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Sample records for 95th percentile male

  1. Application of Radial Basis Function Methods in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-11-01

    Human body finite element models (FEMs) are a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. However, the traditional model development process can be time-consuming. Scaling and morphing an existing FEM is an attractive alternative for generating morphologically distinct models for further study. The objective of this work is to use a radial basis function to morph the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) to the body habitus of a 95th percentile male (M95) and to perform validation tests on the resulting model. The GHBMC M50 model (v. 4.3) was created using anthropometric and imaging data from a living subject representing a 50th percentile male. A similar dataset was collected from a 95th percentile male (22,067 total images) and was used in the morphing process. Homologous landmarks on the reference (M50) and target (M95) geometries, with the existing FE node locations (M50 model), were inputs to the morphing algorithm. The radial basis function was applied to morph the FE model. The model represented a mass of 103.3 kg and contained 2.2 million elements with 1.3 million nodes. Simulations of the M95 in seven loading scenarios were presented ranging from a chest pendulum impact to a lateral sled test. The morphed model matched anthropometric data to within a rootmean square difference of 4.4% while maintaining element quality commensurate to the M50 model and matching other anatomical ranges and targets. The simulation validation data matched experimental data well in most cases. PMID:26192960

  2. Dosimetric impacts of microgravity: an analysis of 5th, 50th and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-02-01

    Computational phantoms serve an important role in organ dosimetry and risk assessment performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A previous study investigated the impact on organ dose equivalents and effective doses from the use of the University of Florida hybrid adult male (UFHADM) and adult female (UFHADF) phantoms at differing height and weight percentiles versus those given by the two existing NASA phantoms, the computerized anatomical man (CAM) and female (CAF) (Bahadori et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 1671-94). In the present study, the UFHADM and UFHADF phantoms of different body sizes were further altered to incorporate the effects of microgravity. Body self-shielding distributions are generated using the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT), and the results are combined with depth dose data from the NASA codes BRYNTRN and HZETRN to yield organ dose equivalents and their rates for a variety of space radiation environments. It is found that while organ dose equivalents are indeed altered by the physiological effects of microgravity, the magnitude of the change in overall risk (indicated by the effective dose) is minimal for the spectra and simplified shielding configurations considered. The results also indicate, however, that UFHADM and UFHADF could be useful in designing dose reduction strategies through optimized positioning of an astronaut during encounters with solar particle events.

  3. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using Multi-Modality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Ashley R.; Gayzik, F. Scott; Moreno, Daniel P.; Martin, R. Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use data from a multi-modality image set of males and females representing the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (n=6) to examine abdominal organ location, morphology, and rib coverage variations between supine and seated postures. Medical images were acquired from volunteers in three image modalities including Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and upright MRI (uMRI). A manual and semi-automated segmentation method was used to acquire data and a registration technique was employed to conduct a comparative analysis between abdominal organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in both postures. Location of abdominal organs, defined by center of gravity movement, varied between postures and was found to be significant (p=0.002 to p=0.04) in multiple directions for each organ. In addition, morphology changes, including compression and expansion, were seen in each organ as a result of postural changes. Rib coverage, defined as the projected area of the ribs onto the abdominal organs, was measured in frontal, lateral, and posterior projections, and also varied between postures. A significant change in rib coverage between postures was measured for the spleen and right kidney (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The results indicate that posture affects the location, morphology and rib coverage area of abdominal organs and these implications should be noted in computational modeling efforts focused on a seated posture. PMID:24406951

  4. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  5. Risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic Youth with BMI > or = 95th percentile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize children at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to explore possible mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD in Hispanic youth with a body mass index > or =95th percentile. Hispanic nonoverweight (n = 475) and overweight (n = 517) children, ages 4 to 19 y, wer...

  6. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  7. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  8. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material. PMID:20386192

  9. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  10. Thoracic response targets for a computational model: a hierarchical approach to assess the biofidelity of a 50th-percentile occupant male finite element model.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Kent, Richard W; Kindig, Matthew; Li, Zuoping; Subit, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Current finite element human thoracic models are typically evaluated against a limited set of loading conditions; this is believed to limit their capability to predict accurate responses. In this study, a 50th-percentile male finite element model (GHBMC v4.1) was assessed under various loading environments (antero-posterior rib bending, point loading of the denuded ribcage, omnidirectional pendulum impact and table top) through a correlation metric tool (CORA) based on linearly independent signals. The load cases were simulated with the GHBMC model and response corridors were developed from published experimental data. The model was found to be in close agreement with the experimental data both qualitatively and quantitatively (CORA ratings above 0.75) and the response of the thorax was overall deemed biofidelic. This study also provides relevant corridors and an objective rating framework that can be used for future evaluation of thoracic models. PMID:25681717

  11. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  12. Head Impact Exposure in Male and Female Collegiate Ice Hockey Players

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Bethany J.; Beckwith, Jonathan G.; Greenwald, Richard M.; Chu, Jeffrey J.; McAllister, Thomas W.; Flashman, Laura A.; Maerlender, Arthur C.; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify head impact exposure (frequency, location and magnitude of head impacts) for individual male and female collegiate ice hockey players and to investigate differences in exposure by sex, player position, session type, and team. Ninety-nine (41 male, 58 female) players were enrolled and 37,411 impacts were recorded over three seasons. Frequency of impacts varied significantly by sex (males: 287 per season, females: 170, p<0.001) and helmet impact location (p<0.001), but not by player position (p=0.088). Head impact frequency also varied by session type; both male and female players sustained more impacts in games than in practices (p<0.001), however the magnitude of impacts did not differ between session types. There was no difference in 95th percentile peak linear acceleration between sexes (males: 41.6g, females: 40.8g), but 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were greater for males than females (4424, 3409 rad/s2, and 25.6, 22.3, respectively). Impacts to the back of the helmet resulted in the greatest 95th percentile peak linear accelerations for males (45.2g) and females (50.4g), while impacts to the side and back of the head were associated with the greatest 95th percentile peak rotational accelerations (males: 4719, 4256 rad/sec2, females: 3567, 3784 rad/sec2 respectively). It has been proposed that reducing an individual’s head impact exposure is a practical approach for reducing the risk of brain injuries. Strategies to decrease an individual athlete’s exposure need to be sport and gender specific, with considerations for team and session type. PMID:24210478

  13. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  14. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  15. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  16. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  17. LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE. CHICAGO SKYWAY TOLL BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE. CHICAGO SKYWAY TOLL BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-145) IN BACKGROUND, REMAINS OF BALTIMORE & OHIO CHICAGO TERMINAL RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  18. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  19. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-04-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  20. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  1. Urinary iodine percentile ranges in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie Porat; Soldin, Steven J.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The status of iodine nutrition of a population can be determined by measurement of urinary iodine concentrations since it is thought to indicate dietary iodine intake. Normally, these results are compared to population-based criteria, since there are no reference ranges for urinary iodine. Objective To determine the percentile ranges for urinary iodide (UI) concentrations in normal individuals in the United States. Materials and methods The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994) database of the civilian, non-institutionalized, iodine-sufficient US population was used. The 2.5th to 97.5th percentile ranges for urinary iodine and for urinary iodine per gram creatinine ratio (UI/Cr) (μg/g) were calculated for females and males, 6–89 years of age, each stratified by age groups. Results and conclusions We calculated the percentile ranges for urinary iodine. After exclusions of subjects with goiter or thyroid disease, the study sample included 21,530 subjects; 10,439 males and 11,091 females. For women of childbearing age (14–44 years), urinary iodine concentration 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles are 1.8–65 μg/dl or 36–539 μg/g creatinine. For pregnant women, the ranges are 4.2–55 μg/dl or 33–535 μg/g creatinine. PMID:12559616

  2. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  3. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  4. Phase angle and bioelectrical impedance vectors in adolescent and adult male athletes.

    PubMed

    Koury, Josely C; Trugo N, M F; Torres, Alexandre G

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess phase angle (PA) and bioelectrical impedance vectors (BIVA) in adolescent (n = 105, 12-19 y) and adult (n = 90, 20-50 y) male athletes practicing varied sports modalities. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) was performed with a single-frequency tetrapolar impedance analyzer after the athletes had fasted overnight for 8 h. PA and BIVA were determined from BIA data. PA presented correlations (P < .01) with body-mass index (r = .58) in all athletes and also with age in adolescent (r = .63) and adult (r = -.27) athletes. Compared with adults, adolescent athletes presented lower PA and higher frequency of PA below the 5th percentile of a reference population (P < .001). The adolescents with low PA were mostly football and basketball players. The BIVA confidence ellipses of adult and adolescent athletes were different (P < .001) between them and from their respective reference populations and were closer than those of adult and adolescent nonathletes. About 80% of the athletes were in the 95th percentile of BIVA tolerance ellipses and in quadrants consistent with adequate body cell mass and total body water. The adolescent athletes outside the 95th percentile ellipse were all football and basketball players who showed indications of decreased water retention and body cell mass and of increased water retention, respectively. PA and BIVA ellipses showed that the intense training routine of the athletes changed functional and hydration parameters and that the magnitude of these changes in adolescents may depend on the sport modality practiced. PMID:24414089

  5. Estimated Daily Phthalate Exposures in a Population of Mothers of Male Infants Exhibiting Reduced Anogenital Distance

    PubMed Central

    Marsee, Kevin; Woodruff, Tracey J.; Axelrad, Daniel A.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Swan, Shanna H.

    2006-01-01

    Phthalate diesters have been shown to be developmental and reproductive toxicants in animal studies. A recent epidemiologic study showed certain phthalates to be significantly associated with reduced anogenital distance in human male infants, the first evidence of subtle developmental effects in human male infants exposed prenatally to phthalates. We used two previously published methods to estimate the daily phthalate exposures for the four phthalates whose urinary metabolites were statistically significantly associated with developmental effects in the 214 mother–infant pairs [di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP)] and for another important phthalate [di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP)]. We estimated the median and 95th percentile of daily exposures to DBP to be 0.99 and 2.68 μg/kg/day, respectively; for DEP, 6.64 and 112.3 μg/kg/day; for BBzP, 0.50 and 2.47 μg/kg/day; and for DEHP, 1.32 and 9.32 μg/kg/day. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reference doses for these chemicals are 100 (DBP), 800 (DEP), 200 (BBzP), and 20 (DEHP) μg/kg/day. The median and 95th percentile exposure estimates for the phthalates associated with reduced anogenital distance in the study population are substantially lower than current U.S. EPA reference doses for these chemicals and could be informative to any updates of the hazard assessments and risk assessments for these chemicals. PMID:16759976

  6. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3(rd), 10(th), 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th), 97(th) percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26-42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  7. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  8. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would…

  9. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  10. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  11. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  12. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  13. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyoung; Jang, Hye Lim; Kang, Byung Ho; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Yong-Sung; Shim, Kye Shik; Lim, Jae Woo; Bae, Chong-Woo; Chung, Sung-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010-2012), smoothed percentile curves (3(rd)-97(th)) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22-23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  14. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  15. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…

  16. Punching Wholes into Parts, or Beating the Percentile Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, Nancy R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a facetious, ingenious resolution to the percentile dilemma concerning above- and below-average test scores. If schools enrolled the same number of pigs as students and tested both groups, the pigs would fill up the bottom half and all children would rank in the top 50 percent. However, some wrinkles need to be ironed out! (MLH)

  17. Immigration and Naturalization of Adopted Children. Report (to Accompany H.R. 12508), Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 95th Congress, Second Session. Report No. 95-1301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This report from the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, 95th Congress, recommends passage of the bill (H.R. 12508) to amend the Immigration and Nationality Act. The purpose of H.R. 12508 is to establish uniform procedures for admission to the United States of adopted or prospective adoptive children of U.S. citizens and to…

  18. 77 FR 16907 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB 505; Inflatable Side-Facing Seat Three-Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... that range from the fifth percentile female to the ninety-fifth percentile male. Energy absorption must... take into consideration a range of stature from a 5th percentile female to a 95th percentile male. The... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov ....

  19. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions. PMID:22444086

  20. Hormone Disruption by PBDEs in Adult Male Sport Fish Consumers

    PubMed Central

    Turyk, Mary E.; Persky, Victoria W.; Imm, Pamela; Knobeloch, Lynda; Chatterton, Robert; Anderson, Henry A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Persistent pollutants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), affect endocrine function. Human exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are similar in structure to PCBs, has increased recently, but health effects have not been well studied. Objectives Our goal in this study was to determine whether PBDE body burdens are related to thyroid and steroid hormone levels, thyroid antibodies, and thyroid disease in a cohort of frequent and infrequent adult male sport fish consumers. Methods We tested serum from 405 adult males for PBDE congeners, PCB congeners, testosterone, sex-hormone–binding globulin (SHBG), SHBG-bound testosterone, thyroglobulin antibodies, and the thyroid hormones thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and T4-binding globulin (TBG). We collected data on demographics, fish consumption, medical diseases, and medication use. Results The median sum of PBDEs was 38 ng/g lipid. In 308 men without thyroid disease or diabetes, PBDEs were positively related to measures of T4 and reverse T3 and inversely related to total T3 and TSH. PBDEs were positively related to the percentage of T4 bound to albumin, and inversely related to the percentage of T4 bound to TBG. Associations of BDE congeners with hormones varied. BDE-47 was positively associated with testosterone levels. Participants with PBDEs over the 95th percentile were more likely to have thyroglobulin antibodies, although high PBDE exposure was not associated with thyroid disease. PBDE effects were independent of PCB exposure and sport fish consumption. Conclusions PBDE exposure, at levels comparable with those of the general U.S. population, was associated with increased thyroglobulin antibodies and increased T4 in adult males. PMID:19079713

  1. Binorm-a fortran subroutine to calculate the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    BINORM is a FORTRAN subroutine for calculating the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution. By using a linear transformation, the percentiles of a binormal distribution can be obtained. The percentiles of a binormal distribution are useful for plotting purposes, for establishing confidence intervals, and for sampling from a mixed population that consists of two normal distributions. ?? 1977.

  2. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  3. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  4. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  5. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  6. Hypothesis Testing of Population Percentiles via the Wald Test with Bootstrap Variance Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William D.; Romer, Jacob E.

    2016-01-01

    Testing the equality of percentiles (quantiles) between populations is an effective method for robust, nonparametric comparison, especially when the distributions are asymmetric or irregularly shaped. Unlike global nonparametric tests for homogeneity such as the Kolmogorv-Smirnov test, testing the equality of a set of percentiles (i.e., a percentile profile) yields an estimate of the location and extent of the differences between the populations along the entire domain. The Wald test using bootstrap estimates of variance of the order statistics provides a unified method for hypothesis testing of functions of the population percentiles. Simulation studies are conducted to show performance of the method under various scenarios and to give suggestions on its use. Several examples are given to illustrate some useful applications to real data. PMID:27034909

  7. Shaping in the 21st century: Moving percentile schedules into applied settings

    PubMed Central

    Galbicka, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    The present paper provides a primer on percentile reinforcement schedules, which have been used for two decades to study response differentiation and shaping in the laboratory. Arranged in applied settings, percentile procedures could be used to specify response criteria, standardizing treatment across subjects, trainers, and times to provide a more consistent training environment while maintaining the sensitivity to the individual's repertoire that is the hallmark of shaping. Percentile schedules are also valuable tools in analyzing the variables of which responding is a function, both inside and outside the laboratory. Finally, by formalizing the rules of shaping, percentile schedules provide a useful heuristic of the processes involved in shaping behavior, even for those situations that may not easily permit their implementation. As such, they may help further sensitize trainers and researchers alike to variables of critical importance in behavior change. ImagesFigure 6 PMID:16795849

  8. Comparison of daily percentiles of streamflow and rainfall to investigate stream aquifer connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, Ross S.; Hostetler, Stephen; Slatter, Emily

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA frequency analysis approach was used to investigate the hydraulic connectivity between streams and aquifers, by comparing daily percentiles of streamflow and rainfall. Three Australian streams were examined - a dominantly gaining stream (Wilsons River, NSW), a dominantly gaining stream modified by significant water extraction (Ovens River, Victoria) and a dominantly losing stream (Mooki River, NSW). For the gaining stream examples, a lag is observed between the seasonal peak in the low-flow percentile curves and the seasonal peak in the daily rainfall percentile curve. Cross-correlation was used to calculate the time-shift that provides the best fit between the streamflow and rainfall percentile curves. There is a good correlation ( r2 > 0.8) between the reference rainfall percentile curve and the shifted streamflow percentile curves for gaining streams. The lags evident between the rainfall and streamflow percentile curves represent the processes of first replenishing catchment storages (such as soil moisture and groundwater) and subsequent release to the stream. This is largely a function of catchment hydrogeology as well as climate, notably the magnitude and regularity of rainfall events. Catchment size is not a controlling factor. Analysis of these lags provides insights into the dynamics of groundwater recharge, storage and release. Changes in the lag times over the flow percentiles can reflect changes in the dominant catchment storage contributing to streamflow. For the Wilsons River, the contribution from a groundwater system with longer flow paths increases at lower flow percentiles. This can be critical when protecting minimum streamflows, as near-stream groundwater flow may not be the only determining factor. The impact of water extraction can be recognised in this analysis. For the Ovens River, streamflow deficits relative to the rainfall percentile curve correspond to the summer period of high irrigation demand. Such a deficit was also observed

  9. Analysis of extreme top event frequency percentiles based on fast probability integration

    SciTech Connect

    Staple, B.; Haskin, F.E.

    1993-10-01

    In risk assessments, a primary objective is to determine the frequency with which a collection of initiating and basic events, E{sub e} leads to some undesired top event, T. Uncertainties in the occurrence rates, x{sub t}, assigned to the initiating and basic events cause uncertainty in the top event frequency, z{sub T}. The quantification of the uncertainty in z{sub T} is an essential part of risk assessment called uncertainty analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to evaluate the extreme percentiles of output variables like z{sub T}. Analytic methods such as the method of moments do not provide estimates of output percentiles and the Monte Carlo (MC) method can be used to estimate extreme output percentiles only by resorting to large sample sizes. A promising altemative to these methods is the fast probability integration (FPI) methods. These methods approximate the integrals of multi-variate functions, representing percentiles of interest, without recourse to multi-dimensional numerical integration. FPI methods give precise results and have been demonstrated to be more efficient than MC methods for estimating extreme output percentiles. FPI allows the analyst to choose extreme percentiles of interest and perform sensitivity analyses in those regions. Such analyses can provide valuable insights as to the events driving the top event frequency response in extreme probability regions. In this paper, FPI methods are adapted a) to precisely estimate extreme top event frequency percentiles and b) to allow the quantification of sensitivity measures at these extreme percentiles. In addition, the relative precision and efficiency of alternative methods for treating lognormally distributed inputs is investigated. The methodology is applied to the top event frequency expression for the dominant accident sequence from a risk assessment of Grand Gulf nuclear power plant.

  10. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  11. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. PMID:23225621

  12. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. PMID:26880623

  13. Problems with Percentiles: Student Growth Scores in New York's Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Drew

    2016-01-01

    New York State has used the Growth Model for Educator Evaluation ratings since the 2011-2012 school year. Since that time, student growth percentiles have been used as the basis for teacher and principal ratings. While a great deal has been written about the use of student test scores to measures educator effectiveness, less attention has been…

  14. Percentile Norms for the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Tests. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.

    Percentile scores for Vancouver students in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12 on the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Tests are presented. Two of the six forms of the tests were used in these administrations. Every form consists of 60 multiple-choice questions to be completed in 40 minutes. A single score, based on the number of questions answered…

  15. Can Percentiles Replace Raw Scores in the Statistical Analysis of Test Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2005-01-01

    Educational and psychological testing textbooks typically warn of the inappropriateness of performing arithmetic operations and statistical analysis on percentiles instead of raw scores. This seems inconsistent with the well-established finding that transforming scores to ranks and using nonparametric methods often improves the validity and power…

  16. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  17. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  18. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks’ gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks’ gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  19. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  20. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this…

  1. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15…

  2. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  3. Statewide Analysis of the Drainage-Area Ratio Method for 34 Streamflow Percentile Ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  4. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  5. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS)

  6. Establishing percentiles for junior tennis players based on physical fitness testing results.

    PubMed

    Roetert, E P; Piorkowski, P A; Woods, R B; Brown, S W

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of this study was the establishment of a data base. A broad data base allows for data on certain parameters to be greatly expanded and will also enhance the use and interpretation of statistical methods. A longitudinal study of these variables may also assist in monitoring the players' progress over a period of time, and can provide a useful supplement to subjective coaching appraisals. The means and standard deviation for each test were calculated according to the USTA age and gender groups, that is, 12s, 14s, and 16s for each separate gender. Additionally, the mean and standard deviations for the ages, heights, and weights of each grouping were also calculated. Once the means and standard deviations were calculated, percentile tables were developed for each of the USTA groupings (by age and gender). The percentiles for each USTA test are presented in Appendix 1. A percentile is defined as the point on the distribution below which a given percentage of the scores is found. Percentiles can provide a norm-referenced interpretation of an individual score within a distribution that often consists of scores from a comparable group of individuals. Using the USTA protocol, players and coaches now have a set of normative data by which individual player's fitness scores may be compared with participants of the USTA Area Training Centers (See appendix 1). From the test results, coaches and players can determine which fitness areas need to be improved for athletes on an individual basis. Specific training programs can then be designed based on an athlete's fitness testing results. Proper interpretation of the USTA fitness testing data base results can lead to an easy way to determine the relative position of a given fitness score in the distribution, recognizing weaker areas for the purpose of injury prevention and performance enhancement. Each player can be given a profile detailing their percentile rank relative to other area training center

  7. Validation of the global reference for fetal weight and birth weight percentiles.

    PubMed

    Badade, Anirudh B; Bhide, Amar; Satoskar, Purnima; Wadekar, Darshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference curves fit the population in India and to validate the reference curves. The data were retrieved retrospectively from the records of women registration for antenatal care at a charitable maternity hospital in Mumbai, India. All pregnancies were dated on CRL obtained before 14 weeks. Births before 34(th) week were excluded. The expected frequencies of birth weights below the 1(st), 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles from three reference ranges were compared with observed frequencies. It was found that the WHO generic reference adapted to India significantly underpredicted the birth weights and that the Hadlock reference ranges significantly overpredicted the birth weights. The use of generic reference adapted to Sri Lanka showed a better fit to the observed data. We concluded that global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference ranges do not fit all the population in India and the charts need validation. Reference charts modified on the basis of data for Sri Lankan population show a better fit to the observed data, and therefore are more appropriate for use in clinical practice in South India. PMID:24347860

  8. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  9. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  10. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Susan M.; Louis, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. PMID:21918583

  11. Ensemble hydrological prediction of streamflow percentile at ungauged basins in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-06-01

    Streamflow records with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage at the site of interest are usually scarce in Pakistan. As an alternative, various regional methods have been frequently adopted to derive hydrological information, which in essence attempt to transfer hydrological information from gauged to ungauged catchments. In this study, a new concept of ensemble hydrological prediction (EHP) was introduced which is an improved regional method for hydrological prediction at ungauged sites. It was mainly based on the performance weights (triple-connection weights (TCW)) derived from Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and hydrological variable (here percentiles) calculated from three traditional regional transfer methods (RTMs) with suitable modification (i.e., three-step drainage area ratio (DAR) method, inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, and three-step regional regression analysis (RRA)). The overall results indicated that the proposed EHP method was robust for estimating hydrological percentiles at ungauged sites as compared to traditional individual RTMs. The comparative study based on NSE, percent bias (PBIAS) and the relative error (RE) as performance criteria resulted that the EHP is a constructive alternative for hydrological prediction of ungauged basins.

  12. State disparities in time trends of adolescent body mass index percentile and weight-related behaviors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to whether youth obesity prevalence has reached a plateau in the United States overall. Trends vary by state, and experts recommend exploring whether trends in weight-related behaviors are associated with changes in weight status trends. Thus, our objective was to estimate between-state variation in time trends of adolescent body mass index (BMI) percentile and weight-related behaviors from 2001 to 2007. A time series design combined cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 272,044 adolescents in 29 states from 2001 to 2007. Self-reported height, weight, sports participation, physical education, television viewing, and daily consumption of 100% fruit juice, milk, and fruits and vegetables were collected. Linear mixed models estimated state variance in time trends of behaviors and BMI percentile. Across states, BMI percentile trends were consistent despite differences in behavioral trends. Boys experienced a modest linear increase in BMI percentile (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.30); girls experienced a non-linear increase, as the rate of increase declined over time from 1.02 units in 2001-2002 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.36) to 0.23 units in 2006-2007 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.56). States in which BMI percentile decreased experienced a greater decrease in TV viewing than states where BMI percentile increased. Otherwise, states with disparate BMI percentile trends did not differ with respect to behaviors. Future research should explore the role of other behaviors (e.g., soda consumption), measurement units (e.g., portion size), and societal trends (e.g., urban sprawl) on state and national adiposity trends. PMID:21773818

  13. Percentile Ranking and Citation Impact of a Large Cohort of NHLBI-funded Cardiovascular R01 Grants

    PubMed Central

    Danthi, Narasimhan; Wu, Colin O.; Shi, Peibei; Lauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Funding decisions for cardiovascular R01 grant applications at NHLBI largely hinge on percentile rankings. It is not known whether this approach enables the highest impact science. Objective To conduct an observational analysis of percentile rankings and bibliometric outcomes for a contemporary set of funded NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants. Methods and results We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo R01 grant applications that were funded between 2001 and 2008, and followed their progress for linked publications and citations to those publications. Our co-primary endpoints were citations received per million dollars of funding, citations obtained within 2-years of publication, and 2-year citations for each grant’s maximally cited paper. In 7654 grant-years of funding that generated $3004 million of total NIH awards, the portfolio yielded 16,793 publications that appeared between 2001 and 2012 (median per grant 8, 25th and 75th percentiles 4 and 14, range 0 – 123), which received 2,224,255 citations (median per grant 1048, 25th and 75th percentiles 492 and 1,932, range 0 – 16,295). We found no association between percentile ranking and citation metrics; the absence of association persisted even after accounting for calendar time, grant duration, number of grants acknowledged per paper, number of authors per paper, early investigator status, human versus non-human focus, and institutional funding. An exploratory machine-learning analysis suggested that grants with the very best percentile rankings did yield more maximally cited papers. Conclusions In a large cohort of NHLBI-funded cardiovascular R01 grants, we were unable to find a monotonic association between better percentile ranking and higher scientific impact as assessed by citation metrics. PMID:24406983

  14. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  15. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

  16. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  17. The Association of Weight Percentile and Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Among 3 to 8 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3–8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3–8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98–11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3–8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines. PMID:21050602

  18. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  19. Seasonal to decadal forcing of high water level percentiles in the German Bight throughout the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Mudersbach, Christoph; Jensen, Jürgen; Anette, Ganske; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    For the purpose of coastal planning and management, especially under changing climatic conditions, enhanced knowledge about the evolution of extreme sea levels in the past, present, and future is required. This paper presents statistical analyses of high seasonal water level percentiles of 13 tide gauges in the German Bight, spanning over a period of up to 109 years throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Seasonal and annual high percentile time series of water levels were investigated in comparison to the mean sea level (MSL) for changes on seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal timescales. While throughout the first half of the twentieth century extreme water levels generally followed changes in MSL, during the second half of the century, linear extreme sea level trends exceeded those in MSL in the order of 9-64 cm per century. The largest, although insignificant, contribution to the magnitude of these trends occurs in the winter season (January to March), while smaller but, due to the generally lower atmospheric variability, significant changes are observed during spring (April to June). The observed multi-decadal trends are generally in good agreement with multi-decadal trends in the corresponding percentiles of local zonal surface winds. Only small parts of the trends remain unexplained. It is suggested that these remaining trends result from modifications in the local tidal regime. For the aspects of coastal planning, the findings clarify that in the German Bight, in addition to changes in MSL, potential changes in storminess and in the tidal regime significantly contribute to the development of extreme water levels. Since these factors have influenced the characteristic of extremes throughout the recent past, they also have to be taken into account when estimating design water levels for, e.g., dikes (in a warming climate) under changing greenhouse gas emissions.

  20. Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

    2008-06-01

    Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

  1. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... infections.) Latex rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not ...

  2. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  3. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... PREGNANCY? If the sperm contained in a male's semen reach a woman's vagina, pregnancy may occur. Condoms ... receptacle) on the end of it (to collect semen), place the condom against the top of the ...

  4. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  5. Male Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Matthew T.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis Osteoporosis is now recognized as a major threat to health in aging men. Morbidity and mortality, particularly following hip fracture, are substantial. Whereas trabecular bone loss starts in early adulthood, loss of cortical bone only appears to occur from mid-life onwards. Declining bioavailable estradiol levels play an integral role in male age-associated bone loss. Both pharmacologic and supportive care interventions are important for optimal care in men at increased fracture risk. PMID:22877433

  6. The Nature of Field Independence: Percentiles and Factor Structure of the Finding Embedded Figures Test--Research Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Janet G.; Thompson, Bruce

    This study investigated the nature of field independence by exploring the structure underlying responses to Forms A and B of a multiple-choice measure of field-independence, the Finding Embedded Figures Test (FEFT). Subjects included 302 students (52.7% male) enrolled in mathematics courses at a university in the southern United States. Students…

  7. Mining in low coal. Volume 2. anthropometry. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.

    1982-01-15

    This report covers the anthropometric study of low coal miners. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. The miners tended to be heavier and have greater circumferences. The measurements made in this study were used to develop 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile, quarter- and half-scale, male and female mannequins. The mannequins can be used in work place and equipment design and redesign.

  8. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T; Anderson, Richard A

    2014-08-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the non-hormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  9. Male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Jing; Page, Stephanie T.; Anderson, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Clear evidence shows that many men and women would welcome new male methods of contraception, but none have become available. The hormonal approach is based on suppression of gonadotropins and thus of testicular function and spermatogenesis, and has been investigated for several decades. This approach can achieve sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis for effective contraception in most men, but not all; the basis for these men responding insufficiently is unclear. Alternatively, the nonhormonal approach is based on identifying specific processes in sperm development, maturation and function. A range of targets has been identified in animal models, and targeted effectively. This approach, however, remains in the pre-clinical domain at present. There are, therefore, grounds for considering that safe, effective and reversible methods of contraception for men can be developed. PMID:24947599

  10. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... called metabolic syndrome. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. ... 95th percentile, a person is considered overweight; and obesity occurs when BMI is greater than the 95th ...

  11. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  12. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  13. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  14. Male pattern baldness

    MedlinePlus

    Alopecia in men; Baldness - male; Hair loss in men; Androgenetic alopecia ... Male pattern baldness is related to your genes and male sex hormones. It usually follows a pattern of receding hairline and ...

  15. Association of percentile ranking with citation impact and productivity in a large cohort of de novo NIMH-funded R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J M; Quinn, K; Bodenstein, Y A; Wu, C O; Danthi, N; Lauer, M S

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports from National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation have suggested that peer review scores of funded grants bear no association with grant citation impact and productivity. This lack of association, if true, may be particularly concerning during times of increasing competition for increasingly limited funds. We analyzed the citation impact and productivity for 1755 de novo investigator-initiated R01 grants funded for at least 2 years by National Institute of Mental Health between 2000 and 2009. Consistent with previous reports, we found no association between grant percentile ranking and subsequent productivity and citation impact, even after accounting for subject categories, years of publication, duration and amounts of funding, as well as a number of investigator-specific measures. Prior investigator funding and academic productivity were moderately strong predictors of grant citation impact. PMID:26033238

  16. Graduating Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    Background: The graduation numbers for Black males are dismal, chilling, and undeniably pathetic. The nation graduates only 47% of Black males who enter the 9th grade. The infusion of federal dollars and philanthropic support will not stop the trajectory of Black males who drop out of school. Black males face an upheaval educational battle;…

  17. PARASITIC INFECTIONS: IS MALE AND FEMALE DIFFERENCE FOR ANEMIA AND GROWTH RETARDATION EVIDENT?

    PubMed

    Safar, Hebatalla H; Eldash, Hanaa H

    2015-12-01

    Parasitoses are the commonest health problem among school age clildren, which impair children's growth and development and causing anemia. To detect the role of parasitic infections and both anemia and growth affection, on one hand, and if so the common complications among males and females on the other hand, a cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among the outpatient attended the Pediatrics Clinic, Al-Fayoum University's Hospitals. A total of 314 children aged from 1 to 13 years were subjected to clinical examination as well as stool analysis and CBC examination. The detected parasites were Entameba histolytica, Giardia lamblia (Protozoa) and Enterobius vermicularis, Hymenolepis nana, Ascaris lambricoides and Ancylostoma duodenale (Helminthes). There was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding E. histolytica in females (60%) as to G. lamblia and H. nana in males (16.1%, & 11.5% respecttively). Also, there was significance difference (P<0.05) between males and females regarding to hemoglobin level, and weight percentiles with anemia (92%) and underweight& borderline weight (34.5%) in males. The overall anemia was 89.8%. However, there was no significance difference (P<0.05) regarding to height percentiles. PMID:26939224

  18. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented. PMID:27471301

  19. Evaluation of insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level and its impact on muscle and bone mineral density in frail elderly male.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Magda I; Khater, Mohamed S

    2015-01-01

    Decrease in IGF-1 level is a major endocrine dysregulation that has been implicated in frailty, disability, and mortality in older adults. Our aim was to clarify the effect of IGF-1 on muscle and bone mineral density (BMD) in frail males. One hundred elderly males were included and divided into frail group (n=50) and robust group (n=50) based on the study of osteoporotic fractures (SOF) frailty index. Anthropometric measures, femoral BMD, and serum IGF-1 level were measured. Our results showed that the IGF-1 level was significantly lower in the frail males in comparison to the robust with mean value 37.1±24.2 versus 68.5±18.4ng/ml (P<0.05). Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis of the IGF-1 level revealed that sensitivity was 88.5%, specificity was 100%, cutoff value was 46.5ng/ml and area under the curve (AUC) was 0.897 (P<0.05). Participants with low IGF-1 percentile had significantly higher odds ratio of being frail compared to those with high IGF-1 percentile (odds ratio=12.8, 95% CI: 4.2-38.8, P-value<0.05). Subjects with low IGF-1 percentile had 13.5 times the odds of having an abnormal BMD than those with middle IGF-1 percentile (95% CI: 3.4-53.3, P<0.05). In multivariate analysis BMD, mid arm circumference (MAC), mid calf circumference (MCC), and handgrip strength were significantly affected by IGF-1 percentiles with age and co-morbid diseases adjustment. Male subjects with a low IGF-1 level may be at risk of being frail and having abnormal BMD. 16.8% and 15% of variability in MCC and BMD may be attributed to IGF-1 level respectively. PMID:25240725

  20. Vigorous exercise and the population distribution of bodyweight

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-09-18

    Background: While the benefits of vigorous exercise on body weight and regional adiposity are well established, whether these benefits affect equally the highest and lowest portions of the weight distribution has not been previously reported. The impact of exercise on the more extreme body weights and body circumferences is clinically important because these values represent individuals at greatest health risk. Method: We divided self-reported weights and body circumferences from a cross-sectional sample of 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners into five strata according to the distances run per week and within each stratum determined the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. Then Least-squares regression was then employed at each percentile to determine the dose-response relationship between running distance and adiposity. Results: Per kilometer run per week, the associated decline for body mass index (BMI) was three-fold greater at the 95th than at the 5th percentile in men, and nine-fold greater at the 95th than the 5th percentile in women (all P<0.001). Reported waist circumference also declined more sharply at the 95th percentile than at the 5th percentile in men (-0.13/261 0.02 versus -0.06 plus or minus 0.01 cm per km/wk) and women (-0.18 plus or minus 0.04 versus -0.05 plusor minus 0.01 cm per km/wk). In women, both hip and chest circumferences declined more sharply per kilometer run at the 95th percentile than at the 5th percentile. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that running promotes the greatest weight loss specifically in those individuals who have the most to gain from losing weight. Comparisons based on average BMI or average body circumferences are likely to underestimate the health benefits of running because of the J-shaped relationship between adiposity and mortality. Whether the observed associations are primarily due to exercise-induced weight loss or self-selection remains to be determined.

  1. Anatomist and the pioneer of radiology Étienne Destot--95th anniversary of his death.

    PubMed

    Báča, Václav; Kachlík, David; Báčová, Tereza; Bartoška, Radek; Marvan, Jiří; Douša, Pavel; Secrest, Thomas; Džupa, Valér

    2014-04-01

    Destot was a leading pioneer in radiology, a pupil of Ollier, an anatomist, and researcher who followed in the experimental medicine tradition of Claude Bérnard. This work is an extensive, in depth, look at the life and work of Étienne Destot. On February 5, 1896, he began performing X-ray examinations, less than two months after Roentgen's discovery! His pioneering work described a space bordered by the hamate, capitate, triquetrum, and lunate; this space is now known as Destot's space. Tanton stated that Destot was the first to reveal the mechanism of fractures of the posterior margin of the distal tibia and to emphasize their clinical relevance; in honor of this contribution, Tanton named such a fracture the “fracture of Destot.” Moreover, Destot is credited with being the first physician to use the term “pilon” in the orthopedic literature. He first described fractures of the scaphoid in 1905. He also described superficial hematomas, Destot's sign, located above the inguinal ligament or in the scrotum or thigh. Such hematomas are indicative of pelvic fractures. Destot is credited with inventing or improving many pieces of medical equipment (e.g., Lambotte's screw plates, anastomotic boutons for the digestive tube, monopolar endocavital radiological tubes). He was also active in developing technical aspects of equipment (e.g., radioscopic examination of the heart, a prototype of the mobile radiological laboratory). Étienne Destot is best known as a radiologist; however, his influence extends well beyond this field. He was an anatomist and surgeon, the founder of radiology in Lyon, prosector, physician, electrician, researcher, and artist. PMID:24772482

  2. Proceedings, 95th regular meeting: The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Finnie, D.G.

    1999-07-01

    In addition to the nine convention papers published in these proceedings, information is given on the membership and organization of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. The papers are concerned with the economics and management of coal companies, occupational safety of their employees, public anxiety of the environmental impacts of surface mining, and contracting for mining equipment maintenance. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  3. 75 FR 30780 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 95th Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    .... ] Commercial Hydrogen Gas Measuring Devices Item 360-1. Tentative Code for Hydrogen Gas-Measuring Devices--The... commercial measuring equipment used to deliver hydrogen fuel to highway vehicles, which are currently... Development of Commercial Hydrogen Measurement Standards that included key stakeholders and experts...

  4. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  5. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  6. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  7. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than ...

  8. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults

  9. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants. PMID:25708724

  10. Male Adolescent Contraceptive Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finkel, Madelon Lubin; Finkel, David J.

    1978-01-01

    The contraceptive utilization of a sample of sexually active, urban, high school males (Black, Hispanic, and White) was examined by anonymous questionnaire. Contraceptive use was haphazard, but White males tended to be more effective contraceptors than the other two groups. Reasons for nonuse were also studied. (Author/SJL)

  11. Black Male Rising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feintuch, Howard

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on Ohio's bevy of education initiatives that take aim at helping African-American male students succeed. The Todd Anthony Bell National Resource Center for the African American Male at The Ohio State University is one of several initiatives that help African-American men succeed in Ohio. All the programs focus on individual…

  12. Connecting Males and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddy, Juanita Warren

    2011-01-01

    The problems facing males and reading continues to be a topic of concern and discussion in communities across the country. The author has interviewed school librarians and teachers, however, who are coordinating programs that are successfully connecting male students and reading. This article includes summaries of those interviews. The author has…

  13. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Robin, Leah; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months). However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59), not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30), and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98). Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19) and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42). Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs. PMID:25105024

  14. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  15. Male skin care needs.

    PubMed

    Weber, Stephen M; Ford, Kay

    2008-08-01

    Male skin care has undergone significant development over the past decade, with many companies now marketing skin care products directly to the male consumer. Despite the claims of many of these companies, few over-the-counter products have data to support their efficacy at a clinical level. A basic, effective regimen for preventive male skin care should include twice-daily facial cleansing and twice-daily moisturizer application, which should include sunscreen during the day. This article focuses on topical therapies directed at the maintenance and repair of photoaged male skin. The future holds promise for new developments in skin care. However, in the absence of significant scientific breakthroughs, the most cost-effective intervention will continue to be prevention. PMID:18620985

  16. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  17. Breast enlargement in males

    MedlinePlus

    Gynecomastia; Breast enlargement in a male ... The condition may occur in one or both breasts. It begins as a small lump beneath the nipple, which may be tender. One breast may be larger than the other. Enlarged breasts ...

  18. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  19. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  20. Males and Eating Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Males and Eating Disorders Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents For ... this page please turn Javascript on. Photo: PhotoDisc Eating disorders primarily affect girls and women, but boys and ...

  1. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology » Reproductive System » Male Reproductive System Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review Quiz ...

  2. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Catheterization is accomplished by inserting a catheter (a hollow tube, often with and inflatable balloon tip) into ... catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable ...

  3. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jepson, A S; Fentiman, I S

    1998-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, often with a late presentation and poor prognosis. The mainstay of treatment is modified radical mastectomy, with axillary node dissection to assess stage, prognosis and the need for adjuvant treatment. When matched for age, tumour size, grade and axillary nodal status, the prognosis is similar for males and females. Concerted efforts must be made to educate both the public and health professionals, in order to make earlier diagnoses and thereby improve prognosis. PMID:10622057

  4. Targeting the adolescent male.

    PubMed

    Pitt, E

    1986-01-01

    The National Urban League regards too early parenting among adolescents as an issue requiring high level, active attention from all segments of the Black community. Poverty, single parent households and adolescent pregnancies are not exclusively female problems. The role that males play has been missing from too many studies of these phenomena. In light of the fact that most sexual activity is male initiated, and most sexual behavior is male influenced, it becomes clear that there will be no resolution of the problem of teenage pregnancy without directing greater attention to the male. The issue of male responsibility is skirted too often due to parental pride on the part of mothers and fathers when their male children seek sexual relations with female partners. It is viewed as a sign that they are developing sexually within the norm. This is especially true, in many instances, in female headed households where the mother is concerned that she may not be providing her son with an adequate male role model. Sexual activity by female adolescents, however, is generally not condoned. This confusing double standard is further compounded by the disjointed fashion in which American society responds to adolescent sexuality on the whole. Although the home should be the focal point, many parents reluctantly admit an inability to communicate effectively about sex with their pre-adolescent children. Thus, the school, church, community and social agencies have all been enlisted in this task. The National Urban League's initiative in this area is expected to have significant impact on the course of adolescent sexuality and reproductive responsibility.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3745498

  5. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  6. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  7. Male-male homosexology: seven short discourses.

    PubMed

    Money, John

    2004-09-01

    Homosexology is that branch of the science of sexology that deals with same sex relationships. It is subdivided into ideation, imagery, and praxis. Praxeology is the science of praxis. There are two doctrines by which homosexuality is defined: elective and developmental. Elective is like joining a political party and is more likely bisexual than exclusively homosexual. Complete developmental homosexuality is a state of being and is characteristically immutable. Both types of homosexuality are determined multivariately and sequentially, not univariately. Male and female mammals are phylogenically programmed to be reciprocal, not identical, in the praxeology of their courtship and mating. In primate, notably human, evolution, the eyes have taken over from the nose as organs of erotic arousal, but the molecular biology of how this happens in individual development, gay, straight or ambivalent, remains to be ascertained. The different personal histories of homosexual development also remain to be ascertained and cataloged. PMID:15506674

  8. Techniques of Male Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A.

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery. PMID:24470842

  9. Treatment of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Palermo, Gianpiero D; Kocent, Justin; Monahan, Devin; Neri, Queenie V; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2014-01-01

    Major difficulties exist in the accurate and meaningful diagnosis of male reproductive dysfunction, and our understanding of the epidemiology and etiology of male infertility has proven quite complex.The numerous spermatozoa produced in mammals and other species provides some degree of protection against adverse environmental conditions represented by physical and chemical factors that can reduce reproductive function and increase gonadal damage even resulting in testicular cancer or congenital malformations. The wide fluctuations of sperm production in men, both geographical and temporal, may reflect disparate environmental exposures, occurring on differing genetic backgrounds, in varying psychosocial conditions, and leading to the diversified observed outcomes.Sperm analysis is still the cornerstone in diagnosis of male factor infertility, indeed, individually compromised semen paramaters while adequately address therapeutic practices is progressively flanked by additional tests. Administration of drugs, IUI, correction of varicocele, and, to a certain extent, IVF although they may not be capable of restoring fertility itself often result in childbearing. PMID:24782020

  10. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Ottini, Laura; Palli, Domenico; Rizzo, Sergio; Federico, Mario; Bazan, Viviana; Russo, Antonio

    2010-02-01

    Male breast cancer (MaleBC) is a rare disease, accounting for <1% of all male tumors. During the last few years, there has been an increase in the incidence of this disease, along with the increase in female breast cancer (FBC). Little is known about the etiology of MaleBC: hormonal, environmental and genetic factors have been reported to be involved in its pathogenesis. Major risk factors include clinical disorders carrying hormonal imbalances, radiation exposure and, in particular, a positive family history (FH) for BC, the latter suggestive of genetic susceptibility. Rare mutations in high-penetrance genes (BRCA1 and BRCA2) confer a high risk of BC development; low-penetrance gene mutations (i.e. CHEK-2) are more common but involve a lower risk increase. About 90% of all male breast tumors have proved to be invasive ductal carcinomas, expressing high levels of hormone receptors with evident therapeutic returns. The most common clinical sign of BC onset in men is a painless palpable retroareolar lump, which should be evaluated by means of mammography, ultrasonography and core biopsy or fine needle aspiration (FNA). To date, there are no published data from prospective randomized trials supporting a specific therapeutic approach in MaleBC. Tumor size together with the number of axillary nodes involved are the main prognostic factors and should guide the treatment choice. Locoregional approaches include surgery and radiotherapy (RT), depending upon the initial clinical presentation. When systemic treatment (adjuvant, neoadjuvant and metastatic) is delivered, the choice between hormonal and or chemotherapy (CT) should depend upon the clinical and biological features, according to the FBC management guidelines. However great caution is required because of high rates of age-related comorbidities. PMID:19427229

  11. Epidemiology of Nursemaid’s Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Vitello, Sarah; Dvorkin, Ronald; Sattler, Steven; Levy, David; Ung, Lyncean

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To provide an epidemiological description of radial head subluxation, also known as nursemaid’s elbow, from a database of emergency department visits. Methods We conducted a retrospective medical record review of patients 6 years of age and younger, who presented to the ED between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2012, and were diagnosed with nursemaid’s elbow. Inclusion criteria consisted of chart information, including date, unique account number, medical record number, weight, age, sex, and arm affected. Exclusion criteria included any charts with missing or incomplete data. Results There were 1,228 charts that met inclusion criteria. The majority of patients were female (60%). The mean age was 28.6 months (±12.6). The left arm was affected 60% of the time. Most of the included patients were over the 75th percentile for weight and more than one quarter were over the 95th percentile in each gender. Conclusion The average age of children presenting with nursemaid’s elbow was 28.6 months. Females were affected more than males, and the left arm was predominately affected. Most patients were above the 75th percentile for weight and more than one quarter were over the 95th percentile for weight. PMID:25035767

  12. Genetics of Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Neto, Filipe Tenorio Lira; Bach, Phil Vu; Najari, Bobby Baback; Li, Philip Shihua; Goldstein, Marc

    2016-10-01

    While 7 % of the men are infertile, currently, a genetic etiology is identified in less than 25 % of those men, and 30 % of the infertile men lack a definitive diagnosis, falling in the "idiopathic infertility" category. Advances in genetics and epigenetics have led to several proposed mechanisms for male infertility. These advances may result in new diagnostic tools, treatment approaches, and better counseling with regard to treatment options and prognosis. In this review, we focus on clinical aspects of male infertility and the role of genetics in elucidating etiologies and the potential of treatments. PMID:27502429

  13. Testosterone and Male Infertility.

    PubMed

    Ohlander, Samuel J; Lindgren, Mark C; Lipshultz, Larry I

    2016-05-01

    Hypogonadism and its therapies have a significant impact on male fertility potential. It is necessary to determine the etiology to treat and counsel the patient appropriately on therapeutic options. For the hypogonadal male on exogenous testosterone, management should begin with cessation of the exogenous testosterone and supplemental subcutaneous human chorionic gonadotropin and an oral follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-inducing agent to allow reestablishment of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and spermatogenesis. Further supplemental therapy with recombinant FSH in some patients may be necessary to achieve optimal semen parameters. PMID:27132576

  14. Eating disorders in males.

    PubMed

    Robb, Adelaide S; Dadson, Michele J

    2002-04-01

    Eating disorders are one of the rare psychiatric disorders with a large preponderance of female patients. The other articles in this issue review eating disorders in children and adolescents and focus primarily on female patients. This article reviews the eating disorders that occur in male children and teenagers, including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, a subtype of body dysmorphic disorder named muscle dysmorphobia, and obesity. This article reviews subgroups of boys who are at higher risk for developing eating disorders. The article commences with the difference in male perceptions of body image and dieting behaviors. PMID:12109328

  15. High prevalence of low skeletal muscle mass associated with male gender in midlife and older HIV-infected persons despite CD4 cell reconstitution and viral suppression.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, Peter; Segal-Maurer, Sorana; Rubin, David S

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic goals for HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy include minimizing risk of future physical disability. Presarcopenia and sarcopenia precede age-associated physical disability. We investigated their prevalence and the predictive value of patient mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) for them. Eighty community-dwelling patients ≥45 years old demonstrating durable viral suppression were evaluated. Sarcopenia was defined as low skeletal muscle index (SMI, skeletal muscle kg/height m(2)) and either low strength or poor performance by handgrip dynamometry and gait speed, respectively. Presarcopenia was defined as low SMI only. MUAC was interpreted according to National Health Statistics percentile. Prevalence of sarcopenia and presarcopenia was 5.0% and 20.0%, respectively. Male gender (odds ratio [OR] 10.72; P < .026), recreational psychoactive substance use (OR 5.13; P < .037), and intravenous drug use transmission category (OR 6.94; P <.0327) were associated with presarcopenia. Higher body mass index (OR 0.80; P < .0007), MUAC (OR 0.83; P < .024), and large skeletal frame (OR 0.09; P < .003) were negatively associated with presarcopenia. Finding that a participant did not have a MUAC <25th percentile on physical examination had a 90.4% negative predictive value for presarcopenia. Although sarcopenia was uncommon, presarcopenia was highly prevalent in midlife and older HIV-infected males. Determination of MUAC percentile may identify those least likely to demonstrate skeletal muscle deficit and improve patient selection for mass and function testing. PMID:24067494

  16. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  17. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems. PMID:9385085

  18. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  19. Male mating biology

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Paul I; Knols, Bart GJ

    2009-01-01

    Before sterile mass-reared mosquitoes are released in an attempt to control local populations, many facets of male mating biology need to be elucidated. Large knowledge gaps exist in how both sexes meet in space and time, the correlation of male size and mating success and in which arenas matings are successful. Previous failures in mosquito sterile insect technique (SIT) projects have been linked to poor knowledge of local mating behaviours or the selection of deleterious phenotypes during colonisation and long-term mass rearing. Careful selection of mating characteristics must be combined with intensive field trials to ensure phenotypic characters are not antagonistic to longevity, dispersal, or mating behaviours in released males. Success has been achieved, even when colonised vectors were less competitive, due in part to extensive field trials to ensure mating compatibility and effective dispersal. The study of male mating biology in other dipterans has improved the success of operational SIT programmes. Contributing factors include inter-sexual selection, pheromone based attraction, the ability to detect alterations in local mating behaviours, and the effects of long-term colonisation on mating competitiveness. Although great strides have been made in other SIT programmes, this knowledge may not be germane to anophelines, and this has led to a recent increase in research in this area. PMID:19917078

  20. Black Males Left Behind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mincy, Ronald B., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    Despite the overall economic gains in the 1990s, many young black men continue to have the poorest life chances of anyone in our society. Joblessness and low earnings among these less-educated young adults are contributing to reductions in marriage, increases in nonmarital childbearing, and a host of other social problems. In "Black Males Left…

  1. Impaired reading comprehension and mathematical abilities in male adolescents with average or above general intellectual abilities are associated with comorbid and future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Weiser, Mark; Reichenberg, Abraham; Rabinowitz, Jonathan; Nahon, Daniella; Kravitz, Efrat; Lubin, Gad; Knobler, Haim Y; Davidson, Michael; Noy, Shlomo

    2007-11-01

    Research indicates that persons with learning disorders often suffer from psychopathology. We assessed current and future psychopathology in male adolescents with discrete impairments in reading comprehension (IRC) or arithmetic abilities (IAA) but with average or above-average general intellectual abilities. Subjects were a population-based cohort of 174,994 male adolescents screened by the Israeli Draft Board with average or above-average intellectual abilities but with low scores (8.6th and 10th lowest percentile respectively) on reading or arithmetic tests. They were compared with adolescents who scored in the 10th percentile and above on these tests (comparison group). Relative to the comparison group, male adolescents with IRC, IAA, or IRC and IAA (0.69%), had poorer scores on most behavioral assessments and higher prevalence of current psychopathology: 4.2% (comparison group), 8.0% (IRC), 7.0% (IAA), and 9.8% (IRC and IAA). Adolescents with IRC were also at increased risk for later hospitalization for schizophrenia (hazard ratios = 1.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-2.6). Male adolescents with average and above-average general intellectual abilities but with IRC or IAA are more likely to have current and future psychopathology. Impairments in intellectual functioning and abnormal behaviors leading to mental illnesses may share common neurobiological substrates. The results support screening male adolescents with learning disorders for psychopathology. PMID:18000449

  2. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  3. Male genital lichen sclerosus.

    PubMed

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  4. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  5. Male osteoporosis: A review.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-12-18

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism.Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  6. Male osteoporosis: A review

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Antonio; Lobo-Escolar, Antonio; Mateo, Jesús; Gil, Jorge; Ibarz, Elena; Gracia, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Osteoporosis in men is a heterogeneous disease that has received little attention. However, one third of worldwide hip fractures occur in the male population. This problem is more prevalent in people over 70 years of age. The etiology can be idiopathic or secondary to hypogonadism, vitamin D deficiency and inadequate calcium intake, hormonal treatments for prostate cancer, use of toxic and every disease or drug use that alters bone metabolism. Risk factors such as a previous history of fragility fracture should be assessed for the diagnosis. However, risk factors in men are very heterogeneous. There are significant differences in the pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis between men and women fundamentally due to the level of evidence in published trials supporting each treatment. New treatments will offer new therapeutic prospects. The goal of this work is a revision of the present status knowledge about male osteoporosis. PMID:23362466

  7. Male Body Contouring.

    PubMed

    Singh, Babu; Keaney, Terrence; Rossi, Anthony M

    2015-09-01

    Men are increasingly turning to dermatologists and plastic surgeons to request procedures that correct or enhance physical features. With the advent of this emerging new patient population, alterations in preexisting aesthetic techniques, gender-specific uses of existing devices and overall approaches need to be revisited and adapted to obtain results that are suitable for the male patient. Recently, body contouring has become one of the most sought out procedures by men. Although the majority of clinical studies involving body contouring esthetics are performed with female patients, gains from such studies can be extrapolated to men. Body contouring can be broadly classified as non-invasive or invasive, depending on the modality used. Non-invasive contouring is most frequently performed with devices that target subcutaneous adipose with focused electrical or thermal energy, including low-level laser, cryolipolysis, ultrasonography, and radiofrequency. Invasive body contouring modalities useful for male body contouring include liposuction, pectoral and abdominal wall etching, jawline fillers, synthetic deoxycholic acid injections, and solid silicone implants. The purpose of this review is to bring attention to the unique aspects, strategies, and modalities used in aesthetic body contouring for the male patient. PMID:26355627

  8. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  9. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: variations due to body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, E. N.; Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to critical body organs of spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation require accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through the spacecraft and overlying tissue. When estimating astronaut radiation organ doses and dose equivalents it is customary to use the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model of human geometry to account for body self-shielding. Usually, the distribution for the 50th percentile man (175 cm height; 70 kg mass) is used. Most male members of the U.S. astronaut corps are taller and nearly all have heights that deviate from the 175 cm mean. In this work, estimates of critical organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews exposed to an event similar to the October 1989 solar particle event are presented for male body sizes that vary from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. Overall the results suggest that calculations of organ dose and dose equivalent may vary by as much as approximately 15% as body size is varied from the 5th to the 95th percentile in the population used to derive the CAM model data. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  10. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: variations due to body size.

    PubMed

    Zapp, E N; Townsend, L W; Cucinotta, F A

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to critical body organs of spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation require accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through the spacecraft and overlying tissue. When estimating astronaut radiation organ doses and dose equivalents it is customary to use the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model of human geometry to account for body self-shielding. Usually, the distribution for the 50th percentile man (175 cm height; 70 kg mass) is used. Most male members of the U.S. astronaut corps are taller and nearly all have heights that deviate from the 175 cm mean. In this work, estimates of critical organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews exposed to an event similar to the October 1989 solar particle event are presented for male body sizes that vary from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. Overall the results suggest that calculations of organ dose and dose equivalent may vary by as much as approximately 15% as body size is varied from the 5th to the 95th percentile in the population used to derive the CAM model data. PMID:12539772

  11. Gynecomastia in Adolescent Males

    PubMed Central

    Lemaine, Valerie; Cayci, Cenk; Simmons, Patricia S.; Petty, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Gynecomastia is defined as an enlargement of the male breast. It is often benign, and can be the source of significant embarrassment and psychological distress. A general medical history and careful physical examination are essential to distinguish normal developmental variants from pathological causes. Treatment is geared toward the specific etiology when identified. In the majority of cases of pubertal gynecomastia, observation and reassurance are the mainstays of therapy as the condition usually resolves naturally. Pharmacological treatment and surgery are recommended only in selected cases. PMID:24872741

  12. [Male breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mattson, Johanna; Vehmanen, Leena

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is rare in men. Diagnosis of the illness may be delayed due to the fact that the doctor and the patient fail to suspect it. Male breast cancer is treated mainly on the same principles as female breast cancer. A man affected with breast cancer should always be directed to genetic testing, as inherited mutations increasing the risk of developing cancer are more common than in female breast cancer. Most breast cancers in men are hormone receptor positive. Among hormone treatments, the antiestrogen tamoxifen exhibits the best efficacy both in early-state and advanced cases. PMID:27188086

  13. Lisping and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Van Borsel, John; Van de Putte, Anneleen

    2014-08-01

    The present study examined the popular stereotype that gay men lisp by evaluating to what extent listeners associated dental or frontal articulation/lisping with gayness. Fifteen heterosexual males and 15 heterosexual females listened to 275 samples of read speech and judged the sexual orientation of the speakers. A total of 175 of the samples were of homosexual men, 74 (42.3 %) of which had been identified with lisping in a previous study; 100 were of heterosexual men, 18 (18 %) of which had been identified with lisping previously. Based on the ratings of the listeners of the present study, lisping speakers were significantly more often judged to be homosexual. This was true for the group as a whole as well as for the subgroup of homosexual and heterosexual men separately. Furthermore, there was no significant gender difference with respect to associating lisping with gayness. Male and female judges associated lisping with gayness to a similar degree. Additional analysis showed that overall 56.2 % of the time the judges were correct in their judgment of the speakers' sexual orientation. The results of this study confirmed previous preliminary findings that suggested that frontal or dental articulation/lisping is a feature that listeners associate with gayness. The reason for this association remains to be clarified. PMID:24578106

  14. [Treatment of male infertility].

    PubMed

    Jardin, A

    1995-10-28

    Progress in medically assisted procreation has made it possible to obtain an embryon with a single spermatozoid or even a single spermatid. But such advanced technology must not overshadow the basic principles of patient management since there are many other medical or surgical possibilities for improving male fertility. Although the physiological mechanisms leading to azoospermia are relatively well understood, many questions remain as to the origin of oligo-asthenoteratospermia. Varicocela had been incriminated by many authors: in 25% of the cases, surgical care is followed by pregnancy. Other factors including autoimmunity, infection, environment and drugs also have an effect. Careful history taking can identify the main causes of male infertility before the problem of procreation occurs and in cases of definitive azoospermia the principles of management are relatively simple. The true problem is the fact that new techniques such as in vitro fertilization have acquired popularity in the general population but cannot be accepted as the gold standard by the medical community. It must not be forgotten that these artificial techniques cause a major psychological trauma to the couple and can lead to difficult situations (multiple pregnancies, extra embryos) with no totally satisfactory solution. PMID:8545356

  15. Developmental Transitions in Male Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Robert; And Others

    1978-01-01

    The article defines and elaborates on eight transitions in male sexuality, the first being the gender identity transition, and the last being the male climacteric. It discusses society's lack of support. Originally presented at the American Sociological Association Session on the Male Role in Society, New York City, 1976. (LPG)

  16. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  17. Overactive bladder in males

    PubMed Central

    Dmochowski, Roger R.; Gomelsky, Alex

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms is considerable in both men and women and the impact on quality of life (QOL) is equally substantial. Ironically, despite nearly equal prevalence, OAB symptoms in men are infrequently treated, and often with medical therapies aimed at bladder outlet obstruction (BOO). In this review, we examine the pathophysiology of OAB and its evaluation in the context of benign prostatic hypertrophy and concomitant BOO. We then consider the efficacy and safety of individual therapeutic options for lower urinary tract symptoms in men, focusing on the mainstays of medical therapy: α-adrenergic blockers, 5-α reductase inhibitors, and antimuscarinic agents. Finally, we aim to comment on new therapeutic strategies and targets that may one day be available for the treatment of male OAB. PMID:21789068

  18. Population density influences male-male competition in guppies.

    PubMed

    Jirotkul

    1999-12-01

    This study tested the general prediction that population density affects male-male competition, female mate choice and the opportunity for sexual selection. By manipulating the density of guppies, Poecilia reticulata, while keeping the sex ratio constant, I found that male mating tactics were phenotypically plastic with respect to density. As density increased, males decreased their courtship displays. Male-male competition and mate searching were highest at intermediate densities. Population density had no significant effect on the total number of copulations, copulatory tactics or the percentage of postcopulatory guarding. Female preference for males with a higher percentage of orange coloration was similar at all density levels. The 'opportunity for sexual selection', which estimates the upper limit to which a selected trait can shift if directional selection is operating and was calculated as the variance in number of copulations per male divided by the square of the mean number of copulations, was negatively associated with population density. This may be due to the decrease in male-male competition at high density rather than female preference which was similar across density treatments. Copyright 1999 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. PMID:10600137

  19. What makes male mice paternal?

    PubMed

    Elwood, R W

    1986-07-01

    Both copulation and postcopulatory cohabitation with pregnant females reduce infanticide and enhance paternal responsiveness in male CS1 mice. The effectiveness of copulation in this process, however, depends on the number of occasions that males have previously encountered infants. Infanticidal males which have been subordinated in brief encounters with other males are less likely to commit infanticide in subsequent tests than are those which became dominant to other males. Males which copulate and cohabit with a relatively large female are less likely to be infanticidal than are those with a relatively small female. These data suggest that males are subordinated after copulation by their mates and that this subordination is a factor in the reduction of infanticide and the initiation of paternal responsiveness. PMID:3729896

  20. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well. PMID:23286540

  1. Compendium of Materials on Zero-Base Budgeting in the States. 95th Congress; 1st Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. , Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Government Operations.

    This is a collection of 16 articles on zero-based budgeting (ZBB), dealing primarily with the practice as it occurs in the states. Included is a lengthy report on ZBB practices in the states based on a survey conducted by the National Association of State Budget Officers and the Congressional Research Service. (IRT)

  2. Male tolerance and male-male bonds in a multilevel primate society.

    PubMed

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar; Fischer, Julia

    2014-10-14

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male-male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several "units" of males with their associated females form "parties," which team up as "gangs." Several gangs of the same "community" use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male-male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  3. The sterile male technique: irradiation negatively affects male fertility but not male courtship.

    PubMed

    Magris, Martina; Wignall, Anne E; Herberstein, Marie E

    2015-04-01

    The sterile male technique is a common method to assign paternity, widely adopted due to its relative simplicity and low cost. Male sterility is induced by exposure to sub lethal doses of chemosterilants or irradiation, the dosage of which has to be calibrated for every species to provide successful male sterilisation, without affecting male physiology and behaviour. While the physiological effects of sterilisation are usually assessed for each study, the behavioural ones are rarely analysed in detail. Using the orb web spider Argiope keyserlingi as a model we first tested (1) the validity of the thread assay, which simulates male courtship behaviour in a standardised context, as a proxy representing courtship on a female web. We then investigated (2) the effectiveness of male sterilisation via irradiation and (3) its consequences on male courtship behaviour. Our results validate the thread assay and the sterile male technique as legitimate tools for the study of male courtship behaviour and fertilisation success. We show that these techniques are time and cost effective and reduce undesirable variation, thereby creating opportunities to study and understand the mechanisms underlying sexual selection. PMID:25794431

  4. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  5. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  6. Quantitative Genomics of Male Reproduction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the review was to establish the current status of quantitative genomics for male reproduction. Genetic variation exists for male reproduction traits. These traits are expensive and time consuming traits to evaluate through conventional breeding schemes. Genomics is an alternative to...

  7. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy. PMID:27346307

  8. The effects of fructose-containing sugars on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors when consumed at up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2014-08-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010). Sucrose (SUC) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20-60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01), a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001). However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05), LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05), SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05) and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05) were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05). These data suggest that: (1) when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO); (2) changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest. PMID:25111121

  9. Modified STOP-Bang Tool for Stratifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk in Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088

  10. Thyroid, spermatogenesis, and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Rajender, Singh; Monica, Marie Gray; Walter, Lee; Agarwal, Ashok

    2011-01-01

    Since the identification of thyroid hormone receptors on the testes, thyroid has been suggested to have a significant impact on the male reproductive tract, spermatogenesis, and male fertility. Several research articles on the role of thyroid in spermatogenesis or male infertility have been published in the last three decades. We conducted an exhaustive literature search was conducted in order to create an up-to-date review of literature. This review aims to discuss the impact of thyroid on testicular development, spermatogenesis, hypo- or hyper- thyroidism and male infertility, and the management of thyroid related abnormal semen profile. The literature revealed that thyroid significantly impacts testicular development and that abnormal thyroid profile affects semen quality and male fertility by compromising testicular size, sperm motility and ejaculate volume. A clear link exists between thyroid hormones, testicular development and spermatogenesis. Thyroid disease negatively affects spermatogenesis and consequently may cause male infertility. In such cases, infertility is reversible, but more studies need to be conducted, especially in post-pubertal males to cement the current findings. PMID:21622096

  11. Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Previously it was shown that male mice, when they encounter female mice or their pheromones, emit ultrasonic vocalizations with frequencies ranging over 30–110 kHz. Here, we show that these vocalizations have the characteristics of song, consisting of several different syllable types, whose temporal sequencing includes the utterance of repeated phrases. Individual males produce songs with characteristic syllabic and temporal structure. This study provides a quantitative initial description of male mouse songs, and opens the possibility of studying song production and perception in an established genetic model organism. PMID:16248680

  12. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  13. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  14. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  15. MedlinePlus: Male Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... Male Infertility? (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development) Living With How a Man's Diet Affects Fertility Too (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) Related Issues Finasteride (Propecia/Proscar) and ...

  16. Adolescent Male Human Papillomavirus Vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Nanagas, Vivian C.; Stolfi, Adrienne; Nanagas, Maria T.; Eberhart, Gregory M.; Alter, Sherman J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To determine male vaccination rates with quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV4) before and after the October 2011 national recommendation to routinely immunize adolescent males. Methods. We reviewed HPV4 dose 1 (HPV4-1) uptake in 292 adolescent males in our urban clinic prior to national recommendations and followed-up for HPV4 series completion rates. After national recommendation, 248 urban clinic and 247 suburban clinic males were reviewed for HPV4-1 uptake. Factors associated with HPV4-1 refusal were determined with multiple logistic regression. Results. Of the initial 292 males, 78% received HPV4-1 and 38% received the 3-dose series. After recommendation, HPV4-1 uptake was 59% and 7% in urban and suburban clinics, respectively. Variables associated with HPV4-1 uptake/refusal included time period, race, type of insurance, and receipt of concurrent vaccines. Conclusions. HPV4-1 vaccination rates in our urban clinic were high before and after routine HPV vaccine recommendations for adolescent males. Our vaccination rates were much higher than in a suburban practice. PMID:27336012

  17. Cost Drivers for Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Using Primary Source Data from Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bollinger, Lori; Adesina, Adebiyi; Forsythe, Steven; Godbole, Ramona; Reuben, Elan; Njeuhmeli, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Background As voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) programs scale up, there is a pressing need for information about the important cost drivers, and potential efficiency gains. We examine those cost drivers here, and estimate the potential efficiency gains through an econometric model. Methods and Findings We examined the main cost drivers (i.e., personnel and consumables) associated with providing VMMC in sub-Saharan Africa along a number of dimensions, including facility type and service provider. Primary source facility level data from Kenya, Namibia, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zambia were utilized throughout. We estimated the efficiency gains by econometrically estimating a cost function in order to calculate the impact of scale and other relevant factors. Personnel and consumables were estimated at 36% and 28%, respectively, of total costs across countries. Economies of scale (EOS) is estimated to be eight at the median volume of VMMCs performed, and EOS falls from 23 at the 25th percentile volume of VMMCs performed to 5.1 at the 75th percentile. Conclusions The analysis suggests that there is significant room for efficiency improvement as indicated by declining EOS as VMMC volume increases. The scale of the fall in EOS as VMMC volume increases suggests that we are still at the ascension phase of the scale-up of VMMC, where continuing to add new sites results in additional start-up costs as well. A key aspect of improving efficiency is task sharing VMMC procedures, due to the large percentage of overall costs associated with personnel costs. In addition, efficiency improvements in consumables are likely to occur over time as prices and distribution costs decrease. PMID:24802593

  18. A validated age-related normative model for male total testosterone shows increasing variance but no decline after age 40 years.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Thomas W; Li, Lucy Q; Mitchell, Rod T; Whelan, Ashley; Anderson, Richard A; Wallace, W Hamish B

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of hypogonadism in human males includes identification of low serum testosterone levels, and hence there is an underlying assumption that normal ranges of testosterone for the healthy population are known for all ages. However, to our knowledge, no such reference model exists in the literature, and hence the availability of an applicable biochemical reference range would be helpful for the clinical assessment of hypogonadal men. In this study, using model selection and validation analysis of data identified and extracted from thirteen studies, we derive and validate a normative model of total testosterone across the lifespan in healthy men. We show that total testosterone peaks [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] at 15.4 (7.2-31.1) nmol/L at an average age of 19 years, and falls in the average case [mean (2.5-97.5 percentile)] to 13.0 (6.6-25.3) nmol/L by age 40 years, but we find no evidence for a further fall in mean total testosterone with increasing age through to old age. However we do show that there is an increased variation in total testosterone levels with advancing age after age 40 years. This model provides the age related reference ranges needed to support research and clinical decision making in males who have symptoms that may be due to hypogonadism. PMID:25295520

  19. Relationship of body mass index and other life style factors with hypertension in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Manjusha; Pal, Pankaj; Agrawal, Amit; Ashok, Chandrasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, it has been observed that hypertension shows an increasing trend in children and adolescents. Various factors are contributing to this upward trend, and they primarily include changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in school going adolescent children and to study the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of one year on apparently healthy adolescents of randomly selected urban schools of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. A pretested and prevalidated questionnaire was used to collect the details including present or past history of illness, family history of hypertension, socioeconomic status, and sleep pattern and birth weight of the children. This was followed by anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements and thorough systemic examination. Results: Out of 1221 children recruited in the study, 618 were boys, and 603 were girls. 22.7%, body mass index (BMI) of majority (85%) of the students was between 5th and 84th percentile, 5.65% were obese (BMI ≥95th) and 9.18% children were overweight (85th-95th percentile). Systolic and diastolic hypertension (BP >95th percentile) was seen in 61 (4.1%) and 48 (3.9%) participants, respectively. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension was seen in 30 (2.45%) participants. Systolic and diastolic prehypertension (BP 90th to <95th percentile) was seen in 88 (7.3%) and 68 (5.6%) participants, respectively. A highly significant association (P < 0.01) of sex, BMI, systolic BP, family history of hypertension, and birth weight with diastolic BP was seen. Conclusion: There is a significant positive correlation of BMI with both systolic and diastolic BP. The family history of hypertension appears to be an important risk factor for the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP. Low birth weight and male

  20. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  1. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  2. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  3. [Male sexual and reproductive rights].

    PubMed

    Diaz, A M

    1998-06-01

    In late 1997, PROFAMILIA began a study of the role of male sexual and reproductive rights as part of the construction of new masculine identities. The work was approached from the disciplines of law and sociology. Patriarchy, as a system of domination, permeated most cultures, giving men a position of power in relation to women and leading to a series of violent and self-destructive male behaviors. The patriarchal system imposed aggressive, promiscuous, risky, and irresponsible behaviors on men, which created a climate for sexual abuse, unwanted pregnancy, propagation of sexually transmitted diseases, and violence against women. Changes in female roles have created the need for changes in male roles. The most visible sexual and reproductive needs of men were studied through literature reviews and semistructured questionnaires with PROFAMILIA clients. Among the needs identified were a new type of male participation in family and domestic life, a new content for male sexual freedom, greater participation of men in reproductive decisions and in raising their children, and new ways of relating to others and sharing feelings and emotions. The need to avoid behaviors that put health at risk was also identified. A review of the evolution of existing sexual and reproductive rights and of the documents that constitute their ethical and juridical framework led to the conclusion that the construction of new rights specifically for men is not necessary, or juridically possible, in the current historical context. PMID:12348800

  4. Infertility in the male dog.

    PubMed

    Wallace, M S

    1992-09-01

    The diagnosis and characterization of infertility in the male dog depends largely on the initial history and semen evaluation and on following the course of infertility over time. The diagnostic testing described here is helpful for guiding therapy, but the prognosis in serious cases of infertility is usually poor. Cases of subfertility that are not progressive have a better prognosis with optimal breeding management. Finally, the clinician should remember that some insults to the testes are reversible with time so it is important not to administer therapy that will interfere with the dog's ability to recover. Client education is an important part of the management of male dog infertility because it is not uncommon for various drugs to be administered by the breeder, or at the breeder's request, without a sufficient diagnostic work-up. In addition, errors of breeding management may play a role in male dog infertility or limit the success of treatment. PMID:1421819

  5. [Therapeutic issues concerning male fertility].

    PubMed

    Bernard, V; Bouvattier, C; Christin-Maitre, S

    2014-10-01

    Men reproductive health has long been ignored although it is responsible for 50% of couple's infertility. However, in recent years, the understanding of endocrine physiology underlying testis development and spermatogenesis has enabled the development of new therapeutic strategies. Some concern the management of male infertility. Others are dealing with finding an effective male contraceptive. In this review, we first present the management of infertility, in patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. We then describe the major improvements for Klinefelter patient's infertility. Finally, we review the different hormonal and non-hormonal methods for male contraception, currently in development. Efficacy and safety of the some non-hormonal methods remain to be demonstrated so far in humans. PMID:25617918

  6. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  7. Male Reference Group Identity Dependence: A Theory of Male Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Jay C.

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theory of male identity developed to address the question of why men vary in their masculinity ideology and in their conformity to standards of masculinity. An overview of relevant masculinity research, theoretical foundations for the construct of reference group identity dependence, theoretical postulates, associated behavioral, and…

  8. Voice deepening under testosterone treatment in female-to-male gender dysphoric individuals.

    PubMed

    Deuster, Dirk; Matulat, Peter; Knief, Arne; Zitzmann, Michael; Rosslau, Ken; Szukaj, Michael; am Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette; Schmidt, Claus-Michael

    2016-04-01

    Female-to-male gender dysphoric individuals rarely access medical services for voice problems arising out of hormonal treatment leading to "voice reassignment". The aim of this study was a close monitoring of voice deepening in the first year following the commencement of testosterone treatment. Voice recordings from nine female-to-male (FTM) were analyzed with Praat software and values for speaking fundamental frequency (SFF) were calculated. Audio recordings were made prior to and within the first year (mean 55.2 weeks) of testosterone treatment at a mean of 35.4 different time points. The values for speaking fundamental frequency were compared with values taken from 21 biological men with healthy voices. The 10th to 90th percentile range of FTM overlapped with those of biological men after about 36 weeks. The mean SFF change was a decrease of 8.78 seminotes at week 52 and at this point in time no significant difference between SSF in FTM and biological men was found. Testosterone treatment led to significant voice deepening within the first year with the degree of change decreasing over time. Mean SFF change in the first year was almost a sixth and thus less than one octave but nonetheless reached an SFF comparable with biological men. PMID:26650551

  9. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries. PMID:17676376

  10. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors. PMID:9489379

  11. Leading Causes of Death in Males United States, 2010

    MedlinePlus

    ... Native Males by Age Group, 2013 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2013 Hispanic Males ... Native Males by Age Group, 2011 Asian or Pacific Islander Males by Age Group, 2011 Hispanic Males ...

  12. Black Male Images in Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Francis

    1974-01-01

    Argues that the "super" image of the black male in films served three essential purposes: it gave blacks whatever therapy they needed from films; it had hot box office appeal; and it kept white in control of the images blacks have had of themselves. (Author/JM)

  13. Sexual Assault of Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stermac, Lana; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the circumstances and characteristics of sexual assaults against adult males presenting to a crisis unit in a large metropolitan area. Most victims were young gay men, many of whom had physical or cognitive disabilities making them particularly vulnerable. Results suggest a need for increased awareness of acquaintance sexual assault in…

  14. Male Responses to Female Aggression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Gordon W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Randomly assigned 60 male undergraduates to view film clip of professional lady wrestlers or of mud wrestling, or to no-film control. Both films produced negative changes in mood states, principally increase in aggression and decrease in social affection. Viewing films did not produce changes in men's acceptance of interpersonal violence against…

  15. Male Osteoporosis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    D'Amelio, Patrizia; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is now recognized as an important public health problem in elderly men as fragility fractures are complicated by increased morbidity, mortality, and social costs. This review comprises an overview of recent findings in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of male osteoporosis, with particular regard to the old population. PMID:26457082

  16. Ferocious Fighting between Male Grasshoppers

    PubMed Central

    Umbers, Kate D. L.; Tatarnic, Nikolai J.; Holwell, Gregory I.; Herberstein, Marie E.

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual’s role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group. PMID:23166725

  17. Graduating Black Males: A Generic Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Black males face a difficult educational battle. Across America, graduation statistics for Black males are sobering. The purpose of this study was to explore why Black males drop out of school and to examine the current employment status of the study participants. The research took place in rural North Carolina. Fifteen Black American male high…

  18. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  19. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed

    Beatty, Christopher D; Andrés, José A; Sherratt, Thomas N

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a "scramble". An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  20. Promotores' perspectives on a male-to-male peer network.

    PubMed

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers (promotores) networks. The experiences of promotores can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male promotores in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of promotores who participated in a male promotores network assisting Latino immigrant men in an emerging Latino community. All promotores in this community-based participatory study received payment for work 10 hours a week. We conducted qualitative interviews with all promotores starting the program, after 5 and 13 months. Three main themes emerged: 1) Men decided to become promotores to help others, yet appreciated being paid. 2) Promotores' learning experience was ongoing and was facilitated by a cooperative dynamic among them. Learning how to listen was crucial for promotores 3) Promotores experienced difficulty separating their personal lives form their role as a promotor We conclude that paying promotores facilitates the fulfillment of their drive to serve the community. Enhancing listening abilities needs to be part of promotores' training curricula. Finally, it is advisable to build a project with many opportunities for promotores and project staff to share professional and non-professional time and discuss their challenges. PMID:27102810

  1. BMD-associated variation at the Osterix locus is correlated with childhood obesity in females.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Li, Mingyao; Zhang, Haitao; Mentch, Frank D; Wang, Kai; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Kim, Cecilia E; Glessner, Joseph T; Frackelton, Edward C; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Berkowitz, Robert I; Zemel, Babette S; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A

    2011-06-01

    Recent genome wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a number of genetic variants robustly associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and/or osteoporosis. Evidence from epidemiological and clinical studies has shown an association between BMD and BMI, presumably as a consequence of bone loading. We investigated the 23 previously published BMD GWAS-derived loci in the context of childhood obesity by leveraging our existing genome-wide genotyped European American cohort of 1106 obese children (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and 5997 controls (BMI < 95th percentile). Evidence of association was only observed at one locus, namely Osterix (SP7), with the G allele of rs2016266 being significantly over-represented among childhood obesity cases (P = 2.85 × 10(-3)). When restricting these analyses to each gender, we observed strong association between rs2016266 and childhood obesity in females (477 cases and 2867 controls; P = 3.56 × 10(-4)), which survived adjustment for all tests applied. However, no evidence of association was observed among males. Interestingly, Osterix is the only GWAS locus uncovered to date that has also been previously implicated in the determination of BMD in childhood. In conclusion, these findings indicate that a well established variant at the Osterix locus associated with increased BMD is also associated with childhood obesity primarily in females. PMID:21212767

  2. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  3. Ginseng and male reproductive function

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Kar Wah; Wong, Alice ST

    2013-01-01

    Ginseng is often referred to as the King of all herbs, and is found to be a promising agent to improve general well-being. Ginseng has also been reputed as an aphrodisiac, and is used to treat sexual dysfunction as well as to enhance sexual behavior in traditional Chinese medical practices. Data from animal studies have shown a positive correlation among ginseng, libido, and copulatory performances, and these effects have been confirmed in case-control studies in human. In addition, ginseng is found to improve the sperm quality and count of healthy individuals as well as patients with treatment-related infertility. These actions are mostly attributed to ginsenosides, the major pharmacological active components of ginseng. This review compiles the current knowledge about the multifaceted effects of ginseng on male reproductive function, and also focuses on its mechanisms of action that may represent novel therapeutic strategies for the treatment of male reproductive diseases or disorders. PMID:24381805

  4. Male-mediated developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  5. Chromosomal disorders and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Harton, Gary L; Tempest, Helen G

    2012-01-01

    Infertility in humans is surprisingly common occurring in approximately 15% of the population wishing to start a family. Despite this, the molecular and genetic factors underlying the cause of infertility remain largely undiscovered. Nevertheless, more and more genetic factors associated with infertility are being identified. This review will focus on our current understanding of the chromosomal basis of male infertility specifically: chromosomal aneuploidy, structural and numerical karyotype abnormalities and Y chromosomal microdeletions. Chromosomal aneuploidy is the leading cause of pregnancy loss and developmental disabilities in humans. Aneuploidy is predominantly maternal in origin, but concerns have been raised regarding the safety of intracytoplasmic sperm injection as infertile men have significantly higher levels of sperm aneuploidy compared to their fertile counterparts. Males with numerical or structural karyotype abnormalities are also at an increased risk of producing aneuploid sperm. Our current understanding of how sperm aneuploidy translates to embryo aneuploidy will be reviewed, as well as the application of preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) in such cases. Clinical recommendations where possible will be made, as well as discussion of the use of emerging array technology in PGD and its potential applications in male infertility. PMID:22120929

  6. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  7. Healthy Eating in Out-of-School Time: The Promise and the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; Hall, Georgia; Gannett, Ellen; Roth, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 percent of American children are either overweight or obese, with a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or above. Although prevalence varies by age, sex, and ethnicity, all groups are affected. Risk of serious health problems increases with increasing BMI. Childhood obesity, characterized by BMI in the 95th percentile or…

  8. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  9. Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Schlosser, Wayne D.; Hogue, Allan T.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Rose, Jonathon S.; Ebel, Eric D.; Disney, W. Terry; Holt, Kristin G.; Goldman, David P.

    2005-01-01

    Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis–contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying estimate uncertainty. PMID:15705332

  10. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms—called hybrid phantoms—takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms—flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS∕polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  11. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  12. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  13. Microcephaly in a 14-month male with minimal developmental delay (speech) and mild dysmorphology with unusual mosaicism involving a ring chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, V.; Lieber, E.; Yu, M.T.

    1994-09-01

    This male at birth weighed 5 lbs, 14 oz and was full term. His mother was G3 P2012. His height and weight follow the 3rd percentile; however, his head circumference is below the 3rd percentile. His hearing is age-appropriate; however, his speech is poor to absent. His hearing is intact. He had 2-5 cafe-au-lait spots (0.5 to 1.0 cm) on his trunk and extremities. His face showed mild dysmorphology (non-specific). His tone and central nervous system are intact. Because of the microcephaly, a chromosome study was performed. A skin fibroblast culture was performed because of his appropriate milestones. One cell in the peripheral blood and one cell in the skin biopsy demonstrated two normal chromosome 5s. FISH studies using chromosome 5 painting probe confirmed the observations of routine cytogenetic studies. The marker chromosome was identified as part of chromosome 5. At 14 months, the patient does not have the appearance associated with the Cri-du-chat syndrome. Additional studies with probes for the specific region associated with this syndrome are planned.

  14. Male Infertility: Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chan, S. L.

    1988-01-01

    The evaluation of the subfertile male starts with the basic history and physical examination, which often provide indication of probable cause. Aside from analysis of properly collected semen, most cases require very few tests. Etiology can be classified as pretesticular, testicular, and post-testicular. Treatment can be more specific if a definite cause is found. Unfortunately, about 25% of patients are idiopathic, and non-specific treatments generally yield unacceptably low conception rates. Improvement will occur as more becomes known, through animal research and clinical application, about the physiology of spermatogenesis and the pathological processes that can affect it. PMID:21253072

  15. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  16. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  17. Male reproductive health and infertility.

    PubMed

    Frey, Keith A

    2010-09-01

    Primary care physicians have an essential role and opportunity in positively impacting the reproductive health of men. Although men are less likely than women to consistently seek preventive services, an office visit for any reason should be seen as an opportunity to introduce the idea of reproductive health. Additionally, primary care physicians can and should initiate the diagnostic workup for infertile couples in their practices. The initial assessment for the male partner consists of a thorough history and physical examination and appropriate laboratory tests, including a semen analysis. PMID:20705204

  18. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Christopher Ck; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-07-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  19. Violence between Couples: Profiling the Male Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponzetti,James J. Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Presents an integrative review of the literature on spousal violence as it relates to the abusive male. Suggests various issues that need to be addressed before effective intervention with abusive males can proceed. (Author)

  20. Homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimate relationships.

    PubMed

    Devlin, P K; Cowan, G A

    1985-10-01

    This study examined the relationships among homophobia, perceived fathering, and male intimacy with significant male and female best friends. A questionnaire, administered to 130 adult heterosexual males, included McDonald and Game's homophobia measure (ATHMS), eight intimacy scales, and four scales measuring subjects' recollections of their fathers' parenting styles. Correlations of ATHMS and individual intimacy scales revealed a significant relationship between homophobia and intimacy in male-male relationships. Homophobia was related to male-female intimacy on those measures which reflected subjects' perception of their female partner's sensitivity to them. Although homophobia was related to perception of the father as enforcing sex roles, none of the perceived fathering variables were directly related to intimacy with males. The findings provide evidence for a direct relationship between male homophobia and lack of intimacy in friendships between men. PMID:4067792

  1. Suffering in Silence: The Male Incest Victim.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nasjleti, Maria

    1980-01-01

    The reasons why boys who are victims of incest remain silent are explored in terms of the special meaning of victimization to males. Males' inability to express helplessness and vulnerability is identified as a major contributing factor. (CM)

  2. Sperm investment in male meadow voles is affected by the condition of the nearby male conspecifics

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Sperm competition occurs when 2 or more males copulate with a particular female during the same reproductive cycle, and their sperm compete to fertilize the female's available eggs. One strategy that male voles use to assess the risk and intensity of sperm competition involves responding to the presence of scent marks of conspecific males found near a sexually receptive female. Previously, we have shown that if a male vole copulated with a female while he was in the presence of the odors of another male he increased his sperm investment relative to his investment if another male's odors were not present. The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that males assess differences in the relative quality of competing males and adjust their sperm investment accordingly. We did so by allowing males to copulate when they were exposed to the scent mark of a 24-h food-deprived male (low-quality male) or the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived (high-quality male). The data indicate that male meadow voles did not increase their sperm investment during copulation when exposed to the scent mark of a food-deprived male but did so when they were exposed to the scent mark of a male that was not food deprived. The results support the hypothesis that male voles are able to adjust sperm investment when they encounter the scent marks of males that differ in quality. PMID:19529815

  3. Fighting back against male-killers.

    PubMed

    Jaenike, John

    2007-04-01

    Male-killing endosymbionts create a genetic black hole into which host nuclear genes vanish. In a recent paper, Hornett et al. transferred male-killing Wolbachia between different strains of the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina through hybridization and backcrossing. Their results provide unambiguous evidence of genetic variation for resistance to male-killers. A possible consequence of such variation is that male-killing might appear and disappear quickly on an evolutionary timescale. PMID:17276538

  4. Genetic evaluation of male infertility

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Men with severe oligospermia (<5 million sperm/mL ejaculate fluid) or azoospermia should receive genetic testing to clarify etiology of male infertility prior to treatment. Categorization by obstructive azoospermia (OA) or non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) is critical since genetic testing differs for the former with normal testicular function, testicular volume (~20 mL), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (1-8 IU/mL) when compared to the latter with small, soft testes and increased FSH. History and physician examination along with laboratory testing (following appropriate genetic counseling) is critical to accurate selection of genetic testing appropriate for azoospermia due to primary testicular failure as compared with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH). Genetic testing options include cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) testing for men with congenital absence of the vas, while karyotype, Y chromosome microdeletions (YCMD), and other specific genetic tests may be warranted depending on the clinical context of severe oligospermia or NOA. The results of genetic testing guide management options. The most recent techniques for genetic analysis, including sperm microRNA (miRNA) and epigenetics, are forming the foundation for future genetic diagnosis and therapeutic targets in male infertility. PMID:26813518

  5. Producing Monosex Male Populations for Catfish Culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of uses for the preferential production of male catfish in aquaculture operations. Several studies have demonstrated that male channel catfish grow faster than female fish and would be expected to reach market size faster. Also, in the production of hybrid catfish male blue catf...

  6. Male Puberty Rites: A Path Analytic Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitahara, Michio

    1982-01-01

    Studies two determinants of male puberty rites: communitywide exclusive male work groups and polygyny which act as an extension of male subculture; and sexual integration in the division of labor and distant father-child relationship which act to reduce the distance between the sexes. (Author/RC)

  7. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  8. Suited and Unsuited Hybrid III Impact Testing and Finite Element Model Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria and injury assessment reference values (IARV) extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). For the ATD IARVs, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Each of these ATDs is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis (also known as the aerospace pelvis) and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. Sled testing of the Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was performed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WAPFB). Two 5th Percentile ATDs were tested, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and NASA owned Hybrid III ATDs with aerospace pelvises. Testing was also conducted with a NASA-owned 95th Percentile Male Hybrid III with aerospace pelvis at WPAFB. Testing was performed using an Orion seat prototype provided by Johnson Space Center (JSC). A 5-point harness comprised of 2 inch webbing was also provided by JSC. For suited runs, a small and extra-large Advanced Crew Escape System (ACES) suit and helmet were also provided by JSC. Impact vectors were combined frontal/spinal and rear/lateral. Some pure spinal and rear axis testing was also performed for model validation. Peak accelerations ranged between 15 and 20-g. This range was targeted because the ATD responses fell close to the IARV defined in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Rise times varied between 70 and 110 ms to assess differences in ATD responses and model correlation for different impact energies. The purpose of the test series was to evaluate the Hybrid III ATD models in Orion-specific landing orientations both with and without a spacesuit. The results of these tests were used

  9. Penile reconstruction in the male

    PubMed Central

    Garaffa, Giulio; Gentile, Vincenzo; Antonini, Gabriele; Tsafrakidis, Petros; Raheem, Amr Abdel; Ralph, David J.

    2013-01-01

    We describe and review the most recent techniques of male genital reconstruction, identifying relevant material with an unstructured PubMed-based search of previous reports, using the keywords ‘reconstruction’, ‘glans’, ‘shaft’, ‘lymphoedema’, ‘skin graft’, ‘scrotoplasty’, ‘urethroplasty’, and ‘penile prosthesis’. This search produced 22 reports that were analysed in this review. Split-thickness skin grafts are ideal for glans reconstruction, while full-thickness skin grafts should be used to cover defects on the shaft penis, as they tend to heal with less contracture. The radial artery-based free-flap phalloplasty is the technique of total phallic reconstruction associated with the highest satisfaction rates. Further research is required to identify an ideal reconstructive technique that would guarantee superior cosmetic and functional results, minimising donor site morbidity. PMID:26558091

  10. Aromatase inhibitors for male infertility.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-12-01

    Some men with severely defective sperm production commonly have excess aromatase activity, reflected by low serum testosterone and relatively elevated estradiol levels. Aromatase inhibitors can increase endogenous testosterone production and serum testosterone levels. Treatment of infertile males with the aromatase inhibitors testolactone, anastrazole, and letrozole has been associated with increased sperm production and return of sperm to the ejaculate in men with non-obstructive azoospermia. Use of the aromatase inhibitors anastrazole (1 mg/day) and letrozole (2.5 mg/day) represent off-label use of these agents for impaired spermatogenesis in men with excess aromatase activity (abnormal testosterone/estradiol [T/E] ratios). Side effects have rarely been reported. Randomized controlled trials are needed to define the magnitude of benefit of aromatase inhibitor treatment for infertile men. PMID:23103016

  11. Treatment of hypogonadism in males.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sara; Fuqua, John S; Lee, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, always a pathologic condition, begin lifelong therapy, while short-term therapy is often begun for those who have a delayed puberty. There is a wide variety of testosterone formulations available, with differences in adverse events sometimes associated with the method of administration. The goals of treatment involve stimulating physical puberty, including achievement of virilization, a normal muscle mass and bone mineral density for age, and improvement in psychosocial wellbeing. While androgen therapy results in physical changes of puberty, the potential for fertility must be considered for those with permanent gonadotropin deficiency. in this population, therapy with gonadotropins or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be effective. For those with testicular failure, fertility may be possible but requires assisted reproductive procedures. PMID:24683947

  12. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  13. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future. PMID:26947703

  14. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus. PMID:21899000

  15. Vasopressin Effectively Suppresses Male Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Kim, Yun-Hee; You, Young-Ah; Kim, In Cheul; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2013-01-01

    Arginine vasopressin (VP) is neurohypophysial hormone has been implicated in stimulating contractile activity of the male reproductive tract in the testis. Higher levels of VP decrease sperm count and motility. However, very little is known about the involvement of VP in controlling mammalian reproductive process. The goal of this study was to confirm that effect of VP receptor (AVPR2) on sperm function in capacitation condition. Deamino [Cys 1, D-ArgS] vasopressin (dDAVP), an AVPR2 agonist that operates only on AVPR2, was used. Also, Mouse spermatozoa were incubated with various concentrations of dDAVP (10−11–10−5 M) and sperm motility, capacitation status, Protein Kinase A activity (PKA), tyrosine phosphorylation, fertilization, and embryo development were assessed using computer-assisted sperm analysis, Combined Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence, Western blotting, and in vitro fertilization, respectively. AVPR2 was placed on the acrosome region and mid-piece in cauda epididymal spermatozoa, but the caput epididymal spermatozoa was mid-piece only. The high dDAVP treatment (10−8 and 10−5 M) significantly decreased sperm motility, intracellular pH and PKA substrates (approximately 55 and 22 kDa) and increased Ca2+ concentration. The highest concentration treatment significantly decreased PKA substrate (approximately 23 kDa) and tyrosine phosphorylation (approximately 30 kDa). VP detrimentally affected capacitation, acrosome reaction, and embryo development. Treatment with the lowest concentration (10−11 M) was not significantly different. Our data have shown that VP stimulates ion transport across sperm membrane through interactions with AVPR2. VP has a detrimental effect in sperm function, fertilization, and embryonic development, suggesting its critical role in the acquisition of fertilizing ability of mouse spermatozoa. These research findings will enable further study to determine molecular mechanism associated with fertility in

  16. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2012-01-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  17. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-01

    radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505

  18. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  19. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress. PMID:18270454

  20. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-09-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included.

  1. Scratchcard gambling among adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, M

    2000-01-01

    Playing instant scratchcards has become a popular activity among a significant minority of the UK population since their introduction by the National Lottery operators (Camelot) on March 21, 1995. This study examined scratchcard gambling in a group of adolescent males. A total of 204 boys from two secondary schools in Birmingham (aged 11 to 16 years; mean age 13.6 years) were administered a questionnaire on their scratchcard gambling behaviour. Ten classes (five in each school) took part in the survey with one class from each year group selected at random by the headteacher. Within each class almost all the children took part. Forty-two percent of the sample (n=86) had bought their own scratchcards since their introduction in March 1995. Ten children (12% of the gamblers who had bought scratchcards themselves) met an adapted version of the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling on scratchcards. Furthermore, a significant relationship was found between parents buying scratchcards and the child's scratchcard purchasing behaviour. PMID:14634322

  2. Male hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naifar, M; Rekik, N; Messedi, M; Chaabouni, K; Lahiani, A; Turki, M; Abid, M; Ayedi, F; Jamoussi, K

    2015-06-01

    The role of androgens in cardiovascular disease is still controversial in men. In this study, we investigated metabolic disorders in Tunisian hypogonadal men compared with healthy controls. Forty hypogonadal men and 80 control subjects were enrolled. Patients with a history of pre-existing panhypopituitarism, thyroid dysfunction or inflammatory disease were excluded. Glycaemia, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), lipid profile, insulin, testosterone and gonadotrophins were measured. Insulin resistance was assessed by homoeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (Homa IR). Waist circumference, body mass index and blood pressure were significantly higher in patients compared with controls. Glycemia, HbA1c, fasting serum insulin and Homa IR were significantly increased among hypogonadal men. In univariate analysis, testosterone levels were inversely correlated with body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glycaemia, HbA1C, insulin, Homa IR and hsCRP. In multivariate analysis including all significant variables, initial testosterone level was the only independent risk factor for developing dyslipidaemia. With logistic regression, male hypogonadism was an independent risk factor for MS (P < 0.001). We conclude that low testosterone level plays a central role in the development of metabolic syndrome. Further prospective data are required to establish the causative link. PMID:25040289

  3. [Androgenic treatment of male hypogonadism].

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Prévost, Gaëtan

    2014-02-01

    The diagnosis of male hypogonadism should be clearly established on a clinical and biological basis before considering the initiation of a substitutive treatment with androgens. A careful evaluation of advantages, constraints and limitations of the treatment should be done previously. The potential advantages of an androgenic substitution include an improvement of the symptoms of hypogonadism and the prevention of its bone and metabolic consequences. Absolute (namely prostatic) or relative contraindications should be detected before starting any substitution. The modalities of treatment will be adapted to both the patient's age and the goals to reach. The different available formulations do not induce a similar pattern of plasma testosterone levels. Patches, gel applications and long-acting intramuscular formulations [injected every 3 months] result in stable plasma levels in the physiologic range. The main limitation to their use is linked to a financial aspect as they are not the object of any refund. A careful survey (on clinical, biological and radiological basis) should be established after starting the substitutive treatment with androgens. PMID:24268959

  4. Male homosexuality: the adolescent's perspective.

    PubMed

    Remafedi, G

    1987-03-01

    Although homosexual activity is prevalent among US teenagers, adolescent homosexuality per se has been a poorly understood phenomenon. The purpose of this investigation is to describe the meaning and experience of homosexuality from the adolescent's perspective. Twenty-nine male teenagers, self-described as gay (79%) or bisexual (21%), volunteered to participate in a structured interview, the purpose of which was to examine the definition of homosexuality, the acquisition of a gay identity, and the impact of sexuality on family, peers, and community. The youths demonstrated well-established sexual identities by the consistency of their sexual fantasies, interests, and behaviors over time. Homosexuality was more frequently described as a general attraction to men (48%) and an indicator of positive personal attributes (33%) than as an isolated sexual behavior. The subjects reported strong negative attitudes from parents (43%) and friends (41%) toward their sexualities. Discrimination (37%), verbal abuse from peers (55%), and physical assaults (30%) were frequently cited problems. These stressors may place the boys at high risk for physical and psychosocial dysfunction. PMID:3822631

  5. Hypogonadism in male cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Burney, Basil O; Garcia, Jose M

    2012-09-01

    Prevalence of hypogonadism in men with cancer has been reported between 40% and 90%, which is significantly higher than in the general population. Hypogonadism is likely to affect the quality of life in these patients by contributing to non-specific symptoms, including decreased energy, anorexia, sarcopenia, weight loss, depression, insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and sexual dysfunction. Pathogenesis of hypogonadism in cancer patients is thought to be multi-factorial. Inflammation may play an important role, but leptin, opioids, ghrelin, and high-dose chemotherapy through different mechanisms have all been implicated as the cause. Hypogonadism is also associated with poor survival in cancer patients. Data looking into the treatment of hypogonadal male cancer patients with testosterone are limited. However, improvements in body weight, muscle strength, lean body mass, and quality of life have been shown in hypogonadal men with other chronic diseases on testosterone replacement therapy. Prospective and interventional trials are needed to test the efficacy and safety of testosterone treatment in improving quality of life of these patients. PMID:22528986

  6. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  7. The visible human male: a technical report.

    PubMed Central

    Spitzer, V; Ackerman, M J; Scherzinger, A L; Whitlock, D

    1996-01-01

    The National Library of Medicine's Visible Human Male data set consists of digital magnetic resonance (MR), computed tomography (CT), and anatomic images derived from a single male cadaver. The data set is 15 gigabytes in size and is available from the National Library of Medicine under a no-cost license agreement. The history of the Visible Human Male cadaver and the methods and technology to produce the data set are described. PMID:8653448

  8. Eastern medicine approaches to male infertility.

    PubMed

    Hu, Min; Zhang, Yuehui; Ma, Hongli; Ng, Ernest H Y; Wu, Xiao-Ke

    2013-07-01

    Male factor is a common cause of infertility and the male partner must be systematically evaluated in the workup of every infertile couple. Various Eastern medical strategies have been tried with variable success. This article describes the clinical effects of Eastern medicine approaches including acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, massage, yoga, tai chi, and qi gong, which could improve the sperm parameters and motility, genital inflammatory conditions, as well as immune system disorders, sexual dysfunction, and varicocele. Acupuncture reduces inflammation, increases sperm motility, improves semen parameters, modulates the immune system, and improves sexual and ejaculatory dysfunction in male infertility. The clinical effects may be mediated via activation of somatic afferent nerves innervating the skin and muscle. Chinese herbal medicines may also exert helpful effects in male infertility, and it is worth noting that some herbal drugs may result in male infertility. Massage also exerts positive effects in male infertility. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of clinical effects are unclear. Tai chi, qi gong, and yoga have not been investigated in male infertility, but it has been reported to regulate endocrine and central or autonomic nervous systems. In conclusion, Eastern medical approaches have beneficial on reproductive effects in male infertility. However, future well-designed, randomized, clinical control trials are needed to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Eastern medical approaches for male infertility. PMID:23775386

  9. Sexy faces in a male paper wasp.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; do Nascimento, Fabio Santos; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  10. Sexy Faces in a Male Paper Wasp

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; Santos do Nascimento, Fabio; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  11. Sexually Coercive Male Chimpanzees Sire More Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Feldblum, Joseph T.; Wroblewski, Emily E.; Rudicell, Rebecca S.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E.; Gilby, Ian C.

    2016-01-01

    Summary In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict [1]. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice [2, 3], but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior [4-11]. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success [12]. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female’s swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal. PMID:25454788

  12. The adult well male examination.

    PubMed

    Heidelbaugh, Joel J; Tortorello, Michelle

    2012-05-15

    The adult well male examination should incorporate evidence-based guidance toward the promotion of optimal health and well-being, including screening tests shown to improve health outcomes. Nearly one-third of men report not having a primary care physician. The medical history should include substance use; risk factors for sexually transmitted infections; diet and exercise habits; and symptoms of depression. Physical examination should include blood pressure and body mass index screening. Men with sustained blood pressures greater than 135/80 mm Hg should be screened for diabetes mellitus. Lipid screening is warranted in all men 35 years and older, and in men 20 to 34 years of age who have cardiovascular risk factors. Ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm should occur between 65 and 75 years of age in men who have ever smoked. There is insufficient evidence to recommend screening men for osteoporosis or skin cancer. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force has provisionally recommended against prostate-specific antigen-based screening for prostate cancer because the harms of testing and overtreatment outweigh potential benefits. Screening for colorectal cancer should begin at 50 years of age in men of average risk and continue until at least 75 years of age. Screening should be performed by high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing every year, flexible sigmoidoscopy every five years combined with [corrected] fecal occult blood testing every three years. [corrected]. The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends against screening for testicular cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Immunizations should be recommended according to guidelines from the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:22612046

  13. Both male and female identity influence variation in male signalling effort

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Male sexual displays play an important role in sexual selection by affecting reproductive success. However, for such displays to be useful for female mate choice, courtship should vary more among than within individual males. In this regard, a potentially important source of within male variation is adjustment of male courtship effort in response to female traits. Accordingly, we set out to dissect sources of variation in male courtship effort in a fish, the desert goby (Chlamydogobius eremius). We did so by designing an experiment that allowed simultaneous estimation of within and between male variation in courtship, while also assessing the importance of the males and females as sources of courtship variation. Results Although males adjusted their courtship depending on the identity of the female (a potentially important source of within-male variation), among-male differences were considerably greater. In addition, male courtship effort towards a pair of females was highly repeatable over a short time frame. Conclusion Despite the plasticity in male courtship effort, courtship displays had the potential to reliably convey information about the male to mate-searching females. Our experiment therefore underscores the importance of addressing the different sources contributing to variation in the expression of sexually-selected traits. PMID:21827657

  14. Rogue Males: Sex Differences in Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sander, Paul; Sanders, Lalage

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports a preliminary study into the commitment and academic confidence of male students in undergraduate psychology, prompted by our own observations of the performance of male students and the literature on sex differences in education. Method: Using an analytical survey, level 1 psychology students at a new university…

  15. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage. PMID:22913441

  16. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  17. [Changes in bones in the aging males].

    PubMed

    Grzegorzewska, Alicja E

    2007-08-01

    The report contains a summary of results on bone changes in aging male, presented during the 2nd CSSAM/ISAM North American Congress on the Aging Male. It was shown that age-related osteoporosis can be slowed in men by substitutive treatment with testosterone. Taking into account such therapy, one should remember about its adverse effects. PMID:18044351

  18. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  19. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  20. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  1. Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus in homosexual males.

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, H R; McIntyre, L

    1983-01-01

    Campylobacter fetus subsp. fetus was isolated from the stools of two homosexual males. One was asymptomatic at the time of isolation. The other presented with diarrhea. Both isolates were initially grown at 42 degrees C. This organism should be included among the list of organisms that are found in homosexual males. PMID:6630480

  2. The Decision for Male versus Female Sterilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret Pruitt; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The increasing popularity of sterilization underscores the need for knowledge about couples choosing male and female procedures. This research delineates four sets of variables that may be important for the decision and examines their relationship with the choice of male or female procedure among a sample of married couples. (Author)

  3. Black Males in College: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S.; And Others

    Because relatively few black males successfully complete college, this study sought to determine how black male freshmen at a predominantly white university differed from other freshmen in their values, aspirations, and assumptions about college life. In the fall of 1989, the ACT Entering Student Survey, plus 30 locally developed questions, was…

  4. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  5. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  6. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  7. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  8. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  9. Uncommon Caring: Primary Males and Implicit Judgments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, James R.

    The caring and nurturing of children, which characterize primary education culture, have tended to shape a public perception of primary teaching as "women's work." Several social factors influence men's underrepresentation in the profession of primary education, such as parents not wanting their children exposed to "soft" males. Male primary…

  10. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  11. Flirtation reduces males' fecundity but not longevity.

    PubMed

    Esfandi, Kambiz; He, Xiong Zhao; Wang, Qiao

    2015-08-01

    Theory predicts that due to limited resources males should strategically adjust their investment in reproduction and survival. Based on different conceptual framework, experimental designs, and study species, many studies support while others contradict this general prediction. Using a moth Ephestia kuehniella whose adults do not feed and thus have fixed resources for their lifetime fitness, we investigated whether males adjusted their investment in various life activities under dynamic socio-sexual environment. We allowed focal males to perceive rivals or additional females without physical contact. We show that males do not adjust the number of sperm they transfer to mates in a given copulation at different immediate or both immediate and mean sperm competition levels. Contradictory to general predictions, our results demonstrate that cues from additional females increase males' investment in courtship and reduce their lifetime number of copulations and sperm ejaculated, whereas cues from rivals have no effect on these parameters. Males have similar longevity in all treatments. We suggest that the sex pheromone produced by multiple females overstimulate males, increasing males' costly flirtations, and reducing their lifetime copulation frequency and fecundity. This finding offers a novel explanation for the success of mating disruption strategy using sex pheromones in pest management. PMID:26133013

  12. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  13. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  14. Recognition Memory for Male and Female Faces.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarmey, A. Daniel

    Sex differences in memory for human faces is reviewed. It is found that research evidence to date is not conclusive, but where differences exist they favor female superiority over males in facial memory. In particular, evidence is cited to suggest that females are reliably superior to males in their recognition memory for other females. This is…

  15. Research directions in male sex work.

    PubMed

    Browne, J; Minichiello, V

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides a critical review of the literature relating to male sex work and outlines approaches to theorizing about and researching male sex work. The adequacy of these models to explain the male sex work industry is discussed. The literature reveals that earlier studies conceptualized male sex work as deviance and focused on the individual sex worker and his reasons for engaging in sex work. Although the research agenda has recently moved away from the individual sex worker towards the sex work industry, the focus of the investigation continues to be from a deviance rather than a work perspective. A number of aspects of male sex work have received little attention in the literature. These include the interpersonal dialogues and power relations that constitute the commercial sexual negotiation, the role of political and economic forces, and expressions of male sexuality within the practice of commercial sex. The paper suggests future research directions and argues that researchers need to draw on the strengths of the male sex work community in order to promote safe sex practices in commercial researchers need to draw on the strengths of the male sex work community in order to promote safe sex practices in commercial sexual settings. PMID:8905528

  16. Enhancing Minority Male Enrollment: Students as Mentors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolar, Steven M.; Cowles, James

    During the 1991-92 academic year, Cumberland County College (CCC), in New Jersey, initiated a mentor program to encourage enrollment of male minority high school seniors in postsecondary institutions. Twenty Black and Hispanic males in their senior year of high school participated in the program; all 20 were accepted to an accredited college…

  17. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  18. Conditional monogyny: female quality predicts male faithfulness

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Male monogyny in the absence of paternal investment is arguably one of the most puzzling mating systems. Recent evidence suggests that males of monogynous species adjust their life-history and their mating decision to shifting spatial and temporal selection regimes. In the cannibalistic wasp spider Argiope bruennichi males can be either monogynous or mate with a maximum of two females. We studied factors underlying male mating decisions in a natural population over a whole mating season. We documented all matings and categorized the males into single-mated and double-mated monogynous as well as bigynous males. Results We found that all categories were continuously present with relatively stable frequencies despite changes in the operational sex ratio. Males were more likely monogynous when copulating with relatively heavy and old females and otherwise bigynous. Conclusion Our results imply that males make conditional mating decisions based on the quality of the first female they encounter but do not adjust their mating tactic to the local selection regime. PMID:22533854

  19. The Male Voice of Emotional Intimacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twohey, Denise; Ewing, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Inability to hear or understand the male voice of intimacy creates difficulty in relationships. Listening to relational dialogues of intimacy based on feminine relational strengths may preclude understanding or hearing males voices. Reviews special issue of the "Journal of Mental Health Counseling" on counseling men, concluding with several…

  20. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size. PMID:27420790

  1. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  2. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Anna L; Levitan, Don R; Hosken, David J; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  3. Estimation of Male Gene Flow: Use Caution.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W; Singh, Sujeet; Aspi, Jouni

    2015-01-01

    Because male gene flow cannot easily be estimated directly in many organisms, Hedrick et al. (2013) provided an approach to estimate male gene flow given estimates of diploid nuclear and female differentiation. This approach appears to work well when there is lower female than male gene flow. However, in a tiger data set there was less female differentiation observed as estimated by mitochondrial DNA than expected given the observed overall nuclear diploid differentiation. To analyze these data, we suggest an alternative approach which allows incorporation of sex-specific gene flow and sex-specific effective population size. We find that the pattern of differentiation observed in tigers was consistent with a lower male than female effective population size using this alternative approach. Further, this finding is consistent with observed data in tigers where the male effective population size was 33% that of the female effective population size. PMID:26464090

  4. What Should Be the Energy Policy of the United States? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1978-1979. Senate, 95th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This collection of excerpts and bibliographies address the three debate propositions selected as subjects of the 1978-1979 debate question for high schools selected by the National University Extension Service, "What should be the energy policy of the United States?" The collection is divided into three parts each addressing one of the debate…

  5. Accreditation on Trial. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (95th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, Philadelphia, PA.

    The proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, which focused on the issue of accreditation, are presented. Two papers on accreditation as well as the business meeting of the Association are included. In "Accreditation on Trial--The Indictment," Fred F. Harcleroad provides a historical…

  6. Rural Development: Seventh Annual Report of the President to the Congress on Government Services to Rural America. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    Analyzing 1975 Federal Outlays for 275 programs in terms of rural development and government services, this 7th annual report to the Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 (e) of the Agricultural Act of 1970 includes tabular and narrative data pertaining to: metropolitan and nonmetropolitan distribution; regional distribution (census regions);…

  7. [Medical service of Russian Army in the First World War 1914-1918 (to the 95th anniversary of the beginning of war)].

    PubMed

    Korniushko, I G; Gladkikh, P F; Loktev, A E

    2009-08-01

    During the First World War 1914-1918 Russian Army hadn't a united medical service, military-medical affair was diluted in multiple governances. Evacuation of wounded and ill persons was an affair of Evacuation Governance of Main Governance the General Staff. Process of treatment in field and stationary medical formations was administered by sanitarium chiefs of armies and theaters of operation, bureaucrats of Russian Red Cross Society, Russian Union of Cities and Territorial Union. Supply by medical property, accounting and arrangement of medical staff was administered by Main Military-Sanitarium Governance, supply by sanitarium-household property--by Main Indent Governance, health resort affair--by Governance of Supreme chief of sanitarium and evacuation part in Empire of prince Ol'denburgskiy P.A. On the base of different sources were characterized casualty of Russian Army during the war. PMID:19916317

  8. Metabolic profil in a group of obese Moroccan children enrolled in schools in the city of Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouane, Nezha; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Ettair, Said; Meskini, Toufik; Khalloufi, Nabil; Bouklouze, Aziz; Barkat, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine the metabolic profile in a group of obese children in Morocco. Methods The BMI, the waist circumference, the blood pressure and metabolic parameters in 73 children (37 obese and 36 normal) were compared. Results 80% of obese children had abdominal obesity (p <0.0001). For systolic blood pressure among children who have a higher value than the 95th percentile, 85.7% were obese and 14.3% children are normal children. For diastolic blood pressure, 83.34% of obese children had higher diastolic blood pressure values in the 95th percentile and 16.6% of normal children have a higher value than the 95th percentile (p=0.013). No obese child had hyperglycemia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. Conclusion Obesity is number one risk of cardiovascular disease for children. Early detection can help for an appropriate care. PMID:25977740

  9. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  10. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  11. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in adolescent males.

    PubMed

    Andersen, A E

    1984-12-01

    Anorexia nervosa or bulimia in adolescent males occurs ten times less frequently than in adolescent females. When they occur, however, they can be clearly identified and differentiated from disorders also associated with weight loss such as swallowing phobias. Early diagnosis and treatment leads to improved outcome. While the formal psychopathology of male anorectics is similar to that of females, there is often a different motivation for the initial weight loss in males. They are more often concerned with attaining an idealized male body and avoiding teasing or criticism about their appearance. When males become ill, they tend to develop the full anorectic syndrome or not to become ill at all. Recognition of the special needs of adolescent males for individualized treatment increases the change of optimal outcome. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the teenage male should be seen as an ineffective method of dealing with developmental crises by gaining a sense of effectiveness and control through weight reduction and food restriction. Treatment seeks to improve quickly the starvation-related aspects of the illness while attempting to find more appropriate methods of dealing with the life crises prompting the illness. The real goal of treatment is to make the anorectic or bulimic illness unnecessary by encouraging the patient to continue the work of individuation and separation so that challenges in development and problems in living are resolved in a direct rather than an indirect way through an eating disorder. PMID:6596548

  12. Male reproductive biology of Aedes mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Oliva, Clelia F; Damiens, David; Benedict, Mark Q

    2014-04-01

    Among Aedes mosquitoes are species responsible for transmission of serious pathogens to humans. To cope with the current threats to long-term effectiveness of the traditional vector control methods, non-conventional control strategies are being developed. These include autocidal control such as the release of sterile males (sterile insect technique) and the release of Wolbachia-infected males to induce sexual sterility (incompatible insect technique) and pathogen-refractory strain replacement variations using Wolbachia. Sterile male types of techniques particularly depend on released males' ability to successfully mate with wild females. For that reason, a good understanding of male mating biology, including a thorough understanding of the reproductive system and mating capacity, increases the likelihood of success of such genetic vector control programmes. Here we review the literature concerning the reproduction of Aedes mosquitoes with an emphasis on the male biology. We consider sexual maturation, mate finding, insemination, male reproductive capacity, and the occurrence of multiple matings. We also discuss which parameters are of greatest importance for the successful implementation of autocidal control methods and propose questions for future research. PMID:24308996

  13. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  14. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  15. Conflict over Male Parentage in Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free, worker-policing should occur only where workers are more closely related to queen- than to worker-produced male eggs (relatedness hypothesis). Second, if there are substantial costs to unchecked worker reproduction, worker-policing may occur to counteract these costs and increase colony efficiency (efficiency hypothesis). The first explanation predicts that patterns of the parentage of males (male parentage) are associated with relatedness, whereas the latter does not. We have investigated how male parentage varies with colony kin structure and colony size in 50 species of ants, bees, and wasps in a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis. Our survey revealed that queens produced the majority of males in most of the species and that workers produced more than half of the males in less than 10% of species. Moreover, we show that male parentage does not vary with relatedness as predicted by the relatedness hypothesis. This indicates that intra- and interspecific variation in male parentage cannot be accounted for by the relatedness hypothesis alone and that increased colony efficiency is an important factor responsible for the evolution of worker-policing. Our study reveals greater harmony and more complex regulation of reproduction in social insect colonies than that expected from simple theoretical expectations based on relatedness only. PMID:15328531

  16. Inbreeding effect on male and female fertility and inheritance of male sterility in Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Gomez, Nadilia N; Shaw, Ruth G

    2006-05-01

    Models of the evolution of gynodioecy assume that inbreeding affects male and female fertility equally and ignore quantitative variation in sex expression. The objectives of this study were to assess inbreeding effects, genetic background, and plant maturity on male and female fertility and the mechanism of male sterility inheritance for Nemophila menziesii (Hydrophyllaceae). Frequency of male-sterile flowers, number of anthers and ovules, and percentage of viable pollen were measured on plants from different pedigrees and five inbreeding levels (F = 0, 0.0625, 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75). Quantitative variation in male sterility was evident. As inbreeding increased, anther and ovule number decreased; the effect on anther number was greater than on ovule number. Pedigrees varied in number of male-sterile flowers and inbreeding effects. Frequency of male-sterile flowers was greatest among first flowers. No trade-off between male and female fertility was detected. A model attributing male sterility to a cytoplasmic locus and restoration to male fertility to a nuclear locus accounted for the distribution of complete sterility and hermaphroditism over the pedigrees. This study suggests that models of the evolution and maintenance of gynodioecy should allow for quantitative variation in male and female fertility components due to inbreeding, pedigree, and plant maturity. PMID:21642137

  17. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species. PMID:24455130

  18. Experimentally increased badge size increases male competition and reduces male parental care in the collared flycatcher

    PubMed Central

    Qvarnstroöm, A.

    1997-01-01

    Experimental enlargement of sexually selected traits that are energetically cheap to produce is expected to reveal costs resulting from increased risk of predation or social competition. Given a trade-off between sexually selected traits and life history traits such costs may be expected to affect not only the males themselves but also their offspring. In this study I manipulated the size of the forehead patch, a sexually selected trait that functions as a badge of status in male collared flycatchersFicedula albicollis). First, I found that a male's likelihood to establish a breeding territory with respect to his original badge size was affected by the treatment such that old males (older than or equal to two years) with relatively small original badges enjoyed an increased likelihood of establishing a breeding territory while young males (yearlings) suffered a reduced likelihood of establishment when their badges were enlarged as compared to unchanged. Second, young males with enlarged badges that were able to establish a territory fed their nestlings less in relation to their females compared to the control males. However, the females adjusted their parental effort to such an extent that no significant differences were observed in total feeding rate nor in reproductive success between the two groups of males. These results suggest that experimentally enlarged badge size in the collared flycatcher may result in increased male competition and that males have to trade their effort spent in male contest against their parental effort.

  19. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males' nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  20. Male mammals respond to a risk of sperm competition conveyed by odours of conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2004-09-01

    Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males and the sperm of those males compete within the female's reproductive tract to fertilize her eggs. The frequent occurrence of sperm competition has forced males of many species to develop different strategies to overcome the sperm of competing males. A prevalent strategy is for males to increase their sperm investment (total number of sperm allocated by a male to a particular female) after detecting a risk of sperm competition. It has been shown that the proportion of sperm that one male contributes to the sperm pool of a female is correlated with the proportion of offspring sired by that male. Therefore, by increasing his sperm investment a male may bias a potential sperm competition in his favour. Here we show that male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm investment when they mate in the presence of another male's odours. Such an increase in sperm investment does not occur by augmenting the frequency of ejaculations, but by increasing the amount of sperm in a similar number of ejaculations.

  1. Social modulation of androgens in male birds.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang

    2009-09-01

    Most seasonally reproducing vertebrates show pronounced changes in testosterone levels throughout the year. The Challenge Hypothesis [Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M., Ball, G. F., 1990. The "challenge hypothesis": theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat. 136, 829-846] predicts that seasonal patterns in circulating androgen concentrations vary as a function of mating system, male-male aggression and paternal care. In most comparative studies, the predictions of the Challenge Hypothesis have been tested primarily by calculating the ratio between breeding peak and breeding baseline testosterone concentrations, using this ratio as a proxy for the effect that social interactions have on testosterone levels (androgen responsiveness R). Recently, we suggested that it is preferable to separate the seasonal testosterone response (R(season)) from the androgen responsiveness to male-male interactions (R(male-male)), as these two measures do not correlate and can differ both in magnitude and direction [Goymann, W., Landys, M.M., Wingfield, J.C., 2007. Distinguishing seasonal androgen responses from male-male androgen responsiveness-revisiting the Challenge Hypothesis. Horm. Behav. 51, 463-476]. Here, I discuss several methodological and ecological factors that may explain why R(season) and R(male-male) differ. Furthermore, I describe three other kinds of androgen responsiveness, namely the androgen responsiveness of males to receptive females (R(male-female)), to non-social environmental cues (R(environment)), and the potential androgen responsiveness (R(potential)). The latter is measured before and after an injection of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), which typically leads to a maximal release of testosterone from the testes. I argue that separation of different kinds of androgen responsiveness and putting them into context with the natural history and ecology of a study species may

  2. Introduction: Male fertility preservation: innovations and questions.

    PubMed

    Frydman, René; Grynberg, Michaël

    2016-02-01

    It is now well established that many benign or malignant diseases may by themselves or as result of treatment, impair male fertility. Therefore, preserving the potential of becoming a genetic father represents a major issue. Besides sperm cryopreservation, which is the most reliable method for male fertility preservation, other strategies have more recently emerged, especially in prepubertal boys. Prepubertal germ cell storage from testicular sperm extraction and derivation of male gametes from stem cells may represent a future hope, although raising many ethical issues. PMID:26746134

  3. Overview and trends in male grooming.

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    2012-03-01

    The use of cosmetics and medical cosmetic procedures by men has been widely ignored in dermatological research in the past, but it is finding increasing attention. As men are changing their habits and increasingly tend to use cosmetic products, the dermatologist will be asked for expert advice regarding efficacy and safety of cosmetics for male skin. For this service, dermatologists need to be aware of anatomical and physiological differences between male and female skin, about specific environmental stress factors affecting male skin, about cosmetic practices and product use especially regarding shaving, and about the counselling needs in men relating to protective cosmetic use. PMID:22385028

  4. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units. PMID:22900432

  5. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications.

    PubMed

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-03-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  6. Asymptomatic gonorrhoea in a male patient.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, B.; Teli, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    A case of asymptomatic gonorrhoea in a male patient is described. Failure to isolate Neisseria gonorrhoea from his wife possibly demonstrates inhibitory effect of Candida albicans in vivo on the former organism. PMID:6436805

  7. Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... PATIENT FACT SHEET Diagnostic Testing for Male Factor Infertility When a couple has trouble having a baby, ... to find out what may be causing your infertility. Semen analysis Semen analysis is probably the first ...

  8. Male breast cancer: is the scenario changing

    PubMed Central

    Contractor, Kaiyumars B; Kaur, Kanchan; Rodrigues, Gabriel S; Kulkarni, Dhananjay M; Singhal, Hemant

    2008-01-01

    Background The overall incidence of male breast cancer is around 1% of all breast cancers and is on the rise. In this review we aim to present various aspects of male breast cancer with particular emphasis on incidence, risk factors, patho-physiology, treatment, prognostic factors, and outcome. Methods Information on all aspects of male breast cancer was gathered from available relevant literature on male breast cancer from the MEDLINE database over the past 32 years from 1975 to 2007. Various reported studies were scrutinized for emerging evidence. Incidence data were also obtained from the IARC, Cancer Mondial database. Conclusion There is a scenario of rising incidence, particularly in urban US, Canada and UK. Even though more data on risk factors is emerging about this disease, more multi-institutional efforts to pool data with large randomized trials to show treatment and survival benefits are needed to support the existing vast emerging knowledge about the disease. PMID:18558006

  9. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... decreases. The level of the male sex hormone, testosterone stays the same or decreases gradually. There may ... less intense. This may be related to decreased testosterone level. It may also result from psychological or ...

  10. Dwarf males in the teredinidae (bivalvia, pholadacea).

    PubMed

    Turner, R D; Yakovlev, Y

    1983-03-01

    Extreme sexual dimorphism in the Bivalvia is rare. The occurrence of dwarf males in Zachsia appears to be the first case in the Teredinidae and the first outside the Leptonacea. Female Zachsia release straight-hinge larvae that develop in the plankton and settle on living rhizomes of Phyllospadix. Larvae entering mantle pouches of females become males. Evolution of this life history pattern is tied to problems of living in a fragile, patchy habitat-that is, the rhizomes of Phyllospadix. PMID:17811751

  11. Aesthetic Surgery of the Male Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    Alter, Gary J.; Salgado, Christopher J.; Chim, Harvey

    2011-01-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery. PMID:22851910

  12. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Alter, Gary J; Salgado, Christopher J; Chim, Harvey

    2011-08-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery. PMID:22851910

  13. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  14. Self-Exposure to the Male Pheromone ESP1 Enhances Male Aggressiveness in Mice.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Tatsuya; Osakada, Takuya; Matsumoto, Ayaka; Matsuo, Naoki; Haga-Yamanaka, Sachiko; Nishida, Takaya; Mori, Yuji; Mogi, Kazutaka; Touhara, Kazushige; Kikusui, Takefumi

    2016-05-01

    Exocrine gland-secreting peptide 1 (ESP1) released into male tear fluids is a male pheromone that stimulates sexually receptive behavior in female mice via the vomeronasal sensory system. ESP1 also induces c-Fos expression in male brain regions distinct from those in females. However, behavior in males following ESP1 exposure has not been examined. In the present study, we show that ESP1, in conjunction with unfamiliar male urine, enhances male aggression via the specific vomeronasal receptor V2Rp5. In addition, male mice that secrete ESP1 but lack V2Rp5 exhibit a lower level of aggressiveness than do mice that express V2Rp5. These results suggest that ESP1 not only acts as a male pheromone in both sexes but also serves as an auto-stimulatory factor that enhances male aggressiveness by self-exposure. Finally, re-activation of ESP1-induced c-Fos-positive neurons by using the designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drug (DREADD) approach resulted in enhancement of sexual and aggressive behaviors in female and male mice, respectively, indicating that sexually dimorphic activation in the brain is a neural basis for the sex-specific behavioral responses to ESP1. PMID:27151664

  15. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms.

    PubMed

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  16. Impact of Metformin on Male Reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Carolina; Sousa, Mário; Rabaça, Ana; Oliveira, Pedro F; Alves, Marco G; Sá, Rosália

    2015-01-01

    Male infertility has been increasing over the last decades being nowadays a pressing health problem. Diabetes mellitus (DM) can contribute directly or indirectly to male infertility due to an abnormal spermatogenesis, which results in a decreased sperm quality. Type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is responsible for the vast majority of DM cases, being frequently treated with oral antidiabetic drugs. Metformin is the most cost-effective therapy for the treatment of T2DM. This biguanide is an oral insulin-sensitizing agent capable of increasing insulin sensitivity and decreasing plasma fasting insulin levels. The main metabolic action of this drug occurs in the liver. However, it has been shown that metformin acts on a variety of organs including the male reproductive system. With the rising numbers of diabetic individuals among younger populations, there is an increase in the consumption of metformin in individuals of this age group. As a result, it is important to discuss the role of metformin in male fertility. This review presents the most recent data available from studies on the effects of metformin on male reproductive system. Together with the discussion of these effects, their significance to male fertility is also debated. PMID:26166607

  17. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  18. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  19. Roaring function in male goitered gazelles.

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Ruckstuhl, K; Yang, W

    2014-07-01

    Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that adult males have a hypertrophic larynx, the muscle tissues of which increase considerably in size during the rut. We were interested in the frequency and variance with which male goitered gazelles emit their calls depending on an animal's age, reproductive status and time of the year in order to understand the main function of the rutting vocalizations. We found that roaring was mostly related to courting displays, while vocalizations during aggressive displays were less frequent in male-male interactions. Acoustic signals likely enhance courtship displays and also may aid in accelerating female ovulation, promoting synchronization of breeding cycles during the mating and birthing periods, which last only several days for most of the females in our population. We discuss the potential benefits of such behaviors and compare it to other species living in similarly extreme environments. PMID:24915642

  20. Magnetoreception Regulates Male Courtship Activity in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chia-Lin; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Chiang, Meng-Hsuan; Chang, Yu-Wei; Her, Jim-Long; Wu, Tony

    2016-01-01

    The possible neurological and biophysical effects of magnetic fields on animals is an area of active study. Here, we report that courtship activity of male Drosophila increases in a magnetic field and that this effect is regulated by the blue light-dependent photoreceptor cryptochrome (CRY). Naïve male flies exhibited significantly increased courtship activities when they were exposed to a ≥ 20-Gauss static magnetic field, compared with their behavior in the natural environment (0 Gauss). CRY-deficient flies, cryb and crym, did not show an increased courtship index in a magnetic field. RNAi-mediated knockdown of cry in cry-GAL4-positive neurons disrupted the increased male courtship activity in a magnetic field. Genetically expressing cry under the control of cry-GAL4 in the CRY-deficient flies restored the increase in male courtship index that occurred in a magnetic field. Interestingly, artificially activating cry-GAL4-expressing neurons, which include large ventral lateral neurons and small ventral lateral neurons, via expression of thermosensitive cation channel dTrpA1, also increased the male courtship index. This enhancement was abolished by the addition of the cry-GAL80 transgene. Our results highlight the phenomenon of increased male courtship activity caused by a magnetic field through CRY-dependent magnetic sensation in CRY expression neurons in Drosophila. PMID:27195955

  1. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  2. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  3. Male Courtship in Drosophila: The Conditioned Response to Immature Males and Its Genetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Gailey, Donald A.; Jackson, F. Rob; Siegel, Richard W.

    1982-01-01

    Experimentally naive male Drosophila melanogaster respond to sexually immature males with intense courtship. However, this response decreases markedly in a short period of time, and "experienced" males then avoid further courtship with immature males for 4 hr. This subsequent inhibition of the courtship response is specific to immature males; the response to virgin females remains intact. This experience-dependent modification in courtship behavior is designated as "conditioned courtship." Seven mutant strains isolated for their inability to express avoidance conditioning (on criteria independent of courtship) were all found to be mutant with respect to expression of conditioned courtship. The potential application of this phenomenon to mosaic analysis of these mutations is posed. Other results indicate that immature males constitutively release a chemical signal that is sufficient for the expression of conditioned courtship. The interpretation of conditioned courtship as a component of fitness is discussed. PMID:17246097

  4. Male-on-male sexual assaults: an analysis of crime scene actions.

    PubMed

    Almond, Louise; McManus, Michelle A; Ward, Lydia

    2014-05-01

    While the concept of male victimization is not a new phenomenon, the sexual assault of a male is a relatively new notion, emerging over the last 30 years in social research literature. Studies of female rape, pedophilia, and juvenile sex offenders have suggested that different styles of offending are reflected in the different types of behaviors committed by offenders at the crime scene. These studies suggest that there are three distinct themes of behavior: Control, Hostility, and Involvement. Using the crime scene actions of 305 male-on-male sexual assault from a U.K. national police database, multidimensional analysis was carried out. The proposed framework was found to be a useful way of classifying male-on-male sexual assaulters with 74% displaying a dominant theme. These resulted in 42% classified as displaying hostility, 23% as control, and 9% as involvement. Implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:24255070

  5. Uranium and thorium in urine of United States residents: Reference range concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, B.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Jarrett, J.M.; Pirkle, J.L.; Jackson, R.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Miller, D.T.; Caudill, S.P. )

    1999-07-01

    The authors measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 US residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). They found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concentration for uranium was 34.5 ng/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged up to 4,080 ng/L. Thorium had a 95th percentile concentration of 3.09 ng/L; concentrations ranged up to 7.7 ng/L.

  6. Steroid sulfatase gene in XX males.

    PubMed Central

    Mohandas, T K; Stern, H J; Meeker, C A; Passage, M B; Müller, U; Page, D C; Yen, P H; Shapiro, L J

    1990-01-01

    The human X and Y chromosomes pair and recombine at their distal short arms during male meiosis. Recent studies indicate that the majority of XX males arise as a result of an aberrant exchange between X and Y chromosomes such that the testis-determining factor gene (TDF) is transferred from a Y chromatid to an X chromatid. It has been shown that X-specific loci such as that coding for the red cell surface antigen, Xg, are sometimes lost from the X chromosome in this aberrant exchange. The steroid sulfatase functional gene (STS) maps to the distal short arm of the X chromosome proximal to XG. We have asked whether STS is affected in the aberrant X-Y interchange leading to XX males. DNA extracted from fibroblasts of seven XX males known to contain Y-specific sequences in their genomic DNA was tested for dosage of the STS gene by using a specific genomic probe. Densitometry of the autoradiograms showed that these XX males have two copies of the STS gene, suggesting that the breakpoint on the X chromosome in the aberrant X-Y interchange is distal to STS. To obtain more definitive evidence, cell hybrids were derived from the fusion of mouse cells, deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase, and fibroblasts of the seven XX males. The X chromosomes in these patients could be distinguished from each other when one of three X-linked restriction-fragment-length polymorphisms was used. Hybrid clones retaining a human X chromosome containing Y-specific sequences in the absence of the normal X chromosome could be identified in six of the seven cases of XX males.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2301402

  7. How does lead induce male infertility?

    PubMed Central

    Vigeh, Mohsen; Smith, Derek R.; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2011-01-01

    An important part of male infertility of unknown etiology may be attributed to various environmental and occupational exposures to toxic substances, such as lead. The reproductive effects of lead are complex and appear to involve multiple pathways, not all of which are fully understood. It is still unclear, for example, if male reproductive issues in lead-exposed persons are mostly related to the disruption of reproductive hormones, whether the problems are due to the lead’s direct effects on the gonads, or both? This question has been difficult to answer, because lead, especially at high levels, may adversely affect many human organs. Although lead can potentially reduce male fertility by decreasing sperm count and motility, inducing abnormal morphology and affecting functional parameters; not all studies have been able to clearly demonstrate such findings. In addition, research has shown that the blood-testis barrier can protect testicular cells from direct exposure to high levels of blood lead. For these reasons and considering the wide spectrum of lead toxicity on reproductive hormones, the present review suggests that lead’s main influence on male reproduction probably occurs by altering the reproductive hormonal axis and the hormonal control on spermatogenesis, rather than by a direct toxic effect on the seminiferous tubules of the testes. As blood lead concentrations below the currently accepted worker protection standard may still adversely affect male fertility, future studies should aim to establish more concrete links between lead exposure (especially at low levels) and subsequent male infertility. Research should also pay more attention to lead’s effects on reducing male fertility rates based on not only hormonal axis alteration, but also on the changes in sperm characteristic among exposed subjects. PMID:25356074

  8. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  9. Variably male-biased sex ratio in a marine bird with females larger than males.

    PubMed

    Torres, R; Drummond, H

    1999-01-01

    When the costs of rearing males and females differ progeny sex ratios are expected to be biased toward the less expensive sex. Blue-footed booby (Sula nebouxii) females are larger and roughly 32% heavier than males, thus presumably more costly to rear. We recorded hatching and fledging sex ratios in 1989, and fledging sex ratios during the next 5 years. In 1989, the sample of 751 chicks showed male bias at hatching (56%) and at fledging (57% at 90 days). Fledging sex ratios during the five subsequent reproductive seasons were at unity (1 year) or male-biased, varying from 56% to 70%. Male bias was greater during years when mean sea surface temperature was warmer and food was presumably in short supply. During two warm-water years (only) fledging sex ratio varied with hatching date. Proportions of male fledglings increased with date from 0.48 to 0.73 in 1994, and from 0.33 to 0.79 in 1995. Similar results were obtained when the analysis was repeated using only broods with no nestling mortality, suggesting that the overall increase in the proportion of males over the season was the result of sex ratio adjustments at hatching. The male-biased sex ratio, and the increased male bias during poor breeding conditions supports the idea that daughters may be more costly than sons, and that their relative cost increases in poor conditions. PMID:20135156

  10. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... related nonsyndromic male infertility CATSPER1-related nonsyndromic male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description CATSPER1 -related nonsyndromic male infertility is a condition that affects the function of ...

  12. Genetics Home Reference: familial male-limited precocious puberty

    MedlinePlus

    ... and luteinizing hormone triggers these cells to produce androgens. Androgens, including testosterone, are the hormones that control male ... chorionic gonadotropin. In males, the overactive receptor causes excess production of testosterone, which triggers male sexual development ...

  13. Male pregnancy and biparental immune priming.

    PubMed

    Roth, Olivia; Klein, Verena; Beemelmanns, Anne; Scharsack, Jörn P; Reusch, Thorsten B H

    2012-12-01

    In vertebrates, maternal transfer of immunity via the eggs or placenta provides offspring with crucial information on prevailing pathogens and parasites. Males contribute little to such transgenerational immune priming, either because they do not share the environment and parasite pressure of the offspring or because sperm are too small for transfer of immunity. In the teleost group of Syngnathids (pipefish, seahorses, and sea dragons), males brood female eggs in a placenta-like structure. Such sex-role-reversed species provide a unique opportunity to test for adaptive plasticity in immune transfer. Here, males and females should both influence offspring immunity. We experimentally tested paternal effects on offspring immunity by examining immune cell proliferation and immune gene expression. Maternal and paternal bacterial exposure induced offspring immune defense 5 weeks after hatching, and this effect persisted in 4-month-old offspring. For several offspring immune traits, double parental exposure (maternal and paternal) enhanced the response, whereas for another group of immune traits, the transgenerational induction already took place if only one parent was exposed. Our study shows that sex role reversal in connection with male pregnancy opens the door for biparental influences on offspring immunity and may represent an additional advantage for the evolution of male pregnancy. PMID:23149404

  14. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  15. Dispersal of Engineered Male Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes

    PubMed Central

    Capurro, Margareth L.; Alphey, Luke; Donnelly, Christl A.; McKemey, Andrew R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Aedes aegypti, the principal vector of dengue fever, have been genetically engineered for use in a sterile insect control programme. To improve our understanding of the dispersal ecology of mosquitoes and to inform appropriate release strategies of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti detailed knowledge of the dispersal ability of the released insects is needed. Methodology/Principal Findings The dispersal ability of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti at a field site in Brazil has been estimated. Dispersal kernels embedded within a generalized linear model framework were used to analyse data collected from three large scale mark release recapture studies. The methodology has been applied to previously published dispersal data to compare the dispersal ability of ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti in contrasting environments. We parameterised dispersal kernels and estimated the mean distance travelled for insects in Brazil: 52.8m (95% CI: 49.9m, 56.8m) and Malaysia: 58.0m (95% CI: 51.1m, 71.0m). Conclusions/Significance Our results provide specific, detailed estimates of the dispersal characteristics of released ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti in the field. The comparative analysis indicates that despite differing environments and recapture rates, key features of the insects’ dispersal kernels are conserved across the two studies. The results can be used to inform both risk assessments and release programmes using ‘genetically sterile’ male Aedes aegypti. PMID:26554922

  16. Prevalence of obesity among affluent school children in Dhaka.

    PubMed

    Mohsin, F; Tayyeb, S; Baki, A; Sarker, S; Zabeen, B; Begum, T; Azad, K; Nahar, N

    2010-10-01

    A cross sectional study was conducted in September 2006 in one of the private schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh to see the prevalence of obesity among affluent school children and adolescents. Informed consent was taken from school authority to take anthropometric measurement of all school children. Standing height was measured with a stadiometer and weight with a bathroom scale. Waist and hip circumference were measured with a measuring tape. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using weight in kilogram/(height in meter)2 formula. Obesity was defined as BMI≥95th percentile for age and sex, over weight as BMI≥85th percentile for age and sex, normal weight as BMI between 5th and 84th percentile and underweight as BMI <5th percentile. Official centers for disease control (CDC) growth chart for boys and girls age 2-20 years was used. Children and adolescents were divided into group 1(3-5 years), Group 2(6-9years), group 3(10-13 years) and group 4(14-18 years). There were a total of 468 children and adolescents (male 266, female 202). In group 1 there were 110 children, in group 2 there were177 children, in group 3 and 4 there were 149 and 32 adolescents respectively. The prevalence of obesity was 17.9%, higher among males (19.9%), compared to females (15.3%). Obesity was highest (27.7%) in group 2, 14.5% in group 1, 10.7% in group 3 and 9.4% in group 4. PMID:20956898

  17. Biochemical endocrinology of the hypogonadal male.

    PubMed

    Belchetz, Paul E; Barth, Julian H; Kaufman, Jean-Marc

    2010-11-01

    Hypogonadism in the male results from inadequate testicular function, especially defects in androgen synthesis and secretion, or action. Androgen action is important throughout normal male development: in the fetus, puberty, adult life and old age. Regulation is by variable activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary axis at different phases of the life span. Clinical aspects include: genetic aspects presenting at birth and pubertal failure/arrest. Aspects in adult life embrace sexuality, somatic symptoms and osteoporosis. Acquired causes of hypogonadism may arise from various forms of testicular damage (primary hypogonadism), pituitary and hypothalamic disorders, as well as aetiologies acting at several sites. Measurement of testosterone (T) is crucial to the diagnosis of hypogonadism and the technologies continue to develop, with recent major advances. A growing problem relates to the diagnosis and treatment of hypogonadism in the ageing male. T therapy is available in several forms, with major improvements in more newly available modalities. PMID:20956400

  18. Male rape victim and perpetrator blaming.

    PubMed

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-06-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance. Perpetrator blaming was predicted by male rape myth acceptance and sex-role egalitarianism. Differences were found in victim and perpetrator blaming in terms of stranger and acquaintance rape and also in relation to manipulating the level of rape myths. Findings are discussed in relation to the previous literature on rape victim and perpetrator blaming. PMID:19738198

  19. New frontiers in nonhormonal male contraception

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, C. Yan; Mruk, Dolores D.

    2015-01-01

    The world’s population is nearing 6.8 billion, and we are in need of a male contraceptive that is safe, effective, reversible and affordable. Hormonal approaches, which employ different formulations of testosterone administered in combination with other hormones, have shown considerable promise in clinical trials, and they are currently at the forefront of research and development. However, the long-term effects of using hormones throughout a male’s reproductive life for contraception are unknown, and it may take decades before this information becomes available. Because of this, many investigators are aiming to bring a nonhormonal male contraceptive to the consumer market. Indeed, there are several distinct but feasible avenues in which fertility can be regulated without affecting the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis. In this review, we discuss several approaches for fertility control involving the testis that one day may lead to the development of a nonhormonal male contraceptive. PMID:20933122

  20. [Male reproductive toxicity of bisphenol A].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wen-jiao; Qiao, Jie

    2015-11-01

    The reproductive toxicity of environmental endocrine disruptors has attracted substantial attention from researchers in recent years. Bisphenol A (BPA) is among the most prominent environmental estrogens worldwide, demonstrated to be related with the impairment of male reproductive function as well as other health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. BPA acts primarily by mimicking antiandrogenic and estrogenic effects, disturbing the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis and modulating gene expressions and enzyme activities in the hormone biosynthesis affecting steroids or its receptors. BPA is also involved in DNA methylation and the effects of epigenetics, resulting in dyszoospermia, oligoasthenoteratospermia/azoospermia and/or infertility in males. This review addresses the effects of BPA on male reproductive function, focusing on the mechanisms of its toxicity on spermatogenesis, semen quality, and the reproductive system. PMID:26738332

  1. [A case of a 46XX male].

    PubMed

    Nagai, T; Takaba, H; Miyake, K

    1990-01-01

    A 37-year-old man consulted our hospital with a complaint of male infertility. He was masculine but 159.9 cm in height. His beard, axillary hair and pubic hair were all normal. The penis and scrotum were also normal, but bilateral testes were very small (1 ml. respectively). Semen analysis revealed azoospermia. Endocrinological examination showed elevated serum lactating hormone and follicle stimulating hormone level, and extremely low level of serum testosterone. Testicular biopsy disclosed severely hyalinized seminiferous tubules and hyperplasia of Leydig cells. No ovarian tissue could be detected. The chromosomal analysis revealed a karyotype of 46 XX. This case was diagnosed as a case of 46XX male. The Japanese literature of 46XX male is reviewed. PMID:2178370

  2. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables. PMID:15676598

  3. Advances in the management of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Haidl, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Male infertility can be treated by surgical procedures (e.g., varicocelectomy) or by administration of drugs if causal factors (e.g., seminal tract infections) are detected. In more severe cases, methods of assisted fertilization often have to be applied, but even these have only a limited success rate. Recent studies have demonstrated that disturbances of sperm DNA integrity (determined by the acridine orange test) can explain certain cases of fertilization failure and failure to achieve pregnancy following in vitro fertilisation with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The evaluation of DNA integrity should be considered when diagnosing male infertility as it has been shown to be an independent factor and can be used as a supplement to standard semen analysis. Analysis of DNA integrity may, therefore, provide further information about altered male fertility and lead to administration of more appropriate therapy. PMID:20948685

  4. Japanese male gay and bisexual identity.

    PubMed

    Harada, M

    2001-01-01

    Few studies have ever dealt with Japanese male gay and bisexual identity. This exploratory study investigated gay and bisexual identity through interviews of 34 Japanese gay and bisexual men. Though Japan has unique cultural aspects that are different from Western countries, it can be shown that Western concepts or models of homosexual identity are applicable to a considerable extent to Japanese gay and bisexual men. The results of this study suggest that there are two distinct types of Japanese men sexually interested in men, which the author will call "bisexual" and "gay." These two types are compared in terms of three aspects: self-identity, sexual preference, and social identity and role. A significant number of respondents have careers or vocations in the arts. This study touches on the correlation between art and male-male sexual orientation in Japan. PMID:12013576

  5. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration. PMID:16575710

  6. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  7. The importance of female choice, male-male competition, and signal transmission as causes of selection on male mating signals.

    PubMed

    Sullivan-Beckers, Laura; Cocroft, Reginald B

    2010-11-01

    Selection on advertisement signals arises from interacting sources including female choice, male-male competition, and the communication channel (i.e., the signaling environment). To identify the contribution of individual sources of selection, we used previously quantified relationships between signal traits and each putative source to predict relationships between signal variation and fitness in Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae). We then measured phenotypic selection on signals and compared predicted and realized relationships between signal traits and mating success. We recorded male signals, then measured lifetime mating success at two population densities in a realistic environment in which sources of selection could interact. We identified which sources best predicted the relationship between signal variation and mating success using a multiple regression approach. All signal traits were under selection in at least one of the two breeding seasons measured, and in some cases selection was variable between years. Female preference was the strongest source of selection shaping male signals. The E. binotata species complex is a model of ecological speciation initiated by host shifts. Signal and preference divergence contribute to behavioral isolation within the complex, and the finding that female mate preferences drive signal evolution suggests that speciation in this group results from both ecological divergence and sexual selection. PMID:20624180

  8. Vulnerable discipline: experiences of male competitive bodybuilders.

    PubMed

    Bjørnestad, Jone; Kandal, Øyvind; Anderssen, Norman

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to understand experiences of male competitive bodybuilders from a non-pathologizing perspective. Six male Norwegian competitive bodybuilders were interviewed. The interviews were analysed using a meaning condensation procedure resulting in five themes: being proud of capacity for discipline, seeing a perfectionist attitude as a necessary evil, experiencing recognition within the bodybuilding community, being stigmatized outside the bodybuilding community and going on stage to display a capacity for willpower and discipline. We suggest that bodybuilders may be stigmatized for breaking social norms: by their distinctive appearance, by the way they handle suspected drug use and by challenging gender norms. PMID:23682065

  9. Hate crimes against gay males: an overview.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G

    2004-03-01

    As the United States has become more multicultural and diverse, there has been an increase in violence motivated by hate. Hate crimes against gay males are the most prevalent of the hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Hate crimes have their roots in normative, individual, and societal attitudes and ideologies that lead to intimidation, bullying, teasing, physical assault, rape, and murder. This paper provides an overview of the issues specific to hate crime assaults against gay males. Mental health nurses may find this knowledge useful in developing further nursing inquiry, education, and clinical practice related to hate crime and violence prevention. PMID:14726266

  10. Hormone-Based Treatments in Subfertile Males.

    PubMed

    Patel, Darshan P; Chandrapal, Jason C; Hotaling, James M

    2016-08-01

    Subfertility is defined as the condition of being less than normally fertile though still capable of effecting fertilization. When these subfertile couples seek assistance for conception, a thorough evaluation of male endocrine function is often overlooked. Spermatogenesis is a complex process where even subtle alterations in this process can lead to subfertility or infertility. Male endocrine abnormalities may suggest a specific diagnosis contributing to subfertility; however, in many patients, the underlying etiology is still unknown. Optimizing underlying endocrine abnormalities may improve spermatogenesis and fertility. This manuscript reviews reproductive endocrine abnormalities and hormone-based treatments. PMID:27292256

  11. Giant Intraperitoneal Multiloculated Pseudocyst in a Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal pseudocysts are rare and may be difficult to differentiate from other malignant neoplasms. Reports of occurrences are mainly associated with long-term intraperitoneal catheter use, intraperitoneal catheter infections, or major pelvic surgery in females, although there are few reported incidences without prior trauma. We present a case of a male patient found to have a 19 × 15 × 9 cm intraperitoneal pseudocyst with other multiloculated areas and a history of a right inguinal hernia repair. After a thorough review of the literature, this is the first multiloculated nonpancreatic pseudocyst reported in a male patient. PMID:27022497

  12. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males. PMID:24440985

  13. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  14. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  15. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  16. Let's Hear It from the Males: Issues Facing Male Primary School Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cushman, P.

    2005-01-01

    As the number of male teachers in primary schools continues to decrease, the resultant gender imbalance has become the focus of increased discussion and debate. While the reasons for the decline in the number of males enrolling in teacher education are complex and multi-faceted, four factors which have been identified as contributing to the…

  17. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  18. Diploid male dynamics under different numbers of sexual alleles and male dispersal abilities.

    PubMed

    Faria, Luiz R R; Soares, Elaine Della Giustina; Carmo, Eduardo do; Oliveira, Paulo Murilo Castro de

    2016-09-01

    Insects in the order Hymenoptera (bees, wasps and ants) present an haplodiploid system of sexual determination in which fertilized eggs become females and unfertilized eggs males. Under single locus complementary sex-determination (sl-CSD) system, the sex of a specimen depends on the alleles at a single locus: when diploid, an individual will be a female if heterozygous and male if homozygous. Significant diploid male (DM) production may drive a population to an extinction scenario called "diploid male vortex". We aimed at studying the dynamics of populations of a sl-CSD organism under several combinations of two parameters: male flight abilities and number of sexual alleles. In these simulations, we evaluated the frequency of DM and a genetic diversity measure over 10,000 generations. The number of sexual alleles varied from 10 to 100 and, at each generation, a male offspring might fly to another random site within a varying radius R. Two main results emerge from our simulations: (i) the number of DM depends more on male flight radius than on the number of alleles; (ii) in large geographic regions, the effect of males flight radius on the allelic diversity turns out much less pronounced than in small regions. In other words, small regions where inbreeding normally appears recover genetic diversity due to large flight radii. These results may be particularly relevant when considering the population dynamics of species with increasingly limited dispersal ability (e.g., forest-dependent species of euglossine bees in fragmented landscapes). PMID:27067711

  19. Rogue Males? Approaches to Study and Academic Performance of Male Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Lalage; Sander, Paul; Mercer, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    This three-year longitudinal study explored the approach to study and academic performance of a group of male psychology undergraduates. In induction week, 112 new psychology students completed the survey. Later in the year, some of the males were interviewed in small groups. Performance was measured from marks at the end of Years 1 and 3. In Year…

  20. Injury risk curves for the WorldSID 50th male dummy.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Audrey; Trosseille, Xavier; Petit, Philippe; Irwin, Annette; Hassan, Joe; Praxl, Norbert

    2009-11-01

    The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/SC12/TC22/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. More than 45 organizations from all around the world have contributed to this effort including governmental agencies, research institutes, car manufacturers and dummy manufacturers. The first production version of the WorldSID 50th male dummy was released in March 2004 and demonstrated an improved biofidelity over existing side impact dummies. Full scale vehicle tests covering a wide range of side impact test procedures were performed worldwide with the WorldSID dummy. However, the vehicle safety performance could not be assessed due to lack of injury risk curves for this dummy. The development of these curves was initiated in 2004 within the framework of ISO/SC12/TC22/WG6 (Injury criteria). In 2008, the ACEA- Dummy Task Force (TFD) decided to contribute to this work and offered resources for a project manager to coordinate of the effort of a group of volunteer biomechanical experts from international institutions (ISO, EEVC, VRTC/NHTSA, JARI, Transport Canada), car manufacturers (ACEA, Ford, General Motors, Honda, Toyota, Chrysler) and universities (Wayne State University, Ohio State University, John Hopkins University, Medical College of Wisconsin) to develop harmonized injury risk curves. An in-depth literature review was conducted. All the available PMHS datasets were identified, the test configurations and the quality of the results were checked. Criteria were developed for inclusion or exclusion of PMHS tests in the development of the injury risk curves. Data were processed to account for differences in mass and age of the subjects. Finally, injury risk curves were developed using the following statistical techniques, the certainty method, the Mertz/Weber method, the

  1. Distinguishing seasonal androgen responses from male-male androgen responsiveness-revisiting the Challenge Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Goymann, Wolfgang; Landys, Meta M; Wingfield, John C

    2007-04-01

    Androgen levels show strong patterns throughout the year in male vertebrates and play an important role in the seasonal modulation of the frequency, intensity and persistence of aggression. The Challenge Hypothesis (Wingfield, J.C., Hegner, R.E., Dufty, A.M., Ball, G.F., 1990. The "Challenge Hypothesis": Theoretical implications for patterns of testosterone secretion, mating systems, and breeding strategies. Am. Nat. 136, 829-846) predicts that seasonal patterns in androgen levels vary as a function of mating system, male-male aggression and paternal care. Although many studies have addressed these predictions, investigators have often assumed that the ratio of the breeding season maximum and breeding baseline concentrations (termed "androgen responsiveness") reflects hormonal responses due to social stimulation. However, increasing evidence suggests that seasonal androgen elevations are not necessarily caused by social interactions between males. Here, we separate the seasonal androgen response (R(seasonal)) and the androgen responsiveness to male-male competition (R(male-male)) to begin to distinguish between different kinds of hormonal responses. We demonstrate that R(seasonal) and R(male-male) are fundamentally different and should be treated as separate variables. Differences are particularly evident in single-brooded male birds that show no increase in plasma androgen levels during simulated territorial intrusions (STIs), even though R(seasonal) is elevated. In multiple-brooded species, STIs typically elicit a rise in androgens. We relate these findings to the natural history of single- and multiple-brooded species and suggest a research approach that could be utilized to increase our understanding of the factors that determine different types of androgen responses. This approach does not only include R(seasonal) and R(male-male), but also the androgen responsiveness to receptive females (R(male-female)) and to non-social environmental cues (R

  2. Naltrexone effects on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in stressed male rats.

    PubMed

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R

    2009-02-16

    Chronic physical or psychological stress disrupts male reproductive function. Studies in our laboratory have shown that stress by immersion in cold water (ICW) and by electrical foot shocks (EFS) has inhibitory effects on male sexual behavior; these effects do not seem to be mediated by an increase in corticosterone, nor by a decrease in testosterone. On the other hand, it is known that endogenous opioids are released in the brain in response to these same stressors; consequently, they could be participating in the impairment of sexual behavior, as well as in the changes in corticosterone and testosterone caused by stress. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (NTX) on male sexual behavior, corticosterone, and testosterone in both stressed sexually experienced and naive male rats. Sexually experienced adult male rats were assigned to one of the following groups (n=10 each): 1) control group, males without sexual evaluation; 2) control group, rats injected ip with saline, non-stressed; 3) control group, rats injected with NTX (3 mg/kg) non-stressed; 4) rats injected ip with saline, and stressed by EFS; 5) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by EFS; 6) rats injected ip with saline and stressed by ICW; 7) rats injected ip with NTX (1.5 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW; 8) rats injected ip with NTX (3 mg/kg) and stressed by ICW. Naive males were assigned to the same control groups but only stressed by ICW and the NTX dose used was 3 mg/kg. Injections were given 30 min before stress sessions. Stress was applied on 20 consecutive days. Male sexual behavior was assessed 15 min after EFS or 30 min after ICW, on days 1, 4, 8, 12, 15, and 20. Trunk blood was collected at the end of the experiments on day 20 of stress. Corticosterone and testosterone were evaluated by HPLC. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies were longer in control saline naive males compared to control saline sexually experienced males on the

  3. Treatment issues and outcomes for males with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Weltzin, Theodore E; Cornella-Carlson, Tracey; Fitzpatrick, Mary E; Kennington, Brad; Bean, Pamela; Jefferies, Carol

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss critical issues in treating males with eating disorders, and to present assessment and treatment outcome data for 111 males who received residential treatment for moderate to severe eating disorders. Males with eating disorders are often not included in eating disorder research as the population of individuals with eating disorders has historically been predominantly female. Whether this is due to actual lower prevalence of this disorder among males or to fewer males seeking treatment is not clear. In any case, there is limited empirical research on the particular treatment issues of males, and in treatment environments males are frequently in the minority. We have found that an all-male treatment environment is helpful in allowing males to benefit from treatment with less stigma. Data are presented which characterize psychiatric co-morbidity, excessive exercise, body image, sexuality, and spirituality in males. Treatment outcomes for males in this environment are positive. PMID:22985241

  4. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance

    PubMed Central

    Benowitz, Kyle M.; Head, Megan L.; Williams, Camellia A.; Moore, Allen J.; Royle, Nick J.

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity–parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity. PMID:23782889

  5. Male tolerance and male–male bonds in a multilevel primate society

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H.; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male–male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several “units” of males with their associated females form “parties,” which team up as “gangs.” Several gangs of the same “community” use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male–male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  6. Men and masculinities in forensic psychiatric care: an interview study concerning male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and male patients.

    PubMed

    Kumpula, Esa; Ekstrand, Per

    2009-09-01

    Forensic psychiatric care is largely populated by men--as patients, caregivers, and nurses. Previous research has not focused on the meaning of gender in this context. The aim of this study is to analyse male nurses' experiences of working with male caregivers and attending to male patients in forensic psychiatric care. Data were collected through interviews with six male nurses. The results consist of five themes. Protection and defence are key aspects of care and male caregivers gain status and authority through their physical strength. This could hamper caring and provide male caregivers with a superior position in the department. PMID:19657867

  7. Queer Decisions? Gay Male Students' University Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulke-Johnson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the reported influences on the university choices of 17 gay male undergraduate students attending a UK institution. It is argued that this process is strongly mediated by, and, therefore, has to be considered in relation to, class. Data analysis provides insight into the factors gay students say are important in selecting…

  8. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  9. 47,XXX chromosome constitution in a male.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, U; Simoni, G; Montali, E; Dalpra, L; Rossella, F; Piazzini, M; Borghi, A

    1980-02-01

    An 18-year-old boy with a male phenotype was examined because of testicular hypoplasia. Chromosome analysis using Q- and R-banding techniques and BUdR treatment showed a 47,XXX karotype, in both lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Cytogenetic problems raised by this case are discussed in relation to data from previous published reports. PMID:7189218

  10. Effect of Oxidative Stress on Male Reproduction

    PubMed Central

    Virk, Gurpriya; Ong, Chloe; du Plessis, Stefan S

    2014-01-01

    Infertility affects approximately 15% of couples trying to conceive, and a male factor contributes to roughly half of these cases. Oxidative stress (OS) has been identified as one of the many mediators of male infertility by causing sperm dysfunction. OS is a state related to increased cellular damage triggered by oxygen and oxygen-derived free radicals known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). During this process, augmented production of ROS overwhelms the body's antioxidant defenses. While small amounts of ROS are required for normal sperm functioning, disproportionate levels can negatively impact the quality of spermatozoa and impair their overall fertilizing capacity. OS has been identified as an area of great attention because ROS and their metabolites can attack DNA, lipids, and proteins; alter enzymatic systems; produce irreparable alterations; cause cell death; and ultimately, lead to a decline in the semen parameters associated with male infertility. This review highlights the mechanisms of ROS production, the physiological and pathophysiological roles of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system, and recent advances in diagnostic methods; it also explores the benefits of using antioxidants in a clinical setting. PMID:24872947

  11. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  12. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  13. City's Black Males Stay in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    School leaders in Baltimore have mounted an offensive over the past three years to keep more students in school and on track. Last month, news came that the effort has produced a welcome dividend: Black male students are driving a marked increase in the district's graduation rate and a decrease in its dropout rate, and showing improvement at a…

  14. Male sexuality in theory and practice.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Daniel

    2004-06-01

    Male sexuality is a complex phenomenon shaped by personal, cultural,and social factors. This article has argued that male sexual function is an important consideration in conditions such as prostate cancer. There are surely other conditions where it is understood even more poorly. Although theorists tend to explore male sexuality in relation to vague concepts such as power, phallocentrism, and aggression, sexuality becomes a personal reality in illness contexts. Using insights from a study into prostate cancer, it has been suggested that men assess embodied risks, such as impotence, in highly individual ways. The uncertainty that characterizes this cancer further compounds the difficulties involved, despite attempts of professionals to provide adequate levels of information and support. Researchers and practitioners alike should begin to question the gap between theoretical constructions of male sexuality and its reality in healthcare situations. More attention should be paid to understanding the importance of sexual function for men who are living with conditions such as prostate cancer. Those men who face up to the threat of such embodied changes, and who learn to cope with physical and emotional (and sexual) vulnerability, may learn to evaluate their lives in new ways. As Kenneth, one of the participants in this study said of his experience of cancer, "It just seems unnecessary for them to have to go through that to learn and understand themselves and be honest with themselves about what is really important." PMID:15159184

  15. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation. PMID:10669962

  16. The Cultural Bind on the American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Gene

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the cultural bind on the American male. The process starts with conception. If the spermatozoid that fertilizes the egg contains only X chromosomes a girl will be produced. If a single Y chromosome out of the 24 produced by the father is included, the baby will be a boy. From this point on the girls have a…

  17. Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski-daRoza, Victoria

    1984-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of male midlife crisis and its effects on the man's career, including the following: What are the implications for an organization, if behavioral changes or dissatisfaction with past patterns extends into the employee's job and leads this same individual to become a dissatisfied employee, to consider a career…

  18. The Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlassie, Richard; Sagal, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of midlife males are frequently disturbed and have a definite impact on job satisfaction. Three major tasks to be worked on during this time are described: (1) terminating early adulthood; (2) dealing with polarities; and (3) initiating middle adulthood. (Author)

  19. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage. PMID:26855782

  20. Interpersonal polyvictimization and mental health in males.

    PubMed

    Burns, Carol Rhonda; Lagdon, Susan; Boyda, David; Armour, Cherie

    2016-05-01

    A consistent conclusion within the extant literature is that victimization and in particular polyvictimization leads to adverse mental health outcomes. A large body of literature exists as it pertains to the association between victimisation and mental health in studies utilising samples of childhood victims, female only victims, and samples of male and female victims; less research exists as it relates to males victims of interpersonal violence. The aim of the current study was therefore to identify profiles of interpersonal victimizations in an exclusively male sample and to assess their differential impact on a number of adverse mental health outcomes. Using data from 14,477 adult males from Wave 2 of the NESARC, we identified interpersonal victimization profiles via Latent Class Analysis. Multinomial Logistic Regression was subsequently utilized to establish risk across mental health disorders. A 4-class solution was optimal. Victimisation profiles showed elevated odds ratios for the presence of mental health disorders; suggesting that multiple life-course victimisation typologies exists, and that victimization is strongly associated with psychopathology. Several additional notable findings are discussed. PMID:27130979

  1. Differences Abound between Male and Female Superintendents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuster, Daphne J.; Foote, Tom H.

    1990-01-01

    According to recent research, women superintendents have less coaching experience than men, head wealthier districts, work longer hours, are more often single and childless, and obtain the position later in life. They also smoke and drink less. Males and females were equally satisfied with their school board relationships, community stature, and…

  2. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  3. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  4. Male Influences on Fertility: Needs for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa Donati

    1979-01-01

    A study comparing the processes of arriving at fertility decisions in marriage shows that the husband's preference for children or for childlessness controls more often than the wife's preference in either case. Using two childless samples and one sample with children, the strong effect of male preference was found. (Author)

  5. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  6. Suspect osteogenesis imperfecta in a male kitten.

    PubMed

    Evason, Michelle D; Taylor, Susan M; Bebchuk, Trevor N

    2007-03-01

    A 4.5-month-old, male domestic shorthair was presented with bilateral femoral fractures after falling from a low height. Radiographs revealed reduced radio-opacity and thin cortices of all long bones. A presumptive diagnosis of osteodystrophy, secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta, was made on postmortem examination. PMID:17436908

  7. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  8. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone. PMID:15851828

  9. Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Barlow, Steven M.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults. Method: Quantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a…

  10. Sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Veale, Jaimie F; Clarke, Dave E; Lomax, Terri C

    2008-08-01

    Blanchard's (J Nerv Ment Dis 177:616-623, 1989) theory of autogynephilia suggests that male-to-female transsexuals can be categorized into different types based on their sexuality. Little previous research has compared the sexuality of male-to-female transsexuals to biological females. The present study examined 15 aspects of sexuality among a non-clinical sample of 234 transsexuals and 127 biological females, using either an online or a paper questionnaire. The results showed that, overall, transsexuals tended to place more importance on partner's physical attractiveness and reported higher scores on Blanchard's Core Autogynephilia Scale than biological females. In addition, transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored significantly higher on Attraction to Feminine Males, Core Autogynephilia, Autogynephilic Interpersonal Fantasy, Fetishism, Preference for Younger Partners, Interest in Uncommitted Sex, Importance of Partner Physical Attractiveness, and Attraction to Transgender Fiction than other transsexuals and biological females. In accordance with Blanchard's theory, autogynephilia measures were positively correlated to Sexual Attraction to Females among transsexuals. In contrast to Blanchard's theory, however, those transsexuals classified as autogynephilic scored higher on average on Sexual Attraction to Males than those classified as non-autogynephilic, and no transsexuals classified as autogynephilic reported asexuality. PMID:18299976

  11. Childhood of Males with the XYY Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Johannes; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigated to determine specific intelligence, personality characteristics, and behavioral patterns of boys with the XYY syndrome (a rare pattern of sex chromosome imbalance) were the childhood and adolescence of 20 males, 6- to 58-years of age at time of diagnosis. (Author/MC)

  12. Preadolescent male perceptions of action figure physiques.

    PubMed

    Baghurst, Timothy; Carlston, David; Wood, Julie; Wyatt, Frank B

    2007-12-01

    This study investigated the preference and reasoning of 176 preadolescent and adolescent males when presented with original and current action figures that had statistically different physiques. Current action figures were perceived as significantly more muscular and healthier. Participants also preferred to resemble current action figures citing muscularity and size for their preference. PMID:18023792

  13. Urethral erosion of transobturator male sling.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephanie E; Guralnick, Michael L; O'Connor, R Corey

    2009-02-01

    The transobturator male sling has been introduced as an alternative to other surgical methods for the treatment of mild to moderate postprostatectomy stress urinary incontinence. We report the first published case of mesh erosion into the urethra observed 5 months after placement. The patient was treated with suprapubic tube urinary diversion, suburethral sling explantation, and buccal mucosal grafting of the urethral defect. PMID:18400275

  14. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  15. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  16. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keamy, Ron Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  17. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  18. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  19. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  20. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  1. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  2. Social Stress and Mortality Among Nonwhite Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.

    1977-01-01

    The leading causes of death for young black males are accidents, homicide and suicide. Stress arising from socioeconomic conditions precipitates these events. Heart disease and cancer, other major causes of death, are also thought to be environmentally related. The author proposes the development of new types of social institutions to remedy the…

  3. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  4. Literacy Levels of Male Juvenile Justice Detainees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; Watkins, Renae

    2004-01-01

    The assessment records detailing the reading and spelling performance of a group of male juvenile justice detainees admitted over a 3-month period were examined in an attempt to quantify the basic literacy levels of juvenile offenders. Results of student self-ratings of their reading ability were also analysed. The participants comprised 68 males…

  5. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  6. Senescent males carry premutagenic lesions in sperm.

    PubMed

    Velando, A; Noguera, J C; Drummond, H; Torres, R

    2011-03-01

    As organisms age, DNA of somatic cells deteriorates, but it is believed that germ cells are protected from DNA-damaging agents. In recent years, this vision has been challenged by studies on humans indicating that genomic instability in germ cells increases with age. However, nothing is known about germ line senescence in wild animals. Here, we examine DNA damage in sperm of a wild vertebrate, the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii. One of the major types of premutagenic DNA damage generated by oxidative stress (a proximal cause of ageing) is loss of single bases resulting in apurinic/apyrimidinic sites (AP sites). We examined AP sites in the sperm of known-age males sampled during courtship on Isla Isabel, Mexico. We show that damage to the DNA of sperm increases with age of male blue-footed boobies. Moreover, we found that sexual attractiveness (foot colour) declines with age and is correlated with germ line damage of senescent males. By choosing attractive males, females might reduce the probability of their progeny bearing damaged DNA. This study reports the first evidence of senescence in the germ line of a wild vertebrate and future studies should investigate whether this burden of senescence is sidestepped by potential sexual partners. PMID:21332857

  7. The Male Predominance in Esophageal Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Shao-Hua; Lagergren, Jesper

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has increased rapidly during the past 4 decades in many Western populations, including North America and Europe. The established etiological factors for EAC include gastroesophageal reflux and obesity, Helicobacter pylori infection, tobacco smoking, and consumption of fruit and vegetables. There is a marked male predominance of EAC with a male-to-female ratio in incidence of up to 9:1. This review evaluates the available literature on the reasons for the male predominance, particularly an update on epidemiologic evidence from human studies during the past decade. The striking sex difference does not seem to be explained by established risk factors, given that the prevalence of the etiological factors and the strengths of associations between these factors and EAC risk are similar between the sexes. Sex hormonal factors may play a role in the development of EAC; estrogenic exposures may prevent such development, whereas androgens might increase the risk of EAC. However, continuing research efforts are still needed to fully understand the reasons for the male predominance of EAC. PMID:26484704

  8. The Greeting Behavior of Fragile X Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Peter H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mentally retarded males (N=18) above 12 years of age with a fragile site on the X chromosome exhibited a highly idiosyncratic stereotypic form of gaze avoidance during greeting ceremonies. Results suggest this aberrant greeting behavior may be uniquely associated with this syndrome of mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  9. Assessment of environmental factors affecting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R L; Sherins, R J; Lee, I P

    1979-06-01

    Exposure to drinking water containing as much as 500 ppm aluminum chloride for periods of 30, 60, and 90 days had no apparent effect on male reproductive processes. In an attempt to correlate enzyme activity with particular spermatogenic cell types, postnatal development of testicular enzymes was studied. Eight enzymes were selected: hyaluronidase (H), lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme-X (LDH-X), dehydrogenases of sorbitol (SDH), alpha-glycerophosphate (GPDH), glucose-6-phosphate (G6PDH), malate (MDH), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (G3PDH), and isocitrate (ICDH). Enzyme specific activities in testicular homogenates were determined. Two types of enzyme developmental patterns were observed. One was represented by H, LDH-X, SDH, and GPDH; and the other by G6PDH, MDH, G3PDH, and ICDH. The former was characterized by a change in enzyme activities from low in newborn to high in adult while in the latter this pattern was reversed. The two complementary enzyme systems crossed each other at puberty. Prior to puberty, only spermatogonial cells are present; sperm differentiation initiated at puberty adds spermatocytes and spermatids to the testicular cell population. Male rats were exposed to borax in their diet for periods of 30 and 60 days. Concentrations of boron were 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 ppm. At the end of each experimental period, the specific activities of the selected enzymes were determined in the testis and prostate. Correlations of enzyme activity with testicular histology and androgen activities of the male accessory organs were sought. In addition, plasma FSH, LH, and testosterone levels were measured to assess pituitary-testicular interaction. Plasma and testicular boron concentrations were determined and a minimum boron concentration which induced germinal aplasia and male infertility was estimated. In both 30 and 60 day feeding studies, male rats receiving 500 ppm failed to demonstrate any significant adverse effects. In contrast, male rats receiving 100 and 2000

  10. The visual system of male scale insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbeck, Elke K.; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  11. The Power War: Male Response to Power Loss under Equality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Arnold

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes the male response to anticipated loss of power as women continue to demand equality and equal power. Describes the scope of male power, and analyzes the importance of power to men in terms of the male sex-role stereotype. Hypothesizes some likely male responses to a loss of power. (BH)

  12. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  13. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  14. Reproductive success in wild and hatchery male coho salmon

    PubMed Central

    Neff, Bryan D.; Garner, Shawn R.; Fleming, Ian A.; Gross, Mart R.

    2015-01-01

    Salmon produced by hatcheries have lower fitness in the wild than naturally produced salmon, but the factors underlying this difference remain an active area of research. We used genetic parentage analysis of alevins produced by experimentally mixed groups of wild and hatchery coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to quantify male paternity in spawning hierarchies. We identify factors influencing paternity and revise previously published behavioural estimates of reproductive success for wild and hatchery males. We observed a strong effect of hierarchy size and hierarchy position on paternity: in two-male hierarchies, the first male sired 63% (±29%; s.d.) of the alevins and the second male 37% (±29%); in three-male hierarchies, the first male sired 64% (±26%), the second male 24% (±20%) and the third male 12% (±10%). As previously documented, hatchery males hold inferior positions in spawning hierarchies, but we also discovered that hatchery males had only 55–84% the paternity of wild males when occupying the same position within a spawning hierarchy. This paternity difference may result from inferior performance of hatchery males during sperm competition, female mate choice for wild males, or differential offspring survival. Regardless of its cause, the combination of inferior hierarchical position and inferior success at a position resulted in hatchery males having only half (51%) the reproductive success of wild males. PMID:26361548

  15. Sexism in Basal Readers: An Analysis of Male Main Characters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn-Roberson, Courtney; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Investigated whether positive female traits were attributed to male main characters in six basal readers. Although positive female traits appeared in the male characters, the overall composite and depiction of individual characters indicate that male personalities are dominated by male-linked virtues such as independence and a willingness to take…

  16. Help-Seeking Behavior among Black Males. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gary, Lawrence E.; And Others

    This study concerns the help-seeking behavior of black males as it relates to mental health and attempts to identify the day-to-day concerns and problems of black males, describe their help seeking patterns, and make suggestions for future research and policy development to improve black males' mental health. The sample was 142 black males, ages…

  17. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  18. Dyadic, Partner, and Social Network Influences on Intimate Partner Violence among Male-Male Couples

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Sato, Kimi N.; Finneran, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Despite a recent focus on intimate partner violence (IPV) among men who have sex with men (MSM), the male-male couple is largely absent from the IPV literature. Specifically, research on dyadic factors shaping IPV in male-male couples is lacking. Methods: We took a subsample of 403 gay/bisexual men with main partners from a 2011 survey of approximately 1,000 gay and bisexual men from Atlanta. Logistic regression models of recent (<12 month) experience and perpetration of physical and sexual IPV examined dyadic factors, including racial differences, age differences, and social network characteristics of couples as key covariates shaping the reporting of IPV. Results: Findings indicate that men were more likely to report perpetration of physical violence if they were a different race to their main partner, whereas main partner age was associated with decreased reporting of physical violence. Having social networks that contained more gay friends was associated with significant reductions in the reporting of IPV, whereas having social networks comprised of sex partners or closeted gay friends was associated with increased reporting of IPV victimization and perpetration. Conclusion: The results point to several unique factors shaping the reporting of IPV within male-male couples and highlight the need for intervention efforts and prevention programs that focus on male couples, a group largely absent from both research and prevention efforts. PMID:23930144

  19. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls

    PubMed Central

    Musolf, Kerstin; Meindl, Stefanie; Larsen, Angela L.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.; Penn, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Male house mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses), and Mus spicilegus), and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition. PMID:26309246

  20. Rival assessment among northern elephant seals: evidence of associative learning during male-male contests.

    PubMed

    Casey, Caroline; Charrier, Isabelle; Mathevon, Nicolas; Reichmuth, Colleen

    2015-08-01

    Specialized signals emitted by competing males often convey honest information about fighting ability. It is generally believed that receivers use these signals to directly assess their opponents. Here, we demonstrate an alternative communication strategy used by males in a breeding system where the costs of conflict are extreme. We evaluated the acoustic displays of breeding male northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), and found that social knowledge gained through prior experience with signallers was sufficient to maintain structured dominance relationships. Using sound analysis and playback experiments with both natural and modified signals, we determined that males do not rely on encoded information about size or dominance status, but rather learn to recognize individual acoustic signatures produced by their rivals. Further, we show that behavioural responses to competitors' calls are modulated by relative position in the hierarchy: the highest ranking (alpha) males defend their harems from all opponents, whereas mid-ranking (beta) males respond differentially to familiar challengers based on the outcome of previous competitive interactions. Our findings demonstrate that social knowledge of rivals alone can regulate dominance relationships among competing males within large, spatially dynamic social groups, and illustrate the importance of combining descriptive and experimental methods when deciphering the biological relevance of animal signals. PMID:26361553

  1. Male-immature relationships in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei).

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Silk, J B; Stoinski, T S

    2011-04-01

    We examined the pattern and possible functions of social interactions between adult males and immatures in three free-ranging, multi-male groups of mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei). Previous studies conducted during the 1970s when groups contained one to three adult males concluded that male-immature relationships were likely to be a form of low-cost paternal investment [Stewart, Mountain gorillas: three decades of research at Karisoke. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2001]. We evaluated whether this hypothesis still held in groups containing six to nine adult males, or if male-immature relationships might serve other functions (e.g. mating effort, kin selection, or alliance building). Overall, we found that immatures spent the most time near, and interacted most with, the alpha silverback. These behaviors peaked during the period when infants were still quite vulnerable but increasing their independence from their mothers. Such findings suggest that parenting effort remains the primary function of male-immature relationships; however, there is some evidence for the mating effort hypothesis as well. PMID:21328594

  2. Meiotic recombination counteracts male-biased mutation (male-driven evolution).

    PubMed

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Ito, Michihiko; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Oota, Hiroki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Miura, Ikuo

    2016-01-27

    Meiotic recombination is believed to produce greater genetic variation despite the fact that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-replication errors are a major source of mutations. In some vertebrates, mutation rates are higher in males than in females, which developed the theory of male-driven evolution (male-biased mutation). However, there is little molecular evidence regarding the relationships between meiotic recombination and male-biased mutation. Here we tested the theory using the frog Rana rugosa, which has both XX/XY- and ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining systems within the species. The male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (α) was calculated from homologous sequences on the X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes, which supported male-driven evolution. Surprisingly, each α value was notably higher in the XX/XY-type group than in the ZZ/ZW-type group, although α should have similar values within a species. Interestingly, meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes did not occur except at terminal regions in males of this species. Then, by subdividing α into two new factors, a replication-based male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (β) and a meiotic recombination-based XX-to-XY/ZZ-to-ZW mutation-rate ratio (γ), we constructed a formula describing the relationship among a nucleotide-substitution rate and the two factors, β and γ. Intriguingly, the β- and γ-values were larger and smaller than 1, respectively, indicating that meiotic recombination might reduce male-biased mutations. PMID:26791621

  3. Pay for Percentile. NBER Working Paper No. 17194

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlevy, Gadi; Neal, Derek

    2011-01-01

    We analyze an incentive pay scheme for educators that links educator compensation to the ranks of their students within appropriately defined comparison sets, and we show that under certain conditions this scheme induces teachers to allocate socially optimal levels of effort to all students. Moreover, because this scheme employs only ordinal…

  4. Attempt for percentile analysis of food colorants with photoacoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, T. M.; Vidotti, E. C.; Rollemberg, M. C. E.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2005-06-01

    In this work the photoacoustic (PAS) method is applied in polyester-type polyurethane foam (PUF) doped with food colorants. Aiming to resolve binary mixtures of synthetic colorants such as Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Brilliant Blue and Amaranth, a single spectroscopic method is described. Based upon individual spectra, a Gaussian deconvolution is used and the fraction of each colorant is found.

  5. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Natasha B.; Alonzo, Suzanne H.

    2009-01-01

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness. PMID:19520802

  6. Is male rhesus macaque red color ornamentation attractive to females?

    PubMed Central

    Dubuc, Constance; Allen, William L.; Maestripieri, Dario; Higham, James P.

    2014-01-01

    Male sexually-selected traits can evolve through different mechanisms: conspicuous and colorful ornaments usually evolve through inter-sexual selection, while weapons usually evolve through intra-sexual selection. Male ornaments are rare among mammals in comparison to birds, leading to the notion that female mate choice generally plays little role in trait evolution in this taxon. Supporting this view, when ornaments are present in mammals they typically indicate social status and are products of male-male competition. This general mammalian pattern, however, may not apply to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Males of this species display conspicuous skin coloration, but this expression is not correlated to dominance rank, and is therefore unlikely to have evolved due to male-male competition. Here, we investigate whether male color expression influences female proceptivity towards males in the Cayo Santiago free-ranging rhesus macaque population. We collected face images of 24 adult males varying in dominance rank and age at the peak of the mating season, and modeled these to rhesus macaque visual perception. We also recorded female socio-sexual behaviors towards these males. Results show that dark red males received more sexual solicitations, by more females, than pale pink ones. Together with previous results, our study suggests that male color ornaments are more likely to be a product of inter- rather than intra-sexual selection. This may especially be the case in rhesus macaques due to the particular characteristics of male-male competition in this species. PMID:25246728

  7. Artificial insemination in pigs: predicting male fertility.

    PubMed

    Broekhuijse, M L W J; Feitsma, H; Gadella, B M

    2012-01-01

    Efficient artificial insemination (AI) is essential for future challenges in the pig industry. Knowledge on the exact relation between semen quality characteristics and fertility can have a major impact on both the genetic merit of future animals and the efficiency of AI. Variation in fertility is caused not only by farm- or sow-related parameters but also by boar- and semen-related parameters. In pig AI there is no gold standard concerning semen quality assessment. Assessing semen quality characteristics objectively and relating them to large field fertility datasets leads to an efficient production of insemination doses, which results in an efficient dissemination/descent of the breeding program required genes. Overall, this contributes to the development of semen quality assessments, which improves the prediction of porcine male fertility. Knowing which semen characteristics, and to what extent, contribute to male fertility and makes the field fertility more predictable. PMID:23092203

  8. [The male genital in legal medicine].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, K; Schultheiss, D

    2006-02-01

    Pathomorphological findings for the male genital are an exception among forensic cases. In earlier publications they were usually published as individual cases. A significant percentage are the so-called fertility- and potency medical certificates, which are usually commissioned for doubtful paternity cases. Old forensic writings about genital injuries distinguish--apart from the necessity of a complete dissection--between "deadly as such" and "accidentally deadly" injuries. Another group consists of reports about self-inflicted genital mutilation, e.g. among prison inmates or soldiers of the last world wars to become an invalid. When it was necessary to identify a corpse, e.g. in cases of progressive decomposition, Merkel recommended in 1945 the representation of the so-called "Schnepfenkopf" (snipe head; colliculus seminalis) in the lesser pelvis. In this article a medical and forensic review of forensically relevant findings of the male genital is presented and illustrated with historical cases. PMID:16308712

  9. Male urinary incontinence and the urinary sheath.

    PubMed

    Smart, Clare

    This article addresses the assessment and management of male incontinence with a specific focus on the use of the male external catheter (MEC) or urinary sheath. Education and expertise when dealing with a man with urinary incontinence, as well as a tactful and sensitive attitude towards this embarrassing problem, are essential for a successful outcome. The urinary sheath is often perceived by nurses and patients as a difficult product to master and is prone to failure owing to incorrect fitting and management. With correct usage it can make a great difference to a patient's quality of life and avoid problems often associated with urinary catheters and pads such as urinary infection and skin excoriation. Detailed assessment of the patient as well as his suitability for the MEC is essential for a successful outcome. PMID:24820510

  10. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events. PMID:22185072

  11. [Male Urinary Incontinence--a Taboo Issue].

    PubMed

    Kozomara-Hocke, Marko; Hermanns, Thomas; Poyet, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    Male urinary incontinence is an underestimated and frequently not broached issue. The urinary incontinence is divided into stress-, urge incontinence and hybrid forms as well as overflow incontinence. The fact that there are increasingly more men over 60 means that the prevalence of the urinary incontinence is up to 40%, and urinary incontinence will increasingly gain importance in daily routine practice. Many investigations and therapies can be realized by the general practitioner. Already simple therapy approaches can lead to a considerable clinical improvement of male urinary incontinence. If the initial therapy fails or pathological results (i. e. microhaematuria, recurrent urinary tract infections, raised residual urine and so on) are found, the patient should be referred to a urologist. PMID:26934011

  12. Male homosexuality and spirit possession in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Fry, P

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between male homosexuality and the Afro-Brazilian possession cults in Belém do Parà. After a discussion of the literature follows a description of the cults' beliefs, rites and social organization. Male sex roles are then discussed and the two categories, bicha and man, analyzed. It is noted that there is no term which is equivalent to the western category of "homosexual" in this taxonomic system. After putting forward folk explanations for the presence of many bichas in the cults, an analysis is put forward of the social rewards available to bichas within these cults, and the structural relationship between homosexuality and these regions in terms of their congruent marginality vis-à-vis "normal society." PMID:4093598

  13. Role of complimentary therapy for male LUTS.

    PubMed

    Cheetham, Philippa J

    2013-12-01

    Phytotherapy, the use of plant based extracts (derived from fruits, seeds, roots, or bark) as medicines or health-promoting agents are often used as first-line treatments for bothersome male lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Their use, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with conventional pharmaceutical treatments is becoming increasingly popular worldwide. There are now over 30 of these phytotherapeutic compounds available, with saw palmetto and pygeum being the most widely used. This paper discusses the mechanism of action, reported efficacies and potential side effects of a number of the most common phytotherapies being used for male LUTS, as well as summarizes outcome data relevant to these agents from the most current peer-reviewed publications. PMID:24026362

  14. Nutrient supplementation: improving male fertility fourfold.

    PubMed

    Mora-Esteves, Cesar; Shin, David

    2013-07-01

    Oxidative stress can contribute to impairment in spermatogenesis leading to male-factor infertility. The effectiveness of various antioxidants (such as carnitine, vitamin C, vitamin E, selenium, carotenoids, glutathione, N-acetylcysteine, zinc, folic acid, and coenzyme Q10) is variable with respect to improving semen parameters and pregnancy rates. A recent Cochrane review determined that men taking antioxidants had a statistically significant increase in both live birth rates and pregnancy rates. For those undergoing assisted reproduction, the odds ratio that antioxidant use would improve pregnancy rates was 4.18, with a 4.85-fold improvement in live birth rate also noted. Further investigation with randomized, controlled clinical trials is needed to confirm the safety and efficacy of antioxidant supplementation in the medical management and treatment of male infertility. PMID:23775385

  15. Male reproductive hormone profile in Rwandan students.

    PubMed

    Gahutu, J B

    2014-12-01

    To illustrate the male reproductive hormone profile, a study was conducted among healthy male university students living at Butare, Rwanda (altitude: 1 768 m, barometric pressure: 629 mm Hg). Venous blood was collected in the morning, after overnight fasting. Hormonal assays were performed by classical sandwich ELISA technique. Mean values (±standard deviation SD) were follicle-stimulating hormone FSH: 3.7 ± 1.6 IU l(-1) ; luteinising hormone LH: 3.6 ± 2.2 IU l(-1) ; and total testosterone: 21.0 ± 7.5 nm. The results compare well with findings of other studies. PMID:24313662

  16. Dermatological medication effects on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Millsop, Jillian Wong; Heller, Misha M; Eliason, Mark J; Murase, Jenny E

    2013-01-01

    Many drugs have been reported to impair semen parameters, leading to temporary or persistent infertility. Therefore, potential fathers may be concerned about the effect of medications on fertility. We searched the MEDLINE database of articles in English combining key terms including "male infertility," "spermatogenesis," "fertility," "drug effects," and "dermatology." Administration of methotrexate and finasteride has resulted in severe oligospermia and reversible infertility. Ketoconazole has had negative effects on sperm motility and testosterone production. Few individual case reports and a limited number of studies have demonstrated negative effects of tetracyclines, erythromycin, chloroquine, glucocorticoids, spironolactone, and antihistamines on fertility. It is important to counsel male patients when appropriate about the reversible negative effect on fertility when taking methotrexate and finasteride, and the adverse effect of ketoconazole. Patients may be reassured that taking oral retinoids, cyclosporine, azathioprine, and tumor necrosis factor alpha inhibitors should not affect their fertility. PMID:23914891

  17. Health problems and male firearm suicide.

    PubMed

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-02-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when physical health problems are cited as suicide circumstances, and that suicide decedents who use firearms have poorer physical health than those who used other methods. Results show that firearms are disproportionately used in male suicides when physical health is listed as a circumstance. Additionally, among suicide decedents with a hospitalization during the 3 years prior to death, those who used firearms were in poorer health than those who used other methods. These findings have implications for prevention efforts, because restricting access to lethal means is an important aspect of suicide prevention. PMID:23126468

  18. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  19. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 – 21). Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes) were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation. PMID:23226638

  20. Darcin: a male pheromone that stimulates female memory and sexual attraction to an individual male's odour

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Among invertebrates, specific pheromones elicit inherent (fixed) behavioural responses to coordinate social behaviours such as sexual recognition and attraction. By contrast, the much more complex social odours of mammals provide a broad range of information about the individual owner and stimulate individual-specific responses that are modulated by learning. How do mammals use such odours to coordinate important social interactions such as sexual attraction while allowing for individual-specific choice? We hypothesized that male mouse urine contains a specific pheromonal component that invokes inherent sexual attraction to the scent and which also stimulates female memory and conditions sexual attraction to the airborne odours of an individual scent owner associated with this pheromone. Results Using wild-stock house mice to ensure natural responses that generalize across individual genomes, we identify a single atypical male-specific major urinary protein (MUP) of mass 18893Da that invokes a female's inherent sexual attraction to male compared to female urinary scent. Attraction to this protein pheromone, which we named darcin, was as strong as the attraction to intact male urine. Importantly, contact with darcin also stimulated a strong learned attraction to the associated airborne urinary odour of an individual male, such that, subsequently, females were attracted to the airborne scent of that specific individual but not to that of other males. Conclusions This involatile protein is a mammalian male sex pheromone that stimulates a flexible response to individual-specific odours through associative learning and memory, allowing female sexual attraction to be inherent but selective towards particular males. This 'darcin effect' offers a new system to investigate the neural basis of individual-specific memories in the brain and give new insights into the regulation of behaviour in complex social mammals. See associated Commentary http

  1. Orthodontic treatment need in Asian adult males.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jen; Sandham, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    Orthodontic treatment in adults has gained social and professional acceptance in recent years. An assessment of orthodontic treatment need helps to identify individuals who will benefit from treatment and safeguard their interest. The purpose of this study was to assess the objective and subjective levels of orthodontic treatment need in a sample of orthodontically untreated adult Asian males. A sample of male army recruits (n = 339, age 17-22 years, Chinese = 258, Malay = 60, Indian = 21) with no history of orthodontic treatment or craniofacial anomalies participated in the study on a voluntary basis with informed consent. Impressions for study models were taken. Objective treatment need was assessed based on study model analysis using the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). Questionnaires were used to assess subjective treatment need based on subjective esthetic component (EC) ratings. Fifty percentage of the sample had a definite need for orthodontic treatment (dental health component [DHC] grades 4 and 5), whereas 29.2% had a moderate need for treatment (DHC grades 3). The occlusal trait most commonly identified was dental crossbite. Malay males had the highest percentage with a definite need for treatment for both dental health and esthetic reasons in comparison with Chinese and Indian males. However, there was no difference in the level of treatment need among the ethnic groups (P > .05). No correlation between objective and subjective EC scores was found (P > .05). A high level of investigator-identified treatment need was not supported by a similar level of subject awareness among the adult sample. PMID:15673139

  2. Sexual reflexes in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, S K; McVary, K T; McKenna, K E

    1988-12-01

    A novel preparation for the study of male and female sexual function in anesthetized, acutely spinalized rats is reported. In both sexes, the coitus reflex (the neuromuscular concomitants of sexual climax) could be elicited by mechanical stimulation of the distal urethra. It is concluded that the spinal sexual circuitry is essentially similar in both sexes and that the coitus reflex is generated by a hormone-insensitive spinal pattern generator and is triggered by a simple peripheral stimulus. PMID:3205410

  3. Medical and Surgical Management of Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Sadri-Ardekani, Hooman

    2014-01-01

    This article is the review of the book “Medical & Surgical Management of Male Infertility” edited by Botros RMB Rizk, Nabil Aziz, Ashok Agarwal and Edmund Sabanegh Jr. This book (hardcover) was published by Jaypee Brothers Medical Publishing, New Delhi.London.Philadelphia.Panama on September 2013 (1st edition). The contents of the book and its relevance to medical education are discussed in this invited review.

  4. Effect of endosulfan on male reproductive development.

    PubMed

    Saiyed, Habibullah; Dewan, Aruna; Bhatnagar, Vijay; Shenoy, Udyavar; Shenoy, Rathika; Rajmohan, Hirehall; Patel, Kumud; Kashyap, Rekha; Kulkarni, Pradip; Rajan, Bagalur; Lakkad, Bhadabhai

    2003-12-01

    There is experimental evidence of adverse effects of endosulfan on the male reproductive system, but there are no human data. Therefore, we undertook a study to examine the relationship between environmental endosulfan exposure and reproductive development in male children and adolescents. The study population was composed of 117 male schoolchildren (10-19 years of age) of a village situated at the foothills of cashew plantations, where endosulfan had been aerially sprayed for more than 20 years, and 90 comparable controls with no such exposure history. The study parameters included recording of clinical history, physical examination, sexual maturity rating (SMR) according to Tanner stages, and estimation of serum levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and endosulfan residues (70 study and 47 control subjects). Mean +/- SE serum endosulfan levels in the study group (7.47 +/- 1.19 ppb) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than in controls (1.37 +/- 0.40 ppb). Multiple regression analysis showed that SMR scoring for development of pubic hair, testes, penis, and serum testosterone level was positively related to age and negatively related to aerial exposure to endosulfan (AEE; p < 0.01). Serum LH levels were significantly positively related to AEE after controlling for age (p < 0.01). The prevalence of congenital abnormalities related to testicular descent (congenital hydrocele, undescended testis, and congenital inguinal hernia) among study and controls subjects was 5.1% and 1.1%, respectively, but the differences were statistically nonsignificant. Our study results suggest that endosulfan exposure in male children may delay sexual maturity and interfere with sex hormone synthesis. Our study is limited by small sample size and nonparticipation. PMID:14644673

  5. Primary anorexia nervosa (weight phobia) in males.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, M. K.; Tibbetts, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Ten cases of primary anorexia nervosa (weight phobia) in males (as against 196 females) have been treated in the United Birmingham Hospitals over 19 years. A discrete syndromes appears to exist with much to support the view that it is the counterpart of primary anorexia nervosa in the female. Six illustrative case histories are described briefly. The heavy loading with consistent abnormalities of psychiatric interest makes it very probable that weight phobia is primarily a psychiatric disorder. PMID:870891

  6. Within-male melanin-based plumage and bill elaboration in male house sparrows.

    PubMed

    Václav, Radovan

    2006-12-01

    If there is a cost to producing a dark color patch, the size of a patch may not correspond with its pigment concentration. The plumage of male house sparrows represents a case of dark, melanin-based ornamentation, but also a case of neglecting the composite nature of dark signals in birds. Here, I investigated what kind of associations exist between the brightness, chroma, and hue of dark integumentary patches and the size of a secondary sexual trait, the bib, in male house sparrows. I found that males with a larger bib also had a darker bib and bill, and a more saturated bib, bill, epaulets, head crown, and breast than small-bibbed males. Male bib coloration in terms of brightness and chroma was more strongly related to bib size than the coloration of other integumentary patches. However, with respect to hue, only the hue of the bill and cheeks was related to bib size. My results indicate that size, brightness, and chroma of the bib, but also chroma of other deeply colored patches, convey redundant information about the signaler's quality in male house sparrows. PMID:17261920

  7. Review on research of suppression male fertility and male contraceptive drug development by natural products.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Vijay Kumar; Gupta, Radhey S

    2013-08-01

    Male contraceptive development in the present scenario is most viable aspect of research due to uncontrolled population growth in the world. In this respect investigators are busy to find out a safe male contraceptive drug. Researchers have started their finding for a suitable drug from natural sources because these are safe and easily acceptable for common man, most of natural sources are plants and their products. In this review 137 plants and their effects on reproduction and reproductive physiology are summarized. Some of them have intense effect on male reproductive system and do not produce any side effects. Reproductive toxicological studies are also important aspects of these kinds of researches, so it is important that drugs are safe and widely acceptable. An ideal male contraceptive can influence semen, testes, hormone level, accessory reproductive organs and general physiology of animals and produced some alterations. Many plants in this review are showing antifertility as well as antispermatogenic effects, so these may be used for further study for contraceptives development but it is important to find out the mechanism of reaction and further laboratory and clinical research on some plants are needed for final male contraceptive drug development. In conclusion this review will help for finding suitable plant products for male contraceptive clinical and laboratory studies. PMID:24079200

  8. Biological markers of male reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.L.; Mattison, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    Reproduction is a complex, stepwise series of processes that begins with gametogenesis, continues through gamete interaction, implantation, embryonic development, growth, parturition, and postnatal adaptation, and is completed with the development and sexual maturation of the newly formed organism. These reproductive processes do not take place in a chemically pristine environment, but rather in an environment increasingly contaminated with the products and by-products of the chemical age in which we live. Some environmental pollutants are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to the reproductive system, but most have not been adequately tested for reproductive toxicity. Just as reproduction is complex, biological mechanisms underlying toxicology are similarly complex and involve absorption, distribution, metabolism (toxification and/or detoxification), excretion, and repair. The synthesis of these sciences into the relatively nascent science of reproductive toxicology includes teratology, pharmacology, epidemiology, and occupational and environmental health. Female reproductive function (especially pregnancy outcome) has historically been the focus of attention, but there is increasing interest in the effects of chemical exposure on male reproductive function. Several reports have documented the physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology of male mammalian reproduction, and evaluated susceptibility of the male to the effects of exogenous chemicals.

  9. Osteoporosis in the aging male: Treatment options

    PubMed Central

    Tuck, Stephen P; Datta, Harish K

    2007-01-01

    In elderly women, loss in bone mass and micro-architectural changes are generally attributed to the onset of menopause. Men do not experience menopause, they do, however, experience age-related acceleration in bone loss and micro-architecture deterioration. The incidence of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men, just as in aged women, increases exponentially with age; the rise in men, however, is some 5–10 years later than in women. Up to 50% of male osteoporotics have no identifiable etiology; however elderly males have much higher likelihood of having an identifiable secondary cause than younger men. Therefore, clinical and laboratory evaluation of aged male osteoporotics must be thorough and should be aimed at identifying lifestyle or conditions contributing to bone loss and fragility. It is essential to identify and treat secondary causes and ensure adequate vitamin D and calcium intake before embarking upon treatment with pharmacological agents. The evidence from a limited number of trials suggests that bisphosphonates, especially alendronate and risedronate, are effective in improving BMD, and seem to be the treatments of choice in aged men with osteoporosis. In cases where bisphosphonates are contra-indicated or ineffective, teriparatide or alternatives such as strontium should be considered. PMID:18225452

  10. Women in male-dominated professions.

    PubMed

    Kirk, K W

    1982-12-01

    The problems faced by women pharmacists are discussed in relation to the literature on women in male-dominated fields. Subconscious stereotypes preclude the occurrence of true equality for women pharmacists in many hospitals. Some people have predicted that the clinical pharmacist role will be primarily filled by men since men are perceived to have the time commitment, aggressiveness, and rapport with physicians that is considered necessary for that role. Women in health professions are perceived to be dedicated to service and not self-interest, and people expect them to drop out of the labor force to raise families, thus obviating the need for promotions and salary increases. Research has shown that women in male-dominated fields place more importance on success values than do women in other fields. Fear of success, defined as anxiety about doing well when competing with men, can be a problem for women, particularly if they have a strong affiliative need. It is important that women in male-dominated professions become actively involved in professional organizations to facilitate their gaining a professional identity. In addition, these women need to be encouraged to seek out managerial positions and to be given a clearer understanding that being a manager can be combined with family and household responsibilities. People can eliminate stereotypes from their thinking only if, after they admit the stereotypes exist, they make a conscious effort to not treat women pharmacists on the basis of what women pharmacists have done in the past. PMID:7180856

  11. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use. PMID:21406490

  12. Postnatal Testosterone Concentrations and Male Social Development

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Gerianne M.

    2014-01-01

    Converging evidence from over 40 years of behavioral research indicates that higher testicular androgens in prenatal life and at puberty contribute to the masculinization of human behavior. However, the behavioral significance of the transient activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) axis in early postnatal life remains largely unknown. Although early research on non-human primates indicated that suppression of the postnatal surge in testicular androgens had no measurable effects on the later expression of the male behavioral phenotype, recent research from our laboratory suggests that postnatal testosterone concentrations influence male infant preferences for larger social groups and temperament characteristics associated with the later development of aggression. In later assessment of gender-linked behavior in the second year of life, concentrations of testosterone at 3–4 months of age were unrelated to toy choices and activity levels during toy play. However, higher concentrations of testosterone predicted less vocalization in toddlers and higher parental ratings on an established screening measure for autism spectrum disorder. These findings suggest a role of the transient activation of the HPG axis in the development of typical and atypical male social relations and suggest that it may be useful in future research on the exaggerated rise in testosterone secretion in preterm infants or exposure to hormone disruptors in early postnatal life to include assessment of gender-relevant behavioral outcomes, including childhood disorders with sex-biased prevalence rates. PMID:24600437

  13. Osteoporosis in the aging male: treatment options.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Stephen P; Datta, Harish K

    2007-01-01

    In elderly women, loss in bone mass and micro-architectural changes are generally attributed to the onset of menopause. Men do not experience menopause, they do, however, experience age-related acceleration in bone loss and micro-architecture deterioration. The incidence of osteoporotic fractures in elderly men, just as in aged women, increases exponen-tially with age; the rise in men, however, is some 5-10 years later than in women. Up to 50% of male osteoporotics have no identifiable etiology; however elderly males have much higher likelihood of having an identifiable secondary cause than younger men. Therefore, clinical and laboratory evaluation of aged male osteoporotics must be thorough and should be aimed at identifying lifestyle or conditions contributing to bone loss and fragility. It is essential to identify and treat secondary causes and ensure adequate vitamin D and calcium intake before embarking upon treatment with pharmacological agents. The evidence from a limited number of trials suggests that bisphosphonates, especially alendronate and risedronate, are effective in improving BMD, and seem to be the treatments of choice in aged men with osteoporosis. In cases where bisphosphonates are contra-indicated or ineffective, teriparatide or alternatives such as strontium should be considered. PMID:18225452

  14. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players.

    PubMed

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-11-22

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players' performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  15. Evolving ideas about the male refractory period.

    PubMed

    Turley, Kenneth R; Rowland, David L

    2013-08-01

    The male refractory period (MRP) continues to be a topic of discussion and debate within the field of sexual medicine. To date explanations rely on central descending (efferent) influences involving specific neurotransmitter systems. Herein we explore the issue of the male refractory period, identifying problems with current explanations, specifying the parameters of an adequate model, and suggesting possible mechanisms mediating this phenomenon. We review the literature regarding existing explanations for the MRP and look to other systems of physiological regulation that might provide a model for the conceptualization of the MRP. Our approach differs from traditional explanations in that it emphasizes the possible roles of various peripheral, rather than central, feedback (afferent) systems that affect peripheral autonomic functioning and response. Yet our approach is consistent with other peripheral regulatory feedback systems controlling autonomic response related to such processes as heart rate, respiration, and gut motility. Although direct empirical research supporting our approach is lacking, sufficient evidence exists to support the idea that such processes are not only possible but likely with respect to the male refractory period. We suggest several lines of research that might provide empirical support for this approach. PMID:23470051

  16. Fertility treatment in male cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Carlsen, Elisabeth; Andersen, Anders Nyboe

    2007-08-01

    The present study reviews the use of assisted reproductive technology in male cancer survivors and their partners. As antineoplastic treatment with chemotherapy or radiation therapy, has the potential of inducing impairment of spermatogenesis through damage of the germinal epithelium, many male cancer survivors experience difficulties in impregnating their partners after treatment. The impairment can be temporary or permanent. While many cancer survivors regain spermatogenesis months to years after treatment, some become infertile with a-, oligo- or azoospermia. An option to secure the fertility potential of young cancer patients is to cryopreserve semen before cancer treatment for later use. A desired pregnancy may be obtained in couples where the husband has a history of cancer, using assisted reproductive technology with either fresh or cryopreserved/thawed semen. Successful outcomes have been obtained with intrauterine insemination (IUI) as well as in vitro fertilization (IVF) with or without the use of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). In conclusion, male cancer survivors and their partners who have failed to obtain a pregnancy naturally within a reasonable time frame after end of treatment should be referred to a fertility clinic. PMID:17573855

  17. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  18. Biodemographic analysis of male honey bee mortality.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Fondrk, M Kim; Page, Robert E

    2005-02-01

    Biodemographic studies of insects have significantly enhanced our understanding of the biology of aging. Eusocial insects have evolved to form different groups of colony members that are specialized for particular tasks and highly dependent on each other. These different groups (castes and sexes) also differ strongly in their life expectancy but relatively little is known about their mortality dynamics. In this study we present data on the age-specific flight activity and mortality of male honey bees from two different genetic lines that are exclusively dedicated to reproduction. We show that males initiating flight at a young age experience more flight events during their lifetime. No (negative) relation between the age at flight initiation and lifespan exists, as might be predicted on the basis of the antagonistic pleiotropy theory of aging. Furthermore, we fit our data to different aging models and conclude that overall a slight deceleration of the age-dependent mortality increase at advanced ages occurs. However, mortality risk increases according to the Gompertz-Makeham model when only days with flight activity (active days) are taken into account. Our interpretation of the latter is that two mortality components act on honey bee males during flight: increasing, age-dependent deaths (possibly from wear-and-tear), and age-independent deaths (possibly due to predation). The overall mortality curve is caused by the interaction of the distribution of age at foraging initiation and the mortality function during the active (flight) lifespan. PMID:15659209

  19. Eating disorders in the male athlete.

    PubMed

    Baum, Antonia

    2006-01-01

    Eating disorders do occur in male athletes. They are less prominent than in female athletes, and therefore in danger of being missed. The high-risk sports fall into the same categories as with females: aesthetic sports, sports in which low body fat is advantageous, such as cross-country and marathon running, and sports in which there is a need to "make weight", including wrestling and horse racing. Athletic involvement may foster the development of an eating disorder. Some male athletes, in their preoccupation with body image, will abuse anabolic steroids. While sports participation may contribute to the aetiology of an eating disorder, the converse is also true. Exercise may be used as therapy for some cases of eating disorder. In order to adequately treat eating disorders in the male athlete, it is first essential to identify cases. Psychoeducation of athletes, their families, coaches and trainers is an important first step. Counselling an athlete to pursue a sport appropriate to his body type, or to leave his sport behind altogether (an unpopular recommendation from a coach's perspective) can be important to treatment. Treatment of co-morbid psychiatric conditions is essential. Treatment can be structured using a biopsychosocial approach, and all appropriate modalities of therapy, including individual, family and group, as well as psychopharmacotherapy, where appropriate, should be applied. PMID:16445307

  20. Secondary infertility and the aging male, overview

    PubMed Central

    Al–Hawsawi, Khalid; Motair, Wael; Bawa, Abdallah Makhloof

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Old men preparing themselves for marriage late in their lives might face infertility. Infertility in this group of men should be considered from a wider perspective, as they face any age–related health troubles that include, but are not limited to, androgen deficiency and psychological disorders that impede early conception. This review aims to shed light on the proper approach to this minority of secondarily infertile men. Material and methods A comprehensive electronic English literature search was conducted, using various medical websites and books, for the factors that cause infertility in senior fathers. The physiology of geriatric males, together with their common comorbidities, were discussed. Results Old men presenting with secondary infertility should be approached differently. Aging, itself, has a significant impact on male sexual function, sperm parameters, and fertility; all of which contribute to poor fecundability, decreased fertilizing capacity, increased time to pregnancy, increased rate of DNA damage, high abortion rates and increased prevalence of fetal developmental failures. The complexity and the unknowns of the aging male physiology, together with the interaction of obstinate diseases the patient might have, make the issue very difficult to tackle. Conclusions Management should include the conventional way of treating young sufferers and further target the underlying causes, if known, along with the provision of geriatric, psychologic, and andrologic support. PMID:25140235

  1. Effect of pharmacological agents on male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, A R

    1987-01-01

    The main groups of drugs that affect male libido, potency, sperm production, structure and function are summarized and their mechanisms described when known. About 15% of the 200 most commonly prescribed drugs can have adverse effects on male reproduction. Sedatives, tranquilizers, hypnotics, antiandrogens and the common antihypertensive methyldopa can depress libido. Spironoacetone has been reported to impair libido, potency, sperm count and motility, although reversibly. The phenothiazines and tricyclic antidepressants may induce prolactin secretion and consequent gynecomastia. Narcotics and hallucinogens influence male sexual performance. Morphine and methadone decrease LH and testosterone, and increase prolactin. Cannabis, hashish and marijuana initially increase libido and potency, but chronic use causes sexual inversion. Chronic alcoholism also may upset testosterone metabolism, causing testicular atrophy. Cyclophosphamide, used for nephrotic syndrome, and nitrofurans, used as food preservatives, cause direct damage to seminiferous tubules. Synthetic oganochlorine pesticides, especially DDT, have also been reported to damage spermatogenic cells directly, when injected in mice. Steroids such as ACTH, hydrocortisone and dexamethasone may inhibit steroidogenesis in animals. PMID:12341906

  2. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    PubMed Central

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  3. Male ironman triathletes lose skeletal muscle mass.

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Baumann, Barbara; Wirth, Andrea; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose body mass in the form of fat mass or skeletal muscle mass in a field study at the Ironman Switzerland in 27 male Caucasian non-professional Ironman triathletes. Pre- and post-race body mass, fat mass and skeletal muscle mass were determined. In addition, total body water, hematological and urinary parameters were measured in order to quantify hydration status. Body mass decreased by 1.8 kg (p< 0.05), skeletal muscle decreased by 1.0 kg (p< 0.05) whereas fat mass showed no changes. Urinary specific gravity, plasma urea and plasma volume increased (p< 0.05). Pre- to post-race change (Delta) in body mass was not associated with ? skeletal muscle mass. Additionally, there was no association between Delta plasma urea and Delta skeletal muscle mass; Delta plasma volume was not associated with Delta total body water (p< 0.05). We concluded that male triathletes in an Ironman triathlon lose 1.8 kg of body mass and 1 kg of skeletal muscle mass, presumably due to a depletion of intramyocellular stored glycogen and lipids. PMID:20199992

  4. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males

    PubMed Central

    Vaughn, Ashlee A.; delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    An individual’s nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding. PMID:23185098

  5. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G

    2013-11-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal's territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  6. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2013-01-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal’s territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context. PMID:24273328

  7. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after exposure to a single heterospecific male during 8 days across a wire-mesh barrier. Here we repeated that experiment but this time we exposed female Turkish hamsters to a male Syrian hamster for 8 days and then measured sexual and aggressive behaviors towards that heterospecific male and towards a conspecific male. In contrast to female Syrian hamsters, female Turkish hamsters did not differ in their latency to go into lordosis or in any measure of aggression towards either type of male. Female Turkish hamsters spent less time in lordosis with the heterospecific male, but the percentage of trials in which females copulated with conspecific and heterospecific males did not differ. When comparing females from both species that had been exposed to a heterospecific male for 8 days, female Syrian hamsters copulated less and were more aggressive towards the heterospecific male compared to the behavior of female Turkish hamsters. We discuss how this asymmetric response between females of the two species may be due to the much larger geographical range of Turkish hamsters compared to Syrian hamsters. PMID:22658324

  8. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2012-08-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after exposure to a single heterospecific male during 8 days across a wire-mesh barrier. Here we repeated that experiment but this time we exposed female Turkish hamsters to a male Syrian hamster for 8 days and then measured sexual and aggressive behaviors towards that heterospecific male and towards a conspecific male. In contrast to female Syrian hamsters, female Turkish hamsters did not differ in their latency to go into lordosis or in any measure of aggression towards either type of male. Female Turkish hamsters spent less time in lordosis with the heterospecific male, but the percentage of trials in which females copulated with conspecific and heterospecific males did not differ. When comparing females from both species that had been exposed to a heterospecific male for 8days, female Syrian hamsters copulated less and were more aggressive towards the heterospecific male compared to the behavior of female Turkish hamsters. We discuss how this asymmetric response between females of the two species may be due to the much larger geographical range of Turkish hamsters compared to Syrian hamsters. PMID:22658324

  9. The costs of parental and mating effort for male baboons

    PubMed Central

    Cheney, Dorothy L.; Crockford, Catherine; Engh, Anne L.; Wittig, Roman M.; Seyfarth, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males in polygynous species of mammals will invest more reproductive effort in mate competition than parental investment. A corollary to this prediction is that males will mount a stress response when their access to mates is threatened. Indeed, numerous studies have shown that males exhibit elevated stress hormones, or glucocorticoids (GCs), when their access to females, or a proxy to this access like dominance rank, is challenged. In contrast, the relationship between stress hormones and paternal effort is less obvious. We report results from a study of wild male chacma baboons indicating that males experienced elevated GC levels during periods of social instability following the immigration of a dominant male. These effects were strongest in males whose mating opportunities were at greatest risk: high-ranking males and males engaged in sexual consortships. Males involved in friendships with lactating females, a form of paternal investment, also experienced high GC levels during these periods of instability. There was a tendency for males with lactating female friends to reduce their time spent in consortships during unstable periods, when the risk of infanticide was high. Thus, even in a highly polygynous mammal, males may have to balance paternal effort with mating effort. Males who invest entirely in mating effort risk losing the infants they have sired to infanticide. Males who invest in paternal care may enhance their offspring's survival, but at the cost of elevated GC levels, the risk of injury, and the loss of mating opportunities. PMID:25620835

  10. Behavioral characterization of non-copulating male mice.

    PubMed

    Portillo, W; Antonio-Cabrera, E; Camacho, F J; Díaz, N F; Paredes, R G

    2013-06-01

    Non-copulating (NC) males are those animals that do not mate in spite of repeated testing with sexually receptive females. They have been observed in several species including rats and mice. The present experiment was designed to perform a detailed behavioral characterization of NC male mice. Thus, we evaluated their sexual incentive motivation for a sexually receptive female or a sexually active male, olfactory preference for volatile and non-volatile odors from females or males, and olfactory discrimination between female and male volatile odors and food related odors (milk versus vinegar). We compared the activity of the accessory olfactory system (AOS) in copulating (C) and NC males in response to estrous bedding using the induction of Fos-immunoreactivity (Fos-IR) as a measure of neuronal activation. We also determined if estradiol or dopamine treatment could induce sexual behavior in NC males. Finally, we compared the testis weight and the number of penile spines in C, NC, and gonadectomized males. In the sexual incentive motivation test C males spend significantly more time in the female incentive zone than in the male incentive zone. On the other hand, NC males spend the same amount of time in both incentive zones. In tests of olfactory preference, NC males spent less time investigating estrous odors than C males. As well, NC males discriminate urine from conspecifics but they spend less time smelling these odors than C males. In addition, no increase in Fos expression is observed in NC males when they are exposed to odors from estrous females. Our data also suggest that the deficits observed in NC males are not due to lower circulating levels of gonadal hormones, because estradiol supplementation does not induce sexual behavior in these animals, and their testis weight and the number of penile spines are normal. The results suggest that NC males are not sexually motivated by the receptive females and their odors. PMID:23673371

  11. Age-Dependent Male Mating Investment in Drosophila pseudoobscura

    PubMed Central

    Dhole, Sumit; Pfennig, Karin S.

    2014-01-01

    Male mating investment can strongly influence fitness gained from a mating. Yet, male mating investment often changes with age. Life history theory predicts that mating investment should increase with age, and males should become less discriminatory about their mate as they age. Understanding age-dependent changes in male behavior and their effects on fitness is important for understanding how selection acts in age-structured populations. Although the independent effects of male or female age have been studied in many species, how these interact to influence male mating investment and fitness is less well understood. We mated Drosophila pseudoobscura males of five different age classes (4-, 8-, 11-, 15-, 19-day old) to either young (4-day) or old (11-day) females, and measured copulation duration and early post-mating fecundity. Along with their independent effects, we found a strong interaction between the effects of male and female ages on male mating investment and fitness from individual matings. Male mating investment increased with male age, but this increase was more prominent in matings with young females. Male D. pseudoobscura made smaller investments when mating with old females. The level of such discrimination based on female age, however, also changed with male age. Intermediate aged males were most discriminatory, while the youngest and the oldest males did not discriminate between females of different ages. We also found that larger male mating investments resulted in higher fitness payoffs. Our results show that male and female ages interact to form a complex pattern of age-specific male mating investment and fitness. PMID:24586373

  12. Heterosexual men's anger in response to male homosexuality: effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy and sexual prejudice.

    PubMed

    Hudepohl, Adam D; Parrott, Dominic J; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  13. Heterosexual Men's Anger in Response to Male Homosexuality: Effects of Erotic and Non-Erotic Depictions of Male-Male Intimacy and Sexual Prejudice

    PubMed Central

    Hudepohl, Adam D.; Parrott, Dominic J.; Zeichner, Amos

    2010-01-01

    The present study compared effects of erotic and non-erotic depictions of male-male intimacy on the experience of anger in heterosexual men. Data came from three independent laboratory studies designed to elicit anger in response to erotic or non-erotic depictions of male-male and male-female intimacy. All participants completed a measure of sexual prejudice and anger was assessed before and after viewing the erotic or non-erotic video. Among high-prejudiced men, viewing erotic and non-erotic intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. In contrast, among low-prejudiced men, viewing erotic, but not non-erotic, intimate behavior between two men elicited significant increases in anger relative to viewing comparable behavior between a male-female dyad. Implications for understanding heterosexual men's anger, and aggression, toward gay men were discussed. PMID:20818528

  14. Genetic aspects of communication during male-male competition in the Madagascar hissing cockroach: honest signalling of size.

    PubMed

    Clark, D C; Moore, A J

    1995-08-01

    Male Madagascar hissing cockroaches, Gromphadorhina portentosa, engage in agonistic contests with other males and produce audible sounds or 'hisses' during these interactions. Hisses are used to maintain, rather than to establish, social relationships among males. The agonistic hisses of males are variable and could be used as signals to communicate size or competitive ability of an individual. In this study we examined how size influences male-male competition, as well as the genetic variation and covariation of male body size and components of the agonistic hiss. We found that male size affected the outcome of agonistic interactions between pairs of males: a male that dominated in a pair was significantly larger than the male that was subordinate. However, we found no differences in the hisses produced by dominant and subordinate males after controlling for male weight. We estimated heritabilities, evolvability and genetic correlations for male size and characteristics of the hiss from a full-sib analysis of brothers. The patterns of heritabilities and evolvabilities were very similar. The heritabilities of both male weight and duration of the hiss were significantly greater than zero. There was a significant positive genetic correlation between duration of the agonistic hiss and male weight, and a significant negative genetic correlation between hiss duration and the beginning dominant frequency. There was also a positive phenotypic correlation and a negative environmental correlation between male weight and hiss duration. Thus, hiss duration can signal the present influence of the environment on male size, whereas information from hiss duration and beginning dominant frequency can signal the male's ability to transmit genetic influence for size.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7558888

  15. The UF/NCI family of hybrid computational phantoms representing the current US population of male and female children, adolescents, and adults—application to CT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geyer, Amy M.; O'Reilly, Shannon; Lee, Choonsik; Long, Daniel J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2014-09-01

    Substantial increases in pediatric and adult obesity in the US have prompted a major revision to the current UF/NCI (University of Florida/National Cancer Institute) family of hybrid computational phantoms to more accurately reflect current trends in larger body morphometry. A decision was made to construct the new library in a gridded fashion by height/weight without further reference to age-dependent weight/height percentiles as these become quickly outdated. At each height/weight combination, circumferential parameters were defined and used for phantom construction. All morphometric data for the new library were taken from the CDC NHANES survey data over the time period 1999-2006, the most recent reported survey period. A subset of the phantom library was then used in a CT organ dose sensitivity study to examine the degree to which body morphometry influences the magnitude of organ doses for patients that are underweight to morbidly obese in body size. Using primary and secondary morphometric parameters, grids containing 100 adult male height/weight bins, 93 adult female height/weight bins, 85 pediatric male height/weight bins and 73 pediatric female height/weight bins were constructed. These grids served as the blueprints for construction of a comprehensive library of patient-dependent phantoms containing 351 computational phantoms. At a given phantom standing height, normalized CT organ doses were shown to linearly decrease with increasing phantom BMI for pediatric males, while curvilinear decreases in organ dose were shown with increasing phantom BMI for adult females. These results suggest that one very useful application of the phantom library would be the construction of a pre-computed dose library for CT imaging as needed for patient dose-tracking.

  16. Determining Exercise Strength Requirements for Astronaut Critical Mission Tasks: Reaching Under G-Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The critical mission tasks assessments effort seeks to determine the physical performance requirements that astronauts must meet in order to safely and successfully accomplish lunar exploration missions. These assessments will determine astronaut preflight strength, fitness, and flexibility requirements, and the extent to which exercise and other countermeasures must prevent the physical deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The purpose is to determine the flexibility and strength that crewmembers must possess in order to reach Crew Exploration Vehicle controls during maneuvers that result in sustained acceleration levels ranging from 3.7G to 7.8G. An industry standard multibody dynamics application was used to create human models representing a 5th percentile female, a 50th percentile male, and a 95th percentile male. The additional mass of a space suit sleeve was added to the reaching arm to account for the influence of the suit mass on the reaching effort. The human model was merged with computer models of a pilot seat and control panel for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Three dimensional paths were created that guided the human models hand from a starting position alongside its thigh to three control targets: a joystick, a keyboard, and an overhead switch panel. The reaching motion to each target was repeated under four vehicle acceleration conditions: nominal ascent (3.7G), two ascent aborts (5.5G and 7.8G) and lunar reentry (4.6G). Elbow and shoulder joint angular excursions were analyzed to assess range of motion requirements. Mean and peak elbow and shoulder joint torques were determined and converted to equivalent resistive exercise loads to assess strength requirements. Angular excursions for the 50th and 95th percentile male models remained within joint range of motion limits. For the 5th percentile female, both the elbow and the shoulder exceeded range of motion limits during the overhead reach. Elbow joint torques ranged from 10 N

  17. Aiming low: A resident male's rank predicts takeover success by challenging males in Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pingfen; Ren, Baoping; Garber, Paul A; Xia, Fan; Grueter, Cyril C; Li, Ming

    2016-09-01

    In many primate species that form one-male breeding units (OMUs), the threat of a takeover by a bachelor male represents a major challenge to group stability and individual reproductive success. In the case of snub-nosed monkeys, which live in large multilevel or modular societies (MLS) comprising several OMUs that travel, feed and rest together and as well as one or more all male units (AMUs), the process by which rival males challenge resident OMU males for access to females is poorly understood. From September 2012 to October 2013, we recorded 48 cases in which rival males visited an OMU in a MLS of Yunnan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti) inhabiting the Baimaxueshan National Nature Reserve, Yunnan Province, China. In 40 cases, rival males engaged in mild agonistic interactions (approaching, staring, teeth-baring and chasing) but failed to take over the group; we counted these visits as failed takeovers, recognizing that they may nevertheless allow rival males to assess the competitive ability of residents. During eight successful takeovers, however, there was severe physical aggression between challenging and resident males, with serious injuries to participants. We found that neither the number of adult and subadult females in an OMU, the number of non-pregnant, non-lactating adult females in an OMU, nor the rank of a resident male relative to other resident males in the MLS predicted which OMU a challenging male targeted for takeover. However, a resident male's rank significantly predicted whether takeover attempts were successful. Specifically, challenging males were more successful in displacing a lower-ranking resident male than a higher-ranking male. Given that a Yunnan snub-nosed monkey MLS may contain as many as 40 resident and 36 bachelor males, continued research is required to determine the set of factors that enable resident males to maintain high social rank and successfully defend their harems. Am. J. Primatol. 78:974-982, 2016. © 2016

  18. Why do female mice mate with multiple males?

    PubMed

    Thonhauser, Kerstin E; Raveh, Shirley; Hettyey, Attila; Beissmann, Helmut; Penn, Dustin J

    2013-01-01

    Females often show multi-male mating (MMM), but the adaptive functions are unclear. We tested whether female house mice (Mus musculus musculus) show MMM when they can choose their mates without male coercion. We released 32 females into separate enclosures where they could choose to mate with two neighboring males that were restricted to their own territories. We also tested whether females increase MMM when the available males appeared unable to exclude intruders from their territories. To manipulate territorial intrusion, we introduced scent-marked tiles from the neighboring males into males' territories, or we rearranged tiles within males' own territories as a control. Each female was tested in treatment and control conditions and we conducted paternity analyses on the 57 litters produced. We found that 46 % of litters were multiply sired, indicating that multiple paternity is common when females can choose their mates. Intrusion did not increase multiple paternity, though multiple paternity was significantly greater in the first trial when the males were virgins compared to the second trial. Since virgin male mice are highly infanticidal, this finding is consistent with the infanticide avoidance hypothesis. We also found that multiple paternity was higher when competing males showed small differences in their amount of scent marking, suggesting that females reduce MMM when they can detect differences in males' quality. Finally, multiple paternity was associated with increased litter size but only in the intrusion treatment, which suggests that the effect of multiple paternity on offspring number is dependent on male-male interactions. PMID:24273373

  19. Defective pollen wall contributes to male sterility in the male sterile line 1355A of cotton

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuanlong; Min, Ling; Wu, Zancheng; Yang, Li; Zhu, Longfu; Yang, Xiyan; Yuan, Daojun; Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Xianlong

    2015-01-01

    To understand the mechanisms of male sterility in cotton (Gossypium spp.), combined histological, biochemical and transcription analysis using RNA-Seq was carried out in the anther of the single-gene recessive genic male sterility system of male sterile line 1355A and male fertile line 1355B, which are near-isogenic lines (NILs) differing only in the fertility trait. A total of 2,446 differentially expressed genes were identified between the anthers of 1355AB lines, at three different stages of development. Cluster analysis and functional assignment of differentially expressed genes revealed differences in transcription associated with pollen wall and anther development, including the metabolism of fatty acids, glucose, pectin and cellulose. Histological and biochemical analysis revealed that a major cellular defect in the 1355A was a thicker nexine, consistent with the RNA-seq data, and further gene expression studies implicated differences in fatty acids synthesis and metabolism. This study provides insight into the phenotypic characteristics and gene regulatory network of the genic male sterile line 1355A in upland cotton. PMID:26043720

  20. Males on demand: the environmental-neuro-endocrine control of male sex determination in daphnids.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Gerald A; Medlock, Elizabeth K

    2015-11-01

    Branchiopod crustaceans (e.g., Daphnia sp.) and some other taxa utilize both asexual and sexual reproduction to maximize population sustainability. The decision to switch from asexual to sexual reproduction is triggered by environmental cues that foretell a potentially detrimental change in environmental conditions. This review describes the cascade of events beginning with environmental cues and ending with changes in gene expression that dictate male sex determination in daphnids, the initial event in the switch to sexual reproduction. Several environmental cues have been identified which, either in isolation or in combination, stimulate male sex determination. These cues are typically associated with change of season, exhaustion of resources or loss of habitat. Maternal daphnids receive and respond to these cues, we propose, through the secretion of neuropeptides, which suppress (hyperglycemic hormone-like neuropeptides, allatostatin) or stimulate (allatotropin) the male sex differentiation program. In response, maternal daphnids produce the male sex-determining hormone, methyl farnesoate. Methyl farnesoate binds to a protein MET that dimerizes with the protein SRC forming an active transcription factor. This complex then regulates the expression of genes, primarily doublesex (dsx), involved in programming the single-celled embryo to develop into a male. In the absence of methyl farnesoate programming, the embryo develops into a female. Epigenetic modifications of the genome as a possible mode of methyl farnesoate action and the utility of this model to decipher the role of epigenetics in sex differentiation in other species are discussed. PMID:26237283

  1. Male breast cancer - a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Bystricky, Branislav; Kohutek, Filip; Rosik, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    Due to its rarity, male breast cancer remains a poorly characterized disease. The present study obtained retrospective clinicopathological data, treatment patterns and outcomes for all male patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the Oncology Department, Faculty Hospital Trenčín (Trenčín, Slovakia) over the last 20 years from January 1995 to December 2015. A total of 21 patients with male breast cancer were analyzed, with a median patient age of 65.6 years. Two patients were diagnosed with lobular invasive cancer; all others were diagnosed with cancer of a ductal origin. One patient presented with metastatic disease in the pleural cavity. The primary tumors in 8 patients were staged as pT1, whilst 6 patients were staged as pT2 and 7 as pT4. Axillary lymph node involvement was present in 11 patients (52%) and 15 patients were hormone receptor-positive (83%). All but 1 patient underwent mastectomy and surgical staging of the axilla. Adjuvant chemotherapy, radiotherapy and hormone treatment was administered in the same manner as breast cancer treatment in female patients. The median follow-up time was 4.5 years. The 5- and 10-year overall survival rates were 87 and 74%, respectively, and the estimated median disease-free survival for the same population was 9.5 years (95% confidence interval, 6.2–14.6). The survival rates reported in the present retrospective study are comparable with previously published studies. In addition, the current study reported predominant hormone-positive characteristics and rare expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. However, further multi-institutional trials are required to allow for informed treatment decisions in this uncommon disease. PMID:27446481

  2. The control of male sexual responses.

    PubMed

    Courtois, Frédérique; Carrier, Serge; Charvier, Kathleen; Guertin, Pierre A; Journel, Nicolas Morel

    2013-01-01

    Male sexual responses are reflexes mediated by the spinal cord and modulated by neural circuitries involving both the peripheral and central nervous system. While the brain interact with the reflexes to allow perception of sexual sensations and to exert excitatory or inhibitory influences, penile reflexes can occur despite complete transections of the spinal cord, as demonstrated by the reviewed animal studies on spinalization and human studies on spinal cord injury. Neurophysiological and neuropharmacological substrates of the male sexual responses will be discussed in this review, starting with the spinal mediation of erection and its underlying mechanism with nitric oxide (NO), followed by the description of the ejaculation process, its neural mediation and its coordination by the spinal generator of ejaculation (SGE), followed by the occurrence of climax as a multisegmental sympathetic reflex discharge. Brain modulation of these reflexes will be discussed through neurophysiological evidence involving structures such as the medial preoptic area of hypothalamus (MPOA), the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), the periaqueductal gray (PAG), and the nucleus para-gigantocellularis (nPGI), and through neuropharmacological evidence involving neurotransmitters such as serotonin (5-HT), dopamine and oxytocin. The pharmacological developments based on these mechanisms to treat male sexual dysfunctions will complete this review, including phosphodiesterase (PDE-5) inhibitors and intracavernous injections (ICI) for the treatment of erectile dysfunctions (ED), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for the treatment of premature ejaculation, and cholinesterase inhibitors as well as alpha adrenergic drugs for the treatment of anejaculation and retrograde ejaculation. Evidence from spinal cord injured studies will be highlighted upon each step. PMID:23360268

  3. Evaluation of Parallel Analysis Methods for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Aaron V.; Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo; Scott, Lietta; Svetina, Dubravka; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Population and sample simulation approaches were used to compare the performance of parallel analysis using principal component analysis (PA-PCA) and parallel analysis using principal axis factoring (PA-PAF) to identify the number of underlying factors. Additionally, the accuracies of the mean eigenvalue and the 95th percentile eigenvalue criteria…

  4. Chef of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dee

    2012-01-01

    There is an overwhelming amount of research and data on childhood nutrition due to drastic increases in childhood obesity (classified as a BMI index greater than the 95th percentile for their height/weight). Obesity amounts have tripled in the last 30 years for children who fall in the age range of the author's students. The effects of childhood…

  5. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2007-08 (Fiscal Year 2008). First Look. NCES 2010-323

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honegger, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2007-08. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of school…

  6. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-355

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2004-05. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of…

  7. Predictors of Academic Giftedness among U.S. High School Students: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Multivariate Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modi, Manisha; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Hedges, Larry V.

    Logistic regression analyses were employed using a nationally representative sample of high school seniors to determine how student, socioeconomic status, home environment, community, and school variables relate to academic talent. Students identified as talented scored at or above the 95th percentile on a composite academic achievement test.…

  8. Quality of life in Mexican American children following a weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in at-risk for overweight and overweight Mexican American children after participating in 6 months of intensive weight management or self-help. Eighty sixth- and seventh-grade at-risk for overweight (BMI >= 85th to < 95th percentile) and overweight...

  9. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  10. 40 CFR 75.57 - General recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input). 9 95th percentile... period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input... lookback period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and...

  11. The sexual habits of males who molest.

    PubMed

    Lim, L E; Yap, A K; Ong, S H; Chan, A O; Chan, K L

    2000-10-01

    To gain better understanding into the causes of molesting behaviour in males, we examined a prison cohort of molesters and compared them with a control group comprising thieves. The molesters were older, had attained a higher educational level and were more likely to be married. They had their initial sexual intercourse at an older age but tended to have multiple sexual relationships and were less likely to report having viewed pornographic material. Three months prior to committing their offences, molesters seemed to engage in less sexual activity. The implications are that molesters had a need for more explicit sexual contact but were unable to sustain ongoing, stable, intimate sexual relationships. PMID:11281351

  12. Ultrasound of the male anterior urethra

    PubMed Central

    Shaida, N; Berman, L H

    2012-01-01

    Imaging of the anterior male urethra has traditionally been performed by fluoroscopic contrast urethrography. While providing easily interpretable images, this technique has a number of disadvantages associated with it. An alternative approach is to use ultrasound to assess the lumen of the urethra and the periurethral tissues. Here we describe the development of urethral ultrasound and the ascending and descending urethral ultrasound techniques employed in our institution with reference to commonly and uncommonly encountered pathologies. We also identify common pitfalls and how to avoid them. PMID:22674713

  13. Erectile Dysfunction in the Older Adult Male.

    PubMed

    Mola, Joanna R

    2015-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) in the older adult male is a significant problem affecting more than 75% of men over 70 years of age in the United States. Older men have an increased likelihood of developing ED due to chronic disease, comorbid conditions, and age-related changes. Research has demonstrated that while the prevalence and severity of ED increases with age, sexual desire often remains unchanged. This article discusses the clinical picture of ED, including relevant pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and evaluation and treatment options. PMID:26197627

  14. Lethality, accumulation and toxicokinetics of aluminum in some tissues of male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawy, Sayed M; Morsy, Gamal M; Elshibani, Majda M

    2013-04-01

    In the present work, the lethality percentiles including median lethal doses (LD50), accumulation, distribution and toxicokinetics of aluminum in the liver, kidney, intestine, brain and serum of male albino rats, following a single oral administration were studied throughout 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days. The estimated LD50 at 24 h was 3.45 g Al/kg body weight (b.wt.). The utilized dose of Al was 1/50 LD50 (0.07 g Al/kg b.wt.). Aluminum residues, in Al-treated rats, were significantly decreased in response to the experimental periods and were negatively correlated with time. In addition, the hepatic, renal, intestinal, brain and serum Al contents were significantly higher than the corresponding controls at all experimental periods, except the brain that showed significant depletion when compared with its corresponding control after 28 days. Kinetically, the highest average of Al area under concentration - time curves (AUCtotal, μg/g day) and area under moment concentration - time curves (AUMCtotal, µg/g day(2)) recorded in the brain followed by kidney, serum, intestine and liver. The longest elimination half-life time (t 1/2, day) and the mean residence time (MRT, day) were recorded in the brain followed by the liver, kidney, serum and intestine. On the other hand, the slowest clearance rates (Cls, L/day) of Al, in order, were recorded in brain, kidney, serum, intestine and the liver. The elimination rate constant (Lz, day(-) (1)) of Al from the brain was less than that in the intestine and serum was less than that in the liver and kidney. The computed maximum concentrations (C max) of Al in the intestine > kidney > serum > brain > liver were recorded after 3, 3.8, 2.2, 5.4 and 3.8 days, respectively. The computed starting concentration (C 0, μg) of Al in serum was higher than its level in the intestine followed by the brain, kidney and liver. PMID:22317823

  15. Studies on fate and toxicity of nanoalumina in male albino rats: Lethality, bioaccumulation and genotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Morsy, Gamal M; El-Ala, Kawther S Abou; Ali, Atef A

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to follow-up the distribution, lethality percentile doses (LDs) and bioaccumulation of aluminium oxide nanoparticles (Al2O3-NPs, average diameter 9.83 ± 1.61 nm) in some tissues of male albino rats, and to evaluate its genotoxicity to the brain tissues, during acute and sublethal experiments. The LDs of Al2O3-NPs, including median lethal dose (LD50), were estimated after intraperitoneal injection. The computed LD50 at 24 and 48 h were 15.10 and 12.88 g/kg body weight (b.w.), respectively. For acute experiments, the bioaccumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen was estimated after 48 h of injection with a single acute dose (3.9, 6.4 and 8.5 g/kg b.w.), while for sublethal experiments it was after 1, 3, 7, 14 and 28 days of injection with 1.3 g/kg b.w. once in 2 days. Multi-way analysis of variance affirmed that Al uptake, in acute experiments, was significantly affected by the injected doses, organs (brain, liver, kidneys, intestine and spleen) and their interactions, while for sublethal experiments an altogether effect based on time (1, 3, 7, 14, 28 days), doses (0 and 1.3 g), organs and their interactions was reported. In addition, Al accumulated in the brain, liver, kidney, intestine and spleen of rats administered with Al2O3-NPs were significantly higher than the corresponding controls, during acute and sublethal experiments. The uptake of Al by the spleen of rats injected with acute doses was greater than that accumulated by kidney>brain>intestine>liver, whereas the brain of rats injected with sublethal dose accumulated lesser amount of Al followed by the kidney

  16. Male care and life history traits in mammals.

    PubMed

    West, Hannah E R; Capellini, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Male care has energetic and opportunity costs, and is more likely to evolve when males gain greater certainty of paternity or when future mating opportunities are scarce. However, little is known about the substantial benefits that males may provide to females and offspring. Using phylogenetic comparative methods and a sample of over 500 mammalian species, we show that mammals in which males carry the offspring have shorter lactation periods, which leads to more frequent breeding events. Provisioning the female is associated with larger litters and shorter lactation. Offspring of species with male care have similar weaning mass to those without despite being supported by a shorter lactation period, implying that they grow faster. We propose that males provide an energetic contribution during the most expensive time of female reproduction, lactation, and that different male care behaviours increase female fecundity, which in turn helps males offset the costs of caring. PMID:27299954

  17. Male care and life history traits in mammals

    PubMed Central

    West, Hannah E. R.; Capellini, Isabella

    2016-01-01

    Male care has energetic and opportunity costs, and is more likely to evolve when males gain greater certainty of paternity or when future mating opportunities are scarce. However, little is known about the substantial benefits that males may provide to females and offspring. Using phylogenetic comparative methods and a sample of over 500 mammalian species, we show that mammals in which males carry the offspring have shorter lactation periods, which leads to more frequent breeding events. Provisioning the female is associated with larger litters and shorter lactation. Offspring of species with male care have similar weaning mass to those without despite being supported by a shorter lactation period, implying that they grow faster. We propose that males provide an energetic contribution during the most expensive time of female reproduction, lactation, and that different male care behaviours increase female fecundity, which in turn helps males offset the costs of caring. PMID:27299954

  18. The evolution and significance of male mate choice.

    PubMed

    Edward, Dominic A; Chapman, Tracey

    2011-12-01

    The distinct reproductive roles of males and females, which for many years were characterised in terms of competitive males and choosy females, have remained a central focus of sexual selection since Darwin's time. Increasing evidence now shows that males can be choosy too, even in apparently unexpected situations, such as under polygyny or in the absence of male parental care. Here, we provide a synthesis of the theory on male mate choice and examine the factors that promote or constrain its evolution. We also discuss the evolutionary significance of male mate choice and the contrasts in male versus female mate choice. We conclude that mate choice by males is potentially widespread and has a distinct role in how mating systems evolve. PMID:21890230

  19. Male-Male Competition as a Force in Evolutionary Diversification: Evidence in Haplochromine Cichlid Fish

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested that intrasexual competition can be a source of negative frequency-dependent selection, causing agonistic character displacement and facilitating speciation and coexistence of (sibling) species. In this paper we synthesise the evidence that male-male and female-female competition contributes to cichlid diversification, showing that competition is stronger among same-coloured individuals than those with different colours. We argue that intrasexual selection is more complex because there are several examples where males do not bias aggression towards their own type. In addition, sibling species or colour morphs often show asymmetric dominance relationships. We briefly discuss potential mechanisms that might promote the maintenance of covariance between colour and aggression-related traits even in the face of gene-flow. We close by proposing several avenues for future studies that might shed more light on the role of intrasexual competition in cichlid diversification. PMID:21785710

  20. Male-female relatedness and patterns of male reproductive investment in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Luisa J; Gasparini, Clelia; Fitzpatrick, John L; Evans, Jonathan P

    2014-05-01

    Inbreeding can cause reductions in fitness, driving the evolution of pre- and postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. There is now considerable evidence for such processes in females, but few studies have focused on males, particularly in the context of postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance. Here, we address this topic by exposing male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) to either full-sibling or unrelated females and determining whether they adjust investment in courtship and ejaculates. Our results revealed that males reduce their courtship but concomitantly exhibit short-term increases in ejaculate quality when paired with siblings. In conjunction with prior work reporting cryptic female preferences for unrelated sperm, our present findings reveal possible sexually antagonistic counter-adaptations that may offset postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance by females. PMID:24806425