusing on preflight, on orbit, and postflight activities pertinent to the fourteen US experiments aboard Cosmos 1129 is presented.

  5. SEQUOIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Carone, Timothy; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-06-01

    We describe a mission concept for the SEQUOIA instrument, which would carry out the first wide-field, far ultraviolet, photometric all-sky survey. SEQUOIA will image the astronomical sky in the 912-1050 angstrom spectral region to a limiting magnitude of 19.5(superscript m) over a one degree field of view with a spatial resolution of less than 30 arc seconds. This mission was proposed to the USRA STEDI program in late 1994, and has been designed as a low cost, fast-track program for launch within 3 years. The spacecraft bus is being provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (Dulles) and since the entire payload weighs less than 100kg, it can be launched using either a Minuteman or Pegasus rocket.

  6. Joint US-USSR Long duration Antarctic Mars calibration Balloon (LAMB) mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Floyd, S. R.; Trombka, J. I.; Evans, L. G.; Starr, R.; Squyres, S. W.; Surkov, Iu. A.; Moskaleva, L. P.; Shcheglov, O.; Mitugov, A. G.; Rester, A. C.

    1991-01-01

    The Long duration Antarctic Mars calibration Balloon (LAMB) project has been established at Goddard Space Flight Center for the evaluation and cross calibration of U.S. and USSR remote sensing gamma-ray and neutron detectors. These detectors are analogs of those flown on the Soviet Phobos mission around Mars and those to be flown on the upcoming U.S. Mars Observer mission. Cosmic rays, which are normally filtered out by the atmosphere, and the earth's magnetic field, will induce gamma-ray and neutron emissions from about a half ton of simulated Mars soil aboard the gondola. The cross calibration of these instruments should greatly facilitate the data analysis from both missions and play a role in U.S.-USSR cooperation in space.

  7. The BRITE Nanosatellite Constellation Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarzenberg-Czerny, Alexander; Weiss, Werner; Moffat, Anthony; Zee, Robert E.; Rucinski, Slavek; Mochnacki, Stefan; Matthews, Jaymie; Breger, Michel; Kuschnig, Rainer; Koudelka, Otto; Orleanski, Piotr; Pamyatnykh, Alexei; Pigulski, Andrzej; Grant, Cordell

    BRITE Constellation, short for "BRIght Target Explorer Constellation," is a group of six seven-kilogram nanosatellites from Austria, Poland and Canada carrying three-centimeter aperture optical telescopes. The purpose of the mission is to photometrically measure low-level oscilla-tions and temperature variations in the sky's 286 stars brighter than visual magnitude 3.5, with unprecedented precision and time sampling not achievable through terrestrial-based methods. These stars turn out, for the most part, to be among the most luminous -either massive stars during their whole lifetimes or medium-mass stars at the very end of their nuclear burning phases. Such stars dominate the ecology of the Universe and the current massive ones are believed to represent the lower mass-range of the first stars ever formed (although long gone from the local Universe). Astronomers are eager to measure the variable behavior of lumi-nous stars in order to explore their inner workings in a unique way. BRITE Constellation will investigate the role that stellar winds play in setting up future stellar life cycles, and will measure pulsations to probe the histories and ages of luminous stars through asteroseismology. The three-axis pointing performance (1 arcminute RMS stability) of each BRITE satellite is a significant advancement by the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory over any-thing that has ever flown before on a nanosatellite, and is a critical element that enables the high precision photometry mission. The University of Vienna and FFG/ALR (Austria's space agency) are financing the development of two satellites and development is nearing completion. The Polish Academy of Sciences is preparing two additional satellites. The Canadian Space Agency is also expected to fund two satellites in the constellation. This paper will summarize the science objectives of the mission and describe the progress to date.

  8. Single-event effects experienced by astronauts and microelectronic circuits flown in space

    SciTech Connect

    McNulty, P.J.

    1996-04-01

    Models developed for explaining the light flashes experienced by astronauts on Apollo and Skylab missions were used with slight modification to explain upsets observed in microelectronic circuits. Both phenomena can be explained by the simple assumption that an event occurs whenever a threshold number of ionizations or isomerizations are generated within a sensitive volume. Evidence is consistent with the threshold being sharp in both cases, but fluctuations in the physical stimuli lead to a gradual rather than sharp increase in cross section with LET. Successful use of the model requires knowledge of the dimensions of the sensitive volume and the value of threshold. Techniques have been developed to determine these SEU parameters in modern circuits.

  9. Lunar prospector mission design and trajectory support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozier, David; Galal, Ken; Folta, David; Beckman, Mark

    1998-01-01

    The Lunar Prospector mission is the first dedicated NASA lunar mapping mission since the Apollo Orbiter program which was flown over 25 years ago. Competitively selected under the NASA Discovery Program, Lunar Prospector was launched on January 7, 1998 on the new Lockheed Martin Athena 2 launch vehicle. The mission design of Lunar Prospector is characterized by a direct minimum energy transfer trajectory to the moon with three scheduled orbit correction maneuvers to remove launch and cislunar injection errors prior to lunar insertion. At lunar encounter, a series of three lunar orbit insertion maneuvers and a small circularization burn were executed to achieve a 100 km altitude polar mapping orbit. This paper will present the design of the Lunar Prospector transfer, lunar insertion and mapping orbits, including maneuver and orbit determination strategies in the context of mission goals and constraints. Contingency plans for handling transfer orbit injection and lunar orbit insertion anomalies are also summarized. Actual flight operations results are discussed and compared to pre-launch support analysis.

  10. Changes in developmental capacity of artemia cyst and chromosomal aberrations in lettuce seeds flown aboard Salyut-7 (Biobloc III experiment)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevzgodina, V.; Kovalev, E. E.; Maximova, E. N.; Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.; Clegg, J.

    This paper gives the results of investigations performed on the first container (A) of the Biobloc III experiment, flown aboard the orbital station Salyut 7 for 40 days. The space flight resulted in a decreased developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, hit or not hit by the HZE particles. No effect was observed in cysts in bulk. A synergetic effect of microgravity and gamma pre irradiation is described. The germination of in-flight lettuce seeds was decreased. The space flight resulted also in a higher percentage of cells with chromosomal aberrations. Relations between biological response, TEL and location of HZE particles are discussed.

  11. Regulation of eIF2α phosphorylation in hindlimb-unloaded and STS-135 space-flown mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Liming; Tanjung, Nancy; Swarnkar, Gaurav; Ledet, Eric; Yokota, Hiroki

    2012-09-01

    Various environmental stresses elevate the phosphorylation level of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) and induce transcriptional activation of a set of stress responsive genes such as activating transcription factors 3 and 6 (ATF3 and ATF6), CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), and Xbp1 (X-box binding protein 1). These stress sources include radiation, oxidation, and stress to the endoplasmic reticulum, and it is recently reported that unloading by hindlimb unloading is such a stress source. No studies, however, have examined the phosphorylation level of eIF2α (eIF2α-p) using skeletal samples that have experienced microgravity in space. In this study we addressed a question: Does a mouse tibia flown in space show altered levels of eIF2α-p? To address this question, we obtained STS-135 flown samples that were harvested 4-7 h after landing. The tibia and femur isolated from hindlimb unloaded mice were employed as non-flight controls. The effects of loading were also investigated in non- flight controls. Results indicate that the level of eIF2α-p of the non-flight controls was elevated during hindlimb unloading and reduced after being released from unloading. Second, the eIF2α-p level of space-flown samples was decreased, and mechanical loading to the tibia caused the reduction of the eIF2α-p level. Third, the mRNA levels of ATF3, ATF6, and CHOP were lowered in space-flown samples as well as in the non-flight samples 4-7 h after being released from unloading. Collectively, the results herein indicated that a release from hindlimb unloading and a return to normal weight environment from space provided a suppressive effect to eIF2α-linked stress responses and that a period of 2-4 h is sufficient to induce this suppressive outcome.

  12. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  13. Cassini Maneuver Experience for the Fourth Year of the Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaquero, Mar; Hahn, Yungsun; Stumpf, Paul; Valerino, Powtawche; Wagner, Sean; Wong, Mau

    2014-01-01

    After sixteen years of successful mission operations and invaluable scientific discoveries, the Cassini orbiter continues to tour Saturn on the most complex gravity-assist trajectory ever flown. To ensure that the end-of-mission target of September 2017 is achieved, propellant preservation is highly prioritized over maneuver cycle minimization. Thus, the maneuver decision process, which includes determining whether a maneuver is performed or canceled, designing a targeting strategy and selecting the engine for execution, is being continuously re-evaluated. This paper summarizes the maneuver experience throughout the fourth year of the Solstice Mission highlighting 27 maneuvers targeted to nine Titan flybys.

  14. Detection of DNA Damage by Space Radiation in Human Fibroblasts Flown on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Gaza, Ramona; Stoffle, Nicholas; Wang, Huichen; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Space radiation consists of energetic charged particles of varying charges and energies. Exposure of astronauts to space radiation on future long duration missions to Mars, or missions back to the Moon, is expected to result in deleterious consequences such as cancer and comprised central nervous system (CNS) functions. Space radiation can also cause mutation in microorganisms, and potentially influence the evolution of life in space. Measurement of the space radiation environment has been conducted since the very beginning of the space program. Compared to the quantification of the space radiation environment using physical detectors, reports on the direct measurement of biological consequences of space radiation exposure have been limited, due primarily to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the environment. Most of the biological assays fail to detect the radiation effects at acute doses that are lower than 5 centiSieverts. In a recent study, we flew cultured confluent human fibroblasts in mostly G1 phase of the cell cycle to the International Space Station (ISS). The cells were fixed in space after arriving on the ISS for 3 and 14 days, respectively. The fixed cells were later returned to the ground and subsequently stained with the gamma-H2AX (Histone family, member X) antibody that are commonly used as a marker for DNA damage, particularly DNA double strand breaks, induced by both low-and high-linear energy transfer radiation. In our present study, the gamma-H2AX (Histone family, member X) foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. To confirm that some large track-like foci were from space radiation exposure, we also exposed, on the ground, the same type of cells to both low-and high-linear energy transfer protons, and high-linear energy transfer Fe ions. In addition, we exposed the cells to low dose rate gamma rays, in order to rule out the possibility that the large track-like foci can be induced by chronic low-linear energy transfer

  15. Some results of the oxidation investigation of copper and silver samples flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Derooij, A.

    1992-01-01

    The Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) Mission provides a unique opportunity to study the long term effects of the space environment on materials. The LDEF has been deployed in orbit on 7 April 1984 by the shuttle Challenger in an almost circular orbit with a mean altitude of 477 km and an inclination of 28.5 degrees. It was retrieved from its decayed orbit of 335 km by the shuttle Columbia on 12 January 1990 after almost 6 years in space. The LDEF is a 12-sided, 4.267 m diameter, and 9.144 m long structure. The experiments, placed on trays, are attached to the twelve sides and the two ends of the spacecraft. The LDEF was passively stabilized with one end of the spacecraft always pointing towards the earth center and one of the sides (row 9) always facing the flight direction. The materials investigated originate from the Ultra-Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment (UHCRE). The main objective is a detailed study of the charge spectra of ultraheavy cosmic-ray nuclei from zinc to uranium and beyond, using solid-state track detectors. Besides the aluminium alloy used for the experiment, UHCRE comprises several other materials. The results of space exposure for two of them, the copper grounding strips and the thermal covers (FEP Teflon/Ag/Inconel) painted black on the inner side (Chemglaze Z306), are presented.

  16. Solid film lubricants and thermal control coatings flown aboard the EOIM-3 MDA sub-experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Taylor J.; David, Kaia E.; Babel, Hank W.

    1995-01-01

    Additional experimental data were desired to support the selection of candidate thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants for the McDonnell Douglas Aerospace (MDA) Space Station hardware. The third Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions With Materials Mission (EOIM-3) flight experiment presented an opportunity to study the effects of the low Earth orbit environment on thermal control coatings and solid film lubricants. MDA provided five solid film lubricants and two anodic thermal control coatings for EOIM-3. The lubricant sample set consisted of three solid film lubricants with organic binders one solid film lubricant with an inorganic binder, and one solid film lubricant with no binder. The anodize coating sample set consisted of undyed sulfuric acid anodize and cobalt sulfide dyed sulfuric acid anodize, each on two different substrate aluminum alloys. The organic and inorganic binders in the solid film lubricants experienced erosion, and the lubricating pigments experienced oxidation. MDA is continuing to assess the effect of exposure to the low Earth orbit environment on the life and friction properties of the lubricants. Results to date support the design practice of shielding solid film lubricants from the low Earth orbit environment. Post-flight optical property analysis of the anodized specimens indicated that there were limited contamination effects and some atomic oxygen and ultraviolet radiation effects. These effects appeared to be within the values predicted by simulated ground testing and analysis of these materials, and they were different for each coating and substrate.

  17. US monkey and rat experiments flown on the Soviet Satellite Cosmos 1514

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mains, R. C. (Editor); Gomersall, E. W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    On December 14, 1983, the U.S.S.R. launched Cosmos 1514, an unmanned spacecraft carrying biological and radiation physics experiments from nine countries, including five from the United States. This was the fourth flight with U.S. experiments aboard one of the Soviet unmanned spacecraft. The Cosmos 1514 flight was limited to five days duration because it was the first nonhuman primate flight. Cosmos 1514 marked a significant departure from earlier flights both in terms of Soviet goals and the degree of cooperation between the U.S.S.R. and the United States. This flight included more than 60 experiments on fish, crawfish eggs, plants and seeds, 10 Wistar pregnant rats, and 2 young adult rhesus monkeys as human surrogates. United States specialist participated in postflight data transfer and specimen transfer, and conducted rat neonatal behavioral studies. An overview of the mission is presented focusing on preflight, on-orbit, and postflight activites pertinent to the five U.S. experiments aboard Cosmos.

  18. Experiment K-7-20: Pituitary Oxytocin and Vasopressin Content of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keil, L.; Evans, J.; Grindeland, R. (Editor); Krasnov, I.

    1994-01-01

    Pituitary levels of oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) were measured in rats exposed to 14 days of spaceflight (FLT) as well as in ground-based controls; one group synchronously maintained in flight-type cages with similar feeding schedules (SYN), one group in vivarium cages (VIV), and a group of tail suspended (SUS) animals. Flight rats had significantly less (p less than 0.05) pituitary OT and VP (4.48 +/- 0.31 and 7.48 +/- 0.53 mg hormone / mg protein, n = 5) than either the SYN (6.66 +/- 0..59 and 10.98 + 1.00, n = 5), VIV (6.14 +/- 0.40 and 10.98 +/- 0..81, n = 5) or SUS (5.73 +/- 0.24, n = 4) control groups, respectively. The reduced levels of pituitary OT and VP are similar to measurements made on rats from the previous 12.5 day Cosmos 1887 mission and appear to be a direct result of exposure to spaceflight.

  19. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  20. Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

  1. Commercial investigation results for the generic bioprocessing apparatus flown on United States Microgravity Laboratory-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stodieck, Louis S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.

    1994-01-01

    The Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (BPA) payload was developed by BioServe to support the commercial flight development needs of our specialized consortia comprised of business, academic, and government entities. The consortia have commitments to explore commercial opportunities in bioprocessing, biomedical models, and closed agricultural systems. In addition, some members of BioServe have interests in the development and/or qualification of enabling flight hardware used in life sciences space flight testing. Some business and academic entities have interests in more than one of these consortia. To aid in payload development, flight, and analysis, each consortium member contributes resources ranging from proprietary expertise and materials, to hardware and cash. Professionals from business, academia, and government often interact with each other via graduate research assistants who do much of the 'hands-on' payload preparation and subsequent data analyses. The GBA supported research, testing, and development activities for each different BioServe consortium. It produced an environment in which professionals from diverse backgrounds came together with a single focus. And, it provided a truly novel learning environment for a youthful new cadre of space professionals committed to the exploration of commercial opportunities presented by space. Since the GBA supported a large number of different experiments, this paper briefly describes the payload characteristics and the essential operations of the payload. A summary of the experiments is presented. Finally, a few of the experiments are described in detail highlighting some novel effects of space flight on life science systems. Portions of the reported work have or will appear in appropriate archival journals as cited in the bibliography. In several instances, data collected from USML-1 have been supplemented with related data collected on more recent STS missions.

  2. Marshall Space Flight Center's role in EASE/ACCESS mission management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, Gerald W.

    1987-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Spacelab Payload Project Office was responsible for the mission management and development of several successful payloads. Two recent space construction experiments, the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS), were combined into a payload managed by the center. The Ease/ACCESS was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Mission 61-B. The EASE/ACCESS experiments were the first structures assembled in space, and the method used to manage this successful effort will be useful for future space construction missions. The MSFC mission management responsibilities for the EASE/ACCESS mission are addressed and how the lessons learned from the mission can be applied to future space construction projects are discussed.

  3. Aerobot measurements successfully obtained during Solo Spirit Balloon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avidson, Raymond E.; Bowman, Judd D.; Guinness, Edward A.; Johnson, Sarah S.; Slavney, S. H.; Stein, Thomas C.; Bachelder, Aaron D.; Cameron, Jonathan M.; Cutts, James A.; Ivlev, Robert V.; Kahn, Ralph A.

    Robotic balloons, also known as aerobots, have become candidates for collecting atmospheric data and detailed surface observations of Venus, Mars, and Titan. A mission to Venus over a decade ago used two of them. Their inclusion last year in attempts by a balloonist to circumnavigate the Earth aptly demonstrated their utility for remote sensing and in situ observations of planetary atmospheres.To simulate aspects of an aerobot mission, a small payload to measure local atmospheric conditions and balloon position and velocity was included on Solo Spirit “Round the World” flights during January and August of last year. These missions, flown in Roziere balloons, were attempts by Steve Fossett to become the first person to circumnavigate the globe in a balloon without stopping. Neither attempt was successful, but the aerobot came through with flying colors.

  4. An Examination and Comparative Study of Job Characteristics Levels and Internal Work Motivation Among U.S. Air Force Navigators Based on Aircraft and Type of Mission Flown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    the onset of the Great Depression, a second school of thought called Human Relations Theory began to evolve. Associated with Elton Mayo and his...Maslow’s theory and some of the wo;rks of Elton Mayo , Douglas McGregor developed the well-known "Theory X-Theory Y" framework of motivational behavior

  5. Ultraviolet imaging detectors for the GOLD mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegmund, O. H. W.; McPhate, J.; Curtis, T.; Jelinsky, S.; Vallerga, J. V.; Hull, J.; Tedesco, J.

    2016-07-01

    The GOLD mission is a NASA Explorer class ultraviolet Earth observing spectroscopy instrument that will be flown on a telecommunications satellite in geostationary orbit in 2018. Microchannel plate detectors operating in the 132 nm to 162 nm FUV bandpass with 2D imaging cross delay line readouts and electronics have been built for each of the two spectrometer channels for GOLD. The detectors are "open face" with CsI photocathodes, providing 30% efficiency at 130.4 nm and 15% efficiency at 160.8 nm. These detectors with their position encoding electronics provide 600 x 500 FWHM resolution elements and are photon counting, with event handling rates of > 200 KHz. The operational details of the detectors and their performance are discussed.

  6. Ribbon Synaptic Plasticity in Gravity Sensors of Rats Flown on Neurolab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.; Varelas, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    Previous spaceflight experiments (Space Life Sciences-1 and -2 (SLS-1 and SLS-2)) first demonstrated the extraordinary ability of gravity sensor hair cells to change the number, kind, and distribution of connections (synapses) they make to other cells while in weightlessness. The number of synapses in hair cells in one part of the inner ear (the utricle) was markedly elevated on flight day 13 (FD13) of SLS-2. Unanswered questions, however, were whether these increases in synapses occur rapidly and whether they remain stable in weightlessness. The answers have implications for long-duration human space travel. If gravity sensors can adapt quickly, crews may be able to move easily between different gravity levels, since the sensors will adapt rapidly to weightlessness on the spacecraft and then back to Earth's gravity when the mission ends. This ability to adapt is also important for recovery from balance disorders. To further our understanding of this adaptive potential (a property called neuronal synaptic plasticity), the present Neurolab research was undertaken. Our experiment examined whether: (a) increases in synapses would remain stable throughout the flight, (b) changes in the number of synapses were uniform across different portions of the gravity sensors (the utricle and saccule), and (c) synaptic changes were similar for the different types of hair cells (Type I and Type II). Utricular and saccular maculae (the gravity-sensing portions of the inner ear) were collected in flight from rats on FD2 and FD14. Samples were also collected from control rats on the ground. Tissues were prepared for ultrastructural study. Hair cells and their ribbon synapses were examined in a transmission electron microscope. Synapses were counted in all hair cells in 50 consecutive sections that crossed the striolar zone. Results indicate that utricular hair cell synapses initially increased significantly in number in both types of hair cells by FD2. Counts declined by FD14, but

  7. Final results from the space dust (SPADUS) instrument flown aboard the earth-orbiting ARGOS spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzzolino, A. J.; Economou, T. E.; McKibben, R. B.; Simpson, J. A.; BenZvi, S.; Blackburn, L.; Voss, H. D.; Gursky, H.

    2005-08-01

    over the 30-month mission shows that PVDF-based dust instruments utilizing two planar arrays of PVDF dust sensors in a TOF arrangement - can provide useful measurements of particle velocity, mass distribution, flux, trajectory and particle orbital elements.

  8. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  9. Bringing Space Science to the Undergraduate Classroom: NASA's USIP Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, D.; Christian, J. A.; Keesee, A. M.; Spencer, E. A.; Gross, J.; Lusk, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    As part of its participation in NASA's Undergraduate Student Instrument Project (USIP), a team of engineering and physics students at West Virginia University (WVU) built a series of sounding rocket and balloon missions. The first rocket and balloon missions were flown near-simultaneously in a campaign on June 26, 2014 (image). The second sounding rocket mission is scheduled for October 5, 2015. Students took a course on space science in spring 2014, and followup courses in physics and aerospace engineering departments have been developed since then. Guest payloads were flown from students affiliated with WV Wesleyan College, NASA's IV&V Facility, and the University of South Alabama. Students specialized in electrical and aerospace engineering, and space physics topics. They interacted regularly with NASA engineers, presented at telecons, and prepared reports. A number of students decided to pursue internships and/or jobs related to space science and technology. Outreach to the campus and broader community included demos and flight projects. The physics payload includes plasma density and temperature measurements using a Langmuir and a triple probe; plasma frequency measurements using a radio sounder (WVU) and an impedance probe (U.S.A); and a magnetometer (WVWC). The aerospace payload includes an IMU swarm, a GPS experiment (with TEC capability); a cubesat communications module (NASA IV&V), and basic flight dynamics. Acknowledgments: staff members at NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and at the Orbital-ATK Rocket Center, WV.

  10. Dominant lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster natural populations flown on board ISS.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna

    The resistance to mutagenic impacts represents an important issue of manned space missions. However the reasons of its individual variability as well as the factors which could induce mutations in space flight are not fully understood. Drosophila studies accomplished by several research teams at real space flights, revealed pronounced increase of mutations in somatic and reproductive cells, nonetheless, quite an opposite spaceflight effects also occurred, i.e., mei-41 laboratory strain showed postflight mutation rates lower than that in ground control. In order to monitor the influence of space flight on the mutational process, 4 series of space experiment with D. melanogaster wild type populations were performed at International Space Station (ISS). The appliance “Drosophila-2” used for breeding of drosophila in spaceflight conditions, enabled to conduct synchronous studies with two samples of fly populations. First instar drosophila larvae were placed into the experimental appliance 12 hours before the start of transport spacecraft. The duration of experiments was 7.9 through 19.7 days. In 19.7-day experiment, two generations of the flies were raised during the space flight, and then delivered to the earth. The frequency of dominant lethal mutations (DLM) was evaluated as the percentage of embryonic death in the progeny of experimental drosophila samples. DLM tests in VV-09 and Chas-09 natural populations, performed after the exposure to 10.9-day flight, showed the increase of DLM rate in Chas-09 (0.077 in flight series vs. 0.43 in earth-based control) while post-flight DLM value in VV-09 did not diverge from on-earth sample (0.025 and 0.027 correspondingly). The same results for VV-09 were obtained after the 14.7-day and 7.9-day flights with the only exception: 7.9-day flight experiment employed DLM measurements in two VV-09 spaceflight samples, differing by the age of the flies, and the above DLM rates were detected in “younger” VV-09 sample only. DLM

  11. STS-76 Mission Specialist Linda Godwin suits up

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-76 Mission Specialist Linda M. Godwin is donning her launch/entry suit in the Operations and Checkout Building with assistance from a suit technician. Godwin has flown in space twice before, on STS-37 and STS-59, to which fellow STS-76 crewmates Kevin Chilton and Michael 'Rich' Clifford also were assigned. Once suitup activities are completed the six-member STS-76 flight crew will depart for Launch Pad 39B, where the Space Shuttle Atlantis is undergoing final preparations for liftoff during an approximately seven-minute launch window opening around 3:13 a.m. EST, March 22.

  12. The Magnetosphere Imager Mission Concept Definition Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Herrmann, M.; Alexander, Reggie; Beabout, Brent; Blevins, Harold; Bridge, Scott; Burruss, Glenda; Buzbee, Tom; Carrington, Connie; Chandler, Holly; Chu, Phillip; Chubb, Steve; Cushman, Paul; DeSanctis, Carmine; Edge, Ted; Freestone, Todd; French, Ray; Gallagher, Dennis; Hajos, Greg; Herr, Joel

    1997-01-01

    For three decades, magnetospheric field and plasma measurements have been made by diverse instruments flown on spacecraft in many different orbits, widely separated in space and time, and under various solar and magnetospheric conditions. Scientists have used this information to piece together an intricate, yet incomplete view of the magnetosphere. A simultaneous global view, using various light wavelengths and energetic neutral atoms, could reveal exciting new data and help explain complex magnetospheric processes, thus providing us with a clear picture of this region of space. The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is responsible for defining the Magnetosphere Imager mission which will study this region of space. A core instrument complement of three imagers (with the potential addition of one or more mission enhancing instrument) will fly in an elliptical polar Earth orbit with an apogee of 44,600 kilometers and a perigee of 4,800 km. This report will address the mission objectives, spacecraft design concepts, and the results of the MSFC concept definition study.

  13. The Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer and Laser Altimeter on STS-85 (an Aircraft Style Experiment Flown in Space)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Improvements in the remote sensing of clouds from space in the future will come from instruments with higher spatial and spectral resolution on more platforms and supported by active sounding. The space shuttle hitchhiker system allows new measurements to be prototyped in space with costs, operating flexibility and data volumes similar to aircraft experiments. The Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer and Shuttle Laser Altimeter hitchhiker experiment was flown in 1997. The experiment tested the use of uncooled thermal infrared imaging, laser cloud altitude measurements and high spatial resolution, tri-spectral sensing of cloud particle size and phase. A 1/4 km resolution, fifty orbit data set was obtained from STS-85. The presentation will focus on the use of the shuttle as an experiment platform and cover possible transition to the space station in the future.

  14. Results on artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    SciTech Connect

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of space flight factors, in particular the heavy ion component of cosmic rays, on dormant stages of life forms were investigated as part of the Biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 biosatellite. Artemia cysts and seeds of tobacco and lettuce plants were placed in tubes and in monolayers sandwiched between layers of visual particle track detectors. Although Artemia cysts exposed in the dry state did not differ from ground controls, hydrated cysts exhibited a slight decrease in hatchability and reduced (C-14)O2 incorporation and protein and nucleic acid synthesis. For cysts held in the monolayers, hits by HZE particles were observed to stimulate emergence, hatching and survival. Higher proportions of chromosomal aberrations were found in lettuce seeds hit by HZE particles, while space flight produced a stimulatory effect on both germination rate and abnormality frequency in both hit and nonhit tobacco seeds. 9 references.

  15. Results on Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds in the biobloc 4 experiment flown aboard the Soviet biosatellite Cosmos 1129

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaubin, Y.; Planel, H.; Gasset, G.; Pianezzi, B.; Delpoux, M.; Clegg, J.; Kovalev, E. E.; Nevzgodina, L. V.; Maximova, E. N.; Miller, A. T.

    Artemia cysts, lettuce and tobacco seeds were flown aboard the Cosmos 1129 for 19 days. A correlative method was used in order to determine the passage of cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles) through the biological test objects. This space flight resulted in a decrease on hatchability, nucleic acid and protein synthesis in hydrated Artemia cysts. HZE particle effects on plant cellular chromosomes are confirmed. In tobacco seeds, a stimulating effect on germination rate and a higher frequency of abnormalities were observed. Dormant biological objects are a very suitable material to study cosmic ray effects: these objects can be arranged in monolayers and sandwiched between visual track detectors in order to determine the passage of the cosmic heavy ions (HZE particles). On the other hand this method allows us to study effects of microgravity and those of the protonic component of cosmic rays in the objects not hit by the HZE particles.

  16. An Examination of Radiation Induced Tensile Failure of Stressed and Unstressed Polymer Films Flown on MISSE-6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Sharon K.; Sechkar, Edward A.

    2012-01-01

    Thin film polymers are used in many spacecraft applications for thermal control (multilayer insulation and sunshields), as lightweight structural members (solar array blankets, inflatable/deployable structures) and have been proposed for propulsion (solar sails). Polymers in these applications are often under a tensile load and are directly exposed to the space environment, therefore it is important to understand the effect of stress in combination with the environment on the durability of these polymer films. The purpose of the Polymer Film Tensile Experiment, flown as part of Materials International Space Station Experiment 6 (MISSE 6), was to expose a variety of polymer films to the low Earth orbital environment under both relaxed and tension conditions. This paper describes the results of post flight tensile testing of these samples.

  17. Detection of DNA damage by space radiation in human fibroblast cells flown on the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Honglu; Feiveson, Alan; Karouia, Fathi; Stodieck, Louis; Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Although charged particles in space have been detected with radiation detectors on board the spacecraft since the early discovery of the Van Allen Belts, reports on the effects of direct exposure to space radiation in biological systems have been limited. Measurement of biological effects of space radiation has been difficult due to the low dose and low dose rate nature of the radiation environment, and the difficulty in separating the radiation effects from microgravity and other space environmental factors. In astronauts, only a few changes, such as increased chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes and early onset of cataracts, attributed primarily to the exposure to space radiation. In a recent experiment, human fibroblast cells were flown on the International Space Station (ISS). Cells were kept at 370C in space and fixed on Days 3 and 14 after reaching orbit. After returning to the ground, the fixed cells were analyzed for phosphorylation of a histone protein H2AX by immunofluorescent staining of cells, which is a widely used biomarker for DNA double strand breaks. The 3-dimensional γg-H2AX foci were captured with a laser confocal microscope. Quantitative analysis revealed a small fraction of foci that were larger and displayed a track pattern in the flight samples in comparison to the ground controls. To confirm that the foci data from the flight study was actually induced from space radiation exposure, human fibroblast cells were exposed to low- and high-LET protons and high-LET Fe ions on the ground. High-LET protons and Fe ions were found to induce foci of the pattern that were observed in the flown cells.

  18. Histomorphometric study of tibia of rats exposed aboard American Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durnova, G.; Kaplansky, A.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1996-01-01

    Tibial bones of rats flown onboard the SLS-2 shuttle mission were studied. Trabecular bone parameters were investigated, including growth plate height, trabecular bone volume, thickness and number, and trabecular separation in the primary and secondary spongiosa. Several histomorphometric changes were noted, allowing researchers to conclude that exposure to microgravity resulted in osteopenia of spongy bone of tibial metaphysis. The roles of bone formation and bone resorption are discussed.

  19. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  20. Bone Metabolism on ISS Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. M.; Heer, M. A.; Shackelford, L. C.; Zwart, S. R.

    2014-01-01

    Spaceflight-induced bone loss is associated with increased bone resorption (1, 2), and either unchanged or decreased rates of bone formation. Resistive exercise had been proposed as a countermeasure, and data from bed rest supported this concept (3). An interim resistive exercise device (iRED) was flown for early ISS crews. Unfortunately, the iRED provided no greater bone protection than on missions where only aerobic and muscular endurance exercises were available (4, 5). In 2008, the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), a more robust device with much greater resistance capability, (6, 7) was launched to the ISS. Astronauts who had access to ARED, coupled with adequate energy intake and vitamin D status, returned from ISS missions with bone mineral densities virtually unchanged from preflight (7). Bone biochemical markers showed that while the resistive exercise and adequate energy consumption did not mitigate the increased bone resorption, bone formation was increased (7, 8). The typical drop in circulating parathyroid hormone did not occur in ARED crewmembers. In 2014, an updated look at the densitometry data was published. This study confirmed the initial findings with a much larger set of data. In 42 astronauts (33 male, 9 female), the bone mineral density response to flight was the same for men and women (9), and those with access to the ARED did not have the typical decrease in bone mineral density that was observed in early ISS crewmembers with access to the iRED (Figure 1) (7). Biochemical markers of bone formation and resorption responded similarly in men and women. These data are encouraging, and represent the first in-flight evidence in the history of human space flight that diet and exercise can maintain bone mineral density on long-duration missions. However, the maintenance of bone mineral density through bone remodeling, that is, increases in both resorption and formation, may yield a bone with strength characteristics different from those

  1. Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) a Novel Approach to Meet Nasa's Most Demanding Reentry Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Ellerby, Donald T.; Gasch, Matt; Ventkatapathy, Ethiraj; Beerman, Adam; Boghozian, Tane; Gonzales, Gregory; Feldman, Jay; Peterson, Keith; Prabhu, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    NASA's future robotic missions to Venus and other planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heatshield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic is a robust TPS, however, its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high fluxes, pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This presentation will summarize the maturation of the WTPS project.

  2. Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) a Novel Approach to Meet NASA's Most Demanding Reentry Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackpoole, Mairead

    2014-01-01

    NASA's future robotic missions to Venus and outer planets, namely, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, result in extremely high entry conditions that exceed the capabilities of current mid-density ablators (PICA or Avcoat). Therefore mission planners assume the use of a fully dense carbon phenolic heat shield similar to what was flown on Pioneer Venus and Galileo. Carbon phenolic (CP) is a robust Thermal Protection System (TPS) however its high density and thermal conductivity constrain mission planners to steep entries, high heat fluxes, pressures and short entry durations, in order for CP to be feasible from a mass perspective. The high entry conditions pose certification challenges in existing ground based test facilities. In 2012 the Game Changing Development Program in NASA's Space Technology Mission Directorate funded NASA ARC to investigate the feasibility of a Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) to meet the needs of NASA's most challenging entry missions. This presentation will summarize maturation of the WTPS project.

  3. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  4. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  5. SiC optics for EUV, UV, and visible space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Joseph L.

    2003-02-01

    An overview of silicon carbide (SiC) materials is provided, focusing on reaction bonded (RB) SiC and its properties. The Miniature Infrared Camera and Spectrometer (MICAS) and Advanced Land Imager (ALI) SiC space instruments produced by SSGPO and flown under NASA's New Millennium Program are described, and some of the mission requirements associated with UV and extreme UV (EUV) applications are reviewed. Manufacturing options associated with SiC reflectors are reviewed and the optical performance demonstrated with these materials is presented. In order to review the suitability of these materials to UV and EUV missions microroughness and surface scatter results are shown.

  6. A Collaborative Decision Environment to Support UAV Wildfire Monitoring Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, C. R.; Enomoto, F. Y.; D'Ortenzio, M. V.; Nguyen, Q. B.

    2006-12-01

    NASA developed the Collaborative Decision Environment (CDE), the ground-based component of its Intelligent Mission Management (IMM) technology for science missions employing long endurance unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). The CDE was used to support science mission planning and decision-making for a NASA- and U.S. Forest Service-sponsored mission to monitor wildfires in the western United States using a multi- spectral imager flown onboard the General Atomics Altair UAV in summer of 2006. The CDE is a ground-based system that provides the mission/science team with situational awareness, collaboration, and decision tools. The CDE is used for pre-flight planning, mission monitoring, and visualization of acquired data. It integrates external data products used for planning and executing a mission, such as weather, large wildfire locations, satellite-derived fire detection data, temporarily restricted airspace, and satellite imagery. While a prototype CDE was developed as a Java-based client/server application in 2004-2005, the team investigated the use of Google Earth to take advantage of its 3-D visualization capabilities, friendly user interface, and enhanced graphics performance. External data is acquired via the Internet by leveraging established and emerging Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards and is re-formatted into the Keyhole Markup Language (KML) specification used by Google Earth. Aircraft flight position and sensor data products are relayed from the instrument ground station to CDE servers where they are made available to users. An instant messaging chat server is used to facilitate real-time communication between remote users. This paper will present an overview of the CDE system architecture, and discuss how science user input was crucial to shaping and developing the system. Examples from the UAV mission will be used to illustrate the presentation. Plans for future development work to improve mission operations, such as integration with

  7. Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science, Mission 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craven, Paul D. (Editor); Torr, Marsha R. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The first Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission, planned for late 1990, includes experiments in four areas: Atmospheric Science, Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, and Astronomy. The atmospheric science investigations will study the composition of the atmosphere in the stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere. The solar physics investigations will measure the total energy output of the sun. The space plasma physics investigations will study the charged particle and plasma environment of the earth. The astronomy investigation will study astronomical sources of radiation in the ultraviolet wavelengths that are inaccessible to observers on earth. Most of the experimental equipment has been flown before on one of the Spacelab missions. Brief descriptions of the experiments are given.

  8. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  9. 14 CFR Appendix A to Part 417 - Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flight Safety Analysis Methodologies and Products for a Launch Vehicle Flown With a Flight Safety System A Appendix A to Part 417 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH SAFETY Pt. 417, App....

  10. New sonic shockwave multi-element sensors mounted on a small airfoil flown on F-15B testbed aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    An experimental device to pinpoint the location of a shockwave that develops in an aircraft flying at transonic and supersonic speeds was recently flight-tested at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The shock location sensor, developed by TAO Systems, Hampton, Va., utilizes a multi-element hot-film sensor array along with a constant-voltage anemometer and special diagnostic software to pinpoint the exact location of the shockwave and its characteristics as it develops on an aircraft surface. For this experiment, the 45-element sensor was mounted on the small Dryden-designed airfoil shown in this illustration. The airfoil was attached to the Flight Test Fixture mounted underneath the fuselage of Dryden's F-15B testbed aircraft. Tests were flown at transonic speeds of Mach 0.7 to 0.9, and the device isolated the location of the shock wave to within a half-inch. Application of this technology could assist designers of future supersonic aircraft in improving the efficiency of engine air inlets by controlling the shockwave, with a related improvement in aircraft performance and fuel economy.

  11. Post-Flight Analysis of Selected Fluorocarbon and Other Thin Film Polymer Specimens Flown on MISSE-5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeGroh, Kim; Finckenor, Miria; Minton, Tim; Brunsvold, Amy; Pippin, Gary

    2007-01-01

    Twenty thin film specimens were flown on M1SSE-5 as a cooperative effort between several organizations. This presentation will report results of initial inspections and post-flight measurements of the optical properties and recession of these materials due to the approx.13 month exposure period on the exterior of the International Space Station. These specimens were located on the "anti-solar" side of the MISSE-5 container and received a low number of Equivalent Sun Hours of solar UV exposure. Profilometry and/or ATF measurements will be conducted to determine thickness changes and atomic oxygen-induced recession rates Six of the specimens were covered with thin Kapton films, 0.1 and 0.3 mil in thickness. The 0.1 mil Kapton was almost completely eroded, suggesting that the atomic oxygen fluence is <8 x 10(exp 19) atoms/sq cm, similar to levels experienced during Space Shuttle materials experiments in the 1980's and 1990's. A comparison of results from MISSE-5 and Space Shuttle experiments will be included for those materials common to both the short and long-term exposures.

  12. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  13. Space Interferometry Mission starlight and metrology subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ames, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Stephanie D.; Calhoon, Stuart J.; Kvamme, Eric T.; Mason, James E.; Oseas, Jeffrey M.; Pryor, Mark; Schaechter, David B.; Stubbs, David M.

    2003-02-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM), planned for launch in 2009, will measure the positions of celestial objects to an unprecedented accuracy of 4.0 microarcseconds. In order to achieve this accuracy, which represents an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous astrometric measurements, a ten-meter baseline interferometer will be flown in space. NASA challenges JPL and its industrial partners, Lockheed Martin and TRW, to develop an affordable mission. This challenge will be met using a combination of existing designs and new technology. Performance and affordability must be balanced with a cost-conscious Systems Engineering approach to design and implementation trades. This paper focuses on the Lockheed Martin-led Starlight (STL) and Metrology (MET) subsystems within the main instrument of SIM. Starlight is collected by 35cm diameter telescopes to form fringes on detectors. To achieve the stated accuracy, the position of these white-light fringes must be measured to 10-9 of a wavelength of visible light. The STL Subsystem consists of siderostats, telescopes, fast steering mirrors, roof mirrors, optical delay lines and beam combiners. The MET Subsystem is used to measure very precisely the locations of the siderostats with respect to one another as well as to measure the distance traveled by starlight from the siderostat mirrors and reference corner cubes through the system to a point very close to the detectors inside the beam combiners. The MET subsystem consists of beam launchers, double and triple corner cubes, and a laser distribution system.

  14. Alterations of leaf cell ultrastructures and AFLP DNA profiles in Earth-grown tomato plants propagated from long-term six years Mir-flown seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Min; Xue, Huai; Pan, Yi; Zhang, Chunhua; Lu, Jinying

    Leaf cell ultrastructures and DNA variations in the firstand the second-generation of Earthgrown tomato (Lycopersicon esculentun Mill) plants that had been endured a long-term six years spaceflight in the Mir were compared to their ground-based control plants, under observations with a Transmission Electron Microscope and the Amplification Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. For alterations in the morphological ultrastructures, one plant among the 11 first-generation plants generated from 30 Mir-flown seeds had a three-layered palisade cell structure, while other 10 first-generation plants and all ground-based controls had one-layered palisade cell structure in leaves. Starch grains were larger and in clusters, numbers of starch grains increased in the chloroplasts in the Mir-flown plants. Leaf cells became contracted and deformed, and cell shape patterns were different in the Mir-flown plants. For the leaf genomic DNA alterations, 34 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 1.32% polymorphism among 2582 DNA bands in the first-generation Mir-flown plants. Band types in the spaceflight treated plants were also different from those in the ground-based control. Of 11 survived first-generation plants, 7 spaceflight treated plants (Plant Nos. 1-6 and No. 9) had a same 7 polymorphic bands and a same 0.27%DNA mutation. The DNA mutation rate was greatest in Plants No.10 and No.7 (0.90% and 0.94%), less in Plant No.11 (0.31%) and least in Plant No.8 (0.20%). For the 38 send-generation plants propagated from the No. 5 Mir-flown seed, 6 DNA bands were polymorphic with a 0.23% polymorphism among 2564 amplified DNA bands. Among those 38 second-generation plants amplified by primer pair (E4: ACC, M8: CTT), one DNA band disappeared in 29 second-generation plants and in the original Mir-flown No. 5 plant, compared to the ground-base controls. Among the 38 second-generation plants generated from the Mir-flown No. 5 seed, the DNA band types of 29 second-generation plants were

  15. Lunar Simulants, Analogues, and Standards: Needs and Realities for Mission Technologies Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibille, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Integration of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) capabilities into missions present both challenges as well as benefits for future missions to the Moon and Mars. However, since ISRU systems and capabilities have not flown, mission planners have been hesitant to include ISRU capabilities in mission critical roles, thereby significantly reducing the benefits that ISRU can provide in mission mass and cost reductions. For ISRU systems to provide products and services to 'customers' such as life support, propulsion, and power systems, close development of requirements, hardware, and operations between ISRU and these systems are required. To address these development and incorporation challenges, NASA and csA initiated a series of analog field test demonstrations at sites in Hawaii. Two tests completed in November of 2008 and February of 2010 have demonstrate all the critical steps in operating ISRU systems on the lunar surface at relevant mission scales as well as integration with power and propulsion systems. The third field test planned for July 2012 will demonstrate that a mission to the lunar poles to locate and characterize ice and other volatiles is possible in a highly integrated mission with multiple space agencies. These analog field tests have shown that not only are ISRU systems feasible at relevant mission scales, that they can be successfully integrated into mission architectures.

  16. Autonomous and Autonomic Systems: A Paradigm for Future Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truszkowski, Walter F.; Hinchey, Michael G.; Rash, James L.; Rouff, Christopher A.

    2004-01-01

    NASA increasingly will rely on autonomous systems concepts, not only in the mission control centers on the ground, but also on spacecraft and on rovers and other assets on extraterrestrial bodies. Automomy enables not only reduced operations costs, But also adaptable goal-driven functionality of mission systems. Space missions lacking autonomy will be unable to achieve the full range of advanced mission objectives, given that human control under dynamic environmental conditions will not be feasible due, in part, to the unavoidably high signal propagation latency and constrained data rates of mission communications links. While autonomy cost-effectively supports accomplishment of mission goals, autonomicity supports survivability of remote mission assets, especially when human tending is not feasible. Autonomic system properties (which ensure self-configuring, self-optimizing self-healing, and self-protecting behavior) conceptually may enable space missions of a higher order into any previously flown. Analysis of two NASA agent-based systems previously prototyped, and of a proposed future mission involving numerous cooperating spacecraft, illustrates how autonomous and autonomic system concepts may be brought to bear on future space missions.

  17. BRRISON Mission Design and Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Malley, Terence; Kremic, T.; Adams, D.; Arnold, S.; Cheng, A.

    2013-10-01

    In September 2012, the comet C/2012 S1 “ISON” was discovered by Russian amateur astronomers. A team consisting of personnel from Glenn Research Center (GRC) Space Science Project Office, the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (APL), and the Southwest Research Institute (SWRI) was established to identify the science return on a high altitude balloon mission to observe ISON, and develop a plan based on re-using most of the hardware from the Stratospheric Terahertz Observatory (STO). The team determined that measuring the comet’s H20/CO2 ratio with an infra-red Camera would be a high-value and unique scientific contribution of a balloon borne payload. The BRRISON scientific payload consists of a heritage 80-cm telescope, a near-ultraviolet visible optical bench and instruments, and an infrared optical bench and instruments. The telescope, which has flown on prior balloon missions, consists of a light-weighted f/1.5 hyperboloid 80 cm diameter primary and a secondary mirror to provide an f/17 beam. The near ultra-violet and visible cameras and associated instruments are being integrated to an optics bench by SwRI. These instruments consist of a fine steering mirror (FSM) and a CMOS high rate camera to provide sub-arcsec pointing, and a CCD camera for low noise science operation, and a dichroic for splitting the f/17 beam between the two cameras. The infrared optics bench and instruments consist of an optics bench, re-imaging optics and cold stop, filter wheel and filters, and an infrared camera that is sensitive over the required wavelengths of 2.5 - 5 microns. The IR optics bench and instruments will be enclosed in an aluminum housing, which will be cooled to reduce the thermal background contribution to the IR signal. The BRRISON gondola is composed of a metal frame that carries and protects the science payload and subsystems and is the structural interface with the balloon flight train. They are composed of a Command & Control system, a Pointing

  18. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  19. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  20. Spacecraft design considerations for an Inner Magnetosphere Imager mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrmann, Melody C.; Johnson, Charles L.

    1992-01-01

    Imaging the Earth's magnetosphere from space will enable scientists to better understand the global shape of the inner magnetosphere, its components and processes. The proposed Inner Magnetosphere Imager (IMI) mission will obtain the first simultaneous images of the component regions of the inner magnetosphere and will enable scientists to relate these global images to internal and external influences as well as local observations. NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is performing a concept definition study of the proposed mission. As currently envisioned, the baseline mission calls for an instrument complement of approximately seven imagers to be flown in an elliptical Earth orbit with an apogee of seven Earth Radii (RE). Several spacecraft concepts have been examined for the mission. The baseline concept utilizes a spinning spacecraft with a despun platform, the second uses a three-axis stabilized spacecraft with a spinning platform, while the third option splits the instruments onto two small satellites; a spinning spacecraft and a complementary three-axis stabilized spacecraft. This paper will address the mission objectives, the rationale for using proven spacecraft designs, and the preliminary concept definition study team results for all three options.

  1. Addressing critical astrophysical problems with NASA's small explorer (SMEX) missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guinan, Edward F.; Ribas, Ignasi

    The Small Explorer (SMEX) program of NASA was initiated during the late 1980s to provide frequent, cost-effective opportunities to carry out sharply focused and relatively space science missions. The SMEX program together with the Mid-size Explorer (MIDEX) program were timely reactions to the increasingly long development times and cost over-runs for a number of large space missions during the previous decades. SMEX spacecrafts are typically 180 to 250 kg with orbit-averaged power consumptions of 50-200 watts. Frequently innovative or novel technologies and instrumentation are employed to achieve important results. The current cost cap (which includes cost of launch vehicle, development and operations) is 75M (Fiscal Year 2000 US). For comparison, the cost cap of the MIDEX mission is $135M. Both SMEX and MIDEX are solicited Principal Investigator (PI) missions that are peer-reviewed before selection. The SMEX program is supported by the NASA's Office of Space Research (OSS) and a wide spectrum of science is addressed. The themes include Origin and Evolution of Stars and Planets, the Structure and Evolution of the Universe, and the Sun-Earth Connection. Within these major themes, the missions may also focus on fundamental laws of physics as they relate to astrophysics and cosmology. So far, seven SMEX missions have been flown or are approved for flight within one or two years. In this paper, the past, current, and possible future SMEX missions are discussed and evaluated. Some highlights and important scientific returns from the current and approved missions are also included.

  2. The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission Operations Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gal-Edd, Jonathan S.; Cheuvront, Allan

    2015-01-01

    OSIRIS-REx is an acronym that captures the scientific objectives: Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, and Security-Regolith Explorer. OSIRIS-REx will thoroughly characterize near-Earth asteroid Bennu (Previously known as 1019551999 RQ36). The OSIRIS-REx Asteroid Sample Return Mission delivers its science using five instruments and radio science along with the Touch-And-Go Sample Acquisition Mechanism (TAGSAM). All of the instruments and data analysis techniques have direct heritage from flown planetary missions. The OSIRIS-REx mission employs a methodical, phased approach to ensure success in meeting the mission's science requirements. OSIRIS-REx launches in September 2016, with a backup launch period occurring one year later. Sampling occurs in 2019. The departure burn from Bennu occurs in March 2021. On September 24, 2023, the Sample Return Capsule (SRC) lands at the Utah Test and Training Range (UTTR). Stardust heritage procedures are followed to transport the SRC to Johnson Space Center, where the samples are removed and delivered to the OSIRIS-REx curation facility. After a six-month preliminary examination period the mission will produce a catalog of the returned sample, allowing the worldwide community to request samples for detailed analysis. Traveling and returning a sample from an Asteroid that has not been explored before requires unique operations consideration. The Design Reference Mission (DRM) ties together spacecraft, instrument and operations scenarios. Asteroid Touch and Go (TAG) has various options varying from ground only to fully automated (natural feature tracking). Spacecraft constraints such as thermo and high gain antenna pointing impact the timeline. The mission is sensitive to navigation errors, so a late command update has been implemented. The project implemented lessons learned from other "small body" missions. The key lesson learned was 'expect the unexpected' and implement planning tools early in the lifecycle

  3. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  4. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  5. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  6. Towards the new global altimetric gravity field from five years of Cryosat-2 geodetic mission altimetry (DTU14).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltazar Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Jain, Maulik; Knudsen, Per

    2015-04-01

    Data from the Cryosat-2 (369 days repeat mission) as well as Jason-1 end-of-life mission are the first new "geodetic mission" data sets released in nearly 2 decades since the ERS-1 and Geosat geodetic missions were conducted in the early 90'th and late 80'th. Besides providing high quality sea surface height observations, the Cryosat-2 is close to completing its fifth cycle of 369 days. This opens for new ways of using "pseudo" repeat Geodetic mission data. One further advantage of the Cryosat-2 is its ability of provide new accurate sea surface height information for gravity field determination in the northernmost part of the Arctic Ocean where no altimeters have measured before. We aim at releasing the DTU14 global marine gravity field, based on one five years of retracked data from each of the four geodetic missions (ERS-1, GEOSAT, CryoSat-2 and Jason-1) later in 2014. For Cryosat-2 we are testing an new combined empirical/physical retracking system that uses physical retracking of the LRM data using a reduced parameter system in combination with empirical retracking of the SAR and SAR-In data in particularly high latitude regions. For Jason-1 we apply a two-step retracking procedure using a tailored waveform smoothing technique to smooth the noisy part of the Jason-1 waveform to obtain more stable and hence more accurate sea surface height estimates.

  7. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  8. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  9. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  10. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  11. Applications Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, C. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the plans of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications for the Shuttle/Spacelab missions. It is reported that the current program contains dedicated low-gravity mission (Spacelab 3 mission) and several minor missions planned for flight during 1980-1982. It is noted that these missions have either Materials Processing or Earth viewing emphasis. Finally, several representative experiments are used to illustrate the Applications Spacelab Program, such as the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA), and the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Measured by Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment.

  12. The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ulysses mission to explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third heliospheric dimension, is discussed. The scientific objectives of the mission are reviewed, and the nine flight experiments which make up the spacecraft payload are summarized. The Ulysses trajectory and mission timeline are described, as are the spacecraft itself and the mission operations. The timing of the mission with the solar cycle is discussed.

  13. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  14. Experiment K-6-13. Morphological and biochemical examination of heart tissue. Part 1: Effects of microgravity on the myocardial fine structure of rats flown on Cosmos 1887. Ultrastructure studies. Part 2: Cellular distribution of cyclic ampdependent protein kinase regulatory subunits in heart muscle of rats flown on Cosmos 1887

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpott, D. E.; Kato, K.; Stevenson, J.; Miquel, Jaime; Mednieks, M. I.; Sapp, W.; Popova, I. A.; Serova, L. V.

    1990-01-01

    The left ventricle of hearts from rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite for 12.5 days was compared to the same tissue of synchronous and vivarium control animals maintained in a ground based laboratory. The volume density of the mitochondria in the myocardium of the space-flown animals was statistically less (p equal less than 0.01) than that of the synchronous or vivarium control rats. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a certain degree of myocardial degeneration manifested in mitochondrial changes and accumulation of myeloid bodies. Generalized myofibrillar edema was also observed.

  15. Applications Explorer Missions (AEM): Mission planners handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The Applications Explorer Missions (AEM) Program is a planned series of space applications missions whose purpose is to perform various tasks that require a low cost, quick reaction, small spacecraft in a dedicated orbit. The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is the first mission of this series. The spacecraft described in this document was conceived to support a variety of applications instruments and the HCMM instrument in particular. The maximum use of commonality has been achieved. That is, all of the subsystems employed are taken directly or modified from other programs such as IUE, IMP, RAE, and Nimbus. The result is a small versatile spacecraft. The purpose of this document, the AEM Mission Planners Handbook (AEM/MPH) is to describe the spacecraft and its capabilities in general and the HCMM in particular. This document will also serve as a guide for potential users as to the capabilities of the AEM spacecraft and its achievable orbits. It should enable each potential user to determine the suitability of the AEM concept to his mission.

  16. Canadian Led X-ray Polarimeter Mission CXP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, V.; Hanna, D.; Weisskopf, M.; Ramsey, B.; Ragan, K.; Vachon, B.; Elsner, R.; Heyl, J.; Pavlov, G.; Cumming, A.; Sutton, M.; Rowlands, N.

    2006-01-01

    We propose a Canadian-led X-ray Polarimetry Mission (CXP), to include a scattering X-ray Polarimeter and sensitive All-Sky X-ray Monitor (ASXM). Polarimetry would provide a new observational window on black holes, neutron stars, accretion disks and jets, and the ASXM would offer sensitive monitoring of the volatile X-ray sky. The envisioned polarimeter consists of a hollow scattering beryllium cone surrounded by an annular proportional counter, in a simple and elegant design that is reliable and low-risk. It would be sensitive in the 6-30 keV band to approx. 3% polarization in approx. 30 Galactic sources and 2 AGN in a baseline 1-yr mission, and have sensitivity greater than 10 times that of the previous X-ray polarimeter flown (NASA's OSO-8, 1975-78) for most sources. This X-ray polarimeter would tackle questions like, Do black holes spin?, How do pulsars pulse?, What is the geometry of the magnetic field in accreting neutron stars? Where and how are jets produced in microquasars and AGN?, What are the geometries of many of the most famous accretion-disk systems in the sky? This will be done using a novel and until-now unexploited technique that will greatly broaden the available observational phase space of compact objects by adding to timing and spectroscopy observations of polarization fraction and position angle as a function of energy. The All-Sky X-ray Monitor would scan for transients, both as potential targets for the polarimeter but also as a service to the worldwide astronomical community. The entire CXP mission could be flown for $40- 60M CDN, according to estimates by ComDev International, and could be built entirely in Canada. It would fall well within the CSA's SmallSat envelope and would empower the growing and dynamic Canadian High-Energy Astrophysics community with world leadership in a potentially high impact niche area.

  17. The Long, Bumpy Road to a Mars Aeronomy Mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grebowsky, J. M.; Luhmann, J. G.; Bougher, S. W.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2013-12-01

    With the advent of the space age, early focus was put into characterizing the Earth's upper atmosphere with aeronomy missions. These missions were designed to study the upper atmosphere region of a planet where the ionosphere is produced with particular attention given to the composition, properties and motion of atmosphere constituents. In particular a very successful US series of Atmosphere Explorer aeronomy spacecraft (1963-1977) was implemented. This upper atmosphere region is the envelope that all energy from the sun must penetrate and is recognized as an inseparable part of a planet's entire atmosphere. Venus was the next planet to have its upper atmosphere/ionosphere deeply probed via the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (1978-1986) that carried a complement of instruments similar to some flown on the Atmosphere Explorers. The planet which humans have long set their imagination on, Mars, has yet to be subjected to the same detailed upper atmosphere perusal until now, with MAVEN. Not that attempts have been wanting. More than 30 spacecraft launches to Mars were attempted, but half were not successful and those that attained orbit came far short of attaining the same level of knowledge of the Martian upper atmosphere. Other countries had planned Mars aeronomy missions that didn't bear fruit - e.g. Mars-96 and Nozomi and the US did studies for two missions, Mars Aeronomy Orbiter and MUADEE, that never were implemented. This is about to change. NASA's Scout Program singled out two aeronomy missions in its final competition and the selected mission, MAVEN, will fly with the needed sophistication of instruments to finally probe and understand the top of Mars' atmosphere. Was this late selection of a NASA aeronomy mission to Mars a philosophy change in US priorities or was it an accident of planning and budget constraints? Was it driven by the developing knowledge that Mars really had an early atmosphere environment conducive to life and that an aeronomy mission is indeed

  18. The Value of Participating Scientists on NASA Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, Louise; Aye, Klaus-Michael; Baines, Kevin; Bland, Michael T.; Blewett, David T.; Brandt, Pontus; Diniega, Serina; Feaga, Lori M.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Y McSween, Harry; Neal, Clive; Paty, Carol S.; Rathbun, Julie A.; Schmidt, Britney E.

    2016-10-01

    NASA has a long history of supporting Participating Scientists on its planetary missions. On behalf of the NASA Planetary Assessment/Analysis Groups (OPAG, MEPAG, VEXAG, SBAG, LEAG and CAPTEM), we are conducting a study about the value of Participating Scientist programs on NASA planetary missions, and how the usefulness of such programs might be maximized.Inputs were gathered via a community survey, which asked for opinions about the value generated by the Participating Scientist programs (we included Guest Investigators and Interdisciplinary Scientists as part of this designation), and for the experiences of those who've held such positions. Perceptions about Participating Scientist programs were sought from the entire community, regardless of whether someone had served as a Participating Scientist or not. This survey was distributed via the Planetary Exploration Newsletter, the Planetary News Digest, the DPS weekly mailing, and the mailing lists for each of the Assessment/Analysis Groups. At the time of abstract submission, over 185 community members have responded, giving input on more than 20 missions flown over three decades. Early results indicate that the majority of respondents feel that Participating Scientist programs represent significant added value for NASA planetary missions, increasing the science return and enhancing mission team diversity in a number of ways. A second survey was prepared for input from mission leaders such as Principal Investigators and Project Scientists.Full results of this survey will be presented, along with recommendations for how NASA may wish to enhance Participating Scientist opportunities into its future missions. The output of the study will be a white paper, which will be delivered to NASA and made available to the science community and other interested groups.

  19. Solar Wind He and Ne - Implications of Surface Studies and Preliminary Data from Bulk Metallic Glass Flown on GENESIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimberg, A.; Heber, V. S.; Homan, O. J.; Hays, C. C.; Jurewicz, A. J.; Burnett, D. S.; Baur, H.; Wieler, R.

    2005-12-01

    The Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) flown on GENESIS is one of only a few target materials that survived the impact landing without major damage. Some scratches have led to localized noble gas loss but most particles do not harm He and Ne analyses due to their low gas content. To date, He and Ne isotopes from bulk solar wind in the BMG have been measured but precision will be improved. Preliminary data from pyrolysis extraction confirm previous values measured in SWC foils exposed on the lunar surface. However, the 4He/3He ratio of 2430 ±120 and the 20Ne/22Ne of 13.75 ±0.1 are slightly heavier than the SWC average. First measurements done with UV-laser ablation show higher 3He contents and an even heavier 20Ne/22Ne ratio of 14.04 ±0.1. Ne ratios are corrected for backscatter losses with a factor of 1.015 as calculated by TRIM whereas He correction factors are still not verified yet. The search for the He and Ne composition of Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) with stepwise etching has not been yet successful due to a molecular contamination (brown stain). This film was deposited on the BMG surface in space and is resistant to HNO3, the most suitable acid for homogeneous BMG etching. Extensive X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses have been carried out on 90 spots covering the entire surface to determine composition and distribution of this brown stain. These data show that the brown stain is an ubiquitous organic layer mainly consisting of Si, C, O and minor F. Since the BMG element Zr is always visible in the XPS spectra, contamination at the measured spots is very unlikely to be thicker than 10 nm. Ultrasonic cleaning of the surface with common solvents removed about 50 % of the particles but did not affect the brown stain. Moreover it led to an apparent gas loss of ~30 % for He. Cleaning with oxygen plasma lowered the carbon-signal in the XPS spectra, however it did not remove the brown stain either. A combination of oxygen plasma ashing followed by plasma

  20. The Neutron Star Interior Composition Explorer Mission of Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gendreau, Keith

    2014-08-01

    The Neutron Star Interior Composition ExploreR (NICER) is an X-ray astrophysics mission of opportunity (MoO) that will reveal the inner workings of neutron stars, cosmic lighthouses that embody unique gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear-physics environments. NICER achieves this objective by deploying a high-heritage instrument as an attached payload on a zenith-side ExPRESS Logistics Carrier (ELC) aboard the International Space Station (ISS). NICER offers order-of-magnitude improvements in time-coherent sensitivity and timing resolution beyond the capabilities of any X-ray observatory flown to date.Through a cost-sharing opportunity between the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) and NASA Space Technology Mission Directorate (STMD) NICER will also demonstrate how neutron stars can serve as deep-space navigation beacons to guide humankind out of Earth orbit, to destinations throughout the Solar System and beyond.I will overview the NICER mission, discuss our experience working with the ISS, and describe the process of forging a partnership between SMD and STMD.

  1. Update on the Fire (solar probe) mission study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. Veron; Forman, Miriam A.

    1995-01-01

    Since mid-1994 the U.S. and Russia have been studying the technical feasibility of a joint solar probe mission as part of the 'Fire and Ice' concept to explore close to the Sun, and Pluto, together. In the current concept of the 'Fire' mission, separate spacecraft built by each country would be launched together, fly by Jupiter to shed orbital angular momentum and achieve a solar polar orbit, and arrive 3.6 years later at 4 and 10 R(sub s). The Fire mission would measure basic parameters of the modes of energy and momentum flow and transfer to the coronal plasma that are not observable remotely. Specifically, measurement of magnetic fields, waves, suprathermal particles, and critical features of the plasma particle composition and distribution function would be made from 4 to 30 R(sub s) where the solar wind is known to be accelerated. In addition, the Fire spacecraft should image coronal structures unambiguously and relate the underlying and flown-through structures to plasma characteristics measured in situ. Each country is developing a backup plan to pursue the solar probe objectives alone if the other side is unable to carry out its mission.

  2. The Neptune/Triton Explorer Mission: A Concept Feasibility Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jaime

    2003-01-01

    Technological advances over the next 10 to 15 years promise to enable a number of smaller, more capable science missions to the outer planets. With the inception of miniaturized spacecraft for a wide range of applications, both in large clusters around Earth, and for deep space missions, NASA is currently in the process of redefining the way science is being gathered. Technologies such as 3-Dimensional Multi-Chip Modules, Micro-machined Electromechanical Devices, Multi Functional Structures, miniaturized transponders, miniaturized propulsion systems, variable emissivity thermal coatings, and artificial intelligence systems are currently in research and development, and are scheduled to fly (or have flown) in a number of missions. This study will leverage on these and other technologies in the design of a lightweight Neptune orbiter unlike any other that has been proposed to date. The Neptune/Triton Explorer (NExTEP) spacecraft uses solar electric earth gravity assist and aero capture maneuvers to achieve its intended target orbit. Either a Taurus or Delta-class launch vehicle may be used to accomplish the mission.

  3. NASA's Near Earth Asteroid Scout Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Les; McNutt, Leslie; Castillo-Rogez, Julie

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing solar sail propulsion for a near-term Near Earth Asteroid (NEA) reconnaissance mission and laying the groundwork for their future use in deep space science and exploration missions. The NEA Scout mission, funded by NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program and managed by NASA MSFC, will use the sail as primary propulsion allowing it to survey and image one or more NEA's of interest for possible future human exploration. NEA Scout uses a 6U cubesat (to be provided by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory), an 86 m2 solar sail and will weigh less than 14 kilograms. The solar sail for NEA Scout will be based on the technology developed and flown by the NASA NanoSail-D and The Planetary Society's Lightsail-A. Four 7 m stainless steel booms wrapped on two spools (two overlapping booms per spool) will be motor deployed and pull the sail from its stowed volume. The sail material is an aluminized polyimide approximately 3 microns thick. NEA Scout will launch on the Space Launch System (SLS) first mission in 2018 and deploy from the SLS after the Orion spacecraft is separated from the SLS upper stage. The NEA Scout spacecraft will stabilize its orientation after ejection using an onboard cold-gas thruster system. The same system provides the vehicle Delta-V sufficient for a lunar flyby. After its first encounter with the moon, the 86 m2 sail will deploy, and the sail characterization phase will begin. A mechanical Active Mass Translation (AMT) system, combined with the remaining ACS propellant, will be used for sail momentum management. Once the system is checked out, the spacecraft will perform a series of lunar flybys until it achieves optimum departure trajectory to the target asteroid. The spacecraft will then begin its two year-long cruise. About one month before the asteroid flyby, NEA Scout will pause to search for the target and start its approach phase using a combination of radio tracking and optical navigation. The solar sail will provide

  4. Ongoing Mars Missions: Extended Mission Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Richard; Diniega, Serina; Crisp, Joy; Fraeman, Abigail; Golombek, Matt; Jakosky, Bruce; Plaut, Jeff; Senske, David A.; Tamppari, Leslie; Thompson, Thomas W.; Vasavada, Ashwin R.

    2016-10-01

    Many key scientific discoveries in planetary science have been made during extended missions. This is certainly true for the Mars missions both in orbit and on the planet's surface. Every two years, ongoing NASA planetary missions propose investigations for the next two years. This year, as part of the 2016 Planetary Sciences Division (PSD) Mission Senior Review, the Mars Odyssey (ODY) orbiter project submitted a proposal for its 7th extended mission, the Mars Exploration Rover (MER-B) Opportunity submitted for its 10th, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) for its 4th, and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Curiosity rover and the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution (MVN) orbiter for their 2nd extended missions, respectively. Continued US participation in the ongoing Mars Express Mission (MEX) was also proposed. These missions arrived at Mars in 2001, 2004, 2006, 2012, 2014, and 2003, respectively. Highlights of proposed activities include systematic observations of the surface and atmosphere in twilight (early morning and late evening), building on a 13-year record of global mapping (ODY); exploration of a crater rim gully and interior of Endeavour Crater, while continuing to test what can and cannot be seen from orbit (MER-B); refocused observations of ancient aqueous deposits and polar cap interiors, while adding a 6th Mars year of change detection in the atmosphere and the surface (MRO); exploration and sampling by a rover of mineralogically diverse strata of Mt. Sharp and of atmospheric methane in Gale Crater (MSL); and further characterization of atmospheric escape under different solar conditions (MVN). As proposed, these activities follow up on previous discoveries (e.g., recurring slope lineae, habitable environments), while expanding spatial and temporal coverage to guide new detailed observations. An independent review panel evaluated these proposals, met with project representatives in May, and made recommendations to NASA in June 2016. In this

  5. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  6. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  7. JPL Mission Bibliometrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppin, Ann

    2013-01-01

    For a number of years ongoing bibliographies of various JPL missions (AIRS, ASTER, Cassini, GRACE, Earth Science, Mars Exploration Rovers (Spirit & Opportunity)) have been compiled by the JPL Library. Mission specific bibliographies are compiled by the Library and sent to mission scientists and managers in the form of regular (usually quarterly) updates. Charts showing publications by years are periodically provided to the ASTER, Cassini, and GRACE missions for supporting Senior Review/ongoing funding requests, and upon other occasions as a measure of the impact of the missions. Basically the Web of Science, Compendex, sometimes Inspec, GeoRef and Aerospace databases are searched for the mission name in the title, abstract, and assigned keywords. All get coded for journal publications that are refereed publications.

  8. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  9. Cyber Network Mission Dependencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-18

    APPLICATIONS A useful model of mission mapping is presented in Figure 2. Users and defenders of a network typically have several disjoint types of... Mapping user processes to network capabilities reveals the broader impact of information in the logs, and improves risk analysis by identifying...The final stage of mission mapping connects the user processes with the missions they support. This mapping is critical both for prioritization of

  10. Mission planning with ROSAT.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snowden, S. L.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    The mission planning activities for the satellite bourne X-ray observatory ROSAT are discussed. Responsibility is shared between the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE), which provides the sientific and calibration program input, and the German Space Operations Center (GSOC), whose responsibility it is to generate a mission timeline satisfying all operational constraints. An optimum solution for the mission timeline is achieved using an efficient networking procedure.

  11. RAF and Mission Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-02-01

    of the art of command, i.e., the mission command philosophy , by examining six guiding principles. The third section analyzes RAF through the...describes mission command as a “ philosophy and a warfighting function;” it is also the framework for the Army’s execution of military operations in...support of Unified Land Operations (ULO).35 The mission command philosophy is described as “the exercise of authority and direction by the commander

  12. Alterations in TNF- and IL-related gene expression in space-flown WI38 human fibroblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semov, Alexandre; Semova, Nathalia; Lacelle, Chantale; Marcotte, Richard; Petroulakis, Emmanuel; Proestou, Gregory; Wang, Eugenia

    2002-01-01

    Spaceflight, just like aging, causes profound changes in musculoskeletal parameters, which result in decreased bone density and muscular weakness. As these conditions decrease our ability to conduct long-term manned space missions, and increase bone frailty in the elderly, the identification of genes responsible for the apparition of these physiological changes will be of great benefit. Thus, we developed and implemented a new microarray approach to investigate the changes in normal WI38 human fibroblast gene expression that arise as a consequence of space flight. Using our microarray, we identified changes in the level of expression of 10 genes, belonging to either the tumor necrosis factor- (TNF) or interleukin- (IL) related gene families in fibroblasts when WI38 cells exposed to microgravity during the STS-93 Space Shuttle mission were compared with ground controls. The genes included two ligands from the TNF superfamily, TWEAK and TNFSF15; two TNF receptor-associated proteins, NSMAF and PTPN13; three TNF-inducible genes, ABC50, PTX3, and SCYA13; TNF-alpha converting enzyme, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-15 receptor alpha chain. Most of these are involved in either the regulation of bone density, and as such the development of spaceflight osteopenia, or in the development of proinflammatory status.

  13. STEREO Mission Design Implementation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guzman, Jose J.; Dunham, David W.; Sharer, Peter J.; Hunt, Jack W.; Ray, J. Courtney; Shapiro, Hongxing S.; Ossing, Daniel A.; Eichstedt, John E.

    2007-01-01

    STEREO (Solar-TErrestrial RElations Observatory) is the third mission in the Solar Terrestrial Probes program (STP) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate Sun-Earth Connection theme. This paper describes the successful implementation (lunar swingby targeting) of the mission following the first phasing orbit to deployment into the heliocentric mission orbits following the two lunar swingbys. The STEREO Project had to make some interesting trajectory decisions in order to exploit opportunities to image a bright comet and an unusual lunar transit across the Sun.

  14. Missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.; Science Team

    2002-10-01

    This presentation started with a historical perspective of the astronomical discovery of Mars and followed by an overview of previous missions to Mars by the United States and the Soviet Union. Recently launched missions, such as Nozomi, Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey were addressed in more detailed, as well as a few other missions soon to be launched. Among these, Mars Express is particularly relevant as the first European mission towards the red planet, and the talk concentrated on it, including both the Mars Express orbiter spacecraft and the Beagle-2 lander to be launched in 2003.

  15. Juno Mission Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Meemong; Weidner, Richard J.

    2008-01-01

    The Juno spacecraft is planned to launch in August of 2012 and would arrive at Jupiter four years later. The spacecraft would spend more than one year orbiting the planet and investigating the existence of an ice-rock core; determining the amount of global water and ammonia present in the atmosphere, studying convection and deep- wind profiles in the atmosphere; investigating the origin of the Jovian magnetic field, and exploring the polar magnetosphere. Juno mission management is responsible for mission and navigation design, mission operation planning, and ground-data-system development. In order to ensure successful mission management from initial checkout to final de-orbit, it is critical to share a common vision of the entire mission operation phases with the rest of the project teams. Two major challenges are 1) how to develop a shared vision that can be appreciated by all of the project teams of diverse disciplines and expertise, and 2) how to continuously evolve a shared vision as the project lifecycle progresses from formulation phase to operation phase. The Juno mission simulation team addresses these challenges by developing agile and progressive mission models, operation simulations, and real-time visualization products. This paper presents mission simulation visualization network (MSVN) technology that has enabled a comprehensive mission simulation suite (MSVN-Juno) for the Juno project.

  16. Mission adaptive wing soars at NASA Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rahn, D.; Reinertson, L.

    1986-01-01

    Research pilots have flown the Mission Adaptive Wing (MAW) aircraft, a highly modified F-111 jet fighter, from subsonic speeds up to Mach 1.4 in initial flight tests. The inital test flights are clearing the envelope with the wings flexed at various curvatures. This process allows further research data to be safely gathered so that designers of future variable camber wing aircraft have the best information possible. The altitude envelope was cleared from 27,500 down to 7,500 feet where denser air can cause more stress on the aircraft. Testing with the aircraft was conducted with wing sweep angles of 26 and 58 degrees. At the conclusion of the performance tests in the manual configuration, the system will be reconfigured for automatic mode tests. The limited automatic modes include maneuver camber control where the wings are deflected automatically to the best lift versus drag combination for a particular speed; cruise camber control which can help protect the aircraft from high G stresses; and maneuver enhancement/gust alleviation which is designed to improve the aircraft's up and down movement response to pilot commands and reduce the aircraft response to turbulence.

  17. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  18. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  19. Positive psychological effects of space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Ihle, Eva C.; Kanas, Nick

    2005-07-01

    Being in space is a powerful experience that can have an enduring, positive impact on the psychological well-being of astronauts and cosmonauts. We sought to examine the frequency, intensity and distribution of such salutogenic experiences among persons who have flown in space, using a questionnaire we developed based on the scientific literature and first person accounts. All participants reported positive effects of being in space, but the degree of change varied widely, and some experiences were particularly common. Three of our five predicted attitude behavior relationships were supported by the data. Response patterns did not vary according to demographics or time in space. Cluster analysis yielded two groups of participants. One group was generally more reactive and also placed a higher priority on perceptions of space than did the other group. We conclude that positive experiences are common among space travelers and seem to cluster into meaningful patterns that may be consequential for Mars missions. We consider the possible selection, training, and monitoring issues raised by our findings.

  20. Positive psychological effects of space missions.

    PubMed

    Ritsher, Jennifer Boyd; Ihle, Eva C; Kanas, Nick

    2005-01-01

    Being in space is a powerful experience that can have an enduring, positive impact on the psychological well-being of astronauts and cosmonauts. We sought to examine the frequency, intensity and distribution of such salutogenic experiences among persons who have flown in space, using a questionnaire we developed based on the scientific literature and first person accounts. All participants reported positive effects of being in space, but the degree of change varied widely, and some experiences were particularly common. Three of our five predicted attitude-behavior relationships were supported by the data. Response patterns did not vary according to demographics or time in space. Cluster analysis yielded two groups of participants. One group was generally more reactive and also placed a higher priority on perceptions of space than did the other group. We conclude that positive experiences are common among space travelers and seem to cluster into meaningful patterns that may be consequential for Mars missions. We consider the possible selection, training, and monitoring issues raised by our findings.

  1. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  2. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  3. Modifications of airborne oceanographic lidar for the long range P-3 missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    This has been an extraordinary series of Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) missions. The AOL was flown over the North Pole on three low altitude sea ice mapping flights. These flights were followed by six Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) flights based from Hawaii and Christmas Island to measure chlorophyll along the equator. On return to the west coast, there were several terrain mapping flights in Nevada and Arizona. This was followed by mapping of the Greenland ice cap from the airport at Sondresstrom Greenland. This research proposal was developed to support the AOL instrumentation research that prepares the AOL for each science mission. Saint Vincent College physics professor, Dr. Richard Berry, is engaged in LIDAR instrumentation research to improve the AOL. Dr. Berry's participation in the AOL mission was to implement the instrumentation modifications that optimized data acquisition.

  4. Ames Research Center Life Sciences Payload Project for Spacelab Mission 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, P. X.; Tremor, J.; Lund, G.; Wagner, W. L.

    1983-01-01

    The Research Animal Holding Facility, developed to support rodent and squirrel monkey animal husbandry in the Spacelab environment, is to be tested during the Spacelab Mission 3 flight. The configuration and function of the payload hardware elements, the assembly and test program, the operational rationale, and the scientific approach of this mission are examined. Topics covered include animal life support systems, the squirrel monkey restraint, the camera-mirror system, the dynamic environment measurement system, the biotelemetry system, and the ground support equipment. Consideration is also given to animal pretests, loading the animals during their 12 hour light cycle, and animal early recovery after landing. This mission will be the first time that relatively large samples of monkeys and rats will be flown in space and also cared for and observed by man.

  5. Recovery considerations for possible high inclination long duration earth orbital missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obriant, T. E.; Ferguson, J. E.

    1969-01-01

    Problem areas are discussed and various solutions proposed. One of the major recovery problems encountered with missions having higher orbital inclinations than previous missions is the greater likelihood of severe weather conditions in the landing zones, especially if landing zones are optimized for orbital coverage considerations. Restricting the reentry window and increasing in-orbit wait times can partially eliminate the weather problem, but the possibility of emergency landings at higher latitudes still exists. It can be expected that the increased confidence level in spacecraft reliability that will exist by the time the high-inclination missions are flown will reduce the probabilities of an emergency landing in an unfavorable recovery location to a very low level.

  6. STS-101 Mission Specialist J.Williams arrives at KSC for TCDT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    STS-101 Mission Specialist Jeffrey Williams arrives at KSC's Shuttle Landing Facility aboard a T-38 jet aircraft flown by STS- 101 Pilot Scott Horowitz. They and the rest of the crew are at KSC to take part in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test (TCDT) activities that include emergency egress training and a dress rehearsal for launch. The other crew members are Commander James Halsell and Mission Specialists Mary Ellen Weber, James Voss, Susan Helms and Yuri Usachev. During their mission to the International Space Station, the STS-101 crew will be delivering logistics and supplies, plus preparing the Station for the arrival of the Zvezda Service Module, expected to be launched by Russia in July 2000. Also, the crew will conduct one space walk to perform maintenance on the Space Station. This will be the third assembly flight for the Space Station. STS-101 is scheduled to launch April 24 at 4:15 p.m. from Launch Pad 39A.

  7. Mission requirements: Second Skylab mission SL-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Complete SL-3 mission objectives and requirements, as revised 1 February 1972 (Rev. 6), are presented. Detailed test objectives are also given on the medical experiments, Apollo Telescope Mount experiments, Earth Resources Experiment Package, and corollary experiments and environmental microbiology experiments.

  8. Simplified Ion Thruster Xenon Feed System for NASA Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, John Steven; Randolph, Thomas M.; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.

    2009-01-01

    The successful implementation of ion thruster technology on the Deep Space 1 technology demonstration mission paved the way for its first use on the Dawn science mission, which launched in September 2007. Both Deep Space 1 and Dawn used a "bang-bang" xenon feed system which has proven to be highly successful. This type of feed system, however, is complex with many parts and requires a significant amount of engineering work for architecture changes. A simplified feed system, with fewer parts and less engineering work for architecture changes, is desirable to reduce the feed system cost to future missions. An attractive new path for ion thruster feed systems is based on new components developed by industry in support of commercial applications of electric propulsion systems. For example, since the launch of Deep Space 1 tens of mechanical xenon pressure regulators have successfully flown on commercial spacecraft using electric propulsion. In addition, active proportional flow controllers have flown on the Hall-thruster-equipped Tacsat-2, are flying on the ion thruster GOCE mission, and will fly next year on the Advanced EHF spacecraft. This present paper briefly reviews the Dawn xenon feed system and those implemented on other xenon electric propulsion flight missions. A simplified feed system architecture is presented that is based on assembling flight-qualified components in a manner that will reduce non-recurring engineering associated with propulsion system architecture changes, and is compared to the NASA Dawn standard. The simplified feed system includes, compared to Dawn, passive high-pressure regulation, a reduced part count, reduced complexity due to cross-strapping, and reduced non-recurring engineering work required for feed system changes. A demonstration feed system was assembled using flight-like components and used to operate a laboratory NSTAR-class ion engine. Feed system components integrated into a single-string architecture successfully operated

  9. The Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matt; Altobelli, Nicolas; Martin, Patrick; Buratti, Bonnie J.; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Following its launch in March 2004, Rosetta underwent 3 Earth and 1 Mars flybys to achieve the correct trajectory to capture the comet, including flybys of asteroid on 2867 Steins and 21 Lutetia. For June 2011- January 2014 the spacecraft passed through a period of hibernation, due to lack of available power for full payload operation and following successful instrument commissioning, successfully rendezvoused with the comet in August 2014. Following an intense period of mapping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was successfully deployed. Rosetta then embarked on the main phase of the mission, observing the comet on its way into and away from perihelion in August 2015. At the time of writing the mission is planned to terminate with the Rosetta orbiter impacting the comet surface on 30 September 2016. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission and its science. The first author is honoured to give this talk on behalf of all Rosetta mission science, instrument and operations teams, for it is they who have worked tirelessly to make this mission the success it is.

  10. NASA Mission: The Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This booklet is mainly a recruitment tool for the various NASA Centers. This well illustrated booklet briefly describes NASA's mission and career opportunities on the NASA team. NASA field installations and their missions are briefly noted. NASA's four chief program offices are briefly described. They are: (1) Aeronautics, Exploration, and Space Technology; (2) Space Flight; (3) Space Operations; and (4) Space Science and Applications.

  11. The Pioneer Venus Missions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Mountain View, CA. Ames Research Center.

    This document provides detailed information on the atmosphere and weather of Venus. This pamphlet describes the technological hardware including the probes that enter the Venusian atmosphere, the orbiter and the launch vehicle. Information is provided in lay terms on the mission profile, including details of events from launch to mission end. The…

  12. Mervyn's Moving Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's resource packet includes a number of items designed to support teachers in the classroom before and after visiting Mervyn's Moving Mission. The packet includes eight sections: (1) welcome letter in English and Spanish; (2) summary timeline of California mission events in English and Spanish; (3) objectives and curriculum links; (4)…

  13. Mission Medical Information System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Joe, John C.; Follansbee, Nicole M.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Mission Medical Information System (MMIS). The topics include: 1) What is MMIS?; 2) MMIS Goals; 3) Terrestrial Health Information Technology Vision; 4) NASA Health Information Technology Needs; 5) Mission Medical Information System Components; 6) Electronic Medical Record; 7) Longitudinal Study of Astronaut Health (LSAH); 8) Methods; and 9) Data Submission Agreement (example).

  14. Entry Guidance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; Craig, Lynn E.

    2011-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory will be the first Mars mission to attempt a guided entry to safely deliver the rover to a touchdown ellipse of 25 km x 20 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. For application to Mars landers which must make use of the tenuous Martian atmosphere, it is critical to balance the lift of the vehicle to minimize the range error while still ensuring a safe deploy altitude. An overview of the process to generate optimized guidance settings is presented, discussing improvements made over the last nine years. Key dispersions driving deploy ellipse and altitude performance are identified. Performance sensitivities including attitude initialization error and the velocity of transition from range control to heading alignment are presented.

  15. INTEGRAL confirmed as next scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-06-01

    INTEGRAL is a gamma-ray observatory to be developed in cooperation with NASA and the Russian Institute for Space Research, IKI. The instruments it will carry, 10 to 50 times more sensitive than those previously flown on other spacecraft of this kind, will allow it to greatly push the limits of gamma ray astronomy. Mission scenario INTEGRAL's primary mission will be to observe the galactic plane and centre, but it will also be looking into other directions to search for extragalactic gamma-ray sources such as nuclei of active galaxies or clusters of galaxies. Another observing priority will be the study of compact objects (neutron stars, black holes) as well as supernovae and novae. Most of the observing time will be made available to the worldwide astronomy community through a "guest observer programme" for which calls for proposals will be issued. The rest of the mission will be reserved for the research institutes that will develop the payload, i.e. the instruments, and the data processing facilities. The INTEGRAL satellite will use a platform -the so-called "bus"- identical to that currently being developed for the ESA X-ray Multi Mirror (XMM) cornerstone mission. ESA has the overall responsibility for spacecraft and mission design, instrument integration and testing, spacecraft operations and acquisition of data. Scientific instruments will be provided largely by the European science community. NASA will supply one or two ground stations and will be involved in the development of instruments, e.g. the spectrometer. Russia will provide a Proton launcher free of charge in exchange for observing time. A parallel option with an Ariane 5 launcher is also considered. The launch of the 3.6 ton INTEGRAL spacecraft is planned early in the year 2001. The Proton launcher delivers the INTEGRAL into a 72 hour orbit with a high perigee of 48000 km and a 115000 km apogee at 51.6 degree inclination, while an Ariane 5 launch would inject the spacecraft into a 24 hour orbit with

  16. Mars Surface Mission Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, M. B. (Editor)

    1997-01-01

    A workshop was held at the Lunar and Planetary Institute on September 4-5, 1997, to address the surface elements of the Mars Reference Mission now being reviewed by NASA. The workshop considered the current reference mission and addressed the types of activities that would be expected for science and resource exploration and facilities operations. A set of activities was defined that can be used to construct "vignettes" of the surface mission. These vignettes can form the basis for describing the importance of the surface mission, for illustrating aspects of the surface mission, and for allowing others to extend and revise these initial ideas. The topic is rich with opportunities for additional conceptualization. It is recommended that NASA consider supporting university design teams to conduct further analysis of the possibilities.

  17. Kepler Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, David; Borucki, William; Lissauer, J.; Mayer, David; Voss, Janice; Basri, Gibor; Gould, Alan; Brown, Timothy; Cockran, William; Caldwell, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The Kepler Mission is in the development phase with launch planned for 2007. The mission goal first off is to reliably detect a significant number of Earth-size planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission design allows for exploring the diversity of planetary sizes, orbital periods, stellar spectral types, etc. In this paper we describe the technical approach taken for the mission design; describing the flight and ground system, the detection methodology, the photometer design and capabilities, and the way the data are taken and processed. (For Stellar Classification program. Finally the detection capability in terms of planet size and orbit are presented as a function of mission duration and stellar type.

  18. PERCIVAL mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, David W.; Lilley, Stewart; Sirman, Melinda; Bolton, Paul; Elliott, Susan; Hamilton, Doug; Nickelson, James; Shelton, Artemus

    1992-01-01

    With the downturn of the world economy, the priority of unmanned exploration of the solar system has been lowered. Instead of foregoing all missions to our neighbors in the solar system, a new philosophy of exploration mission design has evolved to insure the continued exploration of the solar system. The 'Discovery-class' design philosophy uses a low cost, limited mission, available technology spacecraft instead of the previous 'Voyager-class' design philosophy that uses a 'do-everything at any cost' spacecraft. The Percival Mission to Mars was proposed by Ares Industries as one of the new 'Discovery-class' of exploration missions. The spacecraft will be christened Percival in honor of American astronomer Percival Lowell who proposed the existence of life on Mars in the early twentieth century. The main purpose of the Percival mission to Mars is to collect and relay scientific data to Earth suitable for designing future manned and unmanned missions to Mars. The measurements and observations made by Percival will help future mission designers to choose among landing sites based on the feasibility and scientific interest of the sites. The primary measurements conducted by the Percival mission include gravity field determination, surface and atmospheric composition, sub-surface soil composition, sub-surface seismic activity, surface weather patterns, and surface imaging. These measurements will be taken from the orbiting Percival spacecraft and from surface penetrators deployed from Mars orbit. The design work for the Percival Mission to Mars was divided among four technical areas: Orbits and Propulsion System, Surface Penetrators, Gravity and Science Instruments, and Spacecraft Structure and Systems. The results for each of the technical areas is summarized and followed by a design cost analysis and recommendations for future analyses.

  19. Initial Results from the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Balloon Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) high-altitude balloon mission was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico USA on 25 September, 2015. Over 15 hours of science data were obtained from four dosimeters at altitudes above about 25 km. The four dosimeters flown on the RaD-X science payload are a Hawk version 3.0 Tissue Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC) manufactured by Far West Technologies, a Liulin dosimeter-spectrometer produced by the Solar Research and Technology Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, a total ionizing dose detector manufactured by Teledyne Microelectronic Technologies, and the RaySure detector provided by the University of Surrey.

  20. Study of Air Pollution from Space Using TOMS: Challenges and Promises for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2002-01-01

    A series of TOMS instruments built by NASA has flown on US, Russian, and Japanese satellites in the last 24 years. These instruments are well known for producing spectacular maps of the ozone hole that forms over Antarctica each spring. However, it is less well known that these instruments also provided first evidence that space-based measurements in UV of sufficiently high precision and accuracy can provide valuable information to study global air quality. We will use the TOMS experience to highlight the promises and challenges of future space-based missions designed specifically for air quality studies.

  1. Cosmos 1887 mission overview - Effects of microgravity on rat body and adrenal weights and plasma constituents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Vasques, M.; Arnaud, S. B.; Popova, I. A.

    1990-01-01

    Tissues of male, specific pathogen-free Wistar rats flown on the Cosmos 1887 biosatellite are studied. First the mission is described, and then analytical methods are outlined. It is noted that flight rats grew more slowly and had larger adrenal glands than earth gravity controls. Analysis of plasma reveals increased concentrations of hepatic alkaline phosphatase, glucose, urea nitrogen, and creatinine in flight rats. In contrast, electrolytes, total protein, albumin, corticosteron, prolactin, and immunoreactive growth hormone levels are unchanged. However, testosterone concentration is marginally decreased after flight and thyroid hormone levels are suggestive of reduced thyroid function.

  2. Radioactivity observed in the sodium iodide gamma-ray spectrometer returned on the Apollo 17 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, C. S.; Trombka, J. I.; Schmadebeck, R. L.; Eller, E.; Bielefeld, M. J.; Okelley, G. D.; Eldridge, J. S.; Northcutt, K. J.; Metzger, A. E.; Reedy, R. C.

    1975-01-01

    In order to obtain information on radioactive background induced in the Apollo 15 and 16 gamma-ray spectrometers (7 cm x 7 cm NaI) by particle irradiation during spaceflight, and identical detector was flown and returned to earth on the Apollo 17 mission. The induced radioactivity was monitored both internally and externally from one and a half hours after splashdown. When used in conjunction with a computation scheme for estimating induced activation from calculated trapped proton and cosmic-ray fluences, these results show an important contribution resulting from both thermal and energetic neutrons produced in the heavy spacecraft by cosmic-ray interactions.

  3. The High Altitude Observatory Coronagraph/Polarimeter on the Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macqueen, R. M.; Csoeke-Poeckh, A.; Hildner, E.; House, L.; Reynolds, R.; Stanger, A.; Tepoel, H.; Wagner, W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper examines the High Altitude Observatory Coronagraph/Polarimeter designed to produce images of the solar corona in 7 wavelength bands in the visible spectral range, and to be flown on the NASA Solar Maximum Mission satellite. The spectral bands were chosen to exclude or include 'chromospheric' spectral lines, so as to allow discrimination between ejecta at coronal and chromospheric temperatures. The major goals of the instrument include: (1) observation of the corona in the flare process and of the ejecta from the flare site and the overlying corona, and (2) examination of the evolution of the solar corona near the period of solar maximum activity.

  4. The Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Experiment: Deployment on the ATLAS Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunson, M. R.; Abbas, M. M.; Abrams, M. C.; Allen, M.; Brown, L. R.; Brown, T. L.; Chang, A. Y.; Goldman, A.; Irion, F. W.; Lowes, L. L..; Mahieu, E.; Manney, G. L.; Michelsen, H. A.; Newchurch, M. J.; Rinsland, C. P.; Salawitch, R. J.; Stiller, G. P.; Toon, G. C.; Yung, Y. L.; Zander, R.

    1996-01-01

    The ATMOS Fourier transform spectrometer was flown for a fourth time on the Space Shuttle as part of the ATLAS-3 instrument payload in November 1994. More than 190 sunrise and sunset occultation events provided measurements of more than 30 atmospheric trace gases at latitudes 3 - 49 deg N and 65 - 72 deg S, including observations both inside and outside the Antarctic polar vortex. The instrument configuration, data retrieval methodology, and mission background are described to place in context analyses of ATMOS data presented in this issue.

  5. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance for the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, G.; McGrew, L.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory landed Curiosity in Gale Crater on 5 Aug 2012. Curiosity landed successfully only 2.2 km away from the expected target given the onboard navigation state. Better than the average Apollo capsule splashdown miss distance. A late bank reversal and a suspected tail wind contributed to this slight miss. Entry guidance is derived from the Apollo capsule "final phase" logic and adjusts the range flown during entry by varying the direction of the lift vector (i.e., bank angle). Refinement of the guidance gains and alternative parachute deploy triggers to reduce the ellipse size will be studied for future Mars landing missions.

  6. Dynamic replanning on demand of UAS constellations performing ISR missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouch, Daniel W.; Zeidman, Ernest; Callahan, William; McGraw, Kirk

    2011-05-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have proven themselves to be indispensable in providing intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) over the battlefield. Constellations of heterogeneous, multi-purpose UAS are being tasked to provide ISR in an unpredictable environment. This necessitates the dynamic replanning of critical missions as weather conditions change, new observation targets are identified, aircraft are lost or equipment malfunctions, and new airspace restrictions are introduced. We present a method to generate coordinated mission plans for constellations of UAS with multiple flight goals and potentially competing objectives, and update them on demand as the operational situation changes. We use a fast evolutionary algorithm-based, multi-objective optimization technique. The updated flight routes maintain continuity by considering where the ISR assets have already flown and where they still need to go. Both the initial planning and replanning take into account factors such as area of analysis coverage, restricted operating zones, maximum control station range, adverse weather effects, military terrain value, and sensor performance. Our results demonstrate that by constraining the space of potential solutions using an intelligently-formed air maneuver network with a subset of potential airspace corridors and navigational waypoints, we can ensure global optimization for multiple objectives considering the situation both before and after the replanning is initiated. We employ sophisticated visualization techniques using a geographic information system to help the user 'look under the hood" of the algorithms to understand the effectiveness and viability of the generated ISR mission plans and identify potential gaps in coverage.

  7. The Threat of Uncertainty: Why Using Traditional Approaches for Evaluating Spacecraft Reliability are Insufficient for Future Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stromgren, Chel; Goodliff, Kandyce; Cirillo, William; Owens, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Through the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC) study, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) continues to evaluate potential approaches for sending humans beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). A key aspect of these missions is the strategy that is employed to maintain and repair the spacecraft systems, ensuring that they continue to function and support the crew. Long duration missions beyond LEO present unique and severe maintainability challenges due to a variety of factors, including: limited to no opportunities for resupply, the distance from Earth, mass and volume constraints of spacecraft, high sensitivity of transportation element designs to variation in mass, the lack of abort opportunities to Earth, limited hardware heritage information, and the operation of human-rated systems in a radiation environment with little to no experience. The current approach to maintainability, as implemented on ISS, which includes a large number of spares pre-positioned on ISS, a larger supply sitting on Earth waiting to be flown to ISS, and an on demand delivery of logistics from Earth, is not feasible for future deep space human missions. For missions beyond LEO, significant modifications to the maintainability approach will be required.Through the EMC evaluations, several key findings related to the reliability and safety of the Mars spacecraft have been made. The nature of random and induced failures presents significant issues for deep space missions. Because spare parts cannot be flown as needed for Mars missions, all required spares must be flown with the mission or pre-positioned. These spares must cover all anticipated failure modes and provide a level of overall reliability and safety that is satisfactory for human missions. This will require a large amount of mass and volume be dedicated to storage and transport of spares for the mission. Further, there is, and will continue to be, a significant amount of uncertainty regarding failure rates for spacecraft

  8. Mission Scenario Development Workbench

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Baker, John; Gilbert, John; Hanks, David; Mandutianu, Dan; Hooper, David

    2006-01-01

    The Mission Scenario Development Workbench (MSDW) is a multidisciplinary performance analysis software tool for planning and optimizing space missions. It provides a number of new capabilities that are particularly useful for planning the surface activities on other planets. MSDW enables rapid planning of a space mission and supports flight system and scientific-instrumentation trades. It also provides an estimate of the ability of flight, ground, and science systems to meet high-level mission goals and provides means of evaluating expected mission performance at an early stage of planning in the project life cycle. In MSDW, activity plans and equipment-list spreadsheets are integrated with validated parameterized simulation models of spacecraft systems. In contrast to traditional approaches involving worst-case estimates with large margins, the approach embodied in MSDW affords more flexibility and more credible results early in the lifecycle through the use of validated, variable- fidelity models of spacecraft systems. MSDW is expected to help maximize the scientific return on investment for space missions by understanding early the performance required to have a successful mission while reducing the risk of costly design changes made at late stages in the project life cycle.

  9. Recce mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    York, Andrew M.

    2000-11-01

    The ever increasing sophistication of reconnaissance sensors reinforces the importance of timely, accurate, and equally sophisticated mission planning capabilities. Precision targeting and zero-tolerance for collateral damage and civilian casualties, stress the need for accuracy and timeliness. Recent events have highlighted the need for improvement in current planning procedures and systems. Annotating printed maps takes time and does not allow flexibility for rapid changes required in today's conflicts. We must give aircrew the ability to accurately navigate their aircraft to an area of interest, correctly position the sensor to obtain the required sensor coverage, adapt missions as required, and ensure mission success. The growth in automated mission planning system capability and the expansion of those systems to include dedicated and integrated reconnaissance modules, helps to overcome current limitations. Mission planning systems, coupled with extensive integrated visualization capabilities, allow aircrew to not only plan accurately and quickly, but know precisely when they will locate the target and visualize what the sensor will see during its operation. This paper will provide a broad overview of the current capabilities and describe how automated mission planning and visualization systems can improve and enhance the reconnaissance planning process and contribute to mission success. Think about the ultimate objective of the reconnaissance mission as we consider areas that technology can offer improvement. As we briefly review the fundamentals, remember where and how TAC RECCE systems will be used. Try to put yourself in the mindset of those who are on the front lines, working long hours at increasingly demanding tasks, trying to become familiar with new operating areas and equipment, while striving to minimize risk and optimize mission success. Technical advancements that can reduce the TAC RECCE timeline, simplify operations and instill Warfighter

  10. EXCEED (SORA) mission overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, I.

    2013-05-01

    An earth-orbiting Extreme Ultraviolet spectroscopic mission, EXtreme ultraviolet spectrosCope for ExosphEric Dynamics explore (EXCEED) is ready for the launch. The EXCEED mission will carry out observations of Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV: 60 -145 nm) emissions from tenuous plasmas around the planets (Mercury, Mars, Venus, and Jupiter). It is necessary for planetary EUV spectroscopy to avoid the Earth's atmospheric absorption, therefore we have to observe above the Earth's atmosphere. In this paper, we will introduce the mission overview, the instrument, and the scientific targets.

  11. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cañizares, P.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferrone, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hernández, V.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H.-B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we describe the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission, a precursor mission aimed at demonstrating key technologies for future space-based gravitational wave detectors, like LISA. Since much of the flight hardware has already been constructed and tested, we will show that performance measurements and analysis of these flight components lead to an expected performance of the LISA Pathfinder which is a significant improvement over the mission requirements, and which actually reaches the LISA requirements over the entire LISA Pathfinder measurement band.

  12. Venus 2000 Mission Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folta, David; Marr, Greg; Vaughn, Frank; Houghton, Martin B.

    1997-05-01

    As part of the Discovery Program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has solicited proposals for inter-planetary research to conduct solar system exploration science investigations. A mission, called Venus 2000 (V2k), has been proposed for exploration of the Venus Atmosphere. This is NASAs first voyage to Venus to investigate key science objectives since Magellan and will be launched in summer 2002. In keeping with discovery program requirements to reduce total mission cost and utilize new technology, V2k mission design and control will focus on the use of innovative and proven trajectory analysis programs and control systems provided by the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC).

  13. Manned Venus Orbiting Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willis, E. A., Jr.

    1967-01-01

    Manned orbiting stopover round trips to Venus are studied for departure dates between 1975 and 1986 over a range of trip times and stay times. The use of highly elliptic parking orbits at Venus leads to low initial weights in Earth orbit compared with circular orbits. For the elliptic parking orbit, the effect of constraints on the low altitude observation time on the initial weight is shown. The mission can be accomplished with the Apollo level of chemical propulsion, but advanced chemical or nuclear propulsion can give large weight reductions. The Venus orbiting mission weights than the corresponding Mars mission.

  14. Euclid mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laureijs, R.; Racca, G.; Stagnaro, L.; Salvignol, J.-C.; Lorenzo Alvarez, J.; Saavedra Criado, G.; Gaspar Venancio, L.; Short, A.; Strada, P.; Colombo, C.; Buenadicha, G.; Hoar, J.; Kohley, R.; Vavrek, R.; Mellier, Y.; Berthe, M.; Amiaux, J.; Cropper, M.; Niemi, S.; Pottinger, S.; Ealet, A.; Jahnke, K.; Maciaszek, T.; Pasian, F.; Sauvage, M.; Wachter, S.; Israelsson, U.; Holmes, W.; Seiffert, M.; Cazaubiel, V.; Anselmi, A.; Musi, P.

    2014-08-01

    In June 2012, Euclid, ESA's Cosmology mission was approved for implementation. Afterwards the industrial contracts were signed for the payload module and the spacecraft prime, and the mission requirements consolidated. We present the status of the mission in the light of the design solutions adopted by the contractors. The performances of the spacecraft in its operation, the telescope assembly, the scientific instruments as well as the data-processing have been carefully budgeted to meet the demanding scientific requirements. We give an overview of the system and where necessary the key items for the interfaces between the subsystems.

  15. Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudd, R.; Textor, G.

    1991-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) mission support requirements for the Voyager Interstellar Mission (VIM) are summarized. The general objectives of the VIM are to investigate the interplanetary and interstellar media and to continue the Voyager program of ultraviolet astronomy. The VIM will utilize both Voyager spacecraft for the period from January 1990 through December 2019. The mission objectives are outlined and the DSN support requirements are defined through the presentation of tables and narratives describing the spacecraft flight profile; DSN support coverage; frequency assignments; support parameters for telemetry, control and support systems; and tracking support responsibility.

  16. NASA'S Space Launch System: Opening Opportunities for Mission Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Kimberly F.; Hefner, Keith; Hitt, David

    2015-01-01

    demonstrate, SLS is making strong progress toward first launch, and represents a unique new capability for spaceflight, and an opportunity to reinvent space by developing out-of-the-box missions and mission designs unlike any flown before.

  17. Exobiology and Future Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P. (Editor); Davis, Wanda, L. (Editor)

    1989-01-01

    Scientific questions associated with exobiology on Mars were considered and how these questions should be addressed on future Mars missions was determined. The mission that provided a focus for discussions was the Mars Rover/Sample Return Mission.

  18. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    1993-10-01

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 5 copies in the file.

  19. Radioisotope Stirling Generator Options for Pluto Fast Flyby Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, Alfred

    2012-01-19

    The preceding paper described conceptual designs and analytical results for five Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) options for the Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF) mission, and the present paper describes three Radioisotope Stirling Generator (RSG) options for the same mission. The RSG options are based on essentially the same radioisotope heat source modules used in previously flown RTGs and on designs and analyses of a 75-watt free-piston Stirling engine produced by Mechanical Technology Incorporated (MTI) for NASA's Lewis Research Center. The integrated system design options presented were generated in a Fairchild Space study sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Special Applications, in support of ongoing PFF mission and spacecraft studies that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducting for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). That study's NASA-directed goal is to reduce the spacecraft mass from its baseline value of 166 kg to ~110 kg, which implies a mass goal of less than 10 kg for a power source able to deliver 69 watts(e) at the end of the 9.2-year mission. In general, the Stirling options were found to be lighter than the thermoelectric options described in the preceding paper. But they are less mature, requiring more development, and entailing greater programmatic risk. The Stirling power system mass ranged from 7.3 kg (well below the 10-kg goal) for a non-redundant system to 11.3 kg for a redundant system able to maintain full power if one of its engines fails. In fact, the latter system could deliver as much as 115 watts(e) if desired by the mission planners. There are 2 copies in the file.

  20. Experiment K-7-18: Effects of Spaceflight in the Muscle Adductor Longus of Rats Flown in the Soviet Biosatellite Cosmos 2044. Part 2; Quantitative Autoradiographic Analysis of Gaba (Benzodiazepine) and Muscarinic (Cholinergic) Receptors in the Forebrain of Rats Flown on Cosmos 2044

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, L.; Daunton, N. G.; Krasnov, I. B.; DAmelio, F.; Hyde, T. M.; Sigworth, S. K.

    1994-01-01

    Quantitative autoradiographic analysis of receptors for GABA and acetylcholine in the forebrain of rats flown on COSMOS 2044 was undertaken as part of a joint US-Soviet study to determine the effects of microgravity on the central nervous system, and in particular on the sensory and motor portions of the forebrain. Changes in binding of these receptors in tissue from animals exposed to microgravity would provide evidence for possible changes in neural processing as a result of exposure to microgravity. Tritium-labelled diazepam and Quinuclidinyl-benzilate (QNB) were used to visualize GABA (benzodiazepine) and muscarinic (cholinergic) receptors, respectively. The density of tritium-labelled radioligands bound to various regions in the forebrain of both flight and control animals were measured from autoradiograms. Data from rats flown in space and from ground-based control animals that were not exposed to microgravity were compared.

  1. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulent sampling missions with an instrumented B-57B aircraft. Volume 2, appendix C: Turbulence missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waco, D. E.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized from a meteorological viewpoint in a two-volume technical memorandum. The missions were part of the NASA Langley Research Center's MAT (Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence) program, which was conducted between March 1974, and September 1975, at altitudes ranging up to 15 km. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encountered on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program.

  2. The Prisma Hyperspectra Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loizzo, R.; Ananasso, C.; Guarini, R.; Lopinto, E.; Candela, L.; Pisani, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    PRISMA (PRecursore IperSpettrale della Missione Applicativa) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) hyperspectral mission currently scheduled for the lunch in 2018. PRISMA is a single satellite placed on a sun- synchronous Low Earth Orbit (620 km altitude) with an expected operational lifetime of 5 years. The hyperspectral payload consists of a high spectral resolution (VNIR-SWIR) imaging spectrometer, optically integrated with a medium resolution Panchromatic camera. PRISMA will acquire data on areas of 30 km Swath width and with a Ground Sampling Distance (GSD) of 30 m (hyperspectral) and of 5 m Panchromatic (PAN). The PRISMA Ground Segment will be geographically distributed between Fucino station and ASI Matera Space Geodesy Centre and will include the Mission Control Centre, the Satellite Control Centre and the Instrument Data Handling System. The science community supports the overall lifecycle of the mission, being involved in algorithms definition, calibration and validation activities, research and applications development.

  3. Cassini's Solstice Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seal, David; Mitchell, Robert

    2010-01-01

    With the recent approval of NASA's flagship Cassini mission for seven more years of continued operations, dozens more Titan, Enceladus and other icy moon flybys await, as well as many occultations and multiple close passages to Saturn. Seasonal change is the principal scientific theme as Cassini extends its survey of the target-rich system over one full half-season, from just after northern winter solstice at arrival back in 2004, to northern summer solstice at the end of mission in 2017. The new seven-year mission extension requires careful propellant management as well as streamlined operations strategies with smaller spacecraft, sequencing and science teams. Cassini's never-before-envisioned end of mission scenario also includes nearly two dozen high-inclination orbits which pass between the rings and the planet allowing thrilling and unique science opportunities before entry into Saturn's atmosphere.

  4. Students on Hayabusa Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Three Massachusetts high school students began their summer with a journey halfway around the world to participate in a NASA airborne mission to image the Japanese Hayabusa spacecraft's fiery retur...

  5. Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Barbara A.

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. The design of the Rover along with the Athena science payload is also described. Photographs of the Gusev Crater and Meridiani rocks are also shown.

  6. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  7. Microspacecraft missions and systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Ross M.

    1989-01-01

    The microspacecraft is defined as a fully functional spacecraft whose mass is on the order of 10 kg or less. The results of a recent microspacecraft workshop are reviewed. The workshop concluded that microspacecraft are feasible and can be enabling for missions that require multiple simultaneous measurements displaced in position or very high mission delta-VSDIO-s. The paper includes discussions of science objectives and instruments as well as potential missions. Potential missions include a very close approach to the sun, determining the origin of gamma ray bursters and a search for gravity waves. Technology for microspacecraft is coming from the 'Lightsat' or small satellite community and developments sponsored by the SDIO. Concepts for microspacecraft power and telecommunications subsystems developed at the JPL are presented. Due to their small size, microspacecraft can be launched by traditional chemical rockets and also unconventional launchers such as electromagnetic launchers.

  8. Apollo 15 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A detailed discussion is presented of the Apollo 15 mission, which conducted exploration of the moon over longer periods, greater ranges, and with more instruments of scientific data acquisition than previous missions. The topics include trajectory, lunar surface science, inflight science and photography, command and service module performance, lunar module performance, lunar surface operational equipment, pilot's report, biomedical evaluation, mission support performance, assessment of mission objectives, launch phase summary, anomaly summary, and vehicle and equipment descriptions. The capability of transporting larger payloads and extending time on the moon were demonstrated. The ground-controlled TV camera allowed greater real-time participation by earth-bound personnel. The crew operated more as scientists and relied more on ground support team for systems monitoring. The modified pressure garment and portable life support system provided better mobility and extended EVA time. The lunar roving vehicle and the lunar communications relay unit were also demonstrated.

  9. The MARSIS Science Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaut, J J.; Picardi, G.

    2005-01-01

    The Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding (MARSIS) is an integral component of the Mars Express mission. A low-frequency sounding radar was carried on the Russian Mars 96 spacecraft, and in keeping with the concept of re-flying the science experiments lost on that mission, a call for a radar sounder was part of the Announcement of Opportunity for the 2003 ESA Mars Express mission. MARSIS is the only totally new instrument on Mars Express. The instrument was developed, delivered and operated as a joint effort between the Italian Space Agency and the U.S space agency NASA. The MARSIS science mission has been delayed due to concerns about the safety of the antenna deployment. As a testament to the importance placed on the

  10. STS-133 Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery and the STS-133 crew launched Feb. 24, 2011, on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, Robonaut 2 and the Express Logistics Carrier 4 to the International S...

  11. The IRIS Mission Timeline

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the timeline of activities for the IRIS mission. Following launch, during the initial orbits, the spacecraft “detumbles”, opens the solar arrays, acquires the sun and com...

  12. NASA Hurricane Mission - GRIP

    NASA Video Gallery

    This is an overview of NASA's hurricane research campaign called Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP). The six-week mission was conducted in coordination with NOAA and the National Sc...

  13. Mission X Introduction

    NASA Video Gallery

    Expedition 26 Flight Engineer Cady Coleman delivers a message to student teams participating in the Mission X: Train Like An Astronaut international education and fitness challenge. To learn more, ...

  14. An interstellar precursor mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L. D.; Ivie, C.; Lewis, J. C.; Lipes, R. G.; Norton, H. N.; Stearns, J. W.; Stimpson, L.; Weissman, P.

    1977-01-01

    A mission out of the planetary system, with launch about the year 2000, could provide valuable scientific data as well as test some of the technology for a later mission to another star. Primary scientific objectives for the precursor mission concern characteristics of the heliopause, the interstellar medium, stellar distances (by parallax measurements), low energy cosmic rays, interplanetary gas distribution, and mass of the solar system. Secondary objectives include investigation of Pluto. Candidate science instruments are suggested. Individual spacecraft systems for the mission were considered, technology requirements and problem areas noted, and a number of recommendations made for technology study and advanced development. The most critical technology needs include attainment of 50-yr spacecraft lifetime and development of a long-life NEP system.

  15. Technology Demonstration Missions

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Technology Demonstration Missions (TDM) Program seeks to infuse new technology into space applications, bridging the gap between mature “lab-proven” technology and "flight-ready" status....

  16. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  17. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  18. Atmospheric tether mission analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA is considering the use of tethered satellites to explore regions of the atmosphere inaccessible to spacecraft or high altitude research balloons. This report summarizes the Lockheed Martin Astronautics (LMA) effort for the engineering study team assessment of an Orbiter-based atmospheric tether mission. Lockheed Martin responsibilities included design recommendations for the deployer and tether, as well as tether dynamic analyses for the mission. Three tether configurations were studied including single line, multistrand (Hoytether) and tape designs.

  19. Galileo Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-07-01

    The first of two tapes of the Galileo Mission Science press briefing is presented. The panel is moderated by George Diller from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Public Affairs Office. The participants are John Conway, the director of Payload and operations at Kennedy; Donald E. Williams, Commander of STS-43, the shuttle mission which will launch the Galileo mission; John Casani, the Deputy Assistant Director of Flight Projects at the Jet Propulsion Lab (JPL); Dick Spehalski, Galileo Project Manager at JPL; and Terrence Johnson, Galileo Project Scientist at JPL. The briefing begins with an announcement of the arrival of the Galileo Orbiter at KSC. The required steps prior to the launch are discussed. The mission trajectory and gravity assists from planetary and solar flybys are reviewed. Detailed designs of the orbiter are shown. The distance that Galileo will travel from the sun precludes the use of solar energy for heat. Therefore Radioisotope heater units are used to keep the equipment at operational temperature. A video of the arrival of the spacecraft at KSC and final tests and preparations is shown. Some of the many science goals of the mission are reviewed. Another video showing an overview of the Galileo mission is presented. During the question and answer period, the issue of the use of plutonium on the mission is broached, which engenders a review of the testing methods used to ensure the safety of the capsules containing the hazardous substance. This video has actual shots of the orbiter, as it is undergoing the final preparations and tests for the mission.

  20. Apollo 17 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 17 mission are outlined. The vehicle configuration was similar to those of Apollo 15 and 16. There were significant differences in the science payload for Apollo 17 and spacecraft hardware differences and experiment equipment are described. The mission achieved a landing in the Taurus-Littrow region of the moon and returned samples of the pre-Imbrium highlands and young craters.

  1. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Luce, M.; Barnett, J.; Beer, R.; Waters, J.; Gille, J.; Levelt, P. F.; DeCola, P.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The EOS Aura Mission is designed to make comprehensive chemical measurements of the troposphere and stratosphere. In addition the mission will make measurements of important climate variables such as aerosols, and upper tropospheric water vapor and ozone. Aura will launch in late 2003 and will fly 15 minutes behind EOS Aqua in a polar sun synchronous ascending node orbit with a 1:30 pm equator crossing time.

  2. NEEMO 7 undersea mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirsk, Robert; Williams, David; Anvari, Mehran

    2007-02-01

    The NEEMO 7 mission was the seventh in a series of NASA-coordinated missions utilizing the Aquarius undersea habitat in Florida as a human space mission analog. The primary research focus of this mission was to evaluate telementoring and telerobotic surgery technologies as potential means to deliver medical care to astronauts during spaceflight. The NEEMO 7 crewmembers received minimal pre-mission training to perform selected medical and surgical procedures. These procedures included: (1) use of a portable ultrasound to locate and measure abdominal organs and structures in a crewmember subject; (2) use of a portable ultrasound to insert a small needle and drain into a fluid-filled cystic cavity in a simulated patient; (3) surgical repair of two arteries in a simulated patient; (4) cystoscopy and use of a ureteral basket to remove a renal stone in a simulated patient; and (5) laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a simulated patient. During the actual mission, the crewmembers performed the procedures without or with telementoring and telerobotic assistance from experts located in Hamilton, Ontario. The results of the NEEMO 7 medical experiments demonstrated that telehealth interventions rely heavily on a robust broadband, high data rate telecommunication link; that certain interventional procedures can be performed adequately by minimally trained individuals with telementoring assistance; and that prior clinical experience does not always correlate with better procedural performance. As space missions become longer in duration and take place further from Earth, enhancement of medical care capability and expertise will be required. The kinds of medical technologies demonstrated during the NEEMO 7 mission may play a significant role in enabling the human exploration of space beyond low earth orbit, particularly to destinations such as the Moon and Mars.

  3. Apollo mission experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Dosimetric implications for manned space flight are evaluated by analyzing the radiation field behind the heavy shielding of a manned space vehicle on a near-earth orbital mission and how it compares with actual exposure levels recorded on Apollo missions. Emphasis shifts from flux densities and energy spectra to incident radiation and absorbed doses and dose equivalents as they are recorded within the ship at locations close to crew members.

  4. The PLATO Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauer, H.; Aerts, C.; Cabrera, J.; PLATO Team

    2016-09-01

    We present the current status of the PLATO space mission, which is currently in its design phase. A brief overview of its capabilities is given, after introducing the core science goals of the mission. We also present the amount of observing time offered to the community as Guest Observer program. This will allow a wealth of complementary science in many areas of astrophysics, ranging from stellar to extragalactic science and covering variability phenomena with time scales from a few seconds to years.

  5. Effect Of Spaceflight On Microbial Gene Expression And Virulence: Preliminary Results From Microbe Payload Flown On-Board STS-115

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. W.; HonerzuBentrup, K,; Schurr, M. J.; Buchanan, K.; Morici, L.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Ott, C. M.; Nelman-Gonzalez M.; Schurr, J. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Stodieck, L.; Hing, S.; Hammond, T.; Allen, P.; Baker, C.; Parra, M.; Dumars, P.; Stefanyshyn-Piper, H. M.; Nickerson, C. A.

    2007-01-01

    Human presence in space, whether permanent or temporary, is accompanied by the presence of microbes. However, the extent of microbial changes in response to spaceflight conditions and the corresponding changes to infectious disease risk is unclear. Previous studies have indicated that spaceflight weakens the immune system in humans and animals. In addition, preflight and in-flight monitoring of the International Space Station (ISS) and other spacecraft indicates the presence of opportunistic pathogens and the potential of obligate pathogens. Altered antibiotic resistance of microbes in flight has also been shown. As astronauts and cosmonauts live for longer periods in a closed environment, especially one using recycled water and air, there is an increased risk to crewmembers of infectious disease events occurring in-flight. Therefore, understanding how the space environment affects microorganisms and their disease potential is critically important for spaceflight missions and requires further study. The goal of this flight experiment, operationally called MICROBE, is to utilize three model microbial pathogens, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans to examine the global effects of spaceflight on microbial gene expression and virulence attributes. Specifically, the aims are (1) to perform microarray-mediated gene expression profiling of S. typhimurium, P. aeruginosa, and C. albicans, in response to spaceflight in comparison to ground controls and (2) to determine the effect of spaceflight on the virulence potential of these microorganisms immediately following their return from spaceflight using murine models. The model microorganisms were selected as they have been isolated from preflight or in-flight monitoring, represent different degrees of pathogenic behavior, are well characterized, and have sequenced genomes with available microarrays. In particular, extensive studies of S. typhimurium by the Principal Investigator, Dr. Nickerson

  6. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2013-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed eLISA mission. The technologies required for eLISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical eLISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the eLISA constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the eLISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  7. The Voyager Interstellar Mission.

    PubMed

    Rudd, R P; Hall, J C; Spradlin, G L

    1997-01-01

    The Voyager Interstellar Mission began on January 1, 1990, with the primary objective being to characterize the interplanetary medium beyond Neptune and to search for the transition region between the interplanetary medium and the interstellar medium. At the start of this mission, the two Voyager spacecraft had already been in flight for over twelve years, having successfully returned a wealth of scientific information about the planetary systems of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, and the interplanetary medium between Earth and Neptune. The two spacecraft have the potential to continue returning science data until around the year 2020. With this extended operating lifetime, there is a high likelihood of one of the two spacecraft penetrating the termination shock and possibly the heliopause boundary, and entering interstellar space before that time. This paper describes the Voyager Interstellar Mission--the mission objectives, the spacecraft and science payload, the mission operations system used to support operations, and the mission operations strategy being used to maximize science data return even in the event of certain potential spacecraft subsystem failures. The implementation of automated analysis tools to offset and enable reduced flight team staffing levels is also discussed.

  8. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The Office of Exploration has established a process whereby all NASA field centers and other NASA Headquarters offices participate in the formulation and analysis of a wide range of mission strategies. These strategies were manifested into specific scenarios or candidate case studies. The case studies provided a systematic approach into analyzing each mission element. First, each case study must address several major themes and rationale including: national pride and international prestige, advancement of scientific knowledge, a catalyst for technology, economic benefits, space enterprise, international cooperation, and education and excellence. Second, the set of candidate case studies are formulated to encompass the technology requirement limits in the life sciences, launch capabilities, space transfer, automation, and robotics in space operations, power, and propulsion. The first set of reference case studies identify three major strategies: human expeditions, science outposts, and evolutionary expansion. During the past year, four case studies were examined to explore these strategies. The expeditionary missions include the Human Expedition to Phobos and Human Expedition to Mars case studies. The Lunar Observatory and Lunar Outpost to Early Mars Evolution case studies examined the later two strategies. This set of case studies established the framework to perform detailed mission analysis and system engineering to define a host of concepts and requirements for various space systems and advanced technologies. The details of each mission are described and, specifically, the results affecting the advanced technologies required to accomplish each mission scenario are presented.

  9. STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of members of the STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator. The crew members are in the simulated flight deck. Seated behind the pilot is mission specialist Steven Hawley. Beside him are mission specialist Judith Resnick and pilot Michael Coats. All three are wearing their communication kit assemblies.

  10. The Orléans-Lithothèque - an analogue rockstore for in situ missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Ramboz, Claire

    2010-05-01

    The Orléans-Lithothèque - an analogue rockstore for in situ missions Nicolas Bost, Frances Westall, Claire Ramboz, Axelle Hubert, Derek Pullan, Beda Hofmann, Elisabeth Vergès, Michel Viso, Jorge Vago, Christelle Briois, Bruno Scaillet, Michel Tagger Instruments for in-situ missions to extraterrestrial bodies should ideally be cross calibrated using a common suite of relevant materials. Such multi-instrument calibration would enable a better comparison of instrument performances during the mission, as well as aid in the interpretation of the in-situ measurements. At the CNRS in Orléans, the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers de la region Centre is creating a collection of well-characterised rocks that will be available for testing and calibrating instruments to be flown on space missions. The characteristics of the collection's analogue materials will be described in an online database. In view of the upcoming 2018 ExoMars rover mission, we are concentrating initially on materials of direct relevance to Mars. The initial collection includes basalts (ultramafic, weathered, andesitic, hydrothermally-silicified); sediments (volcanic, biolaminated, banded iron formation); and minerals (silica, evaporites, clays, Fe oxides). This set of samples will be augmented with time. All samples will be characterised petrographically, petrologically, and geochemically using the types of analyses likely to be performed during an in-situ mission: hand specimen description, optical microscopy, mineralogical analysis (XRD, Raman and IR spectrometry), elemental analysis (EDX, microprobe, ICP) and organics analysis (Raman, pyr-GCMS).

  11. Rosetta Mission Status update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Matthew

    2015-04-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to ex-amine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae is the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, Rosetta successfully rendezvoused with the comet. Following an intense period of map-ping and characterisation, a landing site for Philae was selected and on 12 November 2014, Philae was suc-cessfully deployed. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in main science phase, which began with Philae's separation. It will also provide a look forward. IT is given on behalf of ALL Rosetta mission science, in-strument and operations teams.

  12. Rosetta Mission Status Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, M. G.; Altobelli, N.; Alexander, C. J.; Schwehm, G. H.; Jansen, F.; Küppers, M.; O'Rourke, L.; Barthelemy, M.; Geiger, B.; Grieger, B.; Moissl, R.; Vallat, C.

    2014-12-01

    The Rosetta Mission is the third cornerstone mission the ESA programme Horizon 2000. The aim of the mission is to map the comet 67-P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko by remote sensing, to examine its environment insitu and its evolution in the inner solar system. The lander Philae will be the first device to land on a comet and perform in-situ science on the surface. Nearly 10 years after launch in 2004, on 20th January 2014 at 10:00 UTC the spacecraft woke up from hibernation. Following successful instrument commissioning, at the time of writing the spacecraft is about to rendez-vous with the comet. The rest of 2014 will involve careful mapping and characterisation of the nucleus and its environs, for science and to identify a landing site for the lander Philae in November. This presentation will provide a brief overview of the mission up to date and where we stand in early part of the escort phase of the mission which runs until end of 2015.

  13. Autonomous mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, J.; Spirkovska, L.; McCann, R.; Wang, Lui; Pohlkamp, K.; Morin, L.

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an empirical investigation of the impact of time delay on today's mission operations, and of the effect of processes and mission support tools designed to mitigate time-delay related impacts. Mission operation scenarios were designed for NASA's Deep Space Habitat (DSH), an analog spacecraft habitat, covering a range of activities including nominal objectives, DSH system failures, and crew medical emergencies. The scenarios were simulated at time delay values representative of Lunar (1.2-5 sec), Near Earth Object (NEO) (50 sec) and Mars (300 sec) missions. Each combination of operational scenario and time delay was tested in a Baseline configuration, designed to reflect present-day operations of the International Space Station, and a Mitigation configuration in which a variety of software tools, information displays, and crew-ground communications protocols were employed to assist both crews and Flight Control Team (FCT) members with the long-delay conditions. Preliminary findings indicate: 1) Workload of both crewmembers and FCT members generally increased along with increasing time delay. 2) Advanced procedure execution viewers, caution and warning tools, and communications protocols such as text messaging decreased the workload of both flight controllers and crew, and decreased the difficulty of coordinating activities. 3) Whereas crew workload ratings increased between 50 sec and 300 sec of time delay in the Baseline configuration, workload ratings decreased (or remained flat) in the Mitigation configuration.

  14. Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, C. T.; Kluever, C.; Burch, J. L.; Fennell, J. F.; Hack, K.; Hillard, G. B.; Kurth, W. S.; Lopez, R. E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Martin, J. B.; Hanson, J. E.

    1998-01-01

    The Geospace Magnetospheric Dynamics (GMD) mission is designed to provide very closely spaced, multipoint measurements in the thin current sheets of the magnetosphere to determine the relation between small scale processes and the global dynamics of the magnetosphere. Its trajectory is specifically designed to optimize the time spent in the current layers and to minimize radiation damage to the spacecraft. Observations are concentrated in the region 8 to 40 R(sub E) The mission consists of three phases. After a launch into geostationary transfer orbit the orbits are circularized to probe the region between geostationary orbit and the magnetopause; next the orbit is elongated keeping perigee at the magnetopause while keeping the line of apsides down the tail. Finally, once apogee reaches 40 R(sub E) the inclination is changed so that the orbit will match the profile of the noon-midnight meridian of the magnetosphere. This mission consists of 4 solar electrically propelled vehicles, each with a single NSTAR thruster utilizing 100 kg of Xe to tour the magnetosphere in the course of a 4.4 year mission, the same thrusters that have been successfully tested on the Deep Space-1 mission.

  15. The LISA Pathfinder mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2012-07-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for future spaceborne gravitational wave observatories, for example the proposed ESA mission, NGO. The technologies required for NGO are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise, led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical NGO technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the NGO constellation by shrinking the 1 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the NGO interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. Here I will present an overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals, followed by the current status of the project.

  16. The DUNE Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castander, F. J.

    The Dark UNiverse Explorer (DUNE) is a wide-field imaging mission concept whose primary goal is the study of dark energy and dark matter with unprecedented precision. To this end, DUNE is optimised for weak gravitational lensing, and also uses complementary cosmological probes, such as baryonic oscillations, the integrated Sachs-Wolf effect, and cluster counts. Besides its observational cosmology goals, the mission capabilities of DUNE allow the study of galaxy evolution, galactic structure and the demographics of Earth-mass planets. DUNE is a medium class mission consisting of a 1.2m telescope designed to carry out an all-sky survey in one visible and three NIR bands. The final data of the DUNE mission will form a unique legacy for the astronomy community. DUNE has been selected jointly with SPACE for an ESA Assessment phase which has led to the Euclid merged mission concept which combines wide-field deep imaging with low resolution multi-object spectroscopy.

  17. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  18. STS-90 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The STS-90 crew patch reflects the dedication of the mission to neuroscience in celebration of the decade of the brain. Earth is revealed through a neuron-shaped window, which symbolizes new perspectives in the understanding of nervous system development, structure and function, both here on Earth and in the microgravity environment of space. The Space Shuttle Columbia is depicted with its open payload bay doors revealing the Spacelab within. An integral component of the mission, the laboratory/science module provided by the European Space Agency (ESA), signifies the strong international involvement in the mission. The seven crew members and two alternate payload specialists, Chiaki Naito-Mukai and Alexander W. Dunlap, are represented by the nine major stars of the constellation Cetus (the whale) in recognition of the International Year of the Ocean. The distant stars illustrate the far reaching implications of the mission science to the many sponsoring agencies, helping prepare for long-duration space flight aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The moon and Mars are depicted to reflect the crew's recognition that those two celestial bodies will be the next great challenges in human exploration of space and represent the key role that life science research will play in supporting such missions.

  19. STS-95 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The STS-95 patch, designed by the crew, is intended to reflect the scientific, engineering, and historic elements of the mission. The Space Shuttle Discovery is shown rising over the sunlit Earth limb, representing the global benefits of the mission science and the solar science objectives of the Spartan Satellite. The bold number '7' signifies the seven members of Discovery's crew and also represents a historical link to the original seven Mercury astronauts. The STS-95 crew member John Glenn's first orbital flight is represented by the Friendship 7 capsule. The rocket plumes symbolize the three major fields of science represented by the mission payloads: microgravity material science, medical research for humans on Earth and in space, and astronomy.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA LISA mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space borne gravitational wave detection; it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) essentially mimics one arm of space-borne gravitational wave detectors by shrinking the million kilometer scale armlengths down to a few tens of centimeters, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology. The scientific objective of the LPF mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology.

  1. Athena Mission Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, D.

    2016-07-01

    Athena has been selected by ESA for its second large mission opportunity of the Cosmic Visions programme, to address the theme of the Hot and Energetic Universe. Following the submission of a proposal from the community, the technical and programmatic aspects of the mission design were reviewed in ESA's Concurrent Design Facility. The proposed concept was deemed to betechnically feasible, but with potential constraints from cost and schedule. Two parallel industry study contracts have been conducted to explore these conclusions more thoroughly, with the key aim of providing consolidated inputs to a Mission Consolidation Review that was conducted in April-May 2016. This MCR has recommended a baseline design, which allows the agency to solicit proposals for a community provided payload. Key design aspects arising from the studies are described, and the new reference design is summarised.

  2. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stebbins, Robin

    2009-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is a European Space Agency (ESA) mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for spaceborne gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. LISA Pathfinder is currently in the integration and test phase of the development, and is due to be launched on a dedicated launch vehicle in late 2011, with first results on the performance of the system being available approx 6 months later. This poster will describe the mission in detail, give the current status of the spacecraft development, and highlight the future milestones in the integration and test campaign.

  3. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, Paul

    2015-04-01

    LISA Pathfinder is the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research and Technology (SMART). The goal of LISA Pathfinder (LPF) is to demonstrate the technologies required for future laser interferometric spaceborne gravitational wave detectors. The development of the LPF hardware is now over, and final integration and testing of the spacecraft and payload is underway. The delivery of the opto-mechanical heart of the payload is scheduled for Q2 2015, following which the final system tests will be performed. Launch is scheduled for September 2015. First results will be available approximately 3 months after launch. In this presentation I will describe the LISA Pathfinder mission, and provide the current status of the mission and remaining activities to launch and operations.

  4. Investigations of the effects of cosmic rays on Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds; results of Exobloc II experiment, flown aboard Biocosmos 1887.

    PubMed

    Gaubin, Y; Delpoux, M; Pianezzi, B; Gasset, G; Heilmann, C; Planel, H

    1990-01-01

    Artemia (Brine shrimp) cysts and tobacco seeds, dormant biological material devoid of metabolic activity, were flown aboard the Soviet Biocosmos 1887 in order to investigate the effects of cosmic rays. Artemia cysts and tobacco seeds were used in bulk or in monolayers sandwiched with track detectors. Biological and physical units were located outside and inside the spacecraft. Stacks included lead shielding in order to expose the objects to different doses of radiation. Total dosimetry was performed using thermoluminescent detectors. In spite of low levels of doses, the space flight resulted in a decrease in developmental capacity of Artemia cysts, and in a higher mutation rate in tobacco seeds. The more obvious responses occurred, in both cases, in biological objects exposed to the highest doses. These results are compared to those of previous space experiments.

  5. [Ultrastructure of the blood vessels and muscle fibers in the skeletal muscle of rats flown on the Kosmos-605 and Kosmos-782 biosatellites].

    PubMed

    Savik, Z F; Rokhlenko, K D

    1981-01-01

    Electron microscopy was used to study ultrastructures of the wall of blood vessels and muscle fibers of the red (soleus) and mixed (gastrocnemius) muscles of rats flown on Cosmos-605 for 22.5 days and on Cosmos-782 for 19,5 days and sacrificed 4-6 hours, 48 hours and 25-27 days postflight. It was demonstrated that the orbital flight did not induce significant changes in the ultrastructure of blood vessels of the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles but caused atrophy of muscle fibers and reduction of the number of functioning capillaries. Readaptation of the soleus vascular system to 1 g led to degradation of permeability of capillary and venular walls and development of edema of the perivascular connective tissue. This may be one of the factors responsible for dystrophic changes in muscle fibers.

  6. Rapid Cost Assessment of Space Mission Concepts Through Application of Complexity-Based Cost Indices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Craig E.; Cutts, James; Balint, Tibor; Hall, James B.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development of a rapid cost assessment models for evaluation of exploration missions through the application of complexity based cost indices. In Fall of 2004, NASA began developing 13 documents, known as "strategic roadmaps," intended to outline a strategy for space exploration over the next 30 years. The Third Strategic Roadmap, The Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration, focused on strategy for robotic exploration of the Solar System. Development of the Strategic Roadmap for Solar System Exploration led to the investigation of a large variety of missions. However, the necessity of planning around scientific inquiry and budgetary constraints made it necessary for the roadmap development team to evaluate potential missions not only for scientific return but also cost. Performing detailed cost studies for each of the large number of missions was impractical given the time constraints involved and lack of detailed mission studies; so a method of rapid cost assessment was developed by us to allow preliminary analysis. It has been noted that there is a strong correlation between complexity and cost and schedule of planetary missions. While these correlations were made after missions had been built and flown (successfully or otherwise), it seemed likely that a similar approach could provide at least some relative cost ranking. Cost estimation relationships (CERs) have been developed based on subsystem design choices. These CERs required more detailed information than available, forcing the team to adopt a more high level approach. Costing by analogy has been developed for small satellites, however, planetary exploration missions provide such varying spacecraft requirements that there is a lack of adequately comparable missions that can be used for analogy.

  7. The Asteroid Impact Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnelli, Ian; Galvez, Andres; Mellab, Karim

    2016-04-01

    The Asteroid Impact Mission (AIM) is a small and innovative mission of opportunity, currently under study at ESA, intending to demonstrate new technologies for future deep-space missions while addressing planetary defense objectives and performing for the first time detailed investigations of a binary asteroid system. It leverages on a unique opportunity provided by asteroid 65803 Didymos, set for an Earth close-encounter in October 2022, to achieve a fast mission return in only two years after launch in October/November 2020. AIM is also ESA's contribution to an international cooperation between ESA and NASA called Asteroid Impact Deflection Assessment (AIDA), consisting of two mission elements: the NASA Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission and the AIM rendezvous spacecraft. The primary goals of AIDA are to test our ability to perform a spacecraft impact on a near-Earth asteroid and to measure and characterize the deflection caused by the impact. The two mission components of AIDA, DART and AIM, are each independently valuable but when combined they provide a greatly increased scientific return. The DART hypervelocity impact on the secondary asteroid will alter the binary orbit period, which will also be measured by means of lightcurves observations from Earth-based telescopes. AIM instead will perform before and after detailed characterization shedding light on the dependence of the momentum transfer on the asteroid's bulk density, porosity, surface and internal properties. AIM will gather data describing the fragmentation and restructuring processes as well as the ejection of material, and relate them to parameters that can only be available from ground-based observations. Collisional events are of great importance in the formation and evolution of planetary systems, own Solar System and planetary rings. The AIDA scenario will provide a unique opportunity to observe a collision event directly in space, and simultaneously from ground-based optical and

  8. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1989-01-01

    The nation's efforts to expand human presence and activity beyond Earth orbit into the solar system was given renewed emphasis in January of 1988 when the Presidential Directive on National Space Policy was signed into effect. The expansion of human presence into the solar system has particular significance, in that it defines long-range goals for NASA's future missions. To embark and achieve such ambitious ventures is a significant undertaking, particularly compared to past space activities. Missions to Mars, the Moon, and Phobos, as well as an observatory based on the dark side of the Moon are discussed.

  9. Aquarius Mission Technical Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, D. M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Yueh, S.; Dinnat, E.; Pellerano, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band microwave instrument being developed to map the surface salinity field of the oceans from space. It is part of the Aquarius/SAC-D mission, a partnership between the USA (NASA) and Argentina (CONAE) with launch scheduled for early in 2009. The primary science objective of this mission is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean with a spatial resolution of 150 km and a retrieval accuracy of 0.2 psu globally on a monthly basis.

  10. Apollo 13 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The Apollo 13 mission, planned as a lunar landing in the Fra Mauro area, was aborted because of an abrupt loss of service module cryogenic oxygen associated with a fire in one of the two tanks at approximately 56 hours. The lunar module provided the necessary support to sustain a minimum operational condition for a safe return to earth. A circumlunar profile was executed as the most efficient means of earth return, with the lunar module providing power and life support until transfer to the command module just prior to entry. Although the mission was unsuccessful as planned, a lunar flyby and several scientific experiments were completed.

  11. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.; Warner, R.; Dill, B.; Huffman, G.; McLoughlin, F.; Mills, R.; Miller, R.

    1994-03-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  12. STS-52 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 insignia, designed by the mission's crew members, features a large gold star to symbolize the crew's mission on the frontiers of space. A gold star is often used to symbolize the frontier period of the American West. The red star in the shape of the Greek letter lambda represents both the laser measurements taken from the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS II) and the Lambda Point Experiment, which was part of the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-l). The remote manipulator and maple leaf are emblematic of the Canadian payload specialist who conducted a series of Canadian flight experiments (CANEX-2), including the Space Vision System test.

  13. Mission Critical Networking

    SciTech Connect

    Eltoweissy, Mohamed Y.; Du, David H.C.; Gerla, Mario; Giordano, Silvia; Gouda, Mohamed; Schulzrinne, Henning; Youssef, Moustafa

    2010-06-01

    Mission-Critical Networking (MCN) refers to networking for application domains where life or livelihood may be at risk. Typical application domains for MCN include critical infrastructure protection and operation, emergency and crisis intervention, healthcare services, and military operations. Such networking is essential for safety, security and economic vitality in our complex world characterized by uncertainty, heterogeneity, emergent behaviors, and the need for reliable and timely response. MCN comprise networking technology, infrastructures and services that may alleviate the risk and directly enable and enhance connectivity for mission-critical information exchange among diverse, widely dispersed, mobile users.

  14. Mars Stratigraphy Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budney, C. J.; Miller, S. L.; Cutts, J. A.

    2000-01-01

    The Mars Stratigraphy Mission lands a rover on the surface of Mars which descends down a cliff in Valles Marineris to study the stratigraphy. The rover carries a unique complement of instruments to analyze and age-date materials encountered during descent past 2 km of strata. The science objective for the Mars Stratigraphy Mission is to identify the geologic history of the layered deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars. This includes constraining the time interval for formation of these deposits by measuring the ages of various layers and determining the origin of the deposits (volcanic or sedimentary) by measuring their composition and imaging their morphology.

  15. The ALEXIS mission recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, J.; Armstrong, T.; Dingler, B.; Enemark, D.; Holden, D.; Little, C.; Munson, C.; Priedhorsky, B.; Roussel-Dupre, D.; Smith, B.

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the recovery of the ALEXIS small satellite mission. ALEXIS is a 113-kg satellite that carries an ultrasoft x-ray telescope array and a high-speed VHF receiver/digitizer (BLACKBEARD), supported by a miniature spacecraft bus. It was launched by a Pegasus booster on 1993 April 25, but a solar paddle was damaged during powered flight. Initial attempts to contact ALEXIS were unsuccessful. The satellite finally responded in June, and was soon brought under control. Because the magnetometer had failed, the rescue required the development of new attitude control-techniques. The telemetry system has performed nominally. They discuss the procedures used to recover the ALEXIS mission.

  16. Phased Array GNSS Antenna for the FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 Radio Occultation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turbiner, Dmitry; Young, Larry E.; Meehan, Tom K.

    2012-01-01

    Future GNSS remote sensing instruments such as the TriG receiver require more capable antennas than those flown on missions such as COSMIC. To maximize the number of ionospheric and atmospheric profiles, the TriG receiver will be capable of tracking legacy and new GPS signals such as L5, L2C and L1C; GLONASS CDMA and Galileo E1 and E5a. There has been an in-house effort at JPL to develop a set of antennas that would provide excellent Radio Occultations performance as well as navigation and ionospheric profiling. This effort is on-going but near completion for the manufacture and delivery of a set of flight antennas for the FORMOSAT-7/COSMIC-2 mission.

  17. Summary Report of mission acceleration measurements for STS-66. Launched November 3, 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Experiments flown in the middeck of Atlantis during the STS-66 mission were supported by the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS). In particular, the three triaxial SAMS sensor heads collected data in support of protein crystal growth experiments. Data collected during STS-66 are reviewed in this report. The STS-66 SAMS data represent the microgravity environment in the 0.01 Hz to 10 Hz range. Variations in the environment related to differing levels of crew activity are discussed in the report. A comparison is made among times when the crew was quiet during a public affairs conference, working quietly, and exercising. These levels of activity are also compared to levels recorded by a SAMS unit in the Spacelab on Columbia during the STS-65 mission.

  18. Lunar polar ice deposits: scientific and utilization objectives of the Lunar Ice Discovery Mission proposal.

    PubMed

    Duke, Michael B

    2002-03-01

    The Clementine mission has revived interest in the possibility that ice exists in shadowed craters near the lunar poles. Theoretically, the problem is complex, with several possible sources of water (meteoroid, asteroid, comet impact), several possible loss mechanisms (impact vaporization, sputtering, photoionization), and burial by meteorite impact. Opinions of modelers have ranged from no ice to several times 10(16) g of ice in the cold traps. Clementine bistatic radar data have been interpreted in favor of the presence of ice, while Arecibo radar data do not confirm its presence. The Lunar Prospector mission, planned to be flown in the fall of 1997, could gather new evidence for the existence of ice. If ice is present, both scientific and utilitarian objectives would be addressed by a lunar polar rover, such as that proposed to the NASA Discovery program, but not selected. The lunar polar rover remains the best way to understand the distribution and characteristics of lunar polar ice.

  19. BILLIARDS: A Demonstration Mission for Hundred-Meter Class Near Earth Asteroid Disruption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcus, Matthew; Sloane, Joshua; Ortiz, Oliver; Barbee, Brent W.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, no planetary defense demonstration mission has ever been flown. While Nuclear Explosive Devices (NEDs) have significantly more energy than a kinetic impactor launched directly from Earth, they present safety and political complications, and therefore may only be used when absolutely necessary. The Baseline Instrumented Lithology Lander, Inspector, and Asteroid Redirection Demonstration System (BILLIARDS) is a demonstration mission for planetary defense, which is capable of delivering comparable energy to the lower range of NED capabilities in the form of a safer kinetic impactor. A small asteroid (<10m) is captured by a spacecraft, which greatly increases the mass available as a kinetic impactor, without the need to bring all of the mass out of Earth's gravity well. The small asteroid is then deflected onto a collision course with a larger (approx. 100m) asteroid. This collision will deflect or disrupt the larger asteroid. To reduce the cost and complexity, an asteroid pair which has a natural close approach is selected.

  20. The design and realisation of the IXV Mission Analysis and Flight Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haya-Ramos, Rodrigo; Blanco, Gonzalo; Pontijas, Irene; Bonetti, Davide; Freixa, Jordi; Parigini, Cristina; Bassano, Edmondo; Carducci, Riccardo; Sudars, Martins; Denaro, Angelo; Angelini, Roberto; Mancuso, Salvatore

    2016-07-01

    The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is a suborbital re-entry demonstrator successfully launched in February 2015 focusing on the in-flight demonstration of a lifting body system with active aerodynamic control surfaces. This paper presents an overview of the Mission Analysis and Flight Mechanics of the IXV vehicle, which comprises computation of the End-to-End (launch to splashdown) design trajectories, characterisation of the Entry Corridor, assessment of the Mission Performances through Monte Carlo campaigns, contribution to the aerodynamic database, analysis of the Visibility and link budget from Ground Stations and GPS, support to safety analyses (off nominal footprints), specification of the Centre of Gravity box, selection of the Angle of Attack trim line to be flown and characterisation of the Flying Qualities performances. An initial analysis and comparison with the raw flight data obtained during the flight will be discussed and first lessons learned derived.

  1. Statistical analysis of mission profile parameters of civil transport airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buxbaum, O.

    1972-01-01

    The statistical analysis of flight times as well as airplane gross weights and fuel weights of jet-powered civil transport airplanes has shown that the distributions of their frequency of occurrence per flight can be presented approximately in general form. Before, however, these results may be used during the project stage of an airplane for defining a typical mission profile (the parameters of which are assumed to occur, for example, with a probability of 50 percent), the following points have to be taken into account. Because the individual airplanes were rotated during service, the scatter between the distributions of mission profile parameters for airplanes of the same type, which were flown with similar payload, has proven to be very small. Significant deviations from the generalized distributions may occur if an operator uses one airplane preferably on one or two specific routes. Another reason for larger deviations could be that the maintenance services of the operators of the observed airplanes are not representative of other airlines. Although there are indications that this is unlikely, similar information should be obtained from other operators. Such information would improve the reliability of the data.

  2. The influence of subsonic mission segments on the use of variable-sweep wings for high speed civil transport configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Glenn L.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.; Domack, Christopher S.; Shields, E. William

    1988-01-01

    A Mach-3.0, 250-passenger, 6500-n. mi. range SST configuration's alternative use of fixed-planform or variable-sweep wings is presently evaluated, with a view to effects on aerodynamics, mission performance, and sizing. After preliminary design, the fixed and variable-wing configurations were resized to perform missions incorporating subsonic cruise segments of as much as 4000 n. mi.; the effect of subsonic segment length on design gross weight and block time was then ascertained. Due to the reduced supersonic efficiency of the variable-sweep aircraft, over one-half of the 6500-n. mi. mission would have to be flown subsonically for its sizing to reach a lower ramp weight than that of its fixed-geometry counterpart.

  3. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, C.

    1980-07-01

    The objectives, instruments, operation and spacecraft design for the Solar Maximum Mission are discussed. The satellite, first in a series of Multi-Mission Modular Spacecraft, was launched on February 14, 1980, to take advantage of the current maximum in the solar activity cycle to study solar flares at wavelengths from the visible to the gamma-ray. The satellite carries six instruments for the simultaneous study of solar flares, namely the coronagraph/polarimeter, X-ray polychromator, ultraviolet spectrometer and polarimeter, hard X-ray imaging spectrometer, hard X-ray burst spectrometer and gamma-ray spectrometer, and an active cavity radiometer for the accurate determination of the solar constant. In contrast to most satellite operations, Solar Maximum Mission investigators work together for the duration of the flight, comparing data obtained by the various instruments and planning observing programs daily on the basis of flare predictions and indicators. Thus far into the mission, over 50 data sets on reasonably large flares have been obtained, and important observations of coronal transients, magnetic fields in the transition region, flare time spectra, and material emitting X-rays between flares have been obtained.

  4. Apollo 16 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Information is provided on the operational and engineering aspects of the Apollo 16 mission. Customary units of measurement are used in those sections of the report pertaining to spacecraft systems and trajectories. The International System of Units is used in sections pertaining to science activities.

  5. Visual Navigation - SARE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alonso, Roberto; Kuba, Jose; Caruso, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The SARE Earth Observing and Technological Mission is part of the Argentinean Space Agency (CONAE - Comision Nacional de Actividades Espaciales) Small and Technological Payloads Program. The Argentinean National Space Program requires from the SARE program mission to test in a real environment of several units, assemblies and components to reduce the risk of using these equipments in more expensive Space Missions. The objective is to make use those components with an acceptable maturity in design or development, but without any heritage at space. From the application point of view, this mission offers new products in the Earth Observation data market which are listed in the present paper. One of the technological payload on board of the SARE satellite is the sensor Ground Tracker. It computes the satellite attitude and orbit in real time (goal) and/or by ground processing. For the first operating mode a dedicated computer and mass memory are necessary to be part of the mentioned sensor. For the second operational mode the hardware and software are much simpler.

  6. Series of JASMINE missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.

    2011-02-01

    We are planning three space astrometry missions as a series of JASMINE missions; Nano-JASMINE, Small-JASMINE and (Medium-sized)JASMINE. JASMINE is an abbreviation of Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission of INfrared Exploration. The JASMINE mission will measure in an infrared band annual parallaxes, positions on the celestial sphere, and proper motions of many stars in the bulge of the Milky Way (the Galaxy) with high accuracies. A target launch date is the first half of the 2020s. Before the launch of JASMINE, we are planning Nano-JASMINE and Small-JASMINE. Nano-JASMINE uses a very small nano-satellite and it is determined to be launched in 2011. Small-JASMINE is a downsized version of the JASMINE satellite, which observes toward restricted small regions of the Galactic bulge. A target launch date is around 2016. A completely new "map" of the Galactic bulge given by Small-JASMINE and JASMINE will bring us many exciting scientific results.

  7. The Lobster Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barthelmy, Scott

    2011-01-01

    I will give an overview of the Goddard Lobster mission: the science goals, the two instruments, the overall instruments designs, with particular attention to the wide-field x-ray instrument (WFI) using the lobster-eye-like micro-channel optics.

  8. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, P.; Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Congedo, G.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixton, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dumbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martin, V.; Mateos, I.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Schleicher, A.; Shaul, D.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2013-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder (formerly known as SMART-2) is an European Space Agency mission designed to pave the way for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission by testing in flight the critical technologies required for space-borne gravitational wave detection; it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control, and an ultra precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder (LPF) essentially mimics one arm of spaceborne gravitational wave detectors by shrinking the million kilometre scale armlengths down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. In this paper I will give a brief overview of the mission, focusing on scientific and technical goals.

  9. Framing Your Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarrell, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    St. Paul's School in New Hampshire, the Orchard School in Indiana, Chestnut Hill Academy in Pennsylvania, and Dana Hall School in Massachusetts are like most independent schools--they have qualities that are distinctive and extraordinary. Line up their mission statements, however, and the schools sound almost interchangeable. They're all on a…

  10. The Phoenix Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamppari, Leslie K.; Smith, Peter H.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation details the Phoenix Mission which was designed to enhance our understanding of water and the potential for habitability on the north polar regions of Mars. The slides show the instruments and the robotics designed to scrape Martian surface material, and analyze it in hopes of identifying water in the form of ice, and other chemicals.

  11. EOS Aura Mission Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, William J.

    2015-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation will discuss EOS Aura mission and spacecraft subsystem summary, recent and planned activities, inclination adjust maneuvers, propellant usage lifetime estimate. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager-Technical (code 428) has reviewed and approved the slides on April 30, 2015.

  12. Inspiration is "Mission Critical"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, D. W.; DeVore, E.; Lebofsky, L.

    2014-07-01

    In spring 2013, the President's budget proposal restructured the nation's approach to STEM education, eliminating ˜$50M of NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) funding with the intent of transferring it to the Dept. of Education, National Science Foundation, and Smithsonian Institution. As a result, Education and Public Outreach (EPO) would no longer be a NASA mission requirement and funds that had already been competed, awarded, and productively utilized were lost. Since 1994, partnerships of scientists, engineers, and education specialists were required to create innovative approaches to EPO, providing a direct source of inspiration for today's youth that may now be lost. Although seldom discussed or evaluated, "inspiration" is the beginning of lasting education. For decades, NASA's crewed and robotic missions have motivated students of all ages and have demonstrated a high degree of leverage in society. Through personal experiences we discuss (1) the importance of inspiration in education, (2) how NASA plays a vital role in STEM education, (3) examples of high-leverage educational materials showing why NASA should continue embedding EPO specialists within mission teams, and (4) how we can document the role of inspiration. We believe that personal histories are an important means of assessing the success of EPO. We hope this discussion will lead other people to document similar stories of educational success and perhaps to undertake longitudinal studies of the impact of inspiration.

  13. Planetary cubesats - mission architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bousquet, Pierre W.; Ulamec, Stephan; Jaumann, Ralf; Vane, Gregg; Baker, John; Clark, Pamela; Komarek, Tomas; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre; Yano, Hajime

    2016-07-01

    Miniaturisation of technologies over the last decade has made cubesats a valid solution for deep space missions. For example, a spectacular set 13 cubesats will be delivered in 2018 to a high lunar orbit within the frame of SLS' first flight, referred to as Exploration Mission-1 (EM-1). Each of them will perform autonomously valuable scientific or technological investigations. Other situations are encountered, such as the auxiliary landers / rovers and autonomous camera that will be carried in 2018 to asteroid 1993 JU3 by JAXA's Hayabusas 2 probe, and will provide complementary scientific return to their mothership. In this case, cubesats depend on a larger spacecraft for deployment and other resources, such as telecommunication relay or propulsion. For both situations, we will describe in this paper how cubesats can be used as remote observatories (such as NEO detection missions), as technology demonstrators, and how they can perform or contribute to all steps in the Deep Space exploration sequence: Measurements during Deep Space cruise, Body Fly-bies, Body Orbiters, Atmospheric probes (Jupiter probe, Venus atmospheric probes, ..), Static Landers, Mobile landers (such as balloons, wheeled rovers, small body rovers, drones, penetrators, floating devices, …), Sample Return. We will elaborate on mission architectures for the most promising concepts where cubesat size devices offer an advantage in terms of affordability, feasibility, and increase of scientific return.

  14. Spacelab D-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Bonnie J.

    1990-01-01

    The Spacelab D-1 (Deutchland Eins) Mission is discussed from the points of view of safety, materials handling, and toxic materials; the laboratory and equipment used; and some of the different philosophies utilized on this flight. How to enhance scientific return at the same time as being safe was examined.

  15. Manned lunar exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    The objectives, major missions, outlines of the systems, system structures, system configurations of the manned lunar surface site, and manned lunar transportation system are presented. Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), pressurized environment conditions, and operation schedule of manned lunar surface site are also outlined. This report is represented in viewgraphs only.

  16. The OASIS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Binns, W. robert; Christl, Mark; Cosse, Charles B.; Guzik, T. Gregory; deNolfo, Georgia A.; Hams,Thomas; Isbert, Joachim; Israel, Martin H.; Krizmanic, John F.; Labrador, Allan W.; Link, Jason T.; Mewaldt, Richard A.; Mitchell, Martin H.; Moiseev, Alexander A.; Sasaki, Makoto; Stochaj, Steven J.; Stone, Edward C.; Steitmatter, Robert E.; Waddington, C. Jake; Watts, John W.; Wefel, John P.; Wiedenbeck, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    The Orbiting Astrophysical Observatory in Space (OASIS) is a mission to investigate Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs), a major feature of our galaxy. OASIS will use measurements of GCRs to determine the cosmic ray source, where they are accelerated, to investigate local accelerators and to learn what they can tell us about the interstellar medium and the processes that occur in it. OASIS will determine the astrophysical sources of both the material and acceleration of GCRs by measuring the abundances of the rare actinide nuclei and make direct measurements of the spectrum and anisotropy of electrons at energies up to approx.10 TeV, well beyond the range of the Fermi and AMS missions. OASIS has two instruments. The Energetic Trans-Iron Composition Experiment (ENTICE) instrument measures elemental composition. It resolves individual elements with atomic number (Z) from 10 to 130 and has a collecting power of 60m2.str.yrs, >20 times larger than previous instruments, and with improved resolution. The sample of 10(exp 10) GCRs collected by ENTICE will include .100 well-resolved actinides. The High Energy Particle Calorimeter Telescope (HEPCaT) is an ionization calorimeter that will extend the electron spectrum into the TeV region for the first time. It has 7.5 sq m.str.yrs of collecting power. This talk will describe the scientific objectives of the OASIS mission and its discovery potential. The mission and its two instruments which have been designed to accomplish this investigation will also be described.

  17. Mission Simulation Toolkit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisaich, Gregory; Flueckiger, Lorenzo; Neukom, Christian; Wagner, Mike; Buchanan, Eric; Plice, Laura

    2007-01-01

    The Mission Simulation Toolkit (MST) is a flexible software system for autonomy research. It was developed as part of the Mission Simulation Facility (MSF) project that was started in 2001 to facilitate the development of autonomous planetary robotic missions. Autonomy is a key enabling factor for robotic exploration. There has been a large gap between autonomy software (at the research level), and software that is ready for insertion into near-term space missions. The MST bridges this gap by providing a simulation framework and a suite of tools for supporting research and maturation of autonomy. MST uses a distributed framework based on the High Level Architecture (HLA) standard. A key feature of the MST framework is the ability to plug in new models to replace existing ones with the same services. This enables significant simulation flexibility, particularly the mixing and control of fidelity level. In addition, the MST provides automatic code generation from robot interfaces defined with the Unified Modeling Language (UML), methods for maintaining synchronization across distributed simulation systems, XML-based robot description, and an environment server. Finally, the MSF supports a number of third-party products including dynamic models and terrain databases. Although the communication objects and some of the simulation components that are provided with this toolkit are specifically designed for terrestrial surface rovers, the MST can be applied to any other domain, such as aerial, aquatic, or space.

  18. The Pioneer Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lasher, Larry E.; Hogan, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the major achievements of the Pioneer Missions and gives information about mission objectives, spacecraft, and launches of the Pioneers. Pioneer was the United States' longest running space program. The Pioneer Missions began forty years ago. Pioneer 1 was launched shortly after Sputnik startled the world in 1957 as Earth's first artificial satellite at the start of the space age. The Pioneer Missions can be broken down into four distinct groups: Pioneer (PN's) 1 through 5, which comprise the first group - the "First Pioneers" - were launched from 1958 through 1960. These Pioneers made the first thrusts into space toward the Moon and into interplanetary orbit. The next group - the "Interplanetary Pioneers" - consists of PN's 6 through 9, with the initial launch being in 1965 (through 1968); this group explored inward and outward from Earth's orbit and travel in a heliocentric orbit around the Sun just as the Earth. The Pioneer group consisting of 10 and 11 - the "Outer Solar System Pioneers" - blazed a trail through the asteroid belt and was the first to explore Jupiter, Saturn and the outer Solar System and is seeking the borders of the heliosphere and will ultimately journey to the distant stars. The final group of Pioneer 12 and 13 the "Planetary Pioneers" - traveled to Earth's mysterious twin, Venus, to study this planet.

  19. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Baird, J.; Binetruy, P.; Born, M.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Brandt, N.; Bursi, A.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesarini, A.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; Diepholz, I.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Ferraioli, L.; Ferroni, V.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; Gallegos, J.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L. I.; Gibert, F.; Giardini, D.; Giusteri, R.; Grimani, C.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Inchauspé, H.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Karnesis, N.; Kaune, B.; Korsakova, N.; Killow, C.; Lloro, I.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Martín, V.; Martin-Porqueras, F.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P.; Mendes, J.; Mendes, L.; Moroni, A.; Nofrarias, M.; Paczkowski, S.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Petiteau, A.; Pivato, P.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Ragnit, U.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Russano, G.; Sarra, P.; Schleicher, A.; Slutsky, J.; Sopuerta, C. F.; Sumner, T.; Texier, D.; Thorpe, J.; Trenkel, C.; Tu, H. B.; Vetrugno, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Wealthy, D.; Wen, S.; Weber, W.; Wittchen, A.; Zanoni, C.; Ziegler, T.; Zweifel, P.

    2015-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder (LPF), the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology validation mission for future spaceborne gravitational wave detectors, such as the proposed eLISA mission. LISA Pathfinder, and its scientific payload - the LISA Technology Package - will test, in flight, the critical technologies required for low frequency gravitational wave detection: it will put two test masses in a near-perfect gravitational free-fall and control and measure their motion with unprecedented accuracy. This is achieved through technology comprising inertial sensors, high precision laser metrology, drag-free control and an ultra-precise micro-Newton propulsion system. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in mid-2015, with first results on the performance of the system being available 6 months thereafter. The paper introduces the LISA Pathfinder mission, followed by an explanation of the physical principles of measurement concept and associated hardware. We then provide a detailed discussion of the LISA Technology Package, including both the inertial sensor and interferometric readout. As we approach the launch of the LISA Pathfinder, the focus of the development is shifting towards the science operations and data analysis - this is described in the final section of the paper

  20. Exomars Mission Verification Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassi, Carlo; Gilardi, Franco; Bethge, Boris

    According to the long-term cooperation plan established by ESA and NASA in June 2009, the ExoMars project now consists of two missions: A first mission will be launched in 2016 under ESA lead, with the objectives to demonstrate the European capability to safely land a surface package on Mars, to perform Mars Atmosphere investigation, and to provide communi-cation capability for present and future ESA/NASA missions. For this mission ESA provides a spacecraft-composite, made up of an "Entry Descent & Landing Demonstrator Module (EDM)" and a Mars Orbiter Module (OM), NASA provides the Launch Vehicle and the scientific in-struments located on the Orbiter for Mars atmosphere characterisation. A second mission with it launch foreseen in 2018 is lead by NASA, who provides spacecraft and launcher, the EDL system, and a rover. ESA contributes the ExoMars Rover Module (RM) to provide surface mobility. It includes a drill system allowing drilling down to 2 meter, collecting samples and to investigate them for signs of past and present life with exobiological experiments, and to investigate the Mars water/geochemical environment, In this scenario Thales Alenia Space Italia as ESA Prime industrial contractor is in charge of the design, manufacturing, integration and verification of the ESA ExoMars modules, i.e.: the Spacecraft Composite (OM + EDM) for the 2016 mission, the RM for the 2018 mission and the Rover Operations Control Centre, which will be located at Altec-Turin (Italy). The verification process of the above products is quite complex and will include some pecu-liarities with limited or no heritage in Europe. Furthermore the verification approach has to be optimised to allow full verification despite significant schedule and budget constraints. The paper presents the verification philosophy tailored for the ExoMars mission in line with the above considerations, starting from the model philosophy, showing the verification activities flow and the sharing of tests

  1. Kepler Mission: Current Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borucki, William J.; Koch, D. G.; Lissauer, J. J.; Bryson, S.; Natalie, B.; Caldwell, D. A.; DeVore, E.; Jenkins, J. M.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Cochran, W. D.; Dunham, E. W.; Gautier, T. N.; Geary, J. C.; Latham, D. W.; Sasselov, D.; Gilliland, R. L.; Gould, A.; Howell, S. B.; Monet, D. G.

    2007-12-01

    Kepler is a Discovery-class mission designed to determine the frequency of Earth-size planets in and near the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The instrument consists of a high precision photometer with Schmidt-type optics and a focal plane containing 95 million pixels to monitor over 100,000 stars to search for patterns of transits generated by planets as small as Mars. The recent reduction in the mission duration is discussed with regard to the impact on the expected science product and null statistics. Both terrestrial and giant planets discoveries will be followed up with ground-based Doppler-velocity observations to determine mass and density. The first meeting of Kepler Asteroseismic Science Consortium was held in Paris to organize an international team to analyze the Kepler data to determine the characteristics of the brighter target stars including their size and age. Stellar size determinations accurate to a few percent are expected. These will allow very accurate planet sizes to be determined from the depth of the transit signals. NASA HQ received thirty six proposals for the Participating Scientist Program and chose several new members to join the Science Team. Both the 0.95 m Schmidt corrector and 1.4 m aperture primary mirror have been completed and delivered for integration into the photometer. The focal plane with forty-two science CCD detectors and their processing electronics has been assembled and tested. The spacecraft assembly has begun with the mounting of the reaction control system, reaction wheels, attitude determination & control system, and power systems. Both the photometer and spacecraft are nearing final assembly with all subsystems having passed their environmental and performance testing. The photometer to spacecraft integration will begin this spring. The Mission is on schedule for a launch in February 2009. The Kepler Mission is funded by the NASA Astrophysics Division, Science Mission Directorate.

  2. The Mothership Mission Architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, S. M.; DiCorcia, J. D.; Bonin, G.; Gump, D.; Lewis, J. S.; Foulds, C.; Faber, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Mothership is considered to be a dedicated deep space carrier spacecraft. It is currently being developed by Deep Space Industries (DSI) as a mission concept that enables a broad participation in the scientific exploration of small bodies - the Mothership mission architecture. A Mothership shall deliver third-party nano-sats, experiments and instruments to Near Earth Asteroids (NEOs), comets or moons. The Mothership service includes delivery of nano-sats, communication to Earth and visuals of the asteroid surface and surrounding area. The Mothership is designed to carry about 10 nano-sats, based upon a variation of the Cubesat standard, with some flexibility on the specific geometry. The Deep Space Nano-Sat reference design is a 14.5 cm cube, which accommodates the same volume as a traditional 3U CubeSat. To reduce cost, Mothership is designed as a secondary payload aboard launches to GTO. DSI is offering slots for nano-sats to individual customers. This enables organizations with relatively low operating budgets to closely examine an asteroid with highly specialized sensors of their own choosing and carry out experiments in the proximity of or on the surface of an asteroid, while the nano-sats can be built or commissioned by a variety of smaller institutions, companies, or agencies. While the overall Mothership mission will have a financial volume somewhere between a European Space Agencies' (ESA) S- and M-class mission for instance, it can be funded through a number of small and individual funding sources and programs, hence avoiding the processes associated with traditional space exploration missions. DSI has been able to identify a significant interest in the planetary science and nano-satellite communities.

  3. The ARTEMIS Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelopoulos, V.

    2011-12-01

    The Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moon's Interaction with the Sun (ARTEMIS) mission is a spin-off from NASA's Medium-class Explorer (MIDEX) mission THEMIS, a five identical micro-satellite (hereafter termed "probe") constellation in high altitude Earth-orbit since 17 February 2007. By repositioning two of the five THEMIS probes (P1 and P2) in coordinated, lunar equatorial orbits, at distances of ˜55-65 R E geocentric (˜1.1-12 R L selenocentric), ARTEMIS will perform the first systematic, two-point observations of the distant magnetotail, the solar wind, and the lunar space and planetary environment. The primary heliophysics science objectives of the mission are to study from such unprecedented vantage points and inter-probe separations how particles are accelerated at reconnection sites and shocks, and how turbulence develops and evolves in Earth's magnetotail and in the solar wind. Additionally, the mission will determine the structure, formation, refilling, and downstream evolution of the lunar wake and explore particle acceleration processes within it. ARTEMIS's orbits and instrumentation will also address key lunar planetary science objectives: the evolution of lunar exospheric and sputtered ions, the origin of electric fields contributing to dust charging and circulation, the structure of the lunar interior as inferred by electromagnetic sounding, and the lunar surface properties as revealed by studies of crustal magnetism. ARTEMIS is synergistic with concurrent NASA missions LRO and LADEE and the anticipated deployment of the International Lunar Network. It is expected to be a key element in the NASA Heliophysics Great Observatory and to play an important role in international plans for lunar exploration.

  4. Nuclear emulsion measurements of the astronauts' radiation exposures on Skylab missions 2, 3, and 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, H. J.; Sullivan, J. J.

    1975-01-01

    On the Skylab missions, Ilford G.5 and K.2 emulsions were flown as part of passive dosimeter packs carried by the astronauts on their wrists. Due to the long mission times, latent image fading and track crowing imposed limitations on a quantitative track and grain count analysis. For Skylab 2, the complete proton energy spectrum was determined within reasonable error limits. A combined mission dose equivalent of 2,490 millirems from protons, tissue stars and neutrons was measured on Skylab 2. A stationary emulsion stack, kept in a film vault drawer on the same mission, displayed a highly structured directional distribution of the fluence of low-energy protons (enders) reflecting the local shield distribution. On the 59 and 84-day mission 3 and 4, G.5 emulsions had to be cut on the microtom to 5-7 microns for microscopic examination. Even so, the short track segments in such thin layers precluded a statistically reliable grain count analysis. However, the K.2 emulsions still allowed accurate proton ender counts without special provisions.

  5. Turbulence Heating ObserveR - THOR: Mission overview and payload summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielders, Arno; Boudin, Nathalie; Vaivads, Andris; Khotyaintsev, Yuri; Lavraud, Benoit; Sahraoui, Fouad; Nakamura, Rumi; Owen, Chris; Fazakerley, Andrew; Nemecek, Zdenek; Soucek, Jan; Marcucci, Federica; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Retino, Alberto; Gehler, Martin; Escoubet, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) mission was selected as one of the three candidates of the Call for Medium Class Missions M4 in the European Space Agency's Science Programme with a launch planned in 2026. THOR is the first mission ever flown in space dedicated to plasma turbulence. THOR will lead to an understanding of the basic plasma heating and particle energization processes, of their effect on different plasma species and of their relative importance in different turbulent regimes. The THOR mission features one single spinning spacecraft with 10 scientific instruments focusing on particular regions in three different elliptical orbits around the Earth; pristine solar wind, Earth's bow shock and interplanetary shocks, and compressed solar wind regions downstream of shocks. These regions are selected because of their differing turbulent fluctuation characteristics, and reflect similar astrophysical environments. The THOR mission, the conceptual design of the spacecraft and a summary of the payload will be presented. Furthermore, driving requirements and their implications for the spacecraft like Electromagnetic Compatibility and cleanliness will be discussed.

  6. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  7. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Mission Description and Objectives: NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) consists of two mission segments: 1) the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM), a robotic mission to visit a large (greater than approximately 100 meters diameter) near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface along with regolith samples, and return the asteroidal material to a stable orbit around the Moon; and 2) the Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), in which astronauts will explore and investigate the boulder and return to Earth with samples. The ARRM is currently planned to launch at the end of 2021 and the ARCM is scheduled for late 2026.

  8. B plant mission analysis report

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, D.P.

    1995-05-24

    This report further develops the mission for B Plant originally defined in WHC-EP-0722, ``System Engineering Functions and Requirements for the Hanford Cleanup Mission: First Issue.`` The B Plant mission analysis will be the basis for a functional analysis that breaks down the B Plant mission statement into the necessary activities to accomplish the mission. These activities are the product of the functional analysis and will then be used in subsequent steps of the systems engineering process, such as identifying requirements and allocating those requirements to B Plant functions. The information in this mission analysis and the functional and requirements analysis are a part of the B Plant technical baseline.

  9. Defining Space Mission Architects for the Smaller Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, C.

    1999-01-01

    The definition of the Space Mission Architect (SMA) must be clear in both technical and human terms if we expect to train and/or to find people needed to architect the numbers of smaller missions expected in the future.

  10. Sentinel-2 Mission status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersch, Bianca; Colin, Olivier; Gascon, Ferran; Arino, Olivier; Spoto, Francois; Marchese, Franco; Krassenburg, Mike; Koetz, Benjamin

    2016-04-01

    Copernicus is a joint initiative of the European Commission (EC) and the European Space Agency (ESA), designed to establish a European capacity for the provision and use of operational monitoring information for environment and security applications. Within the Copernicus programme, ESA is responsible for the development of the Space Component, a fully operational space-based capability to supply earth-observation data to sustain environmental information Services in Europe. The Sentinel missions are Copernicus dedicated Earth Observation missions composing the essential elements of the Space Component. In the global Copernicus framework, they are complemented by other satellites made available by third-parties or by ESA and coordinated in the synergistic system through the Copernicus Data-Access system versus the Copernicus Services. The Copernicus Sentinel-2 mission provides continuity to services relying on multi-spectral high-resolution optical observations over global terrestrial surfaces. Sentinel-2 capitalizes on the technology and the vast experience acquired in Europe and the US to sustain the operational supply of data for services such as forest monitoring, land cover changes detection or natural disasters management. The Sentinel-2 mission offers an unprecedented combination of the following capabilities: ○ Systematic global coverage of land surfaces: from 56°South to 84°North, coastal waters and Mediterranean sea; ○ High revisit: every 5 days at equator under the same viewing conditions with 2 satellites; ○ High spatial resolution: 10m, 20m and 60m; ○ Multi-spectral information with 13 bands in the visible, near infra-red and short wave infra-red part of the spectrum; ○ Wide field of view: 290 km. The data from the Sentinel-2 mission are available openly and freely for all users with online easy access since December 2015. The presentation will give a status report on the Sentinel-2 mission, and outlook for the remaining ramp-up Phase, the

  11. Orion Exploration Mission-1 Animation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Animation of the Orion spacecraft’s Exploration Mission-1 in 2017. Exploration Mission-1 will be the first integrated flight test with both the Orion spacecraft and NASA’s new Space Launch System.

  12. STS-44 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Designed by the participating crewmembers, the STS-44 patch shows the Space Shuttle Atlantis ascending to Earth orbit to expand mankind's knowledge. The patch illustrated by the symbolic red, white and blue of the American flag represents the American contribution and strength derived from this mission. The black background of space, indicative of the mysteries of the universe, is illuminated by six large stars, which depict the American crew of six and the hopes that travel with them. The smaller stars represent Americans who work in support of this mission. Within the Shuttle's payload bay is a Defense Support Program Satellite which will help insure peace. In the words of a crew spokesman, the stars of the flag symbolize our leadership in an exciting quest of space and the boundless dreams for humanity's future.

  13. Mars Observer mission design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beerer, Joseph G.; Horvat, Glen M.; Roncoli, Ralph B.

    1989-01-01

    The spacecraft for the Mars Observer mission is described, and an interplanetary trajectory design maximizing the spacecraft dry mass delivered into its mapping orbit is presented, along with an orbit insertion strategy minimizing spacecraft propulsive requirements. Emphasis is placed on the mapping orbit designed to meet the science requirements for a low-altitude near-circular near-polar orbit which is sun-synchronous with the dayside equatorial crossing at 2 PM local mean solar time. Additional requirements on the design are that the mapping orbit have a repeating groundtrack of no more than 7 sols and comply with the NASA Planetary Protection requirements. It is planned to operate the spacecraft and instruments in a repetitive fashion to minimize mission operation complexity and cost.

  14. MARS Mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center (M2RC) is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA in June 1988. It is a cooperative effort between NCSU and A&T in Greensboro. The goal of the Center is to focus on research and educational technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines Mission Analysis and Design, Hypersonic Aerodynamics and Propulsion, Structures and Controls, Composite Materials, and Fabrication Methods in a cross-disciplined program directed towards the development of space transportation systems for lunar and planetary travel. The activities of the students and faculty in the M2RC for the period 1 Jul. 1990 to 30 Jun. 1991 are described.

  15. Apollo 8 Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Postflight analysis of Apollo 8 mission. Apollo 8 was the second manned flight in the program and the first manned lunar orbit mission. The crew were Frank Borman, Commander; James A. Lovell, Command Module Pilot; and William A. Anders, Lunar Module Pilot. The Apollo 8 space vehicle was launched on time from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, at 7:51:00 AM, EST, on December 21, 1968. Following a nominal boost phase, the spacecraft and S-IVB combination was inserted - into a parking orbit of 98 by 103 nautical miles. After a post-insertion checkout of spacecraft systems, the 319-second translunar injection maneuver was initiated at 2:50:37 by reignition of the S-IVB engine.

  16. Suborbital missions: The Joust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, Bruce W.

    1991-01-01

    Joust 1 will carry a payload of 10 experiments. The experiments in the payload module will be mated with a service module containing accelerometers, avionics, a low gravity rate control system, and battery packs. This suborbital mission will last approximately 21 minutes, providing at least 13 minutes of microgravity time. The experiments are as follow: study into polymer membrane processes; polymer curing; plasma particle generation; automated generic bioprocessing apparatus; biomodule; thin films; materials dispersion apparatus; foam formation; electrodeposition process; and powdered materials processing.

  17. Heat Capacity Mapping Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nilsson, C. S.; Andrews, J. C.; Scully-Power, P.; Ball, S.; Speechley, G.; Latham, A. R. (Principal Investigator)

    1980-01-01

    The Tasman Front was delineated by airborne expendable bathythermograph survey; and an Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) IR image on the same day shows the same principal features as determined from ground-truth. It is clear that digital enhancement of HCMM images is necessary to map ocean surface temperatures and when done, the Tasman Front and other oceanographic features can be mapped by this method, even through considerable scattered cloud cover.

  18. NASA's STEREO Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kucera, T. A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's STEREO (Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory) mission consists of two nearly identical spacecraft hosting an array of in situ and imaging instruments for studying the sun and heliosphere. Launched in 2885 and in orbit about the Sun near 1 AU, the spacecraft are now swinging towards the farside of the sun. I will provide the latest information with regards to STEREO space weather data and also recent STEREO research.

  19. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B. ); Pieters, C. ); Ulmer, M. . Dept. of Physics and Astronomy); Henrikson, C. )

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth's Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low [Delta]V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  20. The Prospector mission

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, B.; Pieters, C.; Ulmer, M.; Henrikson, C.

    1992-09-07

    The Prospector mission combines high resolution visual/near-infrared(IR) imaging spectroscopy with moderately high resolution K- and L-line X-ray fluorescence mapping. These combined capabilities can be used to map the composition of virtually all solar-system objects, ranging from those that lack atmospheres (Mercury, the Earth`s Moon, asteroids, and Martian satellites) to the upper atmosphere of Venus. For the purpose of mission definition and development, we have focused here on a mapping, mission to the moons of Mars-specifically Phobos, which is an easily accessible small body of the Solar System and has long been an object of intense speculation. Phobos is variously interpreted as a captured asteroid, a captured but disrupted basaltic achondrite body with anomalously low density, a comet nucleus, a body of reassembled Mars material ejected into orbit during a large impact event, a body of unknown origin but covered by an accumulation of cosmic dust and/or material ejected from Deimos, or none of the above. Multispectral observations of Phobos by instruments on the Phobos 2 spacecraft indicate that the surface of the moon is spectrally heterogeneous, with at least four units based on extended visible color. Distribution of color ratio units are most likely caused by compositional heterogeneity and surficial processes. The composition and structure of Phobos remains a stimulating scientific question, but Phobos is much more than a cipher among planetary phenomena. The low {Delta}V requirements for missions to Phobos make it readily accessible-much more so than the Martian surface. The low orbital height of Phobos make it an attractive platform for staging Mars observation and exploration. Furthermore, the possible chondritic nature of Phobos may provide a valuable reservoir of extractable H, C, N, 0, and S.

  1. Human exploration mission studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, Robert L.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes several case studies of human space exploration, considered by the NASA's Office of Exploration in 1988. Special attention is given to the mission scenarios, the critical technology required in these expeditions, and the extraterrestrial power requirements of significant system elements. The cases examined include a manned expedition to Phobos, the inner Martian moon; a human expedition to Mars; the Lunar Observatory; and a lunar outpost to early Mars evolution.

  2. Future solar system missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Geoffrey A.

    1990-01-01

    NASA's planetary exploration program is discussed, with emphasis on strategy, namely, exploration of all three main classes of solar system bodies (the terrestrial planets, the outer giants and their moons, and the primitive small bodies). Planning of an extensive search for other planetary systems is focused on the application of various approaches to ultra-high precision astrometry and the possible use of a space-based coronagraphic telescope. Program strategy and lunar and Mars outpost precursor missions are illustrated.

  3. Geopotential Research Mission (GRM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The Geopotential Research Mission (GRM) is a satellite system proposed to determine variations in the gravitational and magnetic fields to a resolution of about 100 kilometers. Knowledge and interpretations of the potential fields on scales of 100 kilometers and greater, to clarify the needs for better data in this range of wavelengths were reviewed. The potential contribution of these data to the determination, by satellite altimetry, of a more accurate geoidal reference was discussed.

  4. Asteroid Kinetic Impactor Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesley, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Asteroid impact missions can be carried out as a relatively low-cost add-ons to most asteroid rendezvous missions and such impact experiments have tremendous potential, both scientifically and in the arena of planetary defense.The science returns from an impactor demonstration begin with the documentation of the global effects of the impact, such as changes in orbit and rotation state, the creation and dissipation of an ejecta plume and debris disk, and morphological changes across the body due to the transmission of seismic waves, which might induce landslides and toppling of boulders, etc. At a local level, an inspection of the impact crater and ejecta blanket reveals critical material strength information, as well as spectral differences between the surface and subsurface material.From the planetary defense perspective, an impact demonstration will prove humankind’s capacity to alter the orbit of a potentially threatening asteroid. This technological leap comes in two parts. First, terminal guidance systems that can deliver an impactor with small errors relative to the ~100-200 meter size of a likely impactor have yet to be demonstrated in a deep space environment. Second, the response of an asteroid to such an impact is only understood theoretically due to the potentially significant dependence on the momentum carried by escaping ejecta, which would tend to enhance the deflection by tens of percent and perhaps as much as a factor of a few. A lack of validated understanding of momentum enhancement is a significant obstacle in properly sizing a real-world impactor deflection mission.This presentation will describe the drivers for asteroid impact demonstrations and cover the range of such concepts, starting with ESA’s pioneering Don Quijote mission concept and leading to a brief description of concepts under study at the present time, including the OSIRIS-REx/ISIS, BASiX/KIX and AIM/DART (AIDA) concepts.

  5. A Mars 1984 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Mission objectives are developed for the next logical step in the investigation of the local physical and chemical environments and the search for organic compounds on Mars. The necessity of three vehicular elements: orbiter, penetrator, and rover for in situ investigations of atmospheric-lithospheric interactions is emphasized. A summary report and committee recommendations are included with the full report of the Mars Science Working Group.

  6. STS-107 Mission INSIGNIA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    JOHNSON SPACE CENTER, HOUSON, TEXAS -- STS-107 INSIGNIA -- This is the insignia for STS-107, which is a multi-discipline microgravity and Earth science research mission with a multitude of international scientific investigations conducted continuously during the planned 16 days on orbit. The central element of the patch is the microgravity symbol flowing into the rays of the astronaut symbol. The mission inclination is portrayed by the 39-degree angle of the astronaut symbol to the Earth's horizon. The sunrise is representative of the numerous experiments that are the dawn of a new era for continued microgravity research on the International Space Station and beyond. The breadth of science conducted on this mission will have widespread benefits to life on Earth and our continued exploration of space, illustrated by the Earth and stars. The constellation Columba (the dove) was chosen to symbolize peace on Earth and the Space Shuttle Columbia. The seven stars also represent the mission crew members and honor the original astronauts who paved the way to make research in space possible. The Israeli flag is adjacent to the name of the payload specialist who is the first person from that country to fly on the Space Shuttle. The NASA insignia design for Space Shuttle flights is reserved for use by the astronauts and for other official use as the NASA Administrator may authorize. Public availability has been approved only in the form of illustrations by the various news media. When and if there is any change in this policy, which we do not anticipate, it will be publicly announced.

  7. A Somalia mission experience.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Zeyn; Moolla, Muhammad; Motara, Feroza; Laher, Abdullah

    2012-06-28

    Reports about The Horn of Africa Famine Crisis in 2011 flooded our news bulletins and newspapers. Yet the nations of the world failed to respond and alleviate the unfolding disaster. In August 2011, the Gift of the Givers Foundation mobilised what was to become the largest humanitarian mission ever conducted by an African organisation. Almost a year later, the effort continues, changing the face of disaster medicine as we know it.

  8. Discovery Planetary Mission Operations Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coffin, R.

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Discovery Program of small planetary missions will provide opportunities to continue scientific exploration of the solar system in today's cost-constrained environment. Using a multidisciplinary team, JPL has developed plans to provide mission operations within the financial parameters established by the Discovery Program. This paper describes experiences and methods that show promise of allowing the Discovery Missions to operate within the program cost constraints while maintaining low mission risk, high data quality, and reponsive operations.

  9. Mission applications of electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, K. L.

    1974-01-01

    This paper reviews the mission applications of electric propulsion. The energy requirements of candidate high-energy missions gaining in NASA priority are used to highlight the potential of electric propulsion. Mission-propulsion interfaces are examined to point out differences between chemical and electric applications. Brief comparisons between ballistic requirements and capabilities and those of electric propulsion show that electric propulsion is presently the most practical and perhaps the only technology which can accomplish missions with these energy requirements.

  10. Power systems for future missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, S. P.; Frye, P. E.; Littman, Franklin D.; Meisl, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    A comprehensive scenario of future missions was developed and applicability of different power technologies to these missions was assessed. Detailed technology development roadmaps for selected power technologies were generated. A simple methodology to evaluate economic benefits of current and future power system technologies by comparing Life Cycle Costs of potential missions was developed. The methodology was demonstrated by comparing Life Cycle Costs for different implementation strategies of DIPS/CBC technology to a selected set of missions.

  11. Comparative cost assessment of planetary missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A study to explore the cost differences resulting from implementing a series of representative solar system exploration missions in either ballistic or low-thrust flight modes is presented. Cost comparisons of missions using a solar electric propulsion delivery systems with ballistic equivalent mission designs were made. The mission set, cost elements, and delivery modes are detailed. Objectives for each of the six mission sets including two asteroid missions, a comet mission, a Mercury mission, and two outer planet missions are given.

  12. STS-79 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth in a series of NASA docking missions to the Russian Mir Space Station, leading up to the construction and operation of the International Space Station (ISS). As the first flight of the Spacehab Double Module, STS-79 encompassed research, test and evaluation of ISS, as well as logistics resupply for the Mir Space Station. STS-79 was also the first NASA-Mir American crew member exchange mission, with John E. Blaha (NASA-Mir-3) replacing Shannon W. Lucid (NASA-Mir-2) aboard the Mir Space Station. The lettering of their names either up or down denotes transport up to the Mir Space Station or return to Earth on STS-79. The patch is in the shape of the Space Shuttle's airlock hatch, symbolizing the gateway to international cooperation in space. The patch illustrates the historic cooperation between the United States and Russia in space. With the flags of Russia and the United States as a backdrop, the handshake of Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) which are suited crew members symbolizes mission teamwork, not only of the crew members but also the teamwork between both countries space personnel in science, engineering, medicine and logistics.

  13. The INTEGRAL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermsen, W.; Winkler, C.

    The International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) is dedicated to the fine spectroscopy (E/delta E = 500) and fine imaging (angular resolution: 12') of celestial gamma-ray sources in the energy range 15 keV to 10 MeV. The scientific payload consists of two gamma-ray instruments and two monitors: The Ge spectrometer SPI and the CdTe/CsI imager IBIS, the X-ray monitor JEM-X and the optical monitor OMC. INTEGRAL was selected by the ESA Science Programme Committee in 1993 as an ESA medium-size scientific mission (M2) to be launched in 2001. The mission is conceived as an observatory led by ESA with contributions from Russia (PROTON launcher) and NASA (Deep Space Network ground stations). The INTEGRAL observatory will provide the science community at large an unprecedented combination of imaging and spectroscopy over a wide range of X-ray and gamma-ray energies including optical monitoring. Most of the observing time will be open to the scientific community interfacing with the INTEGRAL Science Data Centre (ISDC). This paper summarizes the key scientific goals of the mission, the current status of the payload, the spacecraft and the ISDC.

  14. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  15. The solar stereo mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, D. M.

    The principal scientific objective of the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is to understand the origin and consequences of coronal mass ejections (CMEs). CMEs are the most energetic eruptions on the Sun. They are responsible for essentially all of the largest solar energetic particle events and are the primary cause of major geomagnetic storms. They may be a critical element in the solar dynamo because they remove the dynamo-generated magnetic flux from the Sun. Two spacecraft at 1 AU from the Sun, one drifting ahead of Earth and one behind, will image CMEs. They will also map the distribution of magnetic fields and plasmas in the heliosphere and accomplish a variety of science goals described in the 1997 report of the NASA Science Definition Team for the STEREO Mission. Current plans call for the two STEREO launches in early 2003. Simultaneous image pairs will be obtained by the STEREO telescopes at gradually increasing spacecraft separations in the course of the mission. Additionally, in-situ measurements will provide accurate information about the state of the ambient solar wind and energetic particle populations ahead of and behind CMEs. These measurements will allow definitive tests of CME and interplanetary shock models. The mission will include a "beacon mode" to warn of either coronal or interplanetary conditions indicative of impending disturbances at Earth.

  16. The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenzel, K.-P.; Marsden, R. G.; Page, D. E.; Smith, E. J.

    1992-01-01

    The Ulysses mission is unique in the history of the exploration of solar system by spacecraft. The path followed by Ulysses will make it possible, for the first time, to explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third heliospheric dimension. Advanced scientific instrumentation carried on board the spacecraft is designed to measure the properties of the heliospheric magnetic field, the solar wind, the sun/wind interface, solar radio bursts and plasma waves, solar energetic particles and galactic cosmic rays, solar X-rays, and interplanetary/interstellar neutral gas and dust. Ulysses will also be used to detect cosmic gamma-ray bursts and search for gravitational waves. The mission, a collaboration between ESA and NASA, was launched in October 1990 and employs a Jupiter gravity-assist to achieve the trajectory extending to high solar latitudes. The paper describes the characteristics of the Ulysses mission in order to establish a framework within which to better understand the objectives and goals of the scientific investigations.

  17. The Juno Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolton, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Juno mission is the second mission in NASA's New Frontiers program. Launched in August 2011, Juno arrives at Jupiter in July 2016. Juno science goals include the study of Jupiter's origin, interior structure, deep atmosphere, aurora and magnetosphere. Jupiter's formation is fundamental to the evolution of our solar system and to the distribution of volatiles early in the solar system's history. Juno's measurements of the abundance of Oxygen and Nitrogen in Jupiter's atmosphere, and the detailed maps of Jupiter's gravity and magnetic field structure will constrain theories of early planetary development. Juno's orbit around Jupiter is a polar elliptical orbit with perijove approximately 5000 km above the visible cloud tops. The payload consists of a set of microwave antennas for deep sounding, magnetometers, gravity radio science, low and high energy charged particle detectors, electric and magnetic field radio and plasma wave experiment, ultraviolet imaging spectrograph, infrared imager and a visible camera. The Juno design enables the first detailed investigation of Jupiter's interior structure, and deep atmosphere as well as the first in depth exploration of Jupiter's polar magnetosphere. The Juno mission design, science goals, and measurements related to the origin of Jupiter will be presented.

  18. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit by late 2012. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 45-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archival, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (circa 30-m spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions, in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of land-cover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis and at a price no greater than the incremental cost of fulfilling a user request. Distribution of LDCM data over the Internet at no cost to the user is currently planned.

  19. Landsat Data Continuity Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2012-01-01

    The Landsat Data Continuity Mission (LDCM) is a partnership formed between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to place the next Landsat satellite in orbit in January 2013. The Landsat era that began in 1972 will become a nearly 41-year global land record with the successful launch and operation of the LDCM. The LDCM will continue the acquisition, archiving, and distribution of multispectral imagery affording global, synoptic, and repetitive coverage of the Earth's land surfaces at a scale where natural and human-induced changes can be detected, differentiated, characterized, and monitored over time. The mission objectives of the LDCM are to (1) collect and archive medium resolution (30-meter spatial resolution) multispectral image data affording seasonal coverage of the global landmasses for a period of no less than 5 years; (2) ensure that LDCM data are sufficiently consistent with data from the earlier Landsat missions in terms of acquisition geometry, calibration, coverage characteristics, spectral characteristics, output product quality, and data availability to permit studies of landcover and land-use change over time; and (3) distribute LDCM data products to the general public on a nondiscriminatory basis at no cost to the user.

  20. The LISA Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thorpe, james; McNamara, P. W.

    2011-01-01

    LISA Pathfinder is a dedicated technology demonstration space mission for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), a NASA/ESA collaboration to operate a space-based observatory for gravitational waves in the milli-Hertz band. Although the formal partnership between the agencies was dissolved in the Spring of 2011, both agencies are actively pursuing concepts for LISA-like gravitational wave observatories. These concepts take advantage of the significant technology development efforts that have already been made, especially those of the LISA Pathfinder mission. LISA Pathfinder, which is in the late stages of implementation, will place two test masses in drag-free flight and measure the relative acceleration between them. This measurement will validate a number of technologies that are critical to LISA-like gravitational wave instruments including sensing and control of the test masses, drag-free control laws, microNewton thrusters, and picometer-level laser metrology. We will present the current status of the LISA Pathfinder mission and associated activities.

  1. The Gaia mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaia Collaboration; Prusti, T.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Brown, A. G. A.; Vallenari, A.; Babusiaux, C.; Bailer-Jones, C. A. L.; Bastian, U.; Biermann, M.; Evans, D. W.; Eyer, L.; Jansen, F.; Jordi, C.; Klioner, S. A.; Lammers, U.; Lindegren, L.; Luri, X.; Mignard, F.; Milligan, D. J.; Panem, C.; Poinsignon, V.; Pourbaix, D.; Randich, S.; Sarri, G.; Sartoretti, P.; Siddiqui, H. I.; Soubiran, C.; Valette, V.; van Leeuwen, F.; Walton, N. A.; Aerts, C.; Arenou, F.; Cropper, M.; Drimmel, R.; Høg, E.; Katz, D.; Lattanzi, M. G.; O'Mullane, W.; Grebel, E. K.; Holland, A. D.; Huc, C.; Passot, X.; Bramante, L.; Cacciari, C.; Castañeda, J.; Chaoul, L.; Cheek, N.; De Angeli, F.; Fabricius, C.; Guerra, R.; Hernández, J.; Jean-Antoine-Piccolo, A.; Masana, E.; Messineo, R.; Mowlavi, N.; Nienartowicz, K.; Ordóñez-Blanco, D.; Panuzzo, P.; Portell, J.; Richards, P. J.; Riello, M.; Seabroke, G. M.; Tanga, P.; Thévenin, F.; Torra, J.; Els, S. G.; Gracia-Abril, G.; Comoretto, G.; Garcia-Reinaldos, M.; Lock, T.; Mercier, E.; Altmann, M.; Andrae, R.; Astraatmadja, T. L.; Bellas-Velidis, I.; Benson, K.; Berthier, J.; Blomme, R.; Busso, G.; Carry, B.; Cellino, A.; Clementini, G.; Cowell, S.; Creevey, O.; Cuypers, J.; Davidson, M.; De Ridder, J.; de Torres, A.; Delchambre, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; Ducourant, C.; Frémat, Y.; García-Torres, M.; Gosset, E.; Halbwachs, J.-L.; Hambly, N. C.; Harrison, D. L.; Hauser, M.; Hestroffer, D.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Huckle, H. E.; Hutton, A.; Jasniewicz, G.; Jordan, S.; Kontizas, M.; Korn, A. J.; Lanzafame, A. C.; Manteiga, M.; Moitinho, A.; Muinonen, K.; Osinde, J.; Pancino, E.; Pauwels, T.; Petit, J.-M.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Robin, A. C.; Sarro, L. M.; Siopis, C.; Smith, M.; Smith, K. W.; Sozzetti, A.; Thuillot, W.; van Reeven, W.; Viala, Y.; Abbas, U.; Abreu Aramburu, A.; Accart, S.; Aguado, J. J.; Allan, P. M.; Allasia, W.; Altavilla, G.; Álvarez, M. A.; Alves, J.; Anderson, R. I.; Andrei, A. H.; Anglada Varela, E.; Antiche, E.; Antoja, T.; Antón, S.; Arcay, B.; Atzei, A.; Ayache, L.; Bach, N.; Baker, S. G.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Barache, C.; Barata, C.; Barbier, A.; Barblan, F.; Baroni, M.; Barrado y Navascués, D.; Barros, M.; Barstow, M. A.; Becciani, U.; Bellazzini, M.; Bellei, G.; Bello García, A.; Belokurov, V.; Bendjoya, P.; Berihuete, A.; Bianchi, L.; Bienaymé, O.; Billebaud, F.; Blagorodnova, N.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Boch, T.; Bombrun, A.; Borrachero, R.; Bouquillon, S.; Bourda, G.; Bouy, H.; Bragaglia, A.; Breddels, M. A.; Brouillet, N.; Brüsemeister, T.; Bucciarelli, B.; Budnik, F.; Burgess, P.; Burgon, R.; Burlacu, A.; Busonero, D.; Buzzi, R.; Caffau, E.; Cambras, J.; Campbell, H.; Cancelliere, R.; Cantat-Gaudin, T.; Carlucci, T.; Carrasco, J. M.; Castellani, M.; Charlot, P.; Charnas, J.; Charvet, P.; Chassat, F.; Chiavassa, A.; Clotet, M.; Cocozza, G.; Collins, R. S.; Collins, P.; Costigan, G.; Crifo, F.; Cross, N. J. G.; Crosta, M.; Crowley, C.; Dafonte, C.; Damerdji, Y.; Dapergolas, A.; David, P.; David, M.; De Cat, P.; de Felice, F.; de Laverny, P.; De Luise, F.; De March, R.; de Martino, D.; de Souza, R.; Debosscher, J.; del Pozo, E.; Delbo, M.; Delgado, A.; Delgado, H. E.; di Marco, F.; Di Matteo, P.; Diakite, S.; Distefano, E.; Dolding, C.; Dos Anjos, S.; Drazinos, P.; Durán, J.; Dzigan, Y.; Ecale, E.; Edvardsson, B.; Enke, H.; Erdmann, M.; Escolar, D.; Espina, M.; Evans, N. W.; Eynard Bontemps, G.; Fabre, C.; Fabrizio, M.; Faigler, S.; Falcão, A. J.; Farràs Casas, M.; Faye, F.; Federici, L.; Fedorets, G.; Fernández-Hernández, J.; Fernique, P.; Fienga, A.; Figueras, F.; Filippi, F.; Findeisen, K.; Fonti, A.; Fouesneau, M.; Fraile, E.; Fraser, M.; Fuchs, J.; Furnell, R.; Gai, M.; Galleti, S.; Galluccio, L.; Garabato, D.; García-Sedano, F.; Garé, P.; Garofalo, A.; Garralda, N.; Gavras, P.; Gerssen, J.; Geyer, R.; Gilmore, G.; Girona, S.; Giuffrida, G.; Gomes, M.; González-Marcos, A.; González-Núñez, J.; González-Vidal, J. J.; Granvik, M.; Guerrier, A.; Guillout, P.; Guiraud, J.; Gúrpide, A.; Gutiérrez-Sánchez, R.; Guy, L. P.; Haigron, R.; Hatzidimitriou, D.; Haywood, M.; Heiter, U.; Helmi, A.; Hobbs, D.; Hofmann, W.; Holl, B.; Holland, G.; Hunt, J. A. S.; Hypki, A.; Icardi, V.; Irwin, M.; Jevardat de Fombelle, G.; Jofré, P.; Jonker, P. G.; Jorissen, A.; Julbe, F.; Karampelas, A.; Kochoska, A.; Kohley, R.; Kolenberg, K.; Kontizas, E.; Koposov, S. E.; Kordopatis, G.; Koubsky, P.; Kowalczyk, A.; Krone-Martins, A.; Kudryashova, M.; Kull, I.; Bachchan, R. K.; Lacoste-Seris, F.; Lanza, A. F.; Lavigne, J.-B.; Le Poncin-Lafitte, C.; Lebreton, Y.; Lebzelter, T.; Leccia, S.; Leclerc, N.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lemaitre, V.; Lenhardt, H.; Leroux, F.; Liao, S.; Licata, E.; Lindstrøm, H. E. P.; Lister, T. A.; Livanou, E.; Lobel, A.; Löffler, W.; López, M.; Lopez-Lozano, A.; Lorenz, D.; Loureiro, T.; MacDonald, I.; Magalhães Fernandes, T.; Managau, S.; Mann, R. G.; Mantelet, G.; Marchal, O.; Marchant, J. M.; Marconi, M.; Marie, J.; Marinoni, S.; Marrese, P. M.; Marschalkó, G.; Marshall, D. J.; Martín-Fleitas, J. M.; Martino, M.; Mary, N.; Matijevič, G.; Mazeh, T.; McMillan, P. J.; Messina, S.; Mestre, A.; Michalik, D.; Millar, N. R.; Miranda, B. M. H.; Molina, D.; Molinaro, R.; Molinaro, M.; Molnár, L.; Moniez, M.; Montegriffo, P.; Monteiro, D.; Mor, R.; Mora, A.; Morbidelli, R.; Morel, T.; Morgenthaler, S.; Morley, T.; Morris, D.; Mulone, A. F.; Muraveva, T.; Musella, I.; Narbonne, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nicastro, L.; Noval, L.; Ordénovic, C.; Ordieres-Meré, J.; Osborne, P.; Pagani, C.; Pagano, I.; Pailler, F.; Palacin, H.; Palaversa, L.; Parsons, P.; Paulsen, T.; Pecoraro, M.; Pedrosa, R.; Pentikäinen, H.; Pereira, J.; Pichon, B.; Piersimoni, A. M.; Pineau, F.-X.; Plachy, E.; Plum, G.; Poujoulet, E.; Prša, A.; Pulone, L.; Ragaini, S.; Rago, S.; Rambaux, N.; Ramos-Lerate, M.; Ranalli, P.; Rauw, G.; Read, A.; Regibo, S.; Renk, F.; Reylé, C.; Ribeiro, R. A.; Rimoldini, L.; Ripepi, V.; Riva, A.; Rixon, G.; Roelens, M.; Romero-Gómez, M.; Rowell, N.; Royer, F.; Rudolph, A.; Ruiz-Dern, L.; Sadowski, G.; Sagristà Sellés, T.; Sahlmann, J.; Salgado, J.; Salguero, E.; Sarasso, M.; Savietto, H.; Schnorhk, A.; Schultheis, M.; Sciacca, E.; Segol, M.; Segovia, J. C.; Segransan, D.; Serpell, E.; Shih, I.-C.; Smareglia, R.; Smart, R. L.; Smith, C.; Solano, E.; Solitro, F.; Sordo, R.; Soria Nieto, S.; Souchay, J.; Spagna, A.; Spoto, F.; Stampa, U.; Steele, I. A.; Steidelmüller, H.; Stephenson, C. A.; Stoev, H.; Suess, F. F.; Süveges, M.; Surdej, J.; Szabados, L.; Szegedi-Elek, E.; Tapiador, D.; Taris, F.; Tauran, G.; Taylor, M. B.; Teixeira, R.; Terrett, D.; Tingley, B.; Trager, S. C.; Turon, C.; Ulla, A.; Utrilla, E.; Valentini, G.; van Elteren, A.; Van Hemelryck, E.; van Leeuwen, M.; Varadi, M.; Vecchiato, A.; Veljanoski, J.; Via, T.; Vicente, D.; Vogt, S.; Voss, H.; Votruba, V.; Voutsinas, S.; Walmsley, G.; Weiler, M.; Weingrill, K.; Werner, D.; Wevers, T.; Whitehead, G.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yoldas, A.; Žerjal, M.; Zucker, S.; Zurbach, C.; Zwitter, T.; Alecu, A.; Allen, M.; Allende Prieto, C.; Amorim, A.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; Arsenijevic, V.; Azaz, S.; Balm, P.; Beck, M.; Bernstein, H.-H.; Bigot, L.; Bijaoui, A.; Blasco, C.; Bonfigli, M.; Bono, G.; Boudreault, S.; Bressan, A.; Brown, S.; Brunet, P.-M.; Bunclark, P.; Buonanno, R.; Butkevich, A. G.; Carret, C.; Carrion, C.; Chemin, L.; Chéreau, F.; Corcione, L.; Darmigny, E.; de Boer, K. S.; de Teodoro, P.; de Zeeuw, P. T.; Delle Luche, C.; Domingues, C. D.; Dubath, P.; Fodor, F.; Frézouls, B.; Fries, A.; Fustes, D.; Fyfe, D.; Gallardo, E.; Gallegos, J.; Gardiol, D.; Gebran, M.; Gomboc, A.; Gómez, A.; Grux, E.; Gueguen, A.; Heyrovsky, A.; Hoar, J.; Iannicola, G.; Isasi Parache, Y.; Janotto, A.-M.; Joliet, E.; Jonckheere, A.; Keil, R.; Kim, D.-W.; Klagyivik, P.; Klar, J.; Knude, J.; Kochukhov, O.; Kolka, I.; Kos, J.; Kutka, A.; Lainey, V.; LeBouquin, D.; Liu, C.; Loreggia, D.; Makarov, V. V.; Marseille, M. G.; Martayan, C.; Martinez-Rubi, O.; Massart, B.; Meynadier, F.; Mignot, S.; Munari, U.; Nguyen, A.-T.; Nordlander, T.; Ocvirk, P.; O'Flaherty, K. S.; Olias Sanz, A.; Ortiz, P.; Osorio, J.; Oszkiewicz, D.; Ouzounis, A.; Palmer, M.; Park, P.; Pasquato, E.; Peltzer, C.; Peralta, J.; Péturaud, F.; Pieniluoma, T.; Pigozzi, E.; Poels, J.; Prat, G.; Prod'homme, T.; Raison, F.; Rebordao, J. M.; Risquez, D.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Rosen, S.; Ruiz-Fuertes, M. I.; Russo, F.; Sembay, S.; Serraller Vizcaino, I.; Short, A.; Siebert, A.; Silva, H.; Sinachopoulos, D.; Slezak, E.; Soffel, M.; Sosnowska, D.; Straižys, V.; ter Linden, M.; Terrell, D.; Theil, S.; Tiede, C.; Troisi, L.; Tsalmantza, P.; Tur, D.; Vaccari, M.; Vachier, F.; Valles, P.; Van Hamme, W.; Veltz, L.; Virtanen, J.; Wallut, J.-M.; Wichmann, R.; Wilkinson, M. I.; Ziaeepour, H.; Zschocke, S.

    2016-11-01

    Gaia is a cornerstone mission in the science programme of the EuropeanSpace Agency (ESA). The spacecraft construction was approved in 2006, following a study in which the original interferometric concept was changed to a direct-imaging approach. Both the spacecraft and the payload were built by European industry. The involvement of the scientific community focusses on data processing for which the international Gaia Data Processing and Analysis Consortium (DPAC) was selected in 2007. Gaia was launched on 19 December 2013 and arrived at its operating point, the second Lagrange point of the Sun-Earth-Moon system, a few weeks later. The commissioning of the spacecraft and payload was completed on 19 July 2014. The nominal five-year mission started with four weeks of special, ecliptic-pole scanning and subsequently transferred into full-sky scanning mode. We recall the scientific goals of Gaia and give a description of the as-built spacecraft that is currently (mid-2016) being operated to achieve these goals. We pay special attention to the payload module, the performance of which is closely related to the scientific performance of the mission. We provide a summary of the commissioning activities and findings, followed by a description of the routine operational mode. We summarise scientific performance estimates on the basis of in-orbit operations. Several intermediate Gaia data releases are planned and the data can be retrieved from the Gaia Archive, which is available through the Gaia home page. http://www.cosmos.esa.int/gaia

  2. Nuclear electric propulsion mission performance for fast piloted Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hack, K. J.; George, J. A.; Dudzinski, L. A.

    1991-01-01

    A mission study aimed at minimizing the time humans would spend in the space environment is presented. The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP), when combined with a suitable mission profile, can reduce the trip time to durations competitive with other propulsion systems. Specifically, a split mission profile utilizing an earth crew capture vehicle accounts for a significant portion of the trip time reduction compared to previous studies. NEP is shown to be capable of performing fast piloted missions to Mars at low power levels using near-term technology and is considered to be a viable candidate for these missions.

  3. The Space Technology 8 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, Stephen F.; Ku, Jentung; Spence, Brian; McEachen, Mike; White, Steve; Samson, John; Some, Rafael; Zsoldos, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    the Space Technology 8 (ST8) mission is the latest in NASA's New Millenium Program technology demonstration missions. ST8 includes a spacecraft bus built by industry, flying four new technology payloads in low Earth orbit. This paper will describe each payload, along with a brief description of the mission and spacecraft.

  4. Recent and upcoming observations of the CARacterisation et Modelisation de l'ENvironnement (CARMEN) mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ecoffet, Robert; Maget, Vincent; Rolland, Guy; Lorfevre, Eric; Bourdarie, Sébastien; Boscher, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    We have developed a series of instruments for energetic particle measurements, associated with component test beds "MEX". The aim of this program is to check and improve space radiation engineering models and techniques. The first series of instruments, "ICARE" has flown on the MIR space station (SPICA mission), the ISS (SPICA-S mission) and the SAC-C low Earth polar orbiting satellite (ICARE mission 2001-2011) in cooperation with the Argentinian space agency CONAE. A second series of instruments "ICARE-NG" was and is flown as: - CARMEN-1 mission on CONAE's SAC-D, 650 km, 98°, 2011-2015, along with three "SODAD" space micro-debris detectors - CARMEN-2 mission on the JASON-2 satellite (CNES, JPL, EUMETSAT, NOAA), 1336 km, 66°, 2008-now, along with JAXA's LPT energetic particle detector - CARMEN-3 mission on the JASON-3 satellite in the same orbit as JASON-2, launched 17 January 2016, along with a plasma detector "AMBRE", and JAXA's LPT again. The ICARE-NG is spectrometer composed of a set of three fully depleted silicon solid state detectors used in single and coincident mode. The on-board measurements consist in accumulating energy loss spectra in the detectors over a programmable accumulation period. The spectra are generated through signal amplitude classification using 8 bit ADCs and resulting in 128/256 channels histograms. The discriminators reference levels, amplifier gain and accumulation time for the spectra are programmable to provide for possible on-board tuning optimization. Ground level calibrations have been made at ONERA-DESP using radioactive source emitting alpha particles in order to determine the exact correspondence between channel number and particle energy. To obtain the response functions to particles, a detailed sectoring analysis of the satellite associated with GEANT-4/MCNP-X calculations has been performed to characterize the geometrical factors of the each detector for p+ as well as for e- with different energies. The component test bed

  5. The Primitive Material Explorer (PriME) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Anita L.; Weaver, H. A.; Science, PriME; Engineering Teams

    2010-10-01

    The Primitive Material Explorer (PriME) Mission is a proposed Discovery mission that will rendezvous with comet 46P/Wirtanen in 2021 in order to 1) clarify the roles played by comets in the formation and evolution of the Solar System and the origin of life; 2) ascertain the bulk physical properties, the surface geology, and the sources of activity in a fresh comet nucleus; and 3) investigate the compositional diversity of primitive material in the Solar System. PriME teams an experienced group of comet scientists (led by PI Anita Cochran and by DPI Harold Weaver) with university and industrial partners. The PriME payload accomplishes the mission objectives with only three instruments. MASPEX (MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration) has higher mass resolution and is more sensitive than any mass spectrometer ever flown. MASPEX will measure D/H in H2O, noble gases, isotopes of many species, and complex molecular compounds to test solar nebula models and the role comets played in delivering water and other biologically important materials throughout the Solar System. The VIS (Visible Imaging System), consisting of a Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) and Wide-Angle Camera (WAC), will constrain the conditions under which the building blocks of the outer Solar System were assembled by measuring key physical properties of the nucleus of 46P/Wirtanen. Using the radio antenna and close flybys of the nucleus, PriME will determine the mass of the nucleus to an accuracy of 1% and the bulk density and average porosity of the nucleus to better than 5%. All spacecraft subsystems have significant planetary flight heritage. The spacecraft is a high-heritage derivative of the Kepler and Deep Impact spacecrafts, compatible with the three launch vehicle families specified in the Discovery Announcement of Opportunity.

  6. Simulation Study of a Follow-on Gravity Mission to GRACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loomis, Bryant D.; Nerem, R. S.; Luthcke, Scott B.

    2012-01-01

    The gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) has been providing monthly estimates of the Earth's time-variable gravity field since its launch in March 2002. The GRACE gravity estimates are used to study temporal mass variations on global and regional scales, which are largely caused by a redistribution of water mass in the Earth system. The accuracy of the GRACE gravity fields are primarily limited by the satellite-to-satellite range-rate measurement noise, accelerometer errors, attitude errors, orbit errors, and temporal aliasing caused by unmodeled high-frequency variations in the gravity signal. Recent work by Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp., Boulder, CO has resulted in the successful development of an interferometric laser ranging system to specifically address the limitations of the K-band microwave ranging system that provides the satellite-to-satellite measurements for the GRACE mission. Full numerical simulations are performed for several possible configurations of a GRACE Follow-On (GFO) mission to determine if a future satellite gravity recovery mission equipped with a laser ranging system will provide better estimates of time-variable gravity, thus benefiting many areas of Earth systems research. The laser ranging system improves the range-rate measurement precision to approximately 0.6 nm/s as compared to approx. 0.2 micro-seconds for the GRACE K-band microwave ranging instrument. Four different mission scenarios are simulated to investigate the effect of the better instrument at two different altitudes. The first pair of simulated missions is flown at GRACE altitude (approx. 480 km) assuming on-board accelerometers with the same noise characteristics as those currently used for GRACE. The second pair of missions is flown at an altitude of approx. 250 km which requires a drag-free system to prevent satellite re-entry. In addition to allowing a lower satellite altitude, the drag-free system also reduces the errors associated with the

  7. Solar Electric Propulsion Mission Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerslake, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation reviews Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP) Mission Architectures with a slant towards power system technologies and challenges. The low-mass, high-performance attributes of SEP systems have attracted spacecraft designers and mission planners alike and have led to a myriad of proposed Earth orbiting and planetary exploration missions. These SEP missions are discussed from the earliest missions in the 1960's, to first demonstrate electric thrusters, to the multi-megawatt missions envisioned many decades hence. The technical challenges and benefits of applying high-voltage arrays, thin film and low-intensity, low-temperature (LILT) photovoltaics, gossamer structure solar arrays, thruster articulating systems and microsat systems to SEP spacecraft power system designs are addressed. The overarching conclusion from this review is that SEP systems enhance, and many times enable, a wide class of space missions.

  8. NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft mission operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holdridge, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    On 12 February 2001, Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous (NEAR) Shoemaker became the first spacecraft to land on a small body, 433 Eros. Prior to that historic event, NEAR was the first-ever orbital mission about an asteroid. The mission presented general challenges associated with other planetary space missions as well as challenges unique to an inaugural mission around a small body. The NEAR team performed this operations feat with processes and tools developed during the 4-year-long cruise to Eros. Adding to the success of this historic mission was the cooperation among the NEAR science, navigation, guidance and control, mission design, and software teams. With clearly defined team roles, overlaps in responsibilities were minimized, as were the associated costs. This article discusses the processes and systems developed at APL that enabled the success of NEAR mission operations.

  9. The Role of the NASA Global Hawk Link Module as an Information Nexus For Atmospheric Mapping Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, D. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Link Module described in this paper was developed for the NASA Uninhabited Aerial System (UAS) Global Hawk Pacific Mission (GloPAC) Airborne Science Campaign; four flights of 30 hour duration, supporting the Aura Validation Experiment (AVE). It was used again during the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, a NASA Earth Science field experiment to better understand how tropical storms form and develop into major hurricanes. In these missions, the Link Module negotiated all communication over the high bandwidth Ku satellite link, archived all the science data from onboard experiments in a spatially enabled database, routed command and control of the instruments from the Global Hawk Operations Center, and re-transmitted select data sets directly to experimenters control and analysis systems. The availability of aggregated information from collections of sensors, and remote control capabilities, in real-time, is revolutionizing the way Airborne Science is being conducted. The Link Module NG now being flown in support of the NASA Earth Venture missions, the Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) mission, and Airborne Tropical Tropopause Experiment (A TTREX) mission, has advanced data fusion technologies that are further advancing the Scientific productivity, flexibility and robustness of these systems. On-the-fly traffic shaping has been developed to allow the high definition video, used for critical flight control segments, to dynamically allocate variable bandwidth on demand. Historically, the Link Module evolved from the instrument and communication interface controller used by NASA's Pathfinder and Pathfinder plus solar powered UAS's in the late 1990' s. It later was expanded for use in the AIRDAS four channel scanner flown on the NASA Altus UAS, and then again to a module in the AMS twelve channel multispectral scanner flying on the NASA (Predator-b) Ikhana UAS. The current system is the answer to the challenges imposed by extremely

  10. STS-61 mission director's post-mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Ronald L.

    1995-01-01

    To ensure the success of the complex Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission, STS-61, NASA established a number of independent review groups to assess management, design, planning, and preparation for the mission. One of the resulting recommendations for mission success was that an overall Mission Director be appointed to coordinate management activities of the Space Shuttle and Hubble programs and to consolidate results of the team reviews and expedite responses to recommendations. This report presents pre-mission events important to the experience base of mission management, with related Mission Director's recommendations following the event(s) to which they apply. All Mission Director's recommendations are presented collectively in an appendix. Other appendixes contain recommendations from the various review groups, including Payload Officers, the JSC Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Section, JSC EVA Management Office, JSC Crew and Thermal Systems Division, and the STS-61 crew itself. This report also lists mission events in chronological order and includes as an appendix a post-mission summary by the lead Payload Deployment and Retrieval System Officer. Recommendations range from those pertaining to specific component use or operating techniques to those for improved management, review, planning, and safety procedures.

  11. Radioisotope thermophotovoltaic system design and its application to an illustrative space mission

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, A.; Kumar, V.

    1995-01-05

    The paper describes the results of a DOE-sponsored design study of a radioisotope thermophotovoltaic generator (RTPV), to complement similar studies of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and Stirling Generators (RSGs) previously published by the author. Instead of conducting a generic study, it was decided to focus the design effort by directing it at a specific illustrative space mission, Pluto Fast Flyby (PFF). That mission, under study by JPL, envisages a direct eight-year flight to Pluto (the only unexplored planet in the solar system), followed by comprehensive mapping, surface composition, and atmospheric structure measurements during a brief flyby of the planet and its moon Charon, and transmission of the recorded science data to Earth during a post-encounter cruise lasting up to one year. Because of Pluto`s long distance from the sun (30--50 A.U.) and the mission`s large energy demand, JPL has baselined the use of a radioisotope power system for the PFF spacecraft. TRGs have been tentatively selected, because they have been successfully flown on many space missions, and have demonstrated exceptional reliability and durability. The only reason for exploring the applicability of the far less mature RTPV systems is their potential for much higher conversion efficiencies, which would greatly reduce the mass and cost of the required radioisotope heat source. Those attributes are particularly important for the PFF mission, which---like all NASA missions under current consideration---is severely mass- and cost-limited. The paper describes the design of the radioisotope heat source, the thermophotovoltaic converter, and the heat rejection system; and depicts its integration with the PFF spacecraft.

  12. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-62, Launched 4 March 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Delombard, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The second mission of the United States Microgravity Payload on-board the STS-62 mission was supported with three accelerometer instruments: the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) and two units of the Space Acceleration Measurements System (SAMS). The March 4, 1994 launch was the fourth successful mission for OARE and the ninth successful mission for SAMS. The OARE instrument utilizes a sensor for very low frequency measurements below one Hertz. The accelerations in this frequency range are typically referred to as quasisteady accelerations. One of the SAMS units had two remote triaxial sensor heads mounted on the forward MPESS structure between two furnance experiments, MEPHISTO and AADSF. These triaxial heads had low-pass filter cut-off frequencies at 10 and 25 Hz. The other SAMS unit utilized three remote triaxial sensor heads. Two of the sensor heads were mounted on the aft MPESS structure between the two experiments IDGE and ZENO. These triaxial heads had low-pass filter cut-off frequencies at 10 and 25 Hz. The third sensor head was mounted on the thermostat housing inside the IDGE experiment container. This triaxial head had a low-pass filter cut-off frequency at 5 Hz. This report is prepared to furnish interested experiment investigators with a guide to evaluating the acceleration environment during STS-62 and as a means of identifying areas which require further study. To achieve this purpose, various pieces of information are included, such as an overview of the STS-62 mission, a description of the accelerometer system flown on STS-62, some specific analysis of the accelerometer data in relation to the various mission activities, and an overview of the low-gravity environment during the entire mission. An evaluation form is included at the end of the report to solicit users' comments about the usefulness of this series of reports.

  13. The Mars Pathfinder Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golombek, M. P.

    1996-09-01

    The Mars Pathfinder mission is a Discovery class mission that will place a small lander and rover on the surface of Mars on July 4, 1997. The Pathfinder flight system is a single small lander, packaged within an aeroshell and back cover with a back-pack-style cruise stage. The vehicle will be launched, fly independently to Mars, and enter the atmosphere directly on approach behind the aeroshell. The vehicle is slowed by a parachute and 3 small solid rockets before landing on inflated airbags. Petals of a small tetrahedron shaped lander open up, to right the vehicle. The lander is solar powered with batteries and will operate on the surface for up to a year, downlinking data on a high-gain antenna. Pathfinder will be the first mission to use a rover, with 3 imagers and an alpha proton X-ray spectrometer, to characterize the rocks and soils in a landing area over hundreds of square meters on Mars, which will provide a calibration point or "ground truth" for orbital remote sensing observations. The rover (includes a series of technology experiments), the instruments (including a stereo multispectral surface imager on a pop up mast and an atmospheric structure instrument-surface meteorology package) and the telemetry system will allow investigations of: the surface morphology and geology at meter scale, the petrology and geochemistry of rocks and soils, the magnetic properties of dust, soil mechanics and properties, a variety of atmospheric investigations and the rotational and orbital dynamics of Mars. Landing downstream from the mouth of a giant catastrophic outflow channel, Ares Vallis, offers the potential of identifying and analyzing a wide variety of crustal materials, from the ancient heavily cratered terrain, intermediate-aged ridged plains and reworked channel deposits, thus allowing first-order scientific investigations of the early differentiation and evolution of the crust, the development of weathering products and early environments and conditions on Mars.

  14. The Kaguya Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Manabu; Sasaki, Susumu; Takizawa, Yoshisada

    2010-07-01

    The Japanese lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) was successfully launched by an H2A rocket on September 14, 2007. On October 4, 2007, after passing through a phasing orbit 2.5 times around the Earth, Kaguya was inserted into a large elliptical orbit circling the Moon. After the apolune altitude was lowered, Kaguya reached its nominal 100 km circular polar observation orbit on October 19. During the process of realizing the nominal orbit, two subsatellites Okina (Rstar) and Ouna (Vstar) were released into elliptical orbits with 2400 km and 800 km apolune, respectively; both elliptical orbits had 100 km perilunes. After the functionality of bus system was verified, four radar antennas and a magnetometer boom were extended, and a plasma imager was deployed. Acquisition of scientific data was carried out for 10 months of nominal mission that began in mid-December 2007. During the 8-month extended mission, magnetic fields and gamma-rays from lower orbits were measured; in addition to this, low-altitude observations were carried out using a Terrain Camera, a Multiband Imager, and an HDTV camera. New data pertaining to an intense magnetic anomaly and GRS data with higher spatial resolution were acquired to study magnetism and the elemental distribution of the Moon. After some orbital maneuvers were performed by using the saved fuel, the Kaguya spacecraft finally impacted on the southeast part of the Moon. The Kaguya team has archived the initial science data, and since November 2, 2009, the data has been made available to public, and can be accessed at the Kaguya homepage of JAXA. The team continues to also study and publish initial results in international journals. Science purposes of the mission and onboard instruments including initial science results are described in this overview.

  15. GLAST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cominsky, Lynn R.

    2001-01-01

    Cominsky served as the chair of the GLAST Public Affairs Working Group during the mission concept study. The major accomplishments of this group, which were carried out under her direction include: (1) GLAST Outreach website; (2) Brochure for scientists; (3) Brochure for public; (4) Developed the five key science goal 'bullets' to explain GLAST to the public, as well as the motto used on the GLAST brochures 'Quest for the Ultimate Sources of Energy in the Universe'; (5) Defined the EPO program for GLAST for the proposal phase. Developed initial program outline and budget; and (6) Assisted in the development of the GLAST exhibit, which was used at several scientific conferences.

  16. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipman, E. G.

    1981-03-01

    The Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft, launched on 1980 February 14, carries seven instruments for the study of solar flares and other aspects of solar activity. These instruments observe in spectral ranges from gamma-rays through the visible, using imaging, spectroscopy, and high-time-resolution light curves to study flare phenomena. In addition, one instrument incorporates an active cavity radiometer for accurate measurement of the total solar radiant output. This paper reviews some of the most important current observational and theoretical questions of solar flare physics and indicates the ways in which the experiments on SMM will be able to attack these questions. The SMM observing program is described.

  17. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilford, Shelby G.; Asrar, Ghassem; Backlund, Peter W.

    1994-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  18. Mars mission research center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Mars Mission Research Center is one of nine University Space Engineering Research Centers established by NASA to broaden the nation's engineering capability to meet the critical needs of the civilian space program. It has the goal of focusing on research and training technologies for planetary exploration with particular emphasis on Mars. The research combines: (1) composite materials and fabrication, (2) light weight structures and controls, and (3) hypersonic aerodynamics and propulsion in a cross disciplined program directed towards the development of the space transportation system for planetary travel.

  19. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment.

  20. The EOS Aura Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoebert, Mark R.; Douglass, A. R.; Hilsenrath, E.; Bhartia, P. K.; Barnett, J.; Gille, J.; Beer, R.; Gunson, M.; Waters, J.; Levelt, P. F.

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing System (EOS) Aura satellite is scheduled to launch in the second quarter of 2004. The Aura mission is designed to attack three science questions: (1) Is the ozone layer recovering as expected? (2) What are the sources and processes that control tropospheric pollutants? (3) What is the quantitative impact of constituents on climate change? Aura will answer these questions by globally measuring a comprehensive set of trace gases and aerosols at high vertical and horizontal resolution. Fig. 1 shows the Aura spacecraft and its four instruments.

  1. Climate Benchmark Missions: CLARREO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A.; Young, David F.

    2010-01-01

    CLARREO (Climate Absolute Radiance and Refractivity Observatory) is one of the four Tier 1 missions recommended by the recent NRC decadal survey report on Earth Science and Applications from Space (NRC, 2007). The CLARREO mission addresses the need to rigorously observe climate change on decade time scales and to use decadal change observations as the most critical method to determine the accuracy of climate change projections such as those used in the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC AR4). A rigorously known accuracy of both decadal change observations as well as climate projections is critical in order to enable sound policy decisions. The CLARREO mission accomplishes this critical objective through highly accurate and SI traceable decadal change observations sensitive to many of the key uncertainties in climate radiative forcings, responses, and feedbacks that in turn drive uncertainty in current climate model projections. The same uncertainties also lead to uncertainty in attribution of climate change to anthropogenic forcing. The CLARREO breakthrough in decadal climate change observations is to achieve the required levels of accuracy and traceability to SI standards for a set of observations sensitive to a wide range of key decadal change variables. These accuracy levels are determined both by the projected decadal changes as well as by the background natural variability that such signals must be detected against. The accuracy for decadal change traceability to SI standards includes uncertainties of calibration, sampling, and analysis methods. Unlike most other missions, all of the CLARREO requirements are judged not by instantaneous accuracy, but instead by accuracy in large time/space scale average decadal changes. Given the focus on decadal climate change, the NRC Decadal Survey concluded that the single most critical issue for decadal change observations was their lack of accuracy and low confidence in

  2. Enabling the human mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosley, John

    The duplication of earth conditions aboard a spacecraft or planetary surface habitat requires 60 lb/day/person of food, potable and hygiene water, and oxygen. A 1000-day mission to Mars would therefore require 30 tons of such supplies per crew member in the absence of a closed-cycle, or regenerative, life-support system. An account is given of the development status of regenerative life-support systems, as well as of the requisite radiation protection and EVA systems, the health-maintenance and medical care facilities, zero-gravity deconditioning measures, and planetary surface conditions protection.

  3. Asteroid Redirect Mission: EVA and Sample Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul; Stich, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) Overview (1) Notional Development Schedule, (2) ARV Crewed Mission Accommodations; Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM) Mission Summary; ARCM Accomplishments; Sample collection/curation plan (1) CAPTEM Requirements; SBAG Engagement Plan

  4. Advances in Autonomous Systems for Missions of Space Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, A. R.; Smith, B. D.; Briggs, G. A.; Hieronymus, J.; Clancy, D. J.

    New missions of space exploration will require unprecedented levels of autonomy to successfully accomplish their objectives. Both inherent complexity and communication distances will preclude levels of human involvement common to current and previous space flight missions. With exponentially increasing capabilities of computer hardware and software, including networks and communication systems, a new balance of work is being developed between humans and machines. This new balance holds the promise of meeting the greatly increased space exploration requirements, along with dramatically reduced design, development, test, and operating costs. New information technologies, which take advantage of knowledge-based software, model-based reasoning, and high performance computer systems, will enable the development of a new generation of design and development tools, schedulers, and vehicle and system health monitoring and maintenance capabilities. Such tools will provide a degree of machine intelligence and associated autonomy that has previously been unavailable. These capabilities are critical to the future of space exploration, since the science and operational requirements specified by such missions, as well as the budgetary constraints that limit the ability to monitor and control these missions by a standing army of ground- based controllers. System autonomy capabilities have made great strides in recent years, for both ground and space flight applications. Autonomous systems have flown on advanced spacecraft, providing new levels of spacecraft capability and mission safety. Such systems operate by utilizing model-based reasoning that provides the capability to work from high-level mission goals, while deriving the detailed system commands internally, rather than having to have such commands transmitted from Earth. This enables missions of such complexity and communications distance as are not otherwise possible, as well as many more efficient and low cost

  5. Missions to Mars: Characterisation of Mars analogue rocks for the International Space Analogue Rockstore (ISAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, Nicolas; Westall, Frances; Ramboz, Claire; Foucher, Frédéric; Pullan, Derek; Meunier, Alain; Petit, Sabine; Fleischer, Iris; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Vago, Jorge L.

    2013-07-01

    Instruments for surface missions to extraterrestrial bodies should be cross-calibrated using a common suite of relevant materials. Such work is necessary to improve instrument performance and aids in the interpretation of in-situ measurements. At the CNRS campus in Orléans, the Observatoire des Sciences de l'Univers en région Centre (OSUC) has created a collection of well-characterised rocks and minerals for testing and calibrating instruments to be flown in space missions. The characteristics of the analogue materials are documented in an accompanying online database. In view of the recent and upcoming rover missions to Mars (NASA's 2011 Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) and ESA/Roscosmos' 2018 ExoMars), we are concentrating initially on materials of direct relevance to the red planet. The initial collection consists of 15 well-studied rock and mineral samples, including a variety of basalts (ultramafic, weathered, silicified, primitive), sediments (volcanic sands, chert, and a banded iron formation -BIF-), and the phyllosilicate nontronite (a clay). All the samples were characterised petrographically, petrologically, and geochemically using the types of analyses likely to be performed during in-situ missions, in particular ExoMars: hand specimen description; optical microscopy; mineralogical analysis by XRD, Raman and IR spectrometry; iron phase analysis by Mössbauer spectroscopy (MBS), elemental analysis by Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), microprobe, Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES) and Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS); and reduced carbon analysis by Raman spectrometry.

  6. Trajectory and navigation system design for robotic and piloted missions to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thurman, S. W.; Matousek, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    Future Mars exploration missions, both robotic and piloted, may utilize Earth to Mars transfer trajectories that are significantly different from one another, depending upon the type of mission being flown and the time period during which the flight takes place. The use of new or emerging technologies for future missions to Mars, such as aerobraking and nuclear rocket propulsion, may yield navigation requirements that are much more stringent than those of past robotic missions, and are very difficult to meet for some trajectories. This article explores the interdependencies between the properties of direct Earth to Mars trajectories and the Mars approach navigation accuracy that can be achieved using different radio metric data types, such as ranging measurements between an approaching spacecraft and Mars orbiting relay satellites, or Earth based measurements such as coherent Doppler and very long baseline interferometry. The trajectory characteristics affecting navigation performance are identified, and the variations in accuracy that might be experienced over the range of different Mars approach trajectories are discussed. The results predict that three sigma periapsis altitude navigation uncertainties of 2 to 10 km can be achieved when a Mars orbiting satellite is used as a navigation aid.

  7. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) flight mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-11-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5°N, 104.2°W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  8. Overview of the Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) Flight Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mertens, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The NASA Radiation Dosimetry Experiment (RaD-X) stratospheric balloon flight mission addresses the need to reduce the uncertainty in predicting human exposure to cosmic radiation in the aircraft environment. Measurements were taken that characterize the dosimetric properties of cosmic ray primaries, the ultimate source of aviation radiation exposure, and the cosmic ray secondary radiations that are produced and transported to aviation altitudes. In addition, radiation detectors were flown to assess their potential application to long-term, continuous monitoring of the aircraft radiation environment. RaD-X was successfully launched from Fort Sumner, New Mexico (34.5 N, 104.2 W), on 25 September 2015. Over 18 h of science data were obtained from a total of four different type dosimeters at altitudes above 20 km. The RaD-X flight mission was supported by laboratory radiation exposure testing of the balloon flight dosimeters and also by coordinated radiation measurements taken on ER-2 and commercial aircraft. This paper provides the science background and motivation for the RaD-X flight mission, a brief description of the balloon flight profile and the supporting aircraft flights, and a summary of the articles included in the RaD-X special collection and their contributions to the science goals of the RaD-X mission.

  9. Humoral and cellular immunity in cosmonauts after the ISS missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rykova, M. P.; Antropova, E. N.; Larina, I. M.; Morukov, B. V.

    Spaceflight effects on the immune system were studied in 30 cosmonauts flown onto the International Space Station (ISS) for long- (125-195 d, n=15) and short-term (8-10 d, n=15) missions. Immunological investigations before launch and after landing were performed by using methods for quantitative and functional evaluation of the immunologically competent cells. Specific assays include: peripheral leukocyte distribution, natural killer (NK) cell cytotoxic activity, phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes, proliferation of T-cells in response to a mitogen, levels of immunoglobulins IgA, IgM, IgG, virus-specific antibody and cytokine in serum. It was noticed that after long-term spaceflights the percentage of NK (CD3-/CD16+/CD56+) cells was significantly reduced compared with pre-flight data (p<0.05) and NK activity was suppressed by 20-85% as compared with pre-flight data in 12 out of 15 cosmonauts. T-lymphocyte activity was decreased by 25-39% as compared with pre-flight data in 5 out of 13 cosmonauts. However, the relative number of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells did not change. The functional activity of NK and T-cells decreased in some of the cosmonauts after short-term missions. On the other hand, a moderate trend upward of NK cytotoxic activity and proliferative activity of T-cells was observed in some individuals. Concentrations immunoglobulins (IgA, IgM, IgG) and levels of M and G antibodies to herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and herpes virus type 6 (HV6) in serum did not reveal significant changes after long- and short-term flights. Concentrations of cytokines (IL- 1β, IL-2, IL-4 and TNF- α) in serum changed in an apparently random manner as compared with values before long- and short-term missions. Despite the fact that many improvements have been made to the living conditions of aboard the ISS our investigations demonstrate the remarkable depression of the immunological function after the ISS missions

  10. STS-58 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Designed by members of the flight crew, the STS-58 insignia depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia with a Spacelab module in its payload bay in orbit around Earth. The Spacelab and the lettering Spacelab Life Sciences ll highlight the primary mission of the second Space Shuttle flight dedicated to life sciences research. An Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) support pallet is shown in the aft payload bay, stressing the scheduled two-week duration of the longest Space Shuttle mission to date. The hexagonal shape of the patch depicts the carbon ring, a molecule common to all living organisms. Encircling the inner border of the patch is the double helix of DNA, representing the genetic basis of life. Its yellow background represents the sun, energy source for all life on Earth. Both medical and veterinary caducei are shown to represent the STS- 58 life sciences experiments. The position of the spacecraft in orbit about Earth with the United States in the background symbolizes the ongoing support of the American people for scientific research intended to benefit all mankind.

  11. Apollo 11 Mission Commemorated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-07-01

    On 24 July 1969, 4 days after Apollo 11 Mission Commander Neil Armstrong and Lunar Module Eagle Pilot Eugene “Buzz” Aldrin had become the first people to walk on the Moon, they and Apollo 11 Command Module Pilot Michael Collins peered through a window of the Mobile Quarantine Facility on board the U.S.S. Hornet following splashdown of the command module in the central Pacific as U.S. President Richard Nixon told them, “This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the creation.” Forty years later, the Apollo 11 crew and other Apollo-era astronauts gathered at several events in Washington, D. C., to commemorate and reflect on the Apollo program, that mission, and the future of manned spaceflight. “I don’t know what the greatest week in history is,” Aldrin told Eos. “But it was certainly a pioneering opening the door. With the door open when we touched down on the Moon, that was what enabled humans to put many more footprints on the surface of the Moon.”

  12. The Global Precipitation Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott; Kummerow, Christian

    2000-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Mission (GPM), expected to begin around 2006, is a follow-up to the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Unlike TRMM, which primarily samples the tropics, GPM will sample both the tropics and mid-latitudes. The primary, or core, satellite will be a single, enhanced TRMM satellite that can quantify the 3-D spatial distributions of precipitation and its associated latent heat release. The core satellite will be complemented by a constellation of very small and inexpensive drones with passive microwave instruments that will sample the rainfall with sufficient frequency to be not only of climate interest, but also have local, short-term impacts by providing global rainfall coverage at approx. 3 h intervals. The data is expected to have substantial impact upon quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation into global and mesoscale numerical models. Based upon previous studies of rainfall data assimilation, GPM is expected to lead to significant improvements in forecasts of extratropical and tropical cyclones. For example, GPM rainfall data can provide improved initialization of frontal systems over the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. The purpose of this talk is to provide information about GPM to the USWRP (U.S. Weather Research Program) community and to discuss impacts on quantitative precipitation estimation/forecasting and data assimilation.

  13. STS-54 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-54 crew patch depicts the Amefican bald eagle soaring above Earth and is emblematic of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in service to the United States and the world. The eagle is clutching an eightpointed star in its talons and is placing this larger star among a constellation of four others, representing the placement of the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) into orbit to join the four already in service. The blackness of space -- with stars conspicuously absent -- represents the crew's other primary mission in carrying the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer to orbit to conduct astronomical observations of invisible x-ray sources within the Milky Way Galaxy. The depiction of Earth showing North America is an expression of the crewmembers and NASA's intention that the medical and scientific experiments conducted onboard be for the benefit of mankind. The clouds and blue of Earth represent the crew's part in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth in conducting Earthobseation photography.

  14. The OHMIC Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ergun, R.; Burch, J. L.; Lotko, W.; Frey, H. U.; Chaston, C. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Observatory for Heteroscale Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling (OHMIC) investigates the coupling of Earth's magnetosphere and ionosphere (MI) focusing on the conversion of electromagnetic energy into particle energy in auroral acceleration regions. Energy conversion and acceleration are universal processes that are a critical part of MI coupling and govern the energy deposition into Earth's upper atmosphere. These same processes are known to occur in planetary magnetospheres and in the magnetized plasmas of stars. Energy conversion and acceleration in the auroral regions are known to occur on small spatial scales through dispersive Alfvén waves and nonlinear plasma structures such as double layers. OHMIC advances our understanding of MI coupling over previous missions using two spacecraft equipped with high-time resolution measurements of electron distributions, ion distributions, and vector electric and magnetic fields. One of the spacecraft will carry two high-time and high-spatial resolution imagers and a wide-angle imager in the far ultraviolet. The mission has two phases. The first phase investigates meridional phenomena by using the combination of two-point measurements and high-resolution to distinguishing spatial and temporal phenomena. The second phase investigates field-aligned phenomena with spacecraft separations between 10 and 1100 km. Primary science objectives include (1) determining how energy conversion and transport vary along the magnetic field, (2) determining how ionospheric outflow is mediated by ion heating, convection and field-aligned transport, and (3) determining how charged-particle acceleration and injection vary in time and space.

  15. The SPICA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibthorpe, B.; Helmich, F.; Roelfsema, P.; Kaneda, H.; Shibai, H.

    2016-05-01

    SPICA is a mid and far-infrared space mission to be submitted as a candidate to ESA's fifth medium class mission call, due in early 2016. This will be a joint project between ESA and JAXA, with ESA taking the lead role. If selected, SPICA will launch in ˜2029 and operate for a goal lifetime of 5 years. The spacecraft will house a 2.5 m telescope actively cooled to 8 K, providing unprecedented sensitivity at mid-far infrared wavelengths. The low background environment and wavelength coverage provided by SPICA will make it possible to conduct detailed spectroscopic surveys of sources in both the local and distant Universe, deep into the most obscured regions. Using these data the evolution of galaxies over a broad and continuous range of cosmic time can be studied, spanning the era of peak star forming activity. SPICA will also provide unique access to, among others, the deep-lying water-ice spectral features and HD lines within planet forming discs. SPICA will conduct an extensive survey of both planet forming discs and evolved planetary systems, with the aim of providing the missing link between planet formation models and the large number of extrasolar planetary systems now being discovered.

  16. AXTAR: Mission Design Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Paul S.; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Philips, Bernard F.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Levine, Alan M.; Wood, Kent S.; Wolff, Michael T.; Gwon, Chul S.; Strohmayer, Tod E.; Briggs, Michael S.; Capizzo, Peter; Fabisinski, Leo; Hopkins, Randall C.; Hornsby, Linda S.; Johnson, Les; Maples, C. Dauphne; Miernik, Janie H.; Thomas, Dan; DeGeronimo, Gianluigi

    2010-01-01

    The Advanced X-ray Timing Array (AXTAR) is a mission concept for X-ray timing of compact objects that combines very large collecting area, broadband spectral coverage, high time resolution, highly flexible scheduling, and an ability to respond promptly to time-critical targets of opportunity. It is optimized for sub-millisecond timing of bright Galactic X-ray sources in order to study phenomena at the natural time scales of neutron star surfaces and black hole event horizons, thus probing the physics of ultra-dense matter, strongly curved spacetimes, and intense magnetic fields. AXTAR s main instrument, the Large Area Timing Array (LATA) is a collimated instrument with 2 50 keV coverage and over 3 square meters effective area. The LATA is made up of an array of super-modules that house 2-mm thick silicon pixel detectors. AXTAR will provide a significant improvement in effective area (a factor of 7 at 4 keV and a factor of 36 at 30 keV) over the RXTE PCA. AXTAR will also carry a sensitive Sky Monitor (SM) that acts as a trigger for pointed observations of X-ray transients in addition to providing high duty cycle monitoring of the X-ray sky. We review the science goals and technical concept for AXTAR and present results from a preliminary mission design study

  17. The FAME mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Kenneth J.

    2003-02-01

    The Full-sky Astrometric Mapping Explorer (FAME) space mission will perform an all sky astrometric survey with unprecedented accuracy. FAME will produce an astrometric catalog of 40 million stars between 5th and 15th visual magnitude. For the bright stars (5th to 9th magnitude), FAME will determine the positions and parallaxes to better than 50 μas, with proper motion errors of 70 μas per year. For the fainter stars (between l0th and 15th magnitude), FAME will determine positions and parallaxes accurate to better than 500 μas with proper motions errors less than 500 μas per year. FAME will also collect photometric data on the 40 million stars. The accuracy of a single observation of a 9th magnitude star will be 1 mmag. The FAME mission will impact almost all areas of astrophysics. It will find planets revolving around nearby stars, further studies of stellar evolution, determine the location of dark matter in the Milky Way galaxy, and measure the size and age of the universe. It will also establish a celestial reference frame with an accuracy better than a microarcsecond.

  18. MISSION: Mission and Safety Critical Support Environment. Executive overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles; Atkinson, Colin

    1992-01-01

    For mission and safety critical systems it is necessary to: improve definition, evolution and sustenance techniques; lower development and maintenance costs; support safe, timely and affordable system modifications; and support fault tolerance and survivability. The goal of the MISSION project is to lay the foundation for a new generation of integrated systems software providing a unified infrastructure for mission and safety critical applications and systems. This will involve the definition of a common, modular target architecture and a supporting infrastructure.

  19. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT): Mission, Vision, and Business Case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The Goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities businesses and other government organizations; and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT's a free and open source software system; free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or future technology development.

  20. STS-78 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 patch links past with present to tell the story of its mission and science through a design imbued with the strength and vitality of the 2-dimensional art of North America's northwest coast Indians. Central to the design is the space Shuttle whose bold lines and curves evoke the Indian image for the eagle, a native American symbol of power and prestige as well as the national symbol of the United States. The wings of the Shuttle suggest the wings of the eagle whose feathers, indicative of peace and friendship in Indian tradition, are captured by the U forms, a characteristic feature of Northwest coast Indian art. The nose of the Shuttle is the strong downward curve of the eagle's beak, and the Shuttle's forward windows, the eagle's eyes, represented through the tapered S forms again typical of this Indian art form. The basic black and red atoms orbiting the mission number recall the original NASA emblem while beneath, utilizing Indian ovoid forms, the major mission scientific experiment package LMS (Life and Materials Sciences) housed in the Shuttle's cargo bay is depicted in a manner reminiscent of totem-pole art. This image of a bird poised for flight, so common to Indian art, is counterpointed by an equally familiar Tsimshian Indian symbol, a pulsating sun with long hyperbolic rays, the symbol of life. Within each of these rays are now encased crystals, the products of this mission's 3 major, high-temperature materials processing furnaces. And as the sky in Indian lore is a lovely open country, home of the Sun Chief and accessible to travelers through a hole in the western horizon, so too, space is a vast and beckoning landscape for explorers launched beyond the horizon. Beneath the Tsimshian sun, the colors of the earth limb are appropriately enclosed by a red border representing life to the Northwest coast Indians. The Indian colors of red, navy blue, white, and black pervade the STS-78 path. To the right of the Shuttle-eagle, the constellation

  1. Mission requirements: Skylab rescue mission SL-R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The Skylab Program includes three low earth orbit missions. These missions are designated SL-1/SL-2,SL-3 and SL-4. In addition to the three nominal Skylab missions, the program includes the Skylab Rescue Mission (SL-R). The SL-R mission is designed to provide a safe return of the Skylab crew in the event the Command Service Module (CSM) becomes disabled while docked to the Saturn Workshop (SWS). Mission requirements for the SL-R mission only are presented. SL-R mission configuration will be a CSM (modified with a field installed kit) manned by two crewmen launched on a Saturn IB Launch Vechicle. The SL-R CSM will rendezvous and dock with the SWS (or Orbital Assembly (OA), consisting of the SWS and disabled CSM, if the disabled CSM has not previously been jettisoned). The SWS configuration includes a Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM), Airlock Module (AM), and an S-IVB stage (modified as an Orbital Workshop (OWS), previously launched and inserted into orbit on a two-stage Saturn V Launch Vehicle for the SL-1/SL-2 mission.

  2. Mission planning and execution within the mission data system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, Anthony; Knight, Russell; Morris, Richard; Rasmussen, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Not only has the number of launched spacecraft per year exploded over the past few years, but also spacecraft are getting progressively more complex, as flyby missions give way to remote orbiters, which in turn give way to rovers and other in situ explorers. To address the software issues in this expanding mission set, JPL started the Mission Data System (MDS) project, an effort to make flight software engineering more straightforward and less prone to error through the eplicit modeling of spacecraft state. This paper presents how MDS performs mission planning and execution in the context of explicitly managing spacecraft state.

  3. General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Steven P.

    2007-01-01

    The General Mission Analysis Tool (GMAT) is a space trajectory optimization and mission analysis system developed by NASA and private industry in the spirit of the NASA Mission. GMAT contains new technology and is a testbed for future technology development. The goal of the GMAT project is to develop new space trajectory optimization and mission design technology by working inclusively with ordinary people, universities, businesses, and other government organizations, and to share that technology in an open and unhindered way. GMAT is a free and open source software system licensed under the NASA Open Source Agreement: free for anyone to use in development of new mission concepts or to improve current missions, freely available in source code form for enhancement or further technology development.

  4. D1 Mission Project Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Gunther

    1982-02-01

    The mission D1 is the first complete SL mission in the framework of the German Manned Space Program. This Mission will be under the mission management responsibility of the German Space Agency DFVLR. Its primary objective is to support basic and applied research in the following fields: materials processing, fluid physics, medicine, biology, botany. A further mission objective is to test: instrument reflyability (reuse of FSLP equipment, efficiency of crew operations in space and economies possible in crew operations. An important spin-off will be establishment of the management capability to implement and control complex manned space programs. This paper describes how the D1 project is implemented under German mission management responsibility. The major project tasks as they will be performed using German facilities, in particular all D1 unique aspects, will be addressed.

  5. Manned Mars mission cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  6. [Glycogen content in gerbil's liver following the spacecraft Foton-M3 mission].

    PubMed

    Atiakshin, D A; Bykov, E G; Il'in, E A; Pashkov, A N

    2009-01-01

    Glycogen cytochemistry and distribution in hepatocytes of the classic liver lobules were studied in three groups of gerbils Meriones unguiculatus: vivarium, synchronous control and flown in the 12-d Foton-M3 mission. The control animals were shown to have the central glycogen distribution with a large pool of polysaccharides found in hepatocytes of the pericentral and intermediate lobules and a small pool in the periportal area. Glycogen in hepatocyte plasm was within the physiological norm in the alpha- and beta-granules, typically localized on the cell periphery. Exposure to the spaceflight conditions decreased significantly glycogen concentrations in each functional region of the hepatic lobules and reduced the gradient of polysaccharide distribution from the portal triads toward the central vein. In parallel, high glycogen heterogeneity formed in adjacent hepatocytes and loci. The presence of glycosomes evidenced disturbance of carbohydrates metabolism. In addition, intracellular topography of glycogen granules in cytoplasm was altered. Trends of glycogen in gerbils of the synchronous control were similar to the space flown animals but much less pronounced.

  7. Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials III -- mission and induced environments

    SciTech Connect

    Koontz, S.L.; Leger, L.J.; Rickman, S.L.; Cross, J.B.; Hakes, C.L.; Bui, D.T.

    1994-04-01

    The Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials III (EOIM-III) flight experiment was developed to obtain benchmark atomic oxygen/material reactivity data. The experiment was conducted during Space Shuttle mission 46 (STS-46), which flew July 31 to August 7, 1992. Quantitative interpretation of the materials reactivity measurements requires a complete and accurate definition of the space environment exposure, including the thermal history of the payload was measured using twelve thermocouple sensors placed behind selected samples and on the EOIM-III payload structure. The solar ultraviolet exposure history of the EOIM-III payload was determined by analysis of the as-flown orbit and vehicle attitude combined with daily average solar ultraviolet and vacuum ultraviolet (UV/VUV) fluxes. The atomic oxygen fluence was assessed in three different ways. First, the O-atom fluence was calculated using a program that incorporates the MSIS-86 atmospheric model, the as-flown Space Shuttle trajectory, and solar activity parameters. Second, the oxygen atom fluence was estimated directly from Kapton film erosion. Third, ambient oxygen atom measurements were made using the quadrupole mass spectrometer on the EOIM-III payload. The best estimate of the oxygen atom fluence as of this writing is 2.3 {+-} 0.3 {times} 10{sup 20} atoms per square centimeter. Finally, results of post-flight X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface analyses of selected samples indicate low levels of contamination on the payload surface.

  8. The Space Interferometry Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unwin, Stephen C.

    1998-01-01

    The Space Interferometry Mission (SIM) is the next major space mission in NASA's Origins program after SIRTF. The SIM architecture uses three Michelson interferometers in low-earth orbit to provide 4 microarcsecond precision absolute astrometric measurements on approx. 40,000 stars. SIM will also provide synthesis imaging in the visible waveband to a resolution of 10 milliarcsecond, and interferometric nulling to a depth of 10(exp -4). A near-IR (1-2 micron) capability is being considered. Many key technologies will be demonstrated by SIM that will be carried over directly or can be readily scaled to future Origins missions such as TPF. The SIM spacecraft will carry a triple Michelson interferometer with baselines in the 10 meter range. Two interferometers act as high precision trackers, providing attitude information at all time, while the third one conducts the science observations. Ultra-accurate laser metrology and active systems monitor the systematic errors and to control the instrument vibrations in order to reach the 4 microarcsecond level on wide-angle measurements. SIM will produce a wealth of new astronomical data. With an absolute positional precision of 4 microarcsecond, SIM will improve on the best currently available measures (the Hipparcos catalog) by 2 or 3 orders of magnitude, providing parallaxes accurate to 10% and transverse velocities to 0.2 km/s anywhere in the Galaxy, to stars as faint as 20th magnitude. With the addition of radial velocities, knowledge of the 6-dimension phase space for objects of interest will allow us to attack a wide array of previously inaccessible problems such as: search for planets down to few earth masses; calibration of stellar luminosities and by means of standard candles, calibration of the cosmic distance scale; detecting perturbations due to spiral arms, disk warps and central bar in our galaxy; probe of the gravitational potential of the Galaxy, several kiloparsecs out of the galactic plane; synthesis imaging

  9. IMP - INTEGRATED MISSION PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dauro, V. A.

    1994-01-01

    IMP is a simulation language that is used to model missions around the Earth, Moon, Mars, or other planets. It has been used to model missions for the Saturn Program, Apollo Program, Space Transportation System, Space Exploration Initiative, and Space Station Freedom. IMP allows a user to control the mission being simulated through a large event/maneuver menu. Up to three spacecraft may be used: a main, a target and an observer. The simulation may begin at liftoff, suborbital, or orbital. IMP incorporates a Fehlberg seventh order, thirteen evaluation Runge-Kutta integrator with error and step-size control to numerically integrate the equations of motion. The user may choose oblate or spherical gravity for the central body (Earth, Mars, Moon or other) while a spherical model is used for the gravity of an additional perturbing body. Sun gravity and pressure and Moon gravity effects are user-selectable. Earth/Mars atmospheric effects can be included. The optimum thrust guidance parameters are calculated automatically. Events/maneuvers may involve many velocity changes, and these velocity changes may be impulsive or of finite duration. Aerobraking to orbit is also an option. Other simulation options include line-of-sight communication guidelines, a choice of propulsion systems, a soft landing on the Earth or Mars, and rendezvous with a target vehicle. The input/output is in metric units, with the exception of thrust and weight which are in English units. Input is read from the user's input file to minimize real-time keyboard input. Output includes vehicle state, orbital and guide parameters, event and total velocity changes, and propellant usage. The main output is to the user defined print file, but during execution, part of the input/output is also displayed on the screen. An included FORTRAN program, TEKPLOT, will display plots on the VDT as well as generating a graphic file suitable for output on most laser printers. The code is double precision. IMP is written in

  10. SCATHA mission termination report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stakkestad, Kjell; Fennessey, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes) satellite was operated from the Consolidated Space Test Center in Sunnyvale, California from February 1979 to May 1991. It was a spin stabilized vehicle in a highly eccentric orbit that collected data on spacecraft charging. The purpose of such data gathering was to predict and/or model the effects of the Earth's magnetic field on synchronous and near synchronous satellites. During the majority of its lifetime, attitude precession maneuvers were done every 10-15 days to maintain solar panel orientation. Maneuver planning was difficult due to the structural characteristics of SCATHA. It is cylindrically shaped and has seven booms ranging in length from 2 to 50 meters. These precession maneuvers induced predictable nutation that damped out after a few days. Eventually fuel began running low due to these frequent maneuvers. Experiments that had required the spin axis be in the orbit plane had already been turned off or had collected all their data. To increase the vehicle lifetime, the spin axis was moved to ecliptic normal. While this stopped the need for frequent attitude maneuvering (only two per year required now), this movement of the spin axis caused nutation that would not damp out for the remainder of the mission. This phase of the mission, with the ecliptic normal orientation, lasted for approximately three years. Although nutation never damped, data gathering was uninterrupted. In late 1990, when SCATHA's transmitter became seriously degraded, the Air Force decided to turn SCATHA off. This would only be done after the satellite was made 'safe'. The most difficult part of making the vehicle safe was quickly purging the fuel. Several plans were considered. The selected plan was to perform a series of 20 degree attitude precession maneuvers (3 days apart to allow for the worst nutation to damp) until the fuel was depleted. Although this sounded simple, the actual execution proved difficult. This was due to a

  11. EDL Pathfinder Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Bret G.

    2016-01-01

    NASA is developing a long-term strategy for achieving extended human missions to Mars in support of the policies outlined in the 2010 NASA Authorization Act and National Space Policy. The Authorization Act states that "A long term objective for human exploration of space should be the eventual international exploration of Mars." Echoing this is the National Space Policy, which directs that NASA should, "By 2025, begin crewed missions beyond the moon, including sending humans to an asteroid. By the mid-2030s, send humans to orbit Mars and return them safely to Earth." Further defining this goal, NASA's 2014 Strategic Plan identifies that "Our long-term goal is to send humans to Mars. Over the next two decades, we will develop and demonstrate the technologies and capabilities needed to send humans to explore the red planet and safely return them to Earth." Over the past several decades numerous assessments regarding human exploration of Mars have indicated that landing humans on the surface of Mars remains one of the key critical challenges. In 2015 NASA initiated an Agency-wide assessment of the challenges associated with Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) of large payloads necessary for supporting human exploration of Mars. Due to the criticality and long-lead nature of advancing EDL techniques, it is necessary to determine an appropriate strategy to improve the capability to land large payloads. This paper provides an overview of NASA's 2015 EDL assessment on understanding the key EDL risks with a focus on determining what "must" be tested at Mars. This process identified the various risks and potential risk mitigation strategies, that is, benefits of flight demonstration at Mars relative to terrestrial test, modeling, and analysis. The goal of the activity was to determine if a subscale demonstrator is necessary, or if NASA should take a direct path to a human-scale lander. This assessment also provided insight into how EDL advancements align with other Agency

  12. SCATHA mission termination report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stakkestad, Kjell; Fennessey, Richard

    1993-02-01

    The SCATHA (Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes) satellite was operated from the Consolidated Space Test Center in Sunnyvale, California from February 1979 to May 1991. It was a spin stabilized vehicle in a highly eccentric orbit that collected data on spacecraft charging. The purpose of such data gathering was to predict and/or model the effects of the Earth's magnetic field on synchronous and near synchronous satellites. During the majority of its lifetime, attitude precession maneuvers were done every 10-15 days to maintain solar panel orientation. Maneuver planning was difficult due to the structural characteristics of SCATHA. It is cylindrically shaped and has seven booms ranging in length from 2 to 50 meters. These precession maneuvers induced predictable nutation that damped out after a few days. Eventually fuel began running low due to these frequent maneuvers. Experiments that had required the spin axis be in the orbit plane had already been turned off or had collected all their data. To increase the vehicle lifetime, the spin axis was moved to ecliptic normal. While this stopped the need for frequent attitude maneuvering (only two per year required now), this movement of the spin axis caused nutation that would not damp out for the remainder of the mission. This phase of the mission, with the ecliptic normal orientation, lasted for approximately three years. Although nutation never damped, data gathering was uninterrupted. In late 1990, when SCATHA's transmitter became seriously degraded, the Air Force decided to turn SCATHA off. This would only be done after the satellite was made 'safe'. The most difficult part of making the vehicle safe was quickly purging the fuel. Several plans were considered. The selected plan was to perform a series of 20 degree attitude precession maneuvers (3 days apart to allow for the worst nutation to damp) until the fuel was depleted.

  13. The Non-Standard Mission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-13

    rotation, but issues concerning the selection of units for non-standard mission still exist five years later. 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...preparing our soldiers has improved since the first rotation, but issues concerning the selection of units for non-standard mission still exist five...our brigade headquarters for a separate mission. I was the Operations NCO for the battalion and had already been selected to serve as the Rear

  14. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  15. Missions and Means Framework Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-22

    Missions and Means Framework Application 25 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting...The Missions and Means Framework Application 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e...Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 The Missions and Means Framework Application Presentation to 73rd MORSS U.S. Military Academy 22 June 2005 Paul

  16. Mission planning for autonomous systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, G.

    1987-01-01

    Planning is a necessary task for intelligent, adaptive systems operating independently of human controllers. A mission planning system that performs task planning by decomposing a high-level mission objective into subtasks and synthesizing a plan for those tasks at varying levels of abstraction is discussed. Researchers use a blackboard architecture to partition the search space and direct the focus of attention of the planner. Using advanced planning techniques, they can control plan synthesis for the complex planning tasks involved in mission planning.

  17. SEPAC: Spacelab Mission 1 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The SEPAC Spacelab Mission 1 activities relevant to software operations are reported. Spacelab events and problems that did not directly affect SEPAC but are of interest to experimenters are included. Spacelab Mission 1 was launched from KSC on 28 November 1983 at 10:10 Huntsville time. The Spacelab Mission met its objectives. There were two major problems associated with SEPAC: the loss of the EBA gun and the RAU 21.

  18. The Solar Maximum Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simnett, G. M.

    The scientific goals, instrumentation and operation, and results from the Solar Maximum Mission are described. The spacecraft was launched to observe the peak of the solar cycle and the impulsive phase of large flares. Instrumentation included a gamma ray spectrometer, X ray burst spectrometer, imaging spectrometer, and polychromator, a UV spectrometer and polarimeter, a coronagraph/polarimeter, and an active cavity radiometer for measurements at wavelengths ranging from the Hα line at 6563 A up to the gamma ray region of the spectrum. Command programs were prepared one day in advance by each team for its instrument, and limited readjustment was available in real-time. The spacecraft was equipped to, and did, point the instruments at one region for an expected flare build-up, and maintain that heading for an extended period of time through the appearance, development, and demise of the flare.

  19. Venus Aerobot Multisonde Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, James A.; Kerzhanovich, Viktor; Balaram, J. Bob; Campbell, Bruce; Gershaman, Robert; Greeley, Ronald; Hall, Jeffery L.; Cameron, Jonathan; Klaasen, Kenneth; Hansen, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Robotic exploration of Venus presents many challenges because of the thick atmosphere and the high surface temperatures. The Venus Aerobot Multisonde mission concept addresses these challenges by using a robotic balloon or aerobot to deploy a number of short lifetime probes or sondes to acquire images of the surface. A Venus aerobot is not only a good platform for precision deployment of sondes but is very effective at recovering high rate data. This paper describes the Venus Aerobot Multisonde concept and discusses a proposal to NASA's Discovery program using the concept for a Venus Exploration of Volcanoes and Atmosphere (VEVA). The status of the balloon deployment and inflation, balloon envelope, communications, thermal control and sonde deployment technologies are also reviewed.

  20. Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Gregory S.; Backlund, Peter W.

    1992-01-01

    Mission to Planet Earth (MTPE) is NASA's concept for an international science program to produce the understanding needed to predict changes in the Earth's environment. NASA and its interagency and international partners will place satellites carrying advanced sensors in strategic Earth orbits to gather multidisciplinary data. A sophisticated data system will process and archive an unprecedented amount of information about the Earth and how it works as a system. Increased understanding of the Earth system is a basic human responsibility, a prerequisite to informed management of the planet's resources and to the preservation of the global environment. An overview of the MTPE, flight programs, data and information systems, interdisciplinary research efforts, and international coordination, is presented.

  1. The Planck mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandolesi, N.; Burigana, C.; Gruppuso, A.; Procopio, P.; Ricciardi, S.; Planck Collaboration

    This paper provides an overview of the ESA Planck mission and its scientific promises. Planck is equipped with a 1.5-m effective aperture telescope with two actively-cooled instruments observing the sky in nine frequency channels from 30 GHz to 857 GHz: the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) operating at 20 K with pseudo-correlation radiometers, and the High Frequency Instrument (HFI) with bolometers operating at 100 mK. After the successful launch in May 2009, Planck has already mapped the sky twice (at the time of writing this review) with the expected behavior and it is planned to complete at least two further all-sky surveys. The first scientific results, consisting of an Early Release Compact Source Catalog (ERCSC) and in about twenty papers on instrument performance in flight, data analysis pipeline, and main astrophysical results, will be released on January 2011. The first publications of the main cosmological implications are expected in 2012.

  2. GLAST Mission Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ritz, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope, GLAST, is a satellite-based observatory under construction to measure the cosmic gamma-ray flux in the energy range 20 MeV to >300 GeV, with supporting measurements for gamma-ray bursts from 10 keV to 25 MeV. With its launch in 2007, GLAST will open a new and important window on a wide variety of high energy phenomena, including black holes and active galactic nuclei; gamma-ray bursts; the origin of cosmic rays and supernova remnants; and searches for hypothetical new phenomena such as supersymmetric dark matter annihilations, Lorentz invariance violation, and exotic relics from the Big Bang. In addition to the science opportunities, this talk will include a brief description of the instruments, the collaboration of particle physicists and high energy astrophysicist, the mission status, and the opportunities and support for guest observers.

  3. Mission to planet earth

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    Plans for environmental monitoring using remote-sensing satellites in the era of the International Space Station are reviewed. The role of international cooperation is stressed, considering the present Landsat, SPOT, and Marine Observation Satellite programs; ERS-1 and Topex/Poseidon; and plans for the Italian Lageos-2, the Indian Remote Sensing Satellite, and the Japanese Advanced Earth Observation Satellite. The NASA Mission to Planet Earth proposal calls for four polar-orbit and five GEO platforms (five NASA, two ESA, and two NASDA), to be in place by the year 2000, as well as dedicated spacecraft of the Earth System Explorer series in the 1990s. Payloads will monitor the geomagnetic field, atmospheric temperature and water vapor, O3 and aerosols, outgoing radiation, precipitation, sea-surface temperature, sea ice, ocean chlorophyll, surface winds, wave height, ocean circulation, snow cover, land use, vegetation, crops, volcanic activity, and the hydrologic cycle.

  4. SOHO Mission Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Footage shows the SOHO Mission Pre-Launch Science Briefing. The moderator of the conference is Fred Brown, NASA/GSFC Public Affairs, introduces the panel members. Included are Professor Roger Bonnet, Director ESA Science Program, Dr. Wesley Huntress, Jr., NASA Associate Administrator for Space Science and Dr. Vicente Domingo, ESA SOHO Project Scientist. Also present are several members from the SOHO Team: Dr. Richard Harrison, Art Poland, and Phillip Scherrer. The discussions include understanding the phenomena of the sun, eruption of gas clouds into the atmosphere, the polishing of the mirrors for the SOHO satellite, artificial intelligence in the telescopes, and the launch and operating costs. The panel members are also seen answering questions from various NASA Centers and Paris.

  5. STS-73 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The crew patch of STS-73, the second flight of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2), depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia in the vastness of space. In the foreground are the classic regular polyhedrons that were investigated by Plato and later Euclid. The Pythagoreans were also fascinated by the symmetrical three-dimensional objects whose sides are the same regular polygon. The tetrahedron, the cube, the octahedron, and the icosahedron were each associated with the Natural Elements of that time: fire (on this mission represented as combustion science); Earth (crystallography), air and water (fluid physics). An additional icon shown as the infinity symbol was added to further convey the discipline of fluid mechanics. The shape of the emblem represents a fifth polyhedron, a dodecahedron, which the Pythagoreans thought corresponded to a fifth element that represented the cosmos.

  6. Mission Operations Insights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Littman, Dave; Parksinson, Lou

    2006-01-01

    The mission description Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES): I) Collect and disseminate worldwide meteorological and environmental data: a) Provide day and night information (AVHRR): 1) cloud cover distribution and type; 2) cloud top temperature; 3) Moisture patterns and ice/snow melt. b) Provide vertical temperature and moisture profiles of atmospheres (HIRS, AMSU, MHS. c) Measure global ozone distribution and solar UV radiation (SBUV). d) Measure proton, electro, and charged particle density to provide solar storm warnings (SEM). d) Collect environmental data (DCS): 1) Stationary platforms in remote locations; 2) Free floating platforms on buoys, balloons, migratory animals. II) Provide Search and Rescue capabilities (SARR, SARP): a) Detection and relay of distress signals. b) Has saved thousands of lives around the world.

  7. Swarming UAVs mission design strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Kuo-Chi

    2007-04-01

    This paper uses a behavioral hierarchy approach to reduce the mission solution space and make the mission design easier. A UAV behavioral hierarchy is suggested, which is derived from three levels of behaviors: basic, individual and group. The individual UAV behavior is a combination of basic, lower level swarming behaviors with priorities. Mission design can be simplified by picking the right combination of individual swarming behaviors, which will emerge the needed group behaviors. Genetic Algorithm is used in both lower-level basic behavior design and mission design.

  8. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA's plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  9. Background to the Eddington mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roxburgh, I. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Eddington mission to measure stellar oscillations and search for other planets builds on a solid history of earlier proposals and studies for space missions to study stellar seismology and stellar activity and to search for planets. The idea of such a mission for stellar activity and seismology was conceived in France 1981 and underwent a series of developments leading to the EVRIS mission which was a passenger experiment on Mars96 and was lost when Mars96 failed. Subsequent proposals PRISMA and STARS underwent Phase A studies in ESA but were not selected for launch. The small French mission COROT, originally conceived as a successor to EVRIS was selected by CNES and is now scheduled for launch in 2004. The much more ambitious Eddington mission, devoted to stellar seismology and planet searching was selected as a mission (albeit with a "reserve" status) in the 2000 F2/F3 selection round in ESA. The mission is proceeding with detailed industrial and working group studies with the aim of being ready for launch in 2007/8 should the mission be fully approved as part of the ESA programme.

  10. Space Shuttle mission extension capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W. M., Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Space Shuttle missions are currently limited to 11 days, primarily due to depletion of the power reactants (hydrogen and oxygen). A power system Mission Extension Kit (MEK) is described which could provide the capability to stay on orbit 10 additional days. These extra days would benefit Space Station construction and missions such as materials processing, earth and celestial observation, and life science studies (Spacelab). Other constraints to longer missions which may dictate minor Orbiter modifications will be discussed. The power system MEK is particularly desirable because of its existing flight qualified hardware which can be delivered within 3 to 4 years.

  11. EVAL mission requirements, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The aspects of NASA's applications mission were enhanced by utilization of shuttle/spacelab, and payload groupings which optimize the cost of achieving the mission goals were defined. Preliminary Earth Viewing Application Laboratory (EVAL) missions, experiments, sensors, and sensor groupings were developed. The major technological EVAL themes and objectives which NASA will be addressing during the 1980 to 2,000 time period were investigated. Missions/experiments which addressed technique development, sensor development, application development, and/or operational data collection were considered as valid roles for EVAL flights.

  12. NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, Paul; Mazanek, Dan; Reeves, David; Naasz, Bo; Cichy, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is developing a robotic mission to visit a large near-Earth asteroid (NEA), collect a multi-ton boulder from its surface, and redirect it into a stable orbit around the Moon. Once returned to cislunar space in the mid-2020s, astronauts will explore the boulder and return to Earth with samples. This Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) is part of NASA’s plan to advance the technologies, capabilities, and spaceflight experience needed for a human mission to the Martian system in the 2030s. Subsequent human and robotic missions to the asteroidal material would also be facilitated by its return to cislunar space. Although ARM is primarily a capability demonstration mission (i.e., technologies and associated operations), there exist significant opportunities to advance our knowledge of small bodies in the synergistic areas of science, planetary defense, asteroidal resources and in-situ resource utilization (ISRU), and capability and technology demonstrations. In order to maximize the knowledge return from the mission, NASA is organizing an ARM Investigation Team, which is being preceded by the Formulation Assessment and Support Team. These teams will be comprised of scientists, technologists, and other qualified and interested individuals to help plan the implementation and execution of ARM. An overview of robotic and crewed segments of ARM, including the mission requirements, NEA targets, and mission operations, will be provided along with a discussion of the potential opportunities associated with the mission.

  13. 1998 Mars Missions Science Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    NASA executives gathered together for an interview to discuss the 1998 Mars Mission. A simulated overview of the Lander Mission is presented. Also presented are views of pre-launch activities, countdown, and launch of the spacecraft, burnouts of the first, second, and third engines, and the probe separating from the spacecraft. During this mission the Lander performs in situ investigations that address the science theme "Volatiles and Climate History" on Mars. The purpose of this mission is to study the following: climate; life; water; carbon dioxide; and dust particles.

  14. Mission and surface infrastructure concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J.; Mcdaniel, S. G.

    1986-01-01

    Several types of manned Mars surface missions, including sorties, fixed-base, and hybrid missions, which can be envisioned as potentially desirable approaches to the exploration and utilization of Mars are identified and discussed. Some of the advantages and disadvantages of each type are discussed briefly. Also, some of the implications of the types of missions on the surface elements' design are discussed briefly. Typical sets of surface elements are identified for each type of mission, and weights are provided for each element and set.

  15. IRIS Mission Operations Director's Colloquium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carvalho, Robert; Mazmanian, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    Pursuing the Mysteries of the Sun: The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) Mission. Flight controllers from the IRIS mission will present their individual experiences on IRIS from development through the first year of flight. This will begin with a discussion of the unique nature of IRISs mission and science, and how it fits into NASA's fleet of solar observatories. Next will be a discussion of the critical roles Ames contributed in the mission including spacecraft and flight software development, ground system development, and training for launch. This will be followed by experiences from launch, early operations, ongoing operations, and unusual operations experiences. The presentation will close with IRIS science imagery and questions.

  16. Earth Science Missions Engineering Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marius, Julio L.

    2009-01-01

    This presentation gives a general overlook of the engineering efforts that are necessary to meet science mission requirement especially for Earth Science missions. It provides brief overlook of NASA's current missions and future Earth Science missions and the engineering challenges to meet some of the specific science objectives. It also provides, if time permits, a brief summary of two significant weather and climate phenomena in the Southern Hemisphere: El Nino and La Nina, as well as the Ozone depletion over Antarctica that will be of interest to IEEE intercom 2009 conference audience.

  17. Asteroid Redirect Mission: Robotic Segment

    NASA Video Gallery

    This concept animation illustrates the robotic segment of NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission. The Asteroid Redirect Vehicle, powered by solar electric propulsion, travels to a large asteroid to robot...

  18. STS-40 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The STS-40 patch makes a contemporary statement focusing on human beings living and working in space. Against a background of the universe, seven silver stars, interspersed about the orbital path of Columbia, represent the seven crew members. The orbiter's flight path forms a double-helix, designed to represent the DNA molecule common to all living creatures. In the words of a crew spokesman, ...(the helix) affirms the ceaseless expansion of human life and American involvement in space while simultaneously emphasizing the medical and biological studies to which this flight is dedicated. Above Columbia, the phrase Spacelab Life Sciences 1 defines both the Shuttle mission and its payload. Leonardo Da Vinci's Vitruvian man, silhouetted against the blue darkness of the heavens, is in the upper center portion of the patch. With one foot on Earth and arms extended to touch Shuttle's orbit, the crew feels, he serves as a powerful embodiment of the extension of human inquiry from the boundaries of Earth to the limitless laboratory of space. Sturdily poised amid the stars, he serves to link scentists on Earth to the scientists in space asserting the harmony of efforts which produce meaningful scientific spaceflight missions. A brilliant red and yellow Earth limb (center) links Earth to space as it radiates from a native American symbol for the sun. At the frontier of space, the traditional symbol for the sun vividly links America's past to America's future, the crew states. Beneath the orbiting Shuttle, darkness of night rests peacefully over the United States. Drawn by artist Sean Collins, the STS 40 Space Shuttle patch was designed by the crewmembers for the flight.

  19. Biosatellite II mission.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, O E

    1969-01-01

    Biosatellite B was launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida, on a two-stage DELTA launch vehicle at 6:04 p.m. on 7 September, 1967. Approximately nine minutes later the 435 kg spacecraft biological laboratory was placed into a satisfactory 315 km near-circular earth orbit, successfully separated from the launch vehicle's second stage and was designated Biosatellite II. The scientific payload consisting of thirteen selected general biology and radiation experiments were subjected to planned, carefully controlled environmental conditions during 45 hours of earth-orbital flight. The decision was made to abbreviate the scheduled 3-day mission by approximately one day because of a threatening tropical storm in the recovery area, and a problem of communication with the spacecraft from the tracking stations. Highest priority was placed on recovery which was essential to obtain the scientific results on all the experiments. The operational phase of the mission came to a successful conclusion with the deorbit of the recovery capsule, deployment of the parachute system and air recovery by the United States Air Force. The 127 kg recovery capsule was returned to biology laboratories at Hickam Air Force Base, Hawaii, for disassembly and immediate inspection and analysis of the biological materials by the experimenters. It was evident immediately that the quality of the biology was excellent and this fact gave promise of a high return of scientific data. The environmental conditions provided to the experimental material in the spacecraft, provisions for experimental controls, and operational considerations are presented as they relate to interpretation of the experimental results.

  20. Affordable calibration and validation for future ocean color missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, D.; Wamsley, P. R.; Illing, R.; Sabatke, D.; Hardesty, C.; Valle, T.

    2012-12-01

    Future ocean color missions such as PACE and GEO-CAPE will require regular, high-quality calibration and validation from in-situ and airborne monitors. Spectral bandwidths into the UV region with extremely low polarization sensitivity are required. The Global Imager for Marine Ecological Research (GLIMMER) is a demonstrated low-cost airborne instrument built with commercial off-the-shelf components. It is a UV-VIS imaging spectrometer with a spectral range of 350 - 700 nm and a spectral resolution of 1 nm. A time domain polarization scrambler minimizes polarization impacts of scene and viewing geometry variations. With this technique, the polarization sensitivity is reduced to < 1%. This instrument has flown multiple times on a Twin Otter airplane. This presentation will show measurements taken with this instrument over the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill and more recent measurements taken during a 2012 campaign over Monterey Bay. The applicability of this low-cost instrument to cal/val efforts of future ocean color instruments will be discussed.

  1. Emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    This is the Official emblem of the Apollo 17 lunar landing mission which will be flown by Astronauts Eugene A. Cernan, Ronald E. Evans and Harrison H. Schmitt. The insignia is dominated by the image of Apollo, the Greek sun god. Suspended in space behind the head of Apollo is an American eagle of contemporary design, the red bars of the eagle's wing represent the bars in the U.S. flag; the three white stars symbolize the three astronaut crewmen. The background is deep blue space and within it are the Moon, the planet Saturn and a spiral galaxy or nebula. The Moon is partially overlaid by the eagle's wing suggesting that this is a celestial body that man has visited and in that sense conquered. The thrust of the eagle and the gaze of Apollo to the right and toward Saturn and the galaxy is meant to imply that man's goals in space will someday include the planets and perhaps the stars. The colors of the emblem are red, white and blue, the colors of our flag; with the addition of gold, to

  2. Pioneer Mars surface penetrator mission. Mission analysis and orbiter design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Mars Surface Penetrator mission was designed to provide a capability for multiple and diverse subsurface science measurements at a low cost. Equipment required to adapt the Pioneer Venus spacecraft for the Mars mission is described showing minor modifications to hardware. Analysis and design topics which are similar and/or identical to the Pioneer Venus program are briefly discussed.

  3. MSFC Flight Mission Directive Apollo-Saturn 205 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    The purpose of this directive is to provide, under one cover, coordinated direction for the AS-205 Space Vehicle Flight. Within this document, mission objectives are specified, vehicle configuration is described and referenced, flight trajectories, data acquisition requirements, instrumentation requirements, and detailed documentation requirements necessary to meet launch vehicle mission objectives are defined and/or referenced.

  4. Business analysis: The commercial mission of the International Asteroid Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The mission of the International Asteroid Mission (IAM) is providing asteroidal resources to support activities in space. The short term goal is to initiate IAM by mining a near-Earth, hydrous carbonaceous chondrite asteroid to service the nearer-term market of providing cryogenic rocket fuel in low lunar orbit (LLO). The IAM will develop and contract for the building of the transportation vehicles and equipment necessary for this undertaking. The long-term goal is to expand operations by exploiting asteroids in other manners, as these options become commercially viable. The primary business issues are what revenue can be generated from the baseline mission, how much will the mission cost, and how funding for this mission can be raised. These issues are addressed.

  5. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  6. 94 GHz doppler wind radar satellite mission concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Chi; Rommen, Björn; Buck, Christopher; Schüttemeyer, Dirk

    2015-10-01

    Extreme weather such as storms, hurricanes and typhoons, also called `high impact weather', is a high priority area of research for the atmospheric dynamics and meteorological science communities. 94 GHz Doppler wind radar satellite mission concepts have been elaborated, which use cloud and precipitation droplets/particles as tracers to measure 3-D wind fields. The so-called polarisation-diversity pulse-pair (PDPP) technique enables to derive line-of-sight wind speed with good accuracy (< 2-3 m/s) and large unambiguous dynamic range (e.g. 75 m/s). Two distinct system concepts have been elaborated: (1) a conically scanning radar concept with large coverage (> 800 km) and ˜50 km along-track sampling, and; (2) a stereo viewing concept with high sampling resolution (< 4 km) within an inclined cut through the atmosphere. The former concept is adequate for studying large-scale severe/extreme weather systems, whereas the latter would be more suitable for understanding of small-scale convective phenomena. For demonstrating the potential of the FDPP technique for deriving accurate Doppler observations, ground-based and airborne Doppler radar campaigns are in preparation. The Galileo 94 GHz radar, upgraded recently to include a FDPP capability, at Chilbolton in the UK, will be used for an extended ground-based campaign (6 months). For the airborne campaign, the dual-frequency (9.4 + 94 GHz) NAWX radar on board a Convair-580 aircraft of the National Science Council of Canada will be upgraded and flown. This paper describes the observation requirements, preliminary satellite mission concepts, associated wind retrieval aspects and the planned demonstration campaigns.

  7. Low-cost small satellites for astrophysical missions

    SciTech Connect

    Priedhorsky, W.C.

    1989-01-01

    A miniature satellite is a low-cost platform to support a small space experiment. Space astrophysics has been hindered by decades-long delays in important experiments. With miniature satellites, one hopes to reduce both experiment cost and lead time to an affordable level. Miniature satellites are not a new idea. The first scientific satellites, including Explorer I, were small and developed on a timescale of months. Important science was done by these pioneer missions. Though the easy discoveries have been made, important missions in exploration and follow-up can still be carried out from small platforms. Successful small satellite programs continue to this day. These include the OSCAR amateur radio satellite program, in which 12 small satellites, built by amateurs, have been flown over 25 years with no satellite failures (Fleeter, 1988). Two small free-flyers, GLOMAR and NUSAT, were ejected from the Shuttle in 1985. GLOMAR, a radio-relay experiment, was built in less than a year for under $1 million, and operated over a year in orbit. Small satellite projects continue to this day. Approaching launch are the Air Force STACKSAT array of 3 small satellites (P87-2), a number of other small satellites under Department of Defense auspices. The Air Force Space Test Program is developing a standard small experiment platform called STEP (Space Test Experiment Platform). NASA has started a small explorer program, beginning with SAMPEX, a solar and magnetospheric particle explorer, FAST, a fast auroral snapshot experiment, and SWAS, a submillimeter astronomy experiment. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Suborbital Research and Education Missions with Commercial Reusable Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodway, K.; Nelson, A.; Voigt, J.

    2012-12-01

    Suborbital reusable launch vehicles (sRLV) will provide low-cost, flexible, and frequent access to space. In the case of XCOR's Lynx, the vehicle design and capabilities work well for hosting specially designed experiments that can be flown with a human-tended researcher or alone with the pilot on a unique mission on a customized flight trajectory. This new manned, reusable commercial platform will allow for repeated observations with a single instrument, but without the need to refurbish the vehicle between flights. In addition, the short turn-around means a researcher can do multiple observations, measurements, or targets. The vehicle is designed for multi-mission primary and secondary payload capabilities, including: in-cockpit experiments and instrumentation testing, externally mounted experiments, upper atmospheric sampling, and microsatellite launch. This vehicle takes off horizontally from a runway and will go into a powered ascent attaining Mach 2.9 maximum airspeed. After about three minutes and at approximately 58 km (190,000 ft) the engines are shutdown and the RLV then coasts upwards. The low gravity period (at or below 0.001go) begins soon after at 3.35 minutes and the microgravity period (at or below 10-6go) starts at 4.25 minutes. At approximately four and half minutes the vehicle reaches apogee of 100 km (328, 000 ft). After reentry and a Max-G force pullout of 4 g, the Lynx touches down on the takeoff runway after approximately 30 minutes.Typical Lynx Mark II flight profile

  9. First results on GlioLab/GlioSat Precursors Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cappelletti, Chantal; Notarangelo, Angelo; Demoss, Darrin; Carella, Massimo

    2012-07-01

    Since 2009 GAUSS group is involved in a joint collaboration with Morehead State University (MSU) Space Science Center and IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza (CSS) research labs with the aim to design a biomedical project in order to investigate if the combined effects of microgravity conditions and ionizing radiation increase or decrease the survival rate of cancer cells. The biological sample consists of Glioblastoma cancer cell line ANGM-CSS. Glioblastoma is a kind of cancer that can be treated after surgery only by radiotherapy using ionizing radiation. This treatment, anyway, results in a very low survival rate. This project uses different university space platforms: a CubeLab, named GlioLab, on board the International Space Station and the university microsatellite UniSat-5 designed by GAUSS. In addition a GlioLab/GlioSat precursor experiment has already flown two times with the Space Shuttle during the missions STS-134 and STS-135. The phase 0 or the precursor of GlioLab uses a COTS system, named Liquid Mixing Apparatus (LMA), to board the biological samples inside the Space Shuttle for thirty day . The LMA allows to board liquids inside a vial but is not equipped with environment control system. After landing the samples were investigated by researchers at CSS in Italy and at MSU in Kentucky. This paper deals with the experimental set up and the results obtained during the STS-134 and STS-135 missions and with the new evidences on the behavior of this kind of cancer. In particular the results obtained on the DNA analysis give a confirmation of the original idea of GLioLab/Gliosat project justifying the development of the two systems.

  10. Propulsion engineering study for small-scale Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Whitehead, J.

    1995-09-12

    Rocket propulsion options for small-scale Mars missions are presented and compared, particularly for the terminal landing maneuver and for sample return. Mars landing has a low propulsive {Delta}v requirement on a {approximately}1-minute time scale, but at a high acceleration. High thrust/weight liquid rocket technologies, or advanced pulse-capable solids, developed during the past decade for missile defense, are therefore more appropriate for small Mars landers than are conventional space propulsion technologies. The advanced liquid systems are characterize by compact lightweight thrusters having high chamber pressures and short lifetimes. Blowdown or regulated pressure-fed operation can satisfy the Mars landing requirement, but hardware mass can be reduced by using pumps. Aggressive terminal landing propulsion designs can enable post-landing hop maneuvers for some surface mobility. The Mars sample return mission requires a small high performance launcher having either solid motors or miniature pump-fed engines. Terminal propulsion for 100 kg Mars landers is within the realm of flight-proven thruster designs, but custom tankage is desirable. Landers on a 10 kg scale also are feasible, using technology that has been demonstrated but not previously flown in space. The number of sources and the selection of components are extremely limited on this smallest scale, so some customized hardware is required. A key characteristic of kilogram-scale propulsion is that gas jets are much lighter than liquid thrusters for reaction control. The mass and volume of tanks for inert gas can be eliminated by systems which generate gas as needed from a liquid or a solid, but these have virtually no space flight history. Mars return propulsion is a major engineering challenge; earth launch is the only previously-solved propulsion problem requiring similar or greater performance.

  11. Chandrayaan-2: India's First Soft-landing Mission to Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mylswamy, Annadurai; Krishnan, A.; Alex, T. K.; Rama Murali, G. K.

    2012-07-01

    latitude location is preferred from scientific interest. Multiple communication links involving Rover-Lander-Earth, Orbiter-Earth and Rover-Orbiter will be implemented. Scientific Payloads:, The scientific payloads on orbiter include a Terrain Mapping Camera (TMC-2), an Imaging Infra-Red Spectrometer (IIRS), a Dual Band (L&S-Band) Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR), a Collimated Large Area Soft x-ray Spectrometer (CLASS), and a Chandra's Atmospheric Composition Explorer(ChACE-2). TMC with two cameras will provide 3D imaging and DEM, while the IIRS will cover the 0.8-5 micron region at high spectral resolution using a grating spectrograph coupled to an active cooler based MCT array detector. It will provide information on mineral composition and detect OH and H2O and also measure thermal emission from the lunar surface. CLASS is an improved version of C1XS flown on Chandrayaan-1 and will employ swept charge detector (SCD) for detection of X-rays from lunar surface during solar flares.ChACE-2 is a modified version of ChACE-1, one of the instruments on Moon Impact Probe (MIP) that provided hints for the presence of water molecule in lunar exosphere. The Synthetic Aperture Radar will include both L (1.25 GHz) and S (2.5 GHz) bands with selectable resolution of up to a few meters. A radiating patch arrangement is designed for the integrated L-band and S-band antenna. There will be two payloads on the Rover: an Alpha Particle induced X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) and a Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) for studies of chemical composition and volatiles present in lunar surface material near the landing site. The Lander Craft will have suite of instruments to study both physical and chemical properties of the landing site. It will have direct communication link to Earth Stations. The Lander will also act as the relay for communication with the Rover. The design and development of the various mission elements as well as of the scientific payloads are currently in progress both in

  12. Simulation of Mission Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carlstrom, Nicholas Mercury

    2016-01-01

    This position with the Simulation and Graphics Branch (ER7) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) provided an introduction to vehicle hardware, mission planning, and simulation design. ER7 supports engineering analysis and flight crew training by providing high-fidelity, real-time graphical simulations in the Systems Engineering Simulator (SES) lab. The primary project assigned by NASA mentor and SES lab manager, Meghan Daley, was to develop a graphical simulation of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) phases of flight. The simulation is to include a generic crew/cargo transportation vehicle and a target object in low-Earth orbit (LEO). Various capsule, winged, and lifting body vehicles as well as historical RPOD methods were evaluated during the project analysis phase. JSC core mission to support the International Space Station (ISS), Commercial Crew Program (CCP), and Human Space Flight (HSF) influenced the project specifications. The simulation is characterized as a 30 meter +V Bar and/or -R Bar approach to the target object's docking station. The ISS was selected as the target object and the international Low Impact Docking System (iLIDS) was selected as the docking mechanism. The location of the target object's docking station corresponds with the RPOD methods identified. The simulation design focuses on Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GNC) system architecture models with station keeping and telemetry data processing capabilities. The optical and inertial sensors, reaction control system thrusters, and the docking mechanism selected were based on CCP vehicle manufacturer's current and proposed technologies. A significant amount of independent study and tutorial completion was required for this project. Multiple primary source materials were accessed using the NASA Technical Report Server (NTRS) and reference textbooks were borrowed from the JSC Main Library and International Space Station Library. The Trick Simulation Environment and User

  13. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  14. Life Cycle of a Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bothwell, Mary

    2004-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing the the six phases of a space mission is shown. The contents include: 1) What Does Planning Involve?; 2) Designing the Flight System; 3) Building the Flight System; 4) Testing the Flight System; 5) Flying the Mission; and 6) Analyzing the Data.

  15. ERIC: Mission, Structure, and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Jane B.

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of the mission, structure, and resource base of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). Highlights include problems in meeting the information needs of a wide variety of educational practitioners as part of the mission; structure, based on organizational decentralization; and resources that are limited by…

  16. Liquid Effluents Program mission analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lowe, S.S.

    1994-09-27

    Systems engineering is being used to identify work to cleanup the Hanford Site. The systems engineering process transforms an identified mission need into a set of performance parameters and a preferred system configuration. Mission analysis is the first step in the process. Mission analysis supports early decision-making by clearly defining the program objectives, and evaluating the feasibility and risks associated with achieving those objectives. The results of the mission analysis provide a consistent basis for subsequent systems engineering work. A mission analysis was performed earlier for the overall Hanford Site. This work was continued by a ``capstone`` team which developed a top-level functional analysis. Continuing in a top-down manner, systems engineering is now being applied at the program and project levels. A mission analysis was conducted for the Liquid Effluents Program. The results are described herein. This report identifies the initial conditions and acceptable final conditions, defines the programmatic and physical interfaces and sources of constraints, estimates the resources to carry out the mission, and establishes measures of success. The mission analysis reflects current program planning for the Liquid Effluents Program as described in Liquid Effluents FY 1995 Multi-Year Program Plan.

  17. NASA SSA for Robotic Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Lauri K.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) activities as preparation for robotic missions and Goddard's role in this work. The presentation includes the preparations that Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) has made to provide consolidated space systems protection indluding consolidating GSFC support for Orbit Debris analysis, conjunction assessment and collision avoidance, commercial and foreign support, and protection of GSFC managed missions.

  18. The future of NASA's missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2017-04-01

    Can the recent Discovery mission selections be used as tea leaves to understand the future directions of NASA? In an age of many programmes being used to advance administrative and programmatic goals, Discovery appears to be driven almost entirely by science and by NASA's goal of cheaper missions.

  19. Mission Assurance: Issues and Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-15

    JFQ), Summer 1995. [9] Alberts , C.J. & Dorofee, A.J., “Mission Assurance Analysis Protocol (MAAP): Assessing Risk in Complex Environments... CAMUS : Automatically Mapping Cyber Assets to Missions and Users,” Proc. of the 2010 Military Communications Conference (MILCOM 2009), 2009. [23

  20. Commonality between Reduced Gravity and Microgravity Habitats for Long Duration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Many conceptual studies for long duration missions beyond Earth orbit have assumed unique habitat designs for each destination and for transit habitation. This may not be the most effective approach. A variable gravity habitat, one designed for use in microgravity, lunar, Martian, and terrestrial environments may provide savings that offset the loss of environment-specific optimization. However, a brief analysis of selected flown spacecraft and Constellation-era conceptual habitat designs suggests that one cannot simply lift a habitat from one environment and place it in another that it was not designed for without incurring significant human performance compromises. By comparison, a conceptual habitat based on the Skylab II framework but designed specifically to accommodate variable gravity environments can be shown to yield significant advantages while incurring only minimal human performance compromises.

  1. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) for the Lunar Scout 1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.

    1993-01-01

    The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) is a planetary imaging system developed by the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR) with the involvement of the German Space Industry under the leadership of the German Space Agency (DARA) for the Russian Mars 94 and Mars 96 missions. The same instrument, virtually unmodified, is ideal for imaging the Moon. If flown on a Lunar Scout spacecraft, the HRSC will be operated so that it will produce data suitable for generation of a global lunar geodetic net, a global stereo image data set (both data sets produced at an orbit altitude of 200 kms approximately) and high resolution stereo imagery of areas of interest to the scientific community from an orbit altitude of 100 kms (resolution is a function of orbit altitude). All data will be digital.

  2. Study of an astronomical extreme ultraviolet rocket spectrometer for use on shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    The adaptation of an extreme ultraviolet astronomy rocket payload for flight on the shuttle was studied. A sample payload for determining integration and flight procedures for experiments which may typically be flown on shuttle missions was provided. The electrical, mechanical, thermal, and operational interface requirements between the payload and the orbiter were examined. Of particular concern was establishing a baseline payload accommodation which utilizes proven common hardware for electrical, data, command, and possibly real time monitoring functions. The instrument integration and checkout procedures necessary to assure satisfactory in-orbit instrument performance were defined and those procedures which can be implemented in such a way as to minimize their impact on orbiter integration schedules were identified.

  3. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  4. The acquisition mode of the Halley Multicolor Camera for the Giotto mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gliem, F.

    1983-10-01

    The design and testing of the acquisition program for the Halley Multicolor Camera (HMC) to be flown on the Giotto mission to Halley's comet (scheduled a launch by Ariane in July, 1985) one reported. The HMC comprises a 1-m telescope with an aspect angle of 0.573 deg and a masked-CCD-array photodetector and will observe the surface of the comet nucleus from 1000 km with a resolution of 3 m/pixel; the acquisition-mode sensor is a Reticon with aspect angle 1.6 deg. The acquisition process is examined analytically: the trajectory of the comet image in the focal plane is described, and a technique is developed to determine the comet parameters by correlating the coordinates of 'hits' on the Reticon. The structure of the acquisition program is explained, and the results of a computer simulation are presented graphically.

  5. Post-Flight EDL Entry Guidance Performance of the 2011 Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendeck, Gavin F.; McGrew, Lynn Craig

    2013-01-01

    The 2011 Mars Science Laboratory was the first Mars guided entry which safely delivered the rover to a landing within a touchdown ellipse of 19.1 km x 6.9 km. The Entry Terminal Point Controller guidance algorithm is derived from the final phase Apollo Command Module guidance and, like Apollo, modulates the bank angle to control the range flown. The guided entry performed as designed without any significant exceptions. The Curiosity rover was delivered about 2.2 km from the expected touchdown. This miss distance is attributed to little time to correct the downrange drift from the final bank reversal and a suspected tailwind during heading alignment. The successful guided entry for the Mars Science Laboratory lays the foundation for future Mars missions to improve upon.

  6. State of the art, lightweight scientific experiments available for small to micro satellite missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna-Lawlor, Susan M. P.

    A selection of light weight scientific instruments originally designed for major international missions but which, because of their modest resource requirements, can now in addition be flown aboard ' small' to ' micro' satellites are, briefly, described. These instruments have the capability to either make measurements of constituents of the Earth's energetic particle environment, or provide detailed monitoring of multiple parameters of the cold terrestrial ionospheric plasma. Scientific reasons for flying such instruments in LEO are, in each case, advanced. Individually, they constitute representative examples of a mature genre of commercially available (a cost parameter of £100k/kg can be achieved), light weight, space qualified, instruments which can contribute significantly to the implementation of first class scientific programs aboard small/micro satellites. Uniquely fault tolerant data processing units are a feature of these devices.

  7. The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, P. A.; Mazanek, D. D.; Reeves, D. M.; Chodas, P. W.; Gates, M. M.; Johnson, L. N.; Ticker, R. L.

    2016-01-01

    To achieve its long-term goal of sending humans to Mars, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to proceed in a series of incrementally more complex human spaceflight missions. Today, human flight experience extends only to Low-Earth Orbit (LEO), and should problems arise during a mission, the crew can return to Earth in a matter of minutes to hours. The next logical step for human spaceflight is to gain flight experience in the vicinity of the Moon. These cis-lunar missions provide a "proving ground" for the testing of systems and operations while still accommodating an emergency return path to the Earth that would last only several days. Cis-lunar mission experience will be essential for more ambitious human missions beyond the Earth- Moon system, which will require weeks, months, or even years of transit time.

  8. Mission management aircraft operations manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This manual prescribes the NASA mission management aircraft program and provides policies and criteria for the safe and economical operation, maintenance, and inspection of NASA mission management aircraft. The operation of NASA mission management aircraft is based on the concept that safety has the highest priority. Operations involving unwarranted risks will not be tolerated. NASA mission management aircraft will be designated by the Associate Administrator for Management Systems and Facilities. NASA mission management aircraft are public aircraft as defined by the Federal Aviation Act of 1958. Maintenance standards, as a minimum, will meet those required for retention of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) airworthiness certification. Federal Aviation Regulation Part 91, Subparts A and B, will apply except when requirements of this manual are more restrictive.

  9. Sub-GLE Solar Particle Events and the Implications for Lightly-Shielded Systems Flown During an Era of Low Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atwell, William; Tylka, Allan J.; Dietrich, William; Rojdev, Kristina; Matzkind, Courtney

    2015-01-01

    Many of the large space missions must be very rigorous in their designs to reduce risk from radiation damage as much as possible. Some ways of reducing this risk have been to build in multiple redundancies, purchase/develop radiation hardened electronics parts, and plan for worst case radiation environment scenarios. These methods work well for these ambitious missions that can afford the costs associated with these meticulous efforts. However, there have been more small spacecraft and CubeSats with smaller duration missions entering the space arena, which can take some additional risks, but cannot afford to implement all of these risk-reducing methods. Therefore, one way to quantify the radiation exposure risk for these smaller spacecraft would be to investigate the radiation environment pertinent to the mission to better understand these radiation exposures, rather than always designing to the infrequent, worst-case environment. In this study, we have investigated 34 historical solar particle events (1974-2010) that occurred during a time period when the sun spot number (SSN) was less than 30. These events contain Ground Level Events (GLE), sub-GLEs, and sub-sub-GLEs(sup 1-3). GLEs are extremely energetic solar particle events (SPEs) having proton energies often extending into the several GeV range and producing secondary particles in the atmosphere, mostly neutrons, observed with ground station neutron monitors. Sub-GLE events are less energetic, extending into the several hundred MeV range, but without producing detectable levels of secondary atmospheric particles. Sub-sub GLEs are even less energetic with an observable increase in protons at energies greater than 30 MeV, but no observable proton flux above 300 MeV. The spectra for these events were fitted using a double power law fit in particle rigidity, called the Band fit method. The differential spectra were then input into the NASA Langley Research Center HZETRN 2005, which is a high-energy particle

  10. Mission Planning and Scheduling System for NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Gonzalo; Barnoy, Assaf; Beech, Theresa; Saylor, Rick; Cosgrove, Sager; Ritter, Sheila

    2009-01-01

    In the framework of NASA's return to the Moon efforts, the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is the first step. It is an unmanned mission to create a comprehensive atlas of the Moon's features and resources necessary to design and build a lunar outpost. LRO is scheduled for launch in April, 2009. LRO carries a payload comprised of six instruments and one technology demonstration. In addition to its scientific mission LRO will use new technologies, systems and flight operations concepts to reduce risk and increase productivity of future missions. As part of the effort to achieve robust and efficient operations, the LRO Mission Operations Team (MOT) will use its Mission Planning System (MPS) to manage the operational activities of the mission during the Lunar Orbit Insertion (LOI) and operational phases of the mission. The MPS, based on GMV's flexplan tool and developed for NASA with Honeywell Technology Solutions (prime contractor), will receive activity and slew maneuver requests from multiple science operations centers (SOC), as well as from the spacecraft engineers. flexplan will apply scheduling rules to all the requests received and will generate conflict free command schedules in the form of daily stored command loads for the orbiter and a set of daily pass scripts that help automate nominal real-time operations.

  11. Multi-mission Satellite Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Teter, M. A.; Grant, K. D.; Dougherty, B.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA's next-generation environmental satellite, the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). JPSS satellites carry sensors which collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The first JPSS satellite was launched in 2011 and is currently NOAA's primary operational polar satellite. The JPSS ground system is the Common Ground System (CGS), and provides command, control, and communications (C3) and data processing (DP). A multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3/DP for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD, and international missions. In preparation for the next JPSS satellite, CGS improved its multi-mission capabilities to enhance mission operations for larger constellations of earth observing satellites with the added benefit of streamlining mission operations for other NOAA missions. CGS's multi-mission capabilities allows management all of assets as a single enterprise, more efficiently using ground resources and personnel and consolidating multiple ground systems into one. Sophisticated scheduling algorithms compare mission priorities and constraints across all ground stations, creating an enterprise schedule optimized to mission needs, which CGS executes to acquire the satellite link, uplink commands, downlink and route data to the operations and data processing facilities, and generate the final products for delivery to downstream users. This paper will illustrate the CGS's ability to manage multiple, enterprise-wide polar orbiting missions by demonstrating resource modeling and tasking, production of enterprise contact schedules for NOAA's Fairbanks ground station (using both standing and ad hoc requests), deconflicting resources due to ground outages, and updating resource allocations through dynamic priority definitions.

  12. Giotto Extended Mission (GEM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.; Grensemann, M.

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Giotto Extended Mission (GEM), are to determine the composition and physical state of the Grigg Skjellerup Comet's nucleus; to determine the processes that govern the composition and distribution of neutral and ionized species in the cometary atmosphere. Giotto consists of a single European Space Agency (ESA) spacecraft that was launched in 1985 from Center Spatial Guyanis in French Guiana on an Ariane launch vehicle. After a successful launch into geostationary orbit and a heliocentric transfer trajectory, the spacecraft successfully encountered Halley's Comet in 1986. One month after encountering Halley's Comet, Mar. 1986, the spacecraft was placed in hibernation in a heliocentric orbit slightly less than 1 AU. Between Feb. and Jul. 1990 the spacecraft was successfully reactivated, checked out, and placed on a trajectory course to intercept comet Grigg Skjellerup. The spacecraft has been in hibernation since Jul. 1990. Information is presented in tabular form in the following areas: coverage goals, Deep Space Network Support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command, and tracking support responsibility.

  13. The Sunrise Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthol, P.; Gandorfer, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Schüssler, M.; Chares, B.; Curdt, W.; Deutsch, W.; Feller, A.; Germerott, D.; Grauf, B.; Heerlein, K.; Hirzberger, J.; Kolleck, M.; Meller, R.; Müller, R.; Riethmüller, T. L.; Tomasch, G.; Knölker, M.; Lites, B. W.; Card, G.; Elmore, D.; Fox, J.; Lecinski, A.; Nelson, P.; Summers, R.; Watt, A.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Bonet, J. A.; Schmidt, W.; Berkefeld, T.; Title, A. M.; Domingo, V.; Gasent Blesa, J. L.; Del Toro Iniesta, J. C.; López Jiménez, A.; Álvarez-Herrero, A.; Sabau-Graziati, L.; Widani, C.; Haberler, P.; Härtel, K.; Kampf, D.; Levin, T.; Pérez Grande, I.; Sanz-Andrés, A.; Schmidt, E.

    2011-01-01

    The first science flight of the balloon-borne Sunrise telescope took place in June 2009 from ESRANGE (near Kiruna/Sweden) to Somerset Island in northern Canada. We describe the scientific aims and mission concept of the project and give an overview and a description of the various hardware components: the 1-m main telescope with its postfocus science instruments (the UV filter imager SuFI and the imaging vector magnetograph IMaX) and support instruments (image stabilizing and light distribution system ISLiD and correlating wavefront sensor CWS), the optomechanical support structure and the instrument mounting concept, the gondola structure and the power, pointing, and telemetry systems, and the general electronics architecture. We also explain the optimization of the structural and thermal design of the complete payload. The preparations for the science flight are described, including AIV and ground calibration of the instruments. The course of events during the science flight is outlined, up to the recovery activities. Finally, the in-flight performance of the instrumentation is discussed.

  14. The GLAST mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2006-01-01

    The Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) is a next-generation high-energy gamma-ray telescope for studying high energy gamma-ray emission from astrophysical sources. The main instrument is the Large Area Telescope (LAT) which operated in the energy band from 20 MeV to greater than 300 GeV. A second instrument, the Glast Burst Monitor to provide supportive observations of gamma-ray bursts at lower energies. The LAT is a solid state pair-conversion telescope which will have capabilities well beyond those achieved by the highly successful EGRET instrument on the Compton Gamma-ray Observatory. The sensitivity achieved on the entire sky after a single day's observation is similar to the point source sensitivity of EGRET for its entire mission. The large effective area will allow flares from AGN to be detected at much lower flux levels and on far shorter time intervals that has previously been possible from space. The very large field of view will make it possible to monitor approx. 20% of the sky at any instant, and the entire sky on timescale of a few hours. In this talk I will describe the design of the GLAST instruments and discuss their science capabilities.

  15. COSMOS 2044 Mission: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grindeland, R. E.; Ballard, R. W.; Connol, J. P.; Vasques, M. F.

    1992-01-01

    The COSMOS 2044 spaceflight was the ninth Soviet-International joint mission dedicated to space biomedicine and the seventh in which the United States has participated. The unmanned Vostok vehicle carried 10 rats and two rhesus monkeys on its 14-day voyage. This spaceflight yielded an unprecedented bounty of data on physiological responses to the microgravity environment. The tissues studied and the numbers and types of studies performed by members of the international science community constituted a new record. Many of the results obtained by the approximately 80 American scientists who participated are reported in the series of COSMOS 2044 papers in this issue. Descriptions of the spaceflight and animal procedures are detailed elsewhere. The broad goals of the space biomedical program are threefold. The first is to characterize qualitatively and quantitatively the biological responses to the microgravity environment, be they adaptive or pathological. The second goal is to clarify the physiological-biochemical mechanisms mediating the responses to microgravity. The third goal of this program is to use the space environment as a tool to better understand adaptive and disease processes in terrestrial organisms.

  16. Draft Mission Plan Amendment

    SciTech Connect

    1991-09-01

    The Department of Energy`s Office Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has prepared this document to report plans for the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program, whose mission is to manage and dispose of the nation`s spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste in a manner that protects the health and safety of the public and of workers and the quality of the environment. The Congress established this program through the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. Specifically, the Congress directed us to isolate these wastes in geologic repositories constructed in suitable rock formations deep beneath the surface of the earth. In the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the Congress mandated that only one repository was to be developed at present and that only the Yucca Mountain candidate site in Nevada was to be characterized at this time. The Amendments Act also authorized the construction of a facility for monitored retrievable storage (MRS) and established the Office of the Nuclear Waste Negotiator and the Nuclear Waste Technical Review Board. After a reassessment in 1989, the Secretary of Energy restructured the program, focusing the repository effort scientific evaluations of the Yucca Mountain candidate site, deciding to proceed with the development of an MRS facility, and strengthening the management of the program. 48 refs., 32 figs.

  17. Comparison of mission design options for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babb, Gus R.; Stump, William R.

    1986-01-01

    A number of manned Mars mission types, propulsion systems, and operational techniques are compared. Conjunction and opposition class missions for cryogenic, hybrid (cryo/storable), and NERVA propulsion concepts are addressed. In addition, both Earth and Mars orbit aerobraking, direct entry of landers, hyperbolic rendezvous, and electric propulsion cases are examined. A common payload to Mars was used for all cases. The basic figure of merit used was weight in low Earth orbit (LEO) at mission initiation. This is roughly proportional to launch costs.

  18. Meteorological and operational aspects of 46 clear air turbulence sampling missions with an instrument B-57B aircraft. Volume 1: Program summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, R. E.; Champine, R. A.; Ehernberger, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    The results of 46 clear air turbulence (CAT) probing missions conducted with an extensively instrumented B-57B aircraft are summarized. Turbulence samples were obtained under diverse conditions including mountain waves, jet streams, upper level fronts and troughs, and low altitude mechanical and thermal turbulence. CAT was encouraged on 20 flights comprising 77 data runs. In all, approximately 4335 km were flown in light turbulence, 1415 km in moderate turbulence, and 255 km in severe turbulence during the program. The flight planning, operations, and turbulence forecasting aspects conducted with the B-57B aircraft are presented.

  19. Thermal Analysis of Step 2 GPHS for Next Generation Radioisotope Power Source Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pantano, David R.; Hill, Dennis H.

    2005-02-01

    The Step 2 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) is a slightly larger and more robust version of the heritage GPHS modules flown on previous Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) missions like Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini. The Step 2 GPHS is to be used in future small radioisotope power sources, such as the Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) and the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). New features include an additional central web of Fine Weave Pierced Fabric (FWPF) graphite in the aeroshell between the two Graphite Impact Shells (GIS) to improve accidental reentry and impact survivability and an additional 0.1-inch of thickness to the aeroshell broad faces to improve ablation protection. This paper details the creation of the thermal model using Thermal Desktop and AutoCAD interfaces and provides comparisons of the model to results of previous thermal analysis models of the heritage GPHS. The results of the analysis show an anticipated decrease in total thermal gradient from the aeroshell to the iridium clads compared to the heritage results. In addition, the Step 2 thermal model is investigated under typical SRG110 boundary conditions, with cover gas and gravity environments included where applicable, to provide preliminary guidance for design of the generator. Results show that the temperatures of the components inside the GPHS remain within accepted design limits during all envisioned mission phases.

  20. [From the flight of Iu. A. Gagarin to the contemporary piloted space flights and exploration missions].

    PubMed

    Grigor'ev, A I; Potapov, A N

    2011-01-01

    The first human flight to space made by Yu. A. Gagarin on April 12, 1961 was a crucial event in the history of cosmonautics that had a tremendous effect on further progress of the human civilization. Gagarin's flight had been prefaced by long and purposeful biomedical researches with the use of diverse bio-objects flown aboard rockets and artificial satellites. Data of these researches drove to the conclusion on the possibility in principle for humans to fly to space. After a series of early flights and improvements in the medical support system space missions to the Salyut and Mir station gradually extended to record durations. The foundations of this extension were laid by systemic researches in the fields of space biomedicine and allied sciences. The current ISS system of crew medical care has been successful in maintaining health and performance of cosmonauts as well as in providing the conditions for implementation of flight duties and operations with a broad variety of payloads. The ISS abounds in opportunities of realistic trial of concepts and technologies in preparation for crewed exploration missions. At the same, ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars is a venue for realization of scientific and technological experiments in space biomedicine.