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Sample records for 90th shuttle mission

  1. Space Shuttle Missions Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Floyd V.; Legler, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    This document has been produced and updated over a 21-year period. It is intended to be a handy reference document, basically one page per flight, and care has been exercised to make it as error-free as possible. This document is basically "as flown" data and has been compiled from many sources including flight logs, flight rules, flight anomaly logs, mod flight descent summary, post flight analysis of mps propellants, FDRD, FRD, SODB, and the MER shuttle flight data and inflight anomaly list. Orbit distance traveled is taken from the PAO mission statistics.

  2. Space Shuttle mission: STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Endeavor, scheduled to launch March 2, 1995 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center, will conduct NASA's longest Shuttle flight prior to date. The mission, designated STS-67, has a number of experiments and payloads, which the crew, commanded by Stephen S. Oswald, will have to oversee. This NASA press kit for the mission contains a general background (general press release, media services information, quick-look facts page, shuttle abort modes, summary timeline, payload and vehicle weights, orbital summary, and crew responsibilities); cargo bay payloads and activities (Astro 2, Get Away Special Experiments); in-cabin payloads (Commercial Minimum Descent Altitude Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments, protein crystal growth experiments, Middeck Active Control Experiment, and Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment); and the STS-67 crew biographies. The payloads and experiments are described and summarized to give an overview of the goals, objectives, apparatuses, procedures, sponsoring parties, and the assigned crew members to carry out the tasks.

  3. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project of NASA and NGA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at an unprecedented level of detail. As part of space shuttle Endeavour's flight during February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface for most of the area between latitudes 60 degrees north and 56 degrees south. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  4. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    Under an agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense's National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is now distributing elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The SRTM is a joint project between NASA and NIMA to map the Earth's land surface in three dimensions at a level of detail unprecedented for such a large area. Flown aboard the NASA Space Shuttle Endeavour February 11-22, 2000, the SRTM successfully collected data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60? N. and 56? S. latitude. The SRTM hardware included the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) and X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (X-SAR) systems that had flown twice previously on other space shuttle missions. The SRTM data were collected specifically with a technique known as interferometry that allows image data from dual radar antennas to be processed for the extraction of ground heights.

  5. STS-38 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-38 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-40/LWT-33), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2022, 2027), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-039. The STS-38 mission was a classified Department of Defense mission, and as much, the classified portions of the mission are not presented in this report. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystem during the mission are summarized and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Space Shuttle Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  6. ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This technical paper contains selected papers from Geophysical Research Letters (Volume 23, Number 17) on ATLAS series of shuttle missions. The ATLAS space shuttle missions were conducted in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. This paper discusses solar irradiance, middle atmospheric temperatures, and trace gas concentrations measurements made by the ATLAS payload and companion instruments.

  7. STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    View of members of the STS 41-D mission crew training in Shuttle Mission simulator. The crew members are in the simulated flight deck. Seated behind the pilot is mission specialist Steven Hawley. Beside him are mission specialist Judith Resnick and pilot Michael Coats. All three are wearing their communication kit assemblies.

  8. STS-80 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The STS-80 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the eightieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102).

  9. Astronauts Train for Final Shuttle Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    The crew of STS-135, the final space shuttle mission, rehearsed their launch day process at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida during a Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test that took place Jun...

  10. Shuttle mission simulator software conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Software conceptual designs (SCD) are presented for meeting the simulator requirements for the shuttle missions. The major areas of the SCD discussed include: malfunction insertion, flight software, applications software, systems software, and computer complex.

  11. STS-43 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-43 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-47 (LWT-40); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-045. The primary objective of the STS-43 mission was to successfully deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-E/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-E/IUS) satellite and to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) payload and the Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element (SHARE-2).

  12. Analysis of sleep on Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Kapanka, Heidi; Davis, Jeffrey R.; Stewart, Donald F.

    1988-01-01

    The sleep patterns of 58 Space Shuttle crew members are analyzed statistically on the basis of debriefing forms filled out within 3 days postflight. The data are compiled in a table, and photographs of typical sleep conditions on the Shuttle are provided. It is found that sleep disruption is relatively common on Shuttle missions, especially on the first and last days. Sleep medication was used by 19.4 percent of crew on single-shift flights and 50 percent of crew on dual-shift flights.

  13. STS-31 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-31 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-34/LWT-27), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Booster (SRB) (designated as BI-037). The primary objective of the mission was to place the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) into a 330 nmi. circular orbit having an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Protein Crystal Growth (PCG), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Radiation Monitoring Equipment (RME), Ascent Particle Monitor (APM), IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), IMAX Crew Compartment Camera, and Ion Arc payloads. In addition, 12 development test objectives (DTO's) and 10 detailed supplementary objectives (DSO's) were assigned to the flight. The sequence of events for this mission is shown. The significant problems that occurred in the Space Shuttle Orbiter subsystems during the mission are summarized, and the official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each of the Space Shuttle Orbiter problems is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  14. STS-57 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fourth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-58); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-059. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L032A for the left SRB and 360W032B for the right SRB. The STS-57 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement, as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document states that each major organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies.

  15. STS-58 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-58 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the payload activities as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB) and redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-eighth mission of the space shuttle program and fifteenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-57); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2109, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-061. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L034A for the left SRB and 360W034B for the right SRB.

  16. Shuttle mission simulator hardware conceptual design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The detailed shuttle mission simulator hardware requirements are discussed. The conceptual design methods, or existing technology, whereby those requirements will be fulfilled are described. Information of a general nature on the total design problem plus specific details on how these requirements are to be satisfied are reported. The configuration of the simulator is described and the capabilities for various types of training are identified.

  17. STS-41 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1990-01-01

    The STS-41 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities on this thirty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle, Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-39/LWT-32), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2011, 2031, and 2107), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's), designated as BI-040. The primary objective of the STS-41 mission was to successfully deploy the Ulysses/inertial upper stage (IUS)/payload assist module (PAM-S) spacecraft. The secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the Shuttle Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV) Spectrometer, Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), Space Life Sciences Training Program Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Voice Command System (VCS), Physiological Systems Experiment (PSE), Radiation Monitoring Experiment - 3 (RME-3), Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), Air Force Maui Optical Calibration Test (AMOS), and Intelsat Solar Array Coupon (ISAC) payloads. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tabular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter problem is cited in the subsystem discussion.

  18. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  19. STS-62 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-05-01

    The STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSHE) systems performance during the sixty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-62; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-064. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L036A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 36OWO36B (welterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-62 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-62 mission were to perform the operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-2 (USMP-2) and the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-2 (OAST-2) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Dexterous End Effector (DEE), the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A), the Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Material Exposure (LDCE), the Advanced Protein Crystal Growth (APCG), the Physiological Systems Experiments (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), the Middeck Zero-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE), the Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS), the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS), and the Auroral Photography Experiment (APE-B).

  20. STS-59 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-63; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-065. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W037A (welterweight) for the left SRB, and 360H037B (heavyweight) for the right SRB. This STS-59 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-59 mission was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-1 (SRL-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Space Tissue Loss-A (STL-A) and STL-B payloads, the Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4) payload, the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2) experiment, the Consortium for Materials Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-4 (CONCAP-4), and the three Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  1. STS-60 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixtieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and eighteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated at ET-61 (Block 10); three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-062. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L035A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360Q035B (quarterweight) for the right SRB. This STS-60 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VIII, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of the STS-60 mission were to deploy and retrieve the Wake Shield Facility-1 (WSF-1), and to activate the Spacehab-2 payload and perform on-orbit experiments. Secondary objectives of this flight were to activate and command the Capillary Pumped Loop/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres/Breman Satellite Experiment/Getaway Special (GAS) Bridge Assembly (CAPL/ODERACS/BREMSAT/GBA) payload, the Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-II (SAREX-II).

  2. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-02-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  3. STS-61 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and fifth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-60; three SSME's which were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-063. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L023A (lightweight) for the left SRB, and 360L023B (lightweight) for the right SRB. This STS-61 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 8, Appendix E. That document requires that each major organizational element supporting the Program report the results of its hardware evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of the STS-61 mission was to perform the first on-orbit servicing of the Hubble Space Telescope. The servicing tasks included the installation of new solar arrays, replacement of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera I (WF/PC I) with WF/PC II, replacement of the High Speed Photometer (HSP) with the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement (COSTAR), replacement of rate sensing units (RSU's) and electronic control units (ECU's), installation of new magnetic sensing systems and fuse plugs, and the repair of the Goddard High Resolution Spectrometer (GHRS). Secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), the IMAX Camera, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) Calibration Test.

  4. STS-78 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-third flight since the return-to-flight, and the twentieth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-79; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2041, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-081. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-55, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360L055A for the left SRB, and 360L055B for the right SRB. The STS-78 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume 7, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Life and Microgravity Spacelab experiments. The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), Biological Research in Canister Unit-Block II (BRIC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment II-Configuration C (SAREX-II). The STS-78 mission was planned as a 16-day, plus one day flight plus two contingency days, which were available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The sequence of events for the STS-78 mission is shown in Table 1, and the Space Shuttle Vehicle Management Office Problem Tracking List is shown in Table 2. The Government Furnished Equipment/Flight Crew Equipment

  5. STS-56 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-56 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Payloads, as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and sixteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET (ET-54); three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2024, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-058. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L031A for the left SRB and 360L031B for the right SRB.

  6. STS-49: Space shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-49 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the first flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavor (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavor vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-43 (LWT-36); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's designated as BI-050. The lightweight RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated as 360L022A for the left RSRM and 360L022B for the right RSRM.

  7. STS-40 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-40 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-first flight of the Space Shuttle and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-41 (LWT-34), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-044. The primary objective of the STS-40 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Getaway Special (GAS) payloads and the Middeck O-Gravity Dynamics Experiment (MODE) payload.

  8. STS-48 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-48 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-42 (LUT-35); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2107 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-046. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L018A for the left SRB and 360L018B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the flight was to successfully deploy the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) payload.

  9. STS-51 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-51 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the payloads as well as the orbiter, external tank (ET), solid rocket booster (SRB), redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM), and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the fifty-seventh flight of the space shuttle program and seventeenth flight of the orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET designated as ET-59; three SSME's, which were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2034, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-060. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W033A for the left SRB and 360L033B for the right SRB.

  10. STS-39 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-39 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the fortieth flight of the Space Shuttle and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-46 (LWT-39); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2026, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-043. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Infrared Background Signature Survey (IBSS), Air Force Payload (AFP)-675, Space Test Payload (STP)-1, and the Multipurpose Experiment Canister (MPEC) payloads.

  11. STS-44 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-44 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-53 (LWT-46); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2015, 2030, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively); and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-047. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L019A for the left SRB and 360W019B for the right SRB. The primary objective of the STS-44 mission was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense (DOD) Defense Support Program (DSP) satellite/inertial upper stage (IUS) into a 195 nmi. earth orbit at an inclination of 28.45 deg. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Terra Scout, Military Man in Space (M88-1), Air Force Maui Optical System Calibration Test (AMOS), Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), Shuttle Activation Monitor (SAM), Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3), Visual Function Tester-1 (VFT-1), and the Interim Operational Contamination Monitor (IOCM) secondary payloads/experiments.

  12. STS-64 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-64 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-66; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2031, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-068. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360L041 A for the left SRB, and 360L041 B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Lidar In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE), and to deploy the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy (SPARTAN) -201 payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the planned activities of the Robot Operated Materials Processing System (ROMPS), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment - 2 (SAREX-2), the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment, the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) payload, the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST) experiment, and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Test (AMOS) payload.

  13. The ATLAS Series of Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaye, Jack A.; Miller, Timothy L.

    1996-01-01

    The ATLAS space shuttle missions were conducted in March 1992, April 1993, and November 1994. The ATLAS payload and companion instruments made measurements of solar irradiance and middle atmospheric temperatures and trace gas concentrations. The solar irradiance measurements included total and spectrally resolved solar irradiance. The atmospheric measurements included microwave, infrared, and ultraviolet limb sounding, nadir ultraviolet backscatter, and solar occultation techniques. This paper introduces a special section in this issue of Geophysical Research Letters.

  14. STS-71, Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frike, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-71 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance. STS-71 is the 100th United States manned space flight, the sixty-ninth Space Shuttle flight, the forty-fourth flight since the return-to-flight, the fourteenth flight of the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle Atlantis, and the first joint United States (U.S.)-Russian docking mission since 1975. In addition to the OV-104 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-70; three SSMEs that were designated 2028, 2034, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated Bl-072. The RSRMs that were an integral part of the SRBs were designated 360L045A for the left SRB and 360W045B for the right SRB. The STS-71 mission was planned as a 1 0-day plus 1-day-extension mission plus 2 additional days for contingency operations and weather avoidance. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform on-orbit joint U.S.-Russian life sciences investigations, logistical resupply of the Mir Space Station, return of the United States astronaut flying on the Mir, the replacement of the Mir-18 crew with the two-cosmonaut Mir-19 crew, and the return of the Mir-18 crew to Earth. The secondary objectives were to perform the requirements of the IMAX Camera and the Shuttle Amateur Radio experiment-2 (SAREX-2).

  15. STS-77 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the: Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-second flight since the return-to-flight, and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). STS-77 was also the last flight of OV-105 prior to the vehicle being placed in the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-78; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037, 2040, and 2038 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-080. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-47, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO47A for the left SRB, and 360TO47B for the right SRB. The STS-77 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report fulfills the Space Shuttle Program requirement as documented in NSTS 07700, Volume VII, Appendix E. The requirement stated in that document is that each organizational element supporting the Program will report the results of their hardware (and software) evaluation and mission performance plus identify all related in-flight anomalies. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of Spacehab-4, the SPARTAN 207/inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE), and the Technology Experiments Advancing Missions in Space (TEAMS) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the experiments of the Aquatic Research Facility (ARF), Brilliant Eyes Ten-Kelvin Sorption Cryocooler Experiment (BETSCE), Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), Get-Away-Special (GAS), and GAS Bridge Assembly (GBA). The STS-77 mission was planned as a 9-day flight plus 1 day, plus 2 contingency days, which were available for

  16. STS-71 Shuttle/Mir mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimpfer, Douglas J.

    1995-01-01

    The performance measurements of the space shuttle on-orbit flight control system from the STS-71 mission is presented in this post-flight analysis report. This system is crucial to the stabilization of large space structures and will be needed during the assembly of the International Space Station A mission overview is presented, including the in-orbit flight tests (pre-docking with Mir) and the systems analysis during the docking and undocking operations. Systems errors and lessons learned are discussed, with possible corrective procedures presented for the upcoming Mir flight tests.

  17. Advanced automation in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heindel, Troy A.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Mcfarland, Robert Z.

    1991-01-01

    The Real Time Data System (RTDS) Project was undertaken in 1987 to introduce new concepts and technologies for advanced automation into the Mission Control Center environment at NASA's Johnson Space Center. The project's emphasis is on producing advanced near-operational prototype systems that are developed using a rapid, interactive method and are used by flight controllers during actual Shuttle missions. In most cases the prototype applications have been of such quality and utility that they have been converted to production status. A key ingredient has been an integrated team of software engineers and flight controllers working together to quickly evolve the demonstration systems.

  18. STS-35 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, David W.; Germany, D. M.; Nicholson, Leonard S.

    1991-01-01

    The STS-35 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem activities during this thirty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle and the tenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an External Tank (ET) (designated as ET-35/LWT-28), three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's) (serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively), and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-038. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully perform the planned operations of the Ultraviolet Astronomy (Astro-1) payload and the Broad-Band X-Ray Telescope (BBXRT) payload in a 190-nmi. circular orbit which had an inclination of 28.45 degrees. The sequence of events for this mission is shown in tablular form. Summarized are the significant problems that occurred in the Orbiter subsystems during the mission. The official problem tracking list is presented. In addition, each Orbiter subsystem problem is cited in the applicable subsystem discussion.

  19. STS-72 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-72 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fourth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-ninth flight since the return-to-flight, and the tenth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-75; three Block I SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2039, and 2036 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-077. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-52, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OW052A for the left SRB, and 36OW052B for the right SRB. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. The primary objectives of this flight were to retrieve the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (JSFU) and deploy and retrieve the Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology-Flyer (OAST-Flyer). Secondary objectives were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet (SSBUV/A) experiment, Shuttle Laser Altimeter (SLA)/get-Away Special (GAS) payload, Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment, Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES) experiment, Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) payload and perform two extravehicular activities (EVA's) to demonstrate International Space Station Alpha (ISSA) assembly techniques). Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  20. STS-45 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-45 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the eleventh flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-44 (LWT-37); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2028 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-049. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each of the SRB's were designated as 360L021A for the left SRM and 360W021B for the right SRM. The primary objective of this mission was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-1 (ATLAS-1) and the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Instrument (SSBUV) payloads. The secondary objectives were to successfully perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: the Space Tissue Loss-01 (STL-01) experiment; the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3) experiment; the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2) experiment; the Cloud Logic to Optimize use of Defense System (CLOUDS-1A) experiment; the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) Configuration B; the Investigation into Polymer Membranes Processing experiment; and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payload G-229. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was a payload of opportunity that required no special maneuvers. In addition to the primary and secondary objectives, the crew was tasked to perform as many as 10 Development Test Objectives (DTO'S) and 14 Detailed Supplementary Objectives (DSO's).

  1. STS-65 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The STS-65 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventeenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbits the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-64; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2019, 2030, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated Bl-066. The RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360P039A for the left SRB, and 360W039 for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to complete the operation of the second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2). The secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment (SAREX) II payloads. Additional secondary objectives were to meet the requirements of the Air Force Maui Optical Site (AMOS) and the Military Application Ship Tracks (MAST) payloads, which were manifested as payloads of opportunity.

  2. STS-47 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-47 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fiftieth Space Shuttle Program flight and the second flight of the Orbiter Vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Endeavour vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-45 (LWT-38); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2029 and were located in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-053. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM that was installed in the left SRB was designated 360L026A, and the RSRM that was installed in the right SRB was 360W026B. The primary objective of the STS-47 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the Spacelab-J (SL-J) payload (containing 43 experiments--of which 34 were provided by the Japanese National Space Development Agency (NASDA)). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Israeli Space Agency Investigation About Hornets (ISAIAH) payload, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), and the Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads. The Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI) was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  3. STS-50 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-50 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-eighth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Columbia vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET which was designated ET-50 (LUT-43); three SSME's which were serial numbers 2019, 2031, and 2011 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-051. The lightweight/redesigned RSRM's installed in each SRB were designated 360L024A for the left RSRM and 360M024B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of the STS-50 flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Investigations into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment 2 (SAREX-2) payloads. An additional secondary objective was to meet the requirements of the Ultraviolet Plume Instrument (UVPI), which was flown as a payload of opportunity.

  4. STS-52 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-52 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the fifty-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the thirteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET (designated as ET-55/LWT-48); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2030, 2015, and 2034 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-054. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L027A for the left SRB and 360Q027B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to successfully deploy the Laser Geodynamic Satellite (LAGEOS-2) and to perform operations of the United States Microgravity Payload-1 (USMP-1). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Attitude Sensor Package (ASP), the Canadian Experiments-2 (CANEX-2), the Crystals by Vapor Transport Experiment (CVTE), the Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPP), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiments (CMIX), the Physiological System Experiment (PSE), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG-Block 2), the Shuttle Plume Impingement Experiment (SPIE), and the Tank Pressure Control Experiment (TPCE) payloads.

  5. STS-67 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-67 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides the results of the orbiter vehicle performance evaluation during this sixty-eighth flight of the Shuttle Program, the forty-third flight since the return to flight, and the eighth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition, the report summarizes the payload activities and the performance of the External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The serial numbers of the other elements of the flight vehicle were ET-69 for the ET; 2012, 2033, and 2031 for SSME's 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and Bl-071 for the SRB's. The left-hand RSRM was designated 360W043A, and the right-hand RSRM was designated 360L043B. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the ultraviolet astronomy (ASTRO-2) payload. Secondary objectives of this flight were to complete the operations of the Protein Crystal Growth - Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES), the Protein Crystal Growth - Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Commercial Materials Dispersion Apparatus ITA Experiments (CMIX), the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2), the Middeck Active Control Experiment (MACE), and two Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  6. STS-75 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-75 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fiftieth flight since the return-to-flight, and the nineteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-76; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2029, 2034, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-078. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-53, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRMs were designated as 36OW53A for the left SRB, and 36OW053B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the Tethered Satellite System-1 R (TSS-1R), and the United States Microgravity Payload-3 (USMP-3). The secondary objectives were to complete the operations of the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE), and to meet the requirements of the Middeck Glovebox (MGBX) facility and the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment. Appendix A provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used thorughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  7. STS-42 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-42 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the vehicle subsystem operations during the forty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the fourteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Discovery vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an External Tank (ET) designated as ET-52 (LWT-45); three Space Shuttle main engines (SSME's), which were serial numbers 2026, 2022, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB's) designated as BI-048. The lightweight redesigned Solid Rocket Motors (RSRM's) installed in each one of the SRB's were designated as 360L020A for the left SRM and 360Q020B for the right SRM. The primary objective of the STS-42 mission was to complete the objectives of the first International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1). Secondary objectives were to perform all operations necessary to support the requirements of the following: Gelation of Sols: Applied Microgravity Research (GOSAMR); Student Experiment 81-09 (Convection in Zero Gravity); Student Experiment 83-02 (Capillary Rise of Liquid Through Granular Porous Media); the Investigation into Polymer Membrane Processing (IPMP); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads carried on the GAS Beam Assembly.

  8. STS-79 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    STS-79 was the fourth of nine planned missions to the Russian Mir Space Station. This report summarizes the activities such as rendezvous and docking and spaceborne experiment operations. The report also discusses the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM) and the space shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the flight. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and exchange a Mir Astronaut. A double Spacehab module carried science experiments and hardware, risk mitigation experiments (RME's) and Russian logistics in support of program requirements. Additionally, phase 1 program science experiments were carried in the middeck. Spacehab-05 operations were performed. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary for the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Also, as a payload of opportunity, the requirements of Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) were completed.

  9. STS-74 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-74 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-eighth flight since the return-to-flight, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-74; three Phase 11 SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2012, 2026, and 2032 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-076. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-51, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO51 A for the left SRB, and 360TO51 B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and perform life sciences investigations. The Russian Docking Module (DM) was berthed onto the Orbiter Docking System (ODS) using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), and the Orbiter docked to the Mir with the DM. When separating from the Mir, the Orbiter undocked, leaving the DM attached to the Mir. The two solar arrays, mounted on the DM, were delivered for future Russian installation to the Mir. The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirements of the GLO experiment (GLO-4)/Photogrammetric Appendage Structural Dynamics Experiment Payload (PASDE) (GPP), the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), and the Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT)) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  10. STS-1: the first space shuttle mission, April 12, 1981

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Columbia launched on the first space shuttle mission on April 12, 1981, a two-day demonstration of the first reusable, piloted spacecraft's ability to go into orbit and return safely ...

  11. Christa McAulffe in the Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAulffe, the Teacher in Space Payload Specialist from Concord, New Hampshire, trains for the STS 51-L mission in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). She takes a drink from a shuttle beverage container during a break from her briefing on the consoles and controls that operate the SMS in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training facility.

  12. STS-68 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-68 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the sixty-fifth flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the seventh flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-65; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2028, 2033, and 2026 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated BI-067. The RSRMs that were installed in each SRB were designated as 360W040A for the left SRB and 360W040B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the operations of the Space Radar Laboratory-2 (SRL-2). The secondary objectives of the flight were to perform the operations of the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), the Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG), the Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC), the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM), the Military Application of Ship Tracks (MAST), and five Get-Away Special (GAS) payloads.

  13. STS-73 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-73 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-seventh flight since the return-to-flight, and the eighteenth flight of the Orbiter Columbia (OV-102). STS-73 was also the first flight of OV-102 following the vehicle's return from the Orbiter Maintenance Down Period (OMDP). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-73; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2037 (Block 1), 2031 (PH-1), and 2038 (Block 1) in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-075. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-50, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL050A for the left SRB, and 36OW050B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully perform the planned operations of the United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML)-2 payload.

  14. Subjective Sleep Experience During Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmire, Alexandra; Slack, Kelley; Locke, James; Patterson, Holly; Faulk, Jeremy; Keeton, Kathryn; Leveton, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    It is now known that for many astronauts, sleep is reduced in spaceflight. Given that sleep is intimately tied to performance, safety, health, and well being, it is important to characterize factors that hinder sleep in space, so countermeasures can be implemented. Lessons learned from current spaceflight can be used to inform the development of space habitats and mitigation strategies for future exploration missions. The purpose of this study was to implement a survey and one-on-one interviews to capture Shuttle flyers' subjective assessment of the factors that interfered with a "good nights sleep" during their missions. Strategies that crewmembers reported using to improve their sleep quality during spaceflight were also discussed. Highlights from the interview data are presented here.

  15. Shuttle vehicle and mission simulation requirements report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for the space shuttle vehicle and mission simulation are developed to analyze the systems, mission, operations, and interfaces. The requirements are developed according to the following subject areas: (1) mission envelope, (2) orbit flight dynamics, (3) shuttle vehicle systems, (4) external interfaces, (5) crew procedures, (6) crew station, (7) visual cues, and (8) aural cues. Line drawings and diagrams of the space shuttle are included to explain the various systems and components.

  16. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  17. STS-54 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-54 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report is a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during this fifty-third flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the third flight of the Orbiter vehicle Endeavour (OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated ET-51; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2019, 2033, and 2018 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two retrievable and reusable SRB's which were designated BI-056. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L029A for the left SRB, and 360L029B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-F/Inertial Upper Stage payload and to fulfill the requirements of the Diffuse X-Ray Spectrometer (DXS) payload. The secondary objective was to fly the Chromosome and Plant Cell Division in Space (CHROMEX), Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA), Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment (PARE), and the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. The official tracking number for each in-flight anomaly, assigned by the cognizant project, is also shown. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  18. STS-69 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-69 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-first flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-sixth flight since the return-to-flight, and the ninth flight of the Orbiter Endeavour(OV-105). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-72; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-074. The RSRMS, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 36OL048A for the left SRB, and 36OW048B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations necessary to fulfill the requirments of Wake Shield Facility (WSF) and SPARTAN-201. The secondary objectives were to perform the operation of the International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH-1), the Capillary Pumped Loop-2/GAS Bridge Assembly (CAPL-2/GBA), Thermal Energy Storage (TES), Auroral Photography Experiment-B (APE-B) and the Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Development Flight Test 02 (EDFT-02), the Biological Research in Canister (BRIC) payload, the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload, the Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) payload, the Space Tissue Loss, National Institute of Health-Cells (STL/NIH-CS) payload, and the Commercial Middeck Instrumentation Technology Associates Experiment (CMIX). Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  19. STS-46 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W.

    1992-10-01

    The STS-46 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report contains a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) subsystem performance during the forty-ninth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the twelfth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Atlantis vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of the following: an ET, designated ET-48 (LWT-41); three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2032, 2033, and 2027 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's which were designated BI-052. The lightweight/redesigned SRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360W025A for the left RSRM and 360L025B for the right RSRM. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the European Retrievable Carrier (EURECA) payload and perform the operations of the Tethered Satellite System-1 (TSS-1) and the Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Material 3/Thermal Energy Management Processes 2A-3 (EOIM-3/TEMP 2A-3). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the IMAX Cargo Bay Camera (ICBC), Consortium for Material Development in Space Complex Autonomous Payload-2 and 3 (CONCAP-2 and CONCAP-3), Limited Duration Space Environment Candidate Materials Exposure (LDCE), Pituitary Growth Hormone Cell Function (PHCF), and Ultraviolet Plume Instrumentation (UVPI). In addition to summarizing subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Also included in the discussion is a reference to the assigned tracking number as published on the Problem Tracking List. All times are given in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as well as mission elapsed time (MET).

  20. STS-76 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The STS-76 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventy-sixth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the fifty-first flight since the return-to-flight, and the sixteenth flight of the Orbiter Atlantis (OV-104). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-77; three SSME's that were designated as serial numbers 2035, 2109, and 2019 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-079. The RSRM's, designated RSRM-46, were installed in each SRB and the individual RSRM's were designated as 360TO46A for the left SRB, and 360TO46B for the right SRB. The primary objectives of this flight were to rendezvous and dock with the Mir Space Station and transfer one U.S. Astronaut to the Mir. A single Spacehab module carried science equipment and hardware, Risk Mitigation Experiments (RME's), and Russian Logistics in support of the Phase 1 Program requirements. In addition, the European Space Agency (ESA) Biorack operations were performed. Appendix A lists the sources of data, both formal and informal, that were used to prepare this report. Appendix B provides the definition of acronyms and abbreviations used throughout the report. All times during the flight are given in Greenwich mean time (GMT) and mission elapsed time (MET).

  1. Final Shuttle Crew Recaps Mission for Dryden Staff

    NASA Video Gallery

    STS-135 crew members, commander Chris Ferguson, pilot Doug Hurley and mission specialists Sandy Magnus and Rex Walheim, recalled personal highlights of the final shuttle mission and their involveme...

  2. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.; Batts, G. W.; Willett, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constrants for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing.

  3. Atmospheric constraint statistics for the Space Shuttle mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, O. E.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish statistics of atmospheric constraints of interest to the Space Shuttle mission planning are presented. The statistics considered are for the frequency of occurrence, runs, and time conditional probabilities of several atmospheric constraints for each of the Space Shuttle mission phases. The mission phases considered are (1) prelaunch, (2) launch operations, (3) return to launch site, (4) abort once around landing, and (5) end of mission landing. Previously announced in STAR as N82-33417

  4. STS-66 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The primary objective of this flight was to accomplish complementary science objectives by operating the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-3 (ATLAS-3) and the Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (CRISTA-SPAS). The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations of the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet/A (SSBUV/A) payload, the Experiment of the Sun Complementing the Atlas Payload and Education-II (ESCAPE-II) payload, the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health Rodents (PARE/NIH-R) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-TES) payload, the Protein Crystal Growth-Single Locker Thermal Enclosure System (PCG-STES), the Space Tissue/National Institutes of Health Cells STL/N -A payload, the Space Acceleration Measurement Systems (SAMS) Experiment, and Heat Pipe Performance Experiment (HPPE) payload. The 11-day plus 2 contingency day STS-66 mission was flown as planned, with no contingency days used for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. Appendix A lists the sources of data from which this report was prepared, and Appendix B defines all acronyms and abbreviations used in the report.

  5. The Shuttle Mission Simulator computer generated imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, T. H.

    1984-01-01

    Equipment available in the primary training facility for the Space Transportation System (STS) flight crews includes the Fixed Base Simulator, the Motion Base Simulator, the Spacelab Simulator, and the Guidance and Navigation Simulator. The Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) consists of the Fixed Base Simulator and the Motion Base Simulator. The SMS utilizes four visual Computer Generated Image (CGI) systems. The Motion Base Simulator has a forward crew station with six-degrees of freedom motion simulation. Operation of the Spacelab Simulator is planned for the spring of 1983. The Guidance and Navigation Simulator went into operation in 1982. Aspects of orbital visual simulation are discussed, taking into account the earth scene, payload simulation, the generation and display of 1079 stars, the simulation of sun glare, and Reaction Control System jet firing plumes. Attention is also given to landing site visual simulation, and night launch and landing simulation.

  6. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-02-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as

  7. STS-53 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The STS-53 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report provides a summary of the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster/Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor (SRB/RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) subsystems performance during the fifty-second flight of the Space Shuttle Program, and the fifteenth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET, which was designated as ET-49/LWT-42; three SSME's, which were serial numbers 2024, 2012, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's, which were designated BI-055. The lightweight RSRM's that were installed in each SRB were designated 360L028A for the left SRB, and 360L028B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to successfully deploy the Department of Defense 1 (DOD-1) payload. The secondary objectives of this flight were to perform the operations required by the Glow Experiment/Cryogenic Heat Pipe Experiment Payload (GCP); the Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly, Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); the Space Tissue Loss (STL); the Battlefield Laser Acquisition Sensor Test (BLAST); the Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III); the Microcapsules in Space-1 (MIS-1); the Visual Function Tester-2 (VFT-2); the Cosmic Radiation Effects and Activation Monitor (CREAM); the Clouds Logic to Optimize Use of Defense Systems-1A (CLOUDS-1A); the Fluids Acquisition and Resupply Experiment (FARE); and the Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS). In addition to presenting a summary of subsystem performance, this report also discusses each Orbiter, ET, SSME, SRB, and RSRM in-flight anomaly in the applicable section of the report. Listed in the discussion of each anomaly is the officially assigned tracking number as published by each Project Office in their respective Problem Tracking List. All times given in this report are in Greenwich mean time (G.m.t.) as

  8. Shuttle/IUS performance for planetary missions. [Interim Upper Stage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cork, M. J.; Driver, J. M.; Wright, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    Potential requirements for planetary missions in the 1980s, capabilities of the Interim Upper Stage (IUS) candidates to perform those missions, and Shuttle/IUS mission profile options for performance enhancement are examined. The most demanding planetary missions are the Pioneer Saturn/Uranus/Titan Probe and the Mariner-class orbiters of Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. Options available to designers of these missions will depend on the specific IUS selected for development and the programmatic phasing of the IUS and the NASA Tug. Use of Shuttle elliptic orbits as initial conditions for IUS ignition offers significant performance improvements; specific values are mission dependent.

  9. Official portrait space shuttle mission 41-D crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Official portrait of the space shuttle mission 41-D crew. Seated are (left to right): Richard M. (Mike) Mullane and Steven A. Hawley, mission specialists; Henry W. Hartsfield, Jr., crew commander; Michael L. Coats, pilot. Standing are Charles D. Walker, pilot and Judith A. Resnik, mission specialist. Behind them is a model of the early sailing vessel Discovery and a model of the shuttle Discovery.

  10. Christa McAulffe in the Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Sharon Christa McAulffe, the Teacher in Space Payload Specialist from Concord, New Hampshire, trains for the STS 51-L mission in the Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). She shares cookies with one of the trainers briefing her on the consoles and controls that operate the SMS in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training facility.

  11. STS-55 Space Shuttle mission report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    A summary of the Space Shuttle Payloads, Orbiter, External Tank, Solid Rocket Booster, Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor, and the Main Engine subsystems performance during the 55th flight of the Space Shuttle Program and the 14th flight of Columbia is presented.

  12. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    As Space Shuttle Endeavour rockets off Launch Pad 39B, spewing clouds of smoke and steam, a majestic heron soars over the nearby water and Endeavour'''s reflection. Liftoff occurred on time at 10:06:01 p.m. EST. The Shuttle and its five-member crew will deliver U.S. solar arrays to the International Space Station and be the first Shuttle crew to visit the Station'''s first resident crew. The 11-day mission includes three spacewalks. This marks the 101st mission in Space Shuttle history and the 25th night launch. Endeavour is expected to land Dec. 11 at 6:19 p.m. EST.

  13. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Like 10,000 fireworks going off at once, Space Shuttle Atlantis roars into the moonlit sky while clouds of steam and smoke cascade behind. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  14. Low-frequency vibration environment for five Shuttle missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugher, George R.; Martin, Gary L.; Delombard, Richard

    1993-03-01

    The Microgravity Science and Applications Division's (MSAD) program to record and analyze the Shuttle's vibration environment is reviewed. This program provides microgravity science investigators with time and frequency analyses of the acceleration environment during their experiments' operation. Information is also provided for future investigators on the expected Shuttle vibration environment. As background, the two major elements of the program are discussed, the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP). A comparison of the acceleration measurements from five Shuttle missions is discussed.

  15. Mission Possible: BioMedical Experiments on the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bopp, E.; Kreutzberg, K.

    2011-01-01

    Biomedical research, both applied and basic, was conducted on every Shuttle mission from 1981 to 2011. The Space Shuttle Program enabled NASA investigators and researchers from around the world to address fundamental issues concerning living and working effectively in space. Operationally focused occupational health investigations and tests were given priority by the Shuttle crew and Shuttle Program management for the resolution of acute health issues caused by the rigors of spaceflight. The challenges of research on the Shuttle included: limited up and return mass, limited power, limited crew time, and requirements for containment of hazards. The sheer capacity of the Shuttle for crew and equipment was unsurpassed by any other launch and entry vehicle and the Shuttle Program provided more opportunity for human research than any program before or since. To take advantage of this opportunity, life sciences research programs learned how to: streamline the complicated process of integrating experiments aboard the Shuttle, design experiments and hardware within operational constraints, and integrate requirements between different experiments and with operational countermeasures. We learned how to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf hardware and developed a hardware certification process with the flexibility to allow for design changes between flights. We learned the importance of end-to-end testing for experiment hardware with humans-in-the-loop. Most importantly, we learned that the Shuttle Program provided an excellent platform for conducting human research and for developing the systems that are now used to optimize research on the International Space Station. This presentation will include a review of the types of experiments and medical tests flown on the Shuttle and the processes that were used to manifest and conduct the experiments. Learning Objective: This paper provides a description of the challenges related to launching and implementing biomedical

  16. STS-81 Space Shuttle Mission Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    STS-81 was the fifth of nine planned missions to dock with the Russian Mir Space Station and the fourth crewmember transfer mission. The double Spacehab module was carried for the second time, and it housed experiments that were performed by the crew and logistics equipment that was transferred to the Mir.

  17. Vehicle management and mission planning in support of shuttle operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pruett, W. R.; Bell, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An operational approach to shuttle mission planning during high flight frequency years (20 or more flights per year) is described wherein diverse mission planning functions interface via an interactive computer system and common data base. The Vehicle Management and Mission Planning System (VMMPS) is proposed as a means of helping to accomplish the mission planning function. The VMMPS will link together into an interactive system the major mission planning areas such as trajectory, crew, vehicle performance, and launch operations. A common data base will be an integral part of the system and the concept of standard mission types and phases will be used to minimize mission to mission uniqueness. The use of this system will eliminate much redundancy and replanning, shorten interface times between functions, and provide a means to evaluate unplanned events and modify schedules.

  18. Mission planning parameters for the Space Shuttle large format camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. A.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the impact of various Space Shuttle mission parameters on the efficient and meaningful utilization of the large format camera (LFC) as a photographic acquisition system. Some of the LFC's vital statistics and its mounting within the Orbiter payload are described. LFC characteristics and mounting dictate certain mission parameters. The controlling parameters are orbit inclinations, launch time of year, launch time of day, orbital altitude, mission duration, overlap selection, film capacity, and climatological prediction. A mission case is evaluated relative to controlling parameters and geographical area(s) of interest.

  19. Artificial intelligence techniques for scheduling Space Shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henke, Andrea L.; Stottler, Richard H.

    1994-01-01

    Planning and scheduling of NASA Space Shuttle missions is a complex, labor-intensive process requiring the expertise of experienced mission planners. We have developed a planning and scheduling system using combinations of artificial intelligence knowledge representations and planning techniques to capture mission planning knowledge and automate the multi-mission planning process. Our integrated object oriented and rule-based approach reduces planning time by orders of magnitude and provides planners with the flexibility to easily modify planning knowledge and constraints without requiring programming expertise.

  20. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Watts-Perotti, J; Woods, D D

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  1. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, James A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA s other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD s focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  2. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim

    2010-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  3. Voice loops as coordination aids in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Watts-Perotti, J.; Woods, D. D.

    1999-01-01

    Voice loops, an auditory groupware technology, are essential coordination support tools for experienced practitioners in domains such as air traffic management, aircraft carrier operations and space shuttle mission control. They support synchronous communication on multiple channels among groups of people who are spatially distributed. In this paper, we suggest reasons for why the voice loop system is a successful medium for supporting coordination in space shuttle mission control based on over 130 hours of direct observation. Voice loops allow practitioners to listen in on relevant communications without disrupting their own activities or the activities of others. In addition, the voice loop system is structured around the mission control organization, and therefore directly supports the demands of the domain. By understanding how voice loops meet the particular demands of the mission control environment, insight can be gained for the design of groupware tools to support cooperative activity in other event-driven domains.

  4. Shuttle mission simulator requirements report, volume 1, revision A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The tasks are defined required to design, develop produce, and field support a shuttle mission simulator for training crew members and ground support personnel. The requirements for program management, control, systems engineering, design and development are discussed along with the design and construction standards, software design, control and display, communication and tracking, and systems integration.

  5. Shuttle mission simulator baseline definition report, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dahlberg, A. W.; Small, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    The baseline definition report for the space shuttle mission simulator is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) the general configurations, (2) motion base crew station, (3) instructor operator station complex, (4) display devices, (5) electromagnetic compatibility, (6) external interface equipment, (7) data conversion equipment, (8) fixed base crew station equipment, and (9) computer complex. Block diagrams of the supporting subsystems are provided.

  6. Small planetary missions for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staehle, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with the concept of a small planetary mission that might be described as one which: (1) focuses on a narrow set of discovery-oriented objectives, (2) utilizes largely existing and proven subsystem capabilities, (3) does not tax future launch vehicle capabilities, and (4) is flexible in terms of mission timing such that it can be easily integrated with launch vehicle schedules. Three small planetary mission concepts are presented: a tour of earth-sun Lagrange regions in search of asteroids which might be gravitationally trapped, a network of spacecraft to search beyond Pluto for a tenth planet; and a probe which could be targeted for infrequent long period 'comets of opportunity' or for a multitude of shorter period comets.

  7. Advanced missions safety. Volume 3: Appendices. Part 1: Space shuttle rescue capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The space shuttle rescue capability is analyzed as a part of the advanced mission safety study. The subjects discussed are: (1) mission evaluation, (2) shuttle configurations and performance, (3) performance of shuttle-launched tug system, (4) multiple pass grazing reentry from lunar orbit, (5) ground launched ascent and rendezvous time, (6) cost estimates, and (7) parallel-burn space shuttle configuration.

  8. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Atlantis on mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. -- Space Shuttle Atlantis surpasses the full moon for beauty as it roars into the early evening sky trailing a tail of smoke. The upper portion catches the sun'''s rays as it climbs above the horizon and a flock of birds soars above the moon. Liftoff occurred at 6:13:02 p.m. EST. Along with a crew of five, Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle'''s robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11-day mission. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA'''s Space Shuttle program. The planned landing is at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. EST.

  9. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia casts ghost-like shadows on the clouds of smoke and steam surrounding it. Liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Collins is the first woman to serve as commander of a Shuttle mission. The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  10. STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Stability and Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamelin, Jennifer L.; Jackson, Mark C.; Kirchwey, Christopher B.; Pileggi, Roberto A.

    2001-01-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) flew aboard Space Shuttle Endeavor February 2000 and used interferometry to map 80% of the Earth's landmass. SRTM employed a 200-foot deployable mast structure to extend a second antenna away from the main antenna located in the Shuttle payload bay. Mapping requirements demanded precision pointing and orbital trajectories from the Shuttle on-orbit Flight Control System (PCS). Mast structural dynamics interaction with the FCS impacted stability and performance of the autopilot for attitude maneuvers and pointing during mapping operations. A damper system added to ensure that mast tip motion remained with in the limits of the outboard antenna tracking system while mapping also helped to mitigate structural dynamic interaction with the FCS autopilot. Late changes made to the payload damper system, which actually failed on-orbit, required a redesign and verification of the FCS autopilot filtering schemes necessary to ensure rotational control stability. In-flight measurements using three sensors were used to validate models and gauge the accuracy and robustness of the pre-mission notch filter design.

  11. Space Shuttle to deploy Magellan planetary science mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of Space Shuttle Mission STS-30 are described along with major flight activities, prelaunch and launch operations, trajectory sequence of events, and landing and post-landing operations. The primary objective of STS-30 is to successfully deploy the Magellan spacecraft into low earth orbit. Following deployment, Magellan will be propelled to its Venus trajectory by an Inertial Upper Stage booster. The objectives of the Magellan mission are to obtain radar images of more than 70 percent of Venus' surface, a near-global topographic map, and near-global gravity field data. Secondary STS-30 payloads include the Fluids Experiment Apparatus (FEA) and the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment (MLE).

  12. Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Gushin, V; Weiss, D S; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

    2000-01-01

    A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions.

  13. Social and cultural issues during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Gushin, V.; Weiss, D. S.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2000-01-01

    A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Vehicle management and mission planning systems with shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A preliminary definition of a concept for an automated system is presented that will support the effective management and planning of space shuttle operations. It is called the Vehicle Management and Mission Planning System (VMMPS). In addition to defining the system and its functions, some of the software requirements of the system are identified and a phased and evolutionary method is recommended for software design, development, and implementation. The concept is composed of eight software subsystems supervised by an executive system. These subsystems are mission design and analysis, flight scheduler, launch operations, vehicle operations, payload support operations, crew support, information management, and flight operations support. In addition to presenting the proposed system, a discussion of the evolutionary software development philosophy that the Mission Planning and Analysis Division (MPAD) would propose to use in developing the required supporting software is included. A preliminary software development schedule is also included.

  15. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Reflected in the waters near Launch Pad 39-B, Space Shuttle Columbia rockets into the night sky on mission STS-93. After two unsuccessful attempts on previous nights, liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT.. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  16. Wreckage from the Shuttle mission 51-L mission retrieved from the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Wreckage from the Space Shuttle mission 51-L mission retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by a flotilla of U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Navy vessels was returned to the Trident Basin at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Dallas. Views include portion of the side hatch area on the crew compartment (015); views of tile work on portions of the underside of the orbiter (016-19).

  17. Wreckage from the Shuttle mission 51-L mission retrieved from the Atlantic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Wreckage from the Space Shuttle mission 51-L mission retrieved from the Atlantic Ocean by a flotilla of U.S. Coast Guard and U.S. Navy vessels was returned to the Trident Basin at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station aboard the U.S. Coast Guard cutter Dallas. Views tile work on portions of the underside of the orbiter (020-24); portion of the crew compartment (025).

  18. Hawaiian Islands Captured by Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Launched February 11, 2000, the STS-99 Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) was the most ambitious Earth mapping mission to date. A 200-ft long (60 meter) mast supporting the SRTM jutted into space from the Space Shuttle Endeavour. Orbiting some 145 miles (233 kilometers) above Earth, the giant structure was deployed on February 12, 2000 and the C-band and X-band anternae mounted on it quickly went to work mapping parts of the Earth. The SRTM radar was able to penetrate clouds as well as provide its own illumination, independent of daylight, and obtained 3-dimentional topographic images of the world's surface up to the Arctic and Antarctic Circles. The mission completed 222 hours of around the clock radar mapping, gathering enough information to fill more than 20,000 CDs. This image is an example of the data required by the SRTM. This is a view of the three Hawaiian Islands; Molokai (lower left), Lanai (right), and the northwest tip of Maui (upper left). The image brightness corresponds to the strength of radar signal reflected from the ground, while colors show the elevation as measured by SRTM, ranging from blue at the lowest elevations to white at the highest elevations. This image contains 5900 feet (1800 meters) of total relief. SRTM will help local officials to better understand and prepare for volcanic, tidal wave, and earthquake activities.

  19. Shuttle mission simulator requirements report, volume 1, revision C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    The contractor tasks required to produce a shuttle mission simulator for training crew members and ground personnel are discussed. The tasks will consist of the design, development, production, installation, checkout, and field support of a simulator with two separate crew stations. The tasks include the following: (1) review of spacecraft changes and incorporation of appropriate changes in simulator hardware and software design, and (2) the generation of documentation of design, configuration management, and training used by maintenance and instructor personnel after acceptance for each of the crew stations.

  20. Shuttle mission simulator baseline definition report, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J. F.; Small, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    A baseline definition of the space shuttle mission simulator is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) physical arrangement of the complete simulator system in the appropriate facility, with a definition of the required facility modifications, (2) functional descriptions of all hardware units, including the operational features, data demands, and facility interfaces, (3) hardware features necessary to integrate the items into a baseline simulator system to include the rationale for selecting the chosen implementation, and (4) operating, maintenance, and configuration updating characteristics of the simulator hardware.

  1. JSC Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) visual system payload bay video image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This space shuttle orbiter payload bay (PLB) video image is used in JSC's Fixed Based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). The image is projected inside the FB-SMS crew compartment during mission simulation training. The FB-SMS is located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  2. STS-26 MS Hilmers on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers prepares to ascend a ladder representing the interdeck access hatch from the shuttle middeck to the flight deck. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  3. Liftoff of Space Shuttle Columbia on mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The fiery launch of Space Shuttle Columbia is reflected in the water near the Launch Complex . After two unsuccessful attempts on previous nights, liftoff occurred at 12:31 a.m. EDT. STS-93 is a five-day mission primarily to release the Chandra X-ray Observatory, which will allow scientists from around the world to study some of the most distant, powerful and dynamic objects in the universe. The crew numbers five: Commander Eileen M. Collins, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby, and Mission Specialists Stephen A. Hawley (Ph.D.), Catherine G. Coleman (Ph.D.) and Michel Tognini of France, with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). The target landing date is July 27, 1999, at 11:20 p.m. EDT.

  4. STS-2 second space shuttle mission: Shuttle to carry scientific payload on second flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The STS-2 flight seeks to (1) fly the vehicle with a heavier payload than the first flight; (2) test Columbia's ability to hold steady attitude for Earth-viewing payloads; (3) measure the range of payload environment during launch and entry; (4) further test the payload bay doors and space radiators; and (5) operate the Canadian-built remote manipulator arm. The seven experiments which comprise the OSTA-1 payload are described as well as experiments designed to assess shuttle orbiter performance during launch, boost, orbit, atmospheric entry and landing. The menu for the seven-day flight and crew biographies, are included with mission profiles and overviews of ground support operations.

  5. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions.

    PubMed

    Kanas, N; Salnitskiy, V; Grund, E M; Weiss, D S; Gushin, V; Kozerenko, O; Sled, A; Marmar, C R

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  6. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick; Salnitskiy, Vyacheslav; Grund, Ellen M.; Weiss, Daniel S.; Gushin, Vadim; Kozerenko, Olga; Sled, Alexander; Marmar, Charles R.

    2001-03-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2 nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  7. Human interactions during Shuttle/Mir space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanas, N.; Salnitskiy, V.; Grund, E. M.; Weiss, D. S.; Gushin, V.; Kozerenko, O.; Sled, A.; Marmar, C. R.

    2001-01-01

    To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.

  8. STS-70 Space Shuttle Mission Report - September 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-70 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities as well as the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME) systems performance during the seventieth flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-fifth flight since the return-to-flight, and the twenty-first flight of the Orbiter Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the Orbiter, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-71; three SSMEs that were designated as serial numbers 2036, 2019, and 2017 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRBs that were designated 81-073. The RSRMs, designated RSRM-44, were installed in each SRB and were designated as 36OL044A for the left SRB, and 36OL044B for the right SRB. The primary objective of this flight was to deploy the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite-G/Inertial Upper Stage (TDRS-G/IUS). The secondary objectives were to fulfill the requirements of the Physiological and Anatomical Rodent Experiment/National Institutes of Health-Rodents (PARE/NIH-R); Bioreactor Demonstration System (BDS); Commercial Protein Crystal Growth (CPCG) experiment; Space Tissue Loss/National Institutes of Health - Cells (STL/NIH-C) experiment; Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) experiment; Shuttle Amateur Radio Experiment-2 (SAREX-2); Visual Function Tester-4 (VFT-4); Hand-Held, Earth-Oriented, Real-Time, Cooperative, User-Friendly Location-Targeting and Environmental System (HERCULES); Microencapsulation in Space-B (MIS-B) experiment; Window Experiment (WINDEX); Radiation Monitoring Equipment-3 (RME-3); and the Military Applications of Ship Tracks (MAST) payload.

  9. Launching a dream: A teachers guide to a simulated space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Two simulated shuttle missions cosponsored by the NASA Lewis Research Center and Cleveland, Ohio, area schools are highlighted in this manual for teachers. A simulated space shuttle mission is an opportunity for students of all ages to plan, train for, and conduct a shuttle mission. Some students are selected to be astronauts, flight planners, and flight controllers. Other students build and test the experiments that the astronauts will conduct. Some set up mission control, while others design the mission patch. Students also serve as security officers or carry out public relations activities. For the simulated shuttle mission, school buses or recreation vehicles are converted to represent shuttle orbiters. All aspects of a shuttle mission are included. During preflight activities the shuttle is prepared, and experiments and a flight plan are made ready for launch day. The flight itself includes lifting off, conducting experiments on orbit, and rendezvousing with the crew from the sister school. After landing back at the home school, the student astronauts are debriefed and hold press conferences. The astronauts celebrate their successful missions with their fellow students at school and with the community at an evening postflight recognition program. To date, approximately 6,000 students have been involved in simulated shuttle missions with the Lewis Research Center. A list of participating schools, along with the names of their space shuttles, is included. Educations outcomes and other positive effects for the students are described.

  10. STS-26 MS Nelson on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson trains on the middeck of the fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Nelson, wearing communications assembly headset, adjusts camera mounting bracket.

  11. Sleep, Circadian Rhythms, and Performance During Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Czeisler, Charles A.; Dijk, Derk-Jan; Wyatt, James K.; Ronda, Joseph M.; Hughes, Rod J.

    2003-01-01

    Sleep and circadian rhythms may be disturbed during spaceflight, and these disturbances can affect crewmembers' performance during waking hours. The mechanisms underlying sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances in space are not well understood, and effective countermeasures are not yet available. We investigated sleep, circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, and light-dark cycles in five astronauts prior to, during, and after the 16-day STS-90 mission and the IO-day STS-95 mission. The efficacy of low-dose, alternative-night, oral melatonin administration as a countermeasure for sleep disturbances was evaluated. During these missions, scheduled rest activity cycles were 20-35 minutes shorter than 24 hours. Light levels on the middeck and in the Spacelab were very low; whereas on the flight deck (which has several windows), they were highly variable. Circadian rhythm abnormalities were observed. During the second half of the missions, the rhythm of urinary cortisol appeared to be delayed relative to the sleep-wake schedule. Performance during wakefulness was impaired. Astronauts slept only about 6.5 hours per day, and subjective sleep quality was lower in space. No beneficial effects of melatonin (0.3 mg administered prior to sleep episodes on alternate nights) were observed. A surprising finding was a marked increase in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep upon return to Earth. We conclude that these Space Shuttle missions were associated with circadian rhythm disturbances, sleep loss, decrements in neurobehavioral performance, and alterations in REM sleep homeostasis. Shorter than 24-hour rest-activity schedules and exposure to light-dark cycles inadequate for optimal circadian synchronization may have contributed to these disturbances.

  12. Strain System for the Motion Base Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, David C.; Van Vossen, Karl G.; Kunkel, Glenn W.; Wells, Larry W.

    2010-01-01

    The Motion Base Shuttle Mission Simulator (MBSMS) Strain System is an innovative engineering tool used to monitor the stresses applied to the MBSMS motion platform tilt pivot frames during motion simulations in real time. The Strain System comprises hardware and software produced by several different companies. The system utilizes a series of strain gages, accelerometers, orientation sensor, rotational meter, scanners, computer, and software packages working in unison. By monitoring and recording the inputs applied to the simulator, data can be analyzed if weld cracks or other problems are found during routine simulator inspections. This will help engineers diagnose problems as well as aid in repair solutions for both current as well as potential problems.

  13. A practical scheduling algorithm for Shuttle-based astronomy missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guffin, O. T.; Roberts, B. H.; Williamson, P. L.

    1985-01-01

    In the Astro mission series (initial flight planned for March, 1986), the Shuttle will be used as a dedicated stellar astronomy observatory. A modified Spacelab pallet is to be used for the Astro payload, which will consist of three ultraviolet (UV) telescopes and a wide field camera mounted together on a single gimbal mount called the Inertial Pointing System (IPS). Three flights of 7-10 days duration are to be made with the same payload at intervals of 8-9 months. Previous experience has shown that changes in design requirements are inevitable, and the evolution of operational concepts will effect changes in scheduling algorithm software. For these reasons, the design goals of the Astron algorithm and its family of auxiliary software modules have been related to functional modularity, constraint flexibility, user friendliness, and 'light' input requirements. Attention is given to hardware characteristics, environmental constraints, the basic criteria function, 'Cinderella' logic, counters and constraints, and scheduling trends.

  14. Launching a Dream. A Teachers Guide to a Simulated Space Shuttle Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH. Lewis Research Center.

    This publication is about imagination, teamwork, creativity, and a host of other ingredients required to carry out a dream. It is about going into space--going into space as part of a simulated space shuttle mission. The publication highlights two simulated shuttle missions cosponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)…

  15. Launch-Off-Need Shuttle Hubble Rescue Mission: Medical Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Douglas; Gillis, David; Ilcus, Linda; Perchonok, Michele; Polk, James; Brandt, Keith; Powers, Edward; Stepaniak, Phillip

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Hubble repair mission (STS-125) is unique in that a rescue mission (STS-400) has to be ready to launch before STS-125 life support runs out should the vehicle become stranded. The shuttle uses electrical power derived from fuel cells that use cryogenic oxygen and hydrogen (CRYO) to run all subsystems including the Environmental Control System. If the STS-125 crew cannot return to Earth due to failure of a critical subsystem, they must power down all nonessential systems and wait to be rescued by STS-400. This power down will cause the cabin temperature to be 60 F or less and freeze the rest of the vehicle, preventing it from attempting a reentry. After an emergency has been declared, STS-125 must wait at least 7 days to power down since that is the earliest that STS-400 can be launched. Problem The delayed power down of STS-125 causes CYRO to be consumed at high rates and limits the survival time after STS-400 launches to 10 days or less. CRYO will run out sooner every day that the STS-400 launch is delayed (weather at launch, technical issues etc.). To preserve CRYO and lithium hydroxide (LiOH - carbon dioxide removal) the crew will perform no exercise to reduce their metabolic rates, yet each deconditioned STS-125 crewmember must perform an EVA to rescue himself. The cabin may be cold for 10 days, which may cause shivering, increasing the metabolic rate of the STS-125 crew. Solution To preserve LiOH, the STS-125 manifest includes nutrition bars with low carbohydrate content to maintain crew respiratory quotient (RQ) below 0.85 as opposed to the usual shuttle galley food which is rich in carbohydrates and keeps the RQ at approximately 0.95. To keep the crew more comfortable in the cold vehicle warm clothing also has been included. However, with no exercise and limited diet, the deconditioned STS-125 crew returning on STS-400 may not be able to egress the vehicle autonomously requiring a supplemented crash-and-rescue capability.

  16. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission - New Products in 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    In February 2000, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) successfully collected Interferometric C-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar data over 80 percent of the Earth's land surface, for most of the area between 60?N and 56?S latitude. NASA and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), formerly known as the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA), co-sponsored the mission. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) performed preliminary processing of SRTM data and forwarded partially finished data directly to NGA for finishing by NGA contractors and subsequent monthly deliveries to the NGA Digital Products Data Warehouse (DPDW). All data products delivered by the contractors conform to NGA SRTM Data Products and NGA Digital Terrain Elevation Data? (DTED?) specifications. The DPDW ingests the SRTM data products, checks them for formatting errors, loads the public SRTM DTED? into the NGA data distribution system, and ships them to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS). In addition to NGA's SRTM DTED? format, USGS EROS has reformatted the data into a non-proprietary, generic raster binary SRTM format that is readable by most remote sensing software packages. The SRTM format is also publicly available from USGS EROS.

  17. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Jaklitch, Pat; Wilkinson, Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark

    1993-01-01

    The noteworthy imagery acquired during Space Shuttle Mission STS-42 is documented. Attention is given to frozen Tibetan lakes, Merapi Volcano in Java, Mt. Pinatubo in the Philippines, the coastline east of Tokyo Japan, land use in southern India, and the Indus River Delta. Observations of Kamchatka Peninsula, Lake Baikal, Moscow, Katmai National Park and Mt. Augustine, Alaska, the Alaskan coast by the Bering Sea, snow-covered New York, the Rhone River valley, the Strait of Gibraltar, and Mt. Ararat, Turkey, are also reported.

  18. JSC Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) visual system payload bay video image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This video image is of the STS-2 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, payload bay (PLB) showing the Office of Space Terrestrial Applications 1 (OSTA-1) pallet (Shuttle Imaging Radar A (SIR-A) antenna (left) and SIR-A recorder, Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR), Feature Identification Location Experiment (FILE), Measurement of Air Pollution for Satellites (MAPS) (right)). The image is used in JSC's Fixed Based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). It is projected inside the FB-SMS crew compartment during mission simulation training. The FB-SMS is located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  19. RCC Plug Repair Thermal Tools for Shuttle Mission Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriguez, Alvaro C.; Anderson, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    A thermal math model for the Space Shuttle Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) Plug Repair was developed to increase the confidence in the repair entry performance and provide a real-time mission support tool. The thermal response of the plug cover plate, local RCC, and metallic attach hardware can be assessed with this model for any location on the wing leading edge. The geometry and spatial location of the thermal mesh also matches the structural mesh which allows for the direct mapping of temperature loads and computation of the thermoelastic stresses. The thermal model was correlated to a full scale plug repair radiant test. To utilize the thermal model for flight analyses, accurate predictions of protuberance heating were required. Wind tunnel testing was performed at CUBRC to characterize the heat flux in both the radial and angular directions. Due to the complexity of the implementation of the protuberance heating, an intermediate program was developed to output the heating per nodal location for all OML surfaces in SINDA format. Three Design Reference Cases (DRC) were evaluated with the correlated plug thermal math model to bound the environments which the plug repair would potentially be used.

  20. Space Shuttle Mission STS-61: Hubble Space Telescope servicing mission-01

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This press kit for the December 1993 flight of Endeavour on Space Shuttle Mission STS-61 includes a general release, cargo bay payloads and activities, in-cabin payloads, and STS-61 crew biographies. This flight will see the first in a series of planned visits to the orbiting Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The first HST servicing mission has three primary objectives: restoring the planned scientific capabilities, restoring reliability of HST systems and validating the HST on-orbit servicing concept. These objectives will be accomplished in a variety of tasks performed by the astronauts in Endeavour's cargo bay. The primary servicing task list is topped by the replacement of the spacecraft's solar arrays. The spherical aberration of the primary mirror will be compensated by the installation of the Wide Field/Planetary Camera-II and the Corrective Optics Space Telescope Axial Replacement. New gyroscopes will also be installed along with fuse plugs and electronic units.

  1. STS-26 MS Lounge in fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, wearing comunications kit assembly headset and crouched on the aft flight deck, performs checklist inspection during training session. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  2. Astronaut John H. Casper, mission commander and veteran of three Space Shuttle flights, awaits the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 TRAINING VIEW --- Astronaut John H. Casper, mission commander and veteran of three Space Shuttle flights, awaits the beginning of a training session for emergency bailout. All six crew members participated in the session, held in the Johnson Space Centers (JSC) Weightless Environment Training Facility (WET-F). The six astronauts will spend nine days aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour next month.

  3. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight.

  4. Multiple latent viruses reactivate in astronauts during Space Shuttle missions.

    PubMed

    Mehta, S K; Laudenslager, M L; Stowe, R P; Crucian, B E; Sams, C F; Pierson, D L

    2014-10-01

    Latent virus reactivation and diurnal salivary cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone were measured prospectively in 17 astronauts (16 male and 1 female) before, during, and after short-duration (12-16 days) Space Shuttle missions. Blood, urine, and saliva samples were collected during each of these phases. Antiviral antibodies and viral load (DNA) were measured for Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Three astronauts did not shed any virus in any of their samples collected before, during, or after flight. EBV was shed in the saliva in all of the remaining 14 astronauts during all 3 phases of flight. Seven of the 14 EBV-shedding subjects also shed VZV during and after the flight in their saliva samples, and 8 of 14 EBV-shedders also shed CMV in their urine samples before, during, and after flight. In 6 of 14 crewmembers, all 3 target viruses were shed during one or more flight phases. Both EBV and VZV DNA copies were elevated during the flight phase relative to preflight or post-flight levels. EBV DNA in peripheral blood was increased preflight relative to post-flight. Eighteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Approximately 2-5% of controls shed EBV while none shed VZV or CMV. Salivary cortisol measured preflight and during flight were elevated relative to post-flight. In contrast DHEA decreased during the flight phase relative to both preflight and post-flight. As a consequence, the molar ratio of the area under the diurnal curve of cortisol to DHEA with respect to ground (AUCg) increased significantly during flight. This ratio was unrelated to viral shedding. In summary, three herpes viruses can reactivate individually or in combination during spaceflight. PMID:24886968

  5. Mission Control Center (MCC) system specification for the shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The Mission Control Center Shuttle (MCC) Shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) Data System (OFTDS) provides facilities for flight control and data systems personnel to monitor and control the Shuttle flights from launch (tower clear) to rollout (wheels stopped on runway). It also supports the preparation for flight (flight planning, flight controller and crew training, and integrated vehicle and network testing activities). The MCC Shuttle OFTDS is described in detail. Three major support systems of the OFTDS and the data types and sources of data entering or exiting the MCC were illustrated. These systems are the communication interface system, the data computation complex, and the display and control system.

  6. Shuttle sortie simulation using a Lear jet aircraft: Mission no. 1 (assess program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Nell, C. B., Jr.; Mason, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    The shuttle sortie simulation mission of the Airborne Science/Shuttle Experiments System Simulation Program which was conducted using the CV-990 aircraft is reported. The seven flight, five day mission obtained data on experiment preparation, type of experiment components, operation and maintenance, data acquisition, crew functions, timelines and interfaces, use of support equipment and spare parts, power consumption, work cycles, influence of constraints, and schedule impacts. This report describes the experiment, the facilities, the operation, and the results analyzed from the standpoint of their possible use in aiding the planning for experiments in the Shuttle Sortie Laboratory.

  7. STS-26 crew trains in JSC fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, mission specialists pose on aft flight deck in fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Left to right, Mission Specialist (MS) John M. Lounge, MS George D. Nelson, and MS David C. Hilmers await start of FB-SMS simulation. The long simulation, part of the training for their anticipated June 1988 flight, began 10-20-87.

  8. Telemetry packetization for improved mission operations. [instrument packages for Space Shuttle mission operations data management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, E. P.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for mission-operations data management will accelerate sharply when the Space Transportation System (i.e., Space Shuttle) becomes the primary vehicle for research from space. These demands can be satisfied most effectively by providing a higher-level source encoding function within the spaceborne vehicle. An Instrument Telemetry Packet (ITP) concept is described which represents an alternative to the conventional multiplexed telemetry frame approach for acquiring spaceborne instrument data. By providing excellent data-integrity protection at the source and a variable instrument bandwidth capability, this ITP concept represents a significant improvement over present data acquisition procedures. Realignments in the ground telemetry processing functions are described which are intended to take advantage of the ITP concept and to make the data management system more responsive to the scientific investigators.

  9. Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In October 1992, Russia and the U.S. agreed to conduct a fundamentally new program of human cooperation in space. This original 'Shuttle-Mir' project encompassed combined astronaut-cosmonaut activities on the Shuttle, Soyuz, and Mir spacecraft. At that time, the project was limited to: the STS-60 Shuttle mission, which was completed in February 1994 and carried the first Russian cosmonaut; the planned March 1995 Soyuz 18 launch which will carry a U.S. astronaut to the Mir space station for a three month mission; and the STS-71 Shuttle mission which is scheduled to rendezvous and dock with the Mir space station in June 1995. The Task Force's specific recommendations are given.

  10. STS-26 crew on fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey review checklists in their respective stations on the foward flight deck. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  11. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Flames from Space Shuttle Endeavour light up the clouds as the Shuttle races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  12. NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir rendezvous and docking convened on May 24 and 25, 1994. Based on the meetings, the Task Force made the following recommendations: at a minimum, the mission commander and payload commander for all subsequent Shuttle-Mir missions should be named at least 18 months in advance of the scheduled launch date; in order to derive early operational experience in advance of the first Mir docking mission, the primary objective of STS-63 should be Mir rendezvous and proximity operations; and if at all possible, the launch date for STS-63 should be moved forward.

  13. Remote Infrared Imaging of the Space Shuttle During Hypersonic Flight: HYTHIRM Mission Operations and Coordination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwartz, Richard J.; McCrea, Andrew C.; Gruber, Jennifer R.; Hensley, Doyle W.; Verstynen, Harry A.; Oram, Timothy D.; Berger, Karen T.; Splinter, Scott C.; Horvath, Thomas J.; Kerns, Robert V.

    2011-01-01

    The Hypersonic Thermodynamic Infrared Measurements (HYTHIRM) project has been responsible for obtaining spatially resolved, scientifically calibrated in-flight thermal imagery of the Space Shuttle Orbiter during reentry. Starting with STS-119 in March of 2009 and continuing through to the majority of final flights of the Space Shuttle, the HYTHIRM team has to date deployed during seven Shuttle missions with a mix of airborne and ground based imaging platforms. Each deployment of the HYTHIRM team has resulted in obtaining imagery suitable for processing and comparison with computational models and wind tunnel data at Mach numbers ranging from over 18 to under Mach 5. This paper will discuss the detailed mission planning and coordination with the NASA Johnson Space Center Mission Control Center that the HYTHIRM team undergoes to prepare for and execute each mission.

  14. STS-36 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-36 Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, seated on the aft flight deck, discusses procedures with Commander John O. Creighton (left) and Pilot John H. Casper during a simulation in JSC's Fixed Based (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS). Casper reviews a checklist at the pilots station on the forward flight deck. The crewmembers are rehearsing crew cabin activities for their upcoming Department of Defense (DOD) mission aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104.

  15. STS-26 crew trains in JSC fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck (left) and Pilot Richard O. Covey train in JSC fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. On FB-SMS flight deck, Hauck and Covey man their respective stations. Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers is partially visible in the foreground. A simulation for their anticipated June 1988 flight began 10-20-87.

  16. STS-37 crewmembers train in JSC's FB shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-37 Commander Steven R. Nagel (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) Jerry L. Ross rehearse some of their scheduled duties on the flight deck of JSC's fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. During the unsuited simulation, Nagel reviews checklist while seated at the commanders station as Ross looks on from the pilots station.

  17. STS-26 crew trains in JSC fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, crewmembers (left to right) Commander Frederick H. Hauck, Pilot Richard O. Covey, Mission Specialist (MS) George D. Nelson, MS David C. Hilmers, and MS John M. Lounge pose on the middeck in fixed-based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. A simulation for their anticipated June 1988 flight began 10-20-87.

  18. STS-49 crew in JSC's FB Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) during simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-49 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, crewmembers participate in a simulation in JSC's Fixed Base (FB) Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS) located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Wearing launch and entry suits (LESs) and launch and entry helmets (LEH) and seated on the FB-SMS middeck are (left to right) Mission Specialist (MS) Thomas D. Akers, MS Kathryn C. Thornton, and MS Pierre J. Thuot.

  19. Earth observations during Space Shuttle mission STS-45 Mission to Planet Earth - March 24-April 2, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pitts, David E.; Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Mckay, Mary F.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey; Ackleson, Steven G.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Wilkinson, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    A description is presented of the activities and results of the Space Shuttle mission STS-45, known as the Mission to Planet Earth. Observations of Mount St. Helens, Manila Bay and Mt. Pinatubo, the Great Salt Lake, the Aral Sea, and the Siberian cities of Troitsk and Kuybyshev are examined. The geological features and effects of human activity seen in photographs of these areas are pointed out.

  20. Ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle Mission STS-32 (61-C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Speece, Robert F.

    1986-01-01

    An Ice/Frost/Debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-32 (61-C). This assessment begins with debris inspections of the flight elements and launch facilities before and after launch. Ice/Frost formations are calculated during cryogenic loading of the external tank followed by an on-pad assessment of the Shuttle vehicle and pad at T-3 hours in the countdown. High speed films are reviewed after launch to identify Ice/Frost/Debris sources and investigate potential vehicle damage. The Ice/Frost/Debris conditions and their effects on the Space Shuttle are documented.

  1. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-39

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS (thermal protection system) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-39. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-39, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  2. Ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle mission STS-26R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1988-01-01

    An Ice/Frost/Debris Assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-26R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions are assessed by use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is viewed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The Ice/Frost/Debris conditions of Mission 26R and their effect on the Space Shuttle Program is documented.

  3. Ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle mission STS-27R, December 2, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    An Ice/Frost/Debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-27R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is viewed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The Ice/Frost/Debris conditions of Mission STS-27R and their effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  4. KSC ice/frost/debris assessment for Space Shuttle Mission STS-30R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    An ice/frost/debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-30R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The ice/frost/debris conditions of Mission STS-30R and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program is documented.

  5. KSC ice/frost/debris assessment for space shuttle mission STS-29R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    An ice/frost/debris assessment was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-29R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage. The ice/frost/debris conditions of Mission STS-29R and their effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  6. Galileo spacecraft integration - International cooperation on a planetary mission in the Shuttle era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spehalski, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    The Galileo mission is designed to greatly expand scientific knowledge of Jupiter and its system. The retropropulsion module (RPM) as a major functional element of the Galileo spacecraft is described. The major mission and spacecraft requirements on the RPM are presented. Complexities of the integration process due to the international interface are identified. Challenges associated with integration with new launch vehicles, the Shuttle and upper stage, and their relationships to the RPM are discussed. The results of the integration process involving mission and propulsion performance, reliability, mechanical and thermal interfaces, and safety are described. Finally, considerations and recommendations for future missions involving international cooperation are given.

  7. STS-30 crewmembers train on JSC shuttle mission simulator (SMS) flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Wearing headsets, Mission Specialist (MS) Mark C. Lee (left), MS Mary L. Cleave (center), and MS Norman E. Thagard pose on aft flight deck in JSC's fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). In background, Commander David M. Walker and Pilot Ronald J. Grabe check data on forward flight deck CRT monitors. FB-SMS is located in JSC's Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5. Crewmembers are scheduled to fly aboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, in April 1989 for NASA mission STS-30.

  8. The BIMDA shuttle flight mission: a low cost microgravity payload.

    PubMed

    Holemans, J; Cassanto, J M; Moller, T W; Cassanto, V A; Rose, A; Luttges, M; Morrison, D; Todd, P; Stewart, R; Korszun, R Z; Deardorff, G

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the design, operation and experiment protocol of the Bioserve sponsored flights of the ITA Materials Dispersion Apparatus Payload (BIMDA) flown on the Space Shuttle on STS-37. The BIMDA payload represents a joint effort between ITA (Instrumentation Technology Associates, Inc.) and Bioserve Space Technologies, a NASA Center for the Commercial Development of Space, to investigate the methods and commercial potential of biomedical and fluid science applications in the microgravity environment of space. The BIMDA payload, flown in a Refrigerator/Incubator Module (R/IM) in the Orbiter middeck, consists of three different devices designed to mix fluids in space; four Materials Dispersion Apparatus (MDA) Minilabs developed by ITA, six Cell Syringes, and six Bioprocessing Modules both developed by NASA JSC and Bioserve. The BIMDA design and operation reflect user needs for late access prior to launch (<24 h) and early access after landing (<2 h). The environment for the payload is temperature controlled by the R/IM. The astronaut crew operates the payload and documents its operation. The temperature of the payload is recorded automatically during flight. The flight of the BIMDA payload is the first of two development flights of the MDA on the Space Shuttle. Future commercial flights of ITA's Materials Dispersion Apparatus on the Shuttle will be sponsored by NASA's Office of Commercial Programs and will take place over the next three years. Experiments for the BIMDA payload include research into the following areas: protein crystal growth, thin film membrane casting, collagen formation, fibrin clot formation, seed germination, enzymatic catalysis, zeolite crystallization, studies of mixing effects of lymphocyte functions, and solute diffusion and transport.

  9. Student's experiment to fly on third Shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A spaceborne student experiment on insect motion during weightlessness scheduled to fly on the third flight of the space shuttle is described. The experiment will focus on the flight behavior in zero gravity of two species of flying insects with differing ratios of body mass to wing area, the velvetbean caterpillar moth and the honeybee drone. Ten insects of each species will be carried in separate canisters. The crew will remove the canisters from the storage locker and attach them to the mid-deck wall, where the insects will be observed and filmed by a data acquisition camera.

  10. The role of the Shuttle Engineering Simulator in the Solar Max rescue mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.john, R. H.; Strassner, B.

    1984-01-01

    Background information concerning the makeup of the SES, the role it traditionally plays in support of the Shuttle Program, its capabilities and the specific work performed on the simulator during the sixteen months proceedings the Solar Max repair mission is presented. The SES plays a significant role in the preparations for the STS 41-C Solar Max repair mission and during the mission in the development of the plan and procedures to retrieve the satellite after the MMU docking attempts failed. The development of the on orbit simulation capabilities required to support this mission is to a very large extent simply an expansion of the capabilities designed into the SES to support previous engineering simulation requirements for the Space Shuttle program.

  11. Earth observations during Space Shuttle mission STS-34 - 18-23 October 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helfert, Michael R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Williams, Donald E.; Mcculley, Michael J.; Baker, Ellen S.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Lucid, Shannon W.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is presented of the 31st Space Shuttle mission, whose major objective was to deploy the Galileo spacecraft. Color images are presented of photos taken by the four videocameras in the payload bay, one 16-mm Arriflex in the cabin, a videocamcorder, three 35 mm cameras, two 70 mm cameras, and an IMAX camera. In addition, descriptions of visual observations by the mission astronauts are given. The most significant STS-34 earth photography for the major geographical regions is discussed. Individual highlights of this mission include observation of the apparent recovery of the water level of Lake Nasser to conditions similar to those during the second Space Shuttle mission of 1981; the documentation of the impact of the Yucatan forest blowdown and fires after the passage of Hurricane Gilbert; and the confirmation of the high value of space photography under low and very low sun angle conditions for geomorphological and geological analyses.

  12. Operational and Medical Procedures for a Declared Contingency Shuttle (CSCS) Shuttle Mission Due to a Failure that Precludes a Safe Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien; Patlach, Bob; Duchense, Ted; Chandler, Mike; Stepaniak, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    This poster paper outlines the operational and medical procedures for a shuttle mission that has a failure that precludes a safe return to Earth. Information about the assumptions, procedures and limiting consumables is included.

  13. STS-26 Commander Hauck in fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, wearing comunications kit assembly headset, checks control panel data while seated in the commanders seat on forward flight deck. A flight data file (FDF) notebook rests on his lap. A portable computer (laptop) is positioned on the center console. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  14. STS-29 Commander Coats in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    STS-29 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Michael L. Coats sits at commanders station forward flight deck controls in JSC fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Coats, wearing communications kit assembly headset and flight coveralls, looks away from forward control panels to aft flight deck. Pilots station seat back appears in foreground. FB-SMS is located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  15. STS-26 Commander Hauck in fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, wearing comunications kit assembly headset and seated in the commanders seat on forward flight deck, looks over his shoulder toward the aft flight deck. A flight data file (FDF) notebook rests on his lap. The STS-26 crew is training in the fixed base (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS) located in JSC Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  16. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-61

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-61. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-61, and the resulting effect on the space shuttle program.

  17. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-98

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Speece, Robert F.

    2004-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-98. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-98 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-54

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-54. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-54, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-74

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-74. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-74 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-69. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system condition and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-69 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  1. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-73

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-73. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-73 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  2. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-55

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-55. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-55, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-112

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2002-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-112. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-112 and the resulting effect of the Space Shuttle Program.

  4. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-47. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-52, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-51. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-51 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  6. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1993-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-53. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-53, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-67

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-67. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection (TPS) conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-67, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  8. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-49

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-49. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. Debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-49, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program are discussed.

  9. Real time data acquisition for expert systems in Unix workstations at Space Shuttle Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.; Murphy, Terri B.; Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Gnabasik, Mark; Mcfarland, Robert Z.; Bailey, Samuel A.

    1990-01-01

    A distributed system of proprietary engineering-class workstations is incorporated into NASA's Space Shuttle Mission-Control Center to increase the automation of mission control. The Real-Time Data System (RTDS) allows the operator to utilize expert knowledge in the display program for system modeling and evaluation. RTDS applications are reviewed including: (1) telemetry-animated communications schematics; (2) workstation displays of systems such as the Space Shuttle remote manipulator; and (3) a workstation emulation of shuttle flight instrumentation. The hard and soft real-time constraints are described including computer data acquisition, and the support techniques for the real-time expert systems include major frame buffers for logging and distribution as well as noise filtering. The incorporation of the workstations allows smaller programming teams to implement real-time telemetry systems that can improve operations and flight testing.

  10. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-95. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-95 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  11. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2004-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-100. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-100 and the resulting effect of the Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-79

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1996-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-79. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-79 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-93

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-93. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis findings of Space Shuttle mission STS-93 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  14. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-99. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-99 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  15. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-101. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-101 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-71

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-71. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-71 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  17. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-97

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E.; Kelly, J. David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-97. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch were analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris /ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-97 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-91

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-91. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-91 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-87

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-87. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the-use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-87 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-106

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Kelley, J. David (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-106. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-106 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  1. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-86. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-86 and the resulting affect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  2. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-89

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-89. Debris inspections of the flight element and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection systems conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-89 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  3. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-96

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-96. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-96 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  4. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-92

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-92. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-92 and the resulting effect, if any, on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-90

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1998-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-90. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system-conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-90 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-88

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    1999-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-88. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-88 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-102

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E.; Kelly, J. David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-102. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch were analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or inflight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice /thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-102 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  8. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-70

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-70. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-70 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  9. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-103

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.

    2000-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-103. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Space Shuttle mission STS-103 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-83

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Jill D.; Katnik, Gregory N.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-83. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-83 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  11. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-68

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivera, Jorge E.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Speece, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-68. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report-documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-68, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-66

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1995-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-66. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer program nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-66, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-59

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-59. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by an on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/ thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-59, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  14. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-50

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley; Katnik, Gregory N.

    1992-01-01

    Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-50. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-50, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  15. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-80

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system (TPS) assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-80. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission Space Transportation System (STS-80) and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  16. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-65

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for shuttle mission STS-65. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-65, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  17. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-84

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-84. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cyrogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-84 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  18. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowen, Barry C.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-94. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-94 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  19. Debris/ice/tps Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-81

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Lin, Jill D.

    1997-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-81. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs and infrared scanned data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-81 and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Growth and development of plants flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Peterson, C.; Lemay, R.

    1984-01-01

    Pre-germinated pine seedlings and germinating oat and mung bean seeds were flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission. Overall, the seedlings grew and developed well in space. Some oat and mung bean roots, however, grew upward. Lignin content was slightly lower in flight tissues and protein content was higher.

  1. Post-landing processing of the Space Shuttle Columbia after STS-5 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Post-landing processing of the Space Shuttle Columbia after the STS-5 mission at the Dryden Flight Research Facility (DFRF) in southern California. Uncommon rainwater has given a mirror effect to the normally dry lakebed, reflecting the Columbia's image. Trucks and personnel are seen gathering for the post flight analysis of the orbiter's condition.

  2. STS-6 sixth Space Shuttle mission. First flight of the Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A prelaunch summary of the sixth Space Shuttle mission is provided. The Challenger orbiter; launching; uprated engines; lighter weight boosters; lightweight tank; external tank reduction; landing; the tracking and data relay satellite system (TDRSS), TDRS-1 deployment; the inertial upper stage (IUS), the spacewalk;electrophoresis, monodisperse latex reactor, night time/day time optical survey of lightning, and getaway special experiments are described.

  3. On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 esc view --- On the Space Shuttle Endeavour's aft flight deck, astronaut Daniel W. Bursch, mission specialist, is photographed prior to recording still pictures of an Earth observation target of opportunity. A camera lens is temporarily stowed nearby on the aft wall. A crew mate exposed the image with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  4. Growth and development of plants flown on the STS-3 space shuttle mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowles, J. R.; Scheld, H. W.; Peterson, C.; LeMay, R.

    Pre-germinated pine seedlings and germinating oat and mung bean seeds were flown on the STS-3 Space Shuttle mission. Overall, the seedlings grew and developed well in space. Some oat and mung bean roots, however, grew upward. Lignin content was slightly lower in flight tissues and protein content was higher.

  5. The scientific objectives of the ATLAS-1 shuttle mission

    SciTech Connect

    Torr, M.R. )

    1993-03-19

    During the 9-day ATLAS-1 mission (March 24-April 2, 1992), a significant database was acquired on the temperature, pressure, and composition of the atmosphere regions between approximately 15 km and 300 km, together with measurements of the total solar irradiance and the solar spectral irradiance between 1,200 [Angstrom] and 3.2 [mu]m. Six remote sensing atmospheric instruments covered a scope in altitude and species that has not been addressed before from a single mission. The atmospheric composition dataset should serve as an important reference for the determination of future global change in these regions. Both the solar and atmospheric instruments made observations that were coordinated with those made from other spacecraft, such as the UARS, the NOAA, and the ERB satellites. The objective of these correlative measurements was both to complement the measurements made by the other payloads and also to update the calibration of the instruments on the long-duration orbiting vehicles with recent, highly accurate calibrations. Experiments were conducted in space plasma physics. Most important of these was the generation of artificial auroras by firing a beam of energetic electrons into the atmosphere. The induced auroras were observed with a photometric imaging camera. In addition, measurements were made of the precipitation of energetic neutrals from the ring current. ATLAS-1 also carried an UV instrument to gather wide field observations of astronomical sources. A subset of these instruments is planned to fly once a year for the duration of a solar cycle. Both the ATLAS-1 mission and the ongoing series represent an important element of the Mission to Planet Earth and the Global Change Program. The papers in this special issue give a summary of the results obtained in the first 4 months following the mission. 1 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. The OSTA-1 mission - Overview of the goals, mission parameters and instrumentation for the first Shuttle scientific payload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taranik, J. V.

    1982-01-01

    Aspects of the second Space Shuttle flight, which carried the first payload of scientific instruments for remote sensing of the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land areas, are discussed. The development and integration of the payload, the mission simulations and end-to-end testing, the launch, the payload mission operations, the landing, data removal, and payload removal, the scientific results, and some planned experiments using the Shuttle are addressed. Summaries of the experimental results are presented, including those for the imaging radar, infrared radiometer, ocean color experiment, air pollution measurements, feature identification and location experiment, night/day optical lightning survey, and bioengineering test. The availability of data and science reports is also covered.

  7. Fourth Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    On December 6, 1994, the NASA Administrator, Mr. Daniel Goldin, requested that Lt. Gen. Thomas P. Stafford, in his role as the Chairman of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions, lead a team composed of several Task Force members and technical advisors' to Russia with the goal of reviewing preparations and readiness for the upcoming international Space Station Phase 1 missions. In his directions to Gen. Stafford, Mr. Goldin requested that the review team focus its initial efforts on safety of flight issues for the following Phase 1A missions: the Soyuz TM-21 mission which will carry U.S. astronaut Dr. Norman Thagard and cosmonauts Lt. Col. Vladimir Dezhurov and Mr. Gennady Strekalov aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to the Mir Station; the Mir 18 Main Expedition during which Thagard and his fellow cosmonauts, Dezhurov and Strokalov, will spend approximately three months aboard the Mir Station; the STS-71 Space Shuttle mission which will perform the first Shuttle-Mir docking, carry cosmonauts Col. Anatoly SoloViev and Mr. Nikolai Budarin to the Mir Station, and return Thagard, Dezhurov, and Strekalov to Earth.

  8. Neurolab - A Space Shuttle Mission Dedicated to Neuroscience Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Session JA5 includes short reports concerning: (1) NASA/NIH Neurolab Collaborations; (2) Neurolab Mission: An Example of International Cooperation; (3) Neurolab: An Overview of the Planned Scientific Investigations; (4) EDEN: A Payload for NEUROLAB, dedicated to Neuro Vestibular Research; (5) Neurolab Experiments on the Role of Visual Cues in Microgravity Spatial Orientation; and (6) The Role of Space in the Exploration of the Mammalian Vestibular System.

  9. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-45

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center, Marshall Space Flight Center, and Rockwell International-Downey are also included to provide an integrated assessment of each Shuttle mission.

  10. Shuttle PRCS plume contamination analysis for Astro-2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Francis C.; Greene, Cindy

    1993-01-01

    The Astro-2 mission scheduled for Jan. 1995 flight is co-manifested with the Spartan experiment. The Astro instrument array consists of several telescopes operating in the UV spectrum. To obtain the desired 300 observations with the telescope array in a shorter time than the Astro-1 mission, it will be necessary to use the primary reaction control system (PRCS) rather than just the Vernier reaction control system. The high mass flow rate of the PRCS engines cause considerable concern about contamination due to PRCS plume return flux. Performance of these instruments depends heavily on the environment they encounter. The ability of the optical system to detect a remote signal depends not only on the intensity of the incoming signal, but also on the ensuing transmission loss through the optical train of the instrument. Performance of these instruments is thus dependent on the properties of the optical surface and the medium through which it propagates. The on-orbit contamination environment will have a strong influence on the performance of these instruments. The finding of a two-month study of the molecular contamination environment of the Astro-2 instruments due to PRCS thruster plumes during the planned Astro-2 mission are summarized.

  11. STS-57 crewmembers train in JSC's FB Shuttle Mission Simulator (SMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105, Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Nancy J. Sherlock, holding computer diskettes and procedural checklist, discusses equipment operation with Commander Ronald J. Grabe on the middeck of JSC's fixed based (FB) shuttle mission simulator (SMS). Payload Commander (PLC) G. David Low points to a forward locker location as MS3 Peter J.K. Wisoff switches controls on overhead panels MO42F and MO58F, and MS4 Janice E. Voss looks on. The FB-SMS is located in the Mission Simulation and Training Facility Bldg 5.

  12. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour races into space, springing forth from clouds of smoke and steam, on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  13. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  14. Experiment definition and integration study for the accommodation of magnetic spectrometer payload on Spacelab/shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, A.

    1978-01-01

    A super-cooled magnetic spectrometer for a cosmic-ray experiment is considered for application in the high energy astronomical observatory which may be used on a space shuttle spacelab mission. New cryostat parameters are reported which are appropriate to shuttle mission weight and mission duration constraints. Since a super-conducting magnetic spectrometer has a magnetic fringe field, methods for shielding sensitive electronic and mechanical components on nearby experiments are described.

  15. Space Shuttle Discovery leaves the VAB for Launch Pad 39B and mission STS-60

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Leaving the Vehicle Asembly Building for Launch Pad 39A on a crisp, clear winter day, the Space Shuttle Discovery makes the final Earth-bound leg of a journey into space. Once at the pad, two of the payloads for Discovery's upcoming flight, mission STS- 60, will be installed. The Wake Shield Facility-1 and Get Away Special bridge assembly will be joining SPACEHAB-2 in the orbiter's payload bay. Liftoff of the first Space Shuttle flight of 1994 is currently targeted for around Feb. 3.{end}

  16. Study of roles of remote manipulator systems and EVA for shuttle mission support, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Micocci, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    Alternate extravehicular activity (EVA) and remote manipulator system (RMS) configurations were examined for their relative effectiveness in performing an array of representative shuttle and payload support tasks. Initially a comprehensive analysis was performed of payload and shuttle support missions required to be conducted exterior to a pressurized inclosure. A set of task selection criteria was established, and study tasks were identified. The EVA and RMS modes were evaluated according to their applicability for each task and task condition. The results are summarized in tabular form, showing the modes which are chosen as most effective or as feasible for each task/condition. Conclusions concerning the requirements and recommendations for each mode are presented.

  17. On the 90th Birthday of Rem Viktorovich Khokhlov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarov, V. A.

    2016-08-01

    July 15th 2016 marked the 90th birthday of Rem Viktorovich Khokhlov, a prominent Russian physicist, talented organiser of national and world science and higher education, rector of Lomonosov Moscow State University, vice-president of the USSR Academy of Sciences, founder and head of the Department of Wave Processes. He tragically died on 8 August 1977 trying to conquer the highest peak of the Pamir Mountains.

  18. Mission planning for Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) with a real-time interactive planning software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potts, Su K.

    1993-01-01

    The Shuttle Imaging Radar-C (SIR-C) mission will operate from the payload bay of the space shuttle for 8 days, gathering Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data over specific sites on the Earth. The short duration of the mission and the requirement for realtime planning offer challenges in mission planning and in the design of the Planning and Analysis Subsystem (PAS). The PAS generates shuttle ephemerides and mission planning data and provides an interactive real-time tool for quick mission replanning. It offers a multi-user and multiprocessing environment, and it is able to keep multiple versions of the mission timeline data while maintaining data integrity and security. Its flexible design allows one software to provide different menu options based on the user's operational function, and makes it easy to tailor the software for other Earth orbiting missions.

  19. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-41

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1990-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-41. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. Documented here are the debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-41, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  20. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-34

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-34. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-34, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  1. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-36

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1990-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS (Thermal Protection System) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-36. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-36, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  2. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control.

    PubMed

    Patterson, E S; Woods, D D

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  3. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-38

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for the Space Shuttle Mission STS-38. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-38, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program are documented.

  4. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-42

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1992-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS (Thermal Protection System) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle Mission STS-42. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flighr anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions are documented along with photographic analysis of Mission STS-42, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  5. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for shuttle mission STS-35

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, James Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-35. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after the launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, monographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. Documented here are the debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-35, and the overall effect of these conditions on the Space Shuttle Program.

  6. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, R. S.; Spinhirne, J. D.; Manizade, K. F.

    2004-01-01

    Multiangle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring, such as the ability to measure the height of cloud tops through stereoscopic imaging. As technology advances so do the options for developing spacecraft instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with multiangle measurements. One such instrument is the infrared spectral imaging radiometer, which flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle in 1997 and was the first earth- observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height with a precision of +/- 620 m from the multispectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed, and the results are compared with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the shuttle laser altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-37

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-37. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or inflight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-37 are documented, along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  8. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis of shuttle mission STS-48

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-48. Debris inspection of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-48 are documented, along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  9. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-28R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-28R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/Frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-28R is documented along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  10. Shift changes, updates, and the on-call architecture in space shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, E. S.; Woods, D. D.

    2001-01-01

    In domains such as nuclear power, industrial process control, and space shuttle mission control, there is increased interest in reducing personnel during nominal operations. An essential element in maintaining safe operations in high risk environments with this 'on-call' organizational architecture is to understand how to bring called-in practitioners up to speed quickly during escalating situations. Targeted field observations were conducted to investigate what it means to update a supervisory controller on the status of a continuous, anomaly-driven process in a complex, distributed environment. Sixteen shift changes, or handovers, at the NASA Johnson Space Center were observed during the STS-76 Space Shuttle mission. The findings from this observational study highlight the importance of prior knowledge in the updates and demonstrate how missing updates can leave flight controllers vulnerable to being unprepared. Implications for mitigating risk in the transition to 'on-call' architectures are discussed.

  11. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for shuttle mission STS-31R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1990-01-01

    A Debris/Ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-31R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. The debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-31R, is presented along with their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  12. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-33R

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Charles G.; Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.

    1989-01-01

    A debris/ice/Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Shuttle Mission STS-33R. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad are performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the external tank are assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography is analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the debris/ice/TPS conditions and photographic analysis of Mission STS-33R, and their overall effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  13. Mission load dynamic tests of two undensified Space shuttle thermal protection system tiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Gowdey, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Two tests of undensified Space Shuttle thermal protection tiles under combined static and dynamic loads were conducted. The tiles had a density of approximately 144 Kg/cum (LI900 tiles) and were mounted on a strain isolation pad which was 0.41 cm (.160 inch) thick. A combined static and dynamic mission stress histogram representative of the W-3 area of the wing of the orbiter vehicle was applied. The stress histogram was provided by the space shuttle project. Results presented include: tabulation of measured peak and root-mean-square (RMS) accelerations in both compression and tension; peak SIP stress in compression and tension, peak and RMS amplitude response ratios; lateral to vertical response ratios; response time histories; peak stress distributions (histograms), and SIP extension measured both with and without static tension at various mission times.

  14. Precise orbit determination for the shuttle radar topography mission using a new generation of GPS receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, W.; Bar-Sever, Y.; Desai, S.; Duncan, C.; Haines, B.; Kuang, D.; Lough, M.; Reichert, A.; Romans, L.; Srinivasan, J.; Webb, F.; Young, L.; Zumberge, J.

    2000-01-01

    The BlackJack family of GPS receivers has been developed at JPL to satisfy NASA's requirements for high-accuracy, dual-frequency, Y-codeless GPS receivers for NASA's Earth science missions. In this paper we will present the challenges that were overcome to meet this accuracy requirement. We will discuss the various reduced dynamic strategies, Space Shuttle dynamic models, and our tests for accuracy that included a military Y-code dual-frequency receiver (MAGR).

  15. Histomorphometric study of tibia of rats exposed aboard American Spacelab Life Sciences 2 Shuttle Mission.

    PubMed

    Durnova, G; Kaplansky, A; Morey-Holton, E

    1996-09-01

    Tibial bones of rats flown onboard the SLS-2 shuttle mission were studied. Trabecular bone parameters were investigated, including growth plate height, trabecular bone volume, thickness and number, and trabecular separation in the primary and secondary spongiosa. Several histomorphometric changes were noted, allowing researchers to conclude that exposure to microgravity resulted in osteopenia of spongy bone of tibial metaphysis. The roles of bone formation and bone resorption are discussed.

  16. Characterization of material surfaces exposed to atomic oxygen on space shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, A. T.

    1985-01-01

    Material samples prepared for exposure to ambient atomic oxygen encountered during space shuttle flights in low Earth orbit were characterized by the experimental techniques of ELLIPSOMETRY, ESCA, PIXE, and RBS. The first group of samples, which were exposed during the STS-8 mission, exhibited some very interesting results. The second group of samples, which are to be exposed during the upcoming STS-17 mission, have been especially prepared to yield quantitative information on the optical changes, oxygen solution, and surface layer formation on metal films of silver, gold, nickel, chromium, aluminum, platinum, and palladium evaporated onto optically polished silicon wafers.

  17. The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 LAUNCH VIEW --- The Space Shuttle Columbia clears the tower to begin the mission. The liftoff occurred on schedule at 3:18:00 p.m. (EST), February 22, 1996. Visible at left is the White Room on the orbiter access arm through which the flight crew had entered the orbiter. Onboard Columbia for the scheduled two-week mission were astronauts Andrew M. Allen, commander; Scott J. Horowitz, pilot; Franklin R. Chang-Diaz, payload commander; and astronauts Maurizio Cheli, Jeffrey A. Hoffman and Claude Nicollier, along with payload specialist Umberto Guidioni. Cheli and Nicollier represent the European Space Agency (ESA), while Guidioni represents the Italian Space Agency (ASI).

  18. Organ radiation doses and lifetime risk of excess cancer for several space shuttle missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwell, W.; Hardy, A. C.; Peterson, L. E.

    Previously, we presented a methodology for extrapolating a crewmember's skin dose obtained from thermoluminescent dosimetry to organ doses by use of computerized anatomical male and female models. The organs considered are those identified in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) Report 98. Using this technique, we have analyzed those Shuttle missions where crew doses >=5 mGy were observed. Radiation absorbed doses are directly proportional to spacecraft shielding and attitude, orbital altitude, inclination, and mission duration. For 28.5 degree inclination missions, the dominant source of exposure is due to penetrating protons from the South Atlantic Anomaly. Results of Shuttle missions 41-C, 51-D, 51-J, STS-33, STS-31, STS-57, and STS-61 are presented and discussed in detail. Projected lifetime incidence risks of radiation-induced cancer for these missions that were based on NCRP Report 98 may not overestimate risks based on recent findings in cancer incidence studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

  19. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Flight STS-46: Atlantis' Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh; Amsbury, David; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steve; Shriver, Loren J.; Allen, Andrew M.; Hoffman, Jeffrey A.; Chang-Diaz, Franklin R.; Nicollier, Claude

    1993-01-01

    The photographic and videographic documentation of the Earth during STS-46 mission has enhanced the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project (SSEOP) database. Increasing numbers of scientists are using this database; many are downloading the imagery from our electronic database for specific scientific analyses. We believe the scientific returns of the Earth Observations photography from this mission will add to the global change databases and will contribute to the better understanding of our home planet. The use of manned space flights in understanding the global process first hand is a vital component in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth. The following are discussed along with photographs from the mission: landforms and geologic observation; environmental observations; meteorological/atmospheric observation; and oceanographic observations.

  20. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Flight System Design and Operations Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Yuhsyen; Shaffer, Scott J.; Jordan, Rolando L.

    2000-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), with emphasis on flight system implementation and mission operations from systems engineering perspective. Successfully flown in February, 2000, the SRTM's primary payload consists of several subsystems to form the first spaceborne dual-frequency (C-band and X-band) fixed baseline interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) system, with the mission objective to acquire data sets over 80% of Earth's landmass for height reconstruction. The paper provides system architecture, unique design features, engineering budgets, design verification, in-flight checkout and data acquisition of the SRTM payload, in particular for the C-band system. Mission operation and post-mission data processing activities are also presented. The complexity of the SRTM as a system, the ambitious mission objective, the demanding requirements and the high interdependency between multi-disciplined subsystems posed many challenges. The engineering experience and the insight thus gained have important implications for future spaceborne interferometric SAR mission design and implementation.

  1. Reflight of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory: Quick Turnaround of a Space Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simms, Yvonne

    1998-01-01

    Due to the short flight of Space Shuttle Columbia, STS-83, in April 1997, NASA chose to refly the same crew, shuttle, and payload on STS-94 in July 1997. This was the first reflight of an entire mission complement. The reflight of the First Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1) on STS-94 required an innovative approach to Space Shuttle payload ground processing. Ground processing time for the Spacelab Module, which served as the laboratory for MSL-1 experiments, was reduced by seventy-five percent. The Spacelab Module is a pressurized facility with avionics and thermal cooling and heating accommodations. Boeing-Huntsville, formerly McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, has been the Spacelab Integration Contractor since 1977. The first Spacelab Module flight was in 1983. An experienced team determined what was required to refurbish the Spacelab Module for reflight. Team members had diverse knowledge, skills, and background. An engineering assessment of subsystems, including mechanical, electrical power distribution, command and data management, and environmental control and life support, was performed. Recommendations for resolution of STS-83 Spacelab in-flight anomalies were provided. Inspections and tests that must be done on critical Spacelab components were identified. This assessment contributed to the successful reflight of MSL-1, the fifteenth Spacelab Module mission.

  2. Study of a High-Energy Upper Stage for Future Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, Gordon A.; Matuszak, Leo W.; Stephenson, David D.

    2003-01-01

    Space Shuttle Orbiters are likely to remain in service to 2020 or beyond for servicing the International Space Station and for launching very high value spacecraft. There is a need for a new STS-deployable upper stage that can boost certain Orbiter payloads to higher energy orbits, up to and including Earth-escape trajectories. The inventory of solid rocket motor Inertial Upper Stages has been depleted, and it is unlikely that a LOX/LH2-fueled upper stage can fly on Shuttle due to safety concerns. This paper summarizes the results of a study that investigated a low cost, low risk approach to quickly developing a new large upper stage optimized to fly on the existing Shuttle fleet. Two design reference missions (DRMs) were specified: the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and the Space Interferometry Mission (SIM). Two categories of upper stage propellants were examined in detail: a storable liquid propellant and a storable gel propellant. Stage subsystems 'other than propulsion were based largely on heritage hardware to minimize cost, risk and development schedule span. The paper presents the ground rules and guidelines for conducting the study, the preliminary conceptual designs margins, assessments of technology readiness/risk, potential synergy with other programs, and preliminary estimates of development and production costs and schedule spans. Although the Orbiter Columbia was baselined for the study, discussion is provided to show how the results apply to the remaining STS Orbiter fleet.

  3. Flight data results of estimate fusion for spacecraft rendezvous navigation from shuttle mission STS-69

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, J. Russell; Bishop, Robert H.

    1996-01-01

    A recently developed rendezvous navigation fusion filter that optimally exploits existing distributed filters for rendezvous and GPS navigation to achieve the relative and inertial state accuracies of both in a global solution is utilized here to process actual flight data. Space Shuttle Mission STS-69 was the first mission to date which gathered data from both the rendezvous and Global Positioning System filters allowing, for the first time, a test of the fusion algorithm with real flight data. Furthermore, a precise best estimate of trajectory is available for portions of STS-69, making possible a check on the performance of the fusion filter. In order to successfully carry out this experiment with flight data, two extensions to the existing scheme were necessary: a fusion edit test based on differences between the filter state vectors, and an underweighting scheme to accommodate the suboptimal perfect target assumption made by the Shuttle rendezvous filter. With these innovations, the flight data was successfully fused from playbacks of downlinked and/or recorded measurement data through ground analysis versions of the Shuttle rendezvous filter and a GPS filter developed for another experiment. The fusion results agree with the best estimate of trajectory at approximately the levels of uncertainty expected from the fusion filter's covariance matrix.

  4. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-56

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Rivera, Jorge E.; Speece, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    The Debris Team developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Photo/Video Analysis, reports from JSC, MSFC, and Rockwell International--Downey are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  5. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-109

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  6. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-108

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  7. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-110

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  8. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  9. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Integrated Photographic Analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-104

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliu, Armando

    2005-01-01

    The Debris Team has developed and implemented measures to control damage from debris in the Shuttle operational environment and to make the control measures a part of routine launch flows. These measures include engineering surveillance during vehicle processing and closeout operations, facility and flight hardware inspections before and after launch, and photographic analysis of mission events. Photographic analyses of mission imagery from launch, on-orbit, and landing provide significant data in verifying proper operation of systems and evaluating anomalies. In addition to the Kennedy Space Center Photo/Video Analysis, reports from Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are also included in this document to provide an integrated assessment of the mission.

  10. Challenges of assuring crew safety in space shuttle missions with international cargoes.

    PubMed

    Vongsouthy, C; Stenger-Nguyen, P A; Nguyen, H V; Nguyen, P H; Huang, M C; Alexander, R G

    2004-02-01

    The top priority in America's manned space flight program is the assurance of crew and vehicle safety. This priority gained greater focus during and after the Space Shuttle return-to-flight mission (STS-26). One of the interesting challenges has been to assure crew safety and adequate protection of the Space Shuttle, as a national resource, from increasingly diverse cargoes and operations. The control of hazards associated with the deployment of complex payloads and cargoes has involved many international participants. These challenges are examined in some detail along with examples of how crew safety has evolved in the manned space program and how the international partners have addressed various scenarios involving control and mitigation of potential hazards to crew and vehicle safety.

  11. Shuttle STS-2 mission communication systems RF coverage and performance predictions. Volume 1: Ascent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. A.; Gibson, J. S.; Kroll, Q. D.; Loh, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    The RF communications capabilities and nominally expected performance for the ascent phase of the second orbital flight of the shuttle are provided. Predicted performance is given mainly in the form of plots of signal strength versus elapsed mission time for the STDN (downlink) and shuttle orbiter (uplink) receivers for the S-band PM and FM, and UHF systems. Performance of the NAV and landing RF systems is treated for RTLS abort, since in this case the spacecraft will loop around and return to the launch site. NAV and landing RF systems include TACAN, MSBLS, and C-band altimeter. Signal strength plots were produced by a computer program which combines the spacecraft trajectory, antenna patterns, transmit and receive performance characteristics, and system mathematical models. When available, measured spacecraft parameters were used in the predictions; otherwise, specified values were used. Specified ground station parameter values were also used. Thresholds and other criteria on the graphs are explained.

  12. Concepts for application of 500- to 2500-We Brayton power systems for shuttle-launched missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, H. B.; Bloomfield, H. S.

    1972-01-01

    A mini-Brayton power system in the power range of 500 to 2500 We utilizing the multihundred Watt isotope heat source was studied for use in shuttle-launched experiments. The system consists of a single closed gas loop containing a single-shaft, gas cooled, compressor-alternator turbine assembly; a heat source heat exchanger assembly; a startup battery package; an electrical control module; a recuperator; a gas radiator; and a multifoil superinsulation system. The basic configuration and major nuclear payloads for shuttle integration are discussed. It is concluded that mini-Brayton systems have low isotope inventories and high electrical output per thermal input, and have the capability of flying all earth orbital and interplanetary missions with little degradation in performance.

  13. Study of an astronomical extreme ultraviolet rocket spectrometer for use on shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowyer, C. S.

    1977-01-01

    The adaptation of an extreme ultraviolet astronomy rocket payload for flight on the shuttle was studied. A sample payload for determining integration and flight procedures for experiments which may typically be flown on shuttle missions was provided. The electrical, mechanical, thermal, and operational interface requirements between the payload and the orbiter were examined. Of particular concern was establishing a baseline payload accommodation which utilizes proven common hardware for electrical, data, command, and possibly real time monitoring functions. The instrument integration and checkout procedures necessary to assure satisfactory in-orbit instrument performance were defined and those procedures which can be implemented in such a way as to minimize their impact on orbiter integration schedules were identified.

  14. General purpose simulation system of the data management system for Space Shuttle mission 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bengtson, N. M.; Mellichamp, J. M.; Smith, O. C.

    1976-01-01

    A simulation program for the flow of data through the Data Management System of Spacelab and Space Shuttle was presented. The science, engineering, command and guidance, navigation and control data were included. The programming language used was General Purpose Simulation System V (OS). The science and engineering data flow was modeled from its origin at the experiments and subsystems to transmission from Space Shuttle. Command data flow was modeled from the point of reception onboard and from the CDMS Control Panel to the experiments and subsystems. The GN&C data flow model handled data between the General Purpose Computer and the experiments and subsystems. Mission 18 was the particular flight chosen for simulation. The general structure of the program is presented, followed by a user's manual. Input data required to make runs are discussed followed by identification of the output statistics. The appendices contain a detailed model configuration, program listing and results.

  15. Mission Control Center (MCC) System Specification for the Shuttle Orbital Flight Test (OFT) Timeframe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    System specifications to be used by the mission control center (MCC) for the shuttle orbital flight test (OFT) time frame were described. The three support systems discussed are the communication interface system (CIS), the data computation complex (DCC), and the display and control system (DCS), all of which may interfere with, and share processing facilities with other applications processing supporting current MCC programs. The MCC shall provide centralized control of the space shuttle OFT from launch through orbital flight, entry, and landing until the Orbiter comes to a stop on the runway. This control shall include the functions of vehicle management in the area of hardware configuration (verification), flight planning, communication and instrumentation configuration management, trajectory, software and consumables, payloads management, flight safety, and verification of test conditions/environment.

  16. Radiometric responsivity determination for Feature Identification and Location Experiment (FILE) flown on space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, R. G.; Davis, R. E.; Wright, R. E., Jr.; Sivertson, W. E., Jr.; Bullock, G. F.

    1986-01-01

    A procedure was developed to obtain the radiometric (radiance) responsivity of the Feature Identification and Local Experiment (FILE) instrument in preparation for its flight on Space Shuttle Mission 41-G (November 1984). This instrument was designed to obtain Earth feature radiance data in spectral bands centered at 0.65 and 0.85 microns, along with corroborative color and color-infrared photographs, and to collect data to evaluate a technique for in-orbit autonomous classification of the Earth's primary features. The calibration process incorporated both solar radiance measurements and radiative transfer model predictions in estimating expected radiance inputs to the FILE on the Shuttle. The measured data are compared with the model predictions, and the differences observed are discussed. Application of the calibration procedure to the FILE over an 18-month period indicated a constant responsivity characteristic. This report documents the calibration procedure and the associated radiometric measurements and predictions that were part of the instrument preparation for flight.

  17. Mission Operations Directorate - Success Legacy of the Space Shuttle Program (Overview of the Evolution and Success Stories from MOD During the Space Shuttle program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azbell, Jim A.

    2011-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Program, as well as NASA's other human space flight programs, the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at the Johnson Space Center has become the world leader in human spaceflight operations. From the earliest programs - Mercury, Gemini, Apollo - through Skylab, Shuttle, ISS, and our Exploration initiatives, MOD and its predecessors have pioneered ops concepts and emphasized a history of mission leadership which has added value, maximized mission success, and built on continual improvement of the capabilities to become more efficient and effective. This paper provides specific examples that illustrate how MOD's focus on building and contributing value with diverse teams has been key to their successes both with the US space industry and the broader international community. This paper will discuss specific examples for the Plan, Train, Fly, and Facilities aspects within MOD. This paper also provides a discussion of the joint civil servant/contractor environment and the relative badge-less society within MOD. Several Shuttle mission related examples have also been included that encompass all of the aforementioned MOD elements and attributes, and are used to show significant MOD successes within the Shuttle Program. These examples include the STS-49 Intelsat recovery and repair, the (post-Columbia accident) TPS inspection process and the associated R-Bar Pitch Maneuver for ISS missions, and the STS-400 rescue mission preparation efforts for the Hubble Space Telescope repair mission. Since their beginning, MOD has consistently demonstrated their ability to evolve and respond to an ever changing environment, effectively prepare for the expected and successfully respond to the unexpected, and develop leaders, expertise, and a culture that has led to mission and Program success.

  18. Radiation dosimetry measurements during U.S. Space Shuttle missions with the RME-III.

    PubMed

    Golightly, M J; Hardy, K; Quam, W

    1994-01-01

    Time-resolved radiation dosimetry measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the U.S. Air Force Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable battery-powered four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. Half of the missions had orbital inclinations of 28.5 degrees with the remainder at inclinations of 57 degrees or greater; altitudes ranged from 300 to 600 km. The determined dose equivalent rates ranged from 70 to 5300 microSv/day. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicles. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Isocontours of fluence, dose and dose equivalent rate have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and GCR dose for the STS-28 mission was significantly lower than the measured values.

  19. Far-ultraviolet astronomy on the astro-1 space shuttle mission.

    PubMed

    Davidsen, A F

    1993-01-15

    The Astro-1 mission obtained observations related to a wide variety of current problems in astronomy during a 9-day flight of the space shuttle Columbia. Early results from one of the instruments, the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, are reviewed here. Among these are new insights concerning the origin of the ultraviolet light from the old stellar population in elliptical galaxies, new evidence for a hot, gaseous corona surrounding the Milky Way, improved views of the physical conditions in active galactic nuclei, and a measurement of the ionization state of the local interstellar medium.

  20. Debris/Ice/TPS Assessment and Photographic Analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, J. Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris, ice, Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis for Space Shuttle Mission STS-40 was conducted. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice and frost conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle, followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice and debris sources and to evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies.

  1. Far-ultraviolet astronomy on the Astro-1 space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, Arthur F.

    1993-01-01

    The Astro-1 mission obtained observations related to a wide variety of current problems in astronomy during a 9-day flight of the space shuttle Columbia. Early results from one of the instruments, the Hopkins Ultraviolet Telescope, are reviewed here. Among these are new insights concerning the origin of the ultraviolet light from the old stellar population in elliptical galaxies, new evidence for a hot, gaseous corona surrounding the Milky Way, improved views of the physical conditions in active galactic nuclei, and a measurement of the ionization state of the local interstellar medium.

  2. A real-time navigation monitoring expert system for the Space Shuttle Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Lui; Fletcher, Malise

    1993-01-01

    The ONAV (Onboard Navigation) Expert System has been developed as a real time console assistant for use by ONAV flight controllers in the Mission Control Center at the Johnson Space Center. This expert knowledge based system is used to monitor the Space Shuttle onboard navigation system, detect faults, and advise flight operations personnel. This application is the first knowledge-based system to use both telemetry and trajectory data from the Mission Operations Computer (MOC). To arrive at this stage, from a prototype to real world application, the ONAV project has had to deal with not only AI issues but operating environment issues. The AI issues included the maturity of AI languages and the debugging tools, verification, and availability, stability and size of the expert pool. The environmental issues included real time data acquisition, hardware suitability, and how to achieve acceptance by users and management.

  3. ASSESS program: Shuttle Spacelab simulation using a Lear jet aircraft (mission no. 2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Mason, R. H.; Pappas, C. C.

    1974-01-01

    The second shuttle Spacelab simulation mission of the ASSESS program was conducted at Ames Research Center by the Airborne Science Office (ASO) using a Lear jet aircraft based at a site remote from normal flight operations. Two experimenters and the copilot were confined to quarters on the site during the mission, departing only to do in-flight research in infrared astronomy. A total of seven flights were made in a period of 4 days. Results show that experimenters with relatively little flight experience can plan and carry out a successful research effort under isolated and physically rigorous conditions, much as would more experienced scientists. Perhaps the margin of success is not as great, but the primary goal of sustained acquisition of significant data over a 5-day period can be achieved.

  4. Mission analysis for earth atmospheric measurements using solar occultation experiments on Shuttle Spacelabs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, E. F.; Lawrence, G. F.; Lamkin, S. L.

    1979-01-01

    The maximum geographical coverage of solar occultation experiments for various Shuttle-Spacelab mission concepts is defined and an analysis that includes trade-offs between parameters such as launch time, season, orbital inclination and altitude is presented as well as the mission design data for the Spacelab-3 flight. The effects of orbital ranges from 220 to 600 km on geographical coverage are examined with inclinations up to 97 deg for sun-synchronous orbit. Results show that the widest band of latitude coverage in the tropics and the temperate zones can be achieved with a mid-inclined (i.e., 57 deg) orbit and a mid-morning or late-night launch time.

  5. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matney, M. L.; Limero, T. F.; James, J. T.

    1994-01-01

    Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight.

  6. Pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses of biological particulates collected during recent space shuttle missions.

    PubMed

    Matney, M L; Limero, T F; James, J T

    1994-09-15

    Biological particulates collected on air filters during shuttle missions (STS-40 and STS-42) were identified using pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). A method was developed for identifying the atmospheric particles and their sources through the analysis of standard materials and the selection of "marker" compounds specific to the particle type. Pyrolysis spectra of biological standards were compared with those of airborne particles collected during two space shuttle missions; marker compounds present in the shuttle particle spectra were matched with those of the standards to identify the source of particles. Particles of 0,5--1-mm diameter and weighing as little as 40 micrograms could be identified using this technique. The Py-GC/MS method identified rat food and soilless plant-growth media as two sources of particles collected from the shuttle atmosphere during flight.

  7. Combined Infrared Stereo and Laser Ranging Cloud Measurements from Shuttle Mission STS-85

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Redgie S.; Spinhirne, James D.; OCStarr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Multi-angle remote sensing provides a wealth of information for earth and climate monitoring. And, as technology advances so do the options for developing instrumentation versatile enough to meet the demands associated with these types of measurements. In the current work, the multiangle measurement capability of the Infrared Spectral Imaging Radiometer is demonstrated. This instrument flew as part of mission STS-85 of the space shuttle Columbia in 1997 and was the first earth-observing radiometer to incorporate an uncooled microbolometer array detector as its image sensor. Specifically, a method for computing cloud-top height from the multi-spectral stereo measurements acquired during this flight has been developed and the results demonstrate that a vertical precision of 10.6 km was achieved. Further, the accuracy of these measurements is confirmed by comparison with coincident direct laser ranging measurements from the Shuttle Laser Altimeter. Mission STS-85 was the first space flight to combine laser ranging and thermal IR camera systems for cloud remote sensing.

  8. Third Report of the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In May 1994, the Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions was established by the NASA Advisory Council. Its purpose is to review Phase 1 (Shuttle-Mir) planning, training, operations, rendezvous and docking, and management and to provide interim reports containing specific recommendations to the Advisory Council. Phase 1 represents the building block to create the experience and technical expertise for an International Space Station. The Phase 1 program brings together the United States and Russia in a major cooperative and contractual program that takes advantage of both countries' capabilities. The content of the Phase 1 program consists of the following elements as defined by the Phase 1 Program Management Plan, dated October 6, 1994: Shuttle-Mir rendezvous and docking missions; astronaut long duration presence on Mir Requirements for Mir support of Phase 1 when astronauts are not on board; outfitting Spektr and Priroda modules with NASA science, research, and risk mitigation equipment Related ground support requirements of NASA and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) to support Phase 1 Integrated NASA and RSA launch schedules and manifests The first meeting of the Task Force was held at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) on May 24 and 25, 1994 with a preliminary report submitted to the NASA Advisory Council on June 6, 1994. The second meeting of the Task Force was held at JSC on July 12 and 13, 1994 and a detailed report containing a series of specific recommendations was submitted on July 29, 1994. This report reflects the results of the third Task Force meeting which was held at JSC on 11 and 12 October, 1994. The briefings presented at that meeting reviewed NASA's response to the Task Force recommendations made to date and provided background data and current status on several critical areas which the Task Force had not addressed in its previous reports.

  9. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. As the space shuttle program ends in 2011, a review of how training for STS-1 was conducted compared to STS-134 will show multiple changes in training of shuttle flight controller over a thirty year period. This paper will additionally give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams have been trained certified over the life span of the space shuttle. The training methods for developing flight controllers have evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  10. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.; Bertels, Christie

    2010-01-01

    This paper will summarize the thirty-year history of Space Shuttle operations from the perspective of training in NASA Johnson Space Center's Mission Control Center. It will focus on training and development of flight controllers and instructors, and how training practices have evolved over the years as flight experience was gained, new technologies developed, and programmatic needs changed. Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The audience will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, we will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors.

  11. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The space shuttle flight system and mission profile are briefly described. Emphasis is placed on the economic and social benefits of the space transportation system. The space shuttle vehicle is described in detail.

  12. The Right Stuff: A Look Back at Three Decades of Flight Controller Training for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittemore, Gary D.

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex, therefore the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, in Houston, Texas manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. This paper will give an overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified. The training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years, while the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. These changes have been driven by many factors including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers will share their experiences in training and operating the Space Shuttle throughout the Program s history. A primary method used for training Space Shuttle flight control teams is by running mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly "train like you fly." The reader will learn what it is like to perform a simulation as a shuttle flight controller. Finally, the paper will reflect on the lessons learned in training for the shuttle program, and how those could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors. These endeavors could range from going to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle and inspire the next generation of space explorers.

  13. The Final Count Down: A Review of Three Decades of Flight Controller Training Methods for Space Shuttle Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dittermore, Gary; Bertels, Christie

    2011-01-01

    Operations of human spaceflight systems is extremely complex; therefore, the training and certification of operations personnel is a critical piece of ensuring mission success. Mission Control Center (MCC-H), at the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas, manages mission operations for the Space Shuttle Program, including the training and certification of the astronauts and flight control teams. An overview of a flight control team s makeup and responsibilities during a flight, and details on how those teams are trained and certified, reveals that while the training methodology for developing flight controllers has evolved significantly over the last thirty years the core goals and competencies have remained the same. In addition, the facilities and tools used in the control center have evolved. Changes in methodology and tools have been driven by many factors, including lessons learned, technology, shuttle accidents, shifts in risk posture, and generational differences. Flight controllers share their experiences in training and operating the space shuttle. The primary training method throughout the program has been mission simulations of the orbit, ascent, and entry phases, to truly train like you fly. A review of lessons learned from flight controller training suggests how they could be applied to future human spaceflight endeavors, including missions to the moon or to Mars. The lessons learned from operating the space shuttle for over thirty years will help the space industry build the next human transport space vehicle.

  14. A systems-level performance history of get away specials after 25 space shuttle missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ridenoure, Rex W.

    1987-01-01

    Summarized are the results of a thorough performance study of Get Away Special (GAS) payloads conducted in 1986. During the study, a complete list of standard and non-standard GAS payloads vs. Shuttle mission was constructed, including specific titles for the experiments in each canister. A broad data base for each canister and each experiment was then compiled. Performance results were then obtained for all but a few experiments. The canisters and experiments were subsequently categorized according to the degree of experiment success. For those experiments experiencing failures or anomalies, several correlations and generalizations were extracted from individual subsystem performance data. Recommendations are made which may enhance the success and performance of future GAS payloads.

  15. Research study on neutral thermodynamic atmospheric model. [for space shuttle mission and abort trajectory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargraves, W. R.; Delulio, E. B.; Justus, C. G.

    1977-01-01

    The Global Reference Atmospheric Model is used along with the revised perturbation statistics to evaluate and computer graph various atmospheric statistics along a space shuttle reference mission and abort trajectory. The trajectory plots are height vs. ground range, with height from ground level to 155 km and ground range along the reentry trajectory. Cross sectional plots, height vs. latitude or longitude, are also generated for 80 deg longitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and latitude from -90 deg to +90 deg, and for 45 deg latitude, with heights from 30 km to 90 km and longitudes from 180 deg E to 180 deg W. The variables plotted are monthly average pressure, density, temperature, wind components, and wind speed and standard deviations and 99th inter-percentile range for each of these variables.

  16. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle Mission STS-64 on 9 August 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, J. Bradley; Bowen, Barry C.; Rivera, Jorge E.; Speece, Robert F.; Katnik, Gregory N.

    1994-01-01

    A debris/ice/thermal protection system assessment and integrated photographic analysis was conducted for Shuttle mission STS-64. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Icing conditions on the External Tank were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography of the launch was analyzed to identify ice/debris sources and evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies. This report documents the ice/debris/thermal protection system conditions and integrated photographic analysis of Shuttle mission STS-64, and the resulting effect on the Space Shuttle Program.

  17. Combustion Module-2 Achieved Scientific Success on Shuttle Mission STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.

    2004-01-01

    The familiar teardrop shape of a candle is caused by hot, spent air rising and cool fresh air flowing behind it. This type of airflow obscures many of the fundamental processes of combustion and is an impediment to our understanding and modeling of key combustion controls used for manufacturing, transportation, fire safety, and pollution. Conducting experiments in the microgravity environment onboard the space shuttles eliminates these impediments. NASA Glenn Research Center's Combustion Module-2 (CM-2) and its three experiments successfully flew on STS-107/Columbia in the SPACEHAB module and provided the answers for many research questions. However, this research also opened up new questions. The CM-2 facility was the largest and most complex pressurized system ever flown by NASA and was a precursor to the Glenn Fluids and Combustion Facility planned to fly on the International Space Station. CM-2 operated three combustion experiments: Laminar Soot Processes (LSP), Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-Number (SOFBALL), and Water Mist Fire Suppression Experiment (Mist). Although Columbia's mission ended in tragedy with the loss of her crew and much data, most of the CM-2 results were sent to the ground team during the mission.

  18. Fifth Report of the NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The NASA Advisory Council Task Force on the Shuttle-Mir rendezvous and docking missions examine a number of specific issues related to the Shuttle-Mir program. Three teams composed of Task Force members and technical advisors were formed to address the follow issues: preliminary results from STS-71 and the status of preparations for STS-74; NASA's presence in Russia; and NASA's automated data processing and telecommunications (ADP/T) infrastructure in Russia. The three review team reports have been included in the fifth report of the Task Force.

  19. Catalog of Space Shuttle Earth Observations Hand-Held Photography: Space Transportation System (STS) 41-6 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, Barbara S.; Palmer, Wesley F.

    1985-01-01

    This document catalogs Space Shuttle hand-held Earth observations photography which was collected on the Space Transportation System (STS) 41-G mission of October 1984. The catalog includes the following data for each of 2480 frames: geographical name, feature description, latitude and longitude, percentage of cloud cover, look direction and tilt, lens focal length, exposure evaluation, stereopairs, and orbit number. The catalog is a product of the Space Shuttle Earth Observations Project, Solar System Exploration Division, Space and Life Sciences Directorate, of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

  20. Effective dose equivalent on the ninth Shuttle--Mir mission (STS-91)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yasuda, H.; Badhwar, G. D.; Komiyama, T.; Fujitaka, K.

    2000-01-01

    Organ and tissue doses and effective dose equivalent were measured using a life-size human phantom on the ninth Shuttle-Mir Mission (STS-91, June 1998), a 9.8-day spaceflight at low-Earth orbit (about 400 km in altitude and 51.65 degrees in inclination). The doses were measured at 59 positions using a combination of thermoluminescent dosimeters of Mg(2)SiO(4):Tb (TDMS) and plastic nuclear track detectors (PNTD). In correcting the change in efficiency of the TDMS, it was assumed that reduction of efficiency is attributed predominantly to HZE particles with energy greater than 100 MeV nucleon(-1). A conservative calibration curve was chosen for determining LET from the PNTD track-formation sensitivities. The organ and tissue absorbed doses during the mission ranged from 1.7 to 2.7 mGy and varied by a factor of 1.6. The dose equivalent ranged from 3.4 to 5.2 mSv and varied by a factor of 1.5 on the basis of the dependence of Q on LET in the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP. The effective quality factor (Q(e)) varied from 1.7 to 2.4. The dose equivalents for several radiation-sensitive organs, such as the stomach, lung, gonad and breast, were not significantly different from the skin dose equivalent (H(skin)). The effective dose equivalent was evaluated as 4.1 mSv, which was about 90% of the H(skin).

  1. Forced Flow Flame Spreading Test: Preliminary Findings From the USMP-3 Shuttle Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R.; Greenberg, Paul S.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Tien, James S.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Shih, Hsin-Yi

    1998-01-01

    The Forced Flow Flame spreading Test (FFFT) is a study of flame spreading over solid fuels in very low-speed air flows. The FFFT experiment is part of research entitled Solid Inflammability Boundary at Low Speeds, (SIBAL) intended for operations on the Space Station. In the FFFT experiment, a series of 15 experiments conducted aboard the space shuttle during the United States Microgravity Payload (USMP-3) mission provided information about the structure and spreading characteristics of flames in low-speed, concurrent flows. The test samples included flat sheets of cellulose and cast cylinders of cellulose, burned in air at velocities of approximately 1 to 8 cm/sec. The test results have been successfully compared to theoretical predictions of the SIBAL program, a fundamentally based numerical simulation of concurrent flow flame spread. Additionally, some guidance for the design characteristics of the SIBAL flight experiment have been obtained including some verification of the theoretical predictions of flame size versus the required size of the SIBAL flow duct, and the effect of the presence of thermocouples in the vicinity of near-limit flames in microgravity.

  2. A Preliminary Data Model for Orbital Flight Dynamics in Shuttle Mission Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, John; Shalin, Valerie L.

    2000-01-01

    The Orbital Flight Dynamics group in Shuttle Mission Control is investigating new user interfaces in a project called RIOTS [RIOTS 2000]. Traditionally, the individual functions of hardware and software guide the design of displays, which results in an aggregated, if not integrated interface. The human work system has then been designed and trained to navigate, operate and integrate the processors and displays. The aim of RIOTS is to reduce the cognitive demands of the flight controllers by redesigning the user interface to support the work of the flight controller. This document supports the RIOTS project by defining a preliminary data model for Orbital Flight Dynamics. Section 2 defines an information-centric perspective. An information-centric approach aims to reduce the cognitive workload of the flight controllers by reducing the need for manual integration of information across processors and displays. Section 3 describes the Orbital Flight Dynamics domain. Section 4 defines the preliminary data model for Orbital Flight Dynamics. Section 5 examines the implications of mapping the data model to Orbital Flight Dynamics current information systems. Two recurring patterns are identified in the Orbital Flight Dynamics work the iteration/rework cycle and the decision-making/information integration/mirroring role relationship. Section 6 identifies new requirements on Orbital Flight Dynamics work and makes recommendations based on changing the information environment, changing the implementation of the data model, and changing the two recurring patterns.

  3. Modeling small watersheds in Brazilian Amazonia with shuttle radar topographic mission-90 m data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeriano, Márcio M.; Kuplich, Tatiana M.; Storino, Moisés; Amaral, Benedito D.; Mendes, Jaime N.; Lima, Dayson J.

    2006-10-01

    This work presents a methodology for the refinement of shuttle radar topographic mission (SRTM-90 m) data available for South America to enable detailed watershed studies in Amazonia. The original data were pre-processed to properly map detailed low-order drainage features and allowed digital estimates of morphometric variables. Spatial-resolution refinement (3″ to 1″, or ˜90 to ˜30 m) through data kriging was found to be an interesting solution to construct digital elevation models (DEMs) with more adequate presentation of landforms than the original data. The refinement of spatial resolution by kriging interpolation overcame the main constraints for drainage modeling with original SRTM-90 m, such as spatial randomness, artifacts and unrealistic presentation due to pixel size. Kriging with a Gaussian semivariogram model caused a smoothing of the resulting DEM, but the main features for drainage modeling were preserved. Canopy effects on the modeled surface represented the main remaining limitation for terrain analysis after pre-processing. Data regarding a small watershed in Amazonas (˜38 km 2), Brazil, were evaluated through visualization techniques, morphometric analyses and plot diagrams of the results. The data showed limitations for use in the original form, but could be applied for watershed modeling at relatively detailed scales after the described pre-processing.

  4. Shuttle Imaging Radar-C mission operations - Technology test bed for Earth Observing System synthetic aperture radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, J. P.; Collins, C. E.

    1992-01-01

    The mission operations for the Space Radar Lab (SRL), particularly in the areas of real-time replanning and science activity coordination, are presented. The two main components of SRL are the Shuttle Imaging Radar-C and the X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar. The Earth Observing System SAR will be a multispectral, multipolarization radar satellite that will provide information over an entire decade, permitting scientists to monitor large-scale changes in the earth's environment over a long period of time.

  5. Multi-Tasking: First Shuttle Mission Since Columbia Combines Test Flight, Catch-Up ISS Supply and Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morring, Frank, Jr.

    2005-01-01

    NASA's space shuttle fleet is nearing its return to flight with a complex mission on board Discovery that will combine tests of new hardware and procedures adopted in the wake of Columbia's loss with urgent repairs and resupply for the International Space Station. A seven-member astronaut crew has trained throughout most of the two-year hiatus in shuttle operations for the 13-day mission, shooting for a three-week launch window that opens May 15. The window, and much else about the STS-114 mission, is constrained by NASA's need to ensure it has fixed the ascent/debris problem that doomed Columbia and its crew as they attempted to reenter the atmosphere on Feb. 1, 2003. The window was selected so Discovery's ascent can be photographed in daylight with 107 different ground- and aircraft-based cameras to monitor the redesigned external tank for debris shedding. Fixed cameras and the shuttle crew will also photograph the tank in space after it has been jettisoned.

  6. Life sciences payloads analyses and technical program planning studies. [project planning of space missions of space shuttles in aerospace medicine and space biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Contractural requirements, project planning, equipment specifications, and technical data for space shuttle biological experiment payloads are presented. Topics discussed are: (1) urine collection and processing on the space shuttle, (2) space processing of biochemical and biomedical materials, (3) mission simulations, and (4) biomedical equipment.

  7. The Shuttle Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An overview of the Space Shuttle Program is presented. The missions of the space shuttle orbiters, the boosters and main engine, and experimental equipment are described. Crew and passenger accommodations are discussed as well as the shuttle management teams.

  8. Observations of Nocturnal Thunderstorms and Lighting Displays as Seen During Recent Space Shuttle Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Otha H., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    During the recent space shuttle flights the Mesoscale Lightning Experiment, an observational program to observe thunderstorms and lightning from space, was conducted. The low light level TV cameras located in the payload bay of the space shuttle were commanded from the ground and used to collect video images. Presented in this paper are some of the images and supporting information.

  9. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and integrated photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-62

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Bowen, Barry C.; Davis, J. Bradley; Speece, Robert F.; Rivera, Jorge E.

    1994-01-01

    A pre-launch debris inspection of the pad and Shuttle vehicle was conducted on 2 March 1994. The detailed walkdown of Launch Pad 39B and MLP-1 also included the primary flight elements OV-102 Columbia (16th flight), ET-62 (LWT 55), and BI-064 SRB's. There were no significant facility or vehicle anomalies. After the launch on March 4th, a debris inspection of Pad 39B was performed. Damage to the pad overall was minimal. On-orbit photographs taken by the flight crew and two films from the ET/ORB umbilical cameras of the External Tank after separation from the Orbiter revealed no major damage or lost flight hardware that would have been a safety of flight concern. Orbiter performance on final approach appeared normal. Infrared imagery of landing gear deployment showed the loss of thermal barrier from the nose gear wheel well. The missing thermal barrier material was not recovered. The Solid Rocket Boosters were inspected at Hanger AF after retrieval. Both frustums had a combined total of 44 MSA-2 debonds over fasteners. Significant amounts of BTA had been applied to closeouts on the RH frustum, forward skirt, and aft skirt. Hypalon paint was blistered/missing over the areas were the BTA had been applied. The underlying BTA was not sooted (IFA STS-62-B-1). Investigation of this condition has concluded there was insufficient heat rates to cause blistering of the Hypalon until late in the ascent phase. A post landing inspection of OV-102 was conducted after the landing at KSC. The Orbiter TPS sustained a total of 97 hits, of which 16 had a major dimension of 1 inch or larger. The Orbiter lower surface had a total of 36 hits, of which 7 had a major dimension of 1 inch or larger. Based on these numbers and comparison to statistics from previous missions of similar configuration, both the total number of debris hits and the number of hits 1 inch or larger was less than average. Six thermal barriers, total size approximately 36 in. x 3 in. x 1.5 in., and one corner tile

  10. STS-5 Fifth Space shuttle mission, first operational flight: Press Kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Schedules for the fifth Space Shuttle flight are provided. Launching procedure, extravehicular activity, contingency plans, satellite deployment, and onboard experiments are discussed. Landing procedures, tracking facilities, and crew data are provided.

  11. Spaceflight Effects and Molecular Responses in the Mouse Eye: Observations after NASA Shuttle Mission STS-133

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ProsperoPonce, Claudia Maria; Zanello, Susana B.; Theriot, Corey A.; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human space exploration implies a combination of stressors including microgravityinduced cephalad fluid shift and radiation exposure. Ocular changes in astronauts leading to visual impairment are of occupational health relevance. The effect of this complex environment on ocular morphology and function is poorly understood. Material and Methods: Mice were assigned to a Flight (FLT) group flown on shuttle mission STS133, Animal Enclosure Module (AEM), or vivarium (VIV) ground controls. Eyes were collected at 1, 5 and 7 days after landing, and were fixed for histological sectioning. The contralateral eye was used for gene expression profiling by qRT-PCR. Routine histology and immunohistochemistry using 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), caspase-3, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and beta-amyloid were used to study the eyes. Results and Conclusions: 8-OHdG and caspase-3 immunoreactivity was increased in the retina in FLT samples at return from flight (R+1) compared to ground controls, and decreased at day 7 (R+7), suggesting an increase in oxidative stress and cell apoptosis. FLT mice showed evidence of retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) apoptosis possibly secondary to oxidative damage. Although attenuation of RPE has been related to retinal choroidal folds in astronauts, it is yet to be determined whether or not increased RPE apoptosis may contribute to the formation of choroidal folds or may increase the risk for other retinal pathologies, such as AMD. beta-amyloid was seen in the nerve fibers at the post-laminar region of the optic nerve in the flight samples (R+7). Deposition of beta-amyloid has a strong correlation with mechanical trauma. The coexpression of GFAP in astrocytes and oligodentrocytes in these same areas supports the possible mechanical origin probably secondary to intracranial pressure that is transmitted into the nerve, as a result of an increase in venous pressure associated to microgravity-induced cephalic fluid shift. However

  12. Structural Analysis of Central Luzon, Philippines, Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R.; Mouginis-Mark, P.; Garbeil, H.; Bautista, L.; Ramos, E.

    2002-12-01

    Central Luzon Island (13-16°N, 120-122°E), which is bounded to the east by Philippine Trench, to the west by Manila Trench, to the north by Digdig-Dingalan Fault (DDF) and to the south by Verde Island Passage Fault (VIPF), is one of the most seismically and volcanologically active regions in the Philippines. Active seismicity and violent earthquakes in the region are evidently related to the activities along the subduction zones and branches of the Philippine Fault system. Volcanic eruptions and periodic swarms of volcanic earthquakes were also observed in three active volcanoes, i.e., Pinatubo, Taal Volcano Island and Banahaw, while young calderas of Taal and Laguna de Bay are demonstrably fault-bounded. We use the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data with 90 m spatial resolution to conduct regional mapping of the faults and volcanic structures in this region. Of particular interests are the NE-SW set of normal faults within the Macolod Corridor, the right-lateral Marikina Valley Fault System (MVFS), the prevalence of N-S trending structures and the series of NW-SE structures that parallel to sub-parallel the active branches of the Philippine Fault. Using ENVI software package, we processed the SRTM data into shaded relief images and examined the lineament features from different azimuth directions and angles of artificial illumination. The prominent NW-SE structures in this area revealed by SRTM data were formed as sinistral shears that parallel the seismically active DDF and VIPF. The N-S trending structures, including some segments of MVFS and N-S oriented fold axes, were apparently generated by an earlier E-W compression, but recently displayed dextral movement with localized vertical component and pull-apart zones. The overprinting of recent fault kinematics on previously formed structures suggest a dramatic shift of regional stress distribution in Central Luzon. The dextral movement along MVFS and the extensional NE-SW faults within the Macolod

  13. Study for application of a sounding rocket experiment to spacelab/shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Code, A. D.

    1975-01-01

    An inexpensive adaptation of rocket-size packages to Spacelab/Shuttle use was studied. A two-flight project extending over two years was baselined, requiring 80 man-months of effort. It was concluded that testing should be held to a minimum since rocket packages seem to be able to tolerate shuttle vibration and noise levels. A standard, flexible control and data collection language such as FORTH should be used rather than a computation language such as FORTRAN in order to hold programming costs to a minimum.

  14. ATLAS-2 and UARS correlative measurement opportunities during Space Shuttle mission on April 8-17, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, Edwin F.; Denn, Fred M.; Gibson, Gary G.

    1993-01-01

    The second ATmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS-2) mission was flown aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery from 8-17 Apr. 1993. The nighttime launch at 0529 Greenwich Mean Time provided maximum solar occultation sunrise coverage of the northern latitudes by the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Spectroscopy instrument. The ATLAS-2 Earth-viewing instruments provided a large number of measurements which were nearly coincident with observations from experiments on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Based on instrument operating schedules during the ATLAS-2 mission, simulations were performed to determine when and where correlative measurements between ATLAS and UARS instruments occurred. Results of these orbital and instrument simulations provide valuable information for the ATLAS and UARS scientists to compare measurements between various instruments on the two satellites.

  15. Shuttle radar topography mission accuracy assessment and evaluation for hydrologic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mercuri, Pablo Alberto

    Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are increasingly used even in low relief landscapes for multiple mapping applications and modeling approaches such as surface hydrology, flood risk mapping, agricultural suitability, and generation of topographic attributes. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has produced a nearly global database of highly accurate elevation data, the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) DEM. The main goals of this thesis were to investigate quality issues of SRTM, provide measures of vertical accuracy with emphasis on low relief areas, and to analyze the performance for the generation of physical boundaries and streams for watershed modeling and characterization. The absolute and relative accuracy of the two SRTM resolutions, at 1 and 3 arc-seconds, were investigated to generate information that can be used as a reference in areas with similar characteristics in other regions of the world. The absolute accuracy was obtained from accurate point estimates using the best available federal geodetic network in Indiana. The SRTM root mean square error for this area of the Midwest US surpassed data specifications. It was on the order of 2 meters for the 1 arc-second resolution in flat areas of the Midwest US. Estimates of error were smaller for the global coverage 3 arc-second data with very similar results obtained in the flat plains in Argentina. In addition to calculating the vertical accuracy, the impacts of physiography and terrain attributes, like slope, on the error magnitude were studied. The assessment also included analysis of the effects of land cover on vertical accuracy. Measures of local variability were described to identify the adjacency effects produced by surface features in the SRTM DEM, like forests and manmade features near the geodetic point. Spatial relationships among the bare-earth National Elevation Data and SRTM were also analyzed to assess the relative accuracy that was 2.33 meters in terms of the total

  16. Enacements by the 90th Congress Concerning Education and Training, First Session 1967, Part 2--Appendix.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    Texts of major education and training laws amended by the first session of the 90th Congress are included in this appendix to ED 029 096: (1) Elementary and Secondary Education Act, (2) Public Law 874, (3) Public Law 815, (4) Adult Education Act, (5) Cooperative Research Act, (6) Higher Education Act, (7) National Defense Education Act, (8)…

  17. 78 FR 13396 - 90th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 90th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS... Notice of RTCA Special Committee 159, RTCA Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS... Special Committee 159, Global Positioning Systems (GPS). DATES: The meeting will be held March 12-15,...

  18. Shuttle spacelab simulation using a Lear jet aircraft: Mission no. 3 (ASSESS program)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Mason, R. H.

    1974-01-01

    The third ASSESS mission using a Lear Jet aircraft conducted to continue the study of scientific experiment operations in a simulated Spacelab environment. Prior to the mission, research planning and equipment preparation were observed and documented. A flight readiness review for the experiment was conducted. Nine of the ten scheduled flights were completed during simulation mission and all major science objectives were accomplished. The equipment was well qualified for flight and gave little trouble; telescope malfunctions occurred early in the mission and were corrected. Both real-time and post-observation data evaluation were used to assess research progress and to plan subsequent flight observations for maximum effectiveness.

  19. Evaluation of certain material films flown on the Space Shuttle Mission 46, EOIM-3 experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John; Clatterbuck, Carroll; Ayres-Treusdell, Mary; Park, Gloria; Kolos, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Nine film samples were carried aboard the STS-46 Atlantis shuttle to complement the 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM-III)' experiment to evaluate the effects of atomic oxygen on materials and to monitor the gaseous environment in the shuttle bay. The morphological changes of the samples produced by the atomic oxygen fluence of 2.07E-20 atoms/sq cm have been reported. The changes have been verified using X-ray Photoelectron Spectrometer (XPS) also known as Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), gravimetric measurements, microscopic observations and thermo-optical measurements. The samples including Kapton, Tefzel, Aclar, Polyacrylonitrile film, and Llumalloy films have been characterized by their oxygen reaction efficiency on the basis of their erosion losses and the fluence. Those efficiencies have been compared with results from other similar experiments, when available. The efficiencies of the samples are all in the range of E-24 gm/atom.

  20. Mission definition study for a VLBI station utilizing the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, B. F.

    1982-01-01

    The uses of the Space Shuttle transportation system for orbiting VeryLong-Baseline Interferometry (OVLBI) were examined, both with respect to technical feasibility and its scientific possibilities. The study consisted of a critical look at the adaptability of current technology to an orbiting environment, the suitability of current data reduction facilities for the new technique, and a review of the new science that is made possible by using the Space Shuttle as a moving platform for a VLBI terminal in space. The conclusions are positive in all respects: no technological deficiencies exist that would need remedy, the data processing problem can be handled easily by straightforward adaptations of existing systems, and there is a significant new research frontier to be explored, with the Space Shuttle providing the first step. The VLBI technique utilizes the great frequency stability of modern atomic time standards, the power of integrated circuitry to perform real-time signal conditioning, and the ability of magnetic tape recorders to provide essentially error-free data recording, all of which combine to permit the realization of radio interferometry at arbitrarily large baselines.

  1. MIE Lidar proposed for the German Space Shuttle Mission D2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renger, W.; Endemann, M.; Quenzel, H.; Werner, C.

    1986-01-01

    Firm plans for a second German Spacelab mission (D2-mission), originally scheduled for late 1988 is basically a zero-g mission, but will also include earth observation experiments. On board the D2-facility will allow performance of a number of different measurements with the goal to obtain performance data (cloud top heights, height of the planetary boundary layer, optical thickness, and cloud base height of thin and medium thick clouds, ice/water phase discriminatin for clouds, tropopause height, tropaspheric height, tropospheric aerosols, and stratospheric aerosols.

  2. Space Shuttle orbit determination using empirical force modeling of attitude maneuvers for the German MOMS-02/D2 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonbraun, C.; Reigber, Christoph

    1994-01-01

    In the spring of 1993, the MOMS-02 (modular Optoelectronic Multispectral Scanner) camera, as part of the second German Spacelab mission aboard STS-55, successfully took digital threefold stereo images of the surface of the Earth. While the mission is experimental in nature, its primary goals are to produce high quality maps and three-dimensional digital terrain models of the Earth's surface. Considerable improvement in the quality of the terrain model can be attained if information about the position and attitude of the camera is included during the adjustment of the image data. One of the primary sources of error in the Shuttle's position is due to the significant attitude maneuvers conducted during the course of the mission. Various arcs, using actual Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRSS) Doppler data of STS-55, were processed to determine how effectively empirical force modeling could be used to solve for the radial, transverse, and normal components of the orbit perturbations caused by these routine maneuvers. Results are presented in terms of overlap-orbit differences in the three components. Comparisons of these differences, before and after the maneuvers are estimated, show that the quality of an orbit can be greatly enhanced with this technique, even if several maneuvers are present. Finally, a discussion is made of some of the difficulties encountered with this approach, and some ideas for future studies are presented.

  3. Application of a Modified Gas Chromatograph to Analyze Space Experiment Combustion Gases on Space Shuttle Mission STS-94

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coho, William K.; Weiland, Karen J.; VanZandt, David M.

    1998-01-01

    A space experiment designed to study the behavior of combustion without the gravitational effects of buoyancy was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia on July 1, 1997. The space experiment, designated as Combustion Module-1 (CM-1), was one of several manifested on the Microgravity Sciences Laboratory - 1 (MSL-1) mission. The launch, designated STS-94, had the Spacelab Module as the payload, in which the MSL-1 experiments were conducted by the Shuttle crewmembers. CM-1 was designed to accommodate two different combustion experiments during MSL-1. One experiment, the Structure of Flame Balls at Low Lewis-number experiment (SOFBALL), required gas chromatography analysis to verify the composition of the known, premixed gases prior to combustion, and to determine the remaining reactant and the products resulting from the combustion process in microgravity. A commercial, off-the-shelf, dual-channel micro gas chromatograph was procured and modified to interface with the CM-1 Fluids Supply Package and the CM-1 Combustion Chamber, to accommodate two different carrier gases, each flowing through its own independent column module, to withstand the launch environment of the Space Shuttle, to accept Spacelab electrical power, and to meet the Spacelab flight requirements for electromagnetic interference (EMI) and offgassing. The GC data was down linked to the Marshall Space Flight Center for near-real time analysis, and stored on-orbit for post-flight analysis. The gas chromatograph operated successfully during the entire SOFBALL experiment and collected 309 runs. Because of the constraints imposed upon the gas chromatograph by the CM-1 hardware, system and operations, it was unable to measure the gases to the required accuracy. Future improvements to the system for a re-flight of the SOFBALL experiment are expected to enable the gas chromatograph to meet all the requirements.

  4. Earth observations during Space Shuttle Flight STS-49: Endeavor's Mission to Planet Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Evans, Cynthia; Ackleson, Steven; Brumbaugh, Frederick R.; Helms, David R.; Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Wilkinson, M. Justin; Brandenstein, Daniel C.; Chilton, Kevin P.; Hieb, Richard J.

    1994-01-01

    A brief mission overview of STS-49 is given, and some of the pictorially outstanding and scientifically interesting photographs obtained during the mission are presented. The Earth observations are described and include the following: the Southwestern Pacific Ocean -- wind and water; the Southwestern Pacific Ocean -- coasts and volcanoes; the US; Cuba and the Bahamas; South America; Africa; the Red Sea and Western Indian Ocean; and the Indian Subcontinent.

  5. NASA and Russian Space Agency sign agreement for additional Space Shuttle/Mir missions

    PubMed

    Huff, W

    1994-01-01

    On December 16, 1993 NASA Administrator Daniel S. Goldin [correction of Golden] and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) director Yuri Koptev signed a protocol agreeing to up to 10 Shuttle flights to Mir with a total of 24 months time aboard Mir for U.S. astronants, a program of scientific and technological research, and the upgrade and extension of the Mir lifetime during the period 1995-1997. This is the first of a three-phase program in human spaceflight cooperation which may culminate in the construction of an international Space Station. This agreement starts joint development of spacecraft environmental control and life support systems and potential common space suit.

  6. Continuous oxygen monitoring of mammalian cell growth on space shuttle mission STS-93 with a novel radioluminescent oxygen sensor.

    PubMed

    Reece, Julie S; Miller, Michael J; Arnold, Mark A; Waterhouse, Cris; Delaplaine, Ted; Cohn, Laura; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    A compact, flow-through oxygen sensor device based on luminescence quenching was used to monitor dissolved oxygen levels during mammalian cell growth on the STS-93 mission of the Columbia space shuttle. Excitation of an oxygen-sensitive ruthenium complex was provided by a radioluminescent light source (0.9 mm in diameter, 2.5 mm long), and the intensity of the resulting luminescence was measured by a simple photodiode detector. The use of radioluminescence for the excitation light source is a unique approach that provides many features important for long-term and remote monitoring applications. For the spaceflight experiment, human lung fibroblast cells (WI-38) were grown in hollow-fiber bioreactors. Oxygen concentration was measured in the flow path both before and after the bioreactor cartridge in order to gain information about the metabolism of the cells. The sensor was found to be nonperturbing to cell growth and withstood the challenging physical conditions of shuttle launch and landing while maintaining a stable calibration function. In addition, the sensor provided physically meaningful oxygen predictions.

  7. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  8. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS 50 - Columbia's mission to planet earth (June 25-July 9, 1992)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael; Amsbury, David; Pitts, David; Evans, Cynthia; Wilkinson, Justin; Helms, David; Chambers, Mark; Brumbaugh, Fred; Richards, Richard N.

    1993-01-01

    A review of the imagery acquired during the STS 50 mission of the Space Shuttle is presented. The earth viewing photography from this flight includes photos of dust plumes over several portions of the Red Sea, Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Atlantic Ocean. Over land, prominent dust plumes were seen over Iraq, North Africa, Sudan, and West Africa. The color infrared photography includes images of the tropical rain forests of South America and South and Southeast Asia. Other examples include photographs of floods in Argentina, photos of Lake Chad in Africa, Coastal Madagascar, the Aswan dam and the Nile, geologic features of North Africa, the center pivot irrigation land areas of Saudi Arabia, flooding in Asian rivers, and sediment plumes of South American and South and Southeast Asian coasts.

  9. Structural analysis of three extensional detachment faults with data from the 2000 Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spencer, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    The Space-Shuttle Radar Topography Mission provided geologists with a detailed digital elevation model of most of Earth's land surface. This new database is used here for structural analysis of grooved surfaces interpreted to be the exhumed footwalls of three active or recently active extensional detachment faults. Exhumed fault footwalls, each with an areal extent of one hundred to several hundred square kilometers, make up much of Dayman dome in eastern Papua New Guinea, the western Gurla Mandhata massif in the central Himalaya, and the northern Tokorondo Mountains in central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Footwall curvature in profile varies from planar to slightly convex upward at Gurla Mandhata to strongly convex upward at northwestern Dayman dome. Fault curvature decreases away from the trace of the bounding detachment fault in western Dayman dome and in the Tokorondo massif, suggesting footwall flattening (reduction in curvature) following exhumation. Grooves of highly variable wavelength and amplitude reveal extension direction, although structural processes of groove genesis may be diverse.

  10. Relativistic correlating basis sets for actinide atoms from 90Th to 103Lr.

    PubMed

    Noro, Takeshi; Sekiya, Masahiro; Osanai, You; Koga, Toshikatsu; Matsuyama, Hisashi

    2007-12-01

    For 14 actinide atoms from (90)Th to (103)Lr, contracted Gaussian-type function sets are developed for the description of correlations of the 5f, 6d, and 7s electrons. Basis sets for the 6d orbitals are also prepared, since the orbitals are important in molecular environments despite their vacancy in the ground state of some actinides. A segmented contraction scheme is employed for the compactness and efficiency. Contraction coefficients and exponents are so determined as to minimize the deviation from accurate natural orbitals of the lowest term arising from the 5f(n-1)6d(1)7s(2) configuration. The spin-free relativistic effects are considered through the third-order Douglas-Kroll approximation. To test the present correlating sets, all-electron calculations are performed on the ground state of (90)ThO molecule. The calculated spectroscopic constants are in excellent agreement with experimental values.

  11. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Plans for space shuttle missions as they effect the Space Operation Center (SOC) were examined. Shuttle fleet utilization, traffic analysis, SOC assembly operations, SOC propellant storage, and flight support facilities were studied with cost estimates, and completion schedules included.

  12. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The following areas of Space Shuttle technology were discussed: variable altitude strategy, spacecraft servicing, propellant storage, orbiter plume impingement, space based design, mating (docking and berthing), shuttle fleet utilization, and mission/traffic model.

  13. Shuttle Landing Facility

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida marked the finish line for space shuttle missions since 1984. It is also staffed by a group of air traffic controllers who wor...

  14. Spaceflight and the Mouse Eye: Results from Experiments on Shuttle Missions STS-133 and STS-135

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, Susana B.; Theriot, Corey A.; Ponce, Claudia Prospero; Chevez-Barrios, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Vision alterations associated with globe flattening, chorodial folds and papilledema, shown in some crew members returning from long duration missions. Hypothesis: Ocular neuroanatomical changes observed in the VIIP syndrome are accompanied by retinal changes at the molecular and cellular level that may affect retinal health and physiology. Objective: Investigate evidence of ocular (retinal) changes associated with spaceflight: (1) histological markers of cellular death and damage (2) molecular markers of oxidative stress (3) gene expression markers of stress

  15. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-41 - Discovery's mission to planet earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Helfert, Michael R.; Amsbury, David L.; Whitehead, Victor S.; Richards, Richard N.; Cabana, Robert D.; Shepherd, William M.; Akers, Thomas D.; Melnick, Bruce E.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of space flight STS-41 is presented, including personal observations and comments by the mission astronauts. The crew deployed the Ulysses spacecraft to study the polar regions of the sun and the interplanetary space above the poles. Environmental observations, including those of Lake Turkana, Lake Chad, biomass burning in Madagascar and Argentina, and circular features in Yucatan are described. Observations that include landforms and geology, continental sedimentation, desert landscapes, and river morphology are discussed.

  16. Ultraviolet astronomy instrumentation for sounding rocket and Shuttle/Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carruthers, G. R.

    1979-01-01

    The paper deals with an electrographic Schmidt camera for wide-field imaging and objective-spectrographic sky surveys, and with a nebula spectrograph designed to obtain slit spectra of nebulae and other diffuse sources. Each of these ultraviolet astronomy instruments has been successfully used in sounding rocket flights. It is seen that, with some minor modifications, both instruments should be readily adaptable to Spacelab missions.

  17. Debris/ice/TPS assessment and photographic analysis for Shuttle Mission STS-43

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katnik, Gregory N.; Higginbotham, Scott A.; Davis, James Bradley

    1991-01-01

    A debris/ice Thermal Protection System (TPS) assessment and photographic analysis was conducted for Space Station Mission STS-43. Debris inspections of the flight elements and launch pad were performed before and after launch. Ice/frost conditions on the External Tank (ET) were assessed by the use of computer programs, nomographs, and infrared scanner data during cryogenic loading of the vehicle followed by on-pad visual inspection. High speed photography was analyzed after launch to identify ice/debris sources and to evaluate potential vehicle damage and/or in-flight anomalies.

  18. Wide-field direct CCD observations supporting the Astro-1 Space Shuttle mission's Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hintzen, Paul; Angione, Ron; Talbert, Freddie; Cheng, K.-P.; Smith, Eric; Stecher, Theodore P.

    1993-01-01

    Wide field direct CCD observations are being obtained to support and complement the vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) images provided by Astro's Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UIT) during a Space Shuttle flight in December 1990. Because of the wide variety of projects addressed by UIT, the fields observed include (1) galactic supernova remnants such as the Cygnus Loop and globular clusters such as Omega Cen and M79; (2) the Magellanic Clouds, M33, M81, and other galaxies in the Local Group; and (3) rich clusters of galaxies, principally the Perseus cluster and Abell 1367. Ground-based observations have been obtained for virtually all of the Astro-1 UIT fields. The optical images allow identification of individual UV sources in each field and provide the long baseline in wavelength necessary for accurate analysis of UV-bright sources. To facilitate use of our optical images for analysis of UIT data and other projects, we plan to archive them, with the UIT images, at the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC), where they will be universally accessible via anonymous FTP. The UIT, one of three telescopes comprising the Astro spacecraft, is a 38-cm f/9 Ritchey-Chretien telescope on which high quantum efficiency, solar-blind image tubes are used to record VUV images on photographic film. Five filters with passbands centered between 1250A and 2500A provide both VUV colors and a measurement of extinction via the 2200A dust feature. The resulting calibrated VUV pictures are 40 arcminutes in diameter at 2.5 arcseconds resolution. The capabilities of UIT, therefore, complement HST's WFPC: the latter has 40 times greater collecting area, while UIT's usable field has 170 times WFPC's field area.

  19. Shuttle Orbital Applications and Requirements, supplementary tasks (SOAR-IIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Representative shuttle mission applications were studied. The interfaces analyses, and specific payloads are reported for the following types of missions: shuttle delivered automated spacecraft, shuttle/tug delivered spacecraft, man-tended automated spacecraft, and sortie missions.

  20. Operational space human factors - Methodology for a DSO. [Detailed Supplementary Objective for manned Shuttle Orbiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callaghan, Thomas F.; Gosbee, John W.; Adam, Susan C.

    1992-01-01

    The Human Factors Assessment of Orbiter Missions (Detailed Supplementary Objective 904) was conducted on STS-40 (Spacelab Life Sciences 1) in order to bring human factors into the operational world of manned space flight. This paper describes some of its methods. Included are explanations of general and space human factors, and a description of DSO 904 study objectives and results. The methods described include ways to collect background information for studies and also different in-flight data collection techniques. Several lessons for the space human factors engineer are reflected in this paper. First, method development is just as important as standards generation. Second, results of investigations should always have applicability to design. Third, cooperation with other NASA groups is essential. Finally, the human is the most important component of the space exploration system, and often the most difficult to study.

  1. NASADEM Overview and First Results: Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) Reprocessing and Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckley, S.; Agram, P. S.; Belz, J. E.; Crippen, R. E.; Gurrola, E. M.; Hensley, S.; Kobrick, M.; Lavalle, M.; Martin, J. M.; Neumann, M.; Nguyen, Q.; Rosen, P. A.; Shimada, J.; Simard, M.; Tung, W.

    2015-12-01

    NASADEM is a significant modernization of SRTM digital elevation model (DEM) data supported by the NASA MEaSUREs program. We are reprocessing the raw radar signal data using improved algorithms and incorporating ICESat and ASTER-derived DEM data unavailable during the original processing. The NASADEM products will be freely-available through the Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (LPDAAC) at 1-arcsecond spacing. The most significant processing improvements involve void reduction through improved phase unwrapping and using ICESat data for control. The updated unwrapping strategy now includes the use of SNAPHU for data processing patches where the unwrapped coverage from the original residue-based unwrapper falls below a coverage threshold. In North America continental processing, first experiments show the strip void area is reduced by more than 50% and the number of strip void patches is reduced by 40%. Patch boundary voids are mitigated by reprocessing with a different starting burst and merging the unwrapping results. We also updated a low-resolution elevation database to aid with unwrapping bootstrapping, retaining isolated component of unwrapped phase, and assessing the quality of the strip DEMs. We introduce a height ripple error correction to reduce artifacts in the strip elevation data. These ripples are a few meters in size with along-track spatial scales of tens of kilometers and are due to uncompensated mast motion most pronounced after Shuttle roll angle adjustment maneuvers. We developed an along-track filter utilizing differences between the SRTM heights and ICESat lidar elevation data. For a test using all data over North America, the algorithm reduced the ICESat-SRTM bias from 80 cm to 3 cm and the RMS from 5m to 4m. After merging and regridding the SRTM strip DEMs into 1x1-degree tiles, remaining voids are primarily filled with the ASTER-derived Global DEM. We use a Delta Surface Fill method to rubbersheet fill data across the void for

  2. NASA Facts, Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Programs Div.

    This newsletter from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) contains a description of the purposes and potentials of the Space Shuttle craft. The illustrated document explains some of the uses for which the shuttle is designed; how the shuttle will be launched from earth, carry out its mission, and land again on earth; and what a…

  3. Evaluation of Neutral Body Posture on Shuttle Mission STS-57 (SPACEHAB-1). Revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mount, Frances E.; Whitmore, Mihriban; Stealey, Sheryl L.

    2003-01-01

    Research has shown that the space environment induces physiological changes in the human body, such as fluid shifts in the upper body and chest cavity, spinal lengthening, muscular atrophy, space motion sickness, cardiopulmonary deconditioning, and bone mass loss, as well as some changes in visual perception. These require a period of adaptation and can substantially affect both crew member performance and posture. These physiological effects, when work activities are conducted, have been known to impact the body's center of gravity, reach, flexibility, and dexterity. All these aspects of posture must be considered to safely and efficiently design space systems and hardware. NASA has documented its microgravity body posture in the Man-Systems Integration Standards (MSIS); the space community uses the MSIS posture to design workstations and tools for space application. However, the microgravity body posture should be further investigated for several reasons, including small sample size in previous studies, possible imprecision, and lack of detail. JSC undertook this study to investigate human body posture exhibited under microgravity conditions. STS-57 crew members were instructed to assume a relaxed posture that was not oriented to any work area or task. Crew members were asked to don shorts and tank tops and to be blindfolded while data were recorded. Video data were acquired once during the mission from each of the six crew members. No one crew member exhibited the typical NBP called out in the MSIS; one composite posture is not adequate. A range of postures may be more constructive for design purposes. Future evaluations should define precise posture requirements for workstation, glove box, maintenance, foot-restraint, and handhold activities.

  4. Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A general description of the space shuttle program is presented, with emphasis on its application to the use of space for commercial, scientific, and defense needs. The following aspects of the program are discussed: description of the flight system (orbiter, external tank, solid rocket boosters) and mission profile, direct benefits related to life on earth (both present and expected), description of the space shuttle vehicle and its associated supporting systems, economic impacts (including indirect benefits such as lower inflation rates), listing of participating organizations.

  5. Characterization of Crew Refuse Returned from Shuttle Missions with Permanent Gas, Volatile Organic Compound, and Microbial Analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, B.; Hummerick, M.; Roberts, M.; Krummins, V.; Kish, A.; Garland, J.; Maxwell, S.; Mills, A.

    In addition to the mass and energy costs associated with bioregenerative systems for advanced life support, the storage and processing of waste on spacecraft requires both atmospheric and biological management. Risks to crew health may arise from the presence of potential human pathogens in waste or from decay processes during waste storage and/or processing. This study reports on the permanent gas, trace volatile organic and microbiological analyses of crew refuse returned from shuttle missions STS-105, 109 and 110. The research objective is to characterize the biological stability of the waste stream, to assess the risks associated with its storage, and to provide baseline measures for the evaluation of waste processing technologies. Microbiological samples were collected from packaging material, food waste, bathroom waste, and bulk liquid collected from the volume F waste container. The number of culturable bacteria and total bacteria were determined by plating on R2A media and by Acridine Orange direct count, respectively. Samples of the trash were analyzed for the presence of fecal and total coliforms and other human-associated bacteria. Dry and ash weights were determined to estimate both water and organic content of the materials. The aerobic and anaerobic bio-stability of stored waste was determined by on-line monitoring of CO2 and by laboratory analysis of off-gas samples for hydrogen sulfide and methane. Volatile organic compounds and permanent gases were analyzed using EPA method TO15 with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and by gas chromatography with selective detectors . This study establishes a baseline measure of waste composition, labile organics, and microbial load for this material.

  6. A comparison of U.S. geological survey seamless elevation models with shuttle radar topography mission data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, D.; Williams, J.; Miller, W.

    2001-01-01

    Elevation models produced from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data will be the most comprehensive, consistently processed, highest resolution topographic dataset ever produced for the Earth's land surface. Many applications that currently use elevation data will benefit from the increased availability of data with higher accuracy, quality, and resolution, especially in poorly mapped areas of the globe. SRTM data will be produced as seamless data, thereby avoiding many of the problems inherent in existing multi-source topographic databases. Serving as precursors to SRTM datasets, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has produced and is distributing seamless elevation datasets that facilitate scientific use of elevation data over large areas. GTOPO30 is a global elevation model with a 30 arc-second resolution (approximately 1-kilometer). The National Elevation Dataset (NED) covers the United States at a resolution of 1 arc-second (approximately 30-meters). Due to their seamless format and broad area coverage, both GTOPO30 and NED represent an advance in the usability of elevation data, but each still includes artifacts from the highly variable source data used to produce them. The consistent source data and processing approach for SRTM data will result in elevation products that will be a significant addition to the current availability of seamless datasets, specifically for many areas outside the U.S. One application that demonstrates some advantages that may be realized with SRTM data is delineation of land surface drainage features (watersheds and stream channels). Seamless distribution of elevation data in which a user interactively specifies the area of interest and order parameters via a map server is already being successfully demonstrated with existing USGS datasets. Such an approach for distributing SRTM data is ideal for a dataset that undoubtedly will be of very high interest to the spatial data user community.

  7. A decade on board America's Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Spectacular moments from a decade (1981-1991) of Space Shuttle missions, captured on film by the astronauts who flew the missions, are presented. First hand accounts of astronauts' experiences aboard the Shuttle are given. A Space Shuttle mission chronology featuring flight number, vehicle name, crew, launch and landing dates, and mission highlights is given in tabular form.

  8. A study of selected environmental quality remote sensors for free flyer missions launched from the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, H. W.; Grenda, R. N.

    1977-01-01

    The sensors were examined for adaptability to shuttle by reviewing pertinent information regarding sensor characteristics as they related to the shuttle and Multimission Modular Spacecraft environments. This included physical and electrical characteristics, data output and command requirements, attitude and orientation requirements, thermal and safety requirements, and adaptability and modification for space. The sensor requirements and characteristics were compared with the corresponding shuttle and Multimission Modular Spacecraft characteristics and capabilities. On this basis the adaptability and necessary modifications for each sensor were determined. A number of the sensors were examined in more detail and estimated cost for the modifications was provided.

  9. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 8: User's Mission and System Requirements Data (appendix A of Volume 3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A computer printout is presented of the mission requirement for the TERSSE missions and their associated user tasks. The data included in the data base represents a broad-based attempt to define the amount, extent, and type of information needed for an earth resources management program in the era of the space shuttle. An effort was made to consider all aspects of remote sensing and resource management; because of its broad scope, it is not intended that the data be used without verification for in-depth studies of particular missions and/or users. The data base represents the quantitative structure necessary to define the TERSSE architecture and requirements, and to an overall integrated view of the earth resources technology requirements of the 1980's.

  10. Results of time-resolved radiation exposure measurements made during U.S. Shuttle missions with a tissue equivalent proportional counter.

    PubMed

    Golightly, M J; Hardy, A C; Hardy, K

    1994-10-01

    Time-resolved radiation exposure measurements inside the crew compartment have been made during recent Shuttle missions with the USAF Radiation Monitoring Equipment-III (RME-III), a portable four-channel tissue equivalent proportional counter. Results from the first six missions are presented and discussed. The missions had orbital inclinations ranging from 28.5 degrees to 57 degrees, and altitudes from 200-600 km. Dose equivalent rates ranged from 40-5300 micro Sv/dy. The RME-III measurements are in good agreement with other dosimetry measurements made aboard the vehicle. Measurements indicate that medium- and high-LET particles contribute less than 2% of the particle fluence for all missions, but up to 50% of the dose equivalent, depending on the spacecraft's altitude and orbital inclination. Iso-dose rate contours have been developed from measurements made during the STS-28 mission. The drift rate of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) is estimated to be 0.49 degrees W/yr and 0.12 degrees N/yr. The calculated trapped proton and Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) dose for the STS-28 mission were significantly lower than the measured values.

  11. Measurements of LET-distribution, dose equivalent and quality factor with the RRMD-III on the Space Shuttle Missions STS-84, -89 and -91.

    PubMed

    Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Sakaguchi, T; Terasawa, K; Yoshihira, E; Nagaoka, S; Nakano, T; Takahashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Dosimetric measurements on the Space Shuttle Missions STS-84, -89 and -91 have been made by the real-time radiation monitoring device III (RRMD-III). Simultaneously, another dosimetry measurement was made by the Dosimetry Telescope (DOSTEL) on STS-84 and by the tissue-equivalent proportional counter (TEPC) on STS-91. First, the RRMD-III instrument is described in detail and its results summarized. Then, the results of DOSTEL and TEPC are compared with those of the RRMD-III. Also, the absorbed doses obtained by TLD (Mg2SiO4) and by RRMD-III on board STS-84 and -91 are compared.

  12. National primary drinking water regulations for lead and copper. Analysis of occurrences of very low 90th percentile lead levels

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-06

    This report contains an analysis of 90th percentile lead levels reported to the Federal Reporting Data System (FRDS) between 1992 and March 20, 1995 to estimate the number of large and medium-size water systems with very low levels of lead (i.e., less than or equal to 5 parts per billion) at the tap.

  13. Analysis of space shuttle main engine data using Beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, H.; Mackey, R.; James, M.; Zak, M.; Kynard, M.; Sebghati, J.; Greene, W.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes analysis of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) sensor data using Beacon-based exception analysis for multimissions (BEAM), a new technology developed for sensor analysis and diagnostics in autonomous space systems by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

  14. Nuclear Shuttle in Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  15. Space Shuttle astrodynamical constants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cockrell, B. F.; Williamson, B.

    1978-01-01

    Basic space shuttle astrodynamic constants are reported for use in mission planning and construction of ground and onboard software input loads. The data included here are provided to facilitate the use of consistent numerical values throughout the project.

  16. Earth observations during Space Shuttle flight STS-35 - Columbia's Mission to Planet Earth, December 2-10, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lulla, Kamlesh P.; Evans, Cynthia A.; Helfert, Michael R.; Brand, Vance D.; Gardner, Guy S.; Lounge, John M.; Hoffman, Jeffery A.; Parker, Robert A.; Durrance, Samuel T.; Parise, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    Some of the most significant earth-viewing imagery obtained during Space Shuttle Columbia's flight STS-35, December 2-10, 1990, is reviewed with emphasis on observations of the Southern Hemisphere. In particular, attention is given to environmental observations in areas of Madagascar, Brazil, and Persian Gulf; observation of land resources (Namibia, offshore Australia); and observations of ocean islands (Phillipines, Indonesia, and Reunion). Some of the photographs are included.

  17. The Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffitt, William L.

    2003-01-01

    As missions have become increasingly more challenging over the years, the most adaptable and capable element of space shuttle operations has proven time and again to be human beings. Human space flight provides unique aspects of observation. interaction and intervention that can reduce risk and improve mission success. No other launch vehicle - in development or in operation today - can match the space shuttle's human space flight capabilities. Preserving U.S. leadership in human space flight requires a strategy to meet those challenges. The ongoing development of next generation vehicles, along with upgrades to the space shuttle, is the most effective means for assuring our access to space.

  18. NASA space shuttle lightweight seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Chris; Jermstad, Wayne; Lewis, James; Colangelo, Todd

    1996-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Lightweight Seat-Mission Specialist (LWS-MS) is a crew seat for the mission specialists who fly aboard the Space Shuttle. The LWS-MS is a lightweight replacement for the mission specialist seats currently flown on the Shuttle. Using state-of-the-art analysis techniques, a team of NASA and Lockheed engineers from the Johnson Space Center (JSC) designed a seat that met the most stringent requirements demanded of the new seats by the Shuttle program, and reduced the weight of the seats by 52%.

  19. An assessment of an F2 or N2O4 atmospheric injection from an aborted space shuttle mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, R. T.; Smokler, P. E.; Demore, W. B.

    1978-01-01

    Assuming a linear relationship between the stratosphere loading of NOx and the magnitude of the ozone perturbation, the change in ozone expected to result from space shuttle ejection of N2O4 was calculated based on the ozone change that is predicted for the (much greater) NOx input that would accompany large-scale operations of SSTs. Stratospheric fluorine reactions were critically reviewed to evaluate the magnitude of fluorine induced ozone destruction relative to the reduction that would be caused by addition of an equal amount of chlorine. The predicted effect on stratospheric ozone is vanishingly small.

  20. The First Joint Report of the General Thomas P. Stafford Task Force and the Academician Vladimir F. Utkin Advisory Expert Council on the Shuttle-Mir Rendezvous and Docking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    In October 1992, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Russian Space Agency (RSA) formally agreed to conduct a fundamentally new program of human cooperation in space. The 'Shuttle-Mir Program' encompassed combined astronaut-cosmonaut activities on the Shuttle, Soyuz Test Module(TM), and Mir station spacecraft. At that time, NASA and RSA limited the project to: the STS-60 mission carrying the first Russian cosmonaut to fly on the U.S. Space Shuttle; the launch of the first U.S. astronaut on the Soyuz vehicle for a multi-month mission as a member of a Mir crew; and the change-out of the U.S.-Russian Mir crews with a Russian crew during a Shuttle rendezvous and docking mission with the Mir Station. The objectives of the Phase 1 Program are to provide the basis for the resolution of engineering and technical problems related to the implementation of the ISS and future U.S.-Russian cooperation in space. This, combined with test data generated during the course of the Shuttle flights to the Mir station and extended joint activities between U.S. astronauts and Russian cosmonauts aboard Mir, is expected to reduce the technical risks associated with the construction and operation of the ISS. Phase 1 will further enhance the ISS by combining space operations and joint space technology demonstrations. Phase 1 also provides early opportunities for extended U.S. scientific and research activities, prior to utilization of the ISS.

  1. Space Shuttle Glider. Educational Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    Space Shuttle Glider is a scale model of the U.S. Space Shuttle orbiter. The airplane-like orbiter usually remains in Earth orbit for up to two weeks at a time. It normally carries a six- to seven-person crew which includes the mission commander, pilot, and several mission and/or payload specialists who have specialized training associated with…

  2. Error Analysis of the Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System P-V-T Propellant Gaging Module. Mission Planning, Mission Analysis and Software Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duhon, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation of the shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pressure-volume-temperature (P-V-T) propellant gaging module has revealed that the gaging errors due to the combined effects of random instrumentation measurement errors, propellant loading uncertainties, and simplifying assumptions in the software are non-linear over the range of the usable propellant quantity gage (0-100%), with the largest error being at the zero point. When the OMS propellant tanks in the orbiter vehicle pods are filled to contain 100% of the maximum usable propellant, the gaging error at the zero point was determined to be 9.5% for the fuel and 9.5% for the oxidizer. When the OMS propellant tanks initially contain 50% of the maximum usable propellant, the largest gaging error is still 9.5% for the fuel and 9.5% for the oxidizer.

  3. History of Space Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2011-01-01

    This technical history is intended to provide a technical audience with an introduction to the rendezvous and proximity operations history of the Space Shuttle Program. It details the programmatic constraints and technical challenges encountered during shuttle development in the 1970s and over thirty years of shuttle missions. An overview of rendezvous and proximity operations on many shuttle missions is provided, as well as how some shuttle rendezvous and proximity operations systems and flight techniques evolved to meet new programmatic objectives. This revised edition provides additional information on Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and Apollo/Soyuz. Some chapters on the Space Shuttle have been updated and expanded. Four special focus chapters have been added to provide more detailed information on shuttle rendezvous. A chapter on the STS-39 mission of April/May 1991 describes the most complex deploy/retrieve mission flown by the shuttle. Another chapter focuses on the Hubble Space Telescope servicing missions. A third chapter gives the reader a detailed look at the February 2010 STS-130 mission to the International Space Station. The fourth chapter answers the question why rendezvous was not completely automated on the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle vehicles.

  4. Third and Final Shuttle Mission of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment Conducted: Highest Supercooling Ever Recorded Achieved

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, Martin E.; Malarik, Diane C.

    1999-01-01

    Dendrites describe the treelike crystal morphology commonly assumed in metals and alloys that freeze from supercooled or supersaturated melts. There remains a high level of engineering interest in dendritic solidification because the size, shape, and orientation of the dendrites determine the final microstructure of a material. It is the microstructure that then determines the physical properties of cast or welded products. Although it is well known that dendritic growth is controlled by the transport of latent heat from the moving solid-liquid interface, an accurate and predictive model has not yet been developed. The effects of gravity-induced convection on the transfer of heat from the interface have prevented adequate testing, under terrestrial conditions, of solidification models. The Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) constituted a series of three microgravity experiments flown aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. The apparatus was used to grow and record dendrite solidification in the absence of gravity-induced convective heat transfer, thereby producing a wealth of benchmark-quality data for testing solidification models and theories.

  5. Stennis certifies final shuttle engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Steam blasts out of the A-2 Test Stand at Stennis Space Center on Oct. 22 as engineers begin a certification test on engine 2061, the last space shuttle main flight engine scheduled to be built. Since 1975, Stennis has tested every space shuttle main engine used in the program - about 50 engines in all. Those engines have powered more than 120 shuttle missions - and no mission has failed as a result of engine malfunction. For the remainder of 2008 and throughout 2009, Stennis will continue testing of various space shuttle main engine components.

  6. Space science payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents a sampling of space science missions currently planned or under study at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Early use of the Shuttle for launching planetary exploration missions will not differ very much in principle from expendable launch vehicles. Future concepts which make use of the unique characteristics of the Shuttle in conjunction with other new technology open some truly fascinating prospects. Shuttle has other roles in space science as well, both for deep space and earth-directed observations. A variety of payload concepts, ranging from highly conventional to 'far-out', are under study. Increasing experience with Shuttle operations will broaden the spectrum of possibilities.

  7. Autonomous Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siders, Jeffrey A.; Smith, Robert H.

    2004-01-01

    The continued assembly and operation of the International Space Station (ISS) is the cornerstone within NASA's overall Strategic P an. As indicated in NASA's Integrated Space Transportation Plan (ISTP), the International Space Station requires Shuttle to fly through at least the middle of the next decade to complete assembly of the Station, provide crew transport, and to provide heavy lift up and down mass capability. The ISTP reflects a tight coupling among the Station, Shuttle, and OSP programs to support our Nation's space goal . While the Shuttle is a critical component of this ISTP, there is a new emphasis for the need to achieve greater efficiency and safety in transporting crews to and from the Space Station. This need is being addressed through the Orbital Space Plane (OSP) Program. However, the OSP is being designed to "complement" the Shuttle as the primary means for crew transfer, and will not replace all the Shuttle's capabilities. The unique heavy lift capabilities of the Space Shuttle is essential for both ISS, as well as other potential missions extending beyond low Earth orbit. One concept under discussion to better fulfill this role of a heavy lift carrier, is the transformation of the Shuttle to an "un-piloted" autonomous system. This concept would eliminate the loss of crew risk, while providing a substantial increase in payload to orbit capability. Using the guidelines reflected in the NASA ISTP, the autonomous Shuttle a simplified concept of operations can be described as; "a re-supply of cargo to the ISS through the use of an un-piloted Shuttle vehicle from launch through landing". Although this is the primary mission profile, the other major consideration in developing an autonomous Shuttle is maintaining a crew transportation capability to ISS as an assured human access to space capability.

  8. Pharmacologic considerations for Shuttle astronauts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.; Bungo, Michael W.

    1991-01-01

    Medication usage by crewmembers in the preflight and inflight mission periods is common in the Shuttle Program. The most common medical reports for which medication is used are: space motion sickness (SMS), sleeplessness, headache, and backache. A number of medications are available in the Shuttle Medical Kit to treat these problems. Currently, astronauts test all frequently used medications before mission assignment to identify potential side-effects, problems related to performance, personal likes/dislikes, and individual therapeutic effect. However, microgravity-induced changes in drug pharmacokinetics, in combination with multiple operational factors, may significantly alter crewmember responses inflight. This article discusses those factors that may impact pharmacologic efficacy during Shuttle missions.

  9. Model-Based Estimation of Forest Canopy Height in Red and Austrian Pine Stands Using Shuttle Radar Topography Mission and Ancillary Data: a Proof-of-Concept Study

    SciTech Connect

    Brown Jr., C G; Sarabandi, K; Pierce, L E

    2007-04-06

    In this paper, accurate tree stand height retrieval is demonstrated using C-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) height and ancillary data. The tree height retrieval algorithm is based on modeling uniform tree stands with a single layer of randomly oriented vegetation particles. For such scattering media, the scattering phase center height, as measured by SRTM, is a function of tree height, incidence angle, and the extinction coefficient of the medium. The extinction coefficient for uniform tree stands is calculated as a function of tree height and density using allometric equations and a fractal tree model. The accuracy of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated using SRTM and TOPSAR data for 15 red pine and Austrian pine stands (TOPSAR is an airborne interferometric synthetic aperture radar). The algorithm yields root-mean-square (rms) errors of 2.5-3.6 m, which is a substantial improvement over the 6.8-8.3-m rms errors from the raw SRTM minus National Elevation Dataset Heights.

  10. Landscape-scale extent, height, biomass, and carbon estimation of Mozambique's mangrove forests with Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission elevation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Simard, Marc; Washington-Allen, Robert A.; Shugart, Herman H.

    2008-06-01

    Mangroves are salt tolerant plants that grow within the intertidal zone along tropical and subtropical coasts. They are important barriers for mitigating coastal disturbances, provide habitat for over 1300 animal species and are one of the most productive ecosystems. Mozambique's mangroves extend along 2700 km and cover one of the largest areas in Africa. The purpose of this study was to determine the countrywide mean tree height spatial distribution and biomass of Mozambique's mangrove forests using Landsat ETM+ and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data. The SRTM data were calibrated using the Landsat derived land-cover map and height calibration equations. Stand-specific canopy height-biomass allometric equations developed from field measurements and published height-biomass equations were used to calculate aboveground biomass of the mangrove forests on a landscape scale. The results showed that mangrove forests covered a total of 2909 km2 in Mozambique, a 27% smaller area than previously estimated. The SRTM calibration indicated that average tree heights changed with geographical settings. Even though the coast of Mozambique spans across 16 degrees latitude, we did not find a relationship between latitude and biomass. These results confirm that geological setting has a greater influence than latitude alone on mangrove production. The total mangrove dry aboveground biomass in Mozambique was 23.6 million tons and the total carbon was 11.8 million tons.

  11. Space Shuttle Aging Elastomers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The Space Shuttle's uses various types of elastomers and they play a vital role in mission success. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the elastomers are performing. This paper will outline a strategic assessment plan, how identified problems were resolved and the integration activities between subsystems and Aging Orbiter Working Group.

  12. Evolution of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nease, Ardell

    1993-02-01

    This paper initially examines the Space Shuttle's past and future role in the exploration and exploitation of space and then discusses the evolution of the Space Shuttle as a cost effective design solution to the nation's and the world's space requirements. The argument for Shuttle evolution is presented and a cost effective approach to evolving the Space Shuttle into tomorrow's Space Transportation System is described. Near term upgrades can increase safety and reliability, avoid obsolescence, reduce operations costs, and increase performance; they can be followed by the long term block changes that incorporate new technologies and make the Space Shuttle dramatically more useful and cost effective to operate. The balance between continued Shuttle System life vs replacement system development and production is placed in the perspective of mission needs, technological leverage, and fiscal reality. The paper concludes that the evolution of the Space Shuttle is the most cost effective solution to the nation's space transportation needs for more than thirty years.

  13. An overview of the Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials 3 experiment: Space Shuttle Mission 46, July-August 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koontz, Steven L.; Leger, Lubert J.; Visentine, James T.; Hunton, Don E.; Cross, Jon B.; Hakes, Charles L.

    1995-01-01

    The Evaluation of Oxygen Interactions with Materials 3 (EOIM-3) flight experiment was developed to obtain benchmark atomic oxygen reactivity data and was conducted during Space Transportation System Mission 46 (STS-46), July 31 to August 7, 1992. In this paper, we present an overview of EOIM-3 and the results of the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) materials reactivity and mass spectrometer/carousel experiments. Mass spectrometer calibration methods are discussed briefly, as a prelude to a detailed discussion of the mass spectrometric results produced during STS-46. Mass spectrometric measurements of ambient O-atom flux and fluence are in good agreement with the values calculated using the MSIS-86 model of the thermosphere as well as estimates based on the extent of O-atom reaction with Kapton polyimide. Mass spectrometric measurements of gaseous products formed by O-atom reaction with C(13) labeled Kapton revealed CO, CO2, H2O, NO, and NO2. Finally, by operating the mass spectrometer so as to detect naturally occurring ionospheric species, we characterized the ambient ionosphere at various times during EOIM-3 and detected the gaseous reaction products formed when ambient ions interacted with the C(13) Kapton carousel sector. By direct comparison of the results of on-orbit O-atom exposures with those conducted in ground-based laboratory systems, which provide known O-atom fluences and translational energies, we have demonstrated the strong translational energy dependence of O-atom reactions with a variety of polymers. A 'line-of-centers' reactive scattering model was shown to provide a reasonably accurate description of the translational energy dependence of polymer reactions with O atoms at high atom kinetic energies while a Beckerle-Ceyer model provided an accurate description of O-atom reactivity over a three order-of-magnitude range in translational energy and a four order-of-magnitude range in reaction efficiency. Postflight studies of the polymer samples

  14. TERSSE. Definition of the total earth resources system for the shuttle era. Volume 9: Earth resources shuttle applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alverado, U.

    1975-01-01

    The use of the space shuttle for the Earth Resources Program is discussed. Several problems with respect to payload selection, integration, and mission planning were studied. Each of four shuttle roles in the sortie mode were examined and projected into an integrated shuttle program. Several representative Earth Resources missions were designed which would use the shuttle sortie as a platform and collectively include the four shuttle roles. An integrated flight program based on these missions was then developed for the first two years of shuttle flights. A set of broad implications concerning the uses of the shuttle for Earth Resources studies resulted.

  15. Space Shuttle Program Legacy Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Share lessons learned on Space Shuttle Safety and Mission Assurance (S&MA) culture, processes, and products that can guide future enterprises to improve mission success and minimize the risk of catastrophic failures. Present the chronology of the Johnson Space Center (JSC) S&MA organization over the 40-year history of the Space Shuttle Program (SSP) and identify key factors and environments which contributed to positive and negative performance.

  16. Space Shuttle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    The plans for utilizing reusable space shuttles which could replace almost all present expendable launch vehicles are briefly described. Many illustrations are included showing the artists' concepts of various configurations proposed for space shuttles. (PR)

  17. Space Shuttle news reference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description of the space shuttle vehicle and associated subsystems is given. Space transportation system propulsion, power generation, environmental control and life support system and avionics are among the topics. Also, orbiter crew accommodations and equipment, mission operations and support, and flight crew complement and crew training are addressed.

  18. Shuttle Upgrade Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives an overview of the Space Shuttle upgrade plan, including details on safety enhancements, reliability and maintainability improvements, investment protection (mission life remaining), Next Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle technologies, HEDS exploration strategic goals, and upgrades for safety and supportability.

  19. Muscle metaboreflex contribution to cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise in microgravity: insights from mission STS-107 of the space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Iellamo, Ferdinando; Di Rienzo, Marco; Lucini, Daniela; Legramante, Jacopo M; Pizzinelli, Paolo; Castiglioni, Paolo; Pigozzi, Fabio; Pagani, Massimo; Parati, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    One of the most important features of prolonged weightlessness is a progressive impairment of muscular function with a consequent decrease in exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that the impairment in musculo-skeletal function that occurs in microgravity results in a potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex mechanism and also affects baroreflex modulation of heart rate (HR) during exercise. Four astronauts participating in the 16 day Columbia shuttle mission (STS-107) were studied 72-71 days before launch and on days 12-13 in-flight. The protocol consisted of 6 min bicycle exercise at 50% of individual V(o2,max) followed by 4 min of postexercise leg circulatory occlusion (PECO). At rest, systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP), R-R interval and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) did not differ significantly between pre- and in-flight measurements. Both pre- and in-flight, SBP increased and R-R interval and BRS decreased during exercise, whereas DBP did not change. During PECO preflight, SBP and DBP were higher than at rest, whereas R-R interval and BRS recovered to resting levels. During PECO in-flight, SBP and DBP were significantly higher whereas R-R interval and BRS remained significantly lower than at rest. The part of the SBP response (delta) that was maintained by PECO was significantly greater during spaceflight than before (34.5 +/- 8.8 versus 13.8 +/- 11.9 mmHg, P = 0.03). The tachycardic response to PECO was also significantly greater during spaceflight than preflight (-141.5 +/- 25.2 versus - 90.5 +/- 33.3 ms, P = 0.02). This study suggests that the muscle metaboreflex is enhanced during dynamic exercise in space and that the potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex affects the vagally mediated arterial baroreflex contribution to HR control.

  20. Comparison of the three-dimensional structures of a human Bence-Jones dimer crystallized on Earth and aboard US Space Shuttle Mission STS-95.

    PubMed

    Terzyan, Simon S; Bourne, Christina R; Ramsland, Paul A; Bourne, Philip C; Edmundson, Allen B

    2003-01-01

    Crystals of a human (Sea) Bence-Jones dimer were produced in a capillary by vapor diffusion under microgravity conditions in the 9 day US Space Shuttle Mission STS-95. In comparison to ground-based experiments, nucleation was facile and spontaneous in space. Appearance of a very large (8 x 1.6 x 1.0 mm) crystal in a short time period is a strong endorsement for the use of microgravity to produce crystals sufficiently large for neutron diffraction studies. The Sea dimer crystallized in the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with a = 48.9 A, b = 85.2 A, and c = 114.0 A. The crystals grown in microgravity exhibited significantly lower mosaicities than those of ground-based crystals and the X-ray diffraction data had a lower overall B factor. Three-dimensional structures determined by X-ray analysis at two temperatures (100 and 293 K) were indistinguishable from those obtained from ground-based crystals. However, both the crystallographic R factor and the free R factor were slightly lower in the models derived from crystals produced in microgravity. The major difference between the two crystal growth systems is a lack of convection and sedimentation in a microgravity environment. This environment resulted in the growth of much larger, higher-quality crystals of the Sea Bence-Jones protein. Structurally, heretofore unrecognized grooves on the external surfaces of the Sea and other immunoglobulin-derived fragments are regular features and may offer supplementary binding regions for super antigens and other elongated ligands in the bloodstream and perivascular tissues.

  1. Muscle metaboreflex contribution to cardiovascular regulation during dynamic exercise in microgravity: insights from mission STS-107 of the space shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Iellamo, Ferdinando; Di Rienzo, Marco; Lucini, Daniela; Legramante, Jacopo M; Pizzinelli, Paolo; Castiglioni, Paolo; Pigozzi, Fabio; Pagani, Massimo; Parati, Gianfranco

    2006-05-01

    One of the most important features of prolonged weightlessness is a progressive impairment of muscular function with a consequent decrease in exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that the impairment in musculo-skeletal function that occurs in microgravity results in a potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex mechanism and also affects baroreflex modulation of heart rate (HR) during exercise. Four astronauts participating in the 16 day Columbia shuttle mission (STS-107) were studied 72-71 days before launch and on days 12-13 in-flight. The protocol consisted of 6 min bicycle exercise at 50% of individual V(o2,max) followed by 4 min of postexercise leg circulatory occlusion (PECO). At rest, systolic (S) and diastolic (D) blood pressure (BP), R-R interval and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) did not differ significantly between pre- and in-flight measurements. Both pre- and in-flight, SBP increased and R-R interval and BRS decreased during exercise, whereas DBP did not change. During PECO preflight, SBP and DBP were higher than at rest, whereas R-R interval and BRS recovered to resting levels. During PECO in-flight, SBP and DBP were significantly higher whereas R-R interval and BRS remained significantly lower than at rest. The part of the SBP response (delta) that was maintained by PECO was significantly greater during spaceflight than before (34.5 +/- 8.8 versus 13.8 +/- 11.9 mmHg, P = 0.03). The tachycardic response to PECO was also significantly greater during spaceflight than preflight (-141.5 +/- 25.2 versus - 90.5 +/- 33.3 ms, P = 0.02). This study suggests that the muscle metaboreflex is enhanced during dynamic exercise in space and that the potentiation of the muscle metaboreflex affects the vagally mediated arterial baroreflex contribution to HR control. PMID:16469787

  2. Food packages for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fohey, M. F.; Sauer, R. L.; Westover, J. B.; Rockafeller, E. F.

    1978-01-01

    The paper reviews food packaging techniques used in space flight missions and describes the system developed for the Space Shuttle. Attention is directed to bite-size food cubes used in Gemini, Gemini rehydratable food packages, Apollo spoon-bowl rehydratable packages, thermostabilized flex pouch for Apollo, tear-top commercial food cans used in Skylab, polyethylene beverage containers, Skylab rehydratable food package, Space Shuttle food package configuration, duck-bill septum rehydration device, and a drinking/dispensing nozzle for Space Shuttle liquids. Constraints and testing of packaging is considered, a comparison of food package materials is presented, and typical Shuttle foods and beverages are listed.

  3. Shuttle Risk Progression by Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamlin, Teri; Kahn, Joe; Thigpen, Eric; Zhu, Tony; Lo, Yohon

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the early mission risk and progression of risk as a vehicle gains insights through flight is important: . a) To the Shuttle Program to understand the impact of re-designs and operational changes on risk. . b) To new programs to understand reliability growth and first flight risk. . Estimation of Shuttle Risk Progression by flight: . a) Uses Shuttle Probabilistic Risk Assessment (SPRA) and current knowledge to calculate early vehicle risk. . b) Shows impact of major Shuttle upgrades. . c) Can be used to understand first flight risk for new programs.

  4. Mission analyses for manned flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations to develop a high altitude aircraft program plan are reported along with an analysis of manned comet and asteroid missions, the development of shuttle sortie mission objectives, and an analysis of major management issues facing the shuttle sortie.

  5. Space Shuttle flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarty, B. J.

    1982-01-01

    System function aspects of the first Space Shuttle mission are assessed. Almost 90 mission anomalies have been identified by a mission evaluation team, which were variously attributed to instrumentation sensor failures, improper operation, or design deficiencies. The two most significant problems encountered were Solid Rocket Booster ignition wave overpressure, which exceeded maximum expected pressure by a factor of 2:1 over most of the Orbiter and 5:1 at a sensor location on the aft bulkhead, near the engines, and an inoperative tumble valve, which would normally have imparted to the Space Shuttle External Tank a tumbling motion, after Tank separation, that insures disintegration of the large structure during reentry. The first problem has been solved by strengthening six support struts, and the second by ensuring that the tumble valve is moisture-free.

  6. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  7. Biowaste monitoring system for shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fogal, G. L.; Sauer, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    The acquisition of crew biomedical data has been an important task on all manned space missions from Project Mercury through the recently completed Skylab Missions. The monitoring of metabolic wastes from the crew is an important aspect of this activity. On early missions emphasis was placed on the collection and return of biowaste samples for post-mission analysis. On later missions such as Skylab, equipment for inflight measurement was also added. Life Science experiments are being proposed for Shuttle missions which will require the inflight measurement and sampling of metabolic wastes. In order to minimize the crew impact associated with these requirements, a high degree of automation of these processes will be required. This paper reviews the design and capabilities of urine biowaste monitoring equipment provided on past-manned space programs and defines and describes the urine volume measurement and sampling equipment planned for the Shuttle Orbiter program.

  8. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 3: Mission and System Requirements for the Total Earth Resources System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Resource management missions to be performed by TERSSE are described. Mission and user requirements are defined along with information flows developed for each major resource management mission. Other topics discussed include: remote sensing platforms, remote sensor requirements, ground system architecture, and such related issues as cloud cover, resolution, orbit mechanics, and aircraft versus satellite.

  9. Shuttle II - The next generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eldred, C. H.

    1986-01-01

    A comparative evaluation is conducted for next-generation Space Shuttle-type system configurations, in light of mission and design goals, performance and operational requirements, and technology development needs and opportunities. Cargo vehicle options presently entertained are an unmanned Shuttle Derivative Vehicle and a Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle. Two high priority manned vehicle options are small (35,000-lb payload) and large (150,000-lb payload) fully reusable vehicles. Attention is given to single stage vs. two-stage 'Shuttle II' system performance and economic projections.

  10. Space shuttle and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, J. A.

    1977-01-01

    During the 1980's, some 200 Spacelab missions will be flown on space shuttle in earth-orbit. Within these 200 missions, it is planned that at least 20 will be dedicated to life sciences research, projects which are yet to be outlined by the life sciences community. Objectives of the Life Sciences Shuttle/Spacelab Payloads Program are presented. Also discussed are major space life sciences programs including space medicine and physiology, clinical medicine, life support technology, and a variety of space biology topics. The shuttle, spacelab, and other life sciences payload carriers are described. Concepts for carry-on experiment packages, mini-labs, shared and dedicated spacelabs, as well as common operational research equipment (CORE) are reviewed. Current NASA planning and development includes Spacelab Mission Simulations, an Announcement of Planning Opportunity for Life Sciences, and a forthcoming Announcement of Opportunity for Flight Experiments which will together assist in forging a Life Science Program in space.

  11. Shuttle Propulsion Overview to NATO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lightfoot, Robert

    2006-01-01

    In the early morning on Saturday, February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle Columbia broke up during entry. After extensive investigation of the accident and recommendations made by the Columbia Accident Investigation Board, President Bush gave the vision for space exploration for NASA, which include return the Space Shuttle to flight as soon as practical, complete assembly of the ISS by the end of the decade, initiate robotic missions to the moon no later than 2008, develop a new Crew Exploration Vehicle, conduct first robotic, then human missions to Mars and extend human exploration across the solar system.

  12. Space Shuttle Usage of z/OS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation gives a detailed description of the avionics associated with the Space Shuttle's data processing system and its usage of z/OS. The contents include: 1) Mission, Products, and Customers; 2) Facility Overview; 3) Shuttle Data Processing System; 4) Languages and Compilers; 5) Application Tools; 6) Shuttle Flight Software Simulator; 7) Software Development and Build Tools; and 8) Fun Facts and Acronyms.

  13. Research and technology. [in development of space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Summaries are presented of the research in the development of the space shuttle. Propulsion, materials, spacecraft and thermal control, payloads, instrumentation, data systems, and mission planning are included.

  14. STS-63 Space Shuttle report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fricke, Robert W., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    The STS-63 Space Shuttle Program Mission Report summarizes the Payload activities and provides detailed data on the Orbiter, External Tank (ET), Solid Rocket Booster (SRB), Reusable Solid Rocket Motor (RSRM), and the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) systems performance during this sixty-seventh flight of the Space Shuttle Program, the forty-second since the return to flight, and twentieth flight of the Orbiter vehicle Discovery (OV-103). In addition to the OV-103 Orbiter vehicle, the flight vehicle consisted of an ET that was designated ET-68; three SSME's that were designated 2035, 2109, and 2029 in positions 1, 2, and 3, respectively; and two SRB's that were designated BI-070. The RSRM's that were an integral part of the SRB's were designated 360Q042A for the left SRB and 360L042B for the right SRB. The STS-63 mission was planned as an 8-day duration mission with two contingency days available for weather avoidance or Orbiter contingency operations. The primary objectives of the STS-63 mission were to perform the Mir rendezvous operations, accomplish the Spacehab-3 experiments, and deploy and retrieve the Shuttle Pointed Autonomous Research Tool for Astronomy-204 (SPARTAN-204) payload. The secondary objectives were to perform the Cryogenic Systems Experiment (CSE)/Shuttle Glo-2 Experiment (GLO-2) Payload (CGP)/Orbital Debris Radar Calibration Spheres (ODERACS-2) (CGP/ODERACS-2) payload objectives, the Solid Surface Combustion Experiment (SSCE), and the Air Force Maui Optical Site Calibration Tests (AMOS). The objectives of the Mir rendezvous/flyby were to verify flight techniques, communication and navigation-aid sensor interfaces, and engineering analyses associated with Shuttle/Mir proximity operations in preparation for the STS-71 docking mission.

  15. Launch Vehicle Demonstrator Using Shuttle Assets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Dennis M.; Threet, Grady E., Jr.; Waters, Eric D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objective is to characterize the performance capabilities of an inline, shuttle-derived launch vehicle using two design strategies: the first as an early program demonstrator utilizing high structural margins, maximum shuttle assets, and minimal pad impact, the later having undergone structural optimization, flying operational mission GR&A and serving as a baseline for evolutionary upgrades.

  16. Metallic materials for the space shuttle.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavassoli, A. A.

    1972-01-01

    The need for further development and reevaluation of current space-vehicle materials (intended for a single mission) to meet the long-time requirements of a space shuttle is demonstrated. Leading metallic material candidates and their properties are tabulated for a delta-wing space shuttle configuration with a metallic thermal protection system.

  17. Sturckow Recaps Last Shuttle Landing at Edwards

    NASA Video Gallery

    When Space Shuttle Discovery touched down at Edwards Air Force Base in Southern California on Sept. 11, 2009 to conclude mission STS-128, no one foresaw that it would be the last of 54 such landing...

  18. Dose equivalents inside the MIR Space Station measured by the combination of CR-39 plates and TLDs and their comparison with those on Space Shuttle STS-79, -84 and -91 missions.

    PubMed

    Doke, Tadayoshi; Hayashi, Takayoshi; Kikuchi, Jun; Nagaoka, Shunji; Nakano, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Shinnpei; Tawara, Hiroko; Terasawa, Kazuhiro

    2002-10-01

    In 1997, four dosimeter packages, each of which contains two CR-39 plates and 18 TLDs (Mg2SiO4:Tb), were placed inside the MIR Space Station and flew on an orbit with an inclination angle of 51.6 degrees and an altitude of approximately 400 km for 40 days. We estimated the absorbed doses, dose equivalents and effective quality factors during the flight by combining CR-39 data and TLD data. We then compared these results to those obtained with the same analysis method from the dosimeter packages on board Space Shuttle missions STS-79, -84 and -91 that flew along the same orbit. Finally, the differences between our results and those obtained by another group using passive dosimeters on the MIR are discussed.

  19. Mission Control Roses

    NASA Video Gallery

    The 110th bouquet of roses arrived in Mission Control on Saturday, July 9, 2011. They were sent as quietly as they have been for more than 23 years by a family near Dallas, Texas. For 110 shuttle m...

  20. STS-133 Mission Highlights

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery and the STS-133 crew launched Feb. 24, 2011, on a mission to deliver the Permanent Multipurpose Module, Robonaut 2 and the Express Logistics Carrier 4 to the International S...

  1. Life sciences payloads for Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunning, R. W.

    1974-01-01

    The Life Sciences Program for utilization of the Shuttle in the 1980's is presented. Requirements for life sciences research experiments in space flight are discussed along with study results of designs to meet these requirements. The span of life sciences interests in biomedicine, biology, man system integration, bioinstrumentation and life support/protective systems is described with a listing of the research areas encompassed in these descriptions. This is followed by a description of the approach used to derive from the life sciences disciplines, the research functions and instrumentation required for an orbital research program. Space Shuttle design options for life sciences experiments are identified and described. Details are presented for Spacelab laboratories for dedicated missions, mini-labs with carry on characteristics and carry on experiments for shared payload missions and free flying satellites to be deployed and retrieved by the Shuttle.

  2. STS-41D Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The official mission insignia for the 41-D Space Shuttle flight features the Discovery - NASA's third orbital vehicle - as it makes its maiden voyage. The ghost ship represents the orbiter's namesakes which have figured prominently in the history of exploration. The Space Shuttle Discovery heads for new horizons to extend that proud tradition. Surnames for the crewmembers of NASA's eleventh Space Shuttle mission encircle the red, white, and blue scene.

  3. STS 125 Samples: the Hubble Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 grab sample canisters (GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported in a table. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  4. Post flight operation of a high peak power neodymium YAG laser aboard the G-449 payload flown on Space Shuttle Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1992-01-01

    The Nd Yag laser flown on board the G-449 payload completed its postflight testing successfully. There was no indication that the laser had undergone any electronic or optical component failure. A postflight video was taken immediately following the return of the payload to the laboratory. Early anticipation of vibration and temperature changes contributed to the successful operation of the laser. Photographic material resulting from post flight videotape are presented. NASA safety reviews and recommendations supplied the insights which helped contribute to the successful operation of the Nd Yag laser. The safety review data is part of the technical presentation and gives some insight into why the system survived the severe environment of temperature and vibration during the flight of Space Shuttle 61-C.

  5. Experiment definition and integration study for the accommodation of giant, passive detector of Exotic Particles In the Cosmic Rays (EPIC) payload on shuttle/spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, P. B.

    1978-01-01

    The feasibility of the design, construction, launch and retrieval of a hinged 15 ft by 110 ft the platform containing an array of interleaved CR-39 and Lexan track-recording detectors to be placed into circular orbit by space shuttle is assessed. The total weight of the detector assembly plus supporting structure and accessories is 32,000 pounds. The modular construction permits as little as one fourth of the payload to be exposed at one time. The CR-39 detector has sensitivity adequate to detect and study cosmic rays ranging from minimum ionizing iron-group nuclei to the heaviest elements. The detectors will survive a one year exposure to trapped protons without losing their high resolution. Advantages include low cost, huge collecting power (approximately 150 sq m) as well as the high resolution previously attainable only with electronic detectors.

  6. Post flight operation of a high peak power neodymium YAG laser aboard the G-449 payload flown on Space Shuttle Columbia mission 61-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muckerheide, M. C.

    1992-10-01

    The Nd Yag laser flown on board the G-449 payload completed its postflight testing successfully. There was no indication that the laser had undergone any electronic or optical component failure. A postflight video was taken immediately following the return of the payload to the laboratory. Early anticipation of vibration and temperature changes contributed to the successful operation of the laser. Photographic material resulting from post flight videotape are presented. NASA safety reviews and recommendations supplied the insights which helped contribute to the successful operation of the Nd Yag laser. The safety review data is part of the technical presentation and gives some insight into why the system survived the severe environment of temperature and vibration during the flight of Space Shuttle 61-C.

  7. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    NASA's Space Shuttle Atlantis touched down on the lakebed runway at Edwards Air Force Base in California's Mojave Desert Tuesday, 3 December 1985 at 1:33:49 p.m. Pacific Standard Time, concluding the STS 61-B international mission. The eight-day mission successfully deployed three communications satellites including the Mexican Morelos B, the Australian Aussat 2 and an RCA Satcom K-2 satellite. In addition, two spacewalks were performed to experiment with construction of structures in space. Crew of the 61-B mission included Commander Brewster H. Shaw, Jr.; Pilot Bryan D. O'Connor; Mission Specialists Mary L. Cleave, Sherwood C. Spring and Jerry L. Ross; and Payload Specialists Rudolfo Neri Vela of Mexico and Charles Walker of McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Co. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories

  8. Shuttle Atlantis Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Atlantis touches down at 3:35 p.m. PST on 6 December 1988 at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility at the conclusion of the STS-27 Department of Defense mission. Landing took place on runway 17 of the Rogers Dry Lake, concluding the 4-day, 9-hour, 6-minute mission. The five-man crew was led by Commander Robert L. Gibson and included Pilot Guy S. Gardner; Mission Specialists Jerry L. Ross, William M. Sheperd, and Richard M. Mullane. Atlantis was launched on December 2 from NASA's Kennedy Space Center. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab

  9. Space shuttle navigation analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, H. L.; Luders, G.; Matchett, G. A.; Sciabarrasi, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    A detailed analysis of space shuttle navigation for each of the major mission phases is presented. A covariance analysis program for prelaunch IMU calibration and alignment for the orbital flight tests (OFT) is described, and a partial error budget is presented. The ascent, orbital operations and deorbit maneuver study considered GPS-aided inertial navigation in the Phase III GPS (1984+) time frame. The entry and landing study evaluated navigation performance for the OFT baseline system. Detailed error budgets and sensitivity analyses are provided for both the ascent and entry studies.

  10. NASA Contingency Shuttle Crew Support (CSCS) Medical Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Adrien

    2010-01-01

    The genesis of the space shuttle began in the 1930's when Eugene Sanger came up with the idea of a recyclable rocket plane that could carry a crew of people. The very first Shuttle to enter space was the Shuttle "Columbia" which launched on April 12 of 1981. Not only was "Columbia" the first Shuttle to be launched, but was also the first to utilize solid fuel rockets for U.S. manned flight. The primary objectives given to "Columbia" were to check out the overall Shuttle system, accomplish a safe ascent into orbit, and to return back to earth for a safe landing. Subsequent to its first flight Columbia flew 27 more missions but on February 1st, 2003 after a highly successful 16 day mission, the Columbia, STS-107 mission, ended in tragedy. With all Shuttle flight successes come failures such as the fatal in-flight accident of STS 107. As a result of the STS 107 accident, and other close-calls, the NASA Space Shuttle Program developed contingency procedures for a rescue mission by another Shuttle if an on-orbit repair was not possible. A rescue mission would be considered for a situation where a Shuttle and the crew were not in immediate danger, but, was unable to return to Earth or land safely. For Shuttle missions to the International Space Station (ISS), plans were developed so the Shuttle crew would remain on board ISS for an extended period of time until rescued by a "rescue" Shuttle. The damaged Shuttle would subsequently be de-orbited unmanned. During the period when the ISS Crew and Shuttle crew are on board simultaneously multiple issues would need to be worked including, but not limited to: crew diet, exercise, psychological support, workload, and ground contingency support

  11. STS-69 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Designed by the mission crew members, the patch for STS-69 symbolizes the multifaceted nature of the flight's mission. The primary payload, the Wake Shield Facility (WSF), is represented in the center by the astronaut emblem against a flat disk. The astronaut emblem also signifies the importance of human beings in space exploration, reflected by the planned space walk to practice for International Space Station (ISS) activities and to evaluate space suit design modifications. The two stylized Space Shuttles highlight the ascent and entry phases of the mission. Along with the two spiral plumes, the stylized Space Shuttles symbolize a NASA first, the deployment and recovery on the same mission of two spacecraft (both the Wake Shield Facility and the Spartan). The constellations Canis Major and Canis Minor represent the astronomy objectives of the Spartan and International Extreme Ultraviolet Hitchhiker (IEH) payload. The two constellations also symbolize the talents and dedication of the support personnel who make Space Shuttle missions possible.

  12. Shuttle Discovery Landing at Edwards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The STS-29 Space Shuttle Discovery mission lands at NASA's then Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards AFB, California, early Saturday morning, 18 March 1989. Touchdown was at 6:35:49 a.m. PST and wheel stop was at 6:36:40 a.m. on runway 22. Controllers chose the concrete runway for the landing in order to make tests of braking and nosewheel steering. The STS-29 mission was very successful, completing the launch of a Tracking and Data Relay communications satellite, as well as a range of scientific experiments. Discovery's five-man crew was led by Commander Michael L. Coats, and included pilot John E. Blaha and mission specialists James P. Bagian, Robert C. Springer, and James F. Buchli. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout

  13. Shuttle Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guodace, Kimberly A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation details shuttle processing flow which starts with wheel stop and ends with launching. The flow is from landing the orbiter is rolled into the Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF), where processing is performed, it is then rolled over to the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) where it is mated with the propellant tanks, and payloads are installed. A different flow is detailed if the weather at Kennedy Space Center requires a landing at Dryden.

  14. Shuttle Discovery Mated to 747 SCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Discovery rides atop '905,' NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, on its delivery flight from California to the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, where it was prepared for its first orbital mission for 30 August to 5 September 1984. The NASA 747, obtained in 1974, has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the additional weight of the orbiters. Small vertical fins have also been added to the tips of the horizontal stabilizers for additional stability due to air turbulence on the control surfaces caused by the orbiters. A second modified 747, no. 911, went in to service in November 1990 and is also used to ferry orbiters to destinations where ground transportation is not practical. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the

  15. Shuttle extravehicular life support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A Shuttle EVA/IVA Requirements Study was conducted by Hamilton Standard for NASA. The objectives of this study were to establish a baseline EVA approach for Shuttle and to prepare requirements for the EVA equipment required to support these operations. This paper presents the results of the EVA life support requirements definition effort and defines candidate configurations which meet these requirements. Various subsystem and system concepts were identified and evaluated to determine the most desirable approaches. Both independent and umbilical configurations are considered. Because certain EVA missions could involve contamination-sensitive payloads, the impact of integrating noncontaminating equipment is also considered.

  16. Continual Improvement in Shuttle Logistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flowers, Jean; Schafer, Loraine

    1995-01-01

    It has been said that Continual Improvement (CI) is difficult to apply to service oriented functions, especially in a government agency such as NASA. However, a constrained budget and increasing requirements are a way of life at NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC), making it a natural environment for the application of CI tools and techniques. This paper describes how KSC, and specifically the Space Shuttle Logistics Project, a key contributor to KSC's mission, has embraced the CI management approach as a means of achieving its strategic goals and objectives. An overview of how the KSC Space Shuttle Logistics Project has structured its CI effort and examples of some of the initiatives are provided.

  17. Shuttle Enterprise Being Worked on in Hangar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Enterprise being worked on in the weight & balance hangar. The Enterprise, the first orbiter built, was not spaceflight rated and was used in 1977 to verify the landing, approach, and glide characteristics of the orbiters in the Approach and Landing Tests (ALT) at Edwards Air Force Base, California. It was also used for engineering fit-checks at the shuttle launch facilities. Following approach and landing tests in 1977 and its use as an engineering vehicle, Enterprise was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital

  18. X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across the Mi (i=1-5) edges of 90Th

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Rajnish; Shehla, Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-01

    The X-ray production cross sections for the Mk (k= ξ, δ, α, β, ζ, γ, m1, m2) groups of X-rays have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the Mi (i =1-5) edges of 90Th using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model based photoionisation cross sections and recently reported values of the M-shell X-ray emission rates, fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields. Further, the energies of the prominent (Mi-Sj) (Sj=Nj, Oj and i =1-3, j =1-7) resonant Raman scattered (RRS) peaks at different incident photon energies have also been evaluated using the neutral-atom electron binding energies (Esj) based on the relaxed orbital relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model.

  19. X-ray production cross sections at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i=1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Rajnish; Shehla,; Kumar, Anil; Puri, Sanjiv

    2015-08-28

    The X-ray production cross sections for the M{sub k} (k= ξ, δ, α, β, ζ, γ, m{sub 1}, m{sub 2}) groups of X-rays have been evaluated at incident photon energies across the M{sub i} (i =1-5) edges of {sub 90}Th using the relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model based photoionisation cross sections and recently reported values of the M-shell X-ray emission rates, fluorescence and Coster Kronig yields. Further, the energies of the prominent (M{sub i}-S{sub j}) (S{sub j}=N{sub j}, O{sub j} and i =1-3, j =1-7) resonant Raman scattered (RRS) peaks at different incident photon energies have also been evaluated using the neutral-atom electron binding energies (E{sub sj}) based on the relaxed orbital relativistic Hartree-Fock-Slater model.

  20. Space Shuttle Star Tracker Challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herrera, Linda M.

    2010-01-01

    The space shuttle fleet of avionics was originally designed in the 1970's. Many of the subsystems have been upgraded and replaced, however some original hardware continues to fly. Not only fly, but has proven to be the best design available to perform its designated task. The shuttle star tracker system is currently flying as a mixture of old and new designs, each with a unique purpose to fill for the mission. Orbiter missions have tackled many varied missions in space over the years. As the orbiters began flying to the International Space Station (ISS), new challenges were discovered and overcome as new trusses and modules were added. For the star tracker subsystem, the growing ISS posed an unusual problem, bright light. With two star trackers on board, the 1970's vintage image dissector tube (IDT) star trackers track the ISS, while the new solid state design is used for dim star tracking. This presentation focuses on the challenges and solutions used to ensure star trackers can complete the shuttle missions successfully. Topics include KSC team and industry partner methods used to correct pressurized case failures and track system performance.

  1. STS-66 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video contains the mission highlights of the STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis Mission in November 1994. Astronauts included: Don McMonagle (Mission Commander), Kurt Brown, Ellen Ochoa (Payload Commander), Joe Tanner, Scott Parazynski, and Jean-Francois Clervoy (collaborating French astronaut). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup, entering Space Shuttle, countdown and launching of Shuttle, EVA activities (ATLAS-3, CRISTA/SPAS, SSBUV/A, ESCAPE-2), on-board experiments dealing with microgravity and its effects, protein crystal growth experiments, daily living and sleeping compartment footage, earthviews of various meteorological processes (dust storms, cloud cover, ocean storms), pre-landing and land footage (both from inside the Shuttle and from outside with long range cameras), and tracking and landing shots from inside Mission Control Center. Included is air-to-ground communication between Mission Control and the Shuttle. This Shuttle was the last launch of 1994.

  2. Shuttle interaction study extension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The implications of using the Shuttle with the SOC were analyzed, including constraints that the Shuttle places upon the SOC design. All the considerations involved in the use of the shuttle as a part of the SOC concept were identified.

  3. Shuttle Era: Launch Directors

    NASA Video Gallery

    A space shuttle launch director is the leader of the complex choreography that goes into a shuttle liftoff. Ten people have served as shuttle launch directors, making the final decision whether the...

  4. Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.

    2008-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for the four actuators on one shuttle, each with a 2-bearing shaft assembly, established a reliability level of 96.9 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

  5. LET distributions from CR-39 plates on Space Shuttle missions STS-84 and STS-91 and a comparison of the results of the CR-39 plates with those of RRMD-II and RRMD-III telescopes.

    PubMed

    Tawara, H; Doke, T; Hayashi, T; Kikuchi, J; Kyan, A; Nagaoka, S; Nakano, T; Takahashi, S; Terasawa, K; Yoshihira, E

    2002-04-01

    The LET distributions during the Space Shuttle missions STS-84 (altitude 270-412 km, average 375 km; inclination angle, 51.6 degrees) and STS-91 (altitude 328-397 km, average 373 km; inclination angle, 51.6 degrees) were measured using CR-39 plastic nuclear track detectors. A correction for the dip-angle dependence of the track-formation sensitivity of the CR-39 plates was applied to the data analysis. The absorbed doses and the dose equivalents around RRMD Detector Units, estimated from the LET distributions in the LET region of 4-200 keV/micrometers, fluctuated with standard deviations of +/- 21% to +/- 35% in both flight experiments. The LET distributions obtained from the CR-39 plates agreed well with that obtained from RRMD-II in STS-91. However, the particle fluxes obtained from RRMD-III in STS-84 and STS-91 were two or three times higher than those obtained from RRMD-II and the CR-39 plates. It was concluded that the LET distributions obtained from RRMD-II and the CR-39 plates in the present flight experiments did not include the contribution of target-fragmented secondary heavy particles produced by low-LET particles, such as relativistic or semi-relativistic protons and helium ions, whereas RRMD-III was able to detect these secondary particles because of its low triggering level.

  6. Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

    1987-01-01

    During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

  7. Description of the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) for the OSS-1 Shuttle mission and JSC plasma chamber test in conjunction with the fast pulse electron gun (FPEG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.

    1982-01-01

    The objectives, equipment, and techniques for the plasma diagnostics package (PDP) carried by the OSS-1 instrument payload of the STS-4 and scheduled for the Spacelab-2 mission are described. The goals of the first flight were to examine the Orbiter-magnetoplasma interactions by measuring the electric and magnetic field strengths, the ionized particle wakes, and the generated waves. The RMS was employed to lift the unit out of the bay in order to allow characterization of the fields, EM interference, and plasma contamination within 15 m of the Orbiter. The PDP will also be used to examine plasma depletion, chemical reaction rates, waves, and energized plasma produced by firing of the Orbiter thrusters. Operation of the PDP was carried out in the NASA Space Environment Simulation Laboratory test chamber, where the PDP was used to assay the fields, fluxes, wave amplitudes, and particle energy spectra. The PDP instrumentation is also capable of detecting thermal ions, thermal electrons suprathermal particles, VHF/UHF EMI levels, and the S-band field strength.

  8. Shuttle Mission STS-50: Orbital Processing of High-Quality CdTe Compound Semiconductors Experiment: Final Flight Sample Characterization Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, David J.; Casagrande, Luis G.; DiMarzio, Don; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Carlson, Fred; Lee, Taipo; Dudley, Michael; Raghathamachar, Balaji

    1998-01-01

    The Orbital Processing of High-Quality Doped and Alloyed CdTe Compound Semiconductors program was initiated to investigate, quantitatively, the influences of gravitationally dependent phenomena on the growth and quality of bulk compound semiconductors. The objective was to improve crystal quality (both structural and compositional) and to better understand and control the variables within the crystal growth production process. The empirical effort entailed the development of a terrestrial (one-g) experiment baseline for quantitative comparison with microgravity (mu-g) results. This effort was supported by the development of high-fidelity process models of heat transfer, fluid flow and solute redistribution, and thermo-mechanical stress occurring in the furnace, safety cartridge, ampoule, and crystal throughout the melting, seeding, crystal growth, and post-solidification processing. In addition, the sensitivity of the orbital experiments was analyzed with respect to the residual microgravity (mu-g) environment, both steady state and g-jitter. CdZnTe crystals were grown in one-g and in mu-g. Crystals processed terrestrially were grown at the NASA Ground Control Experiments Laboratory (GCEL) and at Grumman Aerospace Corporation (now Northrop Grumman Corporation). Two mu-g crystals were grown in the Crystal Growth Furnace (CGF) during the First United States Microgravity Laboratory Mission (USML-1), STS-50, June 24 - July 9, 1992.

  9. Digital coding of Shuttle TV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habibi, A.; Batson, B.

    1976-01-01

    Space Shuttle will be using a field-sequential color television system for the first few missions, but the present plans are to switch to a NTSC color TV system for future missions. The field-sequential color TV system uses a modified black and white camera, producing a TV signal with a digital bandwidth of about 60 Mbps. This article discusses the characteristics of the Shuttle TV systems and proposes a bandwidth-compression technique for the field-sequential color TV system that could operate at 13 Mbps to produce a high-fidelity signal. The proposed bandwidth-compression technique is based on a two-dimensional DPCM system that utilizes temporal, spectral, and spatial correlation inherent in the field-sequential color TV imagery. The proposed system requires about 60 watts and less than 200 integrated circuits.

  10. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Fleet Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's two Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are seen here nose to nose at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The front mounting attachment for the Shuttle can just be seen on top of each. The SCAs are used to ferry Space Shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are; three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached, and two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back

  11. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 6: An Early Shuttle Pallet Concept for the Earth Resources Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A space shuttle sortie mission which can be performed inexpensively in the early shuttle era and which, if the necessary intermediate steps are accomplished provides a major technological advance for the user organization-the U.S. Bureau of Census is described. The orbital configuration created for the Urban Land Use/1980 Census mission is illustrated including sensors and ground support equipment along with the information flow for the mission. Factors discussed include: specific Census Bureau functions to be supported by the mission; hardware and flight operations necessary for implementation of the mission; and integration of the TERSSE pallet into a shuttle mission.

  12. STS-71 Mission Highlights Resources Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The flight crew of the STS-71 Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis Commander Robert L. Gibson, Pilot Charles J. Precourt, Mission Specialists, Ellen S. Baker, Bonnie J. Dunbar, Gregory J. Harbaugh, and Payload Specialists, Norman E. Thagard, Vladimir Dezhurov, and Gennadiy Strekalov present an overview of their mission. It's primary objective is the first Mir docking with a space shuttle and crew transfer. Video footage includes the following: prelaunch and launch activities; the crew eating breakfast; shuttle launch; on orbit activities; rendezvous with Mir; Shuttle/Mir joint activities; undocking; and the shuttle landing.

  13. Microbiology of the Space Shuttle water system.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Pierson, D L

    1997-01-01

    The Space Shuttle has a once-through water system that is initially filled on the ground, partially drained before launch and then refilled with fuel-cell generated water on orbit. The microbiological standard for the Space Shuttle potable water system during this study period allowed only 1 microbe of any kind per l00mL and no detectable coliforms. Contamination episodes in more than 15 years of Shuttle operation have been rare; however, for the past 24 missions, bacterial contamination has been detected in 33% of the samples collected 3d before launch. These samples have had on average 55CFU/100mL of bacteria, with the median less than 1CFU/100mL. Burkholderia cepacia has been the primary contaminant of the Shuttle water supply system both before and after flight. Water samples assessed during the STS-70 mission aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery were found to be contaminated (<20CFU/100mL) with B. cepacia and B. pickettii. In 1991, waste and water lines were removed from the Space Shuttle Columbia and the waste lines were found to harbor biofilms containing Bacillus spp. Nevertheless, the water systems of the four Space Shuttle vehicles provide extremely pure water.

  14. Shuttle get-away special experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orton, George

    1987-01-01

    This presentation describes two shuttle Get-Away-Special (GAS) experiments built by McDonnell Douglas to investigate low-g propellant acquisition and gaging. The first experiment was flown on shuttle mission 41-G in October 1984. The second experiment has been qualified for flight and is waiting for a flight assignment. The tests performed to qualify these experiments for flight are described, and the lessons learned which can be applied to future GAS experiments are discussed. Finally, survey results from 134 GAS experiments flown to date are presented. On the basis of these results it is recommended that future GAS experiments be qualified to shuttle thermal and dynamic environments through a rigorous series of mission operating tests. Furthermore, should automatic activation of the experiment be required during the boost phase of the mission, NASA-supplied redundant barometric switches should be employed to trigger the activation.

  15. Honoring the 90th birthday of Academician I M Khalatnikov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 21 October 2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenshchik, Aleksandr Yu; Pokrovsky, Valery L.; Khriplovich, Iosif B.

    2010-06-01

    21 October 2009, in the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, a scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division was held honoring the 90th birthday of Academician I M Khalatnikov. The following talks were given at the session: (1) Andreev A F (Kapitza Institute of Physical Problems, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow) "Momentum deficit in quantum glasses" (2) Kamenshchik A Yu (Dipartimento di Fisica and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna, Italy; Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, Moscow) "The problem of singularities and chaos in cosmology" (3) Pokrovsky V L (Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, RAS, Moscow; Department of Physics, Texas A&M University, USA) "I M Khalatnikov's works on scattering of high-energy particles" (4) Khriplovich I B (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk) "Screening and antiscreening of charge in gauge theories." Brief versions of talks 2-4 are given below. • The problem of singularities and chaos in cosmology, A Yu Kamenshchik Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 301-309 • Above the barriers (I M Khalatnikov's works on the scattering of high-energy particles), V L Pokrovsky Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 309-314 • Screening and antiscreening of charge in gauge theories, I B Khriplovich Physics-Uspekhi, 2010, Volume 53, Number 3, Pages 315-316

  16. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    Airborne research management and shuttle sortie planning at the Ames Research Center are reported. Topics discussed include: basic criteria and procedures for the formulation and approval of airborne missions; ASO management structure and procedures; experiment design, development, and testing aircraft characteristics and experiment interfaces; information handling for airborne science missions; mission documentation requirements; and airborne science methods and shuttle sortie planning.

  17. A Shuttle evolution strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, Charles; Mallini, Charles

    1989-01-01

    An overview of a potential Space Shuttle evolution strategy is presented. A Shuttle development study which reviews past and ongoing studies, implements a Shuttle Enhancement Data Base, and develops a methodology and a strawman evolution strategy is discussed. The long-term goals of a Shuttle evolution strategy, including increased reliability, lower cost, robustness, resiliency, increased capability, and assured access are addressed.

  18. Probabilistic Analysis of Space Shuttle Body Flap Actuator Ball Bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Jett, Timothy R.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Zaretsky, Erin V.

    2007-01-01

    A probabilistic analysis, using the 2-parameter Weibull-Johnson method, was performed on experimental life test data from space shuttle actuator bearings. Experiments were performed on a test rig under simulated conditions to determine the life and failure mechanism of the grease lubricated bearings that support the input shaft of the space shuttle body flap actuators. The failure mechanism was wear that can cause loss of bearing preload. These tests established life and reliability data for both shuttle flight and ground operation. Test data were used to estimate the failure rate and reliability as a function of the number of shuttle missions flown. The Weibull analysis of the test data for a 2-bearing shaft assembly in each body flap actuator established a reliability level of 99.6 percent for a life of 12 missions. A probabilistic system analysis for four shuttles, each of which has four actuators, predicts a single bearing failure in one actuator of one shuttle after 22 missions (a total of 88 missions for a 4-shuttle fleet). This prediction is comparable with actual shuttle flight history in which a single actuator bearing was found to have failed by wear at 20 missions.

  19. Accuracy analysis of the 2014-2015 Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 1 arc-sec C-Band height model using International Global Navigation Satellite System Service (IGS) Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukul, Manas; Srivastava, Vinee; Mukul, Malay

    2016-07-01

    Global Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data products have been widely used in Earth Sciences without an estimation of their accuracy and reliability even though large outliers exist in them. The global 1 arc-sec, 30 m resolution, SRTM C-Band (C-30) data collected in February 2000 has been recently released (2014-2015) outside North America. We present the first global assessment of the vertical accuracy of C-30 data using Ground Control Points (GCPs) from the International GNSS Service (IGS) Network of high-precision static fiducial stations that define the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Large outliers (height error ranging from -1285 to 2306 m) were present in the C-30 dataset and 14% of the data were removed to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of the dataset from ˜187 to 10.3 m which is close to the SRTM goal of an absolute vertical accuracy of RMSE ˜10 m. Globally, for outlier-filtered data from 287 GCPs, the error or difference between IGS and SRTM heights exhibited a non-normal distribution with a mean and standard error of 6.5 ± 0.5 m. Continent-wise, only Australia, North and South America complied with the SRTM goal. At stations where all the X- and C-Band SRTM data were present, the RMSE of the outlier-filtered C-30 data was 11.7 m. However, the RMSE of outlier-included dataset where C- and X-Band data were present was ˜233 m. The results suggest that the SRTM data must only be used after regional accuracy analysis and removal of outliers. If used raw, they may produce results that are statistically insignificant with RMSE in 100s of meters.

  20. Operational Use of GPS Navigation for Space Shuttle Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Propst, Carolyn A.

    2008-01-01

    The STS-118 flight of the Space Shuttle Endeavour was the first shuttle mission flown with three Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers in place of the three legacy Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) units. This marked the conclusion of a 15 year effort involving procurement, missionization, integration, and flight testing of a GPS receiver and a parallel effort to formulate and implement shuttle computer software changes to support GPS. The use of GPS data from a single receiver in parallel with TACAN during entry was successfully demonstrated by the orbiters Discovery and Atlantis during four shuttle missions in 2006 and 2007. This provided the confidence needed before flying the first all GPS, no TACAN flight with Endeavour. A significant number of lessons were learned concerning the integration of a software intensive navigation unit into a legacy avionics system. These lessons have been taken into consideration during vehicle design by other flight programs, including the vehicle that will replace the Space Shuttle, Orion.

  1. Flight Planning Branch Space Shuttle Lessons Learned

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, Jennifer B.; Scott, Tracy A.; Hyde, Crystal M.

    2011-01-01

    Planning products and procedures that allow the mission flight control teams and the astronaut crews to plan, train and fly every Space Shuttle mission have been developed by the Flight Planning Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center. As the Space Shuttle Program ends, lessons learned have been collected from each phase of the successful execution of these Shuttle missions. Specific examples of how roles and responsibilities of console positions that develop the crew and vehicle attitude timelines will be discussed, as well as techniques and methods used to solve complex spacecraft and instrument orientation problems. Additionally, the relationships and procedural hurdles experienced through international collaboration have molded operations. These facets will be explored and related to current and future operations with the International Space Station and future vehicles. Along with these important aspects, the evolution of technology and continual improvement of data transfer tools between the shuttle and ground team has also defined specific lessons used in the improving the control teams effectiveness. Methodologies to communicate and transmit messages, images, and files from Mission Control to the Orbiter evolved over several years. These lessons have been vital in shaping the effectiveness of safe and successful mission planning that have been applied to current mission planning work in addition to being incorporated into future space flight planning. The critical lessons from all aspects of previous plan, train, and fly phases of shuttle flight missions are not only documented in this paper, but are also discussed as how they pertain to changes in process and consideration for future space flight planning.

  2. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Special session of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk Editorial Board celebrating the 90th anniversary of the journal(19 November 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Vitalii L.; Dremin, Igor M.; Shirkov, Dmitrii V.; Smirnov, Boris M.; Aleksandrov, Evgenii B.; Vershovskii, Anton K.; Maksimov, Evgenii G.; Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2009-06-01

    A special session of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk (UFN) Editorial Board (UFN's oral issue) celebrating the 90th anniversary of the journal and the 50th anniversary of its English version (first under the title Soviet Physics-Uspekhi and then under the current title Physics-Uspekhi) took place on November 19, 2008 in the conference hall of the P N Lebedev Physical Institute (FIAN) of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The following reports were presented at the session: (1) Ginzburg V L (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow), Aksent'eva M S (Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk, RAS, Moscow) "On the history of UFN (introductory talk)"; (2) Dremin I M (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "The physics of the Large Hadron Collider"; (3) Shirkov D V (Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow region) "Pair correlations and spontaneous symmetry breaking"; (4) Smirnov B M (Institute for High Temperatures, RAS, Moscow) "Modeling of gas-discharge plasma"; (5) Sadovskii M V (Institute of Electrophysics, RAS Ural Branch, Ekaterinburg) "High-temperature superconductivity in iron-based layered compounds"; (6) Aleksandrov E B (All-Russian Research Center, S I Vavilov State Optical Institute, St. Petersburg) Physical limits in the metrology of a magnetic field by atomic spectroscopy techniques"; (7) Maksimov E G (P N Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Microscopic studies of the nature of the ferroelectric transition"; (8) Fortov V E (Institute for High Energy Density, RAS, Moscow) "Extreme states of matter". Articles based on reports 1-4 and 6-8 are published below in this special issue of the Uspekhi Fizicheskikh Nauk journal devoted to the jubilees of the Russian and English versions of the journal.

  3. Space-Shuttle Emulator Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, Scott; Askew, Bill; Barry, Matthew R.; Leigh, Agnes; Mermelstein, Scott; Owens, James; Payne, Dan; Pemble, Jim; Sollinger, John; Thompson, Hiram; Thompson, James C.; Walter, Patrick; Brummel, David; Weismuller, Steven P.; Aadsen, Ron; Hurley, Keith; Ruhle, Chris

    2007-01-01

    A package of software has been developed to execute a raw binary image of the space shuttle flight software for simulation of the computational effects of operation of space shuttle avionics. This software can be run on inexpensive computer workstations. Heretofore, it was necessary to use real flight computers to perform such tests and simulations. The package includes a program that emulates the space shuttle orbiter general- purpose computer [consisting of a central processing unit (CPU), input/output processor (IOP), master sequence controller, and buscontrol elements]; an emulator of the orbiter display electronics unit and models of the associated cathode-ray tubes, keyboards, and switch controls; computational models of the data-bus network; computational models of the multiplexer-demultiplexer components; an emulation of the pulse-code modulation master unit; an emulation of the payload data interleaver; a model of the master timing unit; a model of the mass memory unit; and a software component that ensures compatibility of telemetry and command services between the simulated space shuttle avionics and a mission control center. The software package is portable to several host platforms.

  4. STS 63 Flight Day 4 Highlights/MIR-Shuttle Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  5. STS 63 flight day 4 highlights/MIR-Shuttle rendezvous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-02-01

    STS 63 Flight, day 4, the MIR-Shuttle rendezvous is highlighted in this video. The six-member team in the Shuttle are introduced and discuss their functions and tests for this day of the flight. There is actual footage of earth from space, of the MIR Space Station, a tour of the Shuttle cockpit, some footage from the MIR of the Space Shuttle, and footage from inside the MIR with the cosmonauts. Mission control communications with the Shuttle, communication between the Shuttle and MIR, and an historic communication between the Shuttle's astronauts and President Bill Clinton are included. President Clinton interviews each of the six-member team and discusses the upcoming space walk by Dr. Bernard Harris, the first black astronaut to walk in space. This video was recorded on February 6, 1995.

  6. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  7. Earth resources survey applications of the space shuttle sortie mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, R. D.; Smith, W. L.; Thomson, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    The use of the shuttle sortie mode for earth observation applications was investigated and its feasibility for applied research and instrument development was appraised. The results indicate that the shuttle sortie missions offer unique advantages and that specific aspects of earth applications are particularly suited to the sortie mode.

  8. Optimal lifting ascent trajectories for the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rau, T. R.; Elliott, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    The performance gains which are possible through the use of optimal trajectories for a particular space shuttle configuration are discussed. The spacecraft configurations and aerodynamic characteristics are described. Shuttle mission payload capability is examined with respect to the optimal orbit inclination for unconstrained, constrained, and nonlifting conditions. The effects of velocity loss and heating rate on the optimal ascent trajectory are investigated.

  9. Space shuttle navigation analysis. Volume 1: GPS aided navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matchett, G. A.; Vogel, M. A.; Macdonald, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    Analytical studies related to space shuttle navigation are presented. Studies related to the addition of NAVSTAR Global Positioning System user equipment to the shuttle avionics suite are presented. The GPS studies center about navigation accuracy covariance analyses for both developmental and operational phases of GPS, as well as for various orbiter mission phases.

  10. Thousands gather to watch a Space Shuttle Main Engine Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Approximately 13,000 people fill the grounds at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center for the first-ever evening public engine test of a Space Shuttle Main Engine. The test marked Stennis Space Center's 20th anniversary celebration of the first Space Shuttle mission.

  11. STS-76 liftoff - aft end of shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The chase to catch up with the Russian Space Station Mir gets under way with an on-time liftoff, as the Space Shuttle Atlantis hurtles skyward from Launch Pad 39B at 3:13:04 a.m. EST, March 22. On board for Mission STS-76 -- also the 76th Shuttle flight - - are a crew of six: Mission Commander Kevin P. Chilton; Pilot Richard A. Searfoss; Payload Commander Ronald M. Sega; and Mission Specialists Michael Richard 'Rich' Clifford, Linda M. Godwin, and Shannon W. Lucid. During the course of the planned nine-day flight, Atlantis will rendezvous and dock with Mir for athe third time. Lucid will transfer to the station for an approximately four-and-a-half month stay, becoming the first American woman to live on Mir. In addition, Godwin and Clifford will perform an extravehicular activity later in the mission, the first around the mated Atlantis-Mir assembly.

  12. Shuttle Electrical Power Analysis Program (SEPAP) distribution circuit analysis report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torina, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    An analysis and evaluation was made of the operating parameters of the shuttle electrical power distribution circuit under load conditions encountered during a normal Sortie 2 Mission with emphasis on main periods of liftoff and landing.

  13. Shuttle Entry Imaging Using Infrared Thermography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvath, Thomas; Berry, Scott; Alter, Stephen; Blanchard, Robert; Schwartz, Richard; Ross, Martin; Tack, Steve

    2007-01-01

    During the Columbia Accident Investigation, imaging teams supporting debris shedding analysis were hampered by poor entry image quality and the general lack of information on optical signatures associated with a nominal Shuttle entry. After the accident, recommendations were made to NASA management to develop and maintain a state-of-the-art imagery database for Shuttle engineering performance assessments and to improve entry imaging capability to support anomaly and contingency analysis during a mission. As a result, the Space Shuttle Program sponsored an observation campaign to qualitatively characterize a nominal Shuttle entry over the widest possible Mach number range. The initial objectives focused on an assessment of capability to identify/resolve debris liberated from the Shuttle during entry, characterization of potential anomalous events associated with RCS jet firings and unusual phenomenon associated with the plasma trail. The aeroheating technical community viewed the Space Shuttle Program sponsored activity as an opportunity to influence the observation objectives and incrementally demonstrate key elements of a quantitative spatially resolved temperature measurement capability over a series of flights. One long-term desire of the Shuttle engineering community is to calibrate boundary layer transition prediction methodologies that are presently part of the Shuttle damage assessment process using flight data provided by a controlled Shuttle flight experiment. Quantitative global imaging may offer a complementary method of data collection to more traditional methods such as surface thermocouples. This paper reviews the process used by the engineering community to influence data collection methods and analysis of global infrared images of the Shuttle obtained during hypersonic entry. Emphasis is placed upon airborne imaging assets sponsored by the Shuttle program during Return to Flight. Visual and IR entry imagery were obtained with available airborne

  14. Space Shuttle Corrosion Protection Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Cris E.

    2007-01-01

    The reusable Manned Space Shuttle has been flying into Space and returning to earth for more than 25 years. The launch pad environment can be corrosive to metallic substrates and the Space Shuttles are exposed to this environment when preparing for launch. The Orbiter has been in service well past its design life of 10 years or 100 missions. As part of the aging vehicle assessment one question under evaluation is how the thermal protection system and aging protective coatings are performing to insure structural integrity. The assessment of this cost resources and time. The information is invaluable when minimizing risk to the safety of Astronauts and Vehicle. This paper will outline a strategic sampling plan and some operational improvements made by the Orbiter Structures team and Corrosion Control Review Board.

  15. The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brose, H. F.; Greenwood, F. H.; Thompson, C. D.; Willis, N. C.

    1974-01-01

    The Representative Shuttle Environmental Control System (RSECS) program was conceived to provide NASA with a prototype system representative of the Shuttle Environmental Control System (ECS). Discussed are the RSECS program objectives, predicated on updating and adding to the early system as required to retain its usefulness during the Shuttle ECS development and qualification effort. Ultimately, RSECS will be replaced with a flight-designed system using either refurbished development or qualification equipment to provide NASA with a flight simulation capability during the Shuttle missions. The RSECS air revitalization subsystem and the waste management support subsystem are being tested. A water coolant subsystem and a freon coolant subsystem are in the development and planning phases.

  16. STS-111 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Pictured here is the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour, STS-111 mission insignia. The International Space Station (ISS) recieved a new crew, Expedition Five, replacing Expedition Four after a record-setting 196 days in space, when STS-111 visited in June 2002. Three spacewalks enabled the STS-111 crew to accomplish additional mission objectives: the delivery and installation of a new platform for the ISS robotic arm, the Mobile Base System (MBS) which is an important part of the Station's Mobile Servicing System allowing the robotic arm to travel the length of the Station; the replacement of a wrist roll joint on the Station's robotic arm; and unloading supplies and science experiments from the Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module, which made its third trip to the orbital outpost. The STS-111 mission, the 14th Shuttle mission to visit the ISS, was launched on June 5, 2002 and landed June 19, 2002.

  17. STS-83 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The crew patch for NASA's STS-83 mission depicts the Space Shuttle Columbia launching into space for the first Microgravity Sciences Laboratory 1 (MSL-1) mission. MSL-1 investigated materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in the microgravity environment of space, experiments that were conducted in the Spacelab Module in the Space Shuttle Columbia's cargo bay. The center circle symbolizes a free liquid under microgravity conditions representing various fluid and materials science experiments. Symbolic of the combustion experiments is the surrounding starburst of a blue flame burning in space. The 3-lobed shape of the outermost starburst ring traces the dot pattern of a transmission Laue photograph typical of biotechnology experiments. The numerical designation for the mission is shown at bottom center. As a forerunner to missions involving International Space Station (ISS), STS-83 represented the hope that scientific results and knowledge gained during the flight will be applied to solving problems on Earth for the benefit and advancement of humankind.

  18. President and Mrs. Clinton watch launch of Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    From the roof of the Launch Control Center, U.S. President Bill Clinton and First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton track the plume and successful launch of Space Shuttle Discovery on mission STS-95. This was the first launch of a Space Shuttle to be viewed by President Clinton, or any President to date. They attended the launch to witness the return to space of American legend John H. Glenn Jr., payload specialist on the mission.

  19. Infrared spectral measurement of space shuttle glow

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmadijian, M.

    1992-01-01

    Infrared spectral measurements of the space shuttle glow were successfully conducted during the STS-39 space shuttle mission. Analysis indicates that NO, NO[sup +], OH, and CO are among the molecules associated with the infrared glow phenomenon. During orbiter thruster firings the glow intensities in the infrared are enhanced by factors of 10x to 100x with significant changes in spectral distribution. These measurements were obtained with the Spacecraft Kinetic Infrared Test (SKIRT) payload which included a cryogenic infrared circular variable filter (CVF) spectrometer (0.6 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]) and a number of infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiometers (0.2 [mu]m to 5.4 [mu]m and 9.9 [mu]m to 10.4 [mu]m). In addition, glow measurements were unsuccessfully attempted with the Cryogenic Infrared Radiance Instrumentation for Shuttle (CIRRIS-1A) with its 2.5 [mu]m to 25 [mu]m Fourier transform interferometer. SKIRT CVF obtained over 14,000 spectra of quiescent shuttle glow, thruster enhanced shuttle glow, upper atmosphere airglow, aurora, orbiter environment, and deep space non-glow backgrounds during its eight day mission. The SKIRT radiometers operated almost continuously throughout the mission to provide a detailed history of the IR/VIS/UV optical environment associated with the operation of large spacecraft structures in low earth orbit. This dissertation will primarily address those measurements conducted by the SKIRT spectrometer as they relate to space shuttle glow in the infrared. The STS-39 Space Shuttle Discovery was launched from the NASA Kennedy Space Center on 28 April 1991 into a 57 degree inclination circular orbit at an altitude of 260 km.

  20. Shuttle Showcase: Firsts

    NASA Video Gallery

    The space shuttle has defined an era and broken boundaries both in space and on Earth. Among the hundreds of people who have flown on the shuttle, many have been firsts -- for their race, their cou...

  1. Advanced solar space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohlin, J. D.

    1979-01-01

    The space missions in solar physics planned for the next decade are similar in that they will have, for the most part, distinct, unifying science objectives in contrast to the more general 'exploratory' nature of the Orbiting Solar Observatory and Skylab/ATM missions of the 1960's and 70's. In particular, the strategy for advanced solar physics space missions will focus on the quantitative understanding of the physical processes that create and control the flow of electromagnetic and particulate energy from the sun and through interplanetary space at all phases of the current sunspot cycle No. 21. Attention is given to the Solar Maximum Mission, the International Solar Polar Mission, solar physics on an early Shuttle mission, principal investigator class experiments for future spacelabs, the Solar Optical Telescope, the Space Science Platform, the Solar Cycle and Dynamics Mission, and an attempt to send a spacecraft to within 4 solar radii of the sun's surface.

  2. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  3. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  4. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  5. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups.

  6. Space Shuttle Debris Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gomez, Reynaldo J., III

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the assessment of debris damage to the Space Shuttle, and the use of computation to assist in the space shuttle applications. The presentation reviews the sources of debris, a mechanism for determining the probability of damaging debris impacting the shuttle, tools used, eliminating potential damaging debris sources, the use of computation to assess while inflight damage, and a chart showing the applications that have been used on increasingly powerful computers simulate the shuttle and the debris transport.

  7. Space shuttle visual simulation system design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A recommendation and a specification for the visual simulation system design for the space shuttle mission simulator are presented. A recommended visual system is described which most nearly meets the visual design requirements. The cost analysis of the recommended system covering design, development, manufacturing, and installation is reported. Four alternate systems are analyzed.

  8. STS 133 Return Samples: Air Quality Aboard Shuttle (STS-133) and International Space Station (ULFS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, John T.

    2011-01-01

    The toxicological assessments of 2 canisters (mini-GSC or GSCs) from the Shuttle are reported. Analytical methods have not changed from earlier reports. The percent recoveries of the 3 surrogates (C-13-acetone, fluorobenzene, and chlorobenzene) from the 2 Shuttle GSCs averaged 86, 100, and 87, respectively. Based on the end-of-mission sample, the Shuttle atmosphere was acceptable for human respiration.

  9. Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bond, Timothy A.; Metcalf, Jordan L.; Asuncion, Carmelo

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the design of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Active Thermal Control Subsystem (ATCS) constructed for providing the vehicle and payload cooling during all phases of a mission and during ground turnaround operations. The operation of the Shuttle ATCS and some of the problems encountered during the first 39 flights of the Shuttle program are described, with special attention given to the major problems encountered with the degradation of the Freon flow rate on the Orbiter Columbia, the Flash Evaporator Subsystem mission anomalies which occurred on STS-26 and STS-34, and problems encountered with the Ammonia Boiler Subsystem. The causes and the resolutions of these problems are discussed.

  10. Nuclear Electric Propulsion mission operations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prickett, W. Z.; Spera, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Mission operations are presented for comet rendezvous and outer planet exploration missions conducted by unmanned Nuclear Electric Propulsion (NEP) system employing in-core thermionic reactors for electric power generation. The selected reference mission are Comet Halley rendezvous and a Jupiter orbiter at 5.9 planet radii, the orbit of the moon Io. Mission operations and options are defined from spacecraft assembly through mission completion. Pre-launch operations and related GSE requirements are identified. Shuttle launch and subsequent injection to earth escape by the Centaur d-1T are discussed, as well as power plant startup and heliocentric mission phases.

  11. Hypersonic ramjets for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubert, K. F.

    1970-01-01

    The author briefly describes why he thinks air-breathing propulsion merits serious consideration as an alternative or supplement to rocket propulsion for space shuttle missions. Several aspects of hypersonic ramjet technology are discussed which are indicative of the current state of development and of the compromises which are made in arriving at effective engine configuration concepts. Points of interest in the current NASA Hypersonic Research Engine Project are cited as to exemplify the actual development of a hydrogen-fueled, regeneratively cooled, flight-weight, dual-combustion mode hypersonic ramjet.

  12. Shuttle bioresearch laboratory breadboard simulations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taketa, S. T.

    1975-01-01

    Laboratory breadboard simulations (Tests I and II) were conducted to test concepts and assess problems associated with bioresearch support equipment, facilities, and operational integration for conducting manned earth orbital Shuttle missions. This paper describes Test I and discusses the major observations made in Test II. The tests emphasized candidate experiment protocols and requirements: Test I for biological research and Test II for crew members (simulated), subhuman primates, and radioisotope tracer studies on lower organisms. The procedures and approaches developed for these simulation activities could form the basis for Spacelab simulations and developing preflight integration, testing, and logistics of flight payloads.

  13. STS-105 Shuttle Orbiter Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a view of the Space Shuttle Discovery as it approaches the International Space Station (ISS) during the STS-105 mission. Visible in the payload bay of Discovery are the Multipurpose Logistics Module (MPLM) Leonardo at right, which stores various supplies and experiments to be transferred into the ISS; at center, the Integrated Cargo Carrier (ICC) which carries the Early Ammonia Servicer (EAS); and two Materials International Space Station Experiment (MISSE) containers at left. Aboard Discovery were the ISS Expedition Three crew, who were to replace the Expedition Two crew that had been living on the ISS for the past five months.

  14. Shuttle plate braiding machine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huey, Jr., Cecil O. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for moving yarn in a selected pattern to form a braided article. The apparatus includes a segmented grid of stationary support elements and a plurality of shuttles configured to carry yarn. The shuttles are supported for movement on the grid assembly and each shuttle includes a retractable plunger for engaging a reciprocating shuttle plate that moves below the grid assembly. Such engagement at selected times causes the shuttles to move about the grid assembly in a selected pattern to form a braided article of a particular geometry.

  15. Shuttle Columbia Post-landing Tow - with Reflection in Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A rare rain allowed this reflection of the Space Shuttle Columbia as it was towed 16 Nov. 1982, to the Shuttle Processing Area at NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility (from 1976 to 1981 and after 1994, the Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, following its fifth flight in space. Columbia was launched on mission STS-5 11 Nov. 1982, and landed at Edwards Air Force Base on concrete runway 22. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines withtwo solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the Spacelab, provide facilities for several specialists to conduct experiments in such fields as medicine, astronomy, and materials

  16. Commemoration of the 90th anniversary of the birth of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division, Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 May 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-02-01

    On 25 May 2011, the scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), devoted to the 90th anniversary of Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov's birthday, was held at the conference hall of the Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS.The agenda of the session announced on the website www.gpad.ac.ru of the PSD RAS contains the following reports: (1) Mesyats G A (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Introduction. Greetings"; (2) Ritus V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "A D Sakharov: personality and fate"; (3) Altshuler B L (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Scientific and public legacy of A D Sakharov today"; (4) Ilkaev R I (Russian Federal Nuclear Center 'All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics', Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod region) "The path of a genius: Sakharov at KB-11"; (5) Novikov I D (Astrocosmic Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Wormholes and the multielement Universe"; (6) Azizov E A (National Research Centre 'Kurchatov Institute', Moscow) "Tokamaks: 60 years later"; (7) Kardashev N S (Astrocosmic Center, Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Cosmic interferometers"; (8) Lukash V I (Lebedev Physical Institute, RAS, Moscow) "From the cosmological model to the Hubble flux formation"; (9) Grishchuk L P (Shternberg State Astronomical Institute, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow; School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff, United Kingdom) "Cosmological Sakharov oscillations and quantum mechanics of the early Universe". Articles based on reports 2-4, 6, 8, and 9 are published below. The content of report 5 is close to papers "Multicomponent Universe and astrophysics of wormholes" by I D Novikov, N S Kardashev, A A Shatskii [Phys. Usp. 50 965 (2007)] and "Dynamic model of a wormhole and the Multiuniverse model" by A A Shatskii, I D Novikov, N S Kardashev [Phys. Usp. 51 457 (2008)]. The content of report 7 is close to the paper "Radioastron - a radio telescope

  17. Sensitivity of Space Shuttle Weight and Cost to Structure Subsystem Weights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedge, T. E.; Williamson, R. P.

    1973-01-01

    Quantitative relationships between changes in space shuttle weights and costs with changes in weight of various portions of space shuttle structural subsystems are investigated. These sensitivity relationships, as they apply at each of three points in the development program (preliminary design phase, detail design phase, and test/operational phase) have been established for five typical space shuttle designs, each of which was responsive to the missions in the NASA Shuttle RFP, and one design was that selected by NASA.

  18. The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rattinger, I.

    1972-01-01

    The potential impact of the space shuttle on space benefits to mankind is discussed. The space shuttle mission profile is presented and the capabilities of the spacecraft to perform various maneuvers and operations are described. The cost effectiveness of the space shuttle operation is analyzed. The effects upon technological superiority and national economics are examined. Line drawings and artist concepts of space shuttle configurations are included to clarify the discussion.

  19. Space shuttle: Program overview. [low-cost transportation to and from earth orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The primary design and operations goal for the space shuttle program to provide low-cost transportation to and from earth orbits for the purpose of conducting investigations in space via spacelabs and free flying or automated satellites is reviewed. The space shuttle system and mission profile is described along with the space shuttle orbiter system and payloads accommodations, attachments, and handling. The implications the space shuttle program has for international cooperation in space are mentioned.

  20. Space Shuttle Atlantis after RSS rollback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Lights on the Fixed Service Structure give a holiday impression at Launch Pad 39A where Space Shuttle Atlantis is poised for launch. Above the yellow-orange external tank is the Gaseous Oxygen Vent Arm, with the '''beanie cap''' vent hood raised. Before cryogenic loading, the hood will be lowered into position over the external tank vent louvers to vent gaseous oxygen vapors away from the Shuttle. Atlantis is carrying the U.S. Laboratory Destiny, a key module in the growth of the International Space Station. Destiny will be attached to the Unity node on the Space Station using the Shuttle's robotic arm. Three spacewalks are required to complete the planned construction work during the 11- day mission. Launch is targeted for 6:11 p.m. EST and the planned landing at KSC Feb. 18 about 1:39 p.m. This mission marks the seventh Shuttle flight to the Space Station, the 23rd flight of Atlantis and the 102nd flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle program.

  1. STS-37 Shuttle Crew after Edwards landing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The crew of the Space Shuttle Atlantis gives the 'all's well' thumb's-up sign after leaving the 100-ton orbiter following their landing at 6:55 a.m. (PDT), 11 April 1991, at NASA's Ames Dryden Flight Research Facility (later redesignated Dryden Flight Research Center), Edwards, California, to conclude mission STS-37. They are, from left, Kenneth D. Cameron, pilot; Steven R. Nagel, mission commander; and mission specialists Linda M. Godwin, Jerry L. Ross, and Jay Apt. During the mission,which began with launch April 5 at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, the crew deployed the Gamma Ray Observatory. Ross and Jay also carried out two spacewalks, one to deploy an antenna on the Gamma Ray Observatory and the other to test equipment and mobility techniques for the construction of the future Space Station. The planned five-day mission was extended one day because of high winds at Edwards. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space

  2. Shuttle/Centaur Upper Stage Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, H. J.

    1984-01-01

    A joint project to design, develop, procure, and produce Centaur upper stages for use with the Space Shuttle is discussed. A common Centaur G stage 6 meters (19.5 feet) in length is being jointly developed. A longer version designated Centaur G Prime is being developed by NASA to accomplish the Galileo and International Solar-Polar Mission flights in 1986. The Centaur G and G Prime will have the capability to place, respectively, approximately 4540 kilograms (10,000 pounds) and 5910 kilograms (13,000 pounds) into geosynchronous orbit from a standard Shuttle parking orbit of 278 kilometers (150 nautical miles) and Shuttle performance (lift) capability 29,500 kilograms (65,000 pounds). The advent of high energy upper stage capability in 1986 will permit space users and spacecraft developers to utilize spacecraft growth, stage combination concepts with storage modules, teleoperator systems, and other mission peculiar devices to satisfy complex mission demands. These capabilities should greatly enhance the usefulness of the space environment and stimulate mission planners toward conception of innovative means to meet ever increasing mission requirements.

  3. Shuttle Enterprise Mated to 747 SCA for Delivery to Smithsonian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Enterprise atop the NASA 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft as it leaves NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The Enterprise, first orbiter built, was not spaceflight rated and was used in 1977 to verify the landing, approach, and glide characteristics of the orbiters. It was also used for engineering fit-checks at the shuttle launch facilities. Following approach and landing tests in 1977 and its use as an engineering vehicle, Enterprise was donated to the National Air and Space Museum in Washington, D.C. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the payload bay throughout the mission. They are then removed after the Space Shuttle returns to Earth and can be reused on future flights. Some of these orbital laboratories, like the

  4. Study of airborne science experiment management concepts for application to space shuttle. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulholland, D. R.; Reller, J. O., Jr.; Neel, C. B.; Haughney, L. C.

    1973-01-01

    The management concepts and operating procedures are documented as they apply to the planning of shuttle spacelab operations. Areas discussed include: airborne missions; formulation of missions; management procedures; experimenter involvement; experiment development and performance; data handling; safety procedures; and applications to shuttle spacelab planning. Characteristics of the airborne science experience are listed, and references and figures are included.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbiter improved auxiliary power unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagemann, D. W.; Wicklund, L. L.; Loken, G. R.; Baughman, J. R.; Lance, R. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Auxiliary Power Unit subsystem has operated successfully on three vehicles by meeting mission requirements and has proven the design for space operation. The current Auxiliary Power Unit (APU) operational life is limited to 12 missions and the APU turnaround between flights is longer than originally anticipated. The Improved APU objective is to increase life to 50 missions, reduce the three - APU subsystem vehicle weight by 140 lbs., and reduce turnaround time. The design changes incorporated into the Improved APU and the associated development testing are described.

  6. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  7. An Analysis of Shuttle Crew Scheduling Violations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristol, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    From the early years of the Space Shuttle program, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Shuttle crews have had a timeline of activities to guide them through their time on-orbit. Planners used scheduling constraints to build timelines that ensured the health and safety of the crews. If a constraint could not be met it resulted in a violation. Other agencies of the federal government also have scheduling constraints to ensure the safety of personnel and the public. This project examined the history of Space Shuttle scheduling constraints, constraints from Federal agencies and branches of the military and how these constraints may be used as a guide for future NASA and private spacecraft. This was conducted by reviewing rules and violations with regard to human aerospace scheduling constraints, environmental, political, social and technological factors, operating environment and relevant human factors. This study includes a statistical analysis of Shuttle Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) related violations to determine if these were a significant producer of constraint violations. It was hypothesized that the number of SCSC violations caused by EVA activities were a significant contributor to the total number of violations for Shuttle/ISS missions. Data was taken from NASA data archives at the Johnson Space Center from Space Shuttle/ISS missions prior to the STS-107 accident. The results of the analysis rejected the null hypothesis and found that EVA violations were a significant contributor to the total number of violations. This analysis could help NASA and commercial space companies understand the main source of constraint violations and allow them to create constraint rules that ensure the safe operation of future human private and exploration missions. Additional studies could be performed to evaluate other variables that could have influenced the scheduling violations that were analyzed.

  8. Scintillation Effects on Space Shuttle GPS Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.; Kramer, Leonard

    2001-01-01

    Irregularities in ionospheric electron density result in variation in amplitude and phase of Global Positioning System (GPS) signals, or scintillation. GPS receivers tracking scintillated signals may lose carrier phase or frequency lock in the case of phase sc intillation. Amplitude scintillation can cause "enhancement" or "fading" of GPS signals and result in loss of lock. Scintillation can occur over the equatorial and polar regions and is a function of location, time of day, season, and solar and geomagnetic activity. Mid latitude regions are affected only very rarely, resulting from highly disturbed auroral events. In the spring of 1998, due to increasing concern about scintillation of GPS signals during the upcoming solar maximum, the Space Shuttle Program began to assess the impact of scintillation on Collins Miniaturized Airborne GPS Receiver (MAGR) units that are to replace Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN) units on the Space Shuttle orbiters. The Shuttle Program must determine if scintillation effects pose a threat to safety of flight and mission success or require procedural and flight rule changes. Flight controllers in Mission Control must understand scintillation effects on GPS to properly diagnose "off nominal" GPS receiver performance. GPS data from recent Space Shuttle missions indicate that the signals tracked by the Shuttle MAGR manifest scintillation. Scintillation is observed as anomalous noise in velocity measurements lasting for up to 20 minutes on Shuttle orbit passes and are not accounted for in the error budget of the MAGR accuracy parameters. These events are typically coincident with latitude and local time occurrence of previously identified equatorial spread F within about 20 degrees of the magnetic equator. The geographic and seasonal history of these events from ground-based observations and a simple theoretical model, which have potential for predicting events for operational purposes, are reviewed.

  9. Simulating Avionics Upgrades to the Space Shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deger, Daniel; Hill, Kenneth; Braaten, Karsten E.

    2008-01-01

    Cockpit Avionics Prototyping Environment (CAPE) is a computer program that simulates the functions of proposed upgraded avionics for a space shuttle. In CAPE, pre-existing space-shuttle-simulation programs are merged with a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) display-development program, yielding a package of software that enables high-fi46 NASA Tech Briefs, September 2008 delity simulation while making it possible to rapidly change avionic displays and the underlying model algorithms. The pre-existing simulation programs are Shuttle Engineering Simulation, Shuttle Engineering Simulation II, Interactive Control and Docking Simulation, and Shuttle Mission Simulator playback. The COTS program Virtual Application Prototyping System (VAPS) not only enables the development of displays but also makes it possible to move data about, capture and process events, and connect to a simulation. VAPS also enables the user to write code in the C or C++ programming language and compile that code into the end-product simulation software. As many as ten different avionic-upgrade ideas can be incorporated in a single compilation and, thus, tested in a single simulation run. CAPE can be run in conjunction with any or all of four simulations, each representing a different phase of a space-shuttle flight.

  10. Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) Fleet Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    NASA's two Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are seen here nose to nose at Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The front mounting attachment for the Shuttle can just be seen on top of each. The SCAs are used to ferry Space Shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are; three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached, and two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back

  11. Shuttle Transportation System Case-Study Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ransom, Khadijah

    2012-01-01

    A case-study collection was developed for NASA's Space Shuttle Program. Using lessons learned and documented by NASA KSC engineers, analysts, and contractors, decades of information related to processing and launching the Space Shuttle was gathered into a single database. The goal was to provide educators with an alternative means to teach real-world engineering processes and to enhance critical thinking, decision making, and problem solving skills. Suggested formats were created to assist both external educators and internal NASA employees to develop and contribute their own case-study reports to share with other educators and students. Via group project, class discussion, or open-ended research format, students will be introduced to the unique decision making process related to Shuttle missions and development. Teaching notes, images, and related documents will be made accessible to the public for presentation of Space Shuttle reports. Lessons investigated included the engine cutoff (ECO) sensor anomaly which occurred during mission STS-114. Students will be presented with general mission infom1ation as well as an explanation of ECO sensors. The project will conclude with the design of a website that allows for distribution of information to the public as well as case-study report submissions from other educators online.

  12. Scientific uses of the space shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the possible missions which could be accomplished by the space shuttle. The areas of scientific endeavor which were considered are as follows: (1) atmospheric and space physics, (2) high energy astrophysics, (3) infrared astronomy, (4) optical and ultraviolet astronomy, (5) solar physics, (6) life sciences, and (7) planetary exploration. Specific projects to be conducted in these broader areas are defined. The modes of operation of the space shuttle are analyzed. Instruments and equipment required for conducting the experiments are identified.

  13. Food system for Space Shuttle Columbia.

    PubMed

    Stadler, C R; Bourland, C T; Rapp, R M; Sauer, R L

    1982-02-01

    The Space Shuttle's food system consists of food products preserved by dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, and moisture control. A preassembled standard menu is provided for each crew member. This is supplemented with a pantry food supply. In case of emergency, the pantry is a contingency food source, but on a nominal mission it can be used to supplement meals, and pantry items can be exchanged with standard meal items to accommodate individual food preferences. Shelf life, storage temperature, volume, and weight have been the primary factors considered in the development of the Shuttle food system.

  14. Review of the Shuttle vibration environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baugher, Charles R.; Martin, Gary L.; Delombard, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This paper will review the Microgravity Science and Applications Division's (MSAD) program to record and analyze the Shuttle's vibration environment. This program provides microgravity experimenters with time histories of the acceleration environment during their experiments and provides information for future investigators on the expected Shuttle vibration environment. The two major elements of the program will be discussed, the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Acceleration Characterization and Analysis Project (ACAP). A comparison of the acceleration measurements from five Spacelab missions will be reviewed.

  15. Shuttle-Attached Manipulator System requirements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodey, C. E.; Cepollina, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    Shuttle mission requirements and cost objectives have led to the selection of a Shuttle-Attached Manipulator System (SAMS) as a general purpose mechanism for docking, payload handling, and the general launch and retrieval of free-flying satellites. SAMS design requirements are discussed, giving attention to end effectors, kinematics, timelines, dynamics, load ratings, TV cameras and lights. Requirements for low-cost payload satellites are considered, taking into account satellites with modular subsystems which are designed for replacement and for resupply in orbit by SAMS.

  16. A next generation Space Shuttle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Hubert P.; Teixeira, Charles

    1989-01-01

    Work done over the past two years for the NASA/Johnson Space Center on possible evolutionary paths of the present Space Shuttle Orbiter and system to meet the goals of enhanced safety, mission suitability economy, and robustness is summarized in this paper. Three vehicle concepts are described: an advanced technology one-and-one-half stage vehicle, a near-term evolved Space Shuttle system closely related to today's Orbiter in concept and appearance, and an Orbiter-Glider which might be appropriate for use with emerging large space launch vehicles.

  17. Shuttle Columbia Mated to 747 SCA with Crew

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    The crew of NASA's 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA), seen mated with the Space Shuttle Columbia behind them, are from viewers left: Tom McMurtry, pilot; Vic Horton, flight engineer; Fitz Fulton, command pilot; and Ray Young, flight engineer. The SCA is used to ferry the shuttle between California and the Kennedy Space Center, Florida, and other destinations where ground transportation is not practical. The NASA 747 has special support struts atop the fuselage and internal strengthening to accommodate the additional weight of the orbiters. Small vertical fins have also been added to the tips of the horizontal stabilizers for additional stability due to air turbulence on the control surfaces caused by the orbiters. Space Shuttles are the main element of America's Space Transportation System and are used for space research and other space applications. The shuttles are the first vehicles capable of being launched into space and returning to Earth on a routine basis. Space Shuttles are used as orbiting laboratories in which scientists and mission specialists conduct a wide variety of scientific experiments. Crews aboard shuttles place satellites in orbit, rendezvous with satellites to carry out repair missions and return them to space, and retrieve satellites and return them to Earth for refurbishment and reuse. Space Shuttles are true aerospace vehicles. They leave Earth and its atmosphere under rocket power provided by three liquid-propellant main engines with two solid-propellant boosters attached plus an external liquid-fuel tank. After their orbital missions, they streak back through the atmosphere and land like airplanes. The returning shuttles, however, land like gliders, without power and on runways. Other rockets can place heavy payloads into orbit, but, they can only be used once. Space Shuttles are designed to be continually reused. When Space Shuttles are used to transport complete scientific laboratories into space, the laboratories remain inside the

  18. STS-89 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    In the STS-89 crew insignia, the link between the United States and Russia is symbolically represented by the Space Shuttle Endeavour and Russia's Mir Space Station orbiting above the Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska. The success of the joint United States-Russian missions is depicted by the Space Shuttle and Mir colored by the rising sun in the background. A shadowed representation of the International Space Station (ISS) rising with the sun represents the future program for which the Shuttle-Mir missions are prototypes. The inside rim of the insignia describes the outline of the number eight representing STS-89 as the eighth Shuttle/Mir docking mission. The nine stars represent the nine joint missions to be flown of the program and when combined with the number eight in the rim, reflect the mission number. The nine stars also symbolize the children of the crew members who will be the future beneficiaries of the joint development work of the space programs of the two countries. Along the rim are the crew members' names with David A. Wolf's name on the left and Andrew S. W. Thomas' name on the right, the returning and upgoing cosmonaut guest researcher crew members. In between and at the bottom is the name of Salizan S. Sharipov, payload specialist representing Russian Space Agency (RSA), in Cyrillic alphabet. The other crew members are Terrence W. Wilcutt, commander; Joe F. Edwards, Jr., pilot; and mission specialists Michael P. Anderson, Bonnie J. Dunbar, and James F. Reilly. The red, white and blue of the rim reflect the colors of the American and Russian flags which are also represented in the rim on either side of the joined spacecraft.

  19. Space Shuttle Propulsion Finishing Strong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, James W.; Singer, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Numerous lessons have been documented from the Space Shuttle Propulsion elements. Major events include loss of the SRB's on STS-4 and shutdown of an SSME during ascent on STS- 51F. On STS-112 only half the pyrotechnics fired to release the vehicle from the launch pad, a testament for redundancy. STS-91 exhibited freezing of a main combustion chamber pressure measurement and on STS-93 nozzle tube ruptures necessitated a low liquid level oxygen cut off of the main engines. A number of on pad aborts were experienced during the early program resulting in delays. And the two accidents, STS-51L and STS-107, had unique heritage in history from early Program decisions and vehicle configuration. Following STS-51L significant resources were invested in developing fundamental physical understanding of solid rocket motor environments and material system behavior. Human rating of solid rocket motors was truly achieved. And following STS-107, the risk of ascent debris was better characterized and controlled. Situational awareness during all mission phases improved, and the management team instituted effective risk assessment practices. These major events and lessons for the future are discussed. The last 22 flights of the Space Shuttle, following the Columbia accident, were characterized by remarkable improvement in safety and reliability. Numerous problems were solved in addition to reduction of the ascent debris hazard. The propulsion system elements evolved to high reliability and heavy lift capability. The Shuttle system, though not a operable as envisioned in the 1970's, successfully assembled the International Space Station (ISS) and provided significant logistics and down mass for ISS operations. By the end of the Program, the remarkable Space Shuttle Propulsion system achieved very high performance, was largely reusable, exhibited high reliability, and is a heavy lift earth to orbit propulsion system. The story of this amazing system is discussed in detail in the paper.

  20. Spacelab Mission 3 experiment descriptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, C. K. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission is the first operational flight of Spacelab aboard the shuttle transportation system. The primary objectives of this mission are to conduct application, science, and technology experimentation that requires the low gravity environment of Earth orbit and an extended duration, stable vehicle attitude with emphasis on materials processing. This document provides descriptions of the experiments to be performed during the Spacelab 3 mission.

  1. Shuttle user analysis (study 2.2). Volume 3: Business risk and value of operations in space (BRAVO). Part 5: Analysis of GSFC Earth Observation Satellite (EOS) system mission model using BRAVO techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Cost comparisons were made between three modes of operation (expend, ground refurbish, and space resupply) for the Earth Observation System (EOS-B) to furnish data to NASA on alternative ways to use the shuttle/EOS. Results of the analysis are presented in tabular form.

  2. Science in Orbit. The Shuttle & Spacelab Experience: 1981-1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL.

    Doing science in the Shuttle and Spacelab is a different experience than having an instrument on a satellite; science becomes more "personal." Interaction between scientists on the ground and the onboard crew in conducting experiments adds a new dimension to a science mission. It transforms the mission from a focus on machines, electronics, and…

  3. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 1: Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The space astronomy missions to be accomplished by the space shuttle are discussed. The principal instrument is the Large Space Telescope optimized for the ultraviolet and visible regions of the spectrum, but usable also in the infrared. Two infrared telescopes are also proposed and their characteristics are described. Other instruments considered for the astronomical observations are: (1) a very wide angle ultraviolet camera, (2) a grazing incidence telescope, (3) Explorer-class free flyers to measure the cosmic microwave background, and (4) rocket-class instruments which can fly frequently on a variety of missions. The stability requirements of the space shuttle for accomplishing the astronomy mission are defined.

  4. Shuttle communications design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cartier, D. E.

    1975-01-01

    The design and development of a space shuttle communication system are discussed. The subjects considered include the following: (1) Ku-band satellite relay to shuttle, (2) phased arrays, (3) PN acquisition, (4) quadriplexing of direct link ranging and telemetry, (5) communications blackout on launch and reentry, (6) acquisition after blackout on reentry, (7) wideband communications interface with the Ku-Band rendezvous radar, (8) aeroflight capabilities of the space shuttle, (9) a triple multiplexing scheme equivalent to interplex, and (10) a study of staggered quadriphase for use on the space shuttle.

  5. Rendezvous and Proximity Operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Space Shuttle rendezvous missions present unique challenges that were not fully recognized when the Shuttle was designed. Rendezvous targets could be passive (i.e., no lights or transponders), and not designed to facilitate Shuttle rendezvous, proximity operations, and retrieval. Shuttle reaction control system jet plume impingement on target spacecraft presented induced dynamics, structural loading, and contamination concerns. These issues, along with limited reaction control system propellant in the Shuttle nose, drove a change from the legacy Gemini/Apollo coelliptic profile to a stable orbit profile, and the development of new proximity operations techniques. Multiple scientific and on-orbit servicing missions, and crew exchange, assembly and replenishment flights to Mir and to the International Space Station drove further profile and piloting technique changes. These changes included new proximity operations, relative navigation sensors, and new computer generated piloting cues. However, the Shuttle's baseline rendezvous navigation system has not required modification to place the Shuttle at the proximity operations initiation point for all rendezvous missions flown.

  6. STS-34: Mission Overview Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Live footage shows Milt Heflin, the Lead Flight Director participating in the STS-34 Mission Briefing. He addresses the primary objective, and answered questions from the audience and other NASA Centers. Heflin also mentions the Shuttle Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet secondary payload, and several experiments. These experiments include Growth Hormone Crystal Distribution (Plants), Polymer Morphology, Sensor Technology Experiment, Mesoscale Lightning Experiment, Shuttle Student Involvement Program "Ice Crystals", and the Air Force Maui Optical Site.

  7. Space-shuttle interfaces/utilization. Earth Observatory Satellite system definition study (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The economic aspects of space shuttle application to a representative Earth Observatory Satellite (EOS) operational mission in the various candidate Shuttle modes of launch, retrieval, and resupply are discussed. System maintenance of the same mission capability using a conventional launch vehicle is also considered. The studies are based on application of sophisticated Monte Carlo mission simulation program developed originally for studies of in-space servicing of a military satellite system. The program has been modified to permit evaluation of space shuttle application to low altitude EOS missions in all three modes. The conclusions generated by the EOS system study are developed.

  8. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for Space Shuttle and ISS.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    2002-01-01

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  9. NASDA aquatic animal experiment facilities for space shuttle and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Satoko; Masukawa, Mitsuyo; Kamigaichi, Shigeki

    National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has developed aquatic animal experiment facilities for NASA Space Shuttle use. Vestibular Function Experiment Unit (VFEU) was firstly designed and developed for physiological research using carp in Spacelab-J (SL-J, STS-47) mission. It was modified as Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) to accommodate small aquatic animals, such as medaka and newt, for second International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-2, STS-65) mission. Then, VFEU was improved to accommodate marine fish and to perform neurobiological experiment for Neurolab (STS-90) and STS-95 missions. We have also developed and used water purification system which was adapted to each facility. Based on these experiences of Space Shuttle missions, we are studying to develop advanced aquatic animal experiment facility for both Space Shuttle and International Space Station (ISS).

  10. Shuttle derived launch vehicle wind tunnel tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tewell, J. R.; Buell, D. N.

    1985-01-01

    Studies are being conducted regarding new launch vehicle configurations which may effectively and economically share the delivery of payloads to orbit with the present Space Transportation System (STS). The role envisaged for these launch vehicles is related to the execution of missions whose requirements exceed the STS Shuttle capabilities, taking into account the delivery of much heavier or larger payloads. One class of advanced launch vehicles is configured to take advantage of the existing Shuttle hardware and facilities. Such vehicles are referred to as Shuttle Derived Vehicles (SDV). One version of an SDV consists of two STS elements, including the external tank (ET) and solid rocket boosters, and a cargo carrier. Attention is given to wind tunnel tests, which are being conducted with SDV sidemount configurations incorporating various size payload modules.

  11. Orbital impacts and the Space Shuttle windshield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelstein, Karen S.

    1995-01-01

    The Space Transportation System (STS) fleet has flown more than sixty missions over the fourteen years since its first flight. As a result of encounters with on-orbit particulates (space debris and micrometeoroids), 177 impact features (chips) have been found on the STS outer windows (through STS-65). Forty-five of the damages were large enough to warrant replacement of the window. NASA's orbital operations and vehicle inspection procedures have changes over the history of the shuttle program, in response to concerns about the orbital environment and the cost of maintaining the space shuttle. These programmatic issues will be discussed, including safety concerns, maintenance issues, inspection procedures and flight rule changes. Examples of orbital debris impacts to the shuttle windows will be provided. There will also be a brief discussion of the impact properties of glass and what design changes have been considered to improve the impact properties of the windows.

  12. Legacy of Biomedical Research During the Space Shuttle Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Judith C.

    2011-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Program provided many opportunities to study the role of spaceflight on human life for over 30 years and represented the longest and largest US human spaceflight program. Outcomes of the research were understanding the effect of spaceflight on human physiology and performance, countermeasures, operational protocols, and hardware. The Shuttle flights were relatively short, < 16 days and routinely had 4 to 6 crewmembers for a total of 135 flights. Biomedical research was conducted on the Space Shuttle using various vehicle resources. Specially constructed pressurized laboratories called Spacelab and SPACEHAB housed many laboratory instruments to accomplish experiments in the Shuttle s large payload bay. In addition to these laboratory flights, nearly every mission had dedicated human life science research experiments conducted in the Shuttle middeck. Most Shuttle astronauts participated in some life sciences research experiments either as test subjects or test operators. While middeck experiments resulted in a low sample per mission compared to many Earth-based studies, this participation allowed investigators to have repetition of tests over the years on successive Shuttle flights. In addition, as a prelude to the International Space Station (ISS), NASA used the Space Shuttle as a platform for assessing future ISS hardware systems and procedures. The purpose of this panel is to provide an understanding of science integration activities required to implement Shuttle research, review biomedical research, characterize countermeasures developed for Shuttle and ISS as well as discuss lessons learned that may support commercial crew endeavors. Panel topics include research integration, cardiovascular physiology, neurosciences, skeletal muscle, and exercise physiology. Learning Objective: The panel provides an overview from the Space Shuttle Program regarding research integration, scientific results, lessons learned from biomedical research and

  13. Discovery Takes Off on New Mission

    NASA Video Gallery

    Space shuttle Discovery began its next mission April 17, 2012, when it took off from its operational home and headed to the Smithsonian Institution where it will be put on display to inspire the pu...

  14. Space Shuttle MMOD Threat Mitigation Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, Justin L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Kerr, James H.

    2007-01-01

    Prior to each shuttle mission, threat assessments are performed to determine the risk of critical penetration, payload bay door radiator tube leak and crew module window replacement from Micrometeoroid and Orbital Debris (MMOD). Mission parameters, such as vehicle attitude, exposure time and altitude are used as inputs for the analysis. Ballistic limit equations, based on hypervelocity impact testing of shuttle materials are used to estimate the critical particle diameters of the outer surfaces of the vehicle. The assessments are performed using the BUMPER computer code at the NASA/JSC Hypervelocity Impact Technology Facility (HITF). The most critical involves the calculation of Loss of Crew and Vehicle (LOCV) risk. In recent years, NASA has implemented several techniques to reduce the risk to the Shuttle from MMOD impacts. This paper will describe on-orbit inspection of the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) regions and the methods used discern hypervelocity impact damage. Impact damage contingency plans and on-orbit repair techniques will also be discussed. The wing leading edge impact detection system (WLEIDS) and it's role in the reduction of on-orbit risk reduction will be presented. Finally, an analysis of the effectivity of alternative shuttle flight attitudes on MMOD risk will be demonstrated.

  15. The space shuttle payload planning working groups. Volume 3: High energy astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The findings of the High Energy Astrophysics working group of the space shuttle payload planning activity are presented. The objectives to be accomplished during space shuttle missions are defined as: (1) X-ray astronomy, (2) hard X-ray and gamma ray astronomy, and (3) cosmic ray astronomy. The instruments and test equipment required to accomplish the mission are identified. Recommendations for managing the installation of the equipment and conducting the missions are included.

  16. Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster Debris Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, Kristin; Kanner, Howard; Yu, Weiping

    2006-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Columbia Accident revealed a fundamental problem of the Space Shuttle Program regarding debris. Prior to the tragedy, the Space Shuttle requirement stated that no debris should be liberated that would jeopardize the flight crew and/or mission success. When the accident investigation determined that a large piece of foam debris was the primary cause of the loss of the shuttle and crew, it became apparent that the risk and scope of - damage that could be caused by certain types of debris, especially - ice and foam, were not fully understood. There was no clear understanding of the materials that could become debris, the path the debris might take during flight, the structures the debris might impact or the damage the impact might cause. In addition to supporting the primary NASA and USA goal of returning the Space Shuttle to flight by understanding the SRB debris environment and capability to withstand that environment, the SRB debris assessment project was divided into four primary tasks that were required to be completed to support the RTF goal. These tasks were (1) debris environment definition, (2) impact testing, (3) model correlation and (4) hardware evaluation. Additionally, the project aligned with USA's corporate goals of safety, customer satisfaction, professional development and fiscal accountability.

  17. Space Shuttle Navigation in the GPS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2001-01-01

    The Space Shuttle navigation architecture was originally designed in the 1970s. A variety of on-board and ground based navigation sensors and computers are used during the ascent, orbit coast, rendezvous, (including proximity operations and docking) and entry flight phases. With the advent of GPS navigation and tightly coupled GPS/INS Units employing strapdown sensors, opportunities to improve and streamline the Shuttle navigation process are being pursued. These improvements can potentially result in increased safety, reliability, and cost savings in maintenance through the replacement of older technologies and elimination of ground support systems (such as Tactical Air Control and Navigation (TACAN), Microwave Landing System (MLS) and ground radar). Selection and missionization of "off the shelf" GPS and GPS/INS units pose a unique challenge since the units in question were not originally designed for the Space Shuttle application. Various options for integrating GPS and GPS/INS units with the existing orbiter avionics system were considered in light of budget constraints, software quality concerns, and schedule limitations. An overview of Shuttle navigation methodology from 1981 to the present is given, along with how GPS and GPS/INS technology will change, or not change, the way Space Shuttle navigation is performed in the 21 5 century.

  18. Ocean recovery of Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Junker, L. J.

    1973-01-01

    Cost effective recovery of the expended Space-Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRB) from the ocean will result in significant overall cost savings to the Space Shuttle Program. The ocean recovery mission begins with the dispatching of the recovery team to the predicted splashdown area. The SRBs, drogue parachutes and main parachutes must be tracked, located, retrieved, and transported to land where they will be refurbished and recycled for reuse. Trade studies to be conducted will consider the recovery mission requirements and weigh the advantages, disadvantages and costs of various candidate recovery systems. Major parameters effecting the selection of the final system will ensure that the system will meet overall objectives. Large- and small-scale SRB model testing has been conducted to establish characteristics of SRBs during water entry, floating free and under tow.

  19. Rendezvous and Proximity Operations of the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, John L.

    2005-01-01

    Space Shuttle rendezous missions presented unique challenges that were not fully recognized when the Shuttle was designed. Rendezvous targets could be passive (i.e., no lights or transponders), and not designed to facilitate Shuttle rendezvous, proximity operations and retrieval. Shuttle reaction control system jet plume impingement on target spacecraft presented induced dynamics, structural loading and contamination concerns. These issues, along with limited forward reaction control system propellant, drove a change from the Gemimi/Apollo coelliptic profile heritage to a stable orbit profile, and the development of new proximity operations techniques. Multiple scientific and on-orbit servicing missions and crew exchange, assembly and replinishment flights to Mir and to the International Space Station drove further profile and piloting technique changes, including new relative navigation sensors and new computer generated piloting cues.

  20. Mission Simulators

    NASA Video Gallery

    Students will use NASA Web-based simulators to follow sequenced directions and complete ordered tasks while learning how the shuttle is made ready for flight, how the shuttle docks with the Interna...