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Sample records for 95th percentile male

  1. Dosimetric impacts of microgravity: an analysis of 5th, 50th and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Baalen, Mary Van; Shavers, Mark R; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-02-21

    Computational phantoms serve an important role in organ dosimetry and risk assessment performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A previous study investigated the impact on organ dose equivalents and effective doses from the use of the University of Florida hybrid adult male (UFHADM) and adult female (UFHADF) phantoms at differing height and weight percentiles versus those given by the two existing NASA phantoms, the computerized anatomical man (CAM) and female (CAF) (Bahadori et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 1671-94). In the present study, the UFHADM and UFHADF phantoms of different body sizes were further altered to incorporate the effects of microgravity. Body self-shielding distributions are generated using the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT), and the results are combined with depth dose data from the NASA codes BRYNTRN and HZETRN to yield organ dose equivalents and their rates for a variety of space radiation environments. It is found that while organ dose equivalents are indeed altered by the physiological effects ofmicrogravity, the magnitude of the change in overall risk (indicated by the effective dose) is minimal for the spectra and simplified shielding configurations considered. The results also indicate, however, that UFHADMand UFHADF could be useful in designing dose reduction strategies through optimized positioning of an astronaut during encounters with solar particle events.

  2. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  3. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  4. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  5. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  6. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

  7. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  8. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  9. Metabolic syndrome and its components among obese (BMI ≥95th) Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, Maria Lola; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia; Quintana-Vargas, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in obese Mexican adolescents and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between patients with and without MS by sex. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 110 obese adolescents (boys and girls) from 8 to 16 years old (BMI ≥95th percentile), who were recruited in the pediatric obesity clinic of a third-level care hospital. A frequency analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of MS and its components, and the assessments were compared between the sexes and between the groups with and without MS using the Kruskal–Wallis test. The prevalence of MS was 62%. In order of prevalence, the following components of MS were observed in the sample: abdominal obesity (88%), high triglycerides (TG) (85%), low HDL-C (60%), hypertension (35%), and hyperglycemia (5%). In the groups with MS, hypertension (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.003), and TG (P=0.012) were significantly higher, and HDL-C (P<0.001) was significantly lower. In conclusion the prevalence of MS and its components is high among obese Mexican-Hispanic children. These findings show the importance of preventing and treating obesity in the early stages of life in order to decrease the incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24145615

  10. Blast Mitigation Sea Analysis - Evaluation of Lumbar Compression Data Trends in 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device Performance Compared to 50th Percentile Male Anthropomorphic Test Device in Drop Tower Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-21

    energy absorption properties and EA mechanisms to ensure all Soldiers, regardless of size and weight, are provided with equivalent protection...350 g for peak lumbar compression based on occupant size • All tests at 350 g had lumbar compression below the IARV threshold • Lumbar traces show...similar between the 5th female and 50th male ATD across almost all seat models • Seat C features initial loading rates for both occupant sizes that are

  11. ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE, WITH LAKE SHORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE, WITH LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES IN RAISED POSITION. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. Head impact exposure in male and female collegiate ice hockey players.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Bethany J; Beckwith, Jonathan G; Greenwald, Richard M; Chu, Jeffrey J; McAllister, Thomas W; Flashman, Laura A; Maerlender, Arthur C; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Crisco, Joseph J

    2014-01-03

    The purpose of this study was to quantify head impact exposure (frequency, location and magnitude of head impacts) for individual male and female collegiate ice hockey players and to investigate differences in exposure by sex, player position, session type, and team. Ninety-nine (41 male, 58 female) players were enrolled and 37,411 impacts were recorded over three seasons. Frequency of impacts varied significantly by sex (males: 287 per season, females: 170, p<0.001) and helmet impact location (p<0.001), but not by player position (p=0.088). Head impact frequency also varied by session type; both male and female players sustained more impacts in games than in practices (p<0.001), however the magnitude of impacts did not differ between session types. There was no difference in 95th percentile peak linear acceleration between sexes (males: 41.6 g, females: 40.8 g), but 95th percentile peak rotational acceleration and HITsp (a composite severity measure) were greater for males than females (4424, 3409 rad/s(2), and 25.6, 22.3, respectively). Impacts to the back of the helmet resulted in the greatest 95th percentile peak linear accelerations for males (45.2 g) and females (50.4 g), while impacts to the side and back of the head were associated with the greatest 95th percentile peak rotational accelerations (males: 4719, 4256 rad/sec(2), females: 3567, 3784 rad/sec(2) respectively). It has been proposed that reducing an individual's head impact exposure is a practical approach for reducing the risk of brain injuries. Strategies to decrease an individual athlete's exposure need to be sport and gender specific, with considerations for team and session type.

  13. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  14. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  15. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  16. 60th anniversary of state sanitary inspection and 95th anniversary of sanitary services in Poland.

    PubMed

    Posobkiewicz, Marek; Kalinowska-Morka, Joanna; Świekatowski, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    2014 was a year of two jubilees in the remit of public health in Poland: 95th anniversary of sanitary services and 60th anniversary of State Sanitary Inspection. It was an opportunity to organize a conference so as to remind the events concerning a birth of the institution which, after the First World War, had originated structures of epidemiological and sanitary supervision in Poland, the one we have nowadays. A conference took place on 16th December 2014 in Warsaw, at Palladium Theatre.

  17. The influence of physique on dose conversion coefficients for idealised external photon exposures: a comparison of doses for Chinese male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2017-03-22

    For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations. The organ dose conversion coefficients for each phantom were calculated and compared for four idealized external photon exposures from 15 keV to 10 MeV, using the Monte Carlo method. The dosimetric results for the three deformable Chinese reference male phantom (DCRM) phantoms indicated that variations in physique can cause as much as a 20% difference in the organ dose conversion coefficients. When the photon energy was <50 keV, the discrepancy was greater. The irradiation geometry and organ position can also affect the difference in radiological dosimetry between individuals with different physiques. Hence, it is difficult to predict the conversion coefficients of the phantoms from the anthropometric parameters alone. Nevertheless, the complex organ conversion coefficients presented in this report will be helpful for evaluating the radiation risk for large groups of people with various physiques.

  18. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  19. Federal Student Assistance: Legislative History, 95th Congress 2nd Session. Report No. 79-6 EPW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Jim

    A chronology of the tuition tax credit legislation and a series of amendments to existing federal student aid programs during the second session of the 95th Congress is presented. In each chamber of Congress legislative activity proceded along four routes: (1) authorizing legislation from the education committees (amendments to existing student…

  20. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  1. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.

  2. Evaluation of the growth percentiles of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Martins da Silva, Viviane; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Leite de Araujo, Thelma

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anthropometric measures of children with congenital heart disease with percentiles that represent their growth indicators. Anthropometric evaluations of 135 hospitalized children with congenital heart disease were performed in a hospital specialized in cardiac diseases in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. For the growth evaluation, percentiles of height by age, weight by height and weight by age were calculated. Children's average age was 4.74 months (+ 3.78) and 66.7% of the children were male. The medians of the three percentiles presented values below percentile 10, indicating a high proportion of values considered of risk. The subscapular thickness presented positive correlation with the three percentiles. The values of percentiles studied indicated growth delay.

  3. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  4. [From the Russian Balneological Society to innovative technologies of spa and health resort-based treatment. The 95th anniversary of the Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneology].

    PubMed

    Efimenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the Federal state budgetary institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneology", Russian Federal Medico-Biological Agency. The main stages of the development of the institution are described with special reference to its scientific achievements and the principal lines of current activities.

  5. Evaluation of short neck: new neck length percentiles and linear correlations with height and sitting height.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Bharucha, B A

    1994-10-01

    Qualitative impressions of neck length are often used as aids to dysmorphology in syndromes like Turner, Noonan, Klippel-Feil and in craniovertebral anomalies, some of which have serious neurological implications. There are no national or international standards for neck length. The present study attempted to create standards and percentile charts for Indian children and compute age-independent correlations of neck length with linear measurements such as standing and sitting height. A total of 2724 children of both sexes between 3 and 15 years, whose heights and weights conformed to ICMR standards were inducted. Neck length was measured by a modified two-point discriminator between two fixed bony points-inion and spinous process of C7 with the head held in neutral position. Percentiles (5th-95th) were constructed for both sexes. Growth was rapid from 3 to 6 years. Neck length formed a mean of 12.7 +/- 4.58% of height and 20.1 +/- 6.73% of sitting height. Age independent linear regression equations: Neck length = 10 + (0.035 x height) and Neck length = 9.65 + (0.07 x sitting height) were highly significant (p < 0.001). Neck length relationships of 30 randomly selected normal children clustered around the regression lines and 16 with genetic syndromes fell below the regression lines.

  6. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

  7. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M. Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. Methods: The second study “Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)” was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Results: Smoothed percentile curves including the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. Conclusion: This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri. PMID:27507256

  8. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would…

  9. Contrasting OLS and Quantile Regression Approaches to Student "Growth" Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Katherine Elizabeth; Ho, Andrew Dean

    2013-01-01

    Regression methods can locate student test scores in a conditional distribution, given past scores. This article contrasts and clarifies two approaches to describing these locations in terms of readily interpretable percentile ranks or "conditional status percentile ranks." The first is Betebenner's quantile regression approach that results in…

  10. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004

  11. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  12. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  13. Resulting Shifts in Percentile and Standard Placements after Comparison of the BOD POD and DXA

    PubMed Central

    HEDEN, TIMOTHY; SHEPARD, STEVE; SMITH, JOHN; COVINGTON, KAY; LECHEMINANT, JAMES

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the BOD POD® when compared to the DXA and if placement on a percentile chart and standard table is affected by any differences between the two measures. A total of 244 (27.7 ± 10.8 yrs, 77.3 ± 16.1 kg, 171.4 ± 10.1 cm, 26.31 ± 5.42 BMI) males and females between the ages of 18 and 52 were recruited to participate in this study. The participant’s body fat percentage (%BF) was tested in random order on the BOD POD® and DXA during a 30-minute session following manufacturer’s guidelines and procedures. Dependent t-test indicated the %BF measured by the BOD POD® (23.4% ± 12.8) was significantly lower when compared to the DXA (29.5% ± 12.1), p = .001. The Pearson’s Product moment correlation was 0.95 (p = .001), indicating a very strong relationship between the two instruments. Using estimates of %BF from the BOD POD® also resulted in more favorable shifts on a percentile chart and standard table. Since a high correlation was evident between the two, the BOD POD® can be used as an instrument to track %BF changes over time during a diet and/or exercise intervention. However, caution should be made when classifying %BF with percentile charts or standard tables using the BOD POD® %BF estimates. PMID:27182302

  14. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  15. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  16. Punching Wholes into Parts, or Beating the Percentile Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, Nancy R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a facetious, ingenious resolution to the percentile dilemma concerning above- and below-average test scores. If schools enrolled the same number of pigs as students and tested both groups, the pigs would fill up the bottom half and all children would rank in the top 50 percent. However, some wrinkles need to be ironed out! (MLH)

  17. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…

  18. Should we use customized fetal growth percentiles in urban Canada?

    PubMed

    Melamed, Nir; Ray, Joel G; Shah, Prakesh S; Berger, Howard; Kingdom, John C

    2014-02-01

    An increasingly common challenge in antenatal care of the small for gestational age (SGA) fetus is the distinction between the constitutionally (physiologically) small fetus and the fetus affected by pathological intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We discuss here the rationale and the evidence for the use of customized growth percentiles for the purpose of distinguishing between the fetus with true IUGR and the fetus with constitutional SGA. We also provide estimates of the potential effects of adopting ethnicity-specific birth weight curves on the rates of SGA and large for gestational age status in multi-ethnic metropolitan cities in North America and Europe, such as the City of Toronto. Using customized growth percentiles would result in a considerable decline in the rate of a false-positive diagnosis of SGA among visible minorities, and improve the detection rate of true large for gestational age fetuses among these groups.

  19. Development of THOR-FLx: A Biofidelic Lower Extremity for Use with 5th Percentile Female Crash Test Dummies.

    PubMed

    Shams, Tariq; Beach, David; Huang, Tsai-Jeon; Rangarajan, N; Haffner, Mark

    2002-11-01

    A new lower leg/ankle/foot system has been designed and fabricated to assess the potential for lower limb injuries to small females in the automotive crash environment. The new lower extremity can be retrofitted at present to the distal femur of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy. Future plans are for integration of this design into the 5th percentile female THOR dummy now under development. The anthropometry of the lower leg and foot is based mainly on data developed by Robbins for the 5th percentile female, while the biomechanical response requirements are based upon scaling of 50th percentile male THOR-Lx responses. The design consists of the knee, tibia, ankle joints, foot, a representation of the Achilles tendon, and associated flesh/skins. The new lower extremity, known as THOR-FLx, is designed to be biofidelic under dynamic axial loading of the tibia, static and dynamic dorsiflexion, static plantarflexion and inversion/eversion. Instrumentation includes accelerometers, load cells, and rotary potentiometers to capture relevant kinematic and dynamic information from the foot and tibia. This paper will describe the performance requirements for THOR-FLx, the methodology used in its' development, results of component tests, and the biofidelity tests conducted on the full assembly.

  20. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.

  1. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  2. Parental Activity as Influence on Children`s BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-09-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children's lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children's BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children's MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children's PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children's PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key pointsA higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents.Children's BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one physically

  3. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key points A higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents. Children’s BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one

  4. Development and Implementation of the Aircrew Modified Equipment Leading to Increased Accommodation (AMELIA) Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    equipment (ALSS) was designed to accommodate the 5th through the 95th percentile size of the 1964 U.S. male population. Since a large portion of the...by naval aviation personnel was designed to fit the 5th through the 95th percentile size of the U.S. male population based on a 1964 anthropometric...apparent as equipment designed for the male body was issued to women. Temporary solutions to correct the sizing problems have had minimal effects

  5. Bias and imprecision in posture percentile variables estimated from short exposure samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Upper arm postures are believed to be an important risk determinant for musculoskeletal disorder development in the neck and shoulders. The 10th and 90th percentiles of the angular elevation distribution have been reported in many studies as measures of neutral and extreme postural exposures, and variation has been quantified by the 10th-90th percentile range. Further, the 50th percentile is commonly reported as a measure of "average" exposure. These four variables have been estimated using samples of observed or directly measured postures, typically using sampling durations between 5 and 120 min. Methods The present study examined the statistical properties of estimated full-shift values of the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile and the 10th-90th percentile range of right upper arm elevation obtained from samples of seven different durations, ranging from 5 to 240 min. The sampling strategies were realized by simulation, using a parent data set of 73 full-shift, continuous inclinometer recordings among hairdressers. For each shift, sampling duration and exposure variable, the mean, standard deviation and sample dispersion limits (2.5% and 97.5%) of all possible sample estimates obtained at one minute intervals were calculated and compared to the true full-shift exposure value. Results Estimates of the 10th percentile proved to be upward biased with limited sampling, and those of the 90th percentile and the percentile range, downward biased. The 50th percentile was also slightly upwards biased. For all variables, bias was more severe with shorter sampling durations, and it correlated significantly with the true full-shift value for the 10th and 90th percentiles and the percentile range. As expected, shorter samples led to decreased precision of the estimate; sample standard deviations correlated strongly with true full-shift exposure values. Conclusions The documented risk of pronounced bias and low precision of percentile estimates obtained from short

  6. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  7. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany). Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients. PMID:22958330

  8. Waist circumference percentile thresholds for identifying adolescents with insulin resistance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Woolford, Susan J; Gurney, James G

    2009-08-01

    We formally evaluated waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs for predicting insulin resistance (IR) and whether different cutoffs should be used for adolescents of different race/ethnicities. Analysis was performed for 1575 adolescents aged 12-18 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Adolescents were classified as having IR if they had a homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, a validated measure of IR, of >4.39, and WC percentile was classified according to previously published universal (all races combined) and race/ethnicity-specific WC percentile cutoffs. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting IR were constructed comparing the race/ethnicity-specific vs. universal WC percentile cutoffs, and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Comparing universal with race/ethnicity-specific WC percentiles, there were no significant differences in AUC for Black, Mexican-American, or White adolescents. Because race/ethnicity-specific thresholds did not discriminate better than universal WC thresholds, universal WC thresholds may be used effectively to identify adolescents with IR in primary care practices. A WC > or =75th or > or =90th percentile for all race/ethnicities combined would be appropriate to apply in clinical practice for identification of adolescents with IR, a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes.

  9. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  10. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  11. Use of Pearson's Chi-Square for Testing Equality of Percentile Profiles across Multiple Populations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William D; Beyl, Robbie A; Burton, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Callie M; Romer, Jacob E; Zhang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    In large sample studies where distributions may be skewed and not readily transformed to symmetry, it may be of greater interest to compare different distributions in terms of percentiles rather than means. For example, it may be more informative to compare two or more populations with respect to their within population distributions by testing the hypothesis that their corresponding respective 10(th), 50(th), and 90(th) percentiles are equal. As a generalization of the median test, the proposed test statistic is asymptotically distributed as Chi-square with degrees of freedom dependent upon the number of percentiles tested and constraints of the null hypothesis. Results from simulation studies are used to validate the nominal 0.05 significance level under the null hypothesis, and asymptotic power properties that are suitable for testing equality of percentile profiles against selected profile discrepancies for a variety of underlying distributions. A pragmatic example is provided to illustrate the comparison of the percentile profiles for four body mass index distributions.

  12. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.

  13. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  14. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection. PMID:19721738

  15. Using percentile schedules to increase eye contact in children with Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection.

  16. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  17. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  18. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this…

  19. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15…

  20. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  1. Covariate Measurement Error Correction for Student Growth Percentiles Using the SIMEX Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shang, Yi; VanIwaarden, Adam; Betebenner, Damian W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of covariate measurement error (ME) on the estimation of quantile regression and student growth percentiles (SGPs), and find that SGPs tend to be overestimated among students with higher prior achievement and underestimated among those with lower prior achievement, a problem we describe as ME endogeneity in…

  2. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican

  3. Plotting equation for gaussian percentiles and a spreadsheet program for generating probability plots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balsillie, J.H.; Donoghue, J.F.; Butler, K.M.; Koch, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional plotting tools can be of invaluable assistance in analytical scientific pursuits, and have been widely used in the analysis and interpretation of sedimentologic data. We consider, in this work, the use of arithmetic probability paper (APP). Most statistical computer applications do not allow for the generation of APP plots, because of apparent intractable nonlinearity of the percentile (or probability) axis of the plot. We have solved this problem by identifying an equation(s) for determining plotting positions of Gaussian percentiles (or probabilities), so that APP plots can easily be computer generated. An EXCEL example is presented, and a programmed, simple-to-use EXCEL application template is hereby made publicly available, whereby a complete granulometric analysis including data listing, moment measure calculations, and frequency and cumulative APP plots, is automatically produced.

  4. Statewide analysis of the drainage-area ratio method for 34 streamflow percentile ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  5. Percentile Analysis for Goodness-of-Fit Comparisons of Models to Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Science, 1, 11-38. Roberts, S., & Pashler, H. (2000). How persuasive is a good fit ? A comment on theory testing . Psychological Review, 107, 358-367...Percentile analysis for goodness -of- fit comparisons of models to data Sangeet Khemlani and J. Gregory Trafton skhemlani@gmail.com, trafton...modeling, it is routine to report a goodness -of- fit index (e.g., R2 or RMSE) between a putative model’s predictions and an observed dataset

  6. Adaptive urn designs for estimating several percentiles of a dose--response curve.

    PubMed

    Mugno, Raymond; Zhus, Wei; Rosenberger, William F

    2004-07-15

    Dose--response experiments are crucial in biomedical studies. There are usually multiple objectives in such experiments and among the goals is the estimation of several percentiles on the dose--response curve. Here we present the first non-parametric adaptive design approach to estimate several percentiles simultaneously via generalized Pólya urns. Theoretical properties of these designs are investigated and their performance is gaged by the locally compound optimal designs. As an example, we re-investigated a psychophysical experiment where one of the goals was to estimate the three quartiles. We show that these multiple-objective adaptive designs are more efficient than the original single-objective adaptive design targeting the median only. We also show that urn designs which target the optimal designs are slightly more efficient than those which target the desired percentiles directly. Guidelines are given as to when to use which type of design. Overall we are pleased with the efficiency results and hope compound adaptive designs proposed in this work or their variants may prove to be a viable non-parametric alternative in multiple-objective dose--response studies.

  7. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  8. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sarikhani, Yaser; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:28191019

  9. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sarikhani, Yaser; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6-151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3-105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  10. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  11. Individual variability in preference for energy-dense foods fails to predict child BMI percentile.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christina; Griggs, Rebecca L; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Many studies show that higher dietary energy density is associated with greater body weight. Here we explored two propositions: i) that child BMI percentile is associated with individual differences in children's relative preference for energy-dense foods, ii) that child BMI percentile is associated with the same individual differences between their parents. Child-parent dyads were recruited from a local interactive science center in Bristol (UK). Using computerized tasks, participants ranked their preference and rated their liking for a range of snack foods that varied in energy density. Children (aged 3-14years, N=110) and parents completed the tasks for themselves. Parents also completed two further tasks in which they ranked the foods in the order that they would prioritize for their child, and again, in the order that they thought their child would choose. Children preferred (t(109)=3.91, p<0.001) and better liked the taste of (t(109)=3.28, p=0.001) higher energy-dense foods, and parents correctly estimated this outcome (t(109)=7.18, p<0.001). Conversely, lower energy-dense foods were preferred (t(109)=-4.63, p<0.001), better liked (t(109)=-2.75, p=0.007) and served (t(109)=-15.06, p<0.001) by parents. However, we found no evidence that child BMI percentile was associated with child or parent preference for, or liking of, energy-dense foods. Therefore, we suggest that the observed relationship between dietary energy density and body weight is not explained by individual differences in preference for energy density.

  12. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  13. Low body weight in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder.

    PubMed

    Hebebrand, J; Henninghausen, K; Nau, S; Himmelmann, G W; Schulz, E; Schäfer, H; Remschmidt, H

    1997-07-01

    This study explored the hypothesis that body weight is reduced in male children and adolescents with schizoid personality disorder or Asperger's disorder. The body weights of 33 consecutively admitted male subjects with one of these disorders were retrospectively assessed with percentiles for the body mass index (BMI). The mean percentile (+/- SD) for the BMI was 31.6 +/- 27.6 and differed significantly from the expected value of 50 (P<0.001). Ten subjects had a BMI of < or = 10th age percentile. Post hoc comparisons revealed that BMI percentiles were (a) reduced to a similar extent in patients with schizoid personality disorder and Asperger's disorder and (b) reduced to a greater extent in patients with abnormal eating behaviour. During childhood and adolescence both diagnoses are associated with an increased risk of being underweight. Population-based BMI percentiles are useful for detecting associations between specific psychopathological syndromes and body weight.

  14. The effects of percentile versus fixed criterion schedules on smoking with equal incentive magnitude for initial abstinence.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2014-08-01

    Incentives have been successfully used to reduce smoking in hard-to-treat (HTT) smokers by progressively reinforcing lower levels of breath carbon monoxide (CO). When compared with schedules only providing incentives for smoking abstinence, using a progressive (percentile) criterion facilitates longer periods of smoking abstinence. However, participants receiving incentives for lower breath CO levels on percentile schedules typically earn more for their first abstinent breath CO sample relative to participants receiving incentives only for smoking abstinence. Many studies show that larger incentive magnitude increases abstinence rates. The present study tested the effects of different incentive schedules on rates of abstinence maintenance while holding the initial incentive magnitude constant for 93 HTT smokers to eliminate initial abstinence incentive magnitude as a potential confound. Smokers were randomized to percentile, fixed criterion, or random incentive schedules. The incentive magnitude for the first abstinent breath CO sample (<3 ppm) was $5 for percentile and fixed criterion incentive participants, and then increased by $0.50 for each consecutive abstinent breath CO sample. All groups had similar patterns of meeting the abstinence criterion for at least 1 visit. However, once this abstinence criterion was met, abstinence was more likely to be maintained by fixed criterion incentive participants. Unlike previous studies comparing percentile and fixed criterion schedules, percentile incentive schedules were not associated with longer periods of abstinence relative to fixed criterion incentive schedules. Further studies that manipulate initial incentive magnitude are needed to test whether the difference between the current and previous studies was due to initial incentive magnitude.

  15. Regression Equations for Monthly and Annual Mean and Selected Percentile Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-12-03

    The largest average errors of prediction are associated with regression equations for the lowest streamflows derived for months during which the lowest streamflows of the year occur (such as the 5 and 1 monthly percentiles for August and September). The regression equations have been derived on the basis of streamflow and basin characteristics data for unregulated, rural drainage basins without substantial streamflow or drainage modifications (for example, diversions and (or) regulation by dams or reservoirs, tile drainage, irrigation, channelization, and impervious paved surfaces), therefore using the equations for regulated or urbanized basins with substantial streamflow or drainage modifications will yield results of unknown error. Input basin characteristics derived using techniques or datasets other than those documented in this report or using values outside the ranges used to develop these regression equations also will yield results of unknown error.

  16. Control over response number by a targeted percentile schedule: reinforcement loss and the acute effects of d-amphetamine.

    PubMed Central

    Galbicka, G; Fowler, K P; Ritch, Z J

    1991-01-01

    Two fixed-consecutive-number-like procedures were used to examine effects of acute d-amphetamine administration on control over response number. In both procedures, rats were required to press the left lever at least once and then press the right lever to complete a trial. The consecutive left-lever presses on each trial comprised a "run." Under the targeted percentile schedule, reinforcement was provided if the current run length was closer to the target length (16) than half of the most recent 24 runs. This differentially reinforced run length while holding reinforcement probability constant at .5. A second group acquired the differentiation under the targeted percentile schedule, but were then shifted to a procedure that yoked reinforcement probability by subject and run length to that obtained under the targeted percentile schedule. The two procedures generated practically identical control run lengths, response rates, reinforcement probabilities, and reinforcement rates. Administration of d-amphetamine disrupted percentile responding to a greater degree than yoked control responding. This disruption decreased reinforcement frequency less in the former than the latter procedure. The similar baseline responding under these two procedures suggests that this difference in sensitivity was due to behavioral adjustments to drug prompted by reduction of reinforcement density in the yoked control but not the percentile schedule. These adjustments attenuate the drug's effects under the former, but not the latter, procedure. PMID:1955813

  17. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  18. Pregnancy prognosis in women with anti-Müllerian hormone below the tenth percentile.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Aby Kottal; Gudi, Anil; Shah, Amit; Bhide, Priya; Timms, Peter; Homburg, Roy

    2013-07-01

    Although serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered a good predictor of ovarian response during in vitro fertilisation (IVF), pregnancies have been reported with low values, questioning its usefulness as a predictor of treatment outcome. A retrospective study was therefore carried out to assess the IVF treatment outcomes in women with AMH below the tenth percentile of the study population. In all, 134 women with AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L underwent 180 IVF cycles. The mean age at the time of treatment was 37 ± 5 years. Fifty-three (29.4%) cycles were abandoned because of poor response to gonadotrophins, 12 (6.7%) due to absence of eggs at oocyte retrieval and 18 (10%) due to fertilisation failure. Seven (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 4 (2.2%) had a missed miscarriage and 8 (4.4%) had a live birth. When stratified by age, women older than 42 years had less number of follicles (p < 0.05) and those older than 39 years had less oocytes (p < 0.01) compared to those 35 years and younger. Live births declined with increasing age, when age was assessed as a continuous variable (p = 0.023). Women with low AMH levels have a high probability of treatment cancellation, failure to proceed to embryo transfer and a low chance of achieving a viable pregnancy.

  19. Percentile benchmarks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Health Assessment Questionnaire as a quality indicator (QI)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Eswar; Tugwell, Peter; Fries, James F

    2004-01-01

    Physicians are in need of a simple objective, standardized tool to compare their patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as a group and individually, with national standards. The Disability Index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-DI) is a simple, robust tool that can fulfill these needs. However, use of this tool as a quality indicator (QI) is hampered by the unavailability of national reference values or benchmarks based on large, multicentric, heterogenous longitudinal patient cohorts. We utilized the 20-year longitudinal prospective data from 11 data banks of Arthritis Rheumatism and Aging Medical Information to calculate reference values for HAQ-DI. Overall, 6436 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were longitudinally followed for 32,324 person-years over the 20 years from 1981 to 2000. There were 64,647 HAQ-DI measurements, with an average of 19 measurements per person. Overall, 75% of patients were women and 89% were Caucasian; the median baseline age was 58.4 years and the median baseline HAQ-DI was 1.13. Few patients were treated with biologics. The HAQ-DI values had a Gaussian distribution except for the approximately 10% of observations showing no disability. Percentile benchmarks allow disability outcomes to be compared and contrasted between different patient populations. Reference values for the HAQ-DI, presented here numerically and graphically, can be used in clinical practice as a QI measure to track functional disability outcomes and to measure response to therapy, and by arthritis patients in self-management programs. PMID:15535828

  20. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  1. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations.

  2. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

  3. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  4. Analysis of CREW 3.1 System Center of Mass (COM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    5th percentile male values based on the 1988 U.S. Army Anthropometry Survey ( ANSUR ) (Gordon et al., 1989). Body weights were determined to be 216.21...corresponding figures were set at 95th, 50th and 5th percentile male values according to the 1988 ANSUR database (Gordon et al., 1989), and the...Sons, Inc.: New York, 1990. 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms ANSUR U.S. Army Anthropometry Survey CAD Computer-aided Design COM

  5. Counseling Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scher, Murray, Ed.

    1981-01-01

    Contains 16 articles about counseling males including: (1) gender role conflict; (2) sex-role development; (3) counseling adolescent, adult, and gay males; (4) teenage fathers; (5) female therapists and male clients; (6) career development; (7) hypermasculinity; (8) counseling physically abusive men, uncoupling men; (9) group therapy, men's…

  6. Effect of Strain Rates on the Compressive Response of Neck Rubber From Humanetics HIII 50th Percentile Male Dummy Under Different Loading Sequences

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Sequences by Brett Sanborn, Paul Moy, Randy Mrozek, and Tusit Weerasooriya ARL-TR-6336 February 2013...Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) Paul Moy, Randy Mrozek, and Tusit Weerasooriya Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...Different Loading Sequences 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 1120-1120-99 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Brett Sanborn, * Paul Moy

  7. Condoms - male

    MedlinePlus

    Prophylactics; Rubbers; Male condoms; Contraceptive - condom; Contraception - condom; Barrier method - condom ... rubber Polyurethane Condoms are the only method of birth control for men that are not permanent. They can ...

  8. Male contraception.

    PubMed

    Wang, Christina; Swerdloff, Ronald S

    2002-04-01

    Currently approved male-directed contraceptive methods include condoms and vas occlusion. Vas occlusion is very effective but is intended to be non-reversible. Condoms have a relatively high failure rate, at least partially due to compliance problems and are not accepted by many couples. The only other male-oriented methods in clinical trials utilize the administration of testosterone alone or its combination with another gonadotropin-suppressing agent such as a progestin or a gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist. Studies published in the 1990s demonstrated that a testosterone-containing hormonal contraceptive method suppressed spermatogenesis to azoospermia in most men and severe oligozoospermia in the remaining. The contraceptive efficacy after treatment with testosterone alone was comparable to that of female hormonal methods. Having proven that reversible male contraception is a reality, present trials are attempting to identify the best androgen delivery system and the most effective androgen plus progestin preparation. It is likely that the first marketed male hormonal contraceptive method will be a long-acting (injectable or implant) combination of an androgen plus a progestin. Research is continuing to identify other target areas for male contraceptive development, including agents with post-testicular and epididymal sites of action.

  9. Helicopter-Referenced Single Control, Center-Position Force Exertion Capabilities of Males and Females.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    previously) and more and smaller females (those in the 20-35th percentile and above vs the 50th percentile and above, pre- viously) to enter the program...34’at risk," with females being considerably more at risk than their male counterparts. Among the values considered as limits during the uncompleted...1961 M[i.-1-8501A limits (set A) would result ia an overall female failure rate of slightly more than 25 percent. The constderation of other U. a

  10. Male circumcision.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    Male circumcision consists of the surgical removal of some, or all, of the foreskin (or prepuce) from the penis. It is one of the most common procedures in the world. In the United States, the procedure is commonly performed during the newborn period. In 2007, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup of AAP members and other stakeholders to evaluate the evidence regarding male circumcision and update the AAP's 1999 recommendations in this area. The Task Force included AAP representatives from specialty areas as well as members of the AAP Board of Directors and liaisons representing the American Academy of Family Physicians, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Task Force members identified selected topics relevant to male circumcision and conducted a critical review of peer-reviewed literature by using the American Heart Association's template for evidence evaluation. Evaluation of current evidence indicates that the health benefits of newborn male circumcision outweigh the risks; furthermore, the benefits of newborn male circumcision justify access to this procedure for families who choose it. Specific benefits from male circumcision were identified for the prevention of urinary tract infections, acquisition of HIV, transmission of some sexually transmitted infections, and penile cancer. Male circumcision does not appear to adversely affect penile sexual function/sensitivity or sexual satisfaction. It is imperative that those providing circumcision are adequately trained and that both sterile techniques and effective pain management are used. Significant acute complications are rare. In general, untrained providers who perform circumcisions have more complications than well-trained providers who perform the procedure, regardless of whether the former are physicians, nurses, or traditional religious providers. Parents are entitled to factually correct

  11. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional <22 y >42 semanas y PP<100g y >2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  12. Comparison of changes in growth percentiles of US children on CDC 2000 growth charts with corresponding changes on WHO 2006 growth charts.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zuguo; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal data with 37 964 length and weight measurements from 10 844 children who participated in the California Child Health and Development Study was used to compare the proportion of children aged ≤24 months who crossed major percentile lines on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 growth charts with the percentage who crossed corresponding lines on the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth charts. Percentage of children aged ≤24 months who crossed at least 2 major percentile lines for length-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length according to CDC 2000 charts were compared with the percentage who did so according to WHO 2006 charts. The results from this analysis suggest that pediatricians who monitor children's growth on the basis of WHO 2006 growth charts may be more likely to refer children aged <6 months and less likely to refer those aged 6 to 12 months for further evaluation for failure to thrive.

  13. The Nature of Field Independence: Percentiles and Factor Structure of the Finding Embedded Figures Test--Research Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melancon, Janet G.; Thompson, Bruce

    This study investigated the nature of field independence by exploring the structure underlying responses to Forms A and B of a multiple-choice measure of field-independence, the Finding Embedded Figures Test (FEFT). Subjects included 302 students (52.7% male) enrolled in mathematics courses at a university in the southern United States. Students…

  14. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demery, A

    1987-05-01

    Except for condoms, male contraception is very slightly utilized in France. Several male experimental methods are under study. A synthetic luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) analog has been used successfully in women and offers promise in men of blocking LHRH and thus blocking spermatogenesis. Several nonsteroid substances such an hypertensives and adrenaline would suppress follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone release, but are too toxic for use. The combination of 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol and 20 mg of methyltestosterone inhibits gonadotropin release and produces azoospermia in men, but at the risk of loss of libido, constant gynecomastia, and testicular atrophy. Several combinations of androgens and progestins have been evaluated. Percutaneous testosterone and medroxyprogesterone acetate appears to be the most effective, with good metabolic tolerance and maintenance of libido and sexual performance. Injections of inhibine, a testicular factor that controls secretion of follicle stimulating hormone by feedback, offer promise of suppressing spermatogenesis without affecting other systems. Numerous substances are known to inhibit spermatogenesis but are to toxic for use or entail an unacceptable loss of libido. Gossypol has been employed as a contraceptive by the Chinese for its action in inhibiting protein synthesis, but it is known to have serious secondary effects. Among male methods currently in use, the condom had a Pearl index of .4-1.6 in the most recent British studies. Coitus interruptus can seriously interfere with sexual pleasure and has a failure rate of 25-30%. Vasectomy is safe, effective, and easy to perform, but is not a reversible method. The combination of 20 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate in 2 daily doses and 100 mg of testosterone applied in an abdominal spray has given very promising results in 2 small studies in France and merits further development and diffusion.

  15. Male catheterization.

    PubMed

    Hadfield-Law, L

    2001-10-01

    The insertion of catheters into male emergency patients is fairly common practice and is associated with a worryingly high rate of infection. Everyday pressures within the department, along with the added stress of resuscitation can result in inappropriately trained or skilled staff undertaking this procedure. The issue of gender and whether female nurses should catheterize male patients may also affect this vulnerable group of patients. Acquiring the psychomotor skills of inserting a urethral catheter is only one part of preparation for practice. Emergency nurses must know when and when not to resort to catheterization. Choosing the type and size of catheter requires careful judgment. What will you do if insertion proves difficult? Prevention of infection is of paramount importance and there are an increasing number of evidence-based sources of information, which are crucial to formulating procedures and informing every day practice. In the pressured surroundings of A&E departments, it is easy to ignore the vulnerability of men requiring catheterization, both from a physical and psychological point of view. Making the effort to explain the procedure, listen to questions and concerns and record relevant details in the notes, will take only a few extra moments. There is no doubt that urinary catheterization is not without complications. It is associated with significant morbidity and occasionally, mortality.

  16. Mining in low coal. Volume 2. anthropometry. Open file report 15 Jun 78-15 Sep 81

    SciTech Connect

    Ayoub, M.M.; Bethea, N.J.; Bobo, M.; Burford, C.L.

    1982-01-15

    This report covers the anthropometric study of low coal miners. The male and female anthropometry, except for weight and circumferential dimensions, was quite similar to the comparison populations. The miners tended to be heavier and have greater circumferences. The measurements made in this study were used to develop 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile, quarter- and half-scale, male and female mannequins. The mannequins can be used in work place and equipment design and redesign.

  17. Detecting Key Inter-Joint Distances and Anthropometry Effects for Static Gesture Development using Microsoft Kinect

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-01

    length; and chest, waist , and bicep circumference with respect to inter-joint differences while performing 15 postures. The postures were acquired...and elbow-to- shoulder length; chest, waist , and bicep circumference . Naturally, there are two genders: male and female. Traditionally, body mass...5th, 50th, and 95th percentiles of the average U.S. population for 40-year old males and females [13] [14]. The waist circumference data was gathered

  18. Fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy for energy intake at school meals differs by social desirability and body mass index percentile in a study concerning retention interval.

    PubMed

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mackelprang, Alyssa J; Smith, Albert F

    2010-05-01

    Data from a study concerning retention interval and school-meal observation on children's dietary recalls were used to investigate relationships of social desirability score (SDS) and body mass index percentile (BMI%) to recall accuracy for energy for observed (n = 327) children, and to reported energy for observed and unobserved (n = 152) children. Report rates (reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS and BMI%. Correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS. Inflation ratios (overreported/observed) correlated negatively with BMI%. The relationship between reported energy and each of SDS and BMI% did not depend on observation status. Studies utilizing children's dietary recalls should assess SDS and BMI%.

  19. [Male contraception].

    PubMed

    Demoulin, A

    1984-04-01

    Among the reasons why male hormonal contraception has lagged behind female methods are the necessity of preserving virility, the fact that spermatogenesis is a continuous process, the need to control secondary effects and toxicity, and the requirement that modes of administration be acceptable to both partners. Among currently available reversible mehtods, withdrawal is undoubtedly the most ancient. It is still widespread but cannot be recommended because of its limited effectiveness. The condom is used by about 10% of couples worldwide as a principal or temporary method, but its inter-ference with sensation has limited its acceptance. Condoms are nevertheless highly effective when used with a spermicide. Various androgens are currently under investigation. High doses of testosterone can induce azoospermia without affecting libido but their side effects may be serious. The use of combinations of steroids permits doses to be reduced and offers promise for the future. The combination of oral medroxyprogesterone acetate and percutaneous testosterone is one of the better approaches; the combination is effective and nontoxic but has the disadvantage of percutaneous administration. Gossypol, a pigment extracted from the cotton plant, has been used as a contraceptive in China with a reported efficacy of 99.89%, recovery of fertility within 3 months, and no effect on future fertility. However, its toxicity appears to be significant in the animal and its reversibility is uncertain. A search is on for analogs which would preserve the contraceptive effects while eliminating toxic effects. Several gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs under investigation for their interference with spermatogenesis have given promising results. Several chemicals tested for contraceptive effects have had unacceptably high toxicity. Chinese investigators have reported good results with various physical methods of interfering with sperm production, but their reversibility and innocuity

  20. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  1. Body fat percentile curves for Korean children and adolescents: a data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-03-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys and 745 for girls aged between 10 and 18 yr. Fat mass and fat free mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of development in body fat percentage, fat mass and fat free mass differed for boys and girls, showing a decreased fat mass with an increased fat free mass in boys but gradual increases with age in girls. The considerable proportion of boys and girls with relatively normal fat mass appeared to be misclassified to be at risk of overweight based on the BMI criteria. Therefore, the information on the percentiles of body fat and fat free mass with their patterns would be helpful to complement assessment of overweight and obesity based on BMI for Korean children and adolescents.

  2. Male to male transmission of supernumerary nipples.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, M; Uchida, M; Uchino, S; Fujisawa, R; Kamei, T; Itoh, T

    1997-03-17

    We report on a father and his son with supernumerary nipples. No male-to-male transmission has previously been described with this trait. This observation confirms that this trait is inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion.

  3. 75 FR 30780 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 95th Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    .... ] Commercial Hydrogen Gas Measuring Devices Item 360-1. Tentative Code for Hydrogen Gas-Measuring Devices--The... commercial measuring equipment used to deliver hydrogen fuel to highway vehicles, which are currently... Development of Commercial Hydrogen Measurement Standards that included key stakeholders and experts...

  4. Proceedings, 95th regular meeting: The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Finnie, D.G.

    1999-07-01

    In addition to the nine convention papers published in these proceedings, information is given on the membership and organization of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. The papers are concerned with the economics and management of coal companies, occupational safety of their employees, public anxiety of the environmental impacts of surface mining, and contracting for mining equipment maintenance. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  5. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  6. Blast Mitigation Seat Analysis - Drop Tower Data Review

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    accelerometers in the head, thorax, and pelvis as listed in Table 1. Load cells to measure forces and moments were located in the upper neck , lumbar spine...and 95th percentile male from existing biomedical literature. Proceedings of WSU 75th Anniversary Symposium Injury Biomechanics ...Head Ax, Ay, Az Upper Neck Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz Thorax Ax, Ay, Az, Dx (displacement) Lumbar Spine Fx, Fy, Fz, Mx, My, Mz Pelvis Ax, Ay, Az

  7. [WHO child growth standards for children 0-5 years. Percentile charts of length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference].

    PubMed

    Woynarowska, Barbara; Palczewska, Iwona; Oblacińska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the growth standards for children aged 0-5 years - which is a new tool for the assessment of health, growth and nutritional status recommended by WHO for use all over the world. These standards were elaborated in 2006 on the basis of the results of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (a longitudinal and cross-sectional survey) carried out between 1997-2003 in Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. An innovative approach to developing growth reference was applied. Healthy children living under conditions allowing them to achieve their full genetic potential were the sample of children under study. The results showed that the growth pattern of children in their early childhood in different countries, ethnic groups and of different socioeconomic status was the same when their health and care needs were met. The new standards indicate how children should grow in all countries, rather than merely describing how they grew at a particular place and time. The WHO Child Growth Standards for Children 0-5 years were adapted and used in over 100 countries. Activities designed to adapt WHO standards in Poland were undertaken in 2009. The comparison between the growth reference for Warsaw children and WHO standards showed no differences, or very small ones. Following discussion with the participation of many experts, in 2011 recommendations concerning the implementation of these standards were signed by the Committee of Human Development and the Committee of Anthropology of the Polish Academy of Science, the Main Board of the Polish Anthropological Society, the Institute of Mother and Child, and the Institute of Food and Nutrition. The percentile charts were adapted to the set of percentiles hitherto used in Poland.

  8. Reference data and percentile curves of body composition measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Yi; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Xu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have evident value in evaluating skeletal and muscular status in growing children and adolescents. This study aimed to generate age-related trends for body composition in Chinese children and adolescents, and to establish gender-specific reference percentile curves for the assessment of muscle-bone status. A total of 1541 Chinese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured for total body and total body less head (TBLH). After 14 years, total body LM was significantly higher in boys than girls (p < 0.001). However, total body FM was significantly higher in girls than boys in age groups 13-19 years (p < 0.01). Both LM and FM were consistent independent predictors of total body and subcranial bone mass in both sexes, even after adjustment for the well-known predictors of BMC. The results of multiple linear regression identified LM as the stronger predictor of total body and subcranial skeleton BMC while the fat mass contributed less. For all the subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between total body LM, height, total body BMC and subcranial BMC (p < 0.01). Subcranial BMC had a better correlation with LM than total body BMC. We have also presented gender-specific percentile curves for LM-for-height and BMC-for-LM which could be used to evaluate and follow various pediatric disorders with skeletal manifestations in this population.

  9. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Male Reproductive System KidsHealth > For Parents > Male Reproductive System Print A ... understand your son's reproductive health. continue About the Male Reproductive System Most species have two sexes: male and female. ...

  10. Teaching accreditation exams reveal grading biases favor women in male-dominated disciplines in France.

    PubMed

    Breda, Thomas; Hillion, Mélina

    2016-07-29

    Discrimination against women is seen as one of the possible causes behind their underrepresentation in certain STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) subjects. We show that this is not the case for the competitive exams used to recruit almost all French secondary and postsecondary teachers and professors. Comparisons of oral non-gender-blind tests with written gender-blind tests for about 100,000 individuals observed in 11 different fields over the period 2006-2013 reveal a bias in favor of women that is strongly increasing with the extent of a field's male-domination. This bias turns from 3 to 5 percentile ranks for men in literature and foreign languages to about 10 percentile ranks for women in math, physics, or philosophy. These findings have implications for the debate over what interventions are appropriate to increase the representation of women in fields in which they are currently underrepresented.

  11. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  12. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  13. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-09-24

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  14. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants.

  15. Male pattern baldness (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Male pattern baldness is a sex-linked characteristic that is passed from mother to child. A man can more accurately predict his chances of developing male pattern baldness by observing his mother's father than by looking ...

  16. Anthropometric data from launch and entry suited test subjects for the design of a recumbent seating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoycos, Lara E.; Klute, Glen K.

    1993-01-01

    Returning space crews to Earth in a recumbent position requires the design of a new seating system. Current anthropometric data are based on measurements taken while the subjects were unsuited and sitting. To be most accurate, it is necessary to design by measurements of subjects in the launch and entry suit in a recumbent position. Since the design of the recumbent seating system must meet the requirements of both 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members, a delta is reported rather than absolute measurements of the test subjects. This delta is the difference in the measurements taken with the subjects unsuited and sitting and those taken with the subjects suited and recumbent. This delta, representative of the change due to the suit, can be added to the existing Man-Systems Integration Standards (NASA-STD-3000) anthropometric data to project the measurements for 5th percentile Japanese female and 95th percentile American male crew members. A delta accounting for the spinal elongation caused by prolonged exposures to microgravity is added as well. Both unpressurized and pressurized suit conditions are considered. Background information, the test protocol and procedure, analysis of the data, and recommendations are reported.

  17. Associations of Body Mass Index with Sexual Risk-Taking and Injection Drug Use among US High School Students

    PubMed Central

    Lowry, Richard; Robin, Leah; Kann, Laura; Galuska, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body mass index (BMI) is associated with behaviors that may increase risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) among US high school students. We analyzed nationally representative data from the 2005–2011 national Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS) to examine associations of BMI categories with sexual risk behaviors and injection drug use among sexually active high school students, using sex-stratified logistic regression models. Controlling for race/ethnicity and grade, among female and male students, both underweight (BMI < 5th percentile) and obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) were associated with decreased odds of being currently sexually active (i.e., having had sexual intercourse during the past 3 months). However, among sexually active female students, obese females were more likely than normal weight females to have had 4 or more sex partners (odds ratio, OR = 1.59), not used a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.30), and injected illegal drugs (OR = 1.98). Among sexually active male students, overweight (85th percentile ≤ BMI < 95th percentile) was associated with not using a condom at last sexual intercourse (OR = 1.19) and obesity was associated with injection drug use (OR = 1.42). Among sexually active students, overweight and obesity may be indicators of increased risk for HIV and other STDs. PMID:25105024

  18. Semen quality in adult male survivors 5 years after the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake.

    PubMed

    Chen, X M; Chen, S M; Yue, H X; Lin, L; Wu, Y B; Liu, B; Jiang, M; Ma, Y X

    2016-12-01

    The influence of the Wenchuan earthquake on semen quality of adult male survivors is unclear. We investigated the semen quality included 673 male survivors from the worse-affected counties in the earthquake between Aug 2008 and July 2013. Semen parameters including pH, volume, concentration, motility and morphology were measured according to the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to examine the statistical differences between years, and a logistic regression was used to analyse the impacts caused by earthquake on the changes of semen quality. We found the medians (5th and 95th) were 2.5 ml (0.6-5.5) for semen volume, 59.0 × 10(6)  ml(-1) [(13.0-133.0)] × 10(6)  ml(-1) for semen concentration, 46% (13-64%) for sperm progressive motility and 3.0% (0-17.5%) for normal morphology for adult male survivors. Semen concentration, the percentage of sperm progressive motility, total motility and sperm normal morphology were all decreased in the first 3 years, and the differences among years 1, 2 and 3 were significant except the percentage of sperm progressive motility (P < 0.05). The casualties and heavy housing damage caused by earthquake had a negative effect on semen quality. The main findings will provide further diagnosis and therapy basis of male fertility by data, for affected populations in the earthquake.

  19. Consistent male-male paternity differences across female genotypes.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Craig D H; Wapstra, Erik; Olsson, Mats

    2009-04-23

    In a recent paper, we demonstrated that male-female genetic relatedness determines male probability of paternity in experimental sperm competition in the Peron's tree frog (Litoria peronii), with a more closely related male outcompeting his rival. Here, we test the hypothesis that a male-male difference in siring success with one female significantly predicts the corresponding difference in siring success with another female. With male sperm concentration held constant, and the proportion of viable sperm controlled statistically, the male-male difference in siring success with one female strongly predicted the corresponding difference in siring success with another female, and alone explained more than 62 per cent of the variance in male-male siring differences. This study demonstrates that male siring success is primarily dictated by among-male differences in innate siring success with less influence of male-female relatedness.

  20. Bladder catheterization, male (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kept empty (decompressed) and urinary flow assured. The balloon holds the catheter in place for a duration of time. Catheterization in males is slightly more difficult and uncomfortable than in females because of the longer urethra.

  1. Chlamydial infections - male

    MedlinePlus

    ... Have sex without wearing a male or female condom Have more than one sexual partner Use drugs ... to have sexual contact, use latex or polyurethane condoms. Remember to: Use condoms for all vaginal, anal, ...

  2. Male Reproductive System

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum, meet in the female's reproductive system to create a baby. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans pass certain characteristics ...

  3. Oxidative stress & male infertility.

    PubMed

    Makker, Kartikeya; Agarwal, Ashok; Sharma, Rakesh

    2009-04-01

    The male factor is considered a major contributory factor to infertility. Apart from the conventional causes for male infertility such as varicocoele, cryptorchidism, infections, obstructive lesions, cystic fibrosis, trauma, and tumours, a new and important cause has been identified: oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a result of the imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants in the body. It is a powerful mechanism that can lead to sperm damage, deformity and eventually, male infertility. This review discusses the physiological need for ROS and their role in normal sperm function. It also highlights the mechanism of production and the pathophysiology of ROS in relation to the male reproductive system and enumerate the benefits of incorporating antioxidants in clinical and experimental settings.

  4. Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... hasn't spread beyond your breast tissue. Radiation therapy Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams to kill ... option for men with advanced breast cancer. Hormone therapy Most men with male breast cancer have tumors ...

  5. Techniques of male circumcision.

    PubMed

    Abdulwahab-Ahmed, Abdullahi; Mungadi, Ismaila A

    2013-01-01

    Male circumcision is a controversial subject in surgical practice. There are, however, clear surgical indications of this procedure. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends newborn male circumcision for its preventive and public health benefits that has been shown to outweigh the risks of newborn male circumcision. Many surgical techniques have been reported. The present review discusses some of these techniques with their merits and drawbacks. This is an attempt to inform the reader on surgical aspects of male circumcision aiding in making appropriate choice of a technique to offer patients. Pubmed search was done with the keywords: Circumcision, technique, complications, and history. Relevant articles on techniques of circumcision were selected for the review. Various methods of circumcision including several devices are in use for male circumcision. These methods can be grouped into three: Shield and clamp, dorsal slit, and excision. The device methods appear favored in the pediatric circumcision while the risk of complications increases with increasing age of the patient at surgery.

  6. Hyperprolactinaemia in male diabetics.

    PubMed Central

    Mooradian, A. D.; Morley, J. E.; Billington, C. J.; Slag, M. F.; Elson, M. K.; Shafer, R. B.

    1985-01-01

    We recently investigated two patients with diabetes and elevated serum prolactin levels in whom no cause of hyperprolactinaemia could be found. For this reason we measured fasting serum prolactin levels in 72 diabetic males and compared the results with those of 63 healthy males and 90 nondiabetic males attending an Impotence Clinic. The diabetic group had significantly higher serum prolactin levels (13.1 +/- 0.9 ng/ml) than the two control groups (9.9 +/- 0.6 ng/ml for normal males and 7.7 +/- 0.3 ng/ml for the non-diabetic impotent group). Eighteen percent of the diabetics studied had serum prolactin levels above the normal range for males (greater than 20 ng/ml). There was no correlation between serum prolactin levels and duration of diabetes, glycosylated haemoglobin level or presence of clinically apparent retinopathy. The correlation between serum prolactin level and fasting plasma glucose was weak though statistically significant (r = 0.26, P less than 0.05). PMID:3991396

  7. Assessment of Male Reproductive Toxicity##

    EPA Science Inventory

    This review covers all aspects of male reproductive toxicology. It begins with an overview of male reproductive biology and then transitions to the considerations of conducting male reproductive toxicology studies. We discuss multigenerational study as proposed in EPAs harmoniz...

  8. Stages of Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  9. Male Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yalaza, Metin; İnan, Aydın; Bozer, Mikdat

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer diagnoses worldwide. Although breast carcinomas share certain characteristics in both genders, there are notable differences. Most studies on men with breast cancer are very small. Thus, most data on male breast cancer are derived from studies on females. However, when a number of these small studies are grouped together, we can learn more from them. This review emphasizes the incidence, etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, pathology, survival, and prognostic factors related to MBC.

  10. Quantifying male attractiveness.

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, John M; Houston, Alasdair I; Marques Dos Santos, Miguel; Kokko, Hanna; Brooks, Rob

    2003-01-01

    Genetic models of sexual selection are concerned with a dynamic process in which female preference and male trait values coevolve. We present a rigorous method for characterizing evolutionary endpoints of this process in phenotypic terms. In our phenotypic characterization the mate-choice strategy of female population members determines how attractive females should find each male, and a population is evolutionarily stable if population members are actually behaving in this way. This provides a justification of phenotypic explanations of sexual selection and the insights into sexual selection that they provide. Furthermore, the phenotypic approach also has enormous advantages over a genetic approach when computing evolutionarily stable mate-choice strategies, especially when strategies are allowed to be complex time-dependent preference rules. For simplicity and clarity our analysis deals with haploid mate-choice genetics and a male trait that is inherited phenotypically, for example by vertical cultural transmission. The method is, however, easily extendible to other cases. An example illustrates that the sexy son phenomenon can occur when there is phenotypic inheritance of the male trait. PMID:14561306

  11. Eating Disordered Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Alexandra O.; Baker, Christina Wood

    2001-01-01

    Described a sample of eating disordered adolescent males who were seen for treatment at Boston Children's Hospital Outpatient Eating Disorders Clinic. Findings suggest the idea that clinicians, coaches, peers, and family should encourage young men to share concerns about body image and weight at an earlier, less severe juncture, with the assurance…

  12. Lycopene and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi; Agarwal, Ashok; Ong, Chloe; Prashast, Pallavi

    2014-01-01

    Excessive amounts of reactive oxygen species (ROS) cause a state of oxidative stress, which result in sperm membrane lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and apoptosis, leading to decreased sperm viability and motility. Elevated levels of ROS are a major cause of idiopathic male factor infertility, which is an increasingly common problem today. Lycopene, the most potent singlet oxygen quencher of all carotenoids, is a possible treatment option for male infertility because of its antioxidant properties. By reacting with and neutralizing free radicals, lycopene could reduce the incidence of oxidative stress and thus, lessen the damage that would otherwise be inflicted on spermatozoa. It is postulated that lycopene may have other beneficial effects via nonoxidative mechanisms in the testis, such as gap junction communication, modulation of gene expression, regulation of the cell cycle and immunoenhancement. Various lycopene supplementation studies conducted on both humans and animals have shown promising results in alleviating male infertility—lipid peroxidation and DNA damage were decreased, while sperm count and viability, and general immunity were increased. Improvement of these parameters indicates a reduction in oxidative stress, and thus the spermatozoa is less vulnerable to oxidative damage, which increases the chances of a normal sperm fertilizing the egg. Human trials have reported improvement in sperm parameters and pregnancy rates with supplementation of 4–8 mg of lycopene daily for 3–12 months. However, further detailed and extensive research is still required to determine the dosage and the usefulness of lycopene as a treatment for male infertility. PMID:24675655

  13. Minority Male Afterschool Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Herbert F., Jr.

    Through a program called the Minority Male Afterschool Program (MMAP), college students at Mississippi Valley State University in Itta Bena (Mississippi) are working one-on-one with high school students. The MMAP is an enrichment program that encourages at-risk African American students aged 12 to 19 to complete high school and pursue…

  14. Male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Reis, Leonardo Oliveira; Dias, Fernando Gf; Castro, Marcos As; Ferreira, Ubirajara

    2011-06-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. However, as global populace ages, there is a trend to MBC increasing. Although aetiology is still unclear, constitutional, environmental, hormonal (abnormalities in estrogen/androgen balance) and genetic (positive family history, Klinefelter syndrome, mutations in BRCA1 and specially BRCA2) risk factors are already known. Clinic manifestation is painless hard and fixed nodule in the subareolar region in 75% of cases, with nipple commitment earlier than in women. Breast cancer has similar prognostic factors in males and females, among which axillary adenopathy (present in 40-55% cases) is the most important one. Although mammography, ultrasonography and scintigraphy can be useful tools in diagnosis; clinical assessment, along with a confirmatory biopsy, remains the main step in the evaluation of men with breast lesions. Infiltrating ductal carcinoma is the most frequent histological type. The established standard of care is modified radical mastectomy followed by tamoxifen for endocrine-responsive positive disease, although other options are being explored. While similarities between breast cancer in males and females exist, it is not appropriate to extrapolate data from female disease to the treatment of male. There is a need for specific multi-institutional trials to better understanding of clinicopathologic features and establishment of optimal therapy for this disease.

  15. Understanding African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward Earl

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the socialization skills, self-esteem, and academic readiness of African American males in a school environment. Discussions with students and the School Perceptions Questionnaire provided data for this investigation. The intended targets for this investigation were African American students; however, there…

  16. Educating African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Edward E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Schools across America spend money, invest in programs, and sponsor workshops, offer teacher incentives, raise accountability standards, and even evoke the name of Obama in efforts to raise the academic achievement of African American males. Incarceration and college retention rates point to a dismal plight for many African American…

  17. Male rat sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Agmo, A

    1997-05-01

    The male rat's sexual behavior constitutes a highly ordered sequence of motor acts involving both striate and smooth muscles. It is spontaneously displayed by most adult made rats in the presence of a sexually receptive female. Although the behavior is important for the survival of the species it is not necessary for survival of the individual. In that way it is different from other spontaneous behaviors such as eating, drinking, avoidance of pain, respiration or thermoregulation. Among other things, this means that it is difficult to talk about sexual deprivation or need. Nevertheless, studies of male sex behavior distinguish sexual motivation (the ease by which behavior is activated, "libido") from the execution of copulatory acts (performance, "potency") (Meisel, R.L. and Sachs, B.D., The physiology of male sexual behavior. In: E. Knobil and J.D. Neill (Eds.), The Physiology of Reproduction, 2nd Edn., Vol. 2, Raven Press, New York, 1994, pp. 3-105 [13]). The hormonal control of male sexual behavior has been extensively studied. It is clear that steroid hormones, androgens and estrogens, act within the central nervous system, modifying neuronal excitability. The exact mechanism by which these hormones activate sex behavior remains largely unknown. However, there exists a considerable amount of knowledge concerning the brain structures important for sexual motivation and for the execution of sex behavior. The modulatory role of some non-steroid hormones is partly known, as well as the consequences of manipulations of several neurotransmitter systems.

  18. Empowering Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafele, Baruti K.

    2012-01-01

    Of all the challenges we face in education today, the author can think of none greater than the challenge of motivating, educating, and empowering black male learners. The fact that this group of students is in crisis is evident on multiple levels, starting with graduation rates. According to the Schott Foundation (2008), the U.S. high school…

  19. Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978. Public Law 95-523--Oct. 27, 1978. 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978 is reproduced in its entirety. The act, public law 95-523, is designed to translate into practical reality the right of all Americans to full opportunity for useful paid employment at fair compensation rates; to assert the federal government's responsibility to use all programs and policies…

  20. Male Zuska's disease.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Shepard P; Kaoutzanis, Christodoulos; Schaub, George A

    2014-04-04

    Subareolar abscess of the male breast is a rare condition, which can be complicated by a fistula from the areolar skin into a lactiferous duct. In 1951, Zuska et al first characterised this entity in women. Literature on mammillary fistulas in men is scarce and therefore standardisation of treatment does not exist. We present two cases of recurrent subareolar abscesses with draining fistulas. Both patients were successfully treated by complete excision of the lactiferous duct fistula, and continue to do well with no evidence of disease recurrence. When male patients present with a draining subareolar abscess, one should have a high index of suspicion for a mammillary fistula. Failure to identify and surgically excise the fistula may lead to recurrence of the abscess and prolonged morbidity. The most effective management of this uncommon entity includes complete excision of the lactiferous duct fistula.

  1. Newborn male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Sorokan, S Todd; Finlay, Jane C; Jefferies, Ann L

    2015-01-01

    The circumcision of newborn males in Canada has become a less frequent practice over the past few decades. This change has been significantly influenced by past recommendations from the Canadian Paediatric Society and the American Academy of Pediatrics, who both affirmed that the procedure was not medically indicated. Recent evidence suggesting the potential benefit of circumcision in preventing urinary tract infection and some sexually transmitted infections, including HIV, has prompted the Canadian Paediatric Society to review the current medical literature in this regard. While there may be a benefit for some boys in high-risk populations and circumstances where the procedure could be considered for disease reduction or treatment, the Canadian Paediatric Society does not recommend the routine circumcision of every newborn male. PMID:26435672

  2. Male Genital Lichen Sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Bunker, Christopher Barry; Shim, Tang Ngee

    2015-01-01

    Male genital lichen sclerosus (MGLSc) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease responsible for male sexual dyspareunia and urological morbidity. An afeared complication is squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the penis. The precise etiopathogenesis of MGLSc remains controversial although genetic, autoimmune and infective (such as human papillomavirus (HPV) hepatitis C (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Borrelia) factors have been implicated: Consideration of all the evidence suggests that chronic exposure of susceptible epithelium to urinary occlusion by the foreskin seems the most likely pathomechanism. The mainstay of treatment is topical ultrapotent corticosteroid therapy. Surgery is indicated for cases unresponsive to topical corticosteroid therapy, phimosis, meatal stenosis, urethral stricture, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and squamous cell carcinoma. PMID:25814697

  3. Male only Systemic Lupus

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rachna; Namjou, Bahram; Li, Shibo; D'Souza, Anil; Tsao, Betty P; Bruner, Ben; James, Judith A.; Scofield, R. Hal

    2010-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is more common among women than men with a ratio of about 10 to 1. We undertook this study to describe familial male SLE within a large cohort of familial SLE. SLE families (two or more patients) were obtained from the Lupus Multiplex Registry and Repository. Genomic DNA and blood samples were obtained using standard methods. Autoantibodies were determined by multiple methods. Medical records were abstracted for SLE clinical data. Fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed with X and Y centromere specific probes, and a probe specific for the toll-like receptor 7 gene on the X chromosome. Among 523 SLE families, we found five families in which all the SLE patients were male. FISH found no yaa gene equivalent in these families. SLE-unaffected primary female relatives from the five families with only-male SLE patients had a statistically increased rate of positive ANA compared to SLE-unaffected female relatives in other families. White men with SLE were 5 times more likely to have an offspring with SLE than were White women with SLE but there was no difference in this likelihood among Black men. These data suggest genetic susceptibility factors that act only in men. PMID:20472921

  4. Adolescent male health

    PubMed Central

    Westwood, Michael; Pinzon, Jorge

    2008-01-01

    Although adolescent males have as many health issues and concerns as adolescent females, they are much less likely to be seen in a clinical setting. This is related to both individual factors and the health care system itself, which is not always encouraging and set up to provide comprehensive male health care. Working with adolescent boys involves gaining the knowledge and skills to address concerns such as puberty and sexuality, substance use, violence, risk-taking behaviours and mental health issues. The ability to engage the young male patient is critical, and the professional must be comfortable in initiating conversation about a wide array of topics with the teen boy, who may be reluctant to discuss his concerns. It is important to take every opportunity with adolescent boys to talk about issues beyond the presenting complain, and let them know about confidential care. The physician can educate teens about the importance of regular checkups, and that they are welcome to contact the physician if they are experiencing any concerns about their health or well-being. Parents of preadolescent and adolescent boys should be educated on the value of regular health maintenance visits for their sons beginning in their early teen years. PMID:19119350

  5. Melatonin and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Li, Chunjin; Zhou, Xu

    2015-06-15

    Melatonin is a neurohormone secreted by the pineal gland whose concentrations in the body are regulated by both the dark-light and seasonal cycles. The reproductive function of seasonal breeding animals is clearly influenced by the circadian variation in melatonin levels. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates that melatonin has important effects in the reproduction of some non-seasonal breeding animals. In males, melatonin affects reproductive regulation in three main ways. First, it regulates the secretion of two key neurohormones, GnRH and LH. Second, it regulates testosterone synthesis and testicular maturation. Third, as a potent free radical scavenger that is both lipophilic and hydrophilic, it prevents testicular damage caused by environmental toxins or inflammation. This review summarizes the existing data on the possible biological roles of melatonin in male reproduction. Overall, the literature data indicate that melatonin affects the secretion of both gonadotropins and testosterone while also improving sperm quality. This implies that it has important effects on the regulation of testicular development and male reproduction.

  6. Solar particle event organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews: variations due to body size

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zapp, E. N.; Townsend, L. W.; Cucinotta, F. A.

    2002-01-01

    Proper assessments of spacecraft shielding requirements and concomitant estimates of risk to critical body organs of spacecraft crews from energetic space radiation require accurate, quantitative methods of characterizing the compositional changes in these radiation fields as they pass through the spacecraft and overlying tissue. When estimating astronaut radiation organ doses and dose equivalents it is customary to use the Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model of human geometry to account for body self-shielding. Usually, the distribution for the 50th percentile man (175 cm height; 70 kg mass) is used. Most male members of the U.S. astronaut corps are taller and nearly all have heights that deviate from the 175 cm mean. In this work, estimates of critical organ doses and dose equivalents for interplanetary crews exposed to an event similar to the October 1989 solar particle event are presented for male body sizes that vary from the 5th to the 95th percentiles. Overall the results suggest that calculations of organ dose and dose equivalent may vary by as much as approximately 15% as body size is varied from the 5th to the 95th percentile in the population used to derive the CAM model data. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  7. Male breast carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Meguerditchian, Ari-Nareg; Falardeau, Maurice; Martin, Ginette

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review the epidemiology, presentation, diagnosis, molecular genetics, treatment and prognosis of male breast cancer. Data sources Articles, written in English or French, selected from the Medline database (1966 to January 2001), corresponding to the key words “male breast cancer,” according to the following criteria: covering institutional experience or comparing diagnostic and treatment modalities, and epidemiologic or general reviews. Study selection Of 198 articles found 50 fulfilled the review criteria. Data synthesis Risk factors included advanced age, a positive family history, Jewish origin, black race, excess exposure to female hormones (Klinefelter’s syndrome), environmental exposure (irradiation), alcohol, obesity, higher socioeconomic or higher educational status and childlessness. Gynecomastia remains a controversial factor, this term being used for both a histologic reality and a physical finding. Advanced disease is characterized by pain, bloody discharge and skin ulceration. There is no definitive diagnostic algorithm. Experience with male breast mammography is limited, and imaging is less informative for patients under 50 years of age. Fine-needle aspiration tends to overestimate the rate of malignancy. The commonest histologic finding is infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma. Treatment includes modified radical mastectomy, followed by cyclophosphamide–methotrexate–5-fluo-rouracil or 5-fluorouracil–Adriamycin–cyclophosphamide chemotherapy for disease of stage II or greater. Radiotherapy does not seem to add any benefit. The disease is highly receptor-positive; however, many patients discontinue tamoxifen due to side effects. The most important prognostic factors are tumour size, lymphatic invasion and axillary node status. Conclusions Because of the low incidence of male breast cancer, advances will be obtained mainly with the rapid transfer of newly gained knowledge in female mammary neoplasia. The increased use of adjuvant

  8. [Orchitis and male infertility].

    PubMed

    Schuppe, H-C; Pilatz, A; Hossain, H; Meinhardt, A; Bergmann, M; Haidl, G; Weidner, W

    2010-05-01

    Infections and inflammations of the genital tract are considered the most frequent causes of reduced male fertility, but conclusive epidemiological data are not available. In view of the exposure of germ cells to pathogenic components as well as the cells and mediators involved in the inflammatory processes, irreversible damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding decline of ejaculate quality are to be expected, particularly in cases of chronic orchitis. While the consequences of orchitis and epididymo-orchitis that exhibit clinical symptoms due to systemic or local infections are well known, including testicular atrophy and complete loss of fertility, those cases of inflammatory reactions of the testicles that manifest an asymptomatic or subclinical course, or are not even due to an infection, have received little attention until now. However, systematic histopathological analyses have shown a high prevalence of asymptomatic inflammatory reactions in testicular biopsies from infertile men. The mostly focal lymphocytic infiltrates correlate with the degree of damage to spermatogenesis and corresponding clinical and endocrinological parameters of testicular function. Noninvasive diagnostic techniques are not yet available so that chronic asymptomatic inflammations of the testicles as the primary cause or cofactor of male fertility disorders are underestimated. Except for administration of pathogen-specific antibiotics, treatment recommendations are to a large extent still lacking.

  9. Male hormonal contraceptives.

    PubMed

    Amory, J K

    2006-06-01

    Efforts are underway to develop additional forms of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development involves the administration of exogenous testosterone (T). When administered to a man, T functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After 2-3 months of treatment, low levels of these gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. Hormonal contraception with exogenous T has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well tolerated by men. In addition, sperm counts uniformly normalize when the exogenous T is discontinued. Thus, male hormonal is safe, effective and reversible; however, spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some diminished potential for fertility persists. Because of this recent studies have combined T with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to further suppress pituitary gonadotropins and optimize contraceptive efficacy. Current combinations of T and progestogens completely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable T, which can be administered every 8 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  10. Meiosis in male Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    McKee, Bruce D.; Yan, Rihui; Tsai, Jui-He

    2012-01-01

    Meiosis entails sorting and separating both homologous and sister chromatids. The mechanisms for connecting sister chromatids and homologs during meiosis are highly conserved and include specialized forms of the cohesin complex and a tightly regulated homolog synapsis/recombination pathway designed to yield regular crossovers between homologous chromatids. Drosophila male meiosis is of special interest because it dispenses with large segments of the standard meiotic script, particularly recombination, synapsis and the associated structures. Instead, Drosophila relies on a unique protein complex composed of at least two novel proteins, SNM and MNM, to provide stable connections between homologs during meiosis I. Sister chromatid cohesion in Drosophila is mediated by cohesins, ring-shaped complexes that entrap sister chromatids. However, unlike other eukaryotes Drosophila does not rely on the highly conserved Rec8 cohesin in meiosis, but instead utilizes two novel cohesion proteins, ORD and SOLO, which interact with the SMC1/3 cohesin components in providing meiotic cohesion. PMID:23087836

  11. Sport and male sexuality.

    PubMed

    Sgrò, P; Di Luigi, L

    2017-03-22

    The relationships between sport and sexuality in males are of great social and clinical interest, because of sports and motor activities that highly promote social and sexual relationships. Even if few literature exist, two main questions should be taken into account: whether and how physical exercise and sport positively or negatively influence sexual health and behavior and/or whether and how sexual behavior may affect a sub-sequent sport performance. Physical exercise and sport per se can influence, positively or negatively, the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis function and, consequently, the individual's reproductive and/or sexual health. This depends on individual factors such as genetic and epigenetic ones and on different variables involved in the practice of sport activities (type of sport, intensity and duration of training, doping and drug use and abuse, nutrition, supplements, psychological stress, allostatic load, etc.). If well conducted, motor and sport activities could have beneficial effects on sexual health in males. Among different lifestyle changes, influencing sexual health, regular physical activity is fundamental to antagonize the onset of erectile dysfunction (ED). However, competitive sport can lead both reproductive and/or sexual tract damages and dysfunctions, transient (genital pain, hypoesthesia of the genitalia, hypogonadism, DE, altered sexual drive, etc.) or permanent (hypogonadism, DE, etc.), by acting directly (traumas of the external genitalia, saddle-related disorders in cyclists, etc.) or indirectly (exercise-related hypogonadism, drug abuse, doping, stress, etc.). Sexual activities shortly performed before a sport competition could differently influence sport performance. Due to the few existing data, it is advisable to avoid an absolute pre-competition sexual abstinence.

  12. [Obesity and male fertility].

    PubMed

    Martini, Ana C; Molina, Rosa I; Ruiz, Rubén D; Fiol de Cuneo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Obesity and male infertility have increased in the last decades; therefore, a possible association between these pathologies has been explored. Studies inform that obesity may affect fertility through different mechanisms, which alltogether could exert erectile dysfunction and/or sperm quality impairment. These include: 1) hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPG) axis malfunction: obese hormonal profile is characterized by reduction of testosterone, gonadotrophins, SHBG and/or inhibin B concentrations (marker of Sertoli cells function) and hyperestrogenemy (consequence of aromatase overactivity ascribed to adipose tissue increase); 2) increased release of adipose-derived hormones: leptin increase could be responsible for some of the alterations on the HPG axis and could also exert direct deleterious effects on Leydig cells physiology, spermatogenesis and sperm function; 3) proinflammatory adipokines augmentation, higher scrotal temperature (due to fat accumulation in areas surrounding testes) and endocrine disruptors accumulation in adiposites, all of these responsible for the increase in testes oxidative stress and 4) sleep apnea, frequent in obese patients, suppresses the nocturnal testosterone rise needed for normal spermatogenesis. Finally, although controversial, all the above mentioned factors could comprise gametes quality; i.e. decrease sperm density and motility and increase DNA fragmentation, probably disturbing spermatogenesis and/or epididymal function. In summary, although obesity may impair male fertility by some/all of the described mechanisms, the fact is that only a small proportion of obese men are infertile, probably those genetically predisposed or morbidly obese. Nevertheless, it is likely that because the incidence of obesity is growing, the number of men with reduced fertility will increase as well.

  13. Coalitions and male-male behavior in Alouatta palliata.

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro Américo D; Rangel-Negrin, Ariadna; Veà, Joaquim J; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2010-01-01

    Coalitions influence the establishment and maintenance of social relationships among males in primate species. In this study, we compare the social behavior of males between two groups of Alouatta palliata: a group that was recently taken over by a coalition of two males (Mt), and a group that had a stable composition for at least 9 months (Rh). We predicted that coalition partners would be more cooperative and less competitive than dyads formed by immigrant and long-term resident males, and dyads formed by long-term resident males. Additionally, we predicted that these dyadic trends should be reflected in more competition and less cooperation in the group that was taken over. As predicted, the coalition partners of Mt showed the highest levels of cooperation among all dyads and the second lowest rate of agonism. Cooperation was higher in the group that had a stable composition. Results from this study suggest that the social relationships of male mantled howlers vary as a function of familiarity between males and that in the context of coalitionary takeovers, coalitionary males are highly cooperative. Cooperation is lower in groups recently taken over and competition is more intense, perhaps as a consequence of the process of establishment and reorganization of power relationships within some dyads. In the future, we must determine the frequency of coalitionary takeovers in this population and assess its ultimate consequences for male-male social relationships.

  14. Male-male interactions and mating kinetics in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Wallace, B

    1990-05-01

    Male-male interaction (K) has been estimated from data on the attrition rate of virgin females per minute in a study of the mating kinetics in Drosophila. K is expressed as the time males expend on other males relative to that expended while searching for, courting, and copulating with females. The value of K in these studies ranged from 0 (approximately) to .695; it was affected both by strain (sepia or ebony D. melanogaster and wild-type D. simulans) and by size of the mating chamber. Host-parasitoid models of ecologists appear to be appropriate for examining mating kinetics in Drosophila.

  15. Mating and male pheromone kill Caenorhabditis males through distinct mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Cheng; Runnels, Alexi M; Murphy, Coleen T

    2017-01-01

    Differences in longevity between sexes is a mysterious yet general phenomenon across great evolutionary distances. To test the roles of responses to environmental cues and sexual behaviors in longevity regulation, we examined Caenorhabditis male lifespan under solitary, grouped, and mated conditions. We find that neurons and the germline are required for male pheromone-dependent male death. Hermaphrodites with a masculinized nervous system secrete male pheromone and are susceptible to male pheromone killing. Male pheromone-mediated killing is unique to androdioecious Caenorhabditis, and may reduce the number of males in hermaphroditic populations; neither males nor females of gonochoristic species are susceptible to male pheromone killing. By contrast, mating-induced death, which is characterized by germline-dependent shrinking, glycogen loss, and ectopic vitellogenin expression, utilizes distinct molecular pathways and is shared between the sexes and across species. The study of sex- and species-specific regulation of aging reveals deeply conserved mechanisms of longevity and population structure regulation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23493.001 PMID:28290982

  16. Dermatoglyphic pattern in male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, B R; Talhar, S; Ingole, I V; Shende, M R; Pal, A K; Bhattacharaya, T

    2013-06-01

    Dermatoglyphics in infertile male patients were studied and compared with that of age matched controls to see whether any specific dermatoglyphic pattern exists in infertile male patients. Infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile were referred to Cytogenetic Laboratory for karyotyping. We selected twenty-four infertile male patients with abnormal semen profile. Out of twenty-four infertile male patients, nineteen were with normal Karyotype and five patients were with abnormal Karyotype. Loop was the commonest pattern observed in the infertile male patients. All these fingertip and palmar dermatoglyphic findings were compared with that of result on finger and palmar dermatoglyphics of equal number of age matched controls. Statistical evaluation was done with software "EPI- info, version-6.04 d". Infertile males had reduced number of loops as compared to that of controls which was statistically significant. Total whorls were increased in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant. Percentage of true palmar pattern in I 3 and I 4 areas was reduced in infertile male patients as compared to that of controls which was statistically insignificant.

  17. Coaching the alpha male.

    PubMed

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  18. "Promotores'" Perspectives on a Male-to-Male Peer Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macia, Laura; Ruiz, Hector Camilo; Boyzo, Roberto; Documet, Patricia Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Little documentation exists about male community health workers ("promotores") networks. The experiences of "promotores" can provide input on how to attract, train, supervise and maintain male "promotores" in CHW programs. We present the experience and perspectives of "promotores" who participated in a male…

  19. Influence of stiffness and shape of contact surface on skull fractures and biomechanical metrics of the human head of different population underlateral impacts.

    PubMed

    Shaoo, Debasis; Deck, Caroline; Yoganandan, Narayan; Willinger, Rémy

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the responses of 5th-percentile female, and 50th- and 95th-percentile male human heads during lateral impacts at different velocities and determine the role of the stiffness and shape of the impacting surface on peak forces and derived skull fracture metrics. A state-of-the-art validated finite element (FE) head model was used to study the influence of different population human heads on skull fracture for lateral impacts. The mass of the FE head model was altered to match the adult size dummies. Numerical simulations of lateral head impacts for 45 cases (15 experiments×3 different population human heads) were performed at velocities ranging from 2.4 to 6.5m/s and three impacting conditions (flat and cylindrical 90D; and flat 40D padding). The entire force-time signals from simulations were compared with experimental mean and upper/lower corridors at each velocity, stiffness (40 and 90 durometer) and shapes (flat and cylindrical) of the impacting surfaces. Average deviation of peak force from the 50th male to 95th male and 5th female were 6.4% and 10.6% considering impacts on the three impactors. These results indicate hierarchy of variables which can be used in injury mitigation efforts.

  20. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Deployed Military Personnel After the Implementation of the Leishmaniasis Control Program at Tallil Air Base, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    from 0.00007 to 33.3 at the 95th percentile. Acute exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos exceeded the RQ LOC. Subchronic RQs for...truck-mounted ULV and residual sprays ranged from 0.00008 to 32.8 at the 95th percentile. Subchronic exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos ...exceeded the LOC. However, estimated exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos did not exceed their respective no observed

  1. Eating Disorders in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Shannon L.

    2004-01-01

    Research indicates that the primary onset of eating disorders occurs in adolescence and that there is a growing prevalence of adolescent males with eating disorders. This article describes the eating disorders of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa as they relate to adolescent males. Diagnostic criteria, at-risk groups, and implications for…

  2. Educating Black Males with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Shawn Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Much of the scholarship on Black males in the educational literature focuses on the achievement gap; their underrepresentation in gifted and advanced placement programs; their overrepresentation in special education programs and their high rates of school suspensions and expulsions. Although overrepresented in special education, Black males with…

  3. Latino Males in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Excelencia in Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This 2016 fact sheet profiles the status of Latino males in higher education, providing information on population, college enrollment, and educational attainment. While college enrollment among Latino males continues to increase, they still lag behind Latino females in college enrollment--a disparity that increases as the level of higher education…

  4. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  5. [Clinical characteristics of male osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2016-07-01

    As men are less likely than women to develop osteoporosis, male osteoporosis remains poorly understood. However, elderly men have a clearly reduced bone mineral density and increased risk for fractures. In Japan, one in four patients with osteoporosis is male. Male osteoporosis is associated with not only reduction in androgen, but also estrogen, and differs from postmenopausal osteoporosis in that decreased bone formation is involved and that age-related changes in cortical bone structure and perforation of the trabeculae of cancellous bone are unlikely to occur. The proportion of secondary osteoporosis is higher for men than women;therefore, differential diagnosis is important in the diagnosis of male osteoporosis. In addition, it is recommended that bone mineral density be measured at the femoral neck or total hip in men. Men have a worse prognosis following fractures than women, and management of male osteoporosis is highly important for extending healthy life expectancy.

  6. Modified STOP-Bang Tool for Stratifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk in Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088

  7. Males disposed to commit rape.

    PubMed

    Freund, K; Scher, H; Racansky, I G; Campbell, K; Heasman, G

    1986-02-01

    The hypothesis that the preferential rape pattern belongs among the courtship disorders like voyeurism, exhibitionism, and toucheurism was tested. The study consisted of two experiments. The first compared 11 rape-prone males, who were most likely afflicted with the preferential rape pattern, with 11 sexually normal controls on penile response to narratives that depicted scenes in which the individual engaged in behavior typical of voyeurs, exhibitionists, or toucheurs. Narratives depicting normal tactile interaction (short of intercourse) with a genuinely participating woman, normal intercourse, and sexually neutral scenes were also presented. The rape-prone males responded more to the voyeuristic situations than did the controls. The standing of the normal intercourse situations on the scale of erotic value, relative to the other above-mentioned situations, was lower for the rape-prone males than for the normal controls. A second experiment compared 12 rape-prone males, who most likely demonstrated the preferential rape pattern, with 12 males with (other) courtship disorders and 12 sexually normal controls. Penile response to narratives depicting the individual involved in pretactile erotic activity, in tactile sexual activity short of intercourse, or in having intercourse was compared. Each situation was presented in two modalities depicting either a genuinely participating woman or a woman fearful of the individual. The penile responses of the rape-prone males, as well as those of males with other courtship disorders, differentiated less between sexual interaction with a fearful woman and such interaction with a participating woman than did the penile responses of normal controls. There was no significant difference in this respect between the rape-prone males and males with other courtship disorders.

  8. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... gamete, the egg or ovum , meet in the female's reproductive system to create a new individual. Both the male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, ...

  9. How Effective Is Male Contraception?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials Resources and Publications How effective is male contraception? Skip sharing on social media links Share this: ... health care providers to determine which method of birth control is best for them. For men, methods of ...

  10. Male Reproductive System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... español Sistema reproductor masculino All living things reproduce. Reproduction — the process by which organisms make more organisms ... male and female reproductive systems are essential for reproduction. Humans, like other organisms, pass certain characteristics of ...

  11. MECP2 mutations in males

    PubMed Central

    Villard, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RS; MIM 312750) is a severe neurological disorder affecting exclusively females. Its prevalence is about 1 in 10 000 female births, and it is a prominent cause of profound mental handicap in women. RS is caused by mutations in the X‐linked methyl CpG‐binding protein 2 (MECP2) gene. These mutations were initially thought to be lethal in males. However, MECP2 mutations are now frequently identified in mentally retarded male patients. The frequency of disease‐causing MECP2 mutations in this population is between 1.3% and 1.7%. Surprisingly, MECP2 mutations in males are responsible for a wide spectrum of neurological disorders, ranging from mild mental retardation to severe neonatal encephalopathy. The aim of this review is to describe the nature of the MECP2 mutations identified in male patients to date and their associated phenotypes. PMID:17351020

  12. Dietary exposure estimates for the food preservatives benzoic acid and sorbic acid in the total diet in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Ling, Min-Pei; Lien, Keng-Wen; Wu, Chiu-Hua; Ni, Shih-Pei; Huang, Hui-Ying; Hsieh, Dennis P H

    2015-02-25

    The purpose was to assess the health risk to general consumers in Taiwan associated with dietary intake of benzoic acid and sorbic acid by conducting a total diet study (TDS). The hazard index (HI) in percent acceptable daily intake (%ADI) of benzoic acid and sorbic acid for eight exposure groups classified by age were calculated. In high-intake consumers, the highest HI of benzoic acid was 54.1%ADI for males aged 1-2 years old at the 95th percentile, whereas for females, the HI was 61.7%ADI for aged over 66 years old. The highest HI of sorbic acid for male and female consumers aged 3-6 years old at the 95th percentile were 14.0%ADI and 12.2%ADI, respectively. These results indicate that the use of benzoic acid and sorbic acid as preservatives at the current level of use in the Taiwanese diet does not constitute a public health and safety concern.

  13. Molecular biology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Feng, H L

    2003-01-01

    About 15% of couples have reduced fertility and in approximately one-half of all cases the reason is male infertility, usually of genetic origin. Thus, in the context of research in genes involved in reproduction and sex determination, genetic anomalies in gametogenesis are being extensively studied. The most frequent pathogenic causes of male infertility are Y-chromosomal microdeletions (8-15%) in the long arm of the Y chromosome, which, by loss of specific DNA segments, leads to loss of vital genes for sperm production. Infertile men, who attend infertility clinics, rise to 15% among those with azoospermia or spermatogenesis problem. The new technique of intracytoplasmic sperm injection has allowed many infertile men to achieve their dreams of fatherhood. However, the spermatogenic defect is genetic anomalies, which might be a potential risk of transmitting this defect to future offspring. Therefore, genetic counseling of all couples with the diagnosis of male infertility is recommended before their enrolment in intrauterine insemination, in vitro fertilization, and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The important role of genetic abnormalities in the causation of human male infertility is increasingly recognized. While much remains to be learned in this fast-moving field, considerable progress has been made in the clinical delineation of genetic forms of male infertility and in the characterization of the responsible genes and their mutations or deletions. This review should provide insight into the understanding of parthenogenesis of male infertility in the human.

  14. Leptin pharmacokinetics in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Dobos, Robin C; Agnew, Linda L; Smart, Neil A; McFarlane, James R

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetics of leptin in mammals has not been studied in detail and only one study has examined more than one time point in non-mutant mice and this was in a female mice. This is the first study to describe leptin distribution over a detailed time course in normal male mice. A physiologic dose (12 ng) of radiolabelled leptin was injected into adult male mice via the lateral tail vein and tissues were dissected out and measured for radioactivity over a time course of up to two hours. Major targets were the digestive tract, kidneys, skin and lungs. The brain was not a major target, and 0.15% of the total dose was recovered from the brain 5 min after administration. Major differences appear to exist in the distribution of leptin between the male and female mice, indicating a high degree of sexual dimorphism. Although the half-lives were similar between male and female mice, almost twice the proportion of leptin was recovered from the digestive tract of male mice in comparison to that reported previously for females. This would seem to indicate a major difference in leptin distribution and possibly function between males and females. PMID:27998953

  15. Workplace homicides of Texas males.

    PubMed

    Davis, H

    1987-10-01

    A review of Texas death certificates for 1975-84 identified 779 civilian males whose deaths were homicides that occurred in the workplace. Injuries from firearms caused 81 per cent of the deaths. The overall rate of workplace homicide was 2.1/100,000 male workers/year. Males employed in taxicab service had the highest rate of workplace homicide. 78.2/100,000 male workers/year. Males employed in certain retail trade industries, law enforcement, and the private-security industry also had high rates of workplace homicide. Male workers greater than or equal to 65 years old were at especially high risk, with a workplace-homicide rate 3.5 times that of younger workers. A review of medical examiners' records in five urban counties indicated that 32 per cent of victims who had worked in eating-and-drinking places and 5 per cent of other workers had blood or cerebrospinal-fluid alcohol levels greater than or equal to 0.10 g/dl. These results provide a base for designing effective strategies to prevent workplace homicides.

  16. Relationship of body mass index and other life style factors with hypertension in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Manjusha; Pal, Pankaj; Agrawal, Amit; Ashok, Chandrasekaran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Over the past two decades, it has been observed that hypertension shows an increasing trend in children and adolescents. Various factors are contributing to this upward trend, and they primarily include changes in lifestyle and dietary habits. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension in school going adolescent children and to study the associated risk factors. Materials and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of one year on apparently healthy adolescents of randomly selected urban schools of Bhopal district of Madhya Pradesh, Central India. A pretested and prevalidated questionnaire was used to collect the details including present or past history of illness, family history of hypertension, socioeconomic status, and sleep pattern and birth weight of the children. This was followed by anthropometric and blood pressure (BP) measurements and thorough systemic examination. Results: Out of 1221 children recruited in the study, 618 were boys, and 603 were girls. 22.7%, body mass index (BMI) of majority (85%) of the students was between 5th and 84th percentile, 5.65% were obese (BMI ≥95th) and 9.18% children were overweight (85th-95th percentile). Systolic and diastolic hypertension (BP >95th percentile) was seen in 61 (4.1%) and 48 (3.9%) participants, respectively. Both systolic and diastolic hypertension was seen in 30 (2.45%) participants. Systolic and diastolic prehypertension (BP 90th to <95th percentile) was seen in 88 (7.3%) and 68 (5.6%) participants, respectively. A highly significant association (P < 0.01) of sex, BMI, systolic BP, family history of hypertension, and birth weight with diastolic BP was seen. Conclusion: There is a significant positive correlation of BMI with both systolic and diastolic BP. The family history of hypertension appears to be an important risk factor for the increase in both systolic and diastolic BP. Low birth weight and male

  17. Male skin and ingredients relevant to male skin care.

    PubMed

    Draelos, Z D

    2012-03-01

    Male skin care needs are heavily influenced by the need to remove facial hair on a regular basis. Facial skin issues associated with poor hair removal approaches are common and include razor burn and irritation. This paper evaluates current research on shaving technology and how careful ingredient selection can contribute to male skin health. The importance of maintaining hair softness during the shave and restoring facial hydration post-shave is discussed. Data are presented on how post-shave moisturizers containing glycerine and emollients can create an environment for improved barrier function which can be further improved by incorporating specific ingredients such as niacinamide.

  18. Estimating age: college males versus convicted male child sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Robert; Romero, Sergio; Patrick, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Two samples, male college students and convicted male child sex offenders, are compared on their abilities to accurately estimate the age group of a series of photographs of a sole female ranging in age from 11 to 29. Both samples tend to overestimate the age group of the subject photos, and no significant difference was found between college students and convicted child sex offenders in their ability to estimate the age of females. Both groups are compared demographically, and only limited differences were found. The implications are discussed in regard to theory and prevention of child sexual abuse.

  19. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  20. Treatment Options for Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Male Breast Cancer)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  2. General Information about Male Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Breast & Gynecologic Cancers Breast Cancer Screening Research Male Breast Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information about Male Breast Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Male ...

  3. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  4. XYY male and hematologic malignancy.

    PubMed

    Oguma, N; Shigeta, C; Kamada, N

    1996-09-01

    Two cases of XYY male with refractory anemia with excess of blasts are reported, and previous reported XYY males with hematologic malignancy are reviewed. Altogether 26 cases were collected for analysis: acute myeloid leukemia (10), acute lymphocytic leukemia (seven), acute leukemia (two), chronic myelocytic leukemia (three), myelodysplastic syndrome (three), and essential thrombocythemia (one). The age at the time of diagnosis ranged in age from 7.5 to 81 years. In three of six XYY/XY mosaicism cases, XYY clone was associated with malignancy. However, in two cases XYY clone was not involved. The evidence presented here suggests that the event of an XYY male with hematologic malignancy is incidental rather than a genetic etiology.

  5. Familial aspects of male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Dawood, K; Pillard, R C; Horvath, C; Revelle, W; Bailey, J M

    2000-04-01

    Research has generally supported the existence of familial-genetic factors for male sexual orientation, but has not shed much light on the specific nature of those influences. Gay men with gay brothers provide the opportunity to examine several hypotheses. Sixty-six men, representing 37 gay male sibling pairs, completed questionnaires assessing behavior on various measures including childhood and adult gender nonconformity, timing of awareness of homosexual feelings, self-acceptance, and the quality of family relationships. Consistent with prior findings using twins, gay brothers were similar in their degree of childhood gender non-conformity, suggesting that this variable may distinguish etiologically (e.g., genetically) heterogeneous subtypes. The large majority of gay men with brothers knew about their own homosexual feelings before they learned about their brothers' homosexual feelings, suggesting that discovery of brothers' homosexuality is not an important cause of male homosexuality.

  6. Male anorgasmia treated with oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Ishak, Waguih William; Berman, Daniel S; Peters, Anne

    2008-04-01

    Introduction. This is a case report on male anorgasmia that was successfully treated with oxytocin. Oxytocin is increased during arousal and peaks during orgasm. More recently, a study on humans published in Nature has shown its value in social bonding, increasing trust, and enhancing the sense of well-being. Aim. To test the effectiveness of administering oxytocin in a case of treatment-resistant anorgasmia. Methods. The patient underwent a biopsychosocial evaluation by a psychiatrist trained in sexual medicine and sex therapy for male orgasmic disorder, acquired type. Medical conditions, effect of substances, and psychological issues were ruled out. The patient was properly consented to using oxytocin as an off-label trial. Oxytocin was administered using a nasal spray intracoitally because of its ultra-short half-life. Results. Oxytocin was effective in restoring ejaculation. Conclusions. A case of treatment-resistant male anorgasmia was successfully treated with intracoital administration of intranasal oxytocin.

  7. Age and male erectile responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Solnick, R L; Birren, J E

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine (1) the difference in the rate of penile circumference increase per unit time between a group of young and a group of old normal males when exposed to the same erotic movie and (2) the correlation coefficient between penile shaft temperature increase and penile circumference increase. Ten males aged 19-30 years and ten males aged 48-65 years served as subjects. Each subject placed a thermistor and strain gauge on his penis and both outputs were recorded simultaneously on a two-channel recorder. The younger group responded at an erection rate 5.8 times faster than that of the older group. The correlation coefficient, based on the percent approach to oral temperature (98.6 degrees F) and the percent increase in penile circumference, was 0.75.

  8. Hormonal contraception in the male.

    PubMed

    Anderson, R A

    2000-01-01

    The hormonal approach to male contraception is based on the suppression of gonadotrophin secretion with secondary suppression of spermatogenesis. This can be achieved by administration of testosterone or other androgen alone, but combined administration with a progestogen or GnRH analogue allows the dose of testosterone to be reduced to physiological replacement doses. This approach has been investigated for many years but without identification of a regimen which results in sufficient suppression of spermatogenesis to provide ensured contraception in all men, safely and conveniently. The reasons for this are discussed, and recent developments towards a regimen that fulfills all these criteria are described. Crucial to development of any new product is that it will be used: surveys of both men and women indicate firmly positive attitudes towards a 'male pill'. There are, therefore, grounds for cautious optimism that the next decade may see the introduction of the first novel male contraceptive for several hundred years.

  9. Male contraception: history and development.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Paul; Wald, Moshe

    2014-02-01

    Although the twentieth century has seen great strides in the development of female contraception, not a single new agent has been introduced as an approved method for common use for male contraception. Condoms (considered uncomfortable by some) and vasectomy (a permanent invasive procedure) are the only options provided to men, leaving an undue burden on women to bear contraceptive responsibility. Significant developments have, however, been made with regard to hormonal and nonhormonal contraception, and minor, reversible, procedural contraception. This article reviews the currently available, soon to be available, and theoretically possible methods of male contraception.

  10. [Genetic evaluation of male homosexuality].

    PubMed

    Gasztonyi, Z

    1998-02-01

    The family trees of 16 homosexual males are evaluated in the material of their Genetic Counselling Clinic. The familial cluster of three cases corresponded to the X-linked recessive inheritance. The results of family, twin and adoption studies are reviewed and the recent findings of molecular genetic and brain researches are summarised. Male homosexuality comprises of different subgroups, but one major entity is caused by X-linked recessive gene(s). This genetic background represent a predisposition which is triggered or suppressed by external factors.

  11. Male genital trauma in sports.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Stanley R; Lishnak, Timothy S; Powers, Andria M; Lisle, David K

    2013-04-01

    Male genital trauma is a rare but potentially serious sports injury. Although such an injury can occur by many different mechanisms, including falls, collisions, straddle injuries, kicks, and equipment malfunction, the clinical presentation is typically homogeneous, characterized by pain and swelling. Almost all sports-related male genital injury comes from blunt force trauma, with involvement of scrotal structures far more common than penile structures. Most injuries can be treated conservatively, but catastrophic testicular injury must first be ruled out. Despite being relatively uncommon compared with other sports injuries, more than half of all testicular injuries are sustained during sports.

  12. Fertility regulation in the male

    PubMed Central

    de Kretser, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    The current state of research into new methods of male contraception is reviewed, with special emphasis on the efforts of the WHO Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction. The article concentrates mainly on the development of orally administered or injectable substances capable of either (a) interfering with the hormonal control of testicular function, (b) disrupting spermatogenesis by direct influence on testis function, or (c) interfering with the fertilizing ability of the sperm and their transport. It is concluded that, despite the numerous areas of research currently being pursued, the availability of a new male contraceptive remains several years away. PMID:308403

  13. Mammary Malignancy in The Male

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Leslie L.; Benninghoff, David L.; Camiel, Mortimer R.; Medina, Antonio

    1978-01-01

    Mammary carcinoma in the male, a relatively uncommon disease, represents about 0.9 to 1.5 percent of all breast cancers. 1,2 The authors reviewed 16 cases of male breast cancer seen in a 30-year period at the State University of New York, Kings County Hospital Medical Center in Brooklyn, and the North Shore University Hospital in Manhasset. Epidemiology, etiology, demography, signs and symptoms, management, and prognosis are discussed. A review of pertinent literature is presented. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:722829

  14. Male chest enhancement: pectoral implants.

    PubMed

    Benito-Ruiz, J; Raigosa, J M; Manzano-Surroca, M; Salvador, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors present their experience with the pectoral muscle implant for male chest enhancement in 21 patients. The markings and technique are thoroughly described. The implants used were manufactured and custom made. The candidates for implants comprised three groups: group 1 (18 patients seeking chest enhancement), group 2 (1 patient with muscular atrophy), and group 3 (2 patients with muscular injuries). Because of the satisfying results obtained, including significant enhancement of the chest contour and no major complications, this technique is used for an increasing number of male cosmetic surgeries.

  15. Free radicals and male reproduction.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ashok; Allamaneni, Shyam S R

    2011-03-01

    Male factor accounts for almost 50% cases of infertility. The exact mechanism of sperm dysfunction is not known in many cases. Extensive research in the last decade has led to the identification of free radicals (reactive oxygen species) as mediators of sperm dysfunction in both specific diagnoses and idiopathic cases of male infertility. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species are seen in up to 30-80% of men with male infertility. The role of free radicals has been studied extensively in the process of human reproduction. We know now that a certain level of free radicals is necessary for normal sperm function, whereas an excessive level of free radicals can cause detrimental effect on sperm function and subsequent fertilisation and offspring health. Oxidative stress develops when there is an imbalance between generation of free radicals and scavenging capacity of anti-oxidants in reproductive tract. Oxidative stress has been shown to affect both standard semen parameters and fertilising capacity. In addition, high levels of free radicals have been associated with lack of or poor fertility outcome after natural conception or assisted reproduction. Diagnostic techniques to quantify free radicals in infertile patients can assist physicians treating patients with infertility to plan for proper treatment strategies. In vivo anti-oxidants can be used against oxidative stress in male reproductive tract. Supplementation of in vitro anti-oxidants can help prevent the oxidative stress during sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction.

  16. Management of male urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Katie C.; Lucas, Malcolm G.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of male urinary incontinence seen is secondary to sphincter weakness following prostatic surgery. As there is a rising elderly population and increasing numbers of surgical interventions for prostate cancer, incidence of male incontinence is increasing. Hence, management of male incontinence has become a subject of increased interest for urologists. Various non-surgical and surgical approaches have been suggested for this devastating condition. Non-invasive therapies are suggested for early postoperative and mild incontinence. For surgical treatment the artificial urinary sphincter is still labeled the gold standard despite the introduction of several more minimally invasive treatments. However, as yet there is no consensus on the optimal timing and best modality for managing these men. Well designed, centrally funded clinical trials are required to establish which treatment modality to offer and when in the broad spectrum of male incontinence. This review focuses mainly on the management of post-prostatectomy incontinence since the management of other types varies little from the modalities of treatment in women. PMID:20877603

  17. Neural Circuits: Male Mating Motifs.

    PubMed

    Benton, Richard

    2015-09-02

    Characterizing microcircuit motifs in intact nervous systems is essential to relate neural computations to behavior. In this issue of Neuron, Clowney et al. (2015) identify recurring, parallel feedforward excitatory and inhibitory pathways in male Drosophila's courtship circuitry, which might explain decisive mate choice.

  18. Ferocious fighting between male grasshoppers.

    PubMed

    Umbers, Kate D L; Tatarnic, Nikolai J; Holwell, Gregory I; Herberstein, Marie E

    2012-01-01

    Contests among individuals over mating opportunities are common across diverse taxa, yet physical conflict is relatively rare. Due to the potentially fatal consequences of physical fighting, most animals employ mechanisms of conflict resolution involving signalling and ritualistic assessment. Here we provide the first evidence of ubiquitous escalated fighting in grasshoppers. The chameleon grasshopper (Kosciuscola tristis) is an Australian alpine specialist, in which males engage in highly aggressive combat over ovipositing females. We describe discrete agonistic behaviours including mandible flaring, mounting, grappling, kicking and biting, and their use depending on the individual's role as challenger or defender. We show that male role predicts damage, with challengers being more heavily damaged than males defending females (defenders). Challengers also possess wider mandibles than defenders, but are similar in other metrics of body size. Our data suggest that fights escalate between males matched in body size and that mandibles are used as weapons in this species. This system represents an exciting opportunity for future research into the evolution of costly fighting behaviour in an otherwise placid group.

  19. Male Depression: Understanding the Issues

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Depression (major depressive disorder) Male depression is a serious medical condition, but many men try to ignore it or refuse treatment. Learn the signs and symptoms — and what to do. By Mayo Clinic Staff Do you feel irritable, isolated or withdrawn? Do you find yourself working all ...

  20. ASSESSMENT OF MALE REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter reviews the subject of risk assessment in male reproductive toxicology. After providing an overview of the risk assessment process, laboratory test protocols, including those specified by EPA and used by NIEHS are summarized and discussed in detail with respect to t...

  1. The effect of obesity on skin disease and epidermal permeability barrier status in children.

    PubMed

    Nino, Massimiliano; Franzese, Adriana; Ruggiero Perrino, Nunzia; Balato, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Obese adult patients have many dermatoses, such as skin tags, candida infection, cellulite, and intertrigo, but only limited data have been published on obese children and the barrier function of their skin. Sixty-five overweight and obese children (n = 40, BMI 85th-95th percentile; n = 25, BMI > 95th percentile) (aged 8-15; mean age 11.6) and 30 normal-weight controls (aged 7-15; mean age 11.1) underwent a clinical evaluation and calculation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Higher weight percentile was associated with a higher incidence of some dermatoses. Skin tags were found in 40% of subjects in the 95th percentile and 2.5% of those in the 85th percentile. Striae distensae were observed in 32% of patients in the 95th percentile and 22.5% of those in the 85th percentile. Plantar hyperkeratosis was observed only in 20% of the 95th percentile subjects and was not observed in the other groups. TEWL values at the forearm site were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in obese children than in the control group, but no significant differences in TEWL values according to BMI level were found between the two groups of obese children. Degree of obesity influences the incidence of some associated dermatoses; skin tags, striae distensae, and plantar hyperkeratosis were more frequent in children in the 95th percentile of BMI. Obesity increases the TEWL rate, suggesting that obese children might become more easily overheated as weight increases, with more profuse sweating because of the thick layers of subcutaneous fat.

  2. Males adjust their signalling behaviour according to experience of male signals and male-female signal duets.

    PubMed

    Rebar, D; Rodríguez, R L

    2016-04-01

    Sexual signals are conspicuous sources of information about neighbouring competitors, and species in which males and females signal during pair formation provide various sources of public information to which individuals can adjust their behaviour. We performed two experiments with a duetting vibrational insect, Enchenopa binotata treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae), to ask whether males adjust their signalling behaviour according to (1a) their own experience of competitors' signals, (1b) how females adjust their mate preferences on the basis of their experience of male signals (described in prior work), and/or (2) their own experience of female response signals to competitors' signals. We presented males with synthetic male signals of different frequencies and combinations thereof for 2 weeks. We recorded males a day after their last signal exposure, finding that (1a) male signal rate increased in response to experience of attractive competitors, but that (1b) male signal frequency did not shift in a manner consistent with how females adjust their mate preferences in those experience treatments. Second, we presented males with different male-female duets for 2 weeks, finding that (2) male signal length increased from experience of female duets with attractive competitors. Males thus make two types of adjustment according to two sources of public information: one provided by experience of male signals and another by experience of female responses to male signals. Signalling plasticity can generate feedback loops between the adjustments that males and females make, and we discuss the potential consequences of such feedback loops for the evolution of communication systems.

  3. Vicarious Emotional Responses of Macho College Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Steven R.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Explored whether vicarious emotional reactions of macho males reflect a lack of empathy and a tendency to respond with anger. Male subjects (n=107) viewed videotapes of a crying, quiescent, and smiling baby, respectively. Macho males reported more anger and less empathy for the crying baby than did less macho males. (RJM)

  4. Reference values of total serum IgE and their significance in the diagnosis of allergy in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Carosso, Aurelia; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Migliore, Enrica; Antò, Josep Maria; DeMarco, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Allergic sensitization mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the basis of allergic diseases, and elevated total IgE, in spite of some well-known limitations, is frequently included as a diagnostic criterion for allergic diseases. The reference value of total IgE (IgE-t) in the literature (1.5-144 kU/l) was established almost 2 decades ago. The aim of this study was to establish IgE-t reference values, establishing an updated cutoff value able to identify atopic subjects, defined as a positive CAP-radioallergosorbent test to at least one of a panel of common allergens, among young European adults. The study included 6,670 subjects from 10 Western European countries within the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. IgE-t and specific IgE (IgE-s) were measured for the main inhalant allergens; IgE-s in class 0 for all allergens (66.2%) characterized non-atopy. The reference values were estimated by means of linear regression using a 50% random subsample of non-atopic subjects. Two non-atopic subsamples were examined so that one subsample could be used to establish reference IgE-t values, and these values were compared to those in the second non-atopic subsample to validate the findings. Sensitivity and specificity for atopy were assessed on the other 50% of non-atopic and on all atopic subjects. The 95th percentile of IgE-t reference values in non-smokers was 148 kU/l in women and 169 kU/l in men, while it was 194 and 220 kU/l in female and male smokers, respectively: serum IgE-t above the 95th percentile identifies <32% and above the 99th percentile <20% of atopic adults (low sensitivity), but a serum IgE-t below the 95th percentile identifies >90% and below the 99th percentile identifies >95% of non-atopic adults (good specificity). Due to the adequate specificity, IgE-t values exceeding the normal limits confirm a suspected atopic status; however, because of the low sensitivity, values below the cutoff seem not to exclude an atopic status

  5. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  6. Healthy Eating in Out-of-School Time: The Promise and the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; Hall, Georgia; Gannett, Ellen; Roth, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 percent of American children are either overweight or obese, with a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or above. Although prevalence varies by age, sex, and ethnicity, all groups are affected. Risk of serious health problems increases with increasing BMI. Childhood obesity, characterized by BMI in the 95th percentile or…

  7. Conspicuous Coloration in Males of the Damselfly Nehalennia irene (Zygoptera: Coenagrionidae): Do Males Signal Their Unprofitability to Other Males?

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Christopher D.; Andrés, José A.; Sherratt, Thomas N.

    2015-01-01

    In damselflies, sexual colour dimorphism is commonly explained as a consequence of selection on traits that increase male attractiveness to females. However, while many species in the damselfly family Coenagrionidae (Insecta: Odonata) are sexually dimorphic, the males do not engage in displays, and male competition for mates resembles a “scramble”. An alternative explanation for the sexual differences in coloration within these species is that sexual dimorphism has evolved as a sex-related warning signal, with males signalling their uprofitability as mates to other males, thereby avoiding harassment from conspecifics. We evaluated an underlying assumption of the theory that male-male harassment rate is influenced by colour by comparing harassment of males of the species Nehalennia irene that had been painted to make them appear: (i) similar to an unaltered male (blue), (ii) different from a male (orange) and (iii) more similar to a female (black). When caged together we found that blue-painted males experienced significantly lower harassment than black-painted males. When unpainted males were caged with each type of painted male we found that blue-painted males and the unpainted males housed in the same cages experienced lower rates of harassment than males housed in cages where some males were painted black, suggesting that a single, reliable signal of unprofitability may benefit the individuals that carry it. While our results do not in themselves demonstrate that sexual colour dimorphism originally evolved as an intra-specific warning signal, they do show that harassment is influenced by coloration, and that such selection could conceivably maintain male coloration as a warning signal. PMID:26587979

  8. Male reprotoxicity and endocrine disruption

    PubMed Central

    Campion, Sarah; Catlin, Natasha; Heger, Nicholas; McDonnell, Elizabeth V.; Pacheco, Sara E.; Saffarini, Camelia; Sandrof, Moses A.; Boekelheide, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Mammalian reproductive tract development is a tightly regulated process that can be disrupted following exposure to drugs, toxicants, endocrine disrupting chemicals or other compounds via alterations to gene and protein expression or epigenetic regulation. Indeed, the impacts of developmental exposure to certain toxicants may not be fully realized until puberty or adulthood when the reproductive tract becomes sexually mature and altered functionality is manifested. Exposures that occur later in life, once development is complete, can also disrupt the intricate hormonal and paracrine interactions responsible for adult functions, such as spermatogenesis. In this chapter, the biology and toxicology of the male reproductive tract is explored, proceeding through the various life stages including in utero development, puberty, adulthood and senescence. Special attention is given to the discussion of endocrine disrupting chemicals, chemical mixtures, low dose effects, transgenerational effects, and potential exposure-related causes of male reproductive tract cancers. PMID:22945574

  9. Male vs. female mediated teratogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Manson, J.M.

    1982-04-01

    Different types of reproductive dysfunction with exposure of males and females during different stages of the reproductive process were correlated. It is a well-established principle that teratogenic exposure of the pregnant female, and thus of the embryo, during the organogenesis period of development can lead to birth defects in the offspring. The outcome of this exposure paradigm, as well as the outcomes associated with exposure during other stages of the reproductive process that have received less experimental attention are discussed. Insult to the germ cells of the male during spermatogenesis and to the female during oogenesis can also lead to reproductive dysfunction. The type of adverse outcome, however, is quite different from that occurring with embryonic exposure during the organogenesis period. An overview of this area will be given with the intent of focusing on those types of reproductive dysfunction that are most relevant to environmental exposure of men and women.

  10. Endocrinology of the Aging Male

    PubMed Central

    Wittert, Gary A.

    2011-01-01

    The endocrinology of the aging male is complex, with multiple hormones along the hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular (HPT) axis interacting with one another in feedback. As men age, there is a small and progressive (not precipitous, as in women) decline in several sex hormones, in particular testosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone, and related increases in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, and sex hormone-binding globulin. The importance of these changes is wide-ranging because of the ubiquitous role of sex hormones in male physiology. This chapter discusses the endocrinology of the aging male. We provide an overview of the regulation of the HPT axis with an emphasis on the changes that occur with aging and the measurement of gonadal steroids, including hormone pulsatility, within-subject and circadian variations. The difficulties of assessing the symptoms of late-onset hypogonadism are highlighted. There is a comprehensive discussion of the epidemiology of sex hormone changes, including their age associations, prevalence of symptomatic hypogonadism, secular changes, risk factors, and the association of sex hormones with outcomes. PMID:21397200

  11. Meiotic abnormalities in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Egozcue, J; Sarrate, Z; Codina-Pascual, M; Egozcue, S; Oliver-Bonet, M; Blanco, J; Navarro, J; Benet, J; Vidal, F

    2005-01-01

    Meiotic anomalies, as reviewed here, are synaptic chromosome abnormalities, limited to germ cells that cannot be detected through the study of the karyotype. Although the importance of synaptic errors has been underestimated for many years, their presence is related to many cases of human male infertility. Synaptic anomalies can be studied by immunostaining of synaptonemal complexes (SCs), but in this case their frequency is probably underestimated due to the phenomenon of synaptic adjustment. They can also be studied in classic meiotic preparations, which, from a clinical point of view, is still the best approach, especially if multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization is at hand to solve difficult cases. Sperm chromosome FISH studies also provide indirect evidence of their presence. Synaptic anomalies can affect the rate of recombination of all bivalents, produce achiasmate small univalents, partially achiasmate medium-sized or large bivalents, or affect all bivalents in the cell. The frequency is variable, interindividually and intraindividually. The baseline incidence of synaptic anomalies is 6-8%, which may be increased to 17.6% in males with a severe oligozoospermia, and to 27% in normozoospermic males with one or more previous IVF failures. The clinical consequences are the production of abnormal spermatozoa that will produce a higher number of chromosomally abnormal embryos. The indications for a meiotic study in testicular biopsy are provided.

  12. Male breast cancer: a review

    PubMed Central

    Fentiman, IS

    2009-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is rare, with the peak age of onset at 71 years. BRCA2 mutations are more frequent than BRCA1 with 20% of cases giving a family history. Risk factors for MBC are poorly understood and include working in high-ambient temperatures and exhaust fume exposure. MBC is associated with hyperoestrogenic states found in liver disease, Klinefelter’s syndrome, gonadal dysfunction or obesity. Most information on treatment of MBC is derived from large randomized trials carried out in female patients. The small numbers of MBC seen in any unit annually has precluded significant trials being carried out. Diagnosis and treatment of MBC is similar to that of female patients, but men tend to be treated with mastectomy rather than breast-conserving surgery. The mainstay of adjuvant therapy or palliative treatment for advanced disease is endocrine, mostly tamoxifen. Prognosis of male patients is equal to that of stage-matched women, but men tend to fare worse because of delay in presentation, leading to a large proportion of patients presenting with stage III or IV disease. Increased input is needed for psychological support for male breast cancer patients. Specific therapeutic questions about MBC need international trials to obtain meaningful answers. PMID:22276005

  13. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Diana; Schmid, Thomas E; Baumgartner, Adolf

    2014-01-01

    Male-mediated developmental toxicity has been of concern for many years. The public became aware of male-mediated developmental toxicity in the early 1990s when it was reported that men working at Sellafield might be causing leukemia in their children. Human and animal studies have contributed to our current understanding of male-mediated effects. Animal studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested that genetic damage after radiation and chemical exposure might be transmitted to offspring. With the increasing understanding that there is histone retention and modification, protamine incorporation into the chromatin and DNA methylation in mature sperm and that spermatozoal RNA transcripts can play important roles in the epigenetic state of sperm, heritable studies began to be viewed differently. Recent reports using molecular approaches have demonstrated that DNA damage can be transmitted to babies from smoking fathers, and expanded simple tandem repeats minisatellite mutations were found in the germline of fathers who were exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster. In epidemiological studies, it is possible to clarify whether damage is transmitted to the sons after exposure of the fathers. Paternally transmitted damage to the offspring is now recognized as a complex issue with genetic as well as epigenetic components. PMID:24369136

  14. Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yi-Jun; Chen, Mei-Ting; Lian, Wei; Xing, Bing; Yao, Yong; Feng, Ming; Wang, Ren-Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A total of 184 cases of surgically treated male prolactinoma were analyzed retrospectively to summarize the outcome of this surgical intervention. We analyzed the general characteristics, clinical manifestations, hormone levels, imaging features, preoperative treatments, surgical outcomes, pathology results, and follow-up records for all included patients. The most common clinical manifestations included sexual dysfunction (47.4%), headache (55.9%), and visual disturbance (46.7%). Serum prolactin levels ranged from 150 to 204,952 ng/mL. Tumor size varied from 6 to 70 mm. Pituitary adenomas grew in a parasellar pattern with visual deficits occurring 40.7% of the time. After surgical therapy, 88.6% of patients achieved symptom relief, and 98.4% experienced an immediate postoperative decline in prolactin level. Fifty-seven patients (31.0%) achieved initial remission, and 26 patients (45.6%) experienced recurrence. Hence, our results suggest that in male prolactinoma characterized by a large pituitary diameter and high serum prolactin level, tumor size predicts the degree of gross resection. The prognostic predictors included preoperative tumor growth pattern and Ki-67 index. Citation: Yi-jun S, Mei-ting C, Wei L, Bing X, Yong Y, Ming F, Ren-zhi W. (2016) Surgical treatment for male prolactinoma: a retrospective study of 184 cases PMID:28079813

  15. Increased male-male courtship in ecdysone receptor deficient adult flies.

    PubMed

    Ganter, Geoffrey K; Walton, Kelsey L; Merriman, Jacob O; Salmon, Mark V; Brooks, Krista M; Maddula, Swathi; Kravitz, Edward A

    2007-05-01

    Male-male courtship is infrequent among mature adult Drosophila melanogaster. After pairs of mature adult males expressing a temperature-sensitive allele of the ecdysone receptor (EcR) gene were treated at a restrictive temperature, however, they engaged in elevated levels of male-male courtship. EcR-deficient males courted wildtype males and females, but were not courted by wildtype males. These results suggest that the ecdysone steroid hormone system may have a role in courtship initiation by adult male fruit flies.

  16. Exaggerated Health Benefits of Physical Fitness and Activity dueto Self-selection.

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-17

    Background: The predicted health benefits of becomingphysically active or fit will be exaggerated if health outcomes causefitness and activity rather than the converse in prospective andcross-sectional epidemiological studies. Objective: Assess whether therelationships of adiposity to fitness and activity are explained byadiposity prior to exercising. Design: Cross-sectional study of physicalfitness (running speed during 10km foot race) and physical activity(weekly running distance) to current BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at thestart of running (BMIstarting) in 44,370 male and 25,252 femaleparticipants of the National Runners' Health Study. Results: BMIstartingexplained all of the association between fitness and BMIcurrent in bothsexes, but less than a third of the association between physical activityand BMIcurrent in men. In women, BMIstarting accounted for 58 percent ofthe association between BMIcurrent and activity levels. The 95thpercentile of BMIcurrent showed substantially greater declines withfitness and activity levels than the 5th percentile of BMIcurrent in men(i.e., the negative slope for 95th percentile was 2.6-fold greater thanthe 5th percentile for fitness and 3-fold greater for activity) and women(6-fold and 3.4-fold greater, respectively). At all percentiles, theregression slopes relating BMIstarting to fitness were comparable orgreater (more negative) than the slopes relating BMIcurrent to fitness,whereas the converse was true for activity. Conclusion: Self-selectionbias accounts for all of the association between fitness and adiposityand probably a portion of other health outcomes, but has less affect onassociations involving physical activity

  17. Homosexual behaviour increases male attractiveness to females

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Jung, Christian T.; Hornung, Simon; Streit, Bruno; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Male homosexual behaviour—although found in most extant clades across the Animal Kingdom—remains a conundrum, as same-sex mating should decrease male reproductive fitness. In most species, however, males that engage in same-sex sexual behaviour also mate with females, and in theory, same-sex mating could even increase male reproductive fitness if males improve their chances of future heterosexual mating. Females regularly use social information to choose a mate; e.g. male attractiveness increases after a male has interacted sexually with a female (mate choice copying). Here, we demonstrate that males of the tropical freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana increase their attractiveness to females not only by opposite-sex, but likewise, through same-sex interactions. Hence, direct benefits for males of exhibiting homosexual behaviour may help explain its occurrence and persistence in species in which females rely on mate choice copying as one component of mate quality assessment. PMID:23234866

  18. Hybrid computational phantoms of the 15-year male and female adolescent: Applications to CT organ dosimetry for patients of variable morphometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Choonsik; Lodwick, Daniel; Williams, Jonathan L.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2008-06-15

    Currently, two classes of the computational phantoms have been developed for dosimetry calculation: (1) stylized (or mathematical) and (2) voxel (or tomographic) phantoms describing human anatomy through mathematical surface equations and three-dimensional labeled voxel matrices, respectively. Mathematical surface equations in stylized phantoms provide flexibility in phantom design and alteration, but the resulting anatomical description is, in many cases, not very realistic. Voxel phantoms display far better anatomical realism, but they are limited in terms of their ability to alter organ shape, position, and depth, as well as body posture. A new class of computational phantoms - called hybrid phantoms - takes advantage of the best features of stylized and voxel phantoms - flexibility and anatomical realism, respectively. In the current study, hybrid computational phantoms representing reference 15-year male and female body anatomy and anthropometry are presented. For the male phantom, organ contours were extracted from the University of Florida (UF) 14-year series B male voxel phantom, while for the female phantom, original computed tomography (CT) data from two 14-year female patients were used. Polygon mesh models for the major organs and tissues were reconstructed for nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS) surface modeling. The resulting NURBS/polygon mesh models representing body contour and internal anatomy were matched to anthropometric data and reference organ mass data provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP), respectively. Finally, two hybrid 15-year male and female phantoms were completed where a total of eight anthropometric data categories were matched to standard values within 4% and organ masses matched to ICRP data within 1% with the exception of total skin. To highlight the flexibility of the hybrid phantoms, 10th and 90th weight percentile 15-year male and

  19. Male-male and male-female aggression may influence mating associations in wild octopuses (Abdopus aculeatus).

    PubMed

    Huffard, Christine L; Caldwell, Roy L; Boneka, Farnis

    2010-02-01

    Abdopus aculeatus engages in frequent aggression and copulation, exhibits male mate-choice, and employs multiple mating tactics. Here we draw upon established hypotheses to compare male-male aggression (MMA) and male-female aggression (MFA), as they relate to their mating behavior in the wild. When contesting for females, males appear to balance mate preference (resource value) with perceived chances of winning contests (resource holding potential). Although males spent more time mating with and contesting for large "Adjacent Guarded" females (those occupying a den within arm's reach of a large "Adjacent Guarding" male), they exhibited higher rates of aggression over nonadjacent "Temporarily Guarded" females that may be more accessible. The major determinant of male-male aggressive success was size, and this factor may dictate the expression of conditional mating tactics in males. "Adjacent Guarding" males were the largest and most aggressively successful males, earning the most time copulating with females. They are considered to have the highest resource holding potential (RHP) in MMA. By contrast, in MFA, some larger individuals fled from smaller individuals, indicating that RHP appears to be a function of both size and sex in intersexual aggression. This result suggests variation in aggressiveness, or potential for severe injury-even sexual cannibalism during MFA. Male-female aggression may also be influenced by the sexual nonreceptivity of some individuals, or attempts by both sexes to increase foraging behavior by delaying mate-guarding activity.

  20. Male-mediated developmental toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Diana . E-mail: d.anderson1@bradford.ac.uk

    2005-09-01

    In recent years, the public has become more aware that exposure of males to certain agents can adversely affect their offspring and cause infertility and cancer. The hazards associated with exposure to ionising radiation have been recognised for nearly a century, but interest was aroused when a cluster of leukaemia cases was identified in young children living in Seascale, close to the nuclear processing plant at Sellafield in West Cumbria. There was a civil court case on behalf of two of the alleged victims of paternal irradiation at Seascale against British Nuclear Fuels. The case foundered on 'the balance of probabilities'. Nevertheless, there was support for paternal exposure from Japanese experimental X-ray studies in mice. The tumours were clearly heritable as shown by F2 transmission. Also, effects of a relatively non-toxic dose of radiation (1Gy) on cell proliferation transmitted to the embryo were manifested in the germ line of adult male mice even after two generations. In addition in humans, smoking fathers appear to give rise to tumours in the F{sub 1} generation. Using rodent models, developmental abnormalities/congenital malformations and tumours can be studied after exposure of males in an extended dominant lethal assay and congenital malformations can be determined which have similar manifestations in humans. The foetuses can also be investigated for skeletal malformations and litters can be allowed to develop to adulthood when tumours, if present, can be observed. Karyotype analysis can be performed on foetuses and adult offspring to determine if induced genetic damage can be transmitted. Using this study design, cyclophosphamide, 1,3-butadiene and urethane have been examined and each compound produced positive responses: cyclophosphamide in all endpoints examined, 1,3-butadiene in some and urethane only produced liver tumours in F{sub 1} male offspring. This suggests the endpoints are determined by independent genetic events. The results from

  1. Male sexual dysfunction in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Christopher CK; Singam, Praveen; Hong, Goh Eng; Zainuddin, Zulkifli Md

    2011-01-01

    Sex has always been a taboo subject in Asian society. However, over the past few years, awareness in the field of men's sexual health has improved, and interest in sexual health research has recently increased. The epidemiology and prevalence of erectile dysfunction, hypogonadism and premature ejaculation in Asia are similar in the West. However, several issues are specific to Asian males, including culture and beliefs, awareness, compliance and the availability of traditional/complementary medicine. In Asia, sexual medicine is still in its infancy, and a concerted effort from the government, relevant societies, physicians and the media is required to propel sexual medicine to the forefront of health care. PMID:21643001

  2. The epidemiology of male infertility.

    PubMed

    Winters, Brian R; Walsh, Thomas J

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this review is to integrate understanding of epidemiology and infertility. A primer on epidemiologic science and an example disease for which the design of epidemiologic investigations is readily apparent are provided. Key features of infertility that limit epidemiologic investigation are described and a survey of available data on the epidemiology of infertility provided. Finally, the work that must be completed to move this area of research forward is proposed, and, with this new perspective of "infertility as a disease," improvements envisioned in public health that may be gained through improved understanding of the epidemiology of male infertility.

  3. Microcephaly in a 14-month male with minimal developmental delay (speech) and mild dysmorphology with unusual mosaicism involving a ring chromosome 5

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, V.; Lieber, E.; Yu, M.T.

    1994-09-01

    This male at birth weighed 5 lbs, 14 oz and was full term. His mother was G3 P2012. His height and weight follow the 3rd percentile; however, his head circumference is below the 3rd percentile. His hearing is age-appropriate; however, his speech is poor to absent. His hearing is intact. He had 2-5 cafe-au-lait spots (0.5 to 1.0 cm) on his trunk and extremities. His face showed mild dysmorphology (non-specific). His tone and central nervous system are intact. Because of the microcephaly, a chromosome study was performed. A skin fibroblast culture was performed because of his appropriate milestones. One cell in the peripheral blood and one cell in the skin biopsy demonstrated two normal chromosome 5s. FISH studies using chromosome 5 painting probe confirmed the observations of routine cytogenetic studies. The marker chromosome was identified as part of chromosome 5. At 14 months, the patient does not have the appearance associated with the Cri-du-chat syndrome. Additional studies with probes for the specific region associated with this syndrome are planned.

  4. Suited and Unsuited Hybrid III Impact Testing and Finite Element Model Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria and injury assessment reference values (IARV) extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). For the ATD IARVs, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Each of these ATDs is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis (also known as the aerospace pelvis) and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. Sled testing of the Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was performed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WAPFB). Two 5th Percentile ATDs were tested, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and NASA owned Hybrid III ATDs with aerospace pelvises. Testing was also conducted with a NASA-owned 95th Percentile Male Hybrid III with aerospace pelvis at WPAFB. Testing was performed using an Orion seat prototype provided by Johnson Space Center (JSC). A 5-point harness comprised of 2 inch webbing was also provided by JSC. For suited runs, a small and extra-large Advanced Crew Escape System (ACES) suit and helmet were also provided by JSC. Impact vectors were combined frontal/spinal and rear/lateral. Some pure spinal and rear axis testing was also performed for model validation. Peak accelerations ranged between 15 and 20-g. This range was targeted because the ATD responses fell close to the IARV defined in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Rise times varied between 70 and 110 ms to assess differences in ATD responses and model correlation for different impact energies. The purpose of the test series was to evaluate the Hybrid III ATD models in Orion-specific landing orientations both with and without a spacesuit. The results of these tests were used

  5. Aging changes in the male reproductive system

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/article/004017.htm Aging changes in the male reproductive system To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Aging changes in the male reproductive system may include changes in testicular tissue, sperm production, ...

  6. Visual perception of male body attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Fan, J; Dai, W; Liu, F; Wu, J

    2005-02-07

    Based on 69 scanned Chinese male subjects and 25 Caucasian male subjects, the present study showed that the volume height index (VHI) is the most important visual cue to male body attractiveness of young Chinese viewers among the many body parameters examined in the study. VHI alone can explain ca. 73% of the variance of male body attractiveness ratings. The effect of VHI can be fitted with two half bell-shaped exponential curves with an optimal VHI at 17.6 l m(-2) and 18.0 l m(-2) for female raters and male raters, respectively. In addition to VHI, other body parameters or ratios can have small, but significant effects on male body attractiveness. Body proportions associated with fitness will enhance male body attractiveness. It was also found that there is an optimal waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) at 0.8 and deviations from this optimal WHR reduce male body attractiveness.

  7. Neural circuitry coordinating male copulation

    PubMed Central

    Pavlou, Hania J; Lin, Andrew C; Neville, Megan C; Nojima, Tetsuya; Diao, Fengqiu; Chen, Brian E; White, Benjamin H; Goodwin, Stephen F

    2016-01-01

    Copulation is the goal of the courtship process, crucial to reproductive success and evolutionary fitness. Identifying the circuitry underlying copulation is a necessary step towards understanding universal principles of circuit operation, and how circuit elements are recruited into the production of ordered action sequences. Here, we identify key sex-specific neurons that mediate copulation in Drosophila, and define a sexually dimorphic motor circuit in the male abdominal ganglion that mediates the action sequence of initiating and terminating copulation. This sexually dimorphic circuit composed of three neuronal classes – motor neurons, interneurons and mechanosensory neurons – controls the mechanics of copulation. By correlating the connectivity, function and activity of these neurons we have determined the logic for how this circuitry is coordinated to generate this male-specific behavior, and sets the stage for a circuit-level dissection of active sensing and modulation of copulatory behavior. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20713.001 PMID:27855059

  8. Male contraception: expanding reproductive choice.

    PubMed

    Rajalakshmi, M

    2005-11-01

    The development of steroid-based oral contraceptives had revolutionized the availability of contraceptive choice for women. In order to expand the contraceptive options for couples by developing an acceptable, safe and effective male contraceptive, scientists have been experimenting with various steroidal/non-steroidal regimens to suppress testicular sperm production. The non-availability of a long-acting androgen was a limiting factor in the development of a male contraceptive regimen since all currently tested anti-spermatogenic agents also concurrently decrease circulating testosterone levels. A combination regimen of long-acting progestogen and androgen would have advantage over an androgen-alone modality since the dose of androgen required would be much smaller in the combination regimen, thereby decreasing the adverse effects of high steroid load. The progestogen in the combination regimen would act as the primary anti-spermatogenic agent. Currently, a number of combination regimens using progestogen or GnRH analogues combined with androgen are undergoing trials. The side effects of long-term use of androgens and progestogens have also undergone evaluation in primate models and the results of these studies need to be kept in view, while considering steroidal regimens for contraceptive use in men. Efforts are also being made to popularize non-scalpel vasectomy and to develop condoms of greater acceptability. The development of contraceptive vaccines for men, using sperm surface epitopes not expressed in female reproductive tract as source, still requires considerable research efforts.

  9. [Overweight and secretory male infertility].

    PubMed

    Oshakbaev, K P; Abylaĭuly, Zh; Dukenbaeva, B A

    2009-01-01

    We have performed a trial with participation of 60 males aged 23-52. Of them, 30 had secretory male iufertility (SMI) and obesity. The control 30 patients were healthy volunteers. The protocol was performed by two stages. Stage 1 included: investigation of a clinico-laboratory status, of correlation between a sorption function of erythrocytes, endogenic metabolic intoxication (EMI) and spermogram parameters, concentration of serum testosterone in SMI patients. Stage 2 consisted in treatment of the intoxication by reducing body mass. All the infertile men were obese; 30% of them had low glucose tolerance, 46.7% had stage 2 hypertension, 23.3%--seasonal allergic symptoms. The level of organic substances on the surface of erythrocytes in infertile men was higher than in the controls (p < 0.01). A negative correlation was seen between spermogram parameters and organic substances content on erythrocytic surface (p < 0/05), concentration of serum testosterone and the above substances (p < 0.01). The loss of fat tissue by 7-14 kg by infertile men resulted in a positive trend in spermogram parameters and the level of serum testosterone (p < 0.01).

  10. Male facial anthropometry and attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Soler, Caries; Kekäläinen, Jukka; Núñez, Manuel; Sancho, María; Núñez, Javier; Yaber, Iván; Gutiérrez, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    The symmetry and masculinity of the face are often considered important elements of male facial attractiveness. However, facial preferences are rarely studied on natural faces. We studied the effect of these traits and facial metric parameters on facial attractiveness in Spanish and Colombian raters. In total, 13 metric and 11 asymmetry parameters from natural, unmanipulated frontal face photographs of 50 Spanish men were measured with the USIA semiautomatic anthropometric software. All raters (women and men) were asked to rank these images as potential long-term partners for females. In both sexes, facial attractiveness was negatively associated with facial masculinity, and preference was not associated with facial symmetry. In Spanish raters, both sexes preferred male traits that were larger in the right side of the face, which may reflect a human tendency to prefer a certain degree of facial asymmetry. We did not find such preference in Colombian raters, but they did show stronger preference for facial femininity than Spanish raters. Present results suggest that facial relative femininity, which is expected to signal, eg good parenting and cooperation skills, may be an important signal of mate quality when females seek long-term partners. Facial symmetry appears unimportant in such long-term mating preferences.

  11. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  12. Synchronous bilateral breast cancer in a male

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Hernández, María Caridad; Díaz Prado, Yenia Ivet; Pérez, Suanly Rodríguez; Díaz, Ronald Rodríguez; Aleaga, Zaili Gutiérrez

    2013-01-01

    Male breast cancer, which represents only 1% of all breast cancers, is occasionally associated with a family history of breast cancer. Sporadic male breast cancers presenting with another primary breast cancer are extremely rare. In this article, we report on a 70-year-old male patient with bilateral multifocal and synchronous breast cancer and without a family history of breast cancer. PMID:24319497

  13. African American Males Navigate Racial Microaggressions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkins, Bryan K.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Context: High school educational environments find Black males experience systemic racial microaggressions in the form of discipline policies, academic tracking and hegemonic curriculum (Allen, Scott, & Lewis, 2013). Black males in high school are more likely than their White male peers to have high school truancies and be viewed as…

  14. Flunitrazepam intake in male offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, Anna M; Edman, Gunnar; Meurling, Ann Wirsén; Levander, Sten; Kristiansson, Marianne

    2012-04-01

    The abuse of flunitrazepam (FZ) compounds is worldwide, and several studies have reflected on the consequences with regard to violence, aggression and criminal lifestyle of FZ users. Criminals take high doses of FZ or some other benzodiazepines to "calm down" before the planned crime. There is support from earlier studies that most likely, all benzodiazepines may increase aggression in vulnerable males. Chronic intake of high doses of FZ increases aggression in male rats. Because psychopathy involves aggression, we have examined whether psychopathy as well as any of the four facets of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) (Interpersonal, Affective, Lifestyle and Antisocial) are related to different substance use disorders, with the focus on FZ. We have also examined the relationship between each PCL-R item and FZ use. Participants were 114 male offenders aged 14-35 years, all of whom were convicted for severe, predominantly violent, offences. Substance use, including FZ, was not more common in those who scored high in psychopathy. Use of FZ was more common in offenders who scored high in Facet 4 (Antisocial) of the PCL-R (odds ratio = 4.30, 95% CI 1.86-9.94). Only one of the PCL-R items, "Criminal versatility", was significantly associated with FZ use (odds ratio = 3.7). It may be concluded that intake of FZ has a specific relationship to only one of the facets and not to psychopathy per se. The findings have also important theoretical implications because Facet 4 is not a key factor of the construct of psychopathy. Clinical implications of the article: We have used the new two-factor and four-facet theoretical model of psychopathy in the young offender population, many of them with one or more substance use disorders. The present results suggest that antisocial behavior defined by Facet 4 (poor behavioral control, early behavior problems, juvenile delinquency, revocation of conditional release and criminal versatility) in the studied subjects is more typical

  15. Misexpression of the white (w) gene triggers male-male courtship in Drosophila.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S D; Odenwald, W F

    1995-01-01

    We report here that the general ectopic expression of a tryptophan/guanine transmembrane transporter gene, white (w), induces male-male courtship in Drosophila. Activation of a hsp-70/miniwhite (mini-w) transgene in mature males results in a marked change in their sexual behavior such that they begin to vigorously court other mature males. In transformant populations containing equal numbers of both sexes, most males participate, thus forming male-male courtship chains, circles, and lariats. Mutations that ablate the w transgene function also abolish this inducible behavior. Female sexual behavior does not appear to be altered by ectopic w expression. By contrast, when exposed to an active homosexual courtship environment, non-transformant males alter their behavior and actively participate in the male-male chaining. These findings demonstrate that, in Drosophila, both genetic and environmental factors play a role in male sexual behavior. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7777542

  16. What Should Be the Energy Policy of the United States? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1978-1979. Senate, 95th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This collection of excerpts and bibliographies address the three debate propositions selected as subjects of the 1978-1979 debate question for high schools selected by the National University Extension Service, "What should be the energy policy of the United States?" The collection is divided into three parts each addressing one of the…

  17. Nutrition Education, Part One. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    These meetings of the House Subcommittee on Agriculture were held to discuss the state of public health and its relation to good nutrition. The education of consumers was the prime focus, and witnesses before the committee were nutrition experts and consumers, who expressed their concerns, demands, and needs. (JD)

  18. Investigation of the mass distribution of a detailed seated male finite element model.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Thompson, A Bradley; Hayes, Ashley R; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-06-01

    Accurate mass distribution in computational human body models is essential for proper kinematic and kinetic simulations. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mass distribution of a 50th percentile male (M50) full body finite element model (FEM) in the seated position. The FEM was partitioned into 10 segments, using segment planes constructed from bony landmarks per the methods described in previous research studies. Body segment masses and centers of gravity (CGs) of the FEM were compared with values found from these studies, which unlike the present work assumed homogeneous body density. Segment masses compared well to literature while CGs showed an average deviation of 6.0% to 7.0% when normalized by regional characteristic lengths. The discrete mass distribution of the FEM appears to affect the mass and CGs of some segments, particularly those with low-density soft tissues. The locations of the segment CGs are provided in local coordinate systems, thus facilitating comparison with other full body FEMs and human surrogates. The model provides insights into the effects of inhomogeneous mass on the location of body segment CGs.

  19. Injury risk curves for the WorldSID 50th male dummy.

    PubMed

    Petitjean, Audrey; Trosseille, Xavier; Praxl, Norbert; Hynd, David; Irwin, Annette

    2012-10-01

    The development of the WorldSID 50th percentile male dummy was initiated in 1997 by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO/TC22/SC12/WG5) with the objective of developing a more biofidelic side impact dummy and supporting the adoption of a harmonised dummy into regulations. The dummy is currently under evaluation at the Working Party on Passive Safety (GRSP) in order to be included in the pole side impact global technical regulation (GTR). Injury risk curves dedicated to this dummy and built on behalf of ISO/TC22/SC12/WG6 were proposed in order to assess the occupant safety performance (Petitjean et al. 2009). At that time, there was no recommendation yet on the injury criteria and no consensus on the most accurate statistical method to be used. Since 2009, ISO/TC22/SC12/WG6 reached a consensus on the definition of guidelines to build injury risk curves, including the use of the survival analysis, the distribution assessment and quality checks. These guidelines were applied to the WorldSID 50th results published in 2009 in order to be able to provide a final set of injury risk curves recommended by ISO/TC22/SC12/WG6. The paper presents the different steps of the guidelines as well as the recommended injury risk curves dedicated to the WorldSID 50th for lateral shoulder load, thoracic rib deflection, abdomen rib deflection and pubic force.

  20. Treatment of hypogonadism in males.

    PubMed

    Watson, Sara; Fuqua, John S; Lee, Peter A

    2014-02-01

    The treatment of adolescent males with hypogonadism using testosterone is dependent on the underlying diagnosis as well as the patient's and family's preferences. Those with testicular failure, always a pathologic condition, begin lifelong therapy, while short-term therapy is often begun for those who have a delayed puberty. There is a wide variety of testosterone formulations available, with differences in adverse events sometimes associated with the method of administration. The goals of treatment involve stimulating physical puberty, including achievement of virilization, a normal muscle mass and bone mineral density for age, and improvement in psychosocial wellbeing. While androgen therapy results in physical changes of puberty, the potential for fertility must be considered for those with permanent gonadotropin deficiency. in this population, therapy with gonadotropins or gonadotropin releasing hormone may be effective. For those with testicular failure, fertility may be possible but requires assisted reproductive procedures.

  1. Male reproductive health and yoga

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Pallav; Chaudhuri, Prasenjit; Bhattacharya, Koushik

    2013-01-01

    Now-a-days reproductive health problems along with infertility in male is very often observed. Various Assisted Reproductive Technologies have been introduced to solve the problem, but common people cannot afford the cost of such procedures. Various ayurvedic and other alternative medicines, along with regular yoga practice are proven to be not only effective to enhance the reproductive health in men to produce a successful pregnancy, but also to regulate sexual desire in men who practice celibacy. Yoga is reported to reduce stress and anxiety, improve autonomic functions by triggering neurohormonal mechanisms by the suppression of sympathetic activity, and even, today, several reports suggested regular yoga practice from childhood is beneficial for reproductive health. In this regard the present review is aimed to provide all the necessary information regarding the effectiveness of yoga practice to have a better reproductive health and to prevent infertility. PMID:23930026

  2. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  3. Vocal competition in male Xenopus laevis frogs

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Martha L.; Corke, Anna; Korsh, Jeremy; Yin, David; Kelley, Darcy B.

    2011-01-01

    Male Xenopus laevis frogs produce underwater advertisement calls that attract gravid females and suppress calling by male competitors. Here we explore whether groups of males establish vocal ranks and whether auditory cues alone suffice for vocal suppression. Tests of male–male pairs within assigned groups reveal linear vocal dominance relations, in which each male has a defined rank. Both the duration over which males interact, as well as the number of competitive opportunities, affect linearity. Linear dominance across the group is stable for about 2 weeks; rank is dynamic. Males engage in physical interactions (clasping) while paired but clasping and vocal rank are not correlated. Playbacks of advertisement calls suppress calling and calls from high- and low-ranking males are equally effective. Thus, auditory cues alone suffice to suppress vocal behavior. Playback intensities equivalent to a nearby male advertising effectively suppress calling while low-intensity playbacks are either ineffective or stimulate vocal behavior. X. laevis advertisement calls are biphasic, composed of alternating fast and slow click trills. Approximately half the males tested are more vocally suppressed by all slow than by all fast trills; thus, these males can distinguish between the two phases. The fully aquatic family Pipidae diverged from terrestrial ancestors approximately 170 mya. Vocal suppression in the X. laevis mating system may represent the translation of an ancient anuran social strategy to underwater life. PMID:21442049

  4. Functional rare males in diploid parthenogenetic Artemia.

    PubMed

    Maccari, M; Gómez, A; Hontoria, F; Amat, F

    2013-09-01

    Functional males that are produced occasionally in some asexual taxa - called 'rare males' - raise considerable evolutionary interest, as they might be involved in the origin of new parthenogenetic lineages. Diploid parthenogenetic Artemia produce rare males, which may retain the ability to mate with females of related sexual lineages. Here, we (i) describe the frequency of male progeny in populations of diploid parthenogenetic Artemia, (ii) characterize rare males morphologically, (iii) assess their reproductive role, using cross-mating experiments with sexual females of related species from Central Asia and characterize the F1 hybrid offspring viability and (iv) confirm genetically both the identity and functionality of rare males using DNA barcoding and microsatellite loci. Our result suggests that these males may have an evolutionary role through genetic exchange with related sexual species and that diploid parthenogenetic Artemia is a good model system to investigate the evolutionary transitions between sexual species and parthenogenetic strains.

  5. Beyond the Condom: Frontiers in Male Contraception.

    PubMed

    Roth, Mara Y; Amory, John K

    2016-05-01

    Nearly half of all pregnancies worldwide are unplanned, despite numerous contraceptive options available. No new contraceptive method has been developed for men since the invention of condom. Nevertheless, more than 25% of contraception worldwide relies on male methods. Therefore, novel effective methods of male contraception are of interest. Herein we review the physiologic basis for both male hormonal and nonhormonal methods of contraception. We review the history of male hormonal contraception development, current hormonal agents in development, as well as the potential risks and benefits of male hormonal contraception options for men. Nonhormonal methods reviewed will include both pharmacological and mechanical approaches in development, with specific focus on methods which inhibit the testicular retinoic acid synthesis and action. Multiple hormonal and nonhormonal methods of male contraception are in the drug development pathway, with the hope that a reversible, reliable, safe method of male contraception will be available to couples in the not too distant future.

  6. [Brain mechanisms of male sexual function].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Dou, Xin; Li, Jun-Fa; Luo, Yan-Lin

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, we reviewed the brain imaging studies of male sexual function in recent years from three aspects: the brain mechanism of normal sexual function, the brain mechanism of sexual dysfunction, and the mechanism of drug therapy for sexual dysfunction. Studies show that the development stages of male sexual activities, such as the excitement phase, plateau phase and orgasm phase, are controlled by different neural networks. The mesodiencephalic transition zone may play an important role in the start up of male ejaculation. There are significant differences between sexual dysfunction males and normal males in activation patterns of the brain in sexual arousal. The medial orbitofrontal cortex and inferior frontal gyrus in the abnormal activation pattern are correlated with sexual dysfunction males in sexual arousal. Serum testosterone and morphine are commonly used drugs for male sexual dysfunction, whose mechanisms are to alter the activating levels of the medial orbitofrontal cortex, insula, claustrum and inferior temporal gyrus.

  7. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  8. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-07

    radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  9. Self-perceived depression, anxiety, stress and their relationships with psychosocial job factors in male automotive assembly workers.

    PubMed

    Edimansyah, Bin Abdin; Rusli, Bin Nordin; Naing, Lin; Mohamed Rusli, Bin Abdullah; Winn, Than; Tengku Mohamed Ariff, Bin Raja Hussin

    2008-01-01

    Depression, anxiety and stress have been recognized as important mental outcome measures in stressful working settings. The present study explores the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress; and their relationships with psychosocial job factors. A cross-sectional study involving 728 male automotive assembly workers was conducted in two major automotive assembly plants in Malaysia using the validated Malay versions of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales (DASS) and Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Based on the DASS cut-off of > or =78 percentile scores, the prevalence of self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress was 35.4%, 47.2% and 31.1%, respectively. Four (0.5%), 29 (4.0%) and 2 (0.3%) workers, respectively, reported extremely severe self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress. Multiple linear regression analyses, controlling for age, education, salary, duration of work and marital status, revealed that psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition were positively associated with DASS-Depression, DASS-Anxiety and DASS-Stress; supervisor support was inversely associated with DASS-Depression and DASS-Stress. We suggest that reducing psychological job demand, job insecurity and hazardous condition factors may improve the self-perceived depression, anxiety and stress in male automotive assembly workers. Supervisor support is protective for self-perceived depression and stress.

  10. The craniofacial complex in 47,XYY males.

    PubMed

    Grön, M; Pietilä, K; Alvesalo, L

    1997-08-01

    Eight adult, Finnish 47,XYY males were compared with population male and female controls and, in addition, three of them were compared with first-degree male relatives. Linear and angular measurements were made from standardized lateral cephalograms of patients and normal population controls from the "Kvantti" study series. In both comparisons the craniofacial dimensions in 47,XYY males were larger than those in population male and female controls. Their craniofacial proportions and plane angles were similar to those of normal men except for a larger lower facial height with posterior rotation of the mandible and a tendency to bimaxillary protrusion, a longer cranial base and a lesser cranial-base angle. Thus the supernumerary Y chromosomal gene(s) in 47,XYY males may result in larger craniofacial dimensions than in normal males, without substantial effects on dimensional ratios and plane angles. This general metric pattern is similar to that observed in relation to many adult body and head dimensions, and the dental arches and tooth crowns, of 47,XYY males. The foramen magnum in 47,XYY males was smaller in the sagittal plane than that of normal males and females.

  11. Cytokinesis in plant male meiosis.

    PubMed

    De Storme, Nico; Geelen, Danny

    2013-03-01

    In somatic cell division, cytokinesis is the final step of the cell cycle and physically divides the mother cytoplasm into two daughter cells. In the meiotic cell division, however, pollen mother cells (PMCs) undergo two successive nuclear divisions without an intervening S-phase and consequently generate four haploid daughter nuclei out of one parental cell. In line with this, the physical separation of meiotic nuclei does not follow the conventional cytokinesis pathway, but instead is mediated by alternative processes, including polar-based phragmoplast outgrowth and RMA-mediated cell wall positioning. In this review, we outline the different cytological mechanisms of cell plate formation operating in different types of PMCs and additionally focus on some important features associated with male meiotic cytokinesis, including cytoskeletal dynamics and callose deposition. We also provide an up-to-date overview of the main molecular actors involved in PMC wall formation and additionally highlight some recent advances on the effect of cold stress on meiotic cytokinesis in plants.

  12. Age and gender-related reference values for serum dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol levels in Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; El-Doush, Inaam; Billedo, Grisellhi

    2007-09-01

    We established a reference range for dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol in a Saudi population previously selected for a cross-sectional study evaluating selenium and vitamin status. Concentrations of dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol were 0.999 +/- 0.31 mg/dL (n=994, range 0.11-3.42 mg/dL) and 49.14 +/- 24.15 micro/dL (n=1000, range 11.20-400.85 microg/dL), respectively. The levels of dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol in serum were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. We took the influence of age and gender into account. Both had significant effect on the levels of all-trans-retinol in serum, except in the case of dl-alpha-tocopherol, where no gender related effect was found. We used the 5th and 95th percentiles as reference limits. Based on these criteria, it was found that these reference limits differed between genders for all-trans-retinol. Our lower and upper limits for dl-alpha-tocopherol classified by three age groups were very close to the normal range of 0.5-1.6 mg/dL, as found in previous studies. The 5th percentile of all-trans-retinol in both males and females, stratified by age, was close to a level of <20 microg/dL, which could be regarded as a mild vitamin A deficiency according to WHO criteria. But the value corresponding to the 95th percentile was higher than the upper limit of vitamin A's normal range of 70 microg/dL, suggesting a potentially harmful high dietary intake of vitamin A. The reference intervals elaborated here may help in the assessment of the vitamin status and in detecting subjects at risk of developing pathologies associated with either excess intake or deficiency.

  13. [Male breast cancer: a challenge for urologists].

    PubMed

    Hofer, C; Schmalfeldt, B; Gschwend, J E; Herkommer, K

    2010-09-01

    Male breast cancer (male BC) accounts for <1% of all cancers in men, showing an increasing incidence with a peak in the sixth decade. Overall, men experience a worse prognosis than women, probably due to an advanced stage together with the higher age at diagnosis of male patients. Major risk factors for developing male BC include clinical disorders involving hormonal imbalances (excess of estrogen or a deficiency of testosterone as seen in patients with Klinefelter syndrome) and a positive family history for breast cancer. About 90% of male BC are invasive ductal carcinomas. Standard treatment for localized cancer is surgical removal. Adjuvant radiation and systemic therapy are the same as in women with breast cancer. Male BC expresses hormone receptors in about 90% of cases; therefore, tamoxifen is a therapeutic option. A future challenge for the urologist or andrologist is to diagnose the disease at an early stage to improve prognosis.

  14. Male Weaponry in a Fighting Cricket

    PubMed Central

    Judge, Kevin A.; Bonanno, Vanessa L.

    2008-01-01

    Sexually selected male weaponry is widespread in nature. Despite being model systems for the study of male aggression in Western science and for cricket fights in Chinese culture, field crickets (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Gryllinae) are not known to possess sexually dimorphic weaponry. In a wild population of the fall field cricket, Gryllus pennsylvanicus, we report sexual dimorphism in head size as well as the size of mouthparts, both of which are used when aggressive contests between males escalate to physical combat. Male G. pennsylvanicus have larger heads, maxillae and mandibles than females when controlling for pronotum length. We conducted two experiments to test the hypothesis that relatively larger weaponry conveys an advantage to males in aggressive contests. Pairs of males were selected for differences in head size and consequently were different in the size of maxillae and mandibles. In the first experiment, males were closely matched for body size (pronotum length), and in the second, they were matched for body mass. Males with proportionately larger weaponry won more fights and increasing differences in weaponry size between males increased the fighting success of the male with the larger weaponry. This was particularly true when contests escalated to grappling, the most intense level of aggression. However, neither contest duration nor intensity was related to weaponry size as predicted by models of contest settlement. These results are the first evidence that the size of the head capsule and mouthparts are under positive selection via male-male competition in field crickets, and validate 800-year-old Chinese traditional knowledge. PMID:19107188

  15. The Epidemiology of Male Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferzoco, Raina M; Ruddy, Kathryn J

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer is a rare disease, accounting for only 1% of breast cancer diagnoses in the USA. The current literature suggests that genetic factors including BRCA2 mutations, family history, age, androgen/estrogen imbalance, and environmental exposures may predispose to male breast cancer. In this manuscript, we will review known and possible risk factors for male breast cancer, as well as describe the clinical patterns of the disease.

  16. Paget disease of the male nipple.

    PubMed

    El Harroudi, T; Tijami, F; El Otmany, A; Jalil, A

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer occurring in the mammary gland of men is infrequent. It accounts for 0.8% of all breast cancers, which is less than one per cent of all newly diagnosed male cancers and 0.2% of male cancer deaths. However, Paget disease of the male nipple is extremely rare. We report a single case of Paget disease with infiltrative ductal carcinoma of the breast in a 61-year-old man.

  17. Introduction: Ejaculatory problems and male infertility.

    PubMed

    Sigman, Mark

    2015-11-01

    There are a variety of dysfunctions of the ejaculatory process which may negatively impact male fertility but are not commonly discussed. The meanings of the terms used to describe these conditions are often unclear. This month's Views and Reviews define the commonly used and confused terms. The initial article explains normal male function with an emphasis on the ejaculatory process. Following articles discuss the causes, evaluation and management of the male with ejaculatory dysfunction.

  18. Strategic male mating effort and cryptic male choice in a scorpionfly.

    PubMed

    Engqvist, L; Sauer, K P

    2001-04-07

    In animal species with high male mating effort, males often find themselves in a dilemma: by increasing their mating effort, the gain from each copulation increases but simultaneously reduces available resources and, thus, the opportunity for future copulations. Therefore, we expect males to spend less reproductive resources on matings that provide low reproductive potential, thereby saving resources for future copulations, possibly with high-quality females, a sort of cryptic male choice. However, the strength of the trade-off between investment in a current mating and resources available for future matings must not be the same for all males. Males with relatively high mating costs should allocate their limited resources more cautiously than males with more plentiful resources. Here, we examine this prediction in the scorpionfly Panorpa cognata. Prior to copulation, males produce a large salivary mass on which females feed during copulation. We show that the production of larger salivary masses leads to longer copulations. Moreover, the size of the salivary gland and salivary mass increases with increasing male condition. However, males in poor condition make a relatively higher mating investment than males in good condition. We therefore expect male condition to influence cryptic male choice. In accordance with our hypothesis, only males in poor condition choose cryptically, producing larger salivary masses in copulations with females of high fecundity.

  19. Sexually coercive male chimpanzees sire more offspring.

    PubMed

    Feldblum, Joseph T; Wroblewski, Emily E; Rudicell, Rebecca S; Hahn, Beatrice H; Paiva, Thais; Cetinkaya-Rundel, Mine; Pusey, Anne E; Gilby, Ian C

    2014-12-01

    In sexually reproducing animals, male and female reproductive strategies often conflict. In some species, males use aggression to overcome female choice, but debate persists over the extent to which this strategy is successful. Previous studies of male aggression toward females among wild chimpanzees have yielded contradictory results about the relationship between aggression and mating behavior. Critically, however, copulation frequency in primates is not always predictive of reproductive success. We analyzed a 17-year sample of behavioral and genetic data from the Kasekela chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) community in Gombe National Park, Tanzania, to test the hypothesis that male aggression toward females increases male reproductive success. We examined the effect of male aggression toward females during ovarian cycling, including periods when the females were sexually receptive (swollen) and periods when they were not. We found that, after controlling for confounding factors, male aggression during a female's swollen periods was positively correlated with copulation frequency. However, aggression toward swollen females was not predictive of paternity. Instead, aggression by high-ranking males toward females during their nonswollen periods was positively associated with likelihood of paternity. This indicates that long-term patterns of intimidation allow high-ranking males to increase their reproductive success, supporting the sexual coercion hypothesis. To our knowledge, this is the first study to present genetic evidence of sexual coercion as an adaptive strategy in a social mammal.

  20. Brood care by male bumble bees

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Sydney A.

    1985-01-01

    Male Bombus griseocollis (Hymenoptera: Apidae) share in the brood care of nestmates by incubating pupae (usually during the first few days after they emerge as adults). Male posture during incubation of a pupa is identical to that observed for females. Pupae incubated by males were 4°C-6°C above the temperature of unincubated pupae. Although this increase was not as great as that caused by workers or queens, it was an important factor in warming pupae. Incubating males may benefit nestmates incidentally without lowering their own individual fitness. Images PMID:16593608

  1. Modulation of Drosophila male behavioral choice

    PubMed Central

    Certel, Sarah J.; Savella, Mary Grace; Schlegel, Dana C. F.; Kravitz, Edward A.

    2007-01-01

    The reproductive and defensive behaviors that are initiated in response to specific sensory cues can provide insight into how choices are made between different social behaviors. We manipulated both the activity and sex of a subset of neurons and found significant changes in male social behavior. Results from aggression assays indicate that the neuromodulator octopamine (OCT) is necessary for Drosophila males to coordinate sensory cue information presented by a second male and respond with the appropriate behavior: aggression rather than courtship. In competitive male courtship assays, males with no OCT or with low OCT levels do not adapt to changing sensory cues and court both males and females. We identified a small subset of neurons in the suboesophageal ganglion region of the adult male brain that coexpress OCT and male forms of the neural sex determination factor, Fruitless (FruM). A single FruM-positive OCT neuron sends extensive bilateral arborizations to the suboesophageal ganglion, the lateral accessory lobe, and possibly the posterior antennal lobe, suggesting a mechanism for integrating multiple sensory modalities. Furthermore, eliminating the expression of FruM by transformer expression in OCT/tyramine neurons changes the aggression versus courtship response behavior. These results provide insight into how complex social behaviors are coordinated in the nervous system and suggest a role for neuromodulators in the functioning of male-specific circuitry relating to behavioral choice. PMID:17360588

  2. Codependency in male and female helping professionals.

    PubMed

    Martsolf, D S; Hughes-Hammer, C; Estok, P; Zeller, R A

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine and compare the prevalence of codependency in a group of 77 female and a group of 72 male helping professionals. Relatively low rates of codependency were observed in this sample, and the five-factor structure of the Codependency Assessment Tool (CODAT) was replicated. Males showed slightly higher codependency than females on the total CODAT and on the Hiding Self and Family of Origin Issues subscales. The CODAT was shown to be relevant to both males and females. Further research is needed to determine if a general population of male and female subjects would yield similar results.

  3. Sexy Faces in a Male Paper Wasp

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Alberto Mourão Júnior, Carlos; Santos do Nascimento, Fabio; Lino-Neto, José

    2014-01-01

    Sexually selected signals are common in many animals, though little reported in social insects. We investigated the occurrence of male visual signals mediating the dominance relationships among males and female choice of sexual partner in the paper wasp Polistes simillimus. Males have three conspicuous, variable and sexually dimorphic traits: black pigmentation on the head, a pair of yellow abdominal spots and body size differences. By conducting behavioral assays, we found that none of the three visual traits are associated with male-male dominance relationship. However, males with higher proportion of black facial pigmentation and bigger yellow abdominal spots are more likely chosen as sexual partners. Also, after experimentally manipulating the proportion of black pigment on males' face, we found that females may evaluate male facial coloration during the choice of a sexual partner. Thus, the black pigmentation on P. simillimus male's head appears to play a role as a sexually selected visual signal. We suggest that sexual selection is a common force in Polistes and we highlight the importance of this group as a model for the study of visual communication in insects. PMID:24849073

  4. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2016-09-08

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition.

  5. Circulation patterns related to debris-flow triggering in the Zermatt valley in current and future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Floor; Goyette, Stéphane; Rahman, Kazi; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to investigate the types of large-scale meteorological situations that are conducive to the precipitation and temperature conditions most likely to trigger debris flows in the Zermatt valley, Switzerland, under current and future climates. A two-dimensional Bayesian probability calculation was applied to take account of uncertainties in debris-flow triggering. Precipitation quantities exceeding the 95th percentile of daily precipitation amounts were found to have a significantly higher probability to coincide with observed debris flows. A different relationship exists for extreme temperatures, however. Southerly air flows, weak horizontal pressure gradients over Europe, and westerly flows are mostly associated with observed debris flows and 95th precipitation percentile exceedances. These principal flow directions are well represented in the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM control simulations for events exceeding the 95th precipitation percentile and the 30th temperature percentile. Under the IPCC A2 emission scenario, westerly and southerly flows are mostly responsible for these precipitation and temperature conditions under the hypothesis of slow adaptation to climate change (HS1/HC1). Under the hypothesis of rapid adaptation to climate change (HS1/HS1), southerly flows and weak horizontal pressure gradients are likely to gain in importance. In both scenarios for the future, southeasterly flows are among the principal flow directions responsible for the joint exceedance of the 95th precipitation percentile and the 30th temperature percentile, while these were absent in observations and the control simulation.

  6. The transvestite serpent: why do male garter snakes court (some) other males?

    PubMed

    Shine; Harlow; LeMaster; Moore; Mason

    2000-02-01

    In large mating aggregations of red-sided garter snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis, in Manitoba, male courtship is directed not only to females, but also to other males with female-like skin lipids ('she-males'). We show that 'she-maleness' is an intrinsic property of a male rather than an artefact of lipid transfer from females, and that male-male courtship is very common in the field. She-males were distinctive in terms of appearance (they were heavier than other males and more often covered with mud), behaviour (they were inactive and rarely courted females) and performance (they were slow crawlers, ineffective courters and easily outcompeted by other males in mating trials). 'She-maleness' was not a characteristic of a particular subset of males, as envisaged in previous work; instead, it was a transitory phase that most (perhaps all) male snakes passed through soon after they first emerged from the winter den. Recently emerged males spent their first day or two relatively inactive, while restoring physiological functions (including locomotor performance and courtship ability). Experimental application of female skin lipids on to males dramatically decreased courtship levels of the recipient snakes. Thus, recently emerged males may derive two kinds of benefit from mimicking female skin lipids. First, female mimicry 'switches off' the male's own (energetically expensive) courtship at a time when that courtship would be unproductive. Second, it may disadvantage his rivals by distracting them from females, and increasing their energy expenditure. Copyright 2000 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  7. Male-male competition leads to less abundant but more attractive sperm.

    PubMed

    Zizzari, Z Valentina; van Straalen, Nico M; Ellers, Jacintha

    2013-01-01

    Males employ complex strategies to optimize their reproductive success when faced with male-male competition; for instance, they can adjust the ejaculate characteristics. In copulating species, a male may also strategically adjust his ejaculate expenditure according to female quality. Quantifying the relative contribution of ejaculate plasticity in male reproductive success is often difficult, especially when females exert postcopulatory cryptic choice. One way to quantify the functional significance of ejaculate plasticity is offered by mating systems in which the reproductive partners do not meet each other during insemination. In the collembolan Orchesella cincta, males deposit their ejaculates (spermatophores) irrespective of the presence of females. We tested whether Orchesella males adjust spermatophore number when exposed to the presence of another male and whether changes in spermatophore production influence female choice. We found that Orchesella males display plasticity in spermatophore allocation. Males decreased the spermatophore number when exposed to a rival male. Moreover, females preferentially took up spermatophores of males that were exposed to a competitor. The reduction in spermatophore number suggests, besides an adaptive response to the risk of ejaculate removal by rival males, an optimization strategy owing to the costs of more attractive spermatophores.

  8. Recruiting and Retaining Male Special Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Craig J.; Goessling, Deborah Peters

    2005-01-01

    The percentage of male students who complete an undergraduate degree in the field of special education continues to be much lower than that of female graduates. Low status, low salaries, the perception of teaching as women's work, potential complaints of child abuse and sexual harassment, and a lack of male peer groups factor into this low…

  9. Male-Female Sexuality: An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Janice

    This annotated bibliography contains over 500 sources on the historical and contemporary development and expression of male and female sexuality. There are 68 topic headings which provide easy access for subject areas. A major portion of the bibliography is devoted to contemporary male-female sexuality. These materials consist of research findings…

  10. The Voices of Young Black Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparrow, Tracey; Sparrow, Abby

    2012-01-01

    What do young black males say about what stands in the way of their academic success? Rather than rely on scholarly researchers to answer this question, the authors talked with a number of black males between ages 13 and 22 in Washington D.C., and Milwaukee, Wis., to learn what they had to say. These young men rarely talked about schools or…

  11. [Mechanisms of electromagnetic radiation damaging male reproduction].

    PubMed

    Xue, Lei; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wang, Shui-Ming

    2012-08-01

    More and more evidence from over 50 years of researches on the effects of electromagnetic radiation on male reproduction show that a certain dose of electromagnetic radiation obviously damages male reproduction, particularly the structure and function of spermatogenic cells. The mechanisms of the injury may be associated with energy dysmetabolism, lipid peroxidation, abnormal expressions of apoptosis-related genes and proteins, and DNA damage.

  12. Adolescent Male Attitudes about Singing in Choir

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors that influence adolescent males to enroll in school choir as an elective class and to assess their attitudes about singing in general, self-concept of their own voices, and perception of others' view of adolescent males' participation in choir. Data were obtained from 101 adolescent males…

  13. Male Anorexia Nervosa: A New Focus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosscope-Happel, Cindy; Hutchins, David E.; Getz, Hildy G.; Hayes, Gerald L.

    2000-01-01

    Although anorexia nervosa affects over one million males yearly, it is often misdiagnosed or overlooked by mental health and medical practitioners. This article brings the problem to the forefront and outlines features that are unique to these males. Greater recognition of the disorder can lead to more accurate diagnoses and, subsequently, better…

  14. Female choice for male motor skills

    PubMed Central

    Barske, Julia; Schlinger, Barney A.; Wikelski, Martin; Fusani, Leonida

    2011-01-01

    Sexual selection was proposed by Darwin to explain the evolution of male sexual traits such as ornaments and elaborate courtship displays. Empirical and theoretical studies have traditionally focused on ornaments; the reasons for the evolution of elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays remain unclear. We addressed the hypothesis that females choose males on the basis of subtle differences in display performance, indicating motor skills that facilitate survival. Male golden-collared manakins (Manacus vitellinus) perform elaborate, acrobatic courtship displays. We used high-speed cameras to record the displays of wild males and analysed them in relation to male reproductive success. Females preferred males that performed specific display moves at greater speed, with differences of tens of milliseconds strongly impacting female preference. In additional males, we recorded telemetrically the heart rate during courtship using miniature transmitters and found that courtship is associated with profoundly elevated heart rates, revealing a large metabolic investment. Our study provides evidence that females choose their mates on the basis of subtle differences in motor performance during courtship. We propose that elaborate, acrobatic courtship dances evolve because they reflect motor skills and cardiovascular function of males. PMID:21508030

  15. Career Development of Black Males: Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Baskin, Monica L.; Case, Andrew B.

    1999-01-01

    Case studies of six black males explored background, school and work experiences, and career issues. These themes emerged: fathers' financial support and role modeling influenced career development; other male role models affected aspirations; social, especially parental support for education and careers influenced decision making; and racism…

  16. Changing Views on Male Early Childhood Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    1981-01-01

    Traces the changing views on the role and status of male early childhood education teachers in the forties and fifties (male prohibition), the sixties and early seventies (the macho image), and the late seventies and early eighties (the age of androgyny).

  17. Male Categories: Are All Men "Masculine?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Eileen M.; Hyland, Diane T.

    Research on gender stereotypes has contrasted males with females, describing males by competency traits and females by traits which denote warmth or emotionality. However, it has become clear that these traits do not satisfactorily describe all members of either sex, since not all men possess only masculine characteristics and not all women…

  18. Young Adult Literature for Young Adult Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Sam D.

    1999-01-01

    Argues that young adult literature can play a significant role in the emotional and mental health of an adolescent as well as help young males become more literate. Offers a 19-item annotated list of young adult novels with male protagonists, sorted by themes: nature and adventure stories, sports stories, genre stories, historical stories, and…

  19. Male skin care: shaving and moisturization needs.

    PubMed

    Oblong, John E

    2012-01-01

    Historically, most cosmetic and medical cosmetic research has been focused on the female consumer. Advancements in the development of grooming instruments as well as changing consumer habits and attitudes toward male cosmetic skin care needs support the need to develop a deeper understanding of male skin biology and how that can be used to improve the quality of life relative to societal interactions. Male skin biology has been found to have unique properties that are distinct from females and have a significant impact on the way males groom and maintain their overall appearance. Research to date has found that male skin has a different response profile to such environmental insults as UV, heat, and stress that is based not on just differences in cosmetic or dermatological product usage but also on underlying biological differences. These differences are discussed with the implications to a broader understanding of male facial skin care needs that spans from daily grooming practices to overall health status that impacts higher incidence rate of skin cancer among males. This highlights that male skin care has a holistic need to ensure proper grooming and sunscreen moisturizer usage.

  20. Looking at the Male Librarian Stereotype.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Thad E.

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of library profession stereotypes focuses on academic male librarians. Topics include the position of the early academic librarians and the environment in which they worked; the beginnings of reference service; women in academic libraries; men in a feminized profession; and current images of male librarians in motion pictures and…

  1. Communities for and with Black Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jett, Christopher C.; Stinson, David W.; Williams, Brian A.

    2015-01-01

    The social and educational status of black male youth in the United States has been receiving increasing attention. In February 2014, President Barack Obama announced a new national initiative--My Brother's Keeper--for helping black boys and male youth or, to speak more generally, boys and young men of color, to "stay on track; providing the…

  2. Male Roles in Mid-Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Jessica Field

    1979-01-01

    A review of research literature in the area of male roles and middle age suggests that adherence to the traditional male role may be deleterious to readjustment during middle-age transitions. Traditional roles require men to have characteristics that are questioned during the middle years. (Author)

  3. Characteristics Related to Female & Male Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Agnes M.

    2004-01-01

    The following research investigated gender and the leadership role and determined if there are differences in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and characteristics between female leaders and male leaders. Literature suggests there are specific gender leadership differences between males and females in leadership styles, behaviors, traits, and…

  4. Approaches to male hypogonadism in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kristi L.; Stewart, Felicia; Larson, Brandi M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Evidence suggests that providers are not adhering to current testosterone replacement therapy guidelines when treating male hypogonadism. Understanding the diagnosis and management of this condition is further complicated by conflicting recommendations among available guidelines. NPs must select and follow the best guideline recommendations available to optimally treat male hypogonadism. PMID:28085783

  5. Family planning--male responsibility campaign.

    PubMed

    1982-01-01

    At a press conference on March 29, 1982, the Family Planning Association of Hong Kong launched a 1-year campaign to encourage men to assume more responsibility in family planning. The campaign will publicize the message that "real men" share family planning responsibilities with their wives. The campaign was developed in response to the Association's recognition that its male clinics were underutilized. Although the Association established its 1st male clinic in 1960, only 1.3% of the Association's clients in 1981 were men. Futhermore, the number of vasectomies performed in recent years had not increased. The campaign will seek to overcome the prevailing attitude that family planning is a women's issue, the reluctance of men to discuss fertility with their physicians, and various misconceptions about male methods. Activities initiated during the 1st few months of the campaign included 1) broadcasting a 30-second television spot to promote the male responsibility message; 2) setting up a mobile exhibit in railway stations and commercial complexes to inform the public about male birth control methods and about the services offered at the Association's male clinics; 3) giving away items which publicize the male clinics such as stickers, match boxes, condom samples, and literature; and 4) selling T-shirts which promote 2 as the ideal family size. In addition, a contest aimed at publicizing male birth control was undertaken jointly by a television magazine, Durex Products, and the Association. The contest engendered considerable interest and 2600 entries were received from men.

  6. Characteristics of Male Homosexual College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fromhart, Michael V.

    1971-01-01

    A limited comparative study of undergraduate homosexual males and control males were compared on referral source, therapy referral, academic interest and achievement, ordinal position, perceived relationship with parents, and personality adjustment as measured by the MMPI. Several differences were found and implications for treatment were…

  7. Male Teacher Shortage: Black Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Wayne; Rezai-Rashti, Goli M.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper the authors draw on the perspectives of black teachers to provide a more nuanced analysis of male teacher shortage. Interviews with two Caribbean teachers in Toronto, Canada, are employed to illuminate the limits of an explanatory framework that foregrounds the singularity of gender as a basis for advocating male teachers as role…

  8. How the Male Body Works Sexually

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cancer Sex and the Man With Cancer Cancer, Sex, and the Male Body Cancer and sex When you first found out you had cancer, ... remains. How a man’s body works The male sex organs A man’s genitals and sex organs are ...

  9. Male versus Female Attitudes toward Stuttering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Louis, Kenneth O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The study investigated the extent to which differences existed between public attitudes of males versus females. Method: One hundred adults, 50 males and 50 females, were chosen at random from each of 50 study samples comprising a total of 3371 respondents in a database archive who had completed the "Public Opinion Survey of Human…

  10. Why do Adolescent Girls Idolize Male Celebrities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Yuna; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Girls often idolize male celebrities, but this phenomenon has been studied little. The authors therefore assessed celebrity idolization among 142 junior high school girls and found that girls who strongly idolized a male celebrity had more experience dating, reported secure and preoccupied attachments to same-age boys, and were rated higher in…

  11. The Sexual Stereotype of the Black Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Gary L.; Cross, Herbert J.

    This paper presents the results of a study to examine the existence of sexual stereotyping of black males by white college students. Subjects were 180 male and 180 female white undergraduates; they were tested in sexually segregated groups. Each read one of three types of pornographic stories (hard-core, erotic realism, or sexual fantasy). The…

  12. Sexual Attractiveness of Males and Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Peggy; And Others

    The most important characteristics for females judging the attractiveness of males, and for males judging females, were eyes, body build and facial complexion. Previously, females tended to place less importance on physical components of attraction for both themselves and men. Possible interpretations are: (1) women have become more egalitarian…

  13. Black Males in College: An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuhrmann, Barbara S.; And Others

    Because relatively few black males successfully complete college, this study sought to determine how black male freshmen at a predominantly white university differed from other freshmen in their values, aspirations, and assumptions about college life. In the fall of 1989, the ACT Entering Student Survey, plus 30 locally developed questions, was…

  14. The Changing Experiences of Bisexual Male Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Max; McCormack, Mark; Anderson, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on in-depth interviews with 15 openly bisexual male youth from sixth forms across the UK, this article documents positive experiences of bisexual male youth in school: participants had positive coming out experiences and did not encounter significant discrimination or harassment because of their sexual identity. Participants attribute this…

  15. Metabolic profil in a group of obese Moroccan children enrolled in schools in the city of Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouane, Nezha; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Ettair, Said; Meskini, Toufik; Khalloufi, Nabil; Bouklouze, Aziz; Barkat, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine the metabolic profile in a group of obese children in Morocco. Methods The BMI, the waist circumference, the blood pressure and metabolic parameters in 73 children (37 obese and 36 normal) were compared. Results 80% of obese children had abdominal obesity (p <0.0001). For systolic blood pressure among children who have a higher value than the 95th percentile, 85.7% were obese and 14.3% children are normal children. For diastolic blood pressure, 83.34% of obese children had higher diastolic blood pressure values in the 95th percentile and 16.6% of normal children have a higher value than the 95th percentile (p=0.013). No obese child had hyperglycemia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. Conclusion Obesity is number one risk of cardiovascular disease for children. Early detection can help for an appropriate care. PMID:25977740

  16. Sneaker Males Affect Fighter Male Body Size and Sexual Size Dimorphism in Salmon.

    PubMed

    Weir, Laura K; Kindsvater, Holly K; Young, Kyle A; Reynolds, John D

    2016-08-01

    Large male body size is typically favored by directional sexual selection through competition for mates. However, alternative male life-history phenotypes, such as "sneakers," should decrease the strength of sexual selection acting on body size of large "fighter" males. We tested this prediction with salmon species; in southern populations, where sneakers are common, fighter males should be smaller than in northern populations, where sneakers are rare, leading to geographical clines in sexual size dimorphism (SSD). Consistent with our prediction, fighter male body size and SSD (fighter male∶female size) increase with latitude in species with sneaker males (Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou) but not in species without sneakers (chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta and pink salmon Oncorhynchus gorbuscha). This is the first evidence that sneaker males affect SSD across populations and species, and it suggests that alternative male mating strategies may shape the evolution of body size.

  17. Male Infertility and Its Causes in Human

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Toshinobu; Tsujimura, Akira; Miyagawa, Yasushi; Koh, Eitetsu; Namiki, Mikio; Sengoku, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Infertility is one of the most serious social problems facing advanced nations. In general, approximate half of all cases of infertility are caused by factors related to the male partner. To date, various treatments have been developed for male infertility and are steadily producing results. However, there is no effective treatment for patients with nonobstructive azoospermia, in which there is an absence of mature sperm in the testes. Although evidence suggests that many patients with male infertility have a genetic predisposition to the condition, the cause has not been elucidated in the vast majority of cases. This paper discusses the environmental factors considered likely to be involved in male infertility and the genes that have been clearly shown to be involved in male infertility in humans, including our recent findings. PMID:22046184

  18. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-08-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species.

  19. Ocean acidification changes the male fitness landscape

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Anna L.; Levitan, Don R.; Hosken, David J.; Lewis, Ceri

    2016-01-01

    Sperm competition is extremely common in many ecologically important marine taxa. Ocean acidification (OA) is driving rapid changes to the marine environments in which freely spawned sperm operate, yet the consequences of OA on sperm performance are poorly understood in the context of sperm competition. Here, we investigated the impacts of OA (+1000 μatm pCO2) on sperm competitiveness for the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Males with faster sperm had greater competitive fertilisation success in both seawater conditions. Similarly, males with more motile sperm had greater sperm competitiveness, but only under current pCO2 levels. Under OA the strength of this association was significantly reduced and there were male sperm performance rank changes under OA, such that the best males in current conditions are not necessarily best under OA. Therefore OA will likely change the male fitness landscape, providing a mechanism by which environmental change alters the genetic landscape of marine species. PMID:27531458

  20. Stress promotes maleness in hermaphroditic modular animals

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R. N.; Manríquez, P. H.; Bishop, J. D. D.; Burrows, M. T.

    2003-01-01

    Sex-allocation theory developed for hermaphroditic plants predicts that impaired phenotype or reduced parental survivorship caused by environmental stress should induce relatively greater allocation to the male function. We provide experimental evidence of stress-induced maleness, already well documented in flowering plants, in a modular animal. By using cloned copies of replicate genotypes, we show that the marine bryozoan Celleporella hyalina increases the ratio of male to female modules in response to diverse environmental stressors. Mating trials confirmed that paternity is determined by fair-raffle sperm competition, which should obviate local mate competition at characteristic population density and promote the advantage of increased male allocation. The demonstrated similarity to plants transcends specific physiological pathways and suggests that stress-induced bias toward male function is a general response of hermaphroditic modular organisms to impaired prospects for parental productivity or survival. PMID:12930903

  1. Developmental trajectories to male borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Marianne; Patel, Uday; Oakes, Allison; Matho, Andrea; Triebwasser, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Due to the higher diagnostic prevalence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in females, there exists a dearth of literature on the manifestations of BPD in men and minimal information on male developmental trajectories to the disorder. To identify precursors of BPD in males, surveys were administered to parents about their BPD male offspring and non-BPD male siblings. Questions covered aspects of probands' lives from infancy to late adolescence. BPD offspring were identified through self-reported clinical diagnoses and standardized diagnostic criteria embedded within the survey. A total of 263 male offspring (97 meeting strict criteria for BPD and 166 non-BPD siblings) were studied. The authors found that parents describe the early emergence of a constellation of symptoms in their BPD sons that include separation anxiety starting in infancy, body image concerns in childhood, and impulsivity, emptiness, and odd thinking in adolescence. This trajectory differs from the developmental course found in females diagnosed with BPD.

  2. Mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Mitsuaki; Umeda, Tomoko; Kawai, Yuki; Mori, Tsuyoshi; Kubota, Yoshihiro; Abe, Hajime; Iwai, Muneo; Yoshida, Keiko; Kagotani, Akiko; Tani, Tohru; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2014-02-01

    Male breast carcinoma is an uncommon neoplasm, accounting for 0.6% of all breast carcinomas. Invasive ductal carcinoma of no special type is the most common type of male breast carcinoma, and mucinous carcinoma occurring in the male breast is extremely rare. In the present study, we report a case of mucinous carcinoma of the male breast and discuss the clinicopathological features of this type of tumor. A 63-year-old Japanese male presented with a gradually enlarged nodule in the right breast. The resected breast specimen revealed pure mucinous carcinoma and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that tumor cells were positive for estrogen receptor (ER), but negative for progesterone receptor (PgR). In addition, HER2 expression was not amplified. Pure mucinous carcinoma is generally associated with a low incidence of lymph node or distant metastases, and excellent disease-free survival in females. However, certain cases of this type of tumor with axillary lymph node metastasis in the male breast have been reported. In addition, the immunoprofiles of mucinous carcinoma in males are fundamentally the same as those in females. More than 90% of cases show positive immunoreactivity for ER and/or PgR, and HER2 expression is not amplified. However, it has been reported that breast cancer in males is more frequently positive for ER than in females, and has less HER2 overexpression. The high rate of hormone receptor-positive breast cancer in males is considered to be due to similar conditions as those in breast cancer in postmenopausal women. The pathogenesis of male breast carcinoma, including mucinous carcinoma, remains unclear; therefore, additional clinicopathological studies are required.

  3. Plastic responses of male Drosophila melanogaster to the level of sperm competition increase male reproductive fitness

    PubMed Central

    Bretman, Amanda; Fricke, Claudia; Chapman, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary and plastic responses by males to the level of sperm competition (SC) are reported across widespread taxa, but direct tests of the consequences for male reproductive success in a competitive context are lacking. We varied male perception of SC to examine the effect on male competitive reproductive success and to test whether the outcomes were as predicted by theory. Exposure to rival males prior to mating increased a male's ejaculate investment (measured as mating duration); by contrast, exposure to rival males in the mating arena decreased mating duration. The results therefore suggested that SC intensity is important in shaping male responses to SC in this system, although the patterns were not strictly in accord with existing theory. We then tested whether males that responded to the level of SC had higher reproductive fitness in a competitive context. We found that males kept with rivals prior to mating again mated for longer; furthermore, they achieved significantly higher paternity share regardless of whether they were the first or second males to mate with a female. The plastic strategies employed by males therefore resulted in significantly increased reproductive success in a competitive context, even following subsequent rematings in which the majority of sperm were displaced. PMID:19324834

  4. Technology, normalisation and male sex work.

    PubMed

    MacPhail, Catherine; Scott, John; Minichiello, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Technological change, particularly the growth of the Internet and smart phones, has increased the visibility of male escorts, expanded their client base and diversified the range of venues in which male sex work can take place. Specifically, the Internet has relocated some forms of male sex work away from the street and thereby increased market reach, visibility and access and the scope of sex work advertising. Using the online profiles of 257 male sex workers drawn from six of the largest websites advertising male sexual services in Australia, the role of the Internet in facilitating the normalisation of male sex work is discussed. Specifically we examine how engagement with the sex industry has been reconstituted in term of better informed consumer-seller decisions for both clients and sex workers. Rather than being seen as a 'deviant' activity, understood in terms of pathology or criminal activity, male sex work is increasingly presented as an everyday commodity in the market place. In this context, the management of risks associated with sex work has shifted from formalised social control to more informal practices conducted among online communities of clients and sex workers. We discuss the implications for health, legal and welfare responses within an empowerment paradigm.

  5. Sexually antagonistic selection in human male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-06-18

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling 'Darwinian paradox'. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait.

  6. Primate Socioecology: New Insights from Males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kappeler, Peter M.

    Primate males have only recently returned to the center stage of socioecological research. This review surveys new studies that examine variation in the behavior of adult males and their role in social evolution. It is shown that group size, composition, and social behavior are determined not only by resource distribution, predation risk, and other ecological factors, but that life history traits and social factors, especially those related to sexual coercion, can have equally profound consequences for social systems. This general point is illustrated by examining male behavior at three levels: the evolution of permanent associations between males and females, the causes and consequences of variation in the number of males between group-living species, and the determinants of social relationships within and between the sexes. Direct and indirect evidence reviewed in connection with all three questions indicates that the risk of infanticide has been a pervasive force in primate social evolution. Several areas are identified for future research on male life histories that should contribute to a better understanding of male reproductive strategies and corresponding female counterstrategies.

  7. Variations in Antioxidant Genes and Male Infertility

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Bolan; Huang, Zhaofeng

    2015-01-01

    Oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated from both endogenous and environmental resources, which in turn may cause defective spermatogenesis and male infertility. Antioxidant genes, which include catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione S-transferase (GST), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2), and superoxide dismutase (SOD), play important roles in spermatogenesis and normal sperm function. In this review, we discuss the association between variations in major antioxidant genes and male infertility. Numerous studies have suggested that genetic disruption or functional polymorphisms in these antioxidant genes are associated with a higher risk for male infertility, which include low sperm quality, oligoasthenoteratozoospermia, oligozoospermia, and subfertility. The synergistic effects of environmental ROS and functional polymorphisms on antioxidant genes that result in male infertility have also been reported. Therefore, variants in antioxidant genes, which independently or synergistically occur with environmental ROS, affect spermatogenesis and contribute to the occurrence of male infertility. Large cohort and multiple center-based population studies to identify new antioxidant genetic variants that increase susceptibility to male infertility as well as validate its potential as genetic markers for diagnosis and risk assessment for male infertility for precise clinical approaches are warranted. PMID:26618172

  8. Sexually Antagonistic Selection in Human Male Homosexuality

    PubMed Central

    Camperio Ciani, Andrea; Cermelli, Paolo; Zanzotto, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate the existence of genetic factors influencing male homosexuality and bisexuality. In spite of its relatively low frequency, the stable permanence in all human populations of this apparently detrimental trait constitutes a puzzling ‘Darwinian paradox’. Furthermore, several studies have pointed out relevant asymmetries in the distribution of both male homosexuality and of female fecundity in the parental lines of homosexual vs. heterosexual males. A number of hypotheses have attempted to give an evolutionary explanation for the long-standing persistence of this trait, and for its asymmetric distribution in family lines; however a satisfactory understanding of the population genetics of male homosexuality is lacking at present. We perform a systematic mathematical analysis of the propagation and equilibrium of the putative genetic factors for male homosexuality in the population, based on the selection equation for one or two diallelic loci and Bayesian statistics for pedigree investigation. We show that only the two-locus genetic model with at least one locus on the X chromosome, and in which gene expression is sexually antagonistic (increasing female fitness but decreasing male fitness), accounts for all known empirical data. Our results help clarify the basic evolutionary dynamics of male homosexuality, establishing this as a clearly ascertained sexually antagonistic human trait. PMID:18560521

  9. Three-dimensional computer-aided human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Y C; Chen, S; Wu, G J; Lin, Y H

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research was to conduct a human factors engineering analysis of a grafting robot design using computer-aided 3D simulation technology. A prototype tubing-type grafting robot for fruits and vegetables was the subject of a series of case studies. To facilitate the incorporation of human models into the operating environment of the grafting robot, I-DEAS graphic software was applied to establish individual models of the grafting robot in line with Jack ergonomic analysis. Six human models (95th percentile, 50th percentile, and 5th percentile by height for both males and females) were employed to simulate the operating conditions and working postures in a real operating environment. The lower back and upper limb stresses of the operators were analyzed using the lower back analysis (LBA) and rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) functions in Jack. The experimental results showed that if a leg space is introduced under the robot, the operator can sit closer to the robot, which reduces the operator's level of lower back and upper limbs stress. The proper environmental layout for Taiwanese operators for minimum levels of lower back and upper limb stress are to set the grafting operation at 23.2 cm away from the operator at a height of 85 cm and with 45 cm between the rootstock and scion units.

  10. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H.; Konat, Ashwati R.; Sharma, Kamal H.; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. PMID:26824054

  11. Two thresholds, three male forms result in facultative male trimorphism in beetles.

    PubMed

    Rowland, J Mark; Emlen, Douglas J

    2009-02-06

    Male animals of many species deploy conditional reproductive strategies that contain distinct alternative phenotypes. Such facultatively expressed male tactics are assumed to be due to a single developmental threshold mechanism switching between the expression of two alternative phenotypes. However, we discovered a clade of dung beetles that commonly expresses two threshold mechanisms, resulting in three alternative phenotypes (male trimorphism). Once recognized, we found trimorphism in other beetle families that involves different types of male weapons. Evidence that insects assumed to be dimorphic can express three facultative male forms suggests that we need to adjust how we think about animal mating systems and the evolution of conditional strategies.

  12. Conflict over Male Parentage in Social Insects

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Laurent

    2004-01-01

    Mutual policing is an important mechanism that maintains social harmony in group-living organisms by suppressing the selfish behavior of individuals. In social insects, workers police one another (worker-policing) by preventing individual workers from laying eggs that would otherwise develop into males. Within the framework of Hamilton's rule there are two explanations for worker-policing behavior. First, if worker reproduction is cost-free, worker-policing should occur only where workers are more closely related to queen- than to worker-produced male eggs (relatedness hypothesis). Second, if there are substantial costs to unchecked worker reproduction, worker-policing may occur to counteract these costs and increase colony efficiency (efficiency hypothesis). The first explanation predicts that patterns of the parentage of males (male parentage) are associated with relatedness, whereas the latter does not. We have investigated how male parentage varies with colony kin structure and colony size in 50 species of ants, bees, and wasps in a phylogenetically controlled comparative analysis. Our survey revealed that queens produced the majority of males in most of the species and that workers produced more than half of the males in less than 10% of species. Moreover, we show that male parentage does not vary with relatedness as predicted by the relatedness hypothesis. This indicates that intra- and interspecific variation in male parentage cannot be accounted for by the relatedness hypothesis alone and that increased colony efficiency is an important factor responsible for the evolution of worker-policing. Our study reveals greater harmony and more complex regulation of reproduction in social insect colonies than that expected from simple theoretical expectations based on relatedness only. PMID:15328531

  13. Effects of a group-based exercise and self-regulatory intervention on obese adolescents' physical activity, social cognitions, body composition and strength: a randomized feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, A Justine; Jung, Mary E; Cramp, Anita; Simatovic, Jacqueline; Prapavessis, Harry; Clarson, Cheril

    2012-11-01

    This feasibility study assessed the effects of an exercise plus group-based self-regulatory skills intervention on obese youths' physical activity, social cognitions, body composition and strength. Forty-three obese youth (male = 13, BMI > 95th percentile; 10-16 yrs) completed this 12-week intervention. Assessments were taken at baseline, week 6, 13 and 12 weeks post-intervention (week 24). Although no attention control group (i.e. exercise only) was included in this study, participants engaged in significantly more self-reported physical activity at weeks 13 and 24 as compared to baseline. Social cognitions, body composition and strength were also positively impacted suggesting this intervention technique may be feasible for treating obese adolescents.

  14. Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computer-generated drawing shows the relative scale and working space for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by NASA and the European Space Agency for science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The person at the glovebox repesents a 95th percentile American male. The MSG will be deployed first to the Destiny laboratory module and later will be moved to ESA's Columbus Attached Payload Module. Each module will be filled with International Standard Payload Racks (green) attached to standoff fittings (yellow) that hold the racks in position. Destiny is six racks in length. The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency and NASA to provide a large working volume for hands-on experiments aboard the International Space Station. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall)

  15. Overview and trends in male grooming.

    PubMed

    Elsner, P

    2012-03-01

    The use of cosmetics and medical cosmetic procedures by men has been widely ignored in dermatological research in the past, but it is finding increasing attention. As men are changing their habits and increasingly tend to use cosmetic products, the dermatologist will be asked for expert advice regarding efficacy and safety of cosmetics for male skin. For this service, dermatologists need to be aware of anatomical and physiological differences between male and female skin, about specific environmental stress factors affecting male skin, about cosmetic practices and product use especially regarding shaving, and about the counselling needs in men relating to protective cosmetic use.

  16. Genital size: a common adolescent male concern.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter A; Reiter, Edward O

    2002-02-01

    Long before adolescence, males hear insinuations about adequacy of penis size. This concern may heighten during teen years and persist to varying degrees into adulthood. Men tend to underestimate their own penis size. This chapter provides objective information about anatomy and growth of the penis, including data about normal sizes. Published data indicate that, although full growth may be reached at different ages during adolescence, size is similar for most adult males. Hopefully, this information will provide the basis for teenaged males to develop a healthy perspective and to avoid intimidation by unfounded claims about sexual enhancement or size enlargement techniques.

  17. Sneaker "jack" males outcompete dominant "hooknose" males under sperm competition in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha).

    PubMed

    Young, Brent; Conti, David V; Dean, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    In a variety of taxa, males deploy alternative reproductive tactics to secure fertilizations. In many species, small "sneaker" males attempt to steal fertilizations while avoiding encounters with larger, more aggressive, dominant males. Sneaker males usually face a number of disadvantages, including reduced access to females and the higher likelihood that upon ejaculation, their sperm face competition from other males. Nevertheless, sneaker males represent an evolutionarily stable strategy under a wide range of conditions. Game theory suggests that sneaker males compensate for these disadvantages by investing disproportionately in spermatogenesis, by producing more sperm per unit body mass (the "fair raffle") and/or by producing higher quality sperm (the "loaded raffle"). Here, we test these models by competing sperm from sneaker "jack" males against sperm from dominant "hooknose" males in Chinook salmon. Using two complementary approaches, we reject the fair raffle in favor of the loaded raffle and estimate that jack males were ∼1.35 times as likely as hooknose males to fertilize eggs under controlled competitive conditions. Interestingly, the direction and magnitude of this skew in paternity shifted according to individual female egg donors, suggesting cryptic female choice could moderate the outcomes of sperm competition in this externally fertilizing species.

  18. Male mammals respond to a risk of sperm competition conveyed by odours of conspecific males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H.

    2004-09-01

    Sperm competition occurs when a female copulates with two or more males and the sperm of those males compete within the female's reproductive tract to fertilize her eggs. The frequent occurrence of sperm competition has forced males of many species to develop different strategies to overcome the sperm of competing males. A prevalent strategy is for males to increase their sperm investment (total number of sperm allocated by a male to a particular female) after detecting a risk of sperm competition. It has been shown that the proportion of sperm that one male contributes to the sperm pool of a female is correlated with the proportion of offspring sired by that male. Therefore, by increasing his sperm investment a male may bias a potential sperm competition in his favour. Here we show that male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm investment when they mate in the presence of another male's odours. Such an increase in sperm investment does not occur by augmenting the frequency of ejaculations, but by increasing the amount of sperm in a similar number of ejaculations.

  19. Zinc feeding and fertility of male rats.

    PubMed

    Samanta, K; Pal, B

    1986-01-01

    Supplementation of the diet of adult male rats with 4,000 ppm zinc as ZnSO4 for 30 to 32 days increased the zinc content in the testis and sperm by 25 and 18 per cent respectively, but did not change the same in accessory reproductive tissues, e.g. epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate. The incidence of conception from mating between normal females and zinc fed males was lower as compared to mating between normal females and control males. This observation indicated reduced fertility of the males resulting from additional zinc ingestion. Motility of the sperm collected from the epididymis (tail) of the zinc treated rats was found to be inhibited. It has been suggested that excess zinc in the sperm was responsible for their poor motility and hence a reduced fertilising capacity.

  20. Reproductive physiology of the male camelid.

    PubMed

    Bravo, P W; Johnson, L W

    1994-07-01

    The physiology of reproduction with emphasis on endocrinology of llamas and alpacas is addressed. Information regarding male anatomy, puberty, testicular function, semen description, and sexual behavior is also included.

  1. Male Pectoral Implants: Radiographic Appearance of Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kuzmiak, Cherie M; Damitz, Lynn; Burke, Rachael; Hwang, Michael

    2016-01-01

    There has been a significant surge in aesthetic chest surgery for men in the last several years. Male chest enhancement is performed with surgical placement of a solid silicone pectoral implant. In the past, male chest correction and implantation were limited to the treatment of men who had congenital absence or atrophy of the pectoralis muscle and pectus excavatum deformity. But today, the popularization of increased chest and pectoral size fostered by body builders has more men desiring chest correction with implantation for non-medical reasons. We present a case of a 44-year-old, male with a displaced left pectoral implant with near extrusion and with an associated peri-implant soft tissue mass and fluid collection. While the imaging of these patients is uncommon, our case study presents the radiographic findings of male chest enhancement with associated complications. PMID:27200162

  2. A Description of Males of Hoplolaimus columbus

    PubMed Central

    Fassuliotis, G.

    1974-01-01

    The male of the Columbia lance nematode, Hoplolaimus columbus, is described and illustrated from a harvested soybean field in Holly Hill, South Carolina. It is morphologically similar to the female, except for reproductive structures. PMID:19308111

  3. DNA methylation in spermatogenesis and male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiangrong; Jing, Xuan; Wu, Xueqing; Yan, Meiqin; Li, Qiang; Shen, Yan; Wang, Zhenqiang

    2016-01-01

    Infertility is a significant problem for human reproduction, with males and females equally affected. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying male infertility remain unclear. Spermatogenesis is a highly complex process involving mitotic cell division, meiosis cell division and spermiogenesis; during this period, unique and extensive chromatin and epigenetic modifications occur to bring about specific epigenetic profiles in spermatozoa. It has recently been suggested that the dysregulation of epigenetic modifications, in particular the methylation of sperm genomic DNA, may serve an important role in the development of numerous diseases. The present study is a comprehensive review on the topic of male infertility, aiming to elucidate the association between sperm genomic DNA methylation and poor semen quality in male infertility. In addition, the current status of the genetic and epigenetic determinants of spermatogenesis in humans is discussed. PMID:27698683

  4. Sex hormones and the elderly male voice.

    PubMed

    Gugatschka, Markus; Kiesler, Karl; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schoekler, Bernadette; Schmid, Christoph; Groselj-Strele, Andrea; Friedrich, Gerhard

    2010-05-01

    The objective was to describe influences of sex hormones on the male voice in an elderly cohort. Sixty-three elderly males were recruited to undergo assessment of voice parameters, stroboscopy, voice-related questionnaires, a blood draw, and an ultrasound examination of the laryngeal skeleton. The group was divided into men with normal hormonal status and men with lowered levels of sex hormones, called hypogonades. Depending on the level of androgens, voice parameters did not differ. In subjects with decreased levels of estrogens, a significant increase in mean fundamental frequency, as well as changes of highest and lowest frequency plus a shift of the frequency range could be detected. We could detect significant changes of voice parameters depending on status of estrogens in elderly males. Androgens appear to have no impact on the elderly male voice. To our knowledge, this is the first prospective study that correlates sex hormones with voice parameters in elderly men.

  5. Remote copulation: male adaptation to female cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Li, Daiqin; Oh, Joelyn; Kralj-Fiser, Simona; Kuntner, Matjaz

    2012-08-23

    Sexual cannibalism by females and associated male behaviours may be driven by sexual conflict. One such male behaviour is the eunuch phenomenon in spiders, caused by total genital emasculation, which is a seemingly maladaptive behaviour. Here, we provide the first empirical testing of an adaptive hypothesis to explain this behaviour, the remote copulation, in a highly sexually cannibalistic orb-web spider Nephilengys malabarensis. We demonstrate that sperm transfer continues from the severed male organ into female genitals after the male has been detached from copula. Remote copulation increases the total amount of sperm transferred, and thus probably enhances paternity. We conclude that the mechanism may have evolved in response to sexual cannibalism and female-controlled short copulation duration.

  6. Male gamete biology in flowering plants.

    PubMed

    Russell, Scott D; Gou, Xiaoping; Wei, Xiaoping; Yuan, Tong

    2010-04-01

    Flowering plant reproduction is characterized by double fertilization, in which two diminutive brother sperm cells initiate embryo and endosperm. The role of the male gamete, although studied structurally for over a century at various levels, is still being explored on a molecular and cellular level. The potential of the male to influence development has been historically underestimated and the reasons for this are obvious: limitations provided by maternal imprinting, the much greater cellular volume of female gametes and the general paucity of paternal effects. However, as more is known about molecular expression of chromatin-modifying proteins, ubiquitin pathway proteins and transcription factors in sperm cells, as well as their ability to achieve effect by intaglio expression, passing transcripts directly into translation, the role of the male is likely to expand. Much of the expression in the male germline that appears to be distinct from patterns of pollen vegetative cell expression may be the result of chromosomal level regulation of transcription.

  7. A Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Sea Level Rise on Representative Military Installation in the Southwestern United States (RC-1703)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    events during winter months (November–March) that exceed the 95th percentile (the binomial-filtered event count, cyan curve) for at least 6...1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 M et er s (N A V D )     72   Decadal-scale MSLR variability is also evident (Figure 2-50, cyan ), with peaks...that exceed the 95th percentile (the binomial-filtered event count, cyan curve) for at least 6 consecutive hours. Historical NTR variability in the

  8. Longer lifespan in male mice treated with a weakly estrogenic agonist, an antioxidant, an α-glucosidase inhibitor or a Nrf2-inducer.

    PubMed

    Strong, Randy; Miller, Richard A; Antebi, Adam; Astle, Clinton M; Bogue, Molly; Denzel, Martin S; Fernandez, Elizabeth; Flurkey, Kevin; Hamilton, Karyn L; Lamming, Dudley W; Javors, Martin A; de Magalhães, João Pedro; Martinez, Paul Anthony; McCord, Joe M; Miller, Benjamin F; Müller, Michael; Nelson, James F; Ndukum, Juliet; Rainger, G Ed; Richardson, Arlan; Sabatini, David M; Salmon, Adam B; Simpkins, James W; Steegenga, Wilma T; Nadon, Nancy L; Harrison, David E

    2016-10-01

    The National Institute on Aging Interventions Testing Program (ITP) evaluates agents hypothesized to increase healthy lifespan in genetically heterogeneous mice. Each compound is tested in parallel at three sites, and all results are published. We report the effects of lifelong treatment of mice with four agents not previously tested: Protandim, fish oil, ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and metformin - the latter with and without rapamycin, and two drugs previously examined: 17-α-estradiol and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), at doses greater and less than used previously. 17-α-estradiol at a threefold higher dose robustly extended both median and maximal lifespan, but still only in males. The male-specific extension of median lifespan by NDGA was replicated at the original dose, and using doses threefold lower and higher. The effects of NDGA were dose dependent and male specific but without an effect on maximal lifespan. Protandim, a mixture of botanical extracts that activate Nrf2, extended median lifespan in males only. Metformin alone, at a dose of 0.1% in the diet, did not significantly extend lifespan. Metformin (0.1%) combined with rapamycin (14 ppm) robustly extended lifespan, suggestive of an added benefit, based on historical comparison with earlier studies of rapamycin given alone. The α-glucosidase inhibitor, acarbose, at a concentration previously tested (1000 ppm), significantly increased median longevity in males and 90th percentile lifespan in both sexes, even when treatment was started at 16 months. Neither fish oil nor UDCA extended lifespan. These results underscore the reproducibility of ITP longevity studies and illustrate the importance of identifying optimal doses in lifespan studies.

  9. The male facelift: considerations and techniques.

    PubMed

    Papel, I D; Lee, E

    1996-07-01

    Facelift in the male patient presents unique challenges with respect to maintenance of normal hairline and management of bearded skin. With careful psychological preparation, surgical planning, and attention to detail, these male characteristics can be retained with a good rejuvenative result. The combination of a deep-plane rhytidectomy technique with modified incisions and endoscopic brow intervention has provided the authors with consistent surgical results. Complications have been minimal, with no significant hematomas, skin loss, or nerve injuries to date.

  10. Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Barazani, Yagil; Katz, Benjamin Farrel; Nagler, Harris Mark; Stember, Doron Sol

    2014-02-01

    A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

  11. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia.

    PubMed

    Alter, Gary J; Salgado, Christopher J; Chim, Harvey

    2011-08-01

    Appearance of the male genitalia is linked with self-esteem and sexual identity. Aesthetic surgery of the male genitalia serves to correct perceived deficiencies as well as physical deformities, which may cause psychological distress. Attention to patient motivation for surgery and to surgical technique is key to achieving optimal results. In this review, the authors describe aesthetic surgical techniques for treatment of penile and scrotal deficiencies. They also discuss techniques for revision in patients with previous surgery.

  12. Comparison of Echocardiographic Measures in a Hispanic/Latino Population with the 2005 and 2015 American Society of Echocardiography Reference Limits [The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Waqas T.; Leigh, J. Adam; Swett, Katrina; Ajay, Dharod; Allison, Matthew A.; Cai, Jianwen; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Hurwitz, Barry E.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Desai, Ankit A.; Spevack, Daniel M.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reference limits for echocardiographic quantification of cardiac chambers in Hispanics are not well studied. Methods and Results We examined the reference values of left atrium (LA) and ventricle (LV) structure in a large ethnically diverse Hispanic cohort. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 1,818 participants of the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL). Individuals with body mass index ≥30kg/m2, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation were excluded leaving 525 participants defined as healthy reference-cohort. We estimated 95th weighted percentiles of LV end systolic volume, LV end diastolic volume, relative wall and septal thickness, LV mass and left atrial volume. We then used upper reference limits of the 2005 and 2015 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and 95th percentile of reference cohort to classify the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) target population into abnormal and normal. Reference limits were also calculated for each of 6 Hispanic origins. Using ASE 2015 defined reference values we categorized 7%, 21%, 57% and 17% of males and 18%, 29%, 60% and 26% of females as having abnormal LV mass index, relative, septal and posterior wall thickness, respectively. Conversely, 10%, and 11% of males and 4% and 2% of females were classified as having abnormal end-diastolic volume and internal diameter by ASE 2015 cut-offs, respectively. Similar differences were found when we used 2005 ASE cut offs. Several differences were noted in distribution of cardiac structure and volumes among various Hispanic/Latino origins. Cubans had highest values of echocardiographic measures and Central Americans had the lowest. Conclusions This is the first large study that provides normal reference values for cardiac structure. It further demonstrates that a considerable segment of Hispanic/Latinos residing in US may be classified as having abnormal measures

  13. Non-therapeutic infant male circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Alkhenizan, Abdullah; Elabd, Kossay

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the evidence of the benefits and harms of infant male circumcision, and the legal and ethical perspectives of infant male circumcision. Methods: We conducted a systematic search of the literature using PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library up to June 2015. We searched the medical law literature using the Westlaw and Lexis Library law literature resources up to June 2015. Results: Male circumcision significantly reduced the risk of urinary tract infections by 87%. It also significantly reduced transmission of human immunodeficiency virus among circumcised men by 70%. Childhood and adolescent circumcision is associated with a 66% reduction in the risk of penile cancer. Circumcision was associated with 43% reduction of human papilloma virus infection, and 58% reduction in the risk of cervical cancer among women with circumcised partners compared with women with uncircumcised partners. Male infant circumcision reduced the risk of foreskin inflammation by 68%. Conclusion: Infant male circumcision should continue to be allowed all over the world, as long as it is approved by both parents, and performed in facilities that can provide appropriate sterilization, wound care, and anesthesia. Under these conditions, the benefits of infant male circumcision outweigh the rare and generally minor potential harms of the procedure. PMID:27570848

  14. Male motion coordination in anopheline mating swarms

    PubMed Central

    Shishika, Daigo; Manoukis, Nicholas C.; Butail, Sachit; Paley, Derek A.

    2014-01-01

    The Anopheles gambiae species complex comprises the primary vectors of malaria in much of sub-Saharan Africa. Most of the mating in these species occurs in swarms composed almost entirely of males. Intermittent, organized patterns in such swarms have been observed, but a detailed description of male-male interactions has not previously been available. We identify frequent, time-varying interactions characterized by periods of parallel flight in data from 8 swarms of Anopheles gambiae and 3 swarms of Anopheles coluzzii filmed in 2010 and 2011 in the village of Donéguébogou, Mali. We use the cross correlation of flight direction to quantify these interactions and to induce interaction graphs, which show that males form synchronized subgroups whose size and membership change rapidly. A swarming model with damped springs between each male and the swarm centroid shows good agreement with the correlation data, provided that local interactions represented by damping of relative velocity between males are included. PMID:25212874

  15. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio

    PubMed Central

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict. PMID:22426218

  16. Roaring function in male goitered gazelles.

    PubMed

    Blank, D A; Ruckstuhl, K; Yang, W

    2014-07-01

    Most of the vocalizations of Antilopinae males are soft and usually only heard from a very close distance. The goitered gazelle is a rare exception to this rule, and during the rutting period territorial males of this species are among the noisiest antelopes. Rutting vocalization is such an essential part of the rutting behavior in goitered gazelle that adult males have a hypertrophic larynx, the muscle tissues of which increase considerably in size during the rut. We were interested in the frequency and variance with which male goitered gazelles emit their calls depending on an animal's age, reproductive status and time of the year in order to understand the main function of the rutting vocalizations. We found that roaring was mostly related to courting displays, while vocalizations during aggressive displays were less frequent in male-male interactions. Acoustic signals likely enhance courtship displays and also may aid in accelerating female ovulation, promoting synchronization of breeding cycles during the mating and birthing periods, which last only several days for most of the females in our population. We discuss the potential benefits of such behaviors and compare it to other species living in similarly extreme environments.

  17. Male urethral diverticulum uncommon entity: Our experience

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Naveen; Sabale, Vilas Pandurang; Mane, Deepak; Mullay, Abhirudra

    2016-01-01

    Out pouching of the urethral wall could be congenital or acquired. Male urethral diverticulum (UD) is a rare entity. We present 2 cases of acquired and 1 case of congenital male UD. Case 1A: 40 year male presented with SPC and dribbling urine. Clinically he had hard perineal swelling. RGU revealed large diverticulum in proximal bulbar, irregular narrow distal urethra and stricture just beyond diverticulum. Managed with perineal exploration, stone removal, diverticulum repair and urethroplasty using excess diverticular wall. Case 2A: 30 year male with obstructive lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Retrograde urethrogram (RGU) revealed bulbar urethral diverticulum akin to anterior urethral valve, managed endoscopically. 1 year follow up urine stream satisfactory. Case 3A: 27 year male previously operated large proximal bulbar urethral stone with incontinence. RGU large proximal bulbar UD with wide open sphincter. Treated with excision of excess diverticular wall and penile clamp with pelvic exercises for incontinence. Congenital UD develops due to imperfect closure of urethral fold, Acquired UDs occurs secondary to stricture, infection, trauma, long standing impacted urethral stones or scrotal / skin flap urethroplasties. RGU and MCU are the best diagnostic technique to confirm and characterize the UD. Urethral diverticulectomy with urethral reconstruction is the recommended treatment for UD. UD is a rare entity. Especially in males, congenital are even more rare. Management should be individualized. Surgery can involve innovation and/or surgical modifications. We used excess diverticular flap for stricture urethroplasty in one case. PMID:28057997

  18. Male pygmy hippopotamus influence offspring sex ratio.

    PubMed

    Saragusty, Joseph; Hermes, Robert; Hofer, Heribert; Bouts, Tim; Göritz, Frank; Hildebrandt, Thomas B

    2012-02-28

    Pre-determining fetal sex is against the random and equal opportunity that both conceptus sexes have by nature. Yet, under a wide variety of circumstances, populations shift their birth sex ratio from the expected unity. Here we show, using fluorescence in situ hybridization, that in a population of pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) with 42.5% male offspring, males bias the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in their ejaculates, resulting in a 0.4337±0.0094 (mean±s.d.) proportion of Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa. Three alternative hypotheses for the shifted population sex ratio were compared: female counteract male, female indifferent, or male and female in agreement. We conclude that there appears little or no antagonistic sexual conflict, unexpected by prevailing theories. Our results indicate that males possess a mechanism to adjust the ratio of X- and Y-chromosome-bearing spermatozoa in the ejaculate, thereby substantially expanding currently known male options in sexual conflict.

  19. Familiality of female and male homosexuality.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J M; Bell, A P

    1993-07-01

    We examined data from a large cohort of homosexual and heterosexual females and males concerning their siblings' sexual orientations. As in previous studies, both male and female homosexuality were familial. Homosexual females had an excess of homosexual brothers compared to heterosexual subjects, thus providing evidence that similar familial factors influence both male and female homosexuality. Furthermore, despite the large sample size, homosexual females and males did not differ significantly from each other in their proportions of either homosexual sisters or homosexual brothers. Thus, results were most consistent with the possibility that similar familial factors influence male and female sexual orientation. However, because results conflicted with those of some other studies, and because siblings' sexual orientations were obtained in a manner likely to yield more errors than in these other, smaller studies, further work is needed using large samples and more careful methods before the degree of cofamiliality of male and female homosexuality can be resolved definitively. We also examined whether some parental influences comprised shared environmental effects on sexual orientation. Scales attempting to measure such influences failed to distinguish subjects with homosexual siblings from subjects with only heterosexual siblings and, thus, did not appear to measure shared environmental determinants of sexual orientation.

  20. Male coercive mating in externally fertilizing species: male coercion, female reluctance and explanation for female acceptance

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yukio; Takegaki, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Male coercive mating exerts a strong evolutionary pressure on mating-related traits of both sexes. However, it is extremely rare in externally fertilizing species probably because the male mating behaviour is incomplete until females release their eggs. Here we showed that males of the externally fertilizing fish Rhabdoblennius nitidus coercively confine females to the nests until spawning, and investigated why females accept male coercive mating. The females entered the males’ nests following male courtship displays, but they usually tried to escape when there were no eggs because males tended to cannibalize all the eggs when there were few. Most males that used small, tight nests acquired new eggs but with experimentally enlarged nests, 90% of the males without eggs failed to confine the females. Spawning tended to occur during the early/late spawning period in nests with no eggs (i.e. male coercive mating). In the nests where the first eggs were deposited in the early period, subsequent matings with other females were more likely to occur, whereas in the late period, most parental care of the eggs failed without additional matings. The females that spawned in the late period may have been compelled to accept male coercive mating due to time constraints. PMID:27087584

  1. Male Mosquitoes as Vehicles for Insecticide

    PubMed Central

    Mains, James W.; Brelsfoard, Corey L.; Dobson, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The auto-dissemination approach has been shown effective at treating cryptic refugia that remain unaffected by existing mosquito control methods. This approach relies on adult mosquito behavior to spread larvicide to breeding sites at levels that are lethal to immature mosquitoes. Prior studies demonstrate that ‘dissemination stations,’ deployed in mosquito-infested areas, can contaminate adult mosquitoes, which subsequently deliver the larvicide to breeding sites. In some situations, however, preventative measures are needed, e.g., to mitigate seasonal population increases. Here we examine a novel approach that combines elements of autocidal and auto-dissemination strategies by releasing artificially reared, male mosquitoes that are contaminated with an insecticide. Methodology Laboratory and field experiments examine for model-predicted impacts of pyriproxyfen (PPF) directly applied to adult male Aedes albopictus, including (1) the ability of PPF-treated males to cross-contaminate females and to (2) deliver PPF to breeding sites. Principal Findings Similar survivorship was observed in comparisons of PPF-treated and untreated males. Males contaminated both female adults and oviposition containers in field cage tests, at levels that eliminated immature survivorship. Field trials demonstrate an ability of PPF-treated males to transmit lethal doses to introduced oviposition containers, both in the presence and absence of indigenous females. A decline in the Ae. albopictus population was observed following the introduction of PPF-treated males, which was not observed in two untreated field sites. Conclusions/Significance The results demonstrate that, in cage and open field trials, adult male Ae. albopictus can tolerate PPF and contaminate, either directly or indirectly, adult females and immature breeding sites. The results support additional development of the proposed approach, in which male mosquitoes act as vehicles for insecticide delivery

  2. Initiation of calorie restriction in middle-aged male rats attenuates aging-related motoric decline and bradykinesia without increased striatal dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Michael F.; Terrebonne, Jennifer; Fields, Victoria; Nodurft, Danielle; Runfalo, Cori; Latimer, Brian; Ingram, Donald K.

    2015-01-01

    Aging-related bradykinesia affects ~15% of those reaching age 65 and 50% of those reaching their 80s. Given this high risk and lack of pharmacological therapeutics, non-invasive lifestyle strategies should be identified to diminish its risk and identify the neurobiological targets to reduce aging-related bradykinesia. Early-life, long-term calorie restriction (CR) attenuates aging-related bradykinesia in rodents. Here, we addressed whether CR initiation at middle age could attenuate aging-related bradykinesia and motoric decline measured as rotarod performance. A 30% CR regimen was implemented for 6 months duration in 12-month old male Brown-Norway Fischer 344 F1 hybrid rats after establishing individual baseline locomotor activities. Locomotor capacity was assessed every 6 weeks thereafter. The ad libitum (AL) group exhibited predictably decreased locomotor activity, except movement speed, out to 18 months of age. In contrast, in the CR group, movement number and horizontal activity did not decrease during the 6-month trial and aging-related decline in rotarod performance was attenuated. The response to CR was influenced by baseline locomotor activity. The lower the locomotor activity level at baseline, the greater the response to CR. Rats in the lower 50th percentile surpassed their baseline level of activity, whereas rats in the top 50th percentile decreased at 6 weeks and then returned to baseline by 12 weeks of CR. We hypothesized that nigrostriatal dopamine tissue content would be greater in the CR group and observed a modest increase only in substantia nigra with no group differences in striatum, nucleus accumbens, or ventral tegmental area. These results indicate initiation of CR at middle age may reduce aging-related bradykinesia and, furthermore, subjects with below average locomotor activity may increase baseline activity. Sustaining nigral DA neurotransmission may be one component of preserving locomotor capabilities during aging. PMID:26610387

  3. The scent of inbreeding: a male sex pheromone betrays inbred males

    PubMed Central

    van Bergen, Erik; Brakefield, Paul M.; Heuskin, Stéphanie; Zwaan, Bas J.; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2013-01-01

    Inbreeding depression results from mating among genetically related individuals and impairs reproductive success. The decrease in male mating success is usually attributed to an impact on multiple fitness-related traits that reduce the general condition of inbred males. Here, we find that the production of the male sex pheromone is reduced significantly by inbreeding in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana. Other traits indicative of the general condition, including flight performance, are also negatively affected in male butterflies by inbreeding. Yet, we unambiguously show that only the production of male pheromones affects mating success. Thus, this pheromone signal informs females about the inbreeding status of their mating partners. We also identify the specific chemical component (hexadecanal) probably responsible for the decrease in male mating success. Our results advocate giving increased attention to olfactory communication as a major causal factor of mate-choice decisions and sexual selection. PMID:23466986

  4. Male-killing bacteria trigger a cycle of increasing male fatigue and female promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Charlat, Sylvain; Reuter, Max; Dyson, Emily A; Hornett, Emily A; Duplouy, Anne; Davies, Neil; Roderick, George K; Wedell, Nina; Hurst, Gregory D D

    2007-02-06

    Sex-ratio distorters are found in numerous species and can reach high frequencies within populations. Here, we address the compelling, but poorly tested, hypothesis that the sex ratio bias caused by such elements profoundly alters their host's mating system. We compare aspects of female and male reproductive biology between island populations of the butterfly Hypolimnas bolina that show varying degrees of female bias, because of a male-killing Wolbachia infection. Contrary to expectation, female bias leads to an increase in female mating frequency, up to a point where male mating capacity becomes limiting. We show that increased female mating frequency can be explained as a facultative response to the depleted male mating resources in female biased populations. In other words, this system is one where male-killing bacteria trigger a vicious circle of increasing male fatigue and female promiscuity.

  5. Drosophila TRPA channel painless inhibits male-male courtship behavior through modulating olfactory sensation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kaiyu; Guo, Yanmeng; Wang, Fei; Wang, Zuoren

    2011-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster TRPA family member painless, expressed in a subset of multidendritic neurons embeding in the larval epidermis, is necessary for larval nociception of noxious heat or mechanical stimuli. However, the function of painless in adult flies remains largely unknown. Here we report that mutation of painless leads to a defect in male-male courtship behavior and alteration in olfaction sensitivity in adult flies. Specific downregulation of the expression of the Painless protein in the olfactory projection neurons (PNs) of the antennal lobes (ALs) resulted in a phenotype resembling that found in painless mutant flies, whereas overexpression of Painless in PNs of painless mutant males suppressed male-male courtship behavior. The downregulation of Painless exclusively during adulthood also resulted in male-male courtship behavior. In addition, mutation of the painless gene in flies caused changes in olfaction, suggesting a role for this gene in olfactory processing. These results indicate that functions of painless in the adult central nervous system of Drosophila include modulation of olfactory processing and inhibition of male-male courtship behavior.

  6. Female sticklebacks use male coloration in mate choice and hence avoid parasitized males

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milinski, Manfred; Bakker, Theo C. M.

    1990-03-01

    AN important problem in evolutionary biology since the time of Darwin has been to understand why females preferentially mate with males handicapped by secondary sexual ornaments1-3. One hypothesis of sexual selection theory is that these ornaments reliably reveal the male's condition4-6, which can be affected for example by parasites4,7-13. Here we show that in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) the intensity of male red breeding coloration positively correlates with physical condition. Gravid females base their active mate choice on the intensity of the male's red coloration. Choice experiments under green light prevent the use of red colour cues by females, and males that were previously preferred are now chosen no more than randomly, although the courtship behaviour of the males remains unchanged. Parasitieation causes a deterioration in the males' condition and a decrease in the intensity of their red coloration. Tests under both lighting conditions reveal that the females recognize the formerly parasitized males by the lower intensity of their breeding coloration. Female sticklebacks possibly select a male with a good capacity for paternal care14 but if there is additive genetic variation for parasite resistance, then they might also select for resistance genes, as proposed by Hamilton and Zuk4.

  7. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among Guaraní-Mbyá from Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Orden, Alicia B; Oyhenart, Evelia E

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of overweight and obesity and the fat distribution pattern in Mbyá-Guaraní children and adults from Misiones, Argentina. Height, weight, and triceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured in 197 individuals aged 2-60 years. Body mass index (BMI), fat and muscle areas, and subscapular/tricipital index were calculated. All data were transformed to z-scores using US references (NHANES I and II). Overweight and obesity were defined as BMIs between the 85th-95th or above the 95th percentile, respectively. Compared to NHANES references, the Mbyá were shorter and lighter, although their BMI was slightly higher. There were no substantial differences in body composition (fat and muscle) between the Mbyá and the reference. Prevalences of overweight and obesity reached (on average) 16.2 and 14.7%, respectively, and were similar in both sexes. Stunting was higher in females than in males (49.6 vs. 33.3%). Sixty percent of overweight and obese subjects showed a centralized adiposity pattern, and 49% had a high risk for abdominal adiposity. The present results provide new evidence of a striking increase in obesity rates in Amerindians as a part of the process of nutritional transition. The contribution of each component of energy balance, physical activity, and lifestyle could play an important role in this observed tendency, justifying further research in these transitional populations.

  8. Interpretation of male rat renal tubule tumors.

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, I S; Baetcke, K P

    1993-01-01

    Based on an analysis of recent scientific studies, a Technical Panel of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Risk Assessment Forum recently advised EPA risk assessors against using information on certain male rat renal tubule tumors to assess human risk under conditions specified in a new Forum report. Risk assessment approaches generally assume that chemicals producing tumors in laboratory animals are a potential cancer hazard to humans. For most chemicals, including classical rodent kidney carcinogens such as N-ethyl-N-hydroxyethylnitrosamine, this extrapolation remains appropriate. Some chemicals, however, induce accumulation of alpha 2u-globulin (alpha 2u-g), a low molecular weight protein, in the male rat kidney. The alpha 2u-g accumulation initiates a sequence of events that appears to lead to renal tubule tumor formation. Female rats and other laboratory mammals administered the same chemicals do not accumulate low molecular weight protein in the kidney, and they do not develop renal tubule tumors. Because humans appear to be more like other laboratory animals than like the male rat, in this special situation, the male rat is not a good model for assessing human risk. The Forum report stresses the need for full scrutiny of a substantial set of data to determine when it is reasonable to presume that renal tumors in male rats are linked to a process involving alpha 2u-g accumulation and to select appropriate procedures for estimating human risks under such circumstances. PMID:7517352

  9. Mammography Findings of Male Breast Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Şafak, Kadihan Yalçın

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, the percentage of men presenting with breast complaints has increased from 0.8% to 2.4%, and men now account for 1% of all breast cancer cases. The most common male breast mass is gynecomastia, followed by lipoma and epidermal inclusion cysts. Because there is a paucity of parenchyma as compared with the female breast, the malignancy rapidly progresses to the next stage, with the appearance of secondary signs like nipple retraction, fixation to deeper tissues, skin ulceration or adenopathy. Diagnostic evaluation is needed only when the palpable mass is unilateral, hard, fixed, peripheral to the nipple, or associated with nipple discharge, skin changes, or lymphadenopathy. Male breast cancer usually occurs in a subareolar location or is positioned eccentric to the nipple; occasionally, it occurs in a peripheral position. Secondary signs like skin thickening, nipple retraction, and axillary lymphadenopathy may be seen. Microcalcifications can occur. Mammography can accurately distinguish between malignant and benign male breast disease. Radiologists are generally less familiar with breast disease in males compared with females. In this article, we discuss the clinical, and mammographic features of a variety of benign and malignant diseases that can occur in the male breast.

  10. Impact of Inflammation on Male Reproductive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Azenabor, Alfred; Ekun, Ayodele Oloruntoba; Akinloye, Oluyemi

    2015-01-01

    Fertility in the male is dependent on the proper production of sperm cells. This process, called spermatogenesis is very complex and involves the synchronization of numerous factors. The presence of pro–inflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF–α), interleukin–1 alpha (IL–1 α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL–1 β) cytokines in the male reproductive tract (testis, epididymis and sperm) may have certain physiological functions. However, when the levels of these cytokines are higher than normal, as seen in conditions of inflammation, they become very harmful to sperm production. Moreover, inflammation is also associated with oxidative stress and the latter is well known to impair sperm function. Epidemiological studies regarding male infertility have revealed that more and more infertile men suffer from acute or chronic inflammation of the genitourinary tract, which often occurs without any symptoms. The inflammatory reactions within the male genital tract are inevitably connected with oxidative stress. Oxidative stress, especially in sperm, is harmful because it damages sperm DNA and causes apoptosis in sperm. This article reviewed the suggested mechanisms and contribution of inflammation to male infertility. In addition, the review was further strengthened by discussing how inflammation affects both fertility and assisted reproductive technologies (ART). PMID:26913230

  11. Mitochondria, maternal inheritance, and male aging.

    PubMed

    Camus, M Florencia; Clancy, David J; Dowling, Damian K

    2012-09-25

    The maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes invokes a sex-specific selective sieve, whereby mutations in mitochondrial DNA can only respond to selection acting directly on females. In theory, this enables male-harming mutations to accumulate in mitochondrial genomes when these same mutations are neutral, beneficial, or only slightly deleterious in their effects on females. Ultimately, this evolutionary process could result in the evolution of male-specific mitochondrial mutation loads; an idea previously termed Mother's Curse. Here, we present evidence that the effects of this process are broader than hitherto realized, and that it has resulted in mutation loads affecting patterns of aging in male, but not female Drosophila melanogaster. Furthermore, our results indicate that the mitochondrial mutation loads affecting male aging generally comprise numerous mutations over multiple sites. Our findings thus suggest that males are subject to dramatic consequences that result from the maternal transmission of mitochondrial genomes. They implicate the diminutive mitochondrial genome as a hotspot for mutations that affect sex-specific patterns of aging, thus promoting the idea that a sex-specific selective sieve in mitochondrial genome evolution is a contributing factor to sexual dimorphism in aging, commonly observed across species.

  12. Genetics Home Reference: sensorineural deafness and male infertility

    MedlinePlus

    ... deafness and male infertility sensorineural deafness and male infertility Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Sensorineural deafness and male infertility is a condition characterized by hearing loss and ...

  13. Natural variation in plep-1 causes male-male copulatory behavior in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Luke M.; Chang, Audrey; McNelis, Daniel; Kramer, Max; Yen, Mimi; Nicodemus, Jasmine P.; Riccardi, David D.; Ammerman, Patrick; Phillips, Matthew; Islam, Tangirul; Rockman, Matthew V.

    2015-01-01

    Summary In sexual species, gametes have to find and recognize one another. Signaling is thus central to sexual reproduction and involves a rapidly evolving interplay of shared and divergent interests [1-4]. Among Caenorhabditis nematodes, three species have evolved self-fertilization, changing the balance of intersexual relations [5]. Males in these androdioecious species are rare, and the evolutionary interests of hermaphrodites dominate. Signaling has shifted accordingly, with females losing behavioral responses to males [6, 7] and males losing competitive abilities [8, 9]. Males in these species also show variable same-sex and autocopulatory mating behaviors [6, 10]. These behaviors could have evolved by relaxed selection on male function, accumulation of sexually antagonistic alleles that benefit hermaphrodites and harm males [5, 11], or neither of these, because androdioecy also reduces the ability of populations to respond to selection [12-14]. We have identified the genetic cause of a male-male mating behavior exhibited by geographically dispersed C. elegans isolates, wherein males mate with and deposit copulatory plugs on one another's excretory pores. We find a single locus of major effect that is explained by segregation of a loss-of-function mutation in an uncharacterized gene, plep-1, expressed in the excretory cell in both sexes. Males homozygous for the plep-1 mutation have excretory pores that are attractive or receptive to copulatory behavior of other males. As excretory pore plugs are injurious and hermaphrodite activity is compromised in plep-1 mutants, the allele may be unconditionally deleterious, persisting in the population because the species' androdioecious mating system limits the reach of selection. PMID:26455306

  14. High male fertility in males of a subdioecious shrub in hand-pollinated crosses

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hui; Matsushita, Michinari; Tomaru, Nobuhiro; Nakagawa, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Female reproductive success in females versus hermaphrodites has been well documented. However, documenting a potential advantage in male fertility of male versus hermaphrodite individuals in subdioecious species is also essential for understanding the evolutionary pathway toward dioecy from hermaphroditism via gynodioecy. Siring success in terms of fruit set, fruit mass, number of seeds and mean seed mass was compared by hand-pollinated crosses in the subdioecious shrub Eurya japonica. The pollen was from male and hermaphrodite individuals, and the pollen recipients were females and hermaphrodites. Seed quality was also evaluated in terms of seed germination rate, seed germination day and seedling survival. Overall, pollen from males sired more fruits of larger size and more seeds than did pollen from hermaphrodites. The male advantage was observed when pollen recipients were females, whereas no effect was found in hermaphrodite recipients. Pollen from males also produced better quality seeds with higher germination rate and sooner germination day. Although these results could also be explained by a higher pollen load for crosses with male pollen donors, we took care to saturate the stigma regardless of the pollen donor. Therefore, these results suggest that male individuals of E. japonica have advantages in male fertility in terms of both quantity and quality. Our previous studies indicated that females exhibit higher female reproductive success compared with hermaphrodites. Thus, both the female and male functions of hermaphrodites are outperformed by females and males, respectively, raising the possibility that the subdioecious E. japonica at this study site is entering the transitional phase to dioecy along the gynodioecy–dioecy pathway. PMID:27658818

  15. Alcohol references on undergraduate males' Facebook profiles.

    PubMed

    Egan, Katie G; Moreno, Megan A

    2011-09-01

    Perceived peer alcohol use is a predictor of consumption in college males; frequent references to alcohol on Facebook may encourage alcohol consumption. Content analysis of college males' Facebook profiles identified references to alcohol. The average age of 225 identified profiles was 19.9 years. Alcohol references were present on 85.3% of the profiles; the prevalence of alcohol was similar across each undergraduate grade. The average number of alcohol references per profile was 8.5 but increased with undergraduate year (p = .003; confidence interval = 1.5, 7.5). Students who were of legal drinking age referenced alcohol 4.5 times more than underage students, and an increase in number of Facebook friends was associated with an increase in displayed alcohol references (p < .001; confidence interval = 0.009, 0.02). Facebook is widely used in the college population; widespread alcohol displays on Facebook may influence social norms and cause increases in male college students' alcohol use.

  16. Occupation-related male infertility: a review.

    PubMed

    Henderson, J; Baker, H W; Hanna, P J

    1986-04-01

    Male infertility is a significant health problem for which few aetiological factors have been identified. The role of occupational exposure is largely unknown but certain substances such as 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane, oestrogen, heat, lead and microwaves have been reported to impair spermatogenesis in workers. Other agents which interfere with reproductive performance in experimental animals such as cadmium, manganese, organophosphates and some solvents have not been studied sufficiently for their occupational risks to be fully known. Some occupational exposures, extensively studied, appear to convey little or no risk to male fertility including radiological exposure, anaesthetic gases and Agent Orange. It is clear that the range of substances potentially hazardous to male reproduction is great but the number of agents for which the evidence is unequivocal is very small.

  17. Interventional Radiology of Male Varicocele: Current Status

    SciTech Connect

    Iaccarino, Vittorio Venetucci, Pietro

    2012-12-15

    Varicocele is a fairly common condition in male individuals. Although a minor disease, it may cause infertility and testicular pain. Consequently, it has high health and social impact. Here we review the current status of interventional radiology of male varicocele. We describe the radiological anatomy of gonadal veins and the clinical aspects of male varicocele, particularly the physical examination, which includes a new clinical and ultrasound Doppler maneuver. The surgical and radiological treatment options are also described with the focus on retrograde and antegrade sclerotherapy, together with our long experience with these procedures. Last, we compare the outcomes, recurrence and persistence rates, complications, procedure time and cost-effectiveness of each method. It clearly emerges from this analysis that there is a need for randomized multicentre trials designed to compare the various surgical and percutaneous techniques, all of which are aimed at occlusion of the anterior pampiniform plexus.

  18. Chromatin remodelling during male gametophyte development.

    PubMed

    Borg, Michael; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-07-01

    The plant life cycle alternates between a diploid sporophytic phase and haploid gametophytic phase, with the latter giving rise to the gametes. Male gametophyte development encompasses two mitotic divisions that results in a simple three-celled structure knows as the pollen grain, in which two sperm cells are encased within a larger vegetative cell. Both cell types exhibit a very different type of chromatin organization - highly condensed in sperm cell nuclei and highly diffuse in the vegetative cell. Distinct classes of histone variants have dynamic and differential expression in the two cell lineages of the male gametophyte. Here we review how the dynamics of histone variants are linked to reprogramming of chromatin activities in the male gametophyte, compaction of the sperm cell genome and zygotic transitions post-fertilization.

  19. Pilot-error accidents: male vs female.

    PubMed

    Vail, G J; Ekman, L G

    1986-12-01

    In this study, general aviation accident records from the files of the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), have been analysed by gender to observe the number and rate of pilot-error related accidents from 1972 to 1981 inclusive. If both females and males have no difference in performance, then data would have indicated similarities of accident rates and types of injuries. Males had a higher rate of accidents than females, and a higher portion of the male accidents resulted in fatalities or serious injuries than for females. Type of certificate, age, total flight time, flight time in type of aircraft, phase of operation, category of flying, degree of injury, specific cause factors, cause factor miscellaneous acts/conditions were analysed, taking the total number of United States Active Civilian General Aviation Pilots into consideration. The data did indicate a difference in all variables.

  20. Male pelvic floor: history and update.

    PubMed

    Dorey, Grace

    2005-08-01

    Our understanding of the male pelvic floor has evolved over more than 2,000 years. Gradually medical science has sought to dispel ancient myths and untruths. The male pelvic floor has many diverse functions. Importantly, it helps to support the abdominal contents, maintains urinary and fecal continence, and plays a major role in gaining and maintaining penile erection. Weakness of the male pelvic floor muscles may cause urinary and fecal incontinence and erectile dysfunction. Function may be restored in each of these areas by a comprehensive pelvic floor muscle training program. Spasm of the pelvic floor muscles may produce pain and require relaxation techniques. Additional research is needed to add further evidence to our knowledge base.

  1. Aesthetic facial surgery for the asian male.

    PubMed

    Lam, Samuel M

    2005-11-01

    Cosmetic surgery of the Asian face has become increasingly popular in the Far East and the West. The Asian male identity has undergone an evolution in Western media toward a more positive change. The standards of beauty have also changed, being defined by more multicultural models and styles of dress than before. To undertake cosmetic surgery of the Asian face, particularly of the Asian male, requires a different psychological understanding of the individual as well as an entirely different surgical technique in most cases. This brief article does not delve into the technical details of each procedure but concentrates on the salient differences in how to approach the Asian male patient for each of the different procedures, including Asian blepharoplasty, augmentation rhinoplasty, lip reduction, dimple fabrication, otoplasty, facial contouring and aging face procedures, and hair restoration.

  2. Male reproductive proteins and reproductive outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Grainger, David A

    2008-06-01

    Male reproductive proteins (MRPs), associated with sperm and semen, are the moieties responsible for carrying male genes into the next generation. Evolutionary biologists have focused on their capacity to control conception. Immunologists have shown that MRPs cause female genital tract inflammation as preparatory for embryo implantation and placentation. These observations argue that MRPs are critically important to reproductive success. Yet the impact of male reproductive proteins on obstetrical outcomes in women is largely unstudied. Epidemiologic and clinical observations suggest that shorter-duration exposure to MRPs prior to conception may elevate the risk for preeclampsia. A limited literature has also linked sexual behavior to bacterial vaginosis and preterm birth. We offer a clinical opinion that MRPs may have broad implications for successful reproduction, potentially involved in the composition of vaginal microflora, risks of preterm birth and preeclampsia, and success of assisted reproduction.

  3. Developmental aspects of the male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Jack

    1978-01-01

    The development of the mammalian reproductive system involves: (1) an indifferent or ambisexual stage, in which both the male (Wolffian) and female (Mullerian) duct systems are present; (2) sexual differentiation, in which the phenotypic sex is expressed by the enhancement of Mullerian structures in the female and Wolffian structures in the male and reciprocal suppression of the opposite duct system; (3) cytodifferentiation, in which the epithelial, stromal and muscular features are regionally established; and (4) actual response to endogenous hormones, especially in mammals, such as the human and guinea pig, in which the differentiated tissues respond according to their capability. Specifically in the male, the onset of sexual differentiation is signaled by the elaboration of an androgenlike material (possibly testosterone) and a Mullerian-inhibiting factor from the testis. In the absence of these two influences, or one of them, the reproductive tract remains essentially female in configuration, a normal situation in the female and in abnormal males in which the urogenital sinus and Wolffian structures are incapable of hormonal responses due to the lack of specific enzymes or receptors. Male differentiation in particular involves enlargement of the penis and its canalization by the urethra, scrotal development and descent of the testis, and the formation of accessory glandular structures from the urogenital sinus or Wolffian ducts (bulbourethral gland, seminal vesicles, ampulla, prostate). Remnants of the Mullerian system may persist at the upper pole of the testis and are normally present (uterus masculinus) in relation to the prostatic part of the urethra. The emergence of the characteristic parts of the male reproductive system in higher mammals in relation to phylogeny and the detailed origin of these in individual ontogeny are described. The use of the guinea pig as a model animal system for the study of transplacental effects of hormones (diethylstilbestrol

  4. Male responsibility for reproductive health. Introduction.

    PubMed

    Ndong, I; Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    Before the advent of the oral contraceptive pill, men were more involved in family planning and other aspects of reproductive health. Then, if a couple wished to practice family planning, they were largely limited to withdrawal, periodic abstinence, and condom use, all practices which require the man's participation. Hormonal methods for women and the subsequent development of IUDs and modern surgical sterilization fostered the development of a family planning services community focused upon women rather than men. The challenge is now to increase the degree of male responsibility for family planning by expanding services in ways which protect the reproductive health of both men and women, and by encouraging greater sensitivity to gender issues. Adding reproductive health services for men can be done without reducing the level of services available for women. However, while PROFAMILIA clinics, which offer a wide range of male reproductive health services, have found ways to encourage male participation, an enormous gap exists between the rhetoric of promoting male involvement and the actual realities of female-oriented reproductive health programs. Obstacles include men's reluctance to use services, lack of knowledge among men about their own and women's sexuality, lack of communication by men about sexuality in their relationships, male beliefs in sexual myths, health providers' and false assumptions and generalizations about men. The authors discuss the need to encourage men to support women's contraceptive choices, to increase communication between partners, to increase the use of male methods, to improve men's behavior for the prevention of STDs, to address men's reproductive health needs, and to encourage men to become more aware of related family issues.

  5. Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance.

    PubMed

    Losdat, S; Chang, S-M; Reid, J M

    2014-06-01

    One key objective in evolutionary ecology is to understand the magnitude of inbreeding depression expressed across sex-specific components of fitness. One major component of male fitness is fertilization success, which depends on male gametic performance (sperm and pollen performance in animals and plants, respectively). Inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could create sex-specific inbreeding depression in fitness, increase the benefit of inbreeding avoidance and reduce the efficacy of artificial insemination and pollination. However, there has been no assessment of the degree to which inbreeding generally depresses male gametic performance and hence post-copulatory or post-pollination fertilization success. Because inbreeding depression is understood to be a property of diploid entities, it is not clear what degree of inbreeding depression in haploid gametic performance should be expected. Here, we first summarize how inbreeding depression in male gametic performance could potentially arise through gene expression in associated diploid cells and/or reduced genetic diversity among haploid gametes. We then review published studies that estimate the magnitude of inbreeding depression in traits measuring components of sperm or pollen quantity, quality and competitiveness. Across 51 published studies covering 183 study traits, the grand mean inbreeding load was approximately one haploid lethal equivalent, suggesting that inbreeding depresses male gametic performance across diverse systems and traits. However, there was an almost complete lack of explicit estimates from wild populations. Future studies should quantify inbreeding depression in systematic sets of gametic traits under naturally competitive and noncompetitive conditions and quantify the degree to which gamete phenotypes and performance reflect haploid vs. diploid gene expression.

  6. Precision of Student Growth Percentiles with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    States in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central region serve a largely rural population with many states enrolling fewer than 350,000 students. A common challenge identified among REL Central educators is identifying appropriate methods for analyzing data with small samples of students. In particular, members of the REL Central…

  7. Attempt for percentile analysis of food colorants with photoacoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, T. M.; Vidotti, E. C.; Rollemberg, M. C. E.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2005-06-01

    In this work the photoacoustic (PAS) method is applied in polyester-type polyurethane foam (PUF) doped with food colorants. Aiming to resolve binary mixtures of synthetic colorants such as Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Brilliant Blue and Amaranth, a single spectroscopic method is described. Based upon individual spectra, a Gaussian deconvolution is used and the fraction of each colorant is found.

  8. MMPI Profiles of Males with Abnormal Sex Chromosome Complements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, M.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Nine males with Klinefelter's syndrome (XXY) and seven XYY males, located primarily in prisons and psychiatric hospitals, were administered the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. (Author/KW)

  9. OLDER MALES, COGNITIVE FUNCTION, AND ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Graham J.; Becker, Heather; Areheart, Kristopher L.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the question, how do older men who drink alcohol differ from those who do not drink on measures of cognitive function, memory, affect, and health? Of the nonprobability sample of male participants (N = 60), 35 (58%) of the males reported some degree of alcohol consumption. Eleven men had one or more drinks per day, 14 had one or more drinks per week, and 9 were occasional drinkers. The drinkers reported significantly less depression, had higher self-reported general health and vitality, and had higher cognitive performance, cognitive flexibility, and verbal memory, and greater knowledge of memory processes. PMID:16546934

  10. Predictors of dominance in male Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Bronstein, P M

    1985-03-01

    The formation of dominance/subordinancy relations in pairs of male Siamese fighting fish was examined in six experiments. Dominant animals typically were those fish that built the largest nests and that attacked an image of a live, displaying male most intensely prior to combat. However, pretest performance on an operant task and reaction to an animal's own mirror image were not useful predictors of subsequent dominance. These findings are consistent with the suggestion that domesticated Bettas have a territorial social strategy that includes both nest-building and fighting behaviors.

  11. Giant Intraperitoneal Multiloculated Pseudocyst in a Male

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Intraperitoneal pseudocysts are rare and may be difficult to differentiate from other malignant neoplasms. Reports of occurrences are mainly associated with long-term intraperitoneal catheter use, intraperitoneal catheter infections, or major pelvic surgery in females, although there are few reported incidences without prior trauma. We present a case of a male patient found to have a 19 × 15 × 9 cm intraperitoneal pseudocyst with other multiloculated areas and a history of a right inguinal hernia repair. After a thorough review of the literature, this is the first multiloculated nonpancreatic pseudocyst reported in a male patient. PMID:27022497

  12. Hate crimes against gay males: an overview.

    PubMed

    Willis, Danny G

    2004-03-01

    As the United States has become more multicultural and diverse, there has been an increase in violence motivated by hate. Hate crimes against gay males are the most prevalent of the hate crimes based on sexual orientation. Hate crimes have their roots in normative, individual, and societal attitudes and ideologies that lead to intimidation, bullying, teasing, physical assault, rape, and murder. This paper provides an overview of the issues specific to hate crime assaults against gay males. Mental health nurses may find this knowledge useful in developing further nursing inquiry, education, and clinical practice related to hate crime and violence prevention.

  13. Female qualities in males: vitellogenin synthesis induced by ovary transplants into the male silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Yang, Congwen; Lin, Ying; Shen, Guanwang; Chen, Enxiang; Wang, Yanxia; Luo, Juan; Zhang, Haiyan; Xing, Runmiao; Xia, Qingyou

    2014-10-10

    Female qualities in males are common in vertebrates but have not been extensively reported in insects. Vitellogenin (Vg) is highly expressed in the female fat body and is generally required for the formation of yolk proteins in the insect egg. Vg upregulation is generally regarded as a female quality in female oviparous animals. In this study, we found that Bombyx mori Vg (BmVg) is especially highly expressed in the female pupa. Downregulation of the BmVg gene in the female pupa by RNA interference (RNAi) interfered with egg formation and embryonic development, showing the importance of BmVg in these processes. So, we used BmVg as a biomarker for female qualities in the silkworm. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunofluorescence histochemistry showed that ovary transplants induced BmVg synthesis in the male pupa fat body. Ovaries transplanted into male silkworms produced only a few eggs with deformed yolk granules. These results suggested that the amount of BmVg in the male silkworm was insufficient for eggs to undergo complete embryonic development. After 17-beta-estradiol was used to treat male pupae and male pupal fat bodies, BmVg was upregulated in vivo and in vitro. These findings indicated that the male silkworm has innate female qualities that were induced by a transplanted ovary and 17β-estradiol. However, in silkworms, female qualities in males are not as complete as in females.

  14. Sex-specific inbreeding depression depends on the strength of male-male competition.

    PubMed

    Janicke, Tim; Vellnow, Nikolas; Sarda, Violette; David, Patrice

    2013-10-01

    Inbreeding depression has become a central theme in evolutionary biology and is considered to be a driving force for the evolution of reproductive morphology, physiology, behavior, and mating systems. Despite the overwhelming body of empirical work on the reproductive consequences of inbreeding, relatively little is known on whether inbreeding depresses male and female fitness to the same extent. However, sex-specific inbreeding depression has been argued to affect the evolution of selfing rates in simultaneous hermaphrodites and provides a powerful approach to test whether selection is stronger in males than in females, which is predicted to be the consequence of sexual selection. We tested for sex-specific inbreeding depression in the simultaneously hermaphroditic freshwater snail Physa acuta by comparing the reproductive performance of both sex functions between selfed and outcrossed focal individuals under different levels of male-male competition. We found that inbreeding impaired both male and female reproductive success and that the magnitude of male inbreeding depression exceeded female inbreeding depression when the opportunity for sperm competition was highest. Our study provides the first evidence for sex-specific inbreeding depression in a hermaphroditic animal and highlights the importance of considering the level of male-male competition when assessing sex differences in inbreeding depression.

  15. Where Are All the Males?: A Mixed Methods Inquiry into Male Study Abroad Participation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Study abroad represents a powerful tool for internationalizing students' higher education experience; however, current participation numbers indicate that male students go on study abroad programs at half the rate of female students. This rate reflects broader engagement trends for male college students, who have fallen behind female participation…

  16. Effects of different male remating intervals on the reproductive success of Choristoneura rosaceana males and females.

    PubMed

    Marcotte, Mireille; Delisle, Johanne; McNeil, Jeremy N

    2007-02-01

    The mass of the spermatophore transferred by a previously mated Choristoneura rosaceana male increases with time elapsed since the last mating but, even after 4 days, it never reaches the mass of the spermatophore of a virgin male. However, spermatophore mass is clearly not a good indicator of the male reproductive investment as the quantity of sperm in the second ejaculate of a previously mated male is the same as that of his first, if he is allowed a 2 (eupyrene sperm) to 3 day (apyrene sperm) recovery period. The interval between the first two matings had no influence on female fecundity or longevity but significantly affected fertility if the male had only 1 day to recover. The length of the post-copulatory refractory period was also shorter in females mated with previously mated males than in those mated with virgins, regardless of the male's remating interval. Furthermore, a significant variation in the eupyrene sperm content of the spermatophore transferred by virgin males had no influence on the length of the female refractory period. Globally, these results support the hypothesis that a factor, other than sperm numbers in the spermatheca, is responsible for maintaining the inhibition of pheromone production in this species.

  17. Negotiating the "White Male Math Myth": African American Male Students and Success in School Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinson, David W.

    2013-01-01

    This article shows how equity research in mathematics education can be decentered by reporting the "voices" of mathematically successful African American male students as they recount their experiences with school mathematics, illustrating, in essence, how they negotiated the White male math myth. Using post-structural theory, the…

  18. Investigating Instructional Practices of an African American Male Mathematics Teacher with Underachieving African American Male Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammad, Rhonda K.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study examined the instructional practices of an experienced African American mathematics teacher to determine his perceived capabilities in augmenting academic proficiency for his African American male students. Provided in this descriptive case study are the lived experiences of an African American male teacher working to move…

  19. Bodice Rippers without the Bodice: Ten Male-on-Male Romances for a Core Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2011-01-01

    One of the hottest growing segments of the romance genre is male-on-male (M/M) romance--gay romantic fiction mostly written and read by straight women. Featuring traditional romance conventions, including mistaken identities, star-crossed lovers, and happy endings, these stories show both physical and emotional intimacy between men. M/M builds on…

  20. Empowering Young Black Males--III: A Systematic Modular Training Program for Black Male Children & Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Courtland C.

    This series of five interrelated modules is an update and revision of "Saving the Native Son: Empowerment Strategies for Young Black Males (1996)." It offers specific strategies for empowering young African American males to help them achieve optimal educational and social success. Empowerment is a developmental process by which people who are…

  1. Self-Concept and Psychological Adjustment Differences Between Self-Identified Male Transexuals and Male Homosexuals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roback, Howard B.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. (Author)

  2. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  3. Interactions with heterospecific males do not affect how female Mesocricetus hamsters respond to conspecific males

    PubMed Central

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E.

    2012-01-01

    Reproductive interference includes any interspecific interaction that reduces the fitness of one or both species involved. There are several types of reproductive interference, but they normally involve the direct cost of interacting or mating with heterospecifics. An indirect cost of interacting with heterospecific individuals is a consequent reduction in successful interactions with conspecifics. We tested the hypothesis that being aggressive towards a heterospecific individual will diminish sexual responses towards conspecifics in later encounters. We used two species of Mesocricetus hamsters (Syrian and Turkish hamsters), whose interspecific interactions have previously been determined. We exposed or both exposed and paired Syrian hamster females with a conspecific or a heterospecific male. Five minutes later, we paired all females with a conspecific male and measured the latency to lordosis, the duration of lordosis and any incidence of aggression. We found that (1) interactions with heterospecific males did not affect how females responded to conspecific males in later encounters and (2) previous pairing of female subjects with either conspecific or heterospecific males promoted a faster sexual response by females in subsequent interactions with conspecific males. Thus, aggressive interactions of Syrian hamster females with heterospecific males, contrary to our initial hypothesis, had a positive effect on subsequent interactions with conspecific males. PMID:23439800

  4. Sexy males and choosy females on exploded leks: correlates of male attractiveness in the Little Bustard.

    PubMed

    Jiguet, Frédéric; Bretagnolle, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    In their choice of mates, females may use alternative tactics, including a comparative assessment of males in a population, using one or several relative preference criteria. Traits involved in female choice should presumably be variable between, but not within males, thus potentially providing reliable cues of male identity and quality for prospecting females. In lekking species, sexual selection is usually intense, and females can freely choose mates. Studying the Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax, a bird with an exploded lek mating system, we first identified male phenotypic traits that showed higher among, than within variation (plumage pattern, display rates and call structure). Among those and other traits (ornaments and their symmetry, body condition, lek spatial organization and territory quality), we identified phenotypic traits that correlated with male attractiveness toward females. At least four phenotypic male traits were correlated with female attraction, i.e. body condition, lek attendance, ornamental symmetry and display rates. Traits related to the initial female attraction on male territory seem to differ from traits related to the decision of females to stay in the territory of attractive males.

  5. Male tolerance and male–male bonds in a multilevel primate society

    PubMed Central

    Patzelt, Annika; Kopp, Gisela H.; Ndao, Ibrahima; Kalbitzer, Urs; Zinner, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Male relationships in most species of mammals generally are characterized by intense intrasexual competition, with little bonding among unrelated individuals. In contrast, human societies are characterized by high levels of cooperation and strong bonds among both related and unrelated males. The emergence of cooperative male–male relationships has been linked to the multilevel structure of traditional human societies. Based on an analysis of the patterns of spatial and social interaction in combination with genetic relatedness data of wild Guinea baboons (Papio papio), we show that this species exhibits a multilevel social organization in which males maintain strong bonds and are highly tolerant of each other. Several “units” of males with their associated females form “parties,” which team up as “gangs.” Several gangs of the same “community” use the same home range. Males formed strong bonds predominantly within parties; however, these bonds were not correlated with genetic relatedness. Agonistic interactions were relatively rare and were restricted to a few dyads. Although the social organization of Guinea baboons resembles that of hamadryas baboons, we found stronger male–male affiliation and more elaborate greeting rituals among male Guinea baboons and less aggression toward females. Thus, the social relationships of male Guinea baboons differ markedly from those of other members of the genus, adding valuable comparative data to test hypotheses regarding social evolution. We suggest that this species constitutes an intriguing model to study the predictors and fitness benefits of male bonds, thus contributing to a better understanding of the evolution of this important facet of human social behavior. PMID:25201960

  6. Assortative sexual mixing patterns in male?female and male?male partnerships in Melbourne, Australia: implications for HIV and sexually transmissible infection transmission.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric P F; Read, Tim R H; Law, Matthew G; Chen, Marcus Y; Bradshaw, Catriona S; Fairley, Christopher K

    2016-07-29

    Background: Assortative mixing patterns have become a new and important focus in HIV/sexually transmissible infection (STI) research in recent years. There are very limited data on sexual mixing patterns, particularly in an Australian population. Methods: Male-female and male-male partnerships attending the Melbourne Sexual Health Centre (MSHC) between 2011 and 2014 were included. Correlation of age between two individuals within a partnership was examined by using Spearman's rank correlation. The Newman's assortativity coefficient was used as an aggregate quantitative measurement of sexual mixing for number of partners and condom use. Results: 1165 male-female and 610 male-male partnerships were included in the analysis. There was a strong positive correlation of age in both male-female (rho=0.709; P<0.001) and male-male partnerships (rho=0.553; P<0.001). The assortative mixing pattern for number of partners was similar in male-female (r=0.255; 95% CI: 0.221-0.289) and male-male partnerships (r=0.264; 95% CI: 0.218-0.309). There was a stronger assortative mixing pattern for condom use in male-male (r=0.517, 95% CI: 0.465-0.569) compared with male-female (r=0.382; 95% CI: 0.353-0.412) partnerships. Conclusion: Male-female and male-male partnerships have a high assortativity mixing pattern for age, number of partners and condom use. The sexual mixing pattern is not purely assortative, and hence it may lead to increased HIV and STI transmission in certain risk groups.

  7. Male age mediates reproductive investment and response to paternity assurance.

    PubMed

    Benowitz, Kyle M; Head, Megan L; Williams, Camellia A; Moore, Allen J; Royle, Nick J

    2013-08-07

    Theory predicts that male response to reduced paternity will depend on male state and interactions between the sexes. If there is little chance of reproducing again, then males should invest heavily in current offspring, regardless of their share in paternity. We tested this by manipulating male age and paternity assurance in the burying beetle Nicrophorus vespilloides. We found older males invested more in both mating effort and parental effort than younger males. Furthermore, male age, a component of male state, mediated male response to perceived paternity. Older males provided more prenatal care, whereas younger males provided less prenatal care, when perceived paternity was low. Adjustments in male care, however, did not influence selection acting indirectly on parents, through offspring performance. This is because females adjusted their care in response to the age of their partner, providing less care when paired with older males than younger males. As a result offspring, performance did not differ between treatments. Our study shows, for the first time, that a male state variable is an important modifier of paternity-parental care trade-offs and highlights the importance of social interactions between males and females during care in determining male response to perceived paternity.

  8. Health Problems and Male Firearm Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hempstead, Katherine; Nguyen, Tuan; David-Rus, Richard; Jacquemin, Bretta

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on constructs of masculinity as it relates to both gun ownership and men's health, we use a rich data set, the New Jersey Violent Death Reporting System as well as hospital discharge data, to analyze 3,413 completed male suicides between the years of 2003 and 2009. We test the hypotheses that the use of firearms is more common when…

  9. The Political Economy of Black Male Suicides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, James B.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a framework which merges economic and sociological insights for studying the increasing suicide rate among Black males. Preliminary empirical analysis of the model indicated that a purely economic model must incorporate extra-economic influences to increase its explanatory power. (MK)

  10. Social Stress and Mortality Among Nonwhite Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Ruth E.

    1977-01-01

    The leading causes of death for young black males are accidents, homicide and suicide. Stress arising from socioeconomic conditions precipitates these events. Heart disease and cancer, other major causes of death, are also thought to be environmentally related. The author proposes the development of new types of social institutions to remedy the…

  11. Food Supplement Usage by Adolescent Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara; Read, Marsha

    1982-01-01

    Adolescent males (N=568) responded to a questionnaire examining their food supplement usage, types of food supplements consumed, reasons for use and non-use, relationship of use to concern for health, and demographic and external factors influencing supplement use. Presents factors related to food supplement usage. (RC)

  12. The Greeting Behavior of Fragile X Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Peter H.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The study found that mentally retarded males (N=18) above 12 years of age with a fragile site on the X chromosome exhibited a highly idiosyncratic stereotypic form of gaze avoidance during greeting ceremonies. Results suggest this aberrant greeting behavior may be uniquely associated with this syndrome of mental retardation. (Author/DB)

  13. X chromosome gain in male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Di Oto, Enrico; Monti, Valentina; Cucchi, Maria C; Masetti, Riccardo; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Foschini, Maria P

    2015-12-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is an uncommon disease whose molecular profile is not well known. X chromosome gain has been described as a marker of aggressive behavior in female breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of the X chromosome in male breast cancer. Twenty cases of male breast invasive ductal carcinoma were retrieved and compared with 10 cases of gynecomastia. Cases were tested by fluorescence in situ hybridization to assess a cytogenetic profile for the X chromosome. The X chromosome status was compared with histopathologic features and stage at presentation. All MBC cases harbored an X chromosome gain (100%) in a variable percentage of neoplastic cells, ranging from 31% to 85% (mean, 59%). On the contrary, all cases of gynecomastia showed wild X chromosome asset. The patients' age at surgery and tumor grading showed a statistically significant correlation (P = .0188-.04), with the percentages of neoplastic cells showing an X chromosome gain. These data suggest that this X chromosome gain plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of male breast epithelial cells.

  14. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  15. Male Influences on Fertility: Needs for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marciano, Teresa Donati

    1979-01-01

    A study comparing the processes of arriving at fertility decisions in marriage shows that the husband's preference for children or for childlessness controls more often than the wife's preference in either case. Using two childless samples and one sample with children, the strong effect of male preference was found. (Author)

  16. Field performance of engineered male mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela F; Nimmo, Derric; McKemey, Andrew R; Kelly, Nick; Scaife, Sarah; Donnelly, Christl A; Beech, Camilla; Petrie, William D; Alphey, Luke

    2011-10-30

    Dengue is the most medically important arthropod-borne viral disease, with 50-100 million cases reported annually worldwide. As no licensed vaccine or dedicated therapy exists for dengue, the most promising strategies to control the disease involve targeting the predominant mosquito vector, Aedes aegypti. However, the current methods to do this are inadequate. Various approaches involving genetically engineered mosquitoes have been proposed, including the release of transgenic sterile males. However, the ability of laboratory-reared, engineered male mosquitoes to effectively compete with wild males in terms of finding and mating with wild females, which is critical to the success of these strategies, has remained untested. We report data from the first open-field trial involving a strain of engineered mosquito. We demonstrated that genetically modified male mosquitoes, released across 10 hectares for a 4-week period, mated successfully with wild females and fertilized their eggs. These findings suggest the feasibility of this technology to control dengue by suppressing field populations of A. aegypti.

  17. Causes of Male Dropout Rate in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ud Din, Muhammad Naseer; Dad, Hukam; Iqbal, Javid; Shah, Syed Shafqat Ali; Niazi, Muhammad Imran

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to seek the cause of male students' dropout rate at the primary level of F.R. Peshawar. The main objectives of the study were: 1) to study the teacher problems and attitudes of the dropouts, 2) to determine the factors that cause dropouts, 3) to study the government's strategy of dropouts, and 4) to provide suggestions to overcome…

  18. Sex Bias in Traditionally Male Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakshis, Robert; Godshalk, James

    To evaluate potential sources of female sex bias and sex stereotyping within traditionally male occupational programs at the College of DuPage, programs with low female enrollment were selected for study: air conditioning and refrigeration, architectural drafting, auto service, building construction, criminal justice, electronics, fire science,…

  19. Selenium status of idiopathic infertile Nigerian males.

    PubMed

    Akinloye, Oluyemi; Arowojolu, A O; Shittu, O B; Adejuwon, C A; Osotimehin, Babatunde

    2005-04-01

    Selenium concentration in the sera and seminal plasma of 60 infertile males (40 oligospermia and 20 azoospermia) and 40 males with proven evidence of fertility (normospermia; control group) were estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results were correlated with spermatogram and hormonal levels in order to determine their relationship and significance in male infertility. The mean serum concentrations of selenium was found to be significantly increased in oligospermic compared to azoospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.01), whereas the seminal plasma level was significantly higher in azoospermic compared to oligospermic subjects and controls (p < 0.001). Thus, the ratio of serum selenium to seminal plasma selenium was 1: 1 in controls, 4: 1 in oligospermia, and 1: 2 in azoospermic subject.A significant inverse correlation was observed between serum selenium level and sperm count (p < 0.01). Similarly, seminal plasma selenium correlated with spermatozoa motility, viability, and morphology. Serum selenium level shows positive correlation with the serum testosterone level (p < 0.01). In conclusion, there appears to be a physiological balance in the distribution of selenium in serum and seminal plasma compartment of control males. A disturbance in this balance has a significant influence on spermatogenesis. Selenium appears to have a positive influence on Leydig cells, thus influencing the secretion of testosterone.

  20. Legalization of Employment Discrimination against White Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontham, Michael R.

    1978-01-01

    The intervention of government to require speeial treatment of designated groups on the basis of race, color, or sex is inconsistent with principles of equal treatment under American law. Regardless of past discrimination against certain classes, governmental determination to favor them at the expense of White males is not justified. (Author/WI)

  1. School-Related Characteristics of Male Juveniles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Gary L.; Abbott, Gypsy A.

    School-related characteristics of 256 male juveniles under the jurisdiction of a Family Court system were examined by perusing court records and conducting individual interviews with the juveniles. Results indicated that most juveniles last attended eighth grade, more than 81% had failed at least once, and more than half had fought frequently at…

  2. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  3. Male Adolescent Bullying and the School Shooter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuter-Rice, Karin

    2008-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature reveals that adolescent male victims of peer bullying suffer somatic and emotional consequences from being victimized. Limited research on school shooters found that a significant number of them were adolescents who were targets of bullies and claimed their shootings were in response to their victimization. To…

  4. Melatonin hormone profile in infertile males.

    PubMed

    Awad, Hosni; Halawa, Fawzy; Mostafa, Taymour; Atta, Hazem

    2006-06-01

    Melatonin is a hormone produced by the pineal gland. There is much controversy about its relationship to the male reproductive process. In this study, seminal plasma as well as the serum melatonin levels were studied in different infertile male groups and were correlated with their semen parameters and hormonal levels. One hundred twenty male cases subdivided into six equal groups were consecutively included; fertile normozoospermic men, oligoasthenozoospermia (OA), OA with leucocytospermia, OA with varicocele, non-obstructive azoospermia (NOA) with high serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and NOA with normal FSH. Semen analysis, estimation of melatonin, FSH, testosterone (T) and prolactin (PRL) hormone was carried out. Mean level of serum melatonin was higher than its corresponding seminal concentrations in all investigated groups with a positive correlation between their levels (r = 0.532, p = 0.01). Serum and seminal plasma melatonin levels in all infertile groups were reduced significantly compared with their levels in the fertile group. The lowest concentrations were in OA with leucocytospermia group. Melatonin in both serum and semen demonstrated significant correlation with sperm motility (r = 607, 0.623 respectively, p = 0.01). Serum melatonin correlated positively with serum PRL (r = 0.611, p = 0.01). It may be concluded that melatonin may be involved in the modulation of reproductive neuroendocrine axis in male infertility. Also, low levels of melatonin in semen were observed in infertile groups having reduced sperm motility, leucocytospermia, varicocele and NOA.

  5. African-American Males: Education or Incarceration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Robert L.

    This paper analyzes the relationship between levels of educational attainment and outcomes for African American males, in particular the likelihood of conflict with the criminal justice system. The analysis begins with a look at society's belief system and political and economic forces, and argues that these have combined to promote failure among…

  6. Sexually transmitted infections: impact on male fertility.

    PubMed

    Ochsendorf, F R

    2008-04-01

    The impact of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) on male fertility is strongly dependent on the local prevalence of the STDs. In Western countries STD-infections are of minor relevance. In other regions, i.e. Africa or South East Asia, the situation appears to be different. Acute urethritis could not be associated with male infertility. Chronic infections (gonorrhoea) can cause urethral strictures and epididymo-orchitis. Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoea can be transmitted to the female partner and cause pelvic inflammatory disease with tubal obstruction. Ureaplasma urealyticum may impair spermatozoa (motility, DNA condensation). Trichomonas vaginalis has, if any, only minor influence on male fertility. The relevance of viral infections (HPV, HSV) for male infertility is not resolved. Any STD increases the chances of transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The HIV infection is associated with infectious semen and the risk of virus transmission. Semen quality deteriorates with the progression of immunodeficiency. Special counselling of serodiscordant couples is needed. STDs should be treated early and adequately to prevent late sequelae for both men and women.

  7. Subtyping Male Perpetrators of Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Katherine A.; Westen, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Domestic violence is a serious problem with far-reaching consequences. This study applies a new methodology to derive subtypes of male perpetrators of intimate partner violence. As part of a larger National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-funded study, a national sample of randomly selected psychologists and psychiatrists describe 188 adult male…

  8. Estimation of temporary emigration in male toads

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Scherer, R. D.; Corn, P.S.; Lambert, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    Male boreal toads (Bufo boreas) are thought to return to the breeding site every year but, if absent in a particular year, will be more likely to return the following year. Using Pollock's robust design we estimated temporary emigration (the probability a male toad is absent from a breeding site in a given year) at three locations in Colorado, USA: two in Rocky Mountain National Park and one in Chaffee County. We present data that suggest that not all male toads return to the breeding site every year. Our analyses indicate that temporary emigration varies by site and time (for example, from 1992 to 1998, the probability of temporary emigration ranged from 10% to 29% and from 3% to 95% at Lost Lake and Kettle Tarn, respectively). Although the results provide weak evidence that males are more likely to return after a year's hiatus, a general pattern of state-dependent temporary emigration was not supported. We also hypothesized relationships between temporary emigration and a number of weather variables. While some competitive models included weather covariates, imprecise and variable estimates of the effects of these covariates precluded fully defining their impact on temporary emigration. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  9. Health Needs and Concerns of Male Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinch, Winifred J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined male college students' (N=159) concerns in the areas of alcohol and other drug use, automobile safety, weight and dieting, smoking, sexuality, coping and stress, and selection and utilization of health care services. Identified major problems with alcohol use, automobile safety, weight control, stress, and sexuality. Also identified…

  10. City's Black Males Stay in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarons, Dakarai I.

    2010-01-01

    School leaders in Baltimore have mounted an offensive over the past three years to keep more students in school and on track. Last month, news came that the effort has produced a welcome dividend: Black male students are driving a marked increase in the district's graduation rate and a decrease in its dropout rate, and showing improvement at a…

  11. Male Rape Victim and Perpetrator Blaming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleath, Emma; Bull, Ray

    2010-01-01

    One of four possible vignettes manipulated by (a) level of rape myth contained within them (low vs. high) and (b) type of rape (stranger vs. acquaintance) was presented to participants followed by scales measuring victim blame, perpetrator blame, belief in a just world, sex-role egalitarian beliefs, and male rape myth acceptance. Victim blaming…

  12. ATRAZINE ALTERS STEROIDOGENESIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have reported that atrazine (ATR, 200 mg/kg x 30 d) causes increased serum estrone (E) and estradiol (E2) in male wistar rats (Toxicol. Sci. 2000, 58:50-59). This study evaluates the short-term effects of ATR on E, E2 and their precursors in the steroidogenic pathway. Sixty-da...

  13. Career Patterns of Distinguished Male Social Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackburn, Robert T.; Havighurst, Robert J.

    Seventy-four male eminent social scientists provided career stage data by which adult development theory was tested. All were born between 1893 and 1903 and met the criteria of a distinguished (and for several still active) scholarly career. The subjects were separated into four groups on the basis of their degree of productivity as of age 60.…

  14. A new orally active male antifertility agent.

    PubMed

    Coppola, J A; Saldarini, R J

    1974-05-01

    CL 88,236 (1-1-amino-3-chloro-2-propanol HC1) was tested orally for antifertility in male rats, mice and hamsters. It was given orally in propylene glycol either daily for 14 days with mating on Days 7-14, (or for 7 days with mating on Days 2, 4, and 6, or for 7 days every other week for 3 weeks in withdrawal tests. In male rats, 5 mg per kg for 14 days reduced number of pregnant females 50%, and at 10-80 mg per kg males were completely sterile. Libido, coitus, and ejaculation were normal, but fragmented sperm, spermatogenic arrest, and granuloma-like epididymal lesions appeared at 40 and 80 mg per kg. Serial matings showed that sterility developed within 6 days and lasted for 1 week after withdrawal. Sterility was maintained by treating rats with CL 88,236 on alternating weeks. Male mice and hamsters were sterilized by 300 mg per kg per day for 14 days, without toxicity. Sterility was apparently mediated by affecting epididymal and vas sperm stores.

  15. Sex chromosome inactivation in the male.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; McCarrey, John R

    2009-10-01

    Mammalian females have two X chromosomes, while males have only one X plus a Y chromosome. In order to balance X-linked gene dosage between the sexes, one X chromosome undergoes inactivation during development of female embryos. This process has been termed X-chromosome inactivation (XCI). Inactivation of the single X chromosome also occurs in the male, but is transient and is confined to the late stages of first meiotic prophase during spermatogenesis. This phenomenon has been termed meiotic sex chromosome inactivation (MSCI). A substantial portion ( approximately 15-25%) of X-linked mRNA-encoding genes escapes XCI in female somatic cells. While no mRNA genes are known to escape MSCI in males, approximately 80% of X-linked miRNA genes have been shown to escape this process. Recent results have led to the proposal that the RNA interference mechanism may be involved in regulating XCI in female cells. We suggest that some MSCI-escaping miRNAs may play a similar role in regulating MSCI in male germ cells.

  16. Childhood of Males with the XYY Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Johannes; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Investigated to determine specific intelligence, personality characteristics, and behavioral patterns of boys with the XYY syndrome (a rare pattern of sex chromosome imbalance) were the childhood and adolescence of 20 males, 6- to 58-years of age at time of diagnosis. (Author/MC)

  17. Male Psychopaths and Their Criminal Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Robert D.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined criminal histories of male psychopaths and nonpsychopaths, exploring time in prison and conviction rates for five-year periods between ages of 16 and 45. Criminal activities of nonpsychopaths were relatively constant over years; activities of psychopaths remained high until around age 40, then declined dramatically. Results are consistent…

  18. Stress and Identity among Black Males.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, DeVon R.

    Twenty Black American males' reactions to slides depicting interracial climate and/or racial oppression were investigated by recording physiological responses, specifically, galvanic skin potential (GSP) and heart rate (HR). Participants were also given the Myers/Stokes Identity Scale (MSIS) to ascertain their reaction to oppression and, based on…

  19. Male reproductive health and environmental xenoestrogens.

    PubMed Central

    Toppari, J; Larsen, J C; Christiansen, P; Giwercman, A; Grandjean, P; Guillette, L J; Jégou, B; Jensen, T K; Jouannet, P; Keiding, N; Leffers, H; McLachlan, J A; Meyer, O; Müller, J; Rajpert-De Meyts, E; Scheike, T; Sharpe, R; Sumpter, J; Skakkebaek, N E

    1996-01-01

    Male reproductive health has deteriorated in many countries during the last few decades. In the 1990s, declining semen quality has been reported from Belgium, Denmark, France, and Great Britain. The incidence of testicular cancer has increased during the same time incidences of hypospadias and cryptorchidism also appear to be increasing. Similar reproductive problems occur in many wildlife species. There are marked geographic differences in the prevalence of male reproductive disorders. While the reasons for these differences are currently unknown, both clinical and laboratory research suggest that the adverse changes may be inter-related and have a common origin in fetal life or childhood. Exposure of the male fetus to supranormal levels of estrogens, such as diethlylstilbestrol, can result in the above-mentioned reproductive defects. The growing number of reports demonstrating that common environmental contaminants and natural factors possess estrogenic activity presents the working hypothesis that the adverse trends in male reproductive health may be, at least in part, associated with exposure to estrogenic or other hormonally active (e.g., antiandrogenic) environmental chemicals during fetal and childhood development. An extensive research program is needed to understand the extent of the problem, its underlying etiology, and the development of a strategy for prevention and intervention. Images Figure 3. A Figure 3. B Figure 3. C Figure 3. D Figure 3. E Figure 3. F PMID:8880001

  20. Male gender identity and sexual behaviour.

    PubMed

    Chused, J F

    1999-12-01

    One consequence of a heightened interest in intersubjectivity in the current psychoanalytic literature has been a relative neglect of the examination of unconscious fantasies. Presenting material from the analysis of three males, each of whom, in childhood and/or adolescence, hid his penis between his legs and looked at himself in a mirror naked, the author demonstrates the importance of attending to both unconscious fantasies and their manifestations within the interactive field of analysis. The first patient is a young child with a gender identity disorder, whose wish to be like his mother was a response to the emotional loss of her during early childhood. The second patient is an adolescent, whose behaviour in front of a mirror was a manifestation of his desire to possess his mother and be her, to humiliate and sadistically control her, and at the same time, to experience the masochistic sexual gratification of being a seemingly helpless victim. The third patient, a 48-year-old male, came to analysis filled with suicidal impulses and self-hatred related to homosexual impulses. His repeated examination of himself in a mirror, with penis hidden, reflected severe castration anxiety, related to an ambivalent relationship with an angry mother and a longing for attention from an unavailable father. The article closes with a description of the similarities and differences in the dynamics of these three males as well as a discussion of the meaning of similar behaviour in other males seen in consultation.

  1. Restoring Self-Esteem in Adolescent Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendel, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    When presented with the words self-esteem, it is most common in our society to immediately think of girls. It is not often that people ponder the effects of body image, athleticism, success, or even friendships for boys. Unfortunately in overlooking these concepts, we are doing a disservice to our male youth. This article addresses the effects of…

  2. Systems Toxicology of Male Reproductive Development ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Adverse trends in male reproductive health have been reported for increased rates of testicular germ cell tumor, low semen quality, cryptorchidism, and hypospadias. An association with prenatal environmental exposure has been inferred from human and animal studies underlying male reproductive developmental defects. The present study established the links between environmental chemicals, molecular targets, and adverse outcomes using U.S. EPA animal study (ToxRefDB) and high-throughput screening (ToxCast) databases. This systems-based approach revealed a phenotypic hierarchy across 63 chemicals and a pleiotropic in vitro bioactivity profile. Although estrogenic and anti-androgenic activities have been extensively studied in male reproductive developmental toxicity, the present study showed these receptor targets to be only a subset of the potential landscape of molecular targets. A variety of chemical (e.g. phthalates, conazoles, carbamates, and phenol compounds) and bioactivity (e.g. nuclear receptors, vascular remodeling proteins, and cytochrome-P450 reductases) clusters further suggested multiple pathways leading to the adverse outcomes. This points to the need for multi-scale systems models to predict whether the occurrence of one adverse outcome may predict the risk of another. Imbalances in androgen and estrogen signaling have been a general focus in male reproductive toxicology research. While a number of recent studies have demonstrated that both hormonal

  3. Brief Report: Trichotillomania in an Autistic Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamdan-Allen, Ghada

    1991-01-01

    This report describes trichotillomania (the irresistible urge to pull one's own body hair) in a young male with autism who was treated successfully with Fluoxetine, a serotonergic antidepressant. The possible etiologic interrelations and treatment implications of this kind of comorbidity are presented. (JDD)

  4. Crossing Uncertain Terrain: Messages from Male Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keamy, Ron Kim

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, comments made by a group of senior male academics in Australian universities about their leadership behaviours, are considered. Whereas the majority of the men in the study spoke about gender relations, and sometimes feminism in their workplaces, only two of the men engaged in discourses of gender and/or feminism, as well as…

  5. Queer Decisions? Gay Male Students' University Choices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taulke-Johnson, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the reported influences on the university choices of 17 gay male undergraduate students attending a UK institution. It is argued that this process is strongly mediated by, and, therefore, has to be considered in relation to, class. Data analysis provides insight into the factors gay students say are important in selecting…

  6. Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Barlow, Steven M.; Lee, Jaehoon

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors' laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults. Method: Quantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a…

  7. Suspect osteogenesis imperfecta in a male kitten.

    PubMed

    Evason, Michelle D; Taylor, Susan M; Bebchuk, Trevor N

    2007-03-01

    A 4.5-month-old, male domestic shorthair was presented with bilateral femoral fractures after falling from a low height. Radiographs revealed reduced radio-opacity and thin cortices of all long bones. A presumptive diagnosis of osteodystrophy, secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta, was made on postmortem examination.

  8. The Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeBlassie, Richard; Sagal, Karen

    1981-01-01

    Mental, physical, emotional, and spiritual aspects of midlife males are frequently disturbed and have a definite impact on job satisfaction. Three major tasks to be worked on during this time are described: (1) terminating early adulthood; (2) dealing with polarities; and (3) initiating middle adulthood. (Author)

  9. Male Midlife Crisis and Career Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski-daRoza, Victoria

    1984-01-01

    The author examines various aspects of male midlife crisis and its effects on the man's career, including the following: What are the implications for an organization, if behavioral changes or dissatisfaction with past patterns extends into the employee's job and leads this same individual to become a dissatisfied employee, to consider a career…

  10. The Cultural Bind on the American Male

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chenoweth, Gene

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the cultural bind on the American male. The process starts with conception. If the spermatozoid that fertilizes the egg contains only X chromosomes a girl will be produced. If a single Y chromosome out of the 24 produced by the father is included, the baby will be a boy. From this point on the girls have a…

  11. Male sterility and hybrid seed production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sexual reproduction in angiosperms is a complex process that includes a portion of the vegetative generation and all of the sexual generation. Coordination of both female and male reproduction ontogenies must occur. An abnormality anywhere in this process may lead to sterility. Genetic (nuclear) and...

  12. Risk factors for male breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Mabuchi, K; Bross, D S; Kessler, I I

    1985-02-01

    To investigate risk factors in male breast cancer, a case-control study of 52 histologically diagnosed cases and 52 controls--matched for age, race, marital status, and hospital--was conducted in 5 U.S. metropolitan areas. Cases were significantly more likely to be Jewish than were the controls, supporting earlier suggestions of an increased risk in Jewish males. A significant association of male breast cancer with mumps infections at age 20 years or older, along with the possible association with antecedent testicular injury and the excess frequency of mumps orchitis among cases, suggests that testicular factors may be important in the development of breast cancer among males. An increased frequency of breast cancer among persons who have worked in blast furnaces, steel works, and rolling mills is of interest because of the possible testicular effect of high environmental temperatures. The observed association between breast cancer and a prior history of swollen breast is difficult to interpret because of potential recall bias, and a possible relationship with military service needs further confirmation.

  13. Epidemiologic methods for investigating male fecundity

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, Jørn; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

    2014-01-01

    Fertility is a couple concept that has been measured since the beginning of demography, and male fecundity (his biological capacity to reproduce) is a component of the fertility rate. Unfortunately, we have no way of measuring the male component directly, although several indirect markers can be used. Population registers can be used to monitor the proportion of childless couples, couples who receive donor semen, trends in dizygotic twinning, and infertility diagnoses. Studies using time-to-pregnancy (TTP) may identify couple subfecundity, and TTP data will correlate with sperm quality and quantity as well as sexual activity and a number of other conditions. Having exposure data available for couples with a fecund female partner would make TTP studies of interest in identifying exposures that may affect male fecundity. Biological indicators such as sperm quality and quantity isolate the male component of fertility, and semen data therefore remain an important source of information for research. Unfortunately, often over half of those invited to provide a sperm sample will refuse, and the study is then subject to a selection that may introduce bias. Because the most important time windows for exposures that impair semen production could be early fetal life, puberty, and the time of ejaculation; longitudinal data over decades of time are required. The ongoing monitoring of semen quality and quantity should continue, and surveys monitoring fertility and waiting TTP should also be designed. PMID:24369129

  14. Genomic Landscape of Developing Male Germ Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Tin-Lap; Pang, Alan Lap-Yin; Rennert, Owen M.; Chan, Wai-Yee

    2010-01-01

    Spermatogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process by which spermatogonia develop into mature spermatozoa. This process involves many testis- or male germ cell-specific gene products whose expressions are strictly regulated. In the past decade the advent of high-throughput gene expression analytical techniques has made functional genomic studies of this process, particularly in model animals such as mice and rats, feasible and practical. These studies have just begun to reveal the complexity of the genomic landscape of the developing male germ cells. Over 50% of the mouse and rat genome are expressed during testicular development. Among transcripts present in germ cells, 40% – 60% are uncharacterized. A number of genes, and consequently their associated biological pathways, are differentially expressed at different stages of spermatogenesis. Developing male germ cells present a rich repertoire of genetic processes. Tissue-specific as well as spermatogenesis stage-specific alternative splicing of genes exemplifies the complexity of genome expression. In addition to this layer of control, discoveries of abundant presence of antisense transcripts, expressed psuedogenes, non-coding RNAs (ncRNA) including long ncRNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and retrogenes all point to the presence of multiple layers of expression and functional regulation in male germ cells. It is anticipated that application of systems biology approaches will further our understanding of the regulatory mechanism of spermatogenesis.† PMID:19306351

  15. Anabolic steroids abuse and male infertility.

    PubMed

    El Osta, Rabih; Almont, Thierry; Diligent, Catherine; Hubert, Nicolas; Eschwège, Pascal; Hubert, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    For several decades, testosterone and its synthetic derivatives have been used with anabolic and androgenic purposes. These substances were first restricted to professional bodybuilders, but become more and more popular among recreational athletes. Up to date, 3,000,000 anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) users have been reported in the United States with an increasing prevalence, making AAS consumption a major public health growing concern. Infertility is defined by the WHO as the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse and a male factor is present in up to 50 % of all infertile couples. Several conditions may be related to male infertility. Substance abuse, including AAS, is commonly associated to transient or persistent impairment on male reproductive function, through different pathways. Herein, a brief overview on AAS is offered. Steroids biochemistry, patterns of use, physiological and clinical issues are enlightened. A further review about fertility outcomes among male AAS abusers is also presented, including the classic reports on transient anabolic steroid-induced hypogonadism (ASIH), and the more recent experimental reports on structural and genetic sperm damage.

  16. Still so Few Male Teachers: Now What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Shaun Patrick

    2010-01-01

    A shortage of male teachers at all levels of public education is not a new phenomenon. Gender disparities in teaching have been around for more than a century in the United States. While roughly 39 percent of all elementary and secondary public school teachers were men as early as 1869, only 29 percent of teachers were men by the turn of the…

  17. 47,XXX chromosome constitution in a male.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, U; Simoni, G; Montali, E; Dalpra, L; Rossella, F; Piazzini, M; Borghi, A

    1980-02-01

    An 18-year-old boy with a male phenotype was examined because of testicular hypoplasia. Chromosome analysis using Q- and R-banding techniques and BUdR treatment showed a 47,XXX karotype, in both lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Cytogenetic problems raised by this case are discussed in relation to data from previous published reports.

  18. Male-Female Differences in Formal Thought.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Marcia C.

    Two studies were conducted to clarify the influence of experiences and aptitudes on male-female differences in formal thought. Participants were 788 seventh-, ninth-, and eleventh-graders in three school districts differing in location, socioeconomic composition, and course offerings. Formal thought was measured with tasks involving proportional…

  19. The visual system of male scale insects.

    PubMed

    Buschbeck, Elke K; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  20. The visual system of male scale insects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buschbeck, Elke K.; Hauser, Martin

    2009-03-01

    Animal eyes generally fall into two categories: (1) their photoreceptive array is convex, as is typical for camera eyes, including the human eye, or (2) their photoreceptive array is concave, as is typical for the compound eye of insects. There are a few rare examples of the latter eye type having secondarily evolved into the former one. When viewed in a phylogenetic framework, the head morphology of a variety of male scale insects suggests that this group could be one such example. In the Margarodidae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea), males have been described as having compound eyes, while males of some more derived groups only have two single-chamber eyes on each side of the head. Those eyes are situated in the place occupied by the compound eye of other insects. Since male scale insects tend to be rare, little is known about how their visual systems are organized, and what anatomical traits are associated with this evolutionary transition. In adult male Margarodidae, one single-chamber eye (stemmateran ocellus) is present in addition to a compound eye-like region. Our histological investigation reveals that the stemmateran ocellus has an extended retina which is formed by concrete clusters of receptor cells that connect to its own first-order neuropil. In addition, we find that the ommatidia of the compound eyes also share several anatomical characteristics with simple camera eyes. These include shallow units with extended retinas, each of which is connected by its own small nerve to the lamina. These anatomical changes suggest that the margarodid compound eye represents a transitional form to the giant unicornal eyes that have been described in more derived species.

  1. Explosive neuromuscular performance of males versus females.

    PubMed

    Hannah, Ricci; Minshull, Claire; Buckthorpe, Matthew W; Folland, Jonathan P

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate sex-related differences in explosive muscular force production, as measured by electromechanical delay (EMD) and rate of force development (RFD), and to examine the physiological mechanisms responsible for any differences. The neuromuscular performance of untrained males (n = 20) and females (n = 20) was assessed during a series of isometric knee extension contractions; explosive and maximal voluntary efforts, as well as supramaximal evoked twitches and octets (eight pulses at 300 Hz). Evoked and voluntary EMD were determined from twitch and explosive contractions. The RFD was recorded over consecutive 50 ms time windows from force onset during evoked and explosive contractions, and normalized to maximal strength. Neuromuscular activity during explosive voluntary contractions was measured with EMG of the superficial knee extensors normalized to maximal M-wave. Muscle size (thickness) and muscle-tendon unit (MTU) stiffness were assessed using ultrasonic images of the vastus lateralis at rest and during ramped contractions. Males and females had similar evoked and voluntary EMD. Males were 33% stronger (P < 0.001) and their absolute RFD was 26-56% greater (all time points P < 0.05) compared with females. Muscle size (P < 0.001) and absolute MTU stiffness were also greater for males (P < 0.05). However, normalized RFD was similar for both sexes during the first 150 ms of the explosive voluntary contractions (P > 0.05). This was consistent with the similar normalized twitch and octet RFD, MTU stiffness and agonist EMG (all P > 0.05). When differences in maximal strength were accounted for, the evoked capacity of the knee extensors for explosive force production and the ability to utilize that capacity during explosive voluntary contractions was similar for males and females.

  2. Infertility in male aquatic invertebrates: a review.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Ceri; Ford, Alex T

    2012-09-15

    As a result of endocrine disruptor studies, there are numerous examples of male related reproductive abnormalities observed in vertebrates. Contrastingly, within the invertebrates there have been considerably less examples both from laboratory and field investigations. This has in part been due to a focus of female related endpoints, inadequate biomarkers and the low number of studies. Whether contaminant induced male infertility is an issue within aquatic invertebrates and their wider communities therefore remains largely unknown and represents a key knowledge gap in our understanding of pollutant impacts in aquatic wildlife. This paper reviews the current knowledge regarding pollutants impacting male infertility across several aquatic invertebrate phyla; which biomarkers are currently being used and where the science needs to be expanded. The limited studies conducted so far have revealed reductions in sperm numbers, examples of poor fertilisation success, DNA damage to spermatozoa and inhibition of sperm motility that can be induced by a range of environmental contaminants. This limited data is mainly comprised from laboratory studies with only a few studies of sperm toxicity in natural populations. Clearly, there is a need for further studies in this area, to include both laboratory and field studies from clean and reference sites, with a focus on broadcast spawners and those with direct fertilisation. Biomarkers developed for measuring sperm quantity and quality in vertebrates are easily transferable to invertebrates but require optimisation for particular species. We discuss how sperm tracking and techniques for measuring DNA strand breaks and sperm viability have been successfully transferred from human infertility clinics to aquatic invertebrate ecotoxicology. Linking sperm toxicity and male infertility effects to higher level impacts on the reproductive biology and dynamics of populations requires a much greater understanding of fertilisation dynamics and

  3. Development of male-fertility-regulating agents.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Verma, P; Kumar, A

    1991-09-01

    Steroidal, nonsteroidal, plant-derived, gonadotropin-related and immunological agents investigated for control of male fertility are reviewed with brief descriptions of their effects, and illustrations of their structures. The physiology of the male reproductive system is presented as an introduction: an ideal male antifertility agent would inhibit spermatogenesis at the level of the Sertoli cells, without affecting endogenous androgen production by Leydig cells, needed for libido and potency. Androgens down-regulate their own production at physiological levels, but few long-acting orally active derivatives are available. Anti-androgens with mixed androgen and progestin activity, combined with a pure androgen are potentially useful. Androgen-progestin combinations are being tested by WHO as implants. Dozens of miscellaneous nonsteroidal compounds have been discovered serendipitously to have antifertility activity in men or male animals, including alkylating agents antimetabolites, antibiotics, sulfa derivatives, fungicides, trichomonocides, amebicides, alpha blockers, antimalarials, coumarins, and carbohydrate derivatives. Various plant alkaloids have been screened. Those of Hibiscus, Vitex and Plumbago species, as well as Tripterygium wilfordii glycosides, which are being evaluated in combination with gossypol, are mentioned here. Gossypol has been thoroughly tested in China, but rejected because of its side effects, particularly hypokalemic paralysis, its low therapeutic index, and uncertain recovery of fertility. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists and antagonists are being researched in combination with androgens with some success. The GnRH antagonists to date have low activity , or cause histamine-related side effects at higher doses; the androgens require a new route such as a long-acting implant to overcome the need for daily injections. Immunological contraception for males has not progressed beyond the research stage.

  4. Ultrasonic Vocalizations of Male Mice Differ among Species and Females Show Assortative Preferences for Male Calls

    PubMed Central

    Musolf, Kerstin; Meindl, Stefanie; Larsen, Angela L.; Kalcounis-Rueppell, Matina C.; Penn, Dustin J.

    2015-01-01

    Male house mice (Mus musculus) emit ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) during courtship, which attract females, and we aimed to test whether females use these vocalizations for species or subspecies recognition of potential mates. We recorded courtship USVs of males from different Mus species, Mus musculus subspecies, and populations (F1 offspring of wild-caught Mus musculus musculus, Mus musculus domesticus (and F1 hybrid crosses), and Mus spicilegus), and we conducted playback experiments to measure female preferences for male USVs. Male vocalizations contained at least seven distinct syllable types, whose frequency of occurrence varied among species, subspecies, and populations. Detailed analyses of multiple common syllable types indicated that Mus musculus and Mus spicilegus could be discriminated based on spectral and temporal characteristics of their vocalizations, and populations of Mus musculus were also distinctive regardless of the classification model used. Females were able to discriminate USVs from different species, and showed assortative preferences for conspecific males. We found no evidence that females discriminate USVs of males from a different subspecies or separate populations of the same species, even though our spectral analyses identified acoustic features that differ between species, subspecies, and populations of the same species. Our results provide the first comparison of USVs between Mus species or between Mus musculus subspecies, and the first evidence that male USVs potentially facilitate species recognition. PMID:26309246

  5. The Drosophila over compensating males gene genetically inhibits dosage compensation in males.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chiat Koo; Kelley, Richard L

    2013-01-01

    Male Drosophila are monosomic for the X chromosome, but survive due to dosage compensation. They use the Male Specific Lethal (MSL) complex composed of noncoding roX RNA and histone modifying enzymes to hypertranscribe most genes along the X ∼1.6-1.8 fold relative to each female allele. It is not known how the MSL complex achieves this precise adjustment to a large and diverse set of target genes. We carried out a genetic screen searching for novel factors that regulate dosage compensation in flies. This strategy generated thirty alleles in a previously uncharacterized gene, over compensating males (ocm) that antagonizes some aspect of MSL activity. The mutations were initially recovered because they derepressed an MSL-dependent eye color reporter. Null ocm mutations are lethal to both sexes early in development revealing an essential function. Combinations of hypomorphic ocm alleles display a male specific lethality similar to mutations in the classic msl genes, but ocm males die due to excessive, rather than lack of dosage compensation. Males that die due to very low MSL activity can be partially rescued by ocm mutations. Likewise, males that would die from ocm mutations can be rescued by reducing the dose of various msl and roX genes. ocm encodes a large nuclear protein that shares a novel cysteine rich motif with known transcription factors.

  6. Pheromone evolution and sexual behavior in Drosophila are shaped by male sensory exploitation of other males

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Soon Hwee; Shankar, Shruti; Shikichi, Yasumasa; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Mori, Kenji; Yew, Joanne Y.

    2014-01-01

    Animals exhibit a spectacular array of traits to attract mates. Understanding the evolutionary origins of sexual features and preferences is a fundamental problem in evolutionary biology, and the mechanisms remain highly controversial. In some species, females choose mates based on direct benefits conferred by the male to the female and her offspring. Thus, female preferences are thought to originate and coevolve with male traits. In contrast, sensory exploitation occurs when expression of a male trait takes advantage of preexisting sensory biases in females. Here, we document in Drosophila a previously unidentified example of sensory exploitation of males by other males through the use of the sex pheromone CH503. We use mass spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and behavioral analysis to demonstrate that an antiaphrodisiac produced by males of the melanogaster subgroup also is effective in distant Drosophila relatives that do not express the pheromone. We further show that species that produce the pheromone have become less sensitive to the compound, illustrating that sensory adaptation occurs after sensory exploitation. Our findings provide a mechanism for the origin of a sex pheromone and show that sensory exploitation changes male sexual behavior over evolutionary time. PMID:24516141

  7. Longitudinal relations between obesity and hypertension following pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Denburg, Michelle R; Pradhan, Madhura; Shults, Justine; Jones, Abigail; Palmer, Jo Ann; Baluarte, H Jorge; Leonard, Mary B

    2010-10-01

    Obesity and hypertension frequently complicate renal transplantation (RTxp). The objective was to assess relations among obesity, hypertension, and glucocorticoids in pediatric RTxp recipients. A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 141 RTxp recipients, 2-21 years of age, with >or=12 months of follow-up. Body mass index Z-score (BMI-Z), systolic and diastolic blood pressure Z-scores (SBP-Z and DBP-Z), and medications at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months and annually thereafter were recorded. Quasi-least squares regression analysis was used. The prevalence of obesity (BMI>or=95th percentile) increased from 13% at baseline to >30% from 3 months onward. Greater glucocorticoid exposure (mg/kg/day) was associated with greater increases in BMI-Z (p<0.001). This association was greater in males, younger recipients, and those with lower baseline BMI-Z (all interactions p<0.02). The prevalence of systolic hypertension (SBP>or=95th percentile) was 73% at 1 month and >or=40% at all follow-up visits. Greater glucocorticoid exposure (p<0.001) and increases in BMI-Z (p=0.005) were independent determinants of SBP-Z over time. Cyclosporine (versus tacrolimus) was independently associated with greater SBP-Z and DBP-Z (p=0.001). Sustained obesity and hypertension frequently complicated pediatric RTxp. Obesity was an independent determinant of systolic hypertension. Strategies are needed to prevent obesity and its impact on hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and allograft survival.

  8. Responses of female rock lizards to multiple scent marks of males: effects of male age, male density and scent over-marking.

    PubMed

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2013-03-01

    Scent-marked substrates may inform conspecifics on the characteristics of territorial males. Scent-marks of male Carpetan rock lizards (Iberolacerta cyreni) affect space use of females, which by selecting an area may increase the probability of mating with the male that has scent-marked that area. However, males do not hold exclusive territories, and scent-marks of different individual males are often together. This may provide complex information from multiple sources on the social structure. Here, we examined female preference in response to scent marks of various males and combinations in a laboratory experiment. Females preferred areas scent-marked by territorial old males against those scent-marked by young satellite-sneaker males. This reflected the known preference of females for mating with old males. In a second experiment, females preferred areas scent-marked by two males to areas of similar size marked by a single male. This may increase the probability of obtaining multiple copulations with different males, which may favour sperm competition and cryptic female choice, or may be a way to avoid infertile males. Finally, when we experimentally over-marked the scent-marks of an old male with scent-marks of a young male, females did not avoid, nor prefer, the over-marked area, suggesting that the quality of the old male may override the presence of a satellite male. We suggest that, irrespective of the causes underlying why a female selects a scent-marked area, this strategy may affect her reproductive success, which may have the same evolutionary consequences that "direct" mate choice decisions of other animals.

  9. Meiotic recombination counteracts male-biased mutation (male-driven evolution)

    PubMed Central

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Ito, Michihiko; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Oota, Hiroki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Miura, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Meiotic recombination is believed to produce greater genetic variation despite the fact that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-replication errors are a major source of mutations. In some vertebrates, mutation rates are higher in males than in females, which developed the theory of male-driven evolution (male-biased mutation). However, there is little molecular evidence regarding the relationships between meiotic recombination and male-biased mutation. Here we tested the theory using the frog Rana rugosa, which has both XX/XY- and ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining systems within the species. The male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (α) was calculated from homologous sequences on the X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes, which supported male-driven evolution. Surprisingly, each α value was notably higher in the XX/XY-type group than in the ZZ/ZW-type group, although α should have similar values within a species. Interestingly, meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes did not occur except at terminal regions in males of this species. Then, by subdividing α into two new factors, a replication-based male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (β) and a meiotic recombination-based XX-to-XY/ZZ-to-ZW mutation-rate ratio (γ), we constructed a formula describing the relationship among a nucleotide-substitution rate and the two factors, β and γ. Intriguingly, the β- and γ-values were larger and smaller than 1, respectively, indicating that meiotic recombination might reduce male-biased mutations. PMID:26791621

  10. Meiotic recombination counteracts male-biased mutation (male-driven evolution).

    PubMed

    Mawaribuchi, Shuuji; Ito, Michihiko; Ogata, Mitsuaki; Oota, Hiroki; Katsumura, Takafumi; Takamatsu, Nobuhiko; Miura, Ikuo

    2016-01-27

    Meiotic recombination is believed to produce greater genetic variation despite the fact that deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)-replication errors are a major source of mutations. In some vertebrates, mutation rates are higher in males than in females, which developed the theory of male-driven evolution (male-biased mutation). However, there is little molecular evidence regarding the relationships between meiotic recombination and male-biased mutation. Here we tested the theory using the frog Rana rugosa, which has both XX/XY- and ZZ/ZW-type sex-determining systems within the species. The male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (α) was calculated from homologous sequences on the X/Y or Z/W sex chromosomes, which supported male-driven evolution. Surprisingly, each α value was notably higher in the XX/XY-type group than in the ZZ/ZW-type group, although α should have similar values within a species. Interestingly, meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes did not occur except at terminal regions in males of this species. Then, by subdividing α into two new factors, a replication-based male-to-female mutation-rate ratio (β) and a meiotic recombination-based XX-to-XY/ZZ-to-ZW mutation-rate ratio (γ), we constructed a formula describing the relationship among a nucleotide-substitution rate and the two factors, β and γ. Intriguingly, the β- and γ-values were larger and smaller than 1, respectively, indicating that meiotic recombination might reduce male-biased mutations.

  11. Early-Life Social Isolation Influences Mouse Ultrasonic Vocalizations during Male-Male Social Encounters

    PubMed Central

    Finton, Caitlyn J.; Sell, Gabrielle L.; Hurley, Laura M.

    2017-01-01

    Early-life social isolation has profound effects on adult social competence. This is often expressed as increased aggression or inappropriate displays of courtship-related behaviors. The social incompetence exhibited by isolated animals could be in part due to an altered ability to participate in communicatory exchanges. House mice (Mus musculus) present an excellent model for exploring this idea, because social isolation has a well-established influence on their social behavior, and mice engage in communication via multiple sensory modalities. Here, we tested the prediction that social isolation during early life would influence ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) emitted by adult male mice during same-sex social encounters. Starting at three weeks of age, male mice were housed individually or in social groups of four males for five weeks, after which they were placed in one of three types of paired social encounters. Pair types consisted of: two individually housed males, two socially housed males, or an individually housed and a socially housed male (“mixed” pairs). Vocal behavior (USVs) and non-vocal behaviors were recorded from these 15-minute social interactions. Pairs of mice consisting of at least one individually housed male emitted more and longer USVs, with a greater proportional use of USVs containing frequency jumps and 50-kHz components. Individually housed males in the mixed social pairs exhibited increased levels of mounting behavior towards the socially housed males. Mounting in these pairs was positively correlated with increased number and duration of USVs as well as increased proportional use of spectrally more complex USVs. These findings demonstrate that USVs are part of the suite of social behaviors influenced by early-life social isolation, and suggest that altered vocal communication following isolation reflects reduced social competence. PMID:28056078

  12. Early Resumption of Sex following Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision amongst School-Going Males

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary medical male circumcision is an integral part of the South African government’s response to the HIV and AIDS epidemic. Following circumcision, it is recommended that patients abstain from sexual activity for six weeks, as sex may increase the risk of female-to-male HIV transmission and prolong the healing period. This paper investigates the resumption of sexual activity during the healing period among a cohort of school-going males in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. The analysis for this paper compares two groups of sexually active school-going males: the first group reported having sex during the healing period (n = 40) and the second group (n = 98) reported no sex during the healing period (mean age: 17.7, SD: 1.7).The results show that 29% (n = 40) of young males (mean age: 17.9, SD: 1.8) who were previously sexually active, resumed sexual activity during the healing period, had on average two partners and used condoms inconsistently. In addition, those males that engage in sexual activity during the healing period were less inclined to practice safe sex in the future (AOR = 0.055, p = 0.002) than the group of males who reported no sex during the healing period. These findings suggest that a significant proportion of young males may currently and in the future, subject themselves to high levels of risk for contracting HIV post circumcision. Education, as part of a VMMC campaign, must emphasize the high risk of HIV transmission for both the males their partners during the healing period. PMID:27930720

  13. Compilation of Pilot Cognitive Ability Norms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-01

    19 Male Percentile Equivalence Scores for CogScreen Process Variables .................... 23 20 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for...CogScreen Speed Variables ................... 24 21 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for CogScreen Accuracy Variables ............. 24...22 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for CogScreen Throughput Variables .......... 25 23 Female Percentile Equivalence Scores for

  14. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  15. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  16. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  17. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 1. Design Criteria and Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    50th 99 percentile dummy (Reference 36) it, Test 1 and a clad 95th-percentile dummy in Test 2. Dynamic testing of multipla -occupant seats shnuld be...Idiyn nir-rf l ATFl rAr T nflrTn Rubbins, D. H.., et al, uEVELUOI’IIE I Ali,’u TEa , I ING ur ilIURlMIU JLLMI nLJI IN, SYST[ MS , Highway Safety Research

  18. Will male advertisement be a reliable indicator of paternal care, if offspring survival depends on male care?

    PubMed

    Kelly, Natasha B; Alonzo, Suzanne H

    2009-09-07

    Existing theory predicts that male signalling can be an unreliable indicator of paternal care, but assumes that males with high levels of mating success can have high current reproductive success, without providing any parental care. As a result, this theory does not hold for the many species where offspring survival depends on male parental care. We modelled male allocation of resources between advertisement and care for species with male care where males vary in quality, and the effect of care and advertisement on male fitness is multiplicative rather than additive. Our model predicts that males will allocate proportionally more of their resources to whichever trait (advertisement or paternal care) is more fitness limiting. In contrast to previous theory, we find that male advertisement is always a reliable indicator of paternal care and male phenotypic quality (e.g. males with higher levels of advertisement never allocate less to care than males with lower levels of advertisement). Our model shows that the predicted pattern of male allocation and the reliability of male signalling depend very strongly on whether paternal care is assumed to be necessary for offspring survival and how male care affects offspring survival and male fitness.

  19. Unusual Penetrating Injury to the Male Genitalia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Various self-inflicted foreign bodies have been removed from the lower urinary tract and external male genitalia. In many cases foreign bodies were inserted or applied for autoerotic reasons which are frequently associated with mental health disorders. Here the author reports an unusual case of self insertion of a 6-cm long metal needle at penoscrotal junction of the erect penis for sexual pleasure. The stitching needle was inserted by a 20-year old male who was too ashamed to admit the motive at first. The caudal end of the needle was palpable at the root of the penis as it was below the urogenital diaphragm. The needle was successfully removed under fluoroscopic guidance with minor surgical exploration and with no complications. PMID:23610711

  20. Genetic prediction of male pattern baldness

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Sarah E.; Ritchie, Stuart J.; Davies, Gail; Gale, Catharine R.; Porteous, David J.; Deary, Ian J.; Marioni, Riccardo E.

    2017-01-01

    Male pattern baldness can have substantial psychosocial effects, and it has been phenotypically linked to adverse health outcomes such as prostate cancer and cardiovascular disease. We explored the genetic architecture of the trait using data from over 52,000 male participants of UK Biobank, aged 40–69 years. We identified over 250 independent genetic loci associated with severe hair loss (P<5x10-8). By splitting the cohort into a discovery sample of 40,000 and target sample of 12,000, we developed a prediction algorithm based entirely on common genetic variants that discriminated (AUC = 0.78, sensitivity = 0.74, specificity = 0.69, PPV = 59%, NPV = 82%) those with no hair loss from those with severe hair loss. The results of this study might help identify those at greatest risk of hair loss, and also potential genetic targets for intervention. PMID:28196072

  1. Occupational mercury exposure and male reproductive health

    SciTech Connect

    Alcser, K.H.; Brix, K.A.; Fine, L.J.; Kallenbach, L.R.; Wolfe, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study was designed to investigate the relationship of male occupational exposure to elemental mercury and several reproductive outcomes. All subjects worked at least 4 months between 1953 and 1966 at a plant that used elemental mercury; 247 white male employees who had the highest exposures were compared to 255 matched nonexposed employees. Individual exposure to mercury was estimated from urinary mercury measurement records. Information on reproductive history and potential confounding variables was obtained through personal interview with each of the employees and with a subset of their wives. No associations were demonstrated between mercury exposure and decreased fertility or increased rates of major malformations or serious childhood illnesses. After controlling for previous miscarriage history, mercury exposure was not a significant risk factor for miscarriage. Because of this study's potential problems with long-term recall, further studies of the effect of mercury on pregnancy outcome are warranted in other populations.

  2. Peritoneal carcinoma in a male patient.

    PubMed

    Jermann, Monika; Vogt, Peter; Pestalozzi, Bernhard C

    2003-01-01

    Peritoneal carcinoma is a rare primary tumor, described in the literature almost exclusively in women. This report describes our clinicopathological findings in a 51-year-old male patient with peritoneal carcinoma and ascites. Pathologic studies included routine histology, immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy on biopsy and autopsy tumor tissue. After chemotherapy, the patient achieved a complete remission twice, lasting for 14 months and 8 months, respectively, and died after 3 years. His clinical course was similar to that of female patients with peritoneal carcinoma or advanced ovarian cancer. Our case confirms the existence of primary peritoneal carcinoma in males. In addition, it shows that this entity responds to the same chemotherapy as used for ovarian cancer and primary peritoneal carcinoma in females.

  3. Sexual functioning of male anabolic steroid abusers.

    PubMed

    Moss, H B; Panzak, G L; Tarter, R E

    1993-02-01

    The effects of anabolic steroid use on male sexual behavior were assessed using a structured clinical interview administered to male body builders currently using steroids, and to two comparison groups (body builders with a past but not current history of steroid use, and a group of "natural" body builders who had never used steroids). Current anabolic steroid users had a significantly higher coital and orgasmic frequency than did comparison athletes. They also reported a significantly higher incidence of erectile difficulties during the past month. Beliefs concerning the sexually stimulating effects of steroids did not correlate with the frequencies of specific sexual behaviors. The data support the contention that anabolic steroids, as androgenic compounds, enhance sexual desire.

  4. Male factors in ART outcome prediction.

    PubMed

    Brincat, Dale; Catania, Sarah; Wismayer, Pierre Schembri; Calleja-Agius, Jean

    2015-03-01

    Paternal influences on reproduction are significant causing about half of the infertile couples to turn to assisted reproductive techniques. Due to the increasing proportion of infertile couples adopting to conceive by in vitro fertilisation (IVF), predicting outcomes is of ever increasing importance. Since pregnancy rates following IVF are still quite low, prognostic information is very helpful in clinical decisions. Although significant research has been done on the maternal influence, male factor infertility is relatively understudied. To date, potential predictors include: method of fertilisation, age, reactive oxygen species, sperm quality parameters and DNA fragmentation. Predictors under investigation which show promising signs, even though there is no clear cut consensus on the predictive value to date include: folate and homocysteine, anti müllerian hormone measurement, environmental factors, body mass index, smoking, male age, stress, some subsets of antisperm antibodies and epigenetic features.

  5. Polyamines in the male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Calandra, R S; Rulli, S B; Frungieri, M B; Suescun, M O; González-Calvar, S I

    1996-01-01

    This review covers some common aspects of the biosynthesis, interconversion pathways and biochemical functions of polyamines. A particular emphasis is given in experimental models as well as humans, to their presence in the male gonad, prostate gland, seminal vesicles, epididymis and semen. The interaction between hormones (androgens, LH, FSH and PRL) and the main enzymes involved on the polyamine biosynthesis, and the relationship of these compounds on cell growth and differentiation, are also discussed. In this regard, an attention is offered to the potential role of polyamines during early spermatogenesis stages and the use of some enzymes involved in their biosynthesis as sensitive and specific markers of the action of androgens and antiandrogens in the epididymis. Finally, a special issue is addressed to the controversial information documented on polyamines, their oxidation products and the relationship with male fertility.

  6. Relative age effect in Japanese male athletes.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Kiwako

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigated the relative age effect, a biased distribution of elite athletes' birthdates, in Japanese male athletes. Japan applies a unique annual-age grouping for sport and education, which is from April 1 to March 31 of the following year. A total of 4,318 male athletes was evaluated from 12 sports: baseball, soccer, basketball, volleyball, handball, golf, horse racing, rugby, American football, sumo, Ekiden (track and field in long distance), and badminton. They played in the top level of Japanese leagues for each sport in 2010. The distribution of the birth dates was examined in each sport and showed significant relative age effect in baseball, soccer, volleyball, Ekiden, basketball, sumo, and horse racing, but not in all sports. The findings suggest that although the school year in Japan starts on April 1, significant relative age effects are observed in some sporting events.

  7. Male genital leiomyomas showing androgen receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Vieites, Begoña; Evgenyeva, Elena; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo; Forteza, Jeronimo

    2007-12-01

    Genital leiomyoma in men include those superficial leiomyomas arising in the scrotum and the areola. They are unusual neoplasms: few cases have been reported in the literature and they usually escape clinical diagnosis. Three cases of male genital leiomyomas are reported: two in the scrotum and one in the areola. They were all conservatively excised and the behaviour was completely benign in all cases. Histopathological examination showed the typical findings of superficial leiomyomas, with some minor differences between cases arising in the scrotum and those from the areola. Immunohistochemical findings not only confirmed the smooth muscle nature of all cases but also showed unequivocal immunostaining for androgen receptors in the leiomyomas from the scrotum. Immunostaining for androgen receptors in scrotal leiomyomas is, as far as we are aware, a previously unknown characteristic of male genital leiomyomas. This finding supports the role of steroid hormones in the growth of genital leiomyomas, similar to leiomyomas found in other locations.

  8. Masculinity and male sexual behaviour in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Macia, Manuel; Maharaj, Pranitha; Gresh, Ashley

    2011-11-01

    Like many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Mozambique is facing a severe HIV epidemic. Evidence suggests that male sexual behaviour is one of the driving forces behind the epidemic. Yet, there is limited understanding of how notions of masculinity influence such behaviour in the context of HIV. Using data collected through focus group discussions and in-depth interviews with sexually active men and women, this paper investigates how notions of masculinity influence the risk of HIV infection among men. The study findings suggest that traditional norms of masculinity, the man as the main provider and figure of authority, continue to exert a strong influence on male attitudes and behaviour. Alternative approaches are urgently needed in HIV programming that take into consideration notions of masculinity in order to reduce risky sexual behaviour.

  9. Amantadine stimulates sexual behavior in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ferraz, M R; Santos, R

    1995-08-01

    The effects of amantadine on sexual behavior, penile erection, and seminal emission of male rats was studied. Amantadine significantly decreased latency of mounts in all doses (1.25 to 50 mg/kg), and decreased the number of mounts and intromission latency at the highest doses used. The lowest dose of amantadine significantly increased ejaculation latency and intromission frequency, while higher doses significantly reduced it, which indicates a biphasic response of the drug. Additionally, seminal emission, erections, and genital grooming were significantly induced by amantadine. Amantadine-induced seminal emissions were impaired by spinal cord transection, which suggests the involvement of supraspinal structures in the drug action. Haloperidol and atropine sulphate significantly reduced seminal emissions and penile erections induced by amantadine. These results demonstrate that amantadine stimulates sexual behavior and genital reflexes in male rats and suggest a facilitatory effect of the drug that probably involves different mechanisms of action.

  10. Recent advances in understanding & managing male infertility

    PubMed Central

    Bieniek, Jared M.; Lo, Kirk C.

    2016-01-01

    Male infertility remains a struggle to definitively diagnose and treat with many men labelled as “idiopathic infertility” and eventually requiring assisted reproductive techniques.  Along those lines, research groups are continuing to explore current social and environmental factors, including the obesity epidemic, and their effects on male fertility potential.  Novel biomarkers of natural fertility status and azoospermia etiology have additionally seen recent attention with ACRV1 and TEX101/ECM1 assays either currently or soon to be commercially available.  Despite these advancements, however, medical treatment options have seen little progress.  Though surgical therapies have similarly seen little transformation, groups are exploring the use of testicular sperm for couples with elevated sperm DNA fragmentation and either planned or previously failed IVF/ICSI.  Concerted collaborative efforts will be needed as we move forward to better understand the challenges men face when struggling to conceive. PMID:27990271

  11. [Sclerosing lipogranuloma of the male genitals].

    PubMed

    Dimitrowa, J; Balabanowa, M; Zarnuschanow, P; Scharow, P

    1989-03-15

    We report on a 23-year-old male patient showing sclerosing lipogranuloma of the genitalia and surface ulceration of the penis. Histologic investigation revealed a granuloma of the foreign body type spreading both dermally and subcutaneously and showing cavities of varying sizes, resembling Swiss cheese, which were partly coated with macrophages. Histochemical tests with Sudan Ill, Sudan-black B and OsO4, as well as chromatographic analysis confirmed the presence of a hydrophobic unpolar lipid, such as liquid paraffin.

  12. Male genitoplasty for 46 XX congenital adrenal hyperplasia patients presenting late and reared as males

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shilpa; Gupta, Devendra K.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the clinical profile and management of 46 XX Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia (CAH) patients presenting with severe virilization and assigned a male gender. Materials and Methods: Of 173 children diagnosed with CAH at the Pediatric Intersex Clinic since 1980, seven children with CAH presented late with severe virilization and were reared as males. All of them were assigned the male sex with removal of the female adnexa. Six were treated with male genitoplasty. Appropriate hormonal supplementation was offered after puberty. Results: The mean age at presentation was 14.2 years (7 – 21). Six patients had presented after puberty, only one at seven years of age. Staged male genitoplasty comprising of chordee correction, male urethroplasty, and bilateral testicular prosthesis was performed. The female adnexa (uterus, ovaries, most of the upper vagina, and the fallopian tubes) were removed. The mental makeup was masculine in six and bigender in one. Bilateral mastectomy was performed at puberty in all. Hormonal treatment comprised of glucocorticoids and testosterone. Six patients were comfortable with the outcome of the masculinizing genitoplasty. One had a short-sized phallus. One had repeated attacks of urinary tract infection arising from the retained lower vaginal pouch. Social adjustments were good in all, except in one who had a bigender mental makeup. Conclusion: CAH patients with severe virilization presenting late and reared as males are extremely rare. However, the assigned gender can be retained adequately as males, meeting the socioeconomic compulsions of the society. The results are satisfactory following appropriate surgical procedures and hormonal supplementation. PMID:23226638

  13. XYY male with essential thrombocythemia in childhood.

    PubMed

    Okada, H; Imai, T; Itoh, S; Isobe, K; Onishi, S

    2000-01-01

    We describe a boy with XYY male accompanied with essential thrombocythemia. This is, to our knowledge, the first complete case report of the kind in the pediatric literature. The patient was asymptomatic, but at age 5 his platelet count had increased to 145.5 x 10(4)/microL, and he was diagnosed as having essential thrombocythemia based on the diagnostic criteria of the Polycythemia Vera Study Group. At that time, it was discovered by chromosome analysis of both bone marrow and peripheral blood cells that he was XYY male. At times during the clinical course when his platelet count was 94.1 x 10(4)/microL, his serum thrombopoietin (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was 1.09 fmol/mL, which was normal for his age. Aspirin was administered, and he remained asymptomatic throughout the course. After 2 years, he underwent a spontaneous remission. Because of the small number of reported cases, we have been unable to determine the relation between XYY males and essential thrombocythemia.

  14. Nonparticipatory Stiffness in the Male Perioral Complex

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Shin-Ying; Lee, Jaehoon

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study was to extend previous published findings in the authors’ laboratory using a new automated technology to quantitatively characterize nonparticipatory perioral stiffness in healthy male adults. Method Quantitative measures of perioral stiffness were sampled during a nonparticipatory task using a computer-controlled linear motor servo programmed to impose a series of tensile displacements over a span of approximately 24 mm at the oral angle in 20 healthy young male adults. Perioral electromyograms were simultaneously sampled to confirm nonparticipation or passive muscle state. Perioral stiffness, derived as a quotient from resultant force (ΔF) and oral span (ΔX), was modeled with regression techniques, and subsequently compared to previously reported perioral stiffness data for female adults. Results Multilevel regression analysis revealed a significant quadratic relation between the perioral stiffness and interangle span; however, no significant difference was found between adult males and females. Conclusion These normative measures will have application to future studies designed to objectively assess the effects of pathology (i.e., progressive neuromotor disease, traumatic brain insult) and intervention (pharmacologic, neurosurgical, and reconstructive surgery of the face [i.e., cleft lip, trauma, missile injuries]) on facial animation and speech kinematics. PMID:19717655

  15. Diseases of the male nipple and areola.

    PubMed

    Krause, Walter

    2011-12-01

    The male nipple-areola-complex (NAC) is a residual organ without physiologic functions in the male. It possesses similar hormone sensitivity and sexual sensitivity as the female organ. The location of the NAC on the chest wall with respect to other surface features is relevant for the male appearance. All known disseminated skin diseases may involve the nipple and areola. A number of specific localized diseases have been described in the literature, such as mammillary eczema, demodicidosis, lymphadenosis cutis benigna, nevoid hyperkeratosis, and thelalgia. Special attention is required if nipple discharge is observed. Areolar sebaceous hyperplasia and nearly all kinds of benign cutaneous tumors occur on the nipple and areola. Malignant tumors such as basal cell carcinoma, melanoma, Paget disease and other forms of breast cancer may also be found. In addition, aberrant mammary tissue may occur with a broad clinical spectrum, while absence of the nipple is an unusual observation and occurs in rare syndromes. The association of aberrant mammary tissue with urinary tract malformations has not been confirmed.

  16. Aging, mitochondria and male reproductive function.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Sandra; Ramalho-Santos, João

    2009-12-01

    The rise in life expectancy over the last century, together with higher maternal and paternal ages and have highlighted the issue of reduced fertility with advancing age. Aging of the male reproductive system is incited by multi-factorial changes at molecular, cellular and regulatory levels, and individual characteristics are highly variable, although strongly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors. Damage accumulated with age leads to progressive deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and of local auto/paracrine interactions, thereby inducing changes in target organs such as the testis, penis and prostate. Elderly human males produce less testosterone, have fewer motile sperm and a higher incidence of erectile dysfunction and prostate disorders, all of which contribute to lower fertility. Cellular aging can manifest itself at several levels. Aging cells progressively accumulate "waste" products, resulting in a decreased functionally. Changes to mitochondria are among the most remarkable features observed in aging cells and several theories place mitochondria at the hub of cellular events related to aging, namely in terms of the accumulation of oxidative damage to cells and tissues, a process in which these organelles may play a prominent role, although alternative theories have also emerged. Furthermore, mitochondrial energy metabolism is also crucial for male reproductive function and mitochondria may therefore constitute a common link between aging and fertility loss.

  17. Male batterers' alcohol use and gambling behavior.

    PubMed

    Brasfield, Hope; Febres, Jeniimarie; Shorey, Ryan; Strong, David; Ninnemann, Andrew; Elmquist, Joanna; Andersen, Shawna M; Bucossi, Meggan; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-03-01

    Little work has examined the interrelations among intimate partner violence (IPV), alcohol use, and gambling behavior, and no studies have examined these relationships among males court-ordered to batterer intervention programs (BIPs). The aim of the current investigation was to explore the associations between IPV, alcohol use, and gambling behavior among 341 males court-mandated to attend BIPs utilizing self-report measures. Voluntary, anonymous questionnaires were administered and completed during regularly scheduled BIP sessions. Compared to the general population, a higher percentage of the sample met criteria for pathological gambling (9%), and problem gambling (17%). Further, males exhibiting pathological gambling were more likely to be hazardous drinkers, and hazardous drinkers were more likely to exhibit pathological gambling. Additionally, pathological gamblers were at an increased risk for the perpetration of both physical and sexual aggression. Finally, gambling behavior uniquely predicted the perpetration of sexual aggression above and beyond alcohol use, impulsivity, and relationship satisfaction. The implications of these results for future research and intervention are discussed.

  18. The psychology of male (non) involvement.

    PubMed

    1977-01-01

    The primary reason for male involvement in family planning is that the current approach of focusing all family planning attention on women is not working. Unwanted pregnancy continues to increase despite the advent of the oral contraceptive and the IUD and despite the great amount of money and effort that have been invested in making women better contraceptors. Whether or not a contraceptive is effectively used depends a lot on the attitude of the man. The great majority of the studies conducted on male attitudes toward ocntraception indicates that boys and men are interested in the subject. Despite the discrepancy between what people say and what they actually do, there is a vast population of men who are receptive to education and guidance. If the approach is right, the majority of men are willing to become involved. The men who are resistant to involvement in family planning are a minority, and probably nothing can be done about this group. Although the majority of men are not resistant, they see no reason for involvement. In the last 20 years men have been taught that contraception is none of their business. This teaching has been done by the media, family planning agencies, some feminist writers and by women themselves. Most of the resistance to male involvement comes from family planning agencies rather than from the men. How to get men involved in actually a small issues. If there is a change in thinking in the agencies and a willingness to involve men, many effective ways will be found.

  19. Male issues of the ileal pouch.

    PubMed

    Kani, Haluk T; Shen, Bo

    2015-03-01

    : Restorative proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis is the standard surgical treatment modality for patients with ulcerative colitis who require colectomy. There are special issues related to male gender. We performed systemic literature review on the topic, incorporating the experience in our specialized Center for Ileal Pouch Disorders, and provide recommendations for the identification and management for the gender-specific issues in male patients with ileal pouches. Chronic pouchitis, particularly ischemic pouchitis, anastomotic leak, and presacral sinus are more common in male patients than their female counterparts. Sexual dysfunction can occur after pouch surgery, particularly in those with pouch failure. Diagnosis and management of benign and malignant prostate diseases can be challenging due to the altered pelvic anatomy from the surgery. Digital rectal examination for prostate cancer screening is not reliable. Transpouch biopsy of prostate may lead to pouch fistula or abscess. Pelvic radiation therapy may have an adverse impact on the pouch function. In conclusion, sexual dysfunction and enlarged prostate can occur in patients with the ileal pouch. The measurement of serum prostate-specific antigen is a preferred method for the screening of prostate cancer. If biopsy of the prostate is needed, the perineal route is recommended. The risk for pouch dysfunction and the benefit for oncologic survival of pelvic radiation for prostate cancer should be carefully balanced.

  20. The evolution of humor from male aggression

    PubMed Central

    Shuster, Sam

    2012-01-01

    The response to seeing a man riding a unicycle was reported to be consistently related to the viewer’s sex and stage of physical development. To see if this observation was universal, observations of responses were collected from 23 male and 9 female unicyclists aged 15–69 years, with 2–40 years cycling experience across four continents. With two exceptions among men, the findings were the same as those originally reported: children showed interest and curiosity, young girls showed little interest, while adult women showed a kindly, concerned, praising response. By contrast, boys showed physical aggression, which became more verbal, merging in the later teens to the snide, aggressive, stereotyped humorous response shown by adult males, which became less frequent in elderly men. The universality of the response across different individuals, environments, and dates of observation suggests an endogenous mechanism, and the association with masculine development relates this to androgen. The theoretical consequences are discussed. It is concluded that humor develops from aggression in males and is evolutionarily related to sexual selection. PMID:22359467

  1. The medicalisation of male menopause in America.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Elizabeth Siegel

    2007-08-01

    The topic of male menopause occupied space on the medical radar screen from the late 1930s through the mid-1950s, then virtually disappeared for the next four decades, until the late 1990s. By contrast, articles on this subject appeared in American popular magazines and newspapers at a consistent, if low-level, rate throughout the same period. This essay describes how the male menopause became medicalised, not by the driving forces of academic researchers and influential clinicians, but instead by a model perpetuated by lay people and medical popularisers. A medicalised conceptualisation of the body and the life-cycle had become widespread by the second half of the twentieth century, as Americans grew accustomed to regarding their lives through the lens of medicine. People came to expect medicine to provide a cure for any ailment; in the wake of the development of the so-called wonder drugs, no affliction seemed beyond medical and pharmaceutical intervention. A medicalised model had also been effectively produced for understanding and treating the menopause in women; a parallel, if not identical, stage in the life-course of men seemed reasonable. This framework, rather than persuasive evidence from the research laboratory or clinic, helped to medicalise male menopause and provided the basis for its eventual pharmaceuticalisation at the end of the twentieth century.

  2. Evolving ideas about the male refractory period.

    PubMed

    Turley, Kenneth R; Rowland, David L

    2013-08-01

    The male refractory period (MRP) continues to be a topic of discussion and debate within the field of sexual medicine. To date explanations rely on central descending (efferent) influences involving specific neurotransmitter systems. Herein we explore the issue of the male refractory period, identifying problems with current explanations, specifying the parameters of an adequate model, and suggesting possible mechanisms mediating this phenomenon. We review the literature regarding existing explanations for the MRP and look to other systems of physiological regulation that might provide a model for the conceptualization of the MRP. Our approach differs from traditional explanations in that it emphasizes the possible roles of various peripheral, rather than central, feedback (afferent) systems that affect peripheral autonomic functioning and response. Yet our approach is consistent with other peripheral regulatory feedback systems controlling autonomic response related to such processes as heart rate, respiration, and gut motility. Although direct empirical research supporting our approach is lacking, sufficient evidence exists to support the idea that such processes are not only possible but likely with respect to the male refractory period. We suggest several lines of research that might provide empirical support for this approach.

  3. Biological markers of male reproductive toxicology

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, L.L.; Mattison, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    Reproduction is a complex, stepwise series of processes that begins with gametogenesis, continues through gamete interaction, implantation, embryonic development, growth, parturition, and postnatal adaptation, and is completed with the development and sexual maturation of the newly formed organism. These reproductive processes do not take place in a chemically pristine environment, but rather in an environment increasingly contaminated with the products and by-products of the chemical age in which we live. Some environmental pollutants are known to be carcinogenic, mutagenic, or toxic to the reproductive system, but most have not been adequately tested for reproductive toxicity. Just as reproduction is complex, biological mechanisms underlying toxicology are similarly complex and involve absorption, distribution, metabolism (toxification and/or detoxification), excretion, and repair. The synthesis of these sciences into the relatively nascent science of reproductive toxicology includes teratology, pharmacology, epidemiology, and occupational and environmental health. Female reproductive function (especially pregnancy outcome) has historically been the focus of attention, but there is increasing interest in the effects of chemical exposure on male reproductive function. Several reports have documented the physiology, biochemistry, and toxicology of male mammalian reproduction, and evaluated susceptibility of the male to the effects of exogenous chemicals.

  4. Psychosocial factors associated with male sexual difficulties.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Connaughton, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The role of medical conditions, childhood experiences, and psychological and relationship factors in the development and maintenance of male sexual difficulties is not well understood. Using self-report questionnaires, the current study examined how these factors are associated with male sexual difficulties overall, as well as for each of four separate problems (low sexual desire, erectile difficulties, premature ejaculation, delayed ejaculation). The participants for the study were 331 Australian men from the general population, all of whom were in cohabiting heterosexual relationships and had experienced one or more of the aforementioned sexual problems. Data were collected via an online survey between January 2010 and April 2011. The results demonstrated that medical factors as well as current psychological factors (e.g., performance anxiety) were most likely associated with each male sexual difficulty. These findings are in contrast to those obtained with women, where relationship factors are strongly related to female sexual problems. They would suggest that the targets for sex therapy may be different for men and women, with medical problems and performance anxiety being the primary targets for men.

  5. Male body image following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Howes, Hannah; Edwards, Stephen; Benton, David

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate body image concerns and psycho-emotional health in males with acquired brain injury (ABI). Using a between subjects study of 25 males with ABI and 25 matched controls, variables were analysed using correlations and 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with head injury and injury type as independent variables. Body image and psycho-emotional health were evaluated using self-report questionnaires. Disability and cognitive impairment were measured using a mixture of self-report, cognitive testing and clinical notes. Results indicated that males with ABI had significantly lower self-esteem and body dissatisfaction on a number of items relating to physical and sexual functioning. There were significant differences in body image between stroke and TBI, but there was no corresponding relationship with psycho-emotional health. These body image differences might be explained by age. The finding that ABI has a negative effect on body image and that this relates to psycho-emotional health should be investigated further, perhaps being included in future rehabilitation strategies.

  6. Game Performance Evaluation in Male Goalball Players

    PubMed Central

    Molik, Bartosz; Morgulec-Adamowicz, Natalia; Kosmol, Andrzej; Perkowski, Krzysztof; Bednarczuk, Grzegorz; Skowroński, Waldemar; Gomez, Miguel Angel; Koc, Krzysztof; Rutkowska, Izabela; Szyman, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Goalball is a Paralympic sport exclusively for athletes who are visually impaired and blind. The aims of this study were twofold: to describe game performance of elite male goalball players based upon the degree of visual impairment, and to determine if game performance was related to anthropometric characteristics of elite male goalball players. The study sample consisted of 44 male goalball athletes. A total of 38 games were recorded during the Summer Paralympic Games in London 2012. Observations were reported using the Game Efficiency Sheet for Goalball. Additional anthropometric measurements included body mass (kg), body height (cm), the arm span (cm) and length of the body in the defensive position (cm). The results differentiating both groups showed that the players with total blindness obtained higher means than the players with visual impairment for game indicators such as the sum of defense (p = 0.03) and the sum of good defense (p = 0.04). The players with visual impairment obtained higher results than those with total blindness for attack efficiency (p = 0.04), the sum of penalty defenses (p = 0.01), and fouls (p = 0.01). The study showed that athletes with blindness demonstrated higher game performance in defence. However, athletes with visual impairment presented higher efficiency in offensive actions. The analyses confirmed that body mass, body height, the arm span and length of the body in the defensive position did not differentiate players’ performance at the elite level. PMID:26834872

  7. Competition for Trophies Triggers Male Generosity

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Xiaofei Sophia; Houser, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background Cooperation is indispensable in human societies, and much progress has been made towards understanding human pro-social decisions. Formal incentives, such as punishment, are suggested as potential effective approaches despite the fact that punishment can crowd out intrinsic motives for cooperation and detrimentally impact efficiency. At the same time, evolutionary biologists have long recognized that cooperation, especially food sharing, is typically efficiently organized in groups living on wild foods, even absent formal economic incentives. Despite its evident importance, the source of this voluntary compliance remains largely uninformed. Drawing on costly signaling theory, and in light of the widely established competitive nature of males, we hypothesize that unique and displayable rewards (trophies) out of competition may trigger male generosity in competitive social environments. Principal Findings Here, we use a controlled laboratory experiment to show that cooperation is sustained in a generosity competition with trophy rewards, but breaks down in the same environment with equally valuable but non-unique and non-displayable rewards. Further, we find that males' competition for trophies is the driving force behind treatment differences. In contrast, it appears that female competitiveness is not modulated by trophy rewards. Significance Our results suggest new approaches to promoting cooperation in human groups that, unlike punishment mechanisms, do not sacrifice efficiency. This could have important implications in any domain where voluntary compliance matters — including relations between spouses, employers and employees, market transactions, and conformity to legal standards. PMID:21494668

  8. Labile male morphology and intraspecific male polymorphism in the Philotrypesis fig wasps.

    PubMed

    Jousselin, Emmanuelle; van Noort, Simon; Greeff, Jaco M

    2004-12-01

    We investigate the evolution of male morphology in the fig wasps belonging to the genus Philotrypesis (Chalcidoidea, Sycorectinae). We first reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Philotrypesis associated with African figs using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA. We then determine male morphotypes in the species included in our phylogeny and show that intraspecific polymorphism is common. Most species present two types of males and some species have up to three types. These morphotypes are believed to represent alternative mating tactics: some males show morphological adaptations to fighting, others are winged dispersers and others are small sneakers. Mapping out these variations onto our phylogeny reveals that the combination of morphs changes randomly along the branches of the tree. Both parsimony and likelihood approaches indicate that there has been at least one transition from dimorphism to trimorphism, several gains and losses of the small morph and two independent acquisitions of the winged morph. Using maximum likelihood analyses of character evolution, we estimate transition rates for each morph and show that the evolution of each type of morph are not correlated and that forward and backward transition rates are not significantly different. Our results altogether suggest that male morphology is evolutionary labile, it responds quickly to selection imposed by the mating environment. This study, also suggests that seemingly complex phenotypes, such as winged males, can evolve several times and can even be recreated after having been lost.

  9. Management of male-factor infertility.

    PubMed

    Tournaye, Herman J; Cohlen, Ben J

    2012-12-01

    For many years, the management of male-factor infertility has been empirical rather than evidence-based. In current clinical practice, assisted reproductive techniques are the most successful methods of alleviating male-factor infertility. To date, it remains unclear what adjuvant actions can be taken to improve the outcome of assisted reproductive techniques for male-factor infertility. Evidence shows that smoking adversely affects sperm quality to some extent, and the genetic make-up of sperm to a greater extent; however, because of the scarcity and heterogeneity of studies, its effect on in-vitro fertilisation outcome remains largely unknown. Although smoking cessation should be part of the assisted reproductive techniques treatment plan, the benefit of antioxidant treatment in either smokers or non-smokers undergoing assisted reproductive techniques is still under scrutiny. Other lifestyle modifications in subfertile men, such as refraining from moderate alcohol and caffeine consumption, are even more controversial. When embarking on assisted reproductive techniques to alleviate male-factor infertility, intrauterine insemination may be considered as a first-line treatment for couples in whom the female partner has a normal fertility status, and at least 0.8 × 10(6) progressively motile spermatozoa are recovered after sperm preparation. If no pregnancy is achieved after three to six cycles of intrauterine insemination, in-vitro fertilisation can be proposed. When too few progressively motile spermatozoa are obtained after sperm processing for in-vitro fertilisation, or when surgically retrieved sperm are to be used, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is preferable. Although the outcome of no other assisted reproductive techniques has been scrutinised so much, and no large-scale 'macro-problems' have yet been observed after intracytoplasmic sperm injection, malformation rates are reported to be higher compared with the general population. Therefore, candidates

  10. Determining Exercise Strength Requirements for Astronaut Critical Mission Tasks: Reaching Under G-Load

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffner, Grant; Bentley, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The critical mission tasks assessments effort seeks to determine the physical performance requirements that astronauts must meet in order to safely and successfully accomplish lunar exploration missions. These assessments will determine astronaut preflight strength, fitness, and flexibility requirements, and the extent to which exercise and other countermeasures must prevent the physical deconditioning associated with prolonged weightlessness. The purpose is to determine the flexibility and strength that crewmembers must possess in order to reach Crew Exploration Vehicle controls during maneuvers that result in sustained acceleration levels ranging from 3.7G to 7.8G. An industry standard multibody dynamics application was used to create human models representing a 5th percentile female, a 50th percentile male, and a 95th percentile male. The additional mass of a space suit sleeve was added to the reaching arm to account for the influence of the suit mass on the reaching effort. The human model was merged with computer models of a pilot seat and control panel for the Crew Exploration Vehicle. Three dimensional paths were created that guided the human models hand from a starting position alongside its thigh to three control targets: a joystick, a keyboard, and an overhead switch panel. The reaching motion to each target was repeated under four vehicle acceleration conditions: nominal ascent (3.7G), two ascent aborts (5.5G and 7.8G) and lunar reentry (4.6G). Elbow and shoulder joint angular excursions were analyzed to assess range of motion requirements. Mean and peak elbow and shoulder joint torques were determined and converted to equivalent resistive exercise loads to assess strength requirements. Angular excursions for the 50th and 95th percentile male models remained within joint range of motion limits. For the 5th percentile female, both the elbow and the shoulder exceeded range of motion limits during the overhead reach. Elbow joint torques ranged from 10 N

  11. Re-feeding food-deprived male meadow voles affects the sperm allocation of their rival males.

    PubMed

    Vaughn, Ashlee A; Delbarco-Trillo, Javier; Ferkin, Michael H

    2012-12-01

    An individual's nutritional status affects the manner in which same- and opposite-sex conspecifics respond to that individual, which may affect their fitness. Male meadow voles, Microtus pennsylvanicus, increase their sperm allocation if they encounter the scent mark of an unfamiliar male that is not nutritionally challenged. If, however, the scent mark comes from a male that has been food deprived for 24 hours, stud male voles do not increase their sperm allocation. Food deprived males may be viewed as being lower quality and a reduced risk of sperm competition by rival males. We hypothesized that stud males in promiscuous mating systems tailor their sperm allocations depending on whether rival males have been food deprived and then re-fed. We predicted that newly re-fed males will be considered a strong risk of sperm competition because of the potentially high fitness and survival costs associated with food deprivation in males, and that they will cause stud males to increase their sperm allocation. Our results, however, showed that the recovery period from 24 hours of food deprivation was a relatively slow process. It took between 96 hours and 336 hours of re-feeding male scent donors that were food deprived for 24 hours to induce stud males to increase their sperm allocation to levels comparable to when scent donors were not food deprived. Stud male voles may be conserving the amount of sperm allocated until the male scent donors have recovered from food deprivation and subsequent re-feeding.

  12. Sexual selection of male parental care in giant water bugs.

    PubMed

    Ohba, Shin-Ya; Okuda, Noboru; Kudo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-05-01

    Paternal care can be maintained under sexual selection, if it helps in attracting more mates. We tested the hypothesis in two giant water bug species, Appasus major and Appasus japonicus, that male parental care is sexually selected through female preference for caring males. Females were given an opportunity to choose between two males. In the first test of female mate choice, one male carried eggs on its back, while the other did not. The egg status was switched between these two males in the second test. The experiment revealed that females of both species preferred caring males (i.e. egg-bearing) to non-caring males. Nonetheless, the female mate preference for egg-bearing males was stronger in A. major than in A. japonicus. Our results suggest that sexual selection plays an important role in maintaining elaborate paternal care in giant water bugs, but the importance of egg-bearing by males in female mate choice varies among species.

  13. Chef of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dee

    2012-01-01

    There is an overwhelming amount of research and data on childhood nutrition due to drastic increases in childhood obesity (classified as a BMI index greater than the 95th percentile for their height/weight). Obesity amounts have tripled in the last 30 years for children who fall in the age range of the author's students. The effects of childhood…

  14. Evaluation of Parallel Analysis Methods for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Aaron V.; Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo; Scott, Lietta; Svetina, Dubravka; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Population and sample simulation approaches were used to compare the performance of parallel analysis using principal component analysis (PA-PCA) and parallel analysis using principal axis factoring (PA-PAF) to identify the number of underlying factors. Additionally, the accuracies of the mean eigenvalue and the 95th percentile eigenvalue criteria…

  15. Predictive value of human biomonitoring in environmental medicine: experiences at the outpatient unit of environmental medicine (UEM) of the University Hospital Aachen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Straff, Wolfgang; Möller, Manfred; Jakobi, Nikolaus; Weishoff-Houben, Michaela; Dott, Wolfgang; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas

    2002-07-01

    There is little data on the distribution of biomonitoring parameters in patients at outpatient Units of Environmental Medicine (UEM). We evaluated the biomonitoring parameters of 646 UEM outpatients from our University Hospital 1988-1998. Few patients were exposed to specific substances. Data of patients who were not obviously exposed was analysed statistically (geometric mean, standard deviation, median, 95th percentile). Results were compared with reference values in literature. Normal distribution of biomonitoring parameters was rare. 95th percentiles for arsenic, chromium, selenium, zinc, phenol and toluene were below standard, 95th percentiles for copper and mercury above, and 95th percentiles for lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, lindane, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane were within the published range of reference values. Thallium as well as most volatile organic compounds analyzed were below detection levels. Aluminum and fluorine exposure was rarely analysed. In view of these results, it is concluded that the indication for biomonitoring needs to be stringent as levels of biomonitoring parameters are generally not risen in patients of the UEM.

  16. 40 CFR 75.57 - General recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input). 9 95th percentile... period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input... lookback period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and...

  17. Quality of life in Mexican American children following a weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in at-risk for overweight and overweight Mexican American children after participating in 6 months of intensive weight management or self-help. Eighty sixth- and seventh-grade at-risk for overweight (BMI >= 85th to < 95th percentile) and overweight...

  18. Sigma virus and male reproductive success in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Pattanaik, Swetapadma; Johnson, Laura; Matos, Luis F.; Brusini, Jérémie; Wayne, Marta L.

    2016-01-01

    The risk of disease transmission can affect female mating rate, and thus sexual conflict. Furthermore, the interests of a sexually transmitted organism may align or diverge with those of either sex, potentially making the disease agent a third participant in the sexual arms race. In Drosophila melanogaster, where sexual conflict over female mating rate is well established, we investigated how a common, non-lethal virus (sigma virus) might affect this conflict. We gave uninfected females the opportunity to copulate twice in no-choice trials: either with two uninfected males, or with one male infected with sigma virus followed by an uninfected male. We assessed whether females respond behaviorally to male infection, determined whether male infection affects either female or male reproductive success, and measured offspring infection rates. Male infection status did not influence time to copulation, or time to re-mating. However, male infection did affect male reproductive success: first males sired a significantly greater proportion of offspring, as well as more total offspring, when they were infected with sigma virus. Thus viral infection may provide males an advantage in sperm competition, or, possibly, females may preferentially use infected sperm. We found no clear costs of infection in terms of offspring survival. Viral reproductive success (the number of infected offspring) was strongly correlated with male reproductive success. Further studies are needed to demonstrate whether virus-induced changes in reproductive success affect male and female lifetime fitness, and whether virus-induced changes are under male, female, or viral control. PMID:27616808

  19. Asymmetric learning to avoid heterospecific males in Mesocricetus hamsters.

    PubMed

    delBarco-Trillo, Javier; Johnston, Robert E

    2012-08-01

    If a female mates with a male of a closely related species, her fitness is likely to decline. Consequently, females may develop behavioral mechanisms to avoid mating with heterospecific males. In some species, one such mechanism is for adult females to learn to discriminate against heterospecific males after exposure to such males. We have previously shown that adult, female Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) learn to discriminate against male Turkish hamsters (Mesocricetus brandti) after exposure to a single heterospecific male during 8 days across a wire-mesh barrier. Here we repeated that experiment but this time we exposed female Turkish hamsters to a male Syrian hamster for 8 days and then measured sexual and aggressive behaviors towards that heterospecific male and towards a conspecific male. In contrast to female Syrian hamsters, female Turkish hamsters did not differ in their latency to go into lordosis or in any measure of aggression towards either type of male. Female Turkish hamsters spent less time in lordosis with the heterospecific male, but the percentage of trials in which females copulated with conspecific and heterospecific males did not differ. When comparing females from both species that had been exposed to a heterospecific male for 8days, female Syrian hamsters copulated less and were more aggressive towards the heterospecific male compared to the behavior of female Turkish hamsters. We discuss how this asymmetric response between females of the two species may be due to the much larger geographical range of Turkish hamsters compared to Syrian hamsters.

  20. Social recognition is context dependent in single male prairie voles.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Da-Jiang; Foley, Lauren; Rehman, Asad; Ophir, Alexander G

    2013-11-01

    Single males might benefit from knowing the identity of neighbouring males when establishing and defending boundaries. Similarly, males should discriminate between individual females if this leads to more reproductive opportunities. Contextual social cues may alter the value of learning identity. Knowing the identity of competitors that intrude into an animal's territory may be more salient than knowing the identity of individuals on whose territory an animal is trespassing. Hence, social and environmental context could affect social recognition in many ways. Here we test social recognition of socially monogamous single male prairie voles, Microtus ochrogaster. In experiment 1 we tested recognition of male or female conspecifics and found that males discriminated between different males but not between different females. In experiment 2 we asked whether recognition of males is influenced when males are tested in their own cage (familiar), in a clean cage (neutral) or in the home cage of another male (unfamiliar). Although focal males discriminated between male conspecifics in all three contexts, individual variation in recognition was lower when males were tested in their home cage (in the presence of familiar social cues) compared to when the context lacked social cues (neutral). Experiment 1 indicates that selective pressures may have operated to enhance male territorial behaviour and indiscriminate mate selection. Experiment 2 suggests that the presence of a conspecific cue heightens social recognition and that home-field advantages might extend to social cognition. Taken together, our results indicate social recognition depends on the social and possibly territorial context.