Science.gov

Sample records for 95th percentile values

  1. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material. PMID:20386192

  2. Risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in Hispanic Youth with BMI > or = 95th percentile

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To characterize children at risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and to explore possible mechanisms underlying the development of NAFLD in Hispanic youth with a body mass index > or =95th percentile. Hispanic nonoverweight (n = 475) and overweight (n = 517) children, ages 4 to 19 y, wer...

  3. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  4. Application of Radial Basis Function Methods in the Development of a 95th Percentile Male Seated FEA Model.

    PubMed

    Vavalle, Nicholas A; Schoell, Samantha L; Weaver, Ashley A; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-11-01

    Human body finite element models (FEMs) are a valuable tool in the study of injury biomechanics. However, the traditional model development process can be time-consuming. Scaling and morphing an existing FEM is an attractive alternative for generating morphologically distinct models for further study. The objective of this work is to use a radial basis function to morph the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) average male model (M50) to the body habitus of a 95th percentile male (M95) and to perform validation tests on the resulting model. The GHBMC M50 model (v. 4.3) was created using anthropometric and imaging data from a living subject representing a 50th percentile male. A similar dataset was collected from a 95th percentile male (22,067 total images) and was used in the morphing process. Homologous landmarks on the reference (M50) and target (M95) geometries, with the existing FE node locations (M50 model), were inputs to the morphing algorithm. The radial basis function was applied to morph the FE model. The model represented a mass of 103.3 kg and contained 2.2 million elements with 1.3 million nodes. Simulations of the M95 in seven loading scenarios were presented ranging from a chest pendulum impact to a lateral sled test. The morphed model matched anthropometric data to within a rootmean square difference of 4.4% while maintaining element quality commensurate to the M50 model and matching other anatomical ranges and targets. The simulation validation data matched experimental data well in most cases. PMID:26192960

  5. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  6. Dosimetric impacts of microgravity: an analysis of 5th, 50th and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2012-02-01

    Computational phantoms serve an important role in organ dosimetry and risk assessment performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A previous study investigated the impact on organ dose equivalents and effective doses from the use of the University of Florida hybrid adult male (UFHADM) and adult female (UFHADF) phantoms at differing height and weight percentiles versus those given by the two existing NASA phantoms, the computerized anatomical man (CAM) and female (CAF) (Bahadori et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 1671-94). In the present study, the UFHADM and UFHADF phantoms of different body sizes were further altered to incorporate the effects of microgravity. Body self-shielding distributions are generated using the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT), and the results are combined with depth dose data from the NASA codes BRYNTRN and HZETRN to yield organ dose equivalents and their rates for a variety of space radiation environments. It is found that while organ dose equivalents are indeed altered by the physiological effects of microgravity, the magnitude of the change in overall risk (indicated by the effective dose) is minimal for the spectra and simplified shielding configurations considered. The results also indicate, however, that UFHADM and UFHADF could be useful in designing dose reduction strategies through optimized positioning of an astronaut during encounters with solar particle events.

  7. Abdominal Organ Location, Morphology, and Rib Coverage for the 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile Males and Females in the Supine and Seated Posture using Multi-Modality Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Ashley R.; Gayzik, F. Scott; Moreno, Daniel P.; Martin, R. Shayn; Stitzel, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use data from a multi-modality image set of males and females representing the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (n=6) to examine abdominal organ location, morphology, and rib coverage variations between supine and seated postures. Medical images were acquired from volunteers in three image modalities including Computed Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and upright MRI (uMRI). A manual and semi-automated segmentation method was used to acquire data and a registration technique was employed to conduct a comparative analysis between abdominal organs (liver, spleen, and kidneys) in both postures. Location of abdominal organs, defined by center of gravity movement, varied between postures and was found to be significant (p=0.002 to p=0.04) in multiple directions for each organ. In addition, morphology changes, including compression and expansion, were seen in each organ as a result of postural changes. Rib coverage, defined as the projected area of the ribs onto the abdominal organs, was measured in frontal, lateral, and posterior projections, and also varied between postures. A significant change in rib coverage between postures was measured for the spleen and right kidney (p=0.03 and p=0.02). The results indicate that posture affects the location, morphology and rib coverage area of abdominal organs and these implications should be noted in computational modeling efforts focused on a seated posture. PMID:24406951

  8. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  9. Using a Spreadsheet to Compute the Maximum Wind Sector 99.5th Percentile X/Q Value in Accordance with DOE-STD-3009-2014.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Standard 3009-2014 requires one of two methods to determine the simple Gaussian relative concentration (X/Q) of pollutant at plume centerline downwind to a receptor for a 2-h exposure duration from a ground-level release (i.e., less than 10 m height) which are (1) the 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method and (2) the 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method. This paper describes how to determine the simple Gaussian 99.5th percentile X/Q for the directionally-dependent method using an electronic spreadsheet. Refer to a previous paper to determine the simple Gaussian 95th percentile X/Q for the directionally-independent method using an electronic spreadsheet (Vickers 2015). The method described herein is simple, quick, accurate, and transparent because all of the data, calculations, and results are visible for validation and verification. PMID:27023153

  10. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  11. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  12. A methodology for calculating percentile values of annual direct normal solar irradiation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; Ramírez, Lourdes; Silva, Manuel; Lara, Vicente; Bermejo, Diego; Gastón, Martín; Moreno, Sara; Pulgar, Jesús; Liria, Juan; Macías, Sergio; Gonzalez, Rocio; Bernardos, Ana; Castillo, Nuria; Bolinaga, Beatriz; Valenzuela, Rita X.; Zarzalejo, Luis

    2016-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of the solar resource is a critical point in the performance of an economic feasibility analysis of solar thermal electricity plants. In particular, the Direct Normal solar Irradiance (DNI) is the most determining variable in its final energy yield. Inter-annual variations of DNI can be large and seriously compromise the viability of solar energy projects. In this work, a methodology for evaluating the statistical properties of annual DNI series is presented for generating inputs to risk assessments in an economic feasibility analysis of a solar power plant. The methodology relies on the construction of a cumulative distribution function of annual DNI values, which allows for the evaluation of both mean and extreme climate characterization at a particular location in the long term.

  13. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  14. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-04-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  15. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  16. Tutorial: Calculating Percentile Rank and Percentile Norms Using SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Ted A.

    2009-01-01

    Practitioners can benefit from using norms, but they often have to develop their own percentile rank and percentile norms. This article is a tutorial on how to quickly and easily calculate percentile rank and percentile norms using SPSS, and this information is presented for a data set. Some issues in calculating percentile rank and percentile…

  17. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants. PMID:25708724

  18. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  19. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Andruske, Cinthya Lee; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Torres, Jose Sulla; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  20. LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE. CHICAGO SKYWAY TOLL BRIDGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE. CHICAGO SKYWAY TOLL BRIDGE (HAER No. IL-145) IN BACKGROUND, REMAINS OF BALTIMORE & OHIO CHICAGO TERMINAL RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FOREGROUND. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  1. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  2. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  3. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth.

    PubMed

    Kuhle, Stefan; Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  4. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  5. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  6. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would…

  7. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks' gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks' gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks' gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks' gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  8. Age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum procalcitonin concentrations in Japanese preterm infants

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzumi, Noriko; Osawa, Kayo; Sato, Itsuko; Iwatani, Sota; Ishino, Ruri; Hayashi, Nobuhide; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saegusa, Jun; Morioka, Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Procalcitonin (PCT) levels are elevated early after birth in newborn infants; however, the physiological features and reference of serum PCT concentrations have not been fully studied in preterm infants. The aims of the current study were to establish an age-specific percentile-based reference curve of serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants and determine the features. The PCT concentration peaked in infants at 1 day old and decreased thereafter. At 1 day old, serum PCT concentrations in preterm infants <34 weeks’ gestational age were higher than those in late preterm infants between 34 and 36 weeks’ gestational age or term infants ≥37 weeks’ gestational age. Although the 50-percentile value in late preterm and term infants reached the adult normal level (0.1 ng/mL) at 5 days old, it did not in preterm infants. It took 9 weeks for preterm infants to reach it. Serum PCT concentrations at onset in late-onset infected preterm infants were over the 95-percentile value. We showed that the physiological feature in preterm infants was significantly different from that in late preterm infants, even in those <37 weeks’ gestational age. To detect late-onset bacterial infection and sepsis, an age-specific percentile-based reference curve may be useful in preterm infants. PMID:27033746

  9. BMI, Waist Circumference Reference Values for Chinese School-Aged Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Song, Peige; Li, Xue; Gasevic, Danijela; Flores, Ana Borges; Yu, Zengli

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity has become one of the most serious public health challenges in the 21st century in most developing countries. The percentile curve tool is useful for monitoring and screening obesity at population level, however, in China, no official recommendations on childhood body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) reference percentiles have been made in practice. Aims: to construct the percentile reference values for BMI and WC, and then to calculate the prevalence of overall and abdominal obesity for Chinese children and adolescents. Methods: A total of 5062 anthropometric records for children and adolescents aged from 7 to 18 years (2679 boys and 2383 girls) were included for analysis. The participants were recruited as part of the national representative “China Health and Nutrition Survey” (CHNS). Age, gender, weight, height, and WC were assessed. Smoothed BMI and WC percentile curves and values for the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th percentiles were constructed by using the Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS) method. The prevalence estimates of the overall and abdominal obesity were calculated by using the cut-offs from our CHNS study and the previous “Chinese National Survey on Students’ Constitution and Health” (CNSSCH) study, respectively. The difference between prevalence estimates was tested by a McNemar test, and the agreement between these prevalence estimates was calculated by using the Cohen’s kappa coefficient. Results: The prevalence values of overall obesity based on the cut-offs from CHNS and CNSSCH studies were at an almost perfect agreement level in boys (κ = 0.93). However, among girls, the overall obesity prevalence differed between the studies (p < 0.001) and the agreement was weaker (κ = 0.76). The abdominal obesity prevalence estimates were significant different according to the two systems both in boys and girls, although the agreement reached to 0.88, which represented an

  10. Statistical Analysis of Data with Non-Detectable Values

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, E.L.

    2004-08-26

    Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring, i.e. the measured value is less than a ''limit of detection''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. A basic problem of interest in environmental risk assessment is to determine if the mean concentration of an analyte is less than a prescribed action level. Parametric methods, used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level and/or an upper percentile (e.g. the 95th percentile) are used to characterize exposure levels, and upper confidence limits are needed to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. In certain situations it is of interest to estimate the probability of observing a future (or ''missed'') value of a lognormal variable. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on the 95th percentile (i.e. the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly

  11. Percentile Curves for Anthropometric Measures for Canadian Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Kuhle, Stefan; Maguire, Bryan; Ata, Nicole; Hamilton, David

    2015-01-01

    Body mass index (BMI) is commonly used to assess a child's weight status but it does not provide information about the distribution of body fat. Since the disease risks associated with obesity are related to the amount and distribution of body fat, measures that assess visceral or subcutaneous fat, such as waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), or skinfolds thickness may be more suitable. The objective of this study was to develop percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and sum of 5 skinfolds (SF5) in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The analysis used data from 4115 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age that participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey Cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 were measured using standardized procedures. Age- and sex-specific centiles were calculated using the LMS method and the percentiles that intersect the adult cutpoints for BMI, WC, and WHtR at age 18 years were determined. Percentile curves for all measures showed an upward shift compared to curves from the pre-obesity epidemic era. The adult cutoffs for overweight and obesity corresponded to the 72nd and 91st percentile, respectively, for both sexes. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for BMI, WC, WHtR, and SF5 in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. The percentile curves presented are meant to be descriptive rather than prescriptive as associations with cardiovascular disease markers or outcomes were not assessed. PMID:26176769

  12. Statewide Analysis of the Drainage-Area Ratio Method for 34 Streamflow Percentile Ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  13. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…

  14. Urinary iodine percentile ranges in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Soldin, Offie Porat; Soldin, Steven J.; Pezzullo, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The status of iodine nutrition of a population can be determined by measurement of urinary iodine concentrations since it is thought to indicate dietary iodine intake. Normally, these results are compared to population-based criteria, since there are no reference ranges for urinary iodine. Objective To determine the percentile ranges for urinary iodide (UI) concentrations in normal individuals in the United States. Materials and methods The third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) (1988–1994) database of the civilian, non-institutionalized, iodine-sufficient US population was used. The 2.5th to 97.5th percentile ranges for urinary iodine and for urinary iodine per gram creatinine ratio (UI/Cr) (μg/g) were calculated for females and males, 6–89 years of age, each stratified by age groups. Results and conclusions We calculated the percentile ranges for urinary iodine. After exclusions of subjects with goiter or thyroid disease, the study sample included 21,530 subjects; 10,439 males and 11,091 females. For women of childbearing age (14–44 years), urinary iodine concentration 2.5th to 97.5th percentiles are 1.8–65 μg/dl or 36–539 μg/g creatinine. For pregnant women, the ranges are 4.2–55 μg/dl or 33–535 μg/g creatinine. PMID:12559616

  15. Punching Wholes into Parts, or Beating the Percentile Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, Nancy R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a facetious, ingenious resolution to the percentile dilemma concerning above- and below-average test scores. If schools enrolled the same number of pigs as students and tested both groups, the pigs would fill up the bottom half and all children would rank in the top 50 percent. However, some wrinkles need to be ironed out! (MLH)

  16. Immigration and Naturalization of Adopted Children. Report (to Accompany H.R. 12508), Committee on the Judiciary, House of Representatives, 95th Congress, Second Session. Report No. 95-1301.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on the Judiciary.

    This report from the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives, 95th Congress, recommends passage of the bill (H.R. 12508) to amend the Immigration and Nationality Act. The purpose of H.R. 12508 is to establish uniform procedures for admission to the United States of adopted or prospective adoptive children of U.S. citizens and to…

  17. Normal values of 24-hour ambulatory esophageal impedance-pH monitoring in a rural South African cohort of healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Ndebia, E J; Sammon, A M; Umapathy, E; Iputo, J E

    2016-05-01

    There are no data on 24-hour multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring in African populations. The purpose of this study was to provide the normal values of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring in a rural African populations. South African healthy rural participants were recruited and underwent 24 hours of esophageal impedance and pH monitoring. The median and the 95th percentiles of the total reflux episodes were 49 and 97, respectively, of which the corresponding number of acidic, weakly acidic, and weakly alkaline reflux were 15 and 55, 17 and 51, and 8 and 36, respectively. The compositions of the total reflux were 5 and 21 for liquid, 27 and 72 for mixed, and 10 and 39 for gas reflux, respectively. The median bolus clearance was 18 seconds and the median bolus exposure was 14 minutes/24 hours. The proximal extent was 6%. The 95th percent time of esophageal exposure to acid was 8.6 in 24 hours. Female and overweight participants were associated with an increased number of reflux events. There were more reflux episodes, and of which, more were weakly alkaline compared with previous similar studies. The findings provide reference values of gastroesophageal reflux for a South African rural population. PMID:25721534

  18. MEASURING LOW-VALUE CARE IN MEDICARE

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Aaron L.; Landon, Bruce E.; Elshaug, Adam G.; Chernew, Michael E.; McWilliams, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    /beneficiary) exceeded the difference in detected low-value spending between regions at the 5th and 95th percentiles ($186/beneficiary). Adjusted regional use was positively correlated among 5 of 6 categories of low-value services (r for pair-wise, between-category correlations ranged 0.14–0.56, mean 0.35; P≤0.01). Conclusions and Relevance Services detected by a limited number of measures of low-value care constituted modest proportions of overall spending but affected substantial proportions of beneficiaries and may be reflective of overuse more broadly. Performance of claims-based measures in supporting targeted payment or coverage policies to reduce overuse may depend heavily on measure definition. PMID:24819824

  19. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  20. Estimated monthly percentile discharges at ungaged sites in the Upper Yellowstone River Basin in Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Hull, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    Once-monthly streamflow measurements were used to estimate selected percentile discharges on flow-duration curves of monthly mean discharge for 40 ungaged stream sites in the upper Yellowstone River basin in Montana. The estimation technique was a modification of the concurrent-discharge method previously described and used by H.C. Riggs to estimate annual mean discharge. The modified technique is based on the relationship of various mean seasonal discharges to the required discharges on the flow-duration curves. The mean seasonal discharges are estimated from the monthly streamflow measurements, and the percentile discharges are calculated from regression equations. The regression equations, developed from streamflow record at nine gaging stations, indicated a significant log-linear relationship between mean seasonal discharge and various percentile discharges. The technique was tested at two discontinued streamflow-gaging stations; the differences between estimated monthly discharges and those determined from the discharge record ranged from -31 to +27 percent at one site and from -14 to +85 percent at the other. The estimates at one site were unbiased, and the estimates at the other site were consistently larger than the recorded values. Based on the test results, the probable average error of the technique was + or - 30 percent for the 21 sites measured during the first year of the program and + or - 50 percent for the 19 sites measured during the second year. (USGS)

  1. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  2. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions. PMID:22444086

  3. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  4. Binorm-a fortran subroutine to calculate the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCammon, R.B.

    1977-01-01

    BINORM is a FORTRAN subroutine for calculating the percentiles of a standardized binormal distribution. By using a linear transformation, the percentiles of a binormal distribution can be obtained. The percentiles of a binormal distribution are useful for plotting purposes, for establishing confidence intervals, and for sampling from a mixed population that consists of two normal distributions. ?? 1977.

  5. Tendencies of extreme values on rainfall and temperature and its relationship with teleconnection patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, J. J.; Cabrejo, A.; Guarin, D.; Ramos, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    mm) and the total precipitation when rainfall is greater than 95th percentile (R95pTOT) diminishes in winter and spring, but increases in autumn. This trend is related with NAO in winter and spring and with SCA in autumn.

  6. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  7. Reference Values for Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Chinese Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jian; Li, Hong; Ran, Xingwu; Yang, Wenying; Li, Qiang; Peng, Yongde; Li, Yanbing; Gao, Xin; Luan, Xiaojun; Wang, Weiqing; Jia, Weiping

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The widespread clinical application of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) is limited by the lack of generally accepted reference values. This multicenter study aims to establish preliminary normal reference values for CGM parameters in a sample of healthy Chinese subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 434 healthy individuals with normal glucose regulation completed a 3-day period of glucose monitoring using a CGM system. The 24-h mean blood glucose (24-h MBG) and the percentage of time that subjects' blood glucose levels were ≥140 mg/dl (PT140) and ≤70 mg/dl (PT70) within 24 h were analyzed. RESULTS There was excellent compliance of finger stick blood glucose values with CGM measurements for subjects. Among the 434 subjects, the daily blood glucose varied from 76.9 ± 11.3 to 144.2 ± 23.2 mg/dl. The 24-h MBG, PT140, and PT70 were 104 ± 10 mg/dl, 4.1 ± 5.8%, and 2.4 ± 5.3%, respectively. As for these parameters, no significant differences were found between men and women. The 95th percentile values were adopted as the upper limits of CGM parameters, which revealed 119 mg/dl (6.6 mmol/l) for 24-h MBG, 17.1% for PT140, and 11.7% for PT70. CONCLUSIONS We recommend a 24-h MBG value <119 mg/dl, PT140 <17% (4 h), and PT70 <12% (3 h) as normal ranges for the Chinese population. PMID:19389816

  8. Hypothesis Testing of Population Percentiles via the Wald Test with Bootstrap Variance Estimates

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, William D.; Romer, Jacob E.

    2016-01-01

    Testing the equality of percentiles (quantiles) between populations is an effective method for robust, nonparametric comparison, especially when the distributions are asymmetric or irregularly shaped. Unlike global nonparametric tests for homogeneity such as the Kolmogorv-Smirnov test, testing the equality of a set of percentiles (i.e., a percentile profile) yields an estimate of the location and extent of the differences between the populations along the entire domain. The Wald test using bootstrap estimates of variance of the order statistics provides a unified method for hypothesis testing of functions of the population percentiles. Simulation studies are conducted to show performance of the method under various scenarios and to give suggestions on its use. Several examples are given to illustrate some useful applications to real data. PMID:27034909

  9. Shaping in the 21st century: Moving percentile schedules into applied settings

    PubMed Central

    Galbicka, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    The present paper provides a primer on percentile reinforcement schedules, which have been used for two decades to study response differentiation and shaping in the laboratory. Arranged in applied settings, percentile procedures could be used to specify response criteria, standardizing treatment across subjects, trainers, and times to provide a more consistent training environment while maintaining the sensitivity to the individual's repertoire that is the hallmark of shaping. Percentile schedules are also valuable tools in analyzing the variables of which responding is a function, both inside and outside the laboratory. Finally, by formalizing the rules of shaping, percentile schedules provide a useful heuristic of the processes involved in shaping behavior, even for those situations that may not easily permit their implementation. As such, they may help further sensitize trainers and researchers alike to variables of critical importance in behavior change. ImagesFigure 6 PMID:16795849

  10. Comparison of daily percentiles of streamflow and rainfall to investigate stream aquifer connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodie, Ross S.; Hostetler, Stephen; Slatter, Emily

    2008-01-01

    SummaryA frequency analysis approach was used to investigate the hydraulic connectivity between streams and aquifers, by comparing daily percentiles of streamflow and rainfall. Three Australian streams were examined - a dominantly gaining stream (Wilsons River, NSW), a dominantly gaining stream modified by significant water extraction (Ovens River, Victoria) and a dominantly losing stream (Mooki River, NSW). For the gaining stream examples, a lag is observed between the seasonal peak in the low-flow percentile curves and the seasonal peak in the daily rainfall percentile curve. Cross-correlation was used to calculate the time-shift that provides the best fit between the streamflow and rainfall percentile curves. There is a good correlation ( r2 > 0.8) between the reference rainfall percentile curve and the shifted streamflow percentile curves for gaining streams. The lags evident between the rainfall and streamflow percentile curves represent the processes of first replenishing catchment storages (such as soil moisture and groundwater) and subsequent release to the stream. This is largely a function of catchment hydrogeology as well as climate, notably the magnitude and regularity of rainfall events. Catchment size is not a controlling factor. Analysis of these lags provides insights into the dynamics of groundwater recharge, storage and release. Changes in the lag times over the flow percentiles can reflect changes in the dominant catchment storage contributing to streamflow. For the Wilsons River, the contribution from a groundwater system with longer flow paths increases at lower flow percentiles. This can be critical when protecting minimum streamflows, as near-stream groundwater flow may not be the only determining factor. The impact of water extraction can be recognised in this analysis. For the Ovens River, streamflow deficits relative to the rainfall percentile curve correspond to the summer period of high irrigation demand. Such a deficit was also observed

  11. Analysis of extreme top event frequency percentiles based on fast probability integration

    SciTech Connect

    Staple, B.; Haskin, F.E.

    1993-10-01

    In risk assessments, a primary objective is to determine the frequency with which a collection of initiating and basic events, E{sub e} leads to some undesired top event, T. Uncertainties in the occurrence rates, x{sub t}, assigned to the initiating and basic events cause uncertainty in the top event frequency, z{sub T}. The quantification of the uncertainty in z{sub T} is an essential part of risk assessment called uncertainty analysis. In the past, it has been difficult to evaluate the extreme percentiles of output variables like z{sub T}. Analytic methods such as the method of moments do not provide estimates of output percentiles and the Monte Carlo (MC) method can be used to estimate extreme output percentiles only by resorting to large sample sizes. A promising altemative to these methods is the fast probability integration (FPI) methods. These methods approximate the integrals of multi-variate functions, representing percentiles of interest, without recourse to multi-dimensional numerical integration. FPI methods give precise results and have been demonstrated to be more efficient than MC methods for estimating extreme output percentiles. FPI allows the analyst to choose extreme percentiles of interest and perform sensitivity analyses in those regions. Such analyses can provide valuable insights as to the events driving the top event frequency response in extreme probability regions. In this paper, FPI methods are adapted a) to precisely estimate extreme top event frequency percentiles and b) to allow the quantification of sensitivity measures at these extreme percentiles. In addition, the relative precision and efficiency of alternative methods for treating lognormally distributed inputs is investigated. The methodology is applied to the top event frequency expression for the dominant accident sequence from a risk assessment of Grand Gulf nuclear power plant.

  12. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  13. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one. PMID:23225621

  14. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity.

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. PMID:26880623

  15. Reference values for the cervical length measurement in the second trimester of pregnancy using the transvaginal ultrasound in a large Brazilian population

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Alberto Borges; da Cunha Caldas, Taciana Mara Rodrigues; Alamy, Ana Helena Bittencourt; Martins, Wellington P.; Bruns, Rafael Frederico

    2016-01-01

    To establish reference values for the cervical length (CL) measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large Brazilian population. A retrospective cross-sectional study was performed with 996 singleton pregnancies. The CL measurement (mm) using the transvaginal ultrasound was obtained in a sagittal view and the calipers positioned to measure the linear distance between the triangular area of echodensity at the external os and the internal os. The median±standard deviation and ranges for the CL measurement (mm) was 37.0±10.7 (range, 8 to 51). CL measurement did not modify significantly with gestational age. The observed percentiles for the CL measurement (mm) considering all number case were the following: 5th, 28 mm; 50th, 37 mm; and 95th, 45 mm. Reference values for the CL measurement by transvaginal ultrasound between 20 and 24+6 weeks of gestation in a large heterogeneous Brazilian population were established. PMID:27462597

  16. Problems with Percentiles: Student Growth Scores in New York's Teacher Evaluation System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Drew

    2016-01-01

    New York State has used the Growth Model for Educator Evaluation ratings since the 2011-2012 school year. Since that time, student growth percentiles have been used as the basis for teacher and principal ratings. While a great deal has been written about the use of student test scores to measures educator effectiveness, less attention has been…

  17. Percentile Norms for the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Tests. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moodie, Allan G.

    Percentile scores for Vancouver students in grades 9, 10, 11 and 12 on the AAHPER Cooperative Physical Education Tests are presented. Two of the six forms of the tests were used in these administrations. Every form consists of 60 multiple-choice questions to be completed in 40 minutes. A single score, based on the number of questions answered…

  18. Can Percentiles Replace Raw Scores in the Statistical Analysis of Test Data?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Donald W.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2005-01-01

    Educational and psychological testing textbooks typically warn of the inappropriateness of performing arithmetic operations and statistical analysis on percentiles instead of raw scores. This seems inconsistent with the well-established finding that transforming scores to ranks and using nonparametric methods often improves the validity and power…

  19. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3(rd), 10(th), 25(th), 50(th), 75(th), 90(th), 97(th) percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26-42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  20. AGE AND GENDER SPECIFIC BMI PERCENTILES ARE LIMITED FOR TRACKING THE CHILDHOOD OBESITY EPIDEMIC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Purpose: To evaluate pediatric nutrition and physical activity interventions a reliable and feasible way of tracking change in body status is needed. Historically, body mass index (BMI) has been used in adults. BMI percentiles or Z scores, which are theoretically age and gender adjusted, have been...

  1. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this…

  2. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15…

  3. Birthweight percentiles for twin birth neonates by gestational age in China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Cao, Zhongqiang; Zhang, Yiming; Yao, Cong; Xiong, Chao; Zhang, Yaqi; Wang, Youjie; Zhou, Aifen

    2016-01-01

    Localized birthweight references for gestational ages serve as an essential tool in accurate evaluation of atypical birth outcomes. Such references for twin births are currently not available in China. The aim of this study was to construct up-to-data sex specific birth weight references by gestational ages for twin births in China. We conducted a population-based analysis on the data of 22,507 eligible living twin infants with births dated between 8/01/2006 and 8/31/2015 from all 95 hospitals within the Wuhan area. Gestational ages in complete weeks were determined using a combination of last-menstrual-period based (LMP) estimation and ultrasound examination. Smoothed percentile curves were created by the Lambda Mu Sigma (LMS) method. Reference of the 3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, 97th percentiles birth weight by sex and gestational age were made using 11,861 male and 10,646 female twin newborns with gestational age 26–42 weeks. Separate birthweight percentiles curves for male and female twins were constructed. In summary, our study firstly presents percentile curves of birthweight by gestational age for Chinese twin neonates. Further research is required for the validation and implementation of twin birthweight curves into clinical practice. PMID:27506479

  4. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  5. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  6. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  7. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Kyoung; Jang, Hye Lim; Kang, Byung Ho; Lee, Kyung-Suk; Choi, Yong-Sung; Shim, Kye Shik; Lim, Jae Woo; Bae, Chong-Woo; Chung, Sung-Hoon

    2016-06-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010-2012), smoothed percentile curves (3(rd)-97(th)) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22-23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  8. Spleen Size Is Significantly Influenced by Body Height and Sex: Establishment of Normal Values for Spleen Size at US with a Cohort of 1200 Healthy Individuals.

    PubMed

    Chow, Kai Uwe; Luxembourg, Beate; Seifried, Erhard; Bonig, Halvard

    2016-04-01

    Purpose To define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume determined with ultrasonography (US). Materials and Methods The authors performed a retrospective data review of stem cell donors who had provided written informed consent for stem cell donation and use of anonymized data and biologic materials for scientific and quality control purposes. Spleen length, spleen volume, and anthrophometric data were correlated in 1230 healthy volunteers to identify variables that affect spleen size. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to weight effects of various variables on spleen size. Linear regression through the 95th percentile for men and women of different height cohorts generated the formula for the upper limit of normal for spleen length and volume. For validation, the upper limit of normal was calculated for each volunteer and compared with the observed value. Formulae to calculate the additional percentiles were similarly generated and validated. A cohort of 75 volunteers was analyzed twice to assess the stability of spleen length and volume over time. Results Spleen length and volume were significantly and independently associated with sex (length: P < .001; volume: P = .012), body height (P < .001 for both), and weight (P < .001 for both), with men and taller and heavier individuals having longer and larger spleens. The spleen length of 20 of 324 women (6%) and 234 of 906 men (26%) exceeded the previously reported upper limit of normal of 12 cm. Repeat measurements indicated that spleen length (median difference, 0.10 cm; range, -1.8 to 1.7 cm) and volume (median difference, 3 cm(3); range, -106 to 142 cm(3)) were quite stable. A mobile application that performs these calculations is available for download. Conclusion The authors define height- and sex-corrected normal values for spleen length and volume for women with a body height of 155-179 cm and men with a body height of 165-199 cm and propose validated algorithms

  9. Establishing percentiles for junior tennis players based on physical fitness testing results.

    PubMed

    Roetert, E P; Piorkowski, P A; Woods, R B; Brown, S W

    1995-01-01

    An important aspect of this study was the establishment of a data base. A broad data base allows for data on certain parameters to be greatly expanded and will also enhance the use and interpretation of statistical methods. A longitudinal study of these variables may also assist in monitoring the players' progress over a period of time, and can provide a useful supplement to subjective coaching appraisals. The means and standard deviation for each test were calculated according to the USTA age and gender groups, that is, 12s, 14s, and 16s for each separate gender. Additionally, the mean and standard deviations for the ages, heights, and weights of each grouping were also calculated. Once the means and standard deviations were calculated, percentile tables were developed for each of the USTA groupings (by age and gender). The percentiles for each USTA test are presented in Appendix 1. A percentile is defined as the point on the distribution below which a given percentage of the scores is found. Percentiles can provide a norm-referenced interpretation of an individual score within a distribution that often consists of scores from a comparable group of individuals. Using the USTA protocol, players and coaches now have a set of normative data by which individual player's fitness scores may be compared with participants of the USTA Area Training Centers (See appendix 1). From the test results, coaches and players can determine which fitness areas need to be improved for athletes on an individual basis. Specific training programs can then be designed based on an athlete's fitness testing results. Proper interpretation of the USTA fitness testing data base results can lead to an easy way to determine the relative position of a given fitness score in the distribution, recognizing weaker areas for the purpose of injury prevention and performance enhancement. Each player can be given a profile detailing their percentile rank relative to other area training center

  10. Age-specific reference values for serum prostate-specific antigen in a community-based population of healthy Swedish men.

    PubMed

    Löfman, O; Lindahl, T; Varenhorst, E

    1997-05-01

    To establish normal reference values for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in a Swedish population we investigated 878 healthy men, 56-75 years of age. They were randomly selected from a population of 9171 males in this group. Cancer of the prostate was excluded by digital rectal examination. When digital rectal examination was suspicious for carcinoma of the prostate and/or serum PSA > 4 micrograms l-1, fine-needle aspiration biopsy was performed. Central values, values of variance and reference limits were defined by a non-parametric method in four age groups. A strong positive correlation between PSA values and age was found and the variance increased with age. The relationship between PSA value and age was non-linear. For the age group 56-60 the upper reference limit (95th percentile) was 4.6 micrograms l-1 (confidence interval, CI: 3.9-5.5). For the age groups 61-65, 66-70 and 71-75 the corresponding values were 4.4 (3.8-5.2), 7.6 (6.5-8.9) and 8.4 micrograms l-1 (7.2-9.8) respectively. For the age groups studied the increment over time of the PSA value was 2-8% per year depending on age, with an average increment per year over 15 years of 4.3%. Overall, 11% of our reference sample had a serum PSA level > 4 micrograms l-1. We consider our study population to be representative for a normal Swedish male population in these age groups. PMID:9238758

  11. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure. PMID:27060750

  12. Validation of the global reference for fetal weight and birth weight percentiles.

    PubMed

    Badade, Anirudh B; Bhide, Amar; Satoskar, Purnima; Wadekar, Darshan

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference curves fit the population in India and to validate the reference curves. The data were retrieved retrospectively from the records of women registration for antenatal care at a charitable maternity hospital in Mumbai, India. All pregnancies were dated on CRL obtained before 14 weeks. Births before 34(th) week were excluded. The expected frequencies of birth weights below the 1(st), 5(th), 10(th), 50(th), 90(th), 95(th) and 99(th) centiles from three reference ranges were compared with observed frequencies. It was found that the WHO generic reference adapted to India significantly underpredicted the birth weights and that the Hadlock reference ranges significantly overpredicted the birth weights. The use of generic reference adapted to Sri Lanka showed a better fit to the observed data. We concluded that global reference curves adapted on the basis of WHO data for India and the Hadlock reference ranges do not fit all the population in India and the charts need validation. Reference charts modified on the basis of data for Sri Lankan population show a better fit to the observed data, and therefore are more appropriate for use in clinical practice in South India. PMID:24347860

  13. A COMPARISON OF STUDENTS SCORING ABOVE THE EIGHTIETH PERCENTILE OR BELOW THE TWENTIETH PERCENTILE ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CURRY, JOHN

    IN ORDER TO ESTABLISH THE FEASIBILITY OF A CUT-OFF SCORE FOR ENTRANCE INTO TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAMS AT NORTH TEXAS STATE UNIVERSITY, SCORES OF 1,346 STUDENTS WHO EITHER PLACED ABOVE THE 80TH PERCENTILE (N-672) OR BELOW THE 20TH PERCENTILE (N-674) ON EITHER THE SCHOOL AND COLLEGE ABILITY TEST OR THE WATSON-GLASER TEST OF CRITICAL THINKING WERE…

  14. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among blood donors in the Western Amazon, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to (1) determine the reference value of blood lead levels (BLL) in a sample of blood donors of Rio Branco, the capital city of Acre, in the Western Brazilian Amazon, and (2) explore factors influencing lead (Pb) exposure levels. Between 2010 and 2011, blood samples were collected from universal blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco with a total number of 1196. Information on characteristics of 1183 donors was obtained through questionnaires. Blood Pb concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry with detection limit of 0.003 μg/L. Association between BLL and participant characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values of BLL were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Reference values of BLL were 109.5 μg/L for men, 70.7 μg/L for women, 88.9 μg/L for younger individuals (18-29 yr), 115.3 μg/L for older ones (≥30 yr), 94.2 μg/L for nonsmokers, and 164.5 μg/L for smokers. Levels of BLL were significantly higher in males, subjects older than 29 yr, non-whites, smokers, regular consumers of manioc flour, and donors practicing any activity related to paints, ceramics, pottery, fishing, or firearms. Subjects with higher education, higher income, vitamin intake use, and drinkers of bottled water displayed lower BLL. In general, BLL in men and women from Rio Branco were higher than those described in other adult populations. Prevention of exposure of this population to local sources of Pb needs to be addressed. PMID:24627997

  15. Percentile-based Empirical Distribution Function Estimates for Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Providers

    PubMed Central

    Paddock, Susan M.; Louis, Thomas A.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Hierarchical models are widely-used to characterize the performance of individual healthcare providers. However, little attention has been devoted to system-wide performance evaluations, the goals of which include identifying extreme (e.g., top 10%) provider performance and developing statistical benchmarks to define high-quality care. Obtaining optimal estimates of these quantities requires estimating the empirical distribution function (EDF) of provider-specific parameters that generate the dataset under consideration. However, the difficulty of obtaining uncertainty bounds for a square-error loss minimizing EDF estimate has hindered its use in system-wide performance evaluations. We therefore develop and study a percentile-based EDF estimate for univariate provider-specific parameters. We compute order statistics of samples drawn from the posterior distribution of provider-specific parameters to obtain relevant uncertainty assessments of an EDF estimate and its features, such as thresholds and percentiles. We apply our method to data from the Medicare End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD) Program, a health insurance program for people with irreversible kidney failure. We highlight the risk of misclassifying providers as exceptionally good or poor performers when uncertainty in statistical benchmark estimates is ignored. Given the high stakes of performance evaluations, statistical benchmarks should be accompanied by precision estimates. PMID:21918583

  16. Ensemble hydrological prediction of streamflow percentile at ungauged basins in Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, Muhammad; Ajmal, Muhammad; Kim, Tae-Woong

    2015-06-01

    Streamflow records with sufficient spatial and temporal coverage at the site of interest are usually scarce in Pakistan. As an alternative, various regional methods have been frequently adopted to derive hydrological information, which in essence attempt to transfer hydrological information from gauged to ungauged catchments. In this study, a new concept of ensemble hydrological prediction (EHP) was introduced which is an improved regional method for hydrological prediction at ungauged sites. It was mainly based on the performance weights (triple-connection weights (TCW)) derived from Nash Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) and hydrological variable (here percentiles) calculated from three traditional regional transfer methods (RTMs) with suitable modification (i.e., three-step drainage area ratio (DAR) method, inverse distance weighting (IDW) method, and three-step regional regression analysis (RRA)). The overall results indicated that the proposed EHP method was robust for estimating hydrological percentiles at ungauged sites as compared to traditional individual RTMs. The comparative study based on NSE, percent bias (PBIAS) and the relative error (RE) as performance criteria resulted that the EHP is a constructive alternative for hydrological prediction of ungauged basins.

  17. State disparities in time trends of adolescent body mass index percentile and weight-related behaviors in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is conflicting as to whether youth obesity prevalence has reached a plateau in the United States overall. Trends vary by state, and experts recommend exploring whether trends in weight-related behaviors are associated with changes in weight status trends. Thus, our objective was to estimate between-state variation in time trends of adolescent body mass index (BMI) percentile and weight-related behaviors from 2001 to 2007. A time series design combined cross-sectional Youth Risk Behavior Survey data from 272,044 adolescents in 29 states from 2001 to 2007. Self-reported height, weight, sports participation, physical education, television viewing, and daily consumption of 100% fruit juice, milk, and fruits and vegetables were collected. Linear mixed models estimated state variance in time trends of behaviors and BMI percentile. Across states, BMI percentile trends were consistent despite differences in behavioral trends. Boys experienced a modest linear increase in BMI percentile (ß = 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07, 0.30); girls experienced a non-linear increase, as the rate of increase declined over time from 1.02 units in 2001-2002 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.36) to 0.23 units in 2006-2007 (95% CI: -0.09, 0.56). States in which BMI percentile decreased experienced a greater decrease in TV viewing than states where BMI percentile increased. Otherwise, states with disparate BMI percentile trends did not differ with respect to behaviors. Future research should explore the role of other behaviors (e.g., soda consumption), measurement units (e.g., portion size), and societal trends (e.g., urban sprawl) on state and national adiposity trends. PMID:21773818

  18. Percentile Ranking and Citation Impact of a Large Cohort of NHLBI-funded Cardiovascular R01 Grants

    PubMed Central

    Danthi, Narasimhan; Wu, Colin O.; Shi, Peibei; Lauer, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Funding decisions for cardiovascular R01 grant applications at NHLBI largely hinge on percentile rankings. It is not known whether this approach enables the highest impact science. Objective To conduct an observational analysis of percentile rankings and bibliometric outcomes for a contemporary set of funded NHLBI cardiovascular R01 grants. Methods and results We identified 1492 investigator-initiated de novo R01 grant applications that were funded between 2001 and 2008, and followed their progress for linked publications and citations to those publications. Our co-primary endpoints were citations received per million dollars of funding, citations obtained within 2-years of publication, and 2-year citations for each grant’s maximally cited paper. In 7654 grant-years of funding that generated $3004 million of total NIH awards, the portfolio yielded 16,793 publications that appeared between 2001 and 2012 (median per grant 8, 25th and 75th percentiles 4 and 14, range 0 – 123), which received 2,224,255 citations (median per grant 1048, 25th and 75th percentiles 492 and 1,932, range 0 – 16,295). We found no association between percentile ranking and citation metrics; the absence of association persisted even after accounting for calendar time, grant duration, number of grants acknowledged per paper, number of authors per paper, early investigator status, human versus non-human focus, and institutional funding. An exploratory machine-learning analysis suggested that grants with the very best percentile rankings did yield more maximally cited papers. Conclusions In a large cohort of NHLBI-funded cardiovascular R01 grants, we were unable to find a monotonic association between better percentile ranking and higher scientific impact as assessed by citation metrics. PMID:24406983

  19. Asymmetric Aneuploidy in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Detected by In Situ Karyotyping and Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization: Suggestions for Reference Values for Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Young; Im, Kyongok; Park, Si Nae; Kwon, Jiseok; Kim, Jung-Ah; Choi, Qute; Hwang, Sang Mee; Han, Sung-Hee; Kwon, Sunghoon; Oh, Il-Hoan

    2015-01-01

    Cytogenetic testing is important to ensure patient safety before therapeutic application of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). However, the standardized methods and criteria for the screening of chromosomal abnormalities of MSCs have not yet been determined. We investigated the frequency of cytogenetic aberrations in MSCs using G-banding and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and suggest reference values for aneuploidy in MSCs. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on 103 consecutive cultures from 68 MSCs (25 adipose-origin, 20 bone marrow-origin, 18 cord blood-origin, and 5 neural stem cells; 8 from adipose tissue of patients with breast cancer and 60 from healthy donors). We compared the MSC aneuploidy patterns with those of hematological malignancies and benign hematological diseases. Interphase FISH showed variable aneuploid clone proportions (1%–20%) in 68 MSCs. The aneuploidy patterns were asymmetric, and aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X occurred most frequently. Clones with polysomy were significantly more abundant than those with monosomy. The cutoff value of maximum polysomy rates (upper 95th percentile value) was 13.0%. By G-banding, 5 of the 61 MSCs presented clonal chromosomal aberrations. Aneuploidy was asymmetric in the malignant hematological diseases, while it was symmetric in the benign hematological diseases. We suggest an aneuploidy cutoff value of 13%, and FISH for aneuploidy of chromosomes 16, 17, 18, and X would be informative to evaluate the genetic stability of MSCs. Although it is unclear whether the aneuploid clones might represent the senescent cell population or transformed cells, more attention should be focused on the safety of MSCs, and G-banding combined with FISH should be performed. PMID:25019198

  20. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere. PMID:25655821

  1. Development of a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Chest Model for the 5(th) Percentile Female.

    PubMed

    Kimpara, Hideyuki; Lee, Jong B; Yang, King H; King, Albert I; Iwamoto, Masami; Watanabe, Isao; Miki, Kazuo

    2005-11-01

    Several three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) models of the human body have been developed to elucidate injury mechanisms due to automotive crashes. However, these models are mainly focused on 50(th) percentile male. As a first step towards a better understanding of injury biomechanics in the small female, a 3D FE model of a 5(th) percentile female human chest (FEM-5F) has been developed and validated against experimental data obtained from two sets of frontal impact, one set of lateral impact, two sets of oblique impact and a series of ballistic impacts. Two previous FE models, a small female Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS-AF05) occupant version 1.0Beta (Kimpara et al. 2002) and the Wayne State University Human Thoracic Model (WSUHTM, Wang 1995 and Shah et al. 2001) were integrated and modified for this model development. The model incorporated not only geometrical gender differences, such as location of the internal organs and structure of the bony skeleton, but also the biomechanical differences of the ribs due to gender. It includes a detailed description of the sternum, ribs, costal cartilage, thoracic spine, skin, superficial muscles, intercostal muscles, heart, lung, diaphragm, major blood vessels and simplified abdominal internal organs and has been validated against a series of six cadaveric experiments on the small female reported by Nahum et al. (1970), Kroell et al. (1974), Viano (1989), Talantikite et al. (1998) and Wilhelm (2003). Results predicted by the model were well-matched to these experimental data for a range of impact speeds and impactor masses. More research is needed in order to increase the accuracy of predicting rib fractures so that the mechanisms responsible for small female injury can be more clearly defined. PMID:17096277

  2. Practical Differences Among Aggregate-Level Conditional Status Metrics: From Median Student Growth Percentiles to Value-Added Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate-level conditional status metrics (ACSMs) describe the status of a group by referencing current performance to expectations given past scores. This article provides a framework for these metrics, classifying them by aggregation function (mean or median), regression approach (linear mean and nonlinear quantile), and the scale that supports…

  3. Reference values of lead in blood and related factors among Korean adolescents: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Min-Gyu; Park, Mi-Jung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to assess the reference values and factors influencing blood lead levels among Korean adolescents. Methods The study population consisted of 1,585 adolescents (801 males, 784 females; aged 10-19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2010-2013. We analyzed blood lead concentrations in relation to demographic/lifestyle characteristics for all participants. "Reference values" of blood lead levels were calculated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile. Results The average "reference value" for blood lead concentrations among Korean adolescents was 2.25 µg/dL (2.49 µg/dL for males, 2.07 µg/dL for females), and the geometric mean of the blood lead concentrations was 1.34 µg/dL. Males had higher blood lead concentrations than females (male, 1.48 µg/dL; female, 1.19 µg/dL; P<0.001). Elementary school students had higher blood lead concentrations than junior and senior high school students (1.44 µg/dL vs. 1.31 µg/dL, P<0.001). Participants living in detached houses had higher blood lead concentrations than those living in apartments (P<0.001) and current smokers had higher concentrations than nonsmokers or participants with secondhand smoke exposure (P<0.05). Additionally, participants with excessive alcohol consumption had higher levels than non-drinkers (P<0.001). Conclusion This study provides national reference data on blood lead concentrations stratified by demographic and lifestyle factors among Korean adolescents. Further studies are needed to elucidate the relationship between increased lead exposure and demographic factors including type of housing. PMID:27186217

  4. Normative Values for Intertrial Variability of Motor Responses to Nerve Root and Transcranial Stimulation: A Condition for Follow-Up Studies in Individual Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Malucchi, Simona; Capobianco, Marco; Sperli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Objective Intertrial variability (ITV) of motor responses to peripheral (CMAP) and transcranial (MEP) stimulation prevents their use in follow-up studies. Our purpose was to develop strategies to reduce and measure CMAP and MEP ITV to guide long-term monitoring of conduction slowing and conduction failure of peripheral and central motor pathway in the individual patient. Methods Maximal compound muscle action potentials to High Voltage Electrical Stimulation (HVES) of lumbo-sacral nerve roots (r-CMAP) and activated, averaged motor evoked potentials (MEPs) to Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) using double cone coil were recorded from 10 proximal and distal muscle districts of lower limbs. The procedure was repeated twice, 1–2 days apart, in 30 subjects, including healthy volunteers and clinically stable multiple sclerosis patients, using constant stimulating and recording sites and adopting a standardized procedure of voluntary activation. ITV for latency and area indexes and for the ratio between MEP and r-CMAP areas (a-Ratio) was expressed as Relative Intertrial Variation (RIV, 5th-95th percentile). As an inverse correlation between the size of area and ITV was found, raw ITV values were normalized as a function of area to make them comparable with one another. Results All RIV values for latencies were significantly below the optimum threshold of ± 10%, with the exception of r-CMAP latencies recorded from Vastus Lateralis muscle. RIVs for a-Ratio, the most important index of central conduction failure, ranged from a maximum of -25.3% to +32.2% (Vastus Medialis) to a minimum of -15.0% to + 17.4% (Flexor Hallucis Brevis). Conclusions The described procedure represents an effort to lower as much as possible variability of motor responses in serial recording; the reported ITV normative values are the necessary premise to detect significant changes of motor conduction slowing and failure in the individual patient in follow-up studies. PMID:27182973

  5. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

  6. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  7. The Diagnostic Value of Both Troponin T and Creatinine Kinase Isoenzyme (CK-MB) in Detecting Combined Renal and Myocardial Injuries in Asphyxiated Infants

    PubMed Central

    Sadoh, Wilson E.; Eregie, Charles O.; Nwaneri, Damian U.; Sadoh, Ayebo E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Troponin T (cTnT) and Creatinine Kinase Isoenzyme (CK-MB) are both markers of myocardial injuries. However, CK-MB is also elevated in acute kidney injury. Objective The diagnostic value of both cTnT and cardiac CK-MB in combined myocardial and acute kidney injuries (AKI) in asphyxiated neonates was evaluated. Method 40 asphyxiated infants and 40 non-asphyxiated controls were consecutively recruited. Serum levels of cTnT, CK-MB and creatinine were measured. Myocardial injury and AKI were defined as cTnT >95th percentile of the control and serum creatinine >1.0 mg/dl respectively. Results Of the 40 subjects, 9 (22.50%), 8 (20.00%) and 4 (10.00%) had myocardial injury, AKI and combined AKI and myocardial injuries respectively. The mean cTnT and CK-MB values were highest in infants with combined AKI and myocardial injuries. The Mean cTnT in infants with AKI, myocardial injury and combined AKI and myocardial injuries were 0.010±0.0007 ng/ml, 0.067±0.040 ng/ml and 0.084±0.067 ng/ml respectively, p = 0.006. The mean CK-MB in infants with AKI, myocardial injury and combined AKI and myocardial injuries were 2.78±0.22 ng/ml, 1.28±0.11 ng/ml and 4.58±0.52 ng/ml respectively, p = <0.0001. Conclusion In severe perinatal asphyxia, renal and myocardial injuries could co-exist. Elevated cTnT signifies the presence of myocardial injury. Elevated CK-MB indicates either myocardial injury, AKI or both. Therefore renal injury should be excluded in asphyxiated infants with elevated CK-MB. PMID:24625749

  8. Assessment of in vitro human dermal absorption studies on pesticides to determine default values, opportunities for read-across and influence of dilution on absorption.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, M; Battalora, M; Fisher, P; Hüser, A; Parr-Dobrzanski, R; Soufi, M; Mostert, V; Strupp, C; Whalley, P; Wiemann, C; Billington, R

    2014-04-01

    Dermal absorption is an integral part of non-dietary human safety risk assessments for agrochemicals. Typically, dermal absorption data for agrochemical active substances are generated from the undiluted formulation concentrate and its spray dilutions. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance, which combines highly conservative default values, very limited opportunities for read-across from existing data and other overly conservative conclusions, was the driver for this assessment. To investigate the reliability of the EFSA guidance, a homogeneous data-set of 190 GLP and OECD guideline compliant in vitro human skin studies, chosen to match the test method preferred by EU data requirements, was evaluated. These studies represented a wide range of active substances, formulation types, and concentrations. In alignment with EFSA guidance on human exposure assessment, a conservative estimate of absorption (95th percentile) was chosen to define defaults, which were also based on the EFSA worst-case assumption that all material in skin, excluding the first two tape strips, is absorbed. The analysis supports dermal absorption defaults of 6% for liquid concentrates, 2% for solid concentrates, and 30% for all spray dilutions, irrespective of the active substance concentration. Relatively high dermal absorption values for organic solvent-based formulations, compared to water-based or solid concentrates, support their use as worst-case surrogate data for read-across to other formulation types. The current review also shows that dermal absorption of sprays does not increase linearly with increasing dilution, and provides a novel, science-based option for extrapolation from existing data. PMID:24491967

  9. The Association of Weight Percentile and Motor Vehicle Crash Injury Among 3 to 8 Year Old Children

    PubMed Central

    Zonfrillo, Mark R.; Nelson, Kyle A.; Durbin, Dennis R.; Kallan, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of age-appropriate child restraint systems significantly reduces injury and death associated with motor vehicle crashes (MVCs). Pediatric obesity has become a global epidemic. Although recent evidence suggests a possible association between pediatric obesity and MVC-related injury, there are potential misclassifications of body mass index from under-estimated height in younger children. Given this limitation, age- and sex-specific weight percentiles can be used as a proxy of weight status. The specific aim of this study was to determine the association between weight percentile and the risk of significant injury for children 3–8 years in MVCs. This was a cross-sectional study of children aged 3–8 years in MVCs in 16 US states, with data collected via insurance claims records and a telephone survey from 12/1/98–11/30/07. Parent-reported injuries with an abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) score of 2+ indicated a clinically significant injury. Age- and sex-specific weight percentiles were calculated using pediatric norms. The study sample included 9,327 children aged 3–8 years (weighted to represent 157,878 children), of which 0.96% sustained clinically significant injuries. There was no association between weight percentiles and overall injury when adjusting for restraint type (p=0.71). However, increasing weight percentiles were associated with lower extremity injuries at a level that approached significance (p=0.053). Further research is necessary to describe mechanisms for weight-related differences in injury risk. Parents should continue to properly restrain their children in accordance with published guidelines. PMID:21050602

  10. The use of the percentile method for searching empirical relationships between compression strength (UCS), Point Load (Is50) and Schmidt Hammer (RL) Indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruno, Giovanni; Bobbo, Luigi; Vessia, Giovanna

    2014-05-01

    Is50 and RL indices are commonly used to indirectly estimate the compression strength of a rocky deposit by in situ and in laboratory devices. The widespread use of Point load and Schmidt hammer tests is due to the simplicity and the speediness of the execution of these tests. Their indices can be related to the UCS by means of the ordinary least square regression analyses. Several researchers suggest to take into account the lithology to build high correlated empirical expressions (R2 >0.8) to draw UCS from Is50 or RL values. Nevertheless, the lower and upper bounds of the UCS ranges of values that can be estimated by means of the two indirect indices are not clearly defined yet. Aydin (2009) stated that the Schmidt hammer test shall be used to assess the compression resistance of rocks characterized by UCS>12-20 MPa. On the other hand, the Point load measures can be performed on weak rocks but upper bound values for UCS are not suggested. In this paper, the empirical relationships between UCS, RL and Is50 are searched by means of the percentile method (Bruno et al. 2013). This method is based on looking for the best regression function, between measured data of UCS and one of the indirect indices, drawn from a subset sample of the couples of measures that are the percentile values. These values are taken from the original dataset of both measures by calculating the cumulative function. No hypothesis on the probability distribution of the sample is needed and the procedure shows to be robust with respect to odd values or outliers. In this study, the carbonate sedimentary rocks are investigated. According to the rock mass classification of Dobereiner and De Freitas (1986), the UCS values for the studied rocks range between 'extremely weak' to 'strong'. For the analyzed data, UCS varies between 1,18-270,70 MPa. Thus, through the percentile method the best empirical relationships UCS-Is50 and UCS-RL are plotted. Relationships between Is50 and RL are drawn, too

  11. Metabolic profil in a group of obese Moroccan children enrolled in schools in the city of Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouane, Nezha; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Ettair, Said; Meskini, Toufik; Khalloufi, Nabil; Bouklouze, Aziz; Barkat, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine the metabolic profile in a group of obese children in Morocco. Methods The BMI, the waist circumference, the blood pressure and metabolic parameters in 73 children (37 obese and 36 normal) were compared. Results 80% of obese children had abdominal obesity (p <0.0001). For systolic blood pressure among children who have a higher value than the 95th percentile, 85.7% were obese and 14.3% children are normal children. For diastolic blood pressure, 83.34% of obese children had higher diastolic blood pressure values in the 95th percentile and 16.6% of normal children have a higher value than the 95th percentile (p=0.013). No obese child had hyperglycemia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. Conclusion Obesity is number one risk of cardiovascular disease for children. Early detection can help for an appropriate care. PMID:25977740

  12. Seasonal to decadal forcing of high water level percentiles in the German Bight throughout the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dangendorf, Sönke; Mudersbach, Christoph; Jensen, Jürgen; Anette, Ganske; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2013-05-01

    For the purpose of coastal planning and management, especially under changing climatic conditions, enhanced knowledge about the evolution of extreme sea levels in the past, present, and future is required. This paper presents statistical analyses of high seasonal water level percentiles of 13 tide gauges in the German Bight, spanning over a period of up to 109 years throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries. Seasonal and annual high percentile time series of water levels were investigated in comparison to the mean sea level (MSL) for changes on seasonal, inter-annual, and decadal timescales. While throughout the first half of the twentieth century extreme water levels generally followed changes in MSL, during the second half of the century, linear extreme sea level trends exceeded those in MSL in the order of 9-64 cm per century. The largest, although insignificant, contribution to the magnitude of these trends occurs in the winter season (January to March), while smaller but, due to the generally lower atmospheric variability, significant changes are observed during spring (April to June). The observed multi-decadal trends are generally in good agreement with multi-decadal trends in the corresponding percentiles of local zonal surface winds. Only small parts of the trends remain unexplained. It is suggested that these remaining trends result from modifications in the local tidal regime. For the aspects of coastal planning, the findings clarify that in the German Bight, in addition to changes in MSL, potential changes in storminess and in the tidal regime significantly contribute to the development of extreme water levels. Since these factors have influenced the characteristic of extremes throughout the recent past, they also have to be taken into account when estimating design water levels for, e.g., dikes (in a warming climate) under changing greenhouse gas emissions.

  13. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  14. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults

  15. Birth Weight Ratio as an Alternative to Birth Weight Percentile to Express Infant Weight in Research and Clinical Practice: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age. The discriminative ability of birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to identify infants at risk of perinatal death (fetal death and neonatal death) or adverse pregnancy outcome (perinatal death + severe neonatal morbidity) was compared using the area under the curve. Outcomes were expressed stratified by gestational age at delivery separate for birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile. Results. We studied 1,299,244 pregnant women, with an overall perinatal death rate of 0.62%. Birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile have equivalent overall discriminative performance for perinatal death and adverse perinatal outcome. In late preterm infants (33+0–36+6 weeks), birth weight ratio has better discriminative ability than birth weight percentile for perinatal death (0.68 versus 0.63, P  0.01) or adverse pregnancy outcome (0.67 versus 0.60, P < 0.001). Conclusion. Birth weight ratio is a potentially valuable instrument to identify infants at risk of perinatal death and adverse pregnancy outcome and provides several advantages for use in research and clinical practice. Moreover, it allows comparison of groups with different average birth weights. PMID:25197283

  16. Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.

    2003-01-01

    Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in

  17. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2007-08 (Fiscal Year 2008). First Look. NCES 2010-323

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honegger, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    This publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2007-08. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of school…

  18. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-355

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication contains data on revenues and expenditures per pupil made by school districts for school year 2004-05. Median per pupil revenue and expenditure data are reported by state, as well as values at the 5th and 95th percentiles. Data for charter schools are reported separately. There are also discussions on the different types of…

  19. Preliminary anthropometric data of medical students for equipment applications.

    PubMed

    Sutjana, I Dewa Putu; Sutajaya, M; Purnawati, Susy; Adiatmika, P; Tunas, K; Suardana, Ery; Swamardika, I B A

    2008-06-01

    Forty-six measurements were measured on 127 medical students (60 males and 67 females) in Indonesia by using the traditional anthropometric methods. The means, standard deviations and, 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile values were calculated and presented. PMID:19157159

  20. Type 2 Diabetes and Spina Bifida

    MedlinePlus

    ... called metabolic syndrome. What Causes Type 2 Diabetes? Obesity is the main cause of type 2 diabetes. ... 95th percentile, a person is considered overweight; and obesity occurs when BMI is greater than the 95th ...

  1. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833–0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731–0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65–5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents’ height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  2. Is the 90th Percentile Adequate? The Optimal Waist Circumference Cutoff Points for Predicting Cardiovascular Risks in 124,643 15-Year-Old Taiwanese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason Jiunshiou; Ho, ChinYu; Chen, Hsin-Jen; Huang, Nicole; Yeh, Jade Chienyu; deFerranti, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent obesity has increased to alarming proportions globally. However, few studies have investigated the optimal waist circumference (WC) of Asian adolescents. This study sought to establish the optimal WC cutoff points that identify a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) among 15-year-old ethnically Chinese adolescents. This study was a regional population-based study on the CVRFs among adolescents who enrolled in all the senior high schools in Taipei City, Taiwan, between 2011 and 2014. Four cross-sectional health examinations of first-year senior high school (grade 10) students were conducted from September to December of each year. A total of 124,643 adolescents aged 15 (boys: 63,654; girls: 60,989) were recruited. Participants who had at least three of five CVRFs were classified as the high-risk group. We used receiver-operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC) to determine the optimal WC cutoff points and the accuracy of WC in predicting high cardiovascular risk. WC was a good predictor for high cardiovascular risk for both boys (AUC: 0.845, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.833-0.857) and girls (AUC: 0.763, 95% CI: 0.731-0.795). The optimal WC cutoff points were ≥78.9 cm for boys (77th percentile) and ≥70.7 cm for girls (77th percentile). Adolescents with normal weight and an abnormal WC were more likely to be in the high cardiovascular risk group (odds ratio: 3.70, 95% CI: 2.65-5.17) compared to their peers with normal weight and normal WC. The optimal WC cutoff point of 15-year-old Taiwanese adolescents for identifying CVRFs should be the 77th percentile; the 90th percentile of the WC might be inadequate. The high WC criteria can help health professionals identify higher proportion of the adolescents with cardiovascular risks and refer them for further evaluations and interventions. Adolescents' height, weight and WC should be measured as a standard practice in routine health checkups. PMID:27389572

  3. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  4. CALCULATION OF THE FINAL ACUTE VALUE FOR WATER QUALITY CRITERIA FOR AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Final Acute Value (FAV) for a material, which is an integral part of the procedure for deriving water quality criteria for aquatic organisms, is an estimate of the fifth percentile of a statistical population represented by the set of Mean Acute Values (MAV) available for the...

  5. Plasma chemistry references values in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T; Overduin, L M

    1990-04-01

    Reference values for 17 plasma chemical variables in African greys. Amazons, cockatoos and macaws were established for use in avian clinical practice. The inner limits are given for the percentiles P(2.5) and P(97.5) with a probability of 90%. The following variables were studied: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urea/uric acid ratio, osmolality, sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, bile acids, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio. Differences between methods used and values found in this study and those reported previously are discussed. PMID:18679934

  6. Relationship between Urbanization and Cancer Incidence in Iran Using Quantile Regression.

    PubMed

    Momenyan, Somayeh; Sadeghifar, Majid; Sarvi, Fatemeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ebrahim; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Quantile regression is an efficient method for predicting and estimating the relationship between explanatory variables and percentile points of the response distribution, particularly for extreme percentiles of the distribution. To study the relationship between urbanization and cancer morbidity, we here applied quantile regression. This cross-sectional study was conducted for 9 cancers in 345 cities in 2007 in Iran. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the relationship between urbanization and cancer morbidity was investigated using quantile regression and least square regression. Fitting models were compared using AIC criteria. R (3.0.1) software and the Quantreg package were used for statistical analysis. With the quantile regression model all percentiles for breast, colorectal, prostate, lung and pancreas cancers demonstrated increasing incidence rate with urbanization. The maximum increase for breast cancer was in the 90th percentile (β=0.13, p-value<0.001), for colorectal cancer was in the 75th percentile (β=0.048, p-value<0.001), for prostate cancer the 95th percentile (β=0.55, p-value<0.001), for lung cancer was in 95th percentile (β=0.52, p-value=0.006), for pancreas cancer was in 10th percentile (β=0.011, p-value<0.001). For gastric, esophageal and skin cancers, with increasing urbanization, the incidence rate was decreased. The maximum decrease for gastric cancer was in the 90th percentile(β=0.003, p-value<0.001), for esophageal cancer the 95th (β=0.04, p-value=0.4) and for skin cancer also the 95th (β=0.145, p-value=0.071). The AIC showed that for upper percentiles, the fitting of quantile regression was better than least square regression. According to the results of this study, the significant impact of urbanization on cancer morbidity requirs more effort and planning by policymakers and administrators in order to reduce risk factors such as pollution in urban areas and ensure proper nutrition

  7. The U.S. Federal Government's Efforts to Estimate an Economic Value for Reduced Carbon Emissions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, A.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the technical process and results from recent U.S. Federal government efforts to estimate the “social cost of carbon” (SCC); the monetized damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a given year. The purpose of the SCC estimates is to make it possible for Federal agencies to incorporate the social benefits from reducing CO2 emissions into cost-benefit analyses of regulatory actions that have relatively small impacts on cumulative global emissions. An interagency working group initiated a comprehensive analysis using three integrated assessment models. The interagency group chose to rely on three of the most widely recognized peer-reviewed models to fairly represent differences in the way in which economic impacts from climate change are modeled (DICE, PAGE, and FUND). The main objective of this process was to develop a range of SCC values using a defensible set of input assumptions grounded in the existing scientific and economic literatures. In this way, key uncertainties and model differences transparently and consistently inform the range of SCC estimates used in the rulemaking process. This proved challenging since the literature did not always agree on the best path forward. In some cases the group agreed to a range of assumptions to allow for uncertainty analysis (e.g., they include 5 different socioeconomic scenarios in the Monte Carlo analysis to reflect uncertainty about how future economic and population growth and energy systems will develop over the next 100 years). The four values selected for regulatory analysis included three estimates based on the average SCC from three integrated assessment models over a range of discount rates, since there is wide disagreement on which to apply in an inter-generational context. The fourth value represents the 95th percentile SCC estimate across all three models at a 3 percent discount rate and is included to represent higher

  8. Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%. PMID:21917687

  9. Normal 24-hour Ambulatory Esophageal pH Values in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Won; Kim, Gyung Mi; Kim, Kyu Jong; Park, Seun Ja; Mun, Hyo Sung; Lee, Kang Dae

    2008-01-01

    Background/Aims Twenty-four-hour ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring is considered the gold standard for diagnosing gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of this study was to quantify normal distal esophageal acid parameters in healthy Koreans. Methods Thirty healthy adults who were not on medication and were free from gastrointestinal symptoms were analyzed. Ambulatory esophageal acid (pH <4) exposure parameters were recorded at 5 cm above the lower esophageal sphincter. Results The 95th percentiles for reflux parameters assessed in the distal esophagus were as follows: percentage of total time with pH <4, 5.10%; percentage of upright time with pH <4, 7.88%; percentage of supine time with pH <4, 4.00%; number of reflux episodes, 62.7; number of reflux episodes with pH <4 for >5 minutes, 5.3; and the longest single acid-exposure episode, 21.3 minutes. Conclusions Physiological gastroesophageal reflux occurs frequently in healthy Koreans. These data provide a reference range that could be utilized in studies involving Korean subjects. PMID:20485604

  10. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  11. Severe Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: Comparison from Two International Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. Results The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001). The CDC 99th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2), higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3) and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9) than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile, in particular in children ≤10 years. Conclusions Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age. PMID:24386280

  12. Birth weight-related percentiles of brain ventricular system as a tool for assessment of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus and ventricular enlargement.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Sebastian; Bamberg, Christian; Proquitté, Hans; Metze, Boris; Bührer, Christoph; Schmitz, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Besides remarkable improvements of neonatal medical therapy, neurological morbidity remains a major concern in preterm infants. In particular, intracranial hemorrhage is a severe complication strongly correlated to poor neurological outcome. For early clinical assessment of intracranial hemorrhage and its impact on the ventricular system, cranial sonography is an important bedside diagnostic tool. Reference values of ventricular sizes are available in relation to gestational age (GA). So far, it has not been demonstrated that ventricular size values are also reliable in relation to birth weight (BW). In this study, we performed cranial ultrasonography in 250 preterm and term newborn infants. Measurements of the intracranial ventricular system by cranial ultrasound examination were performed within 72 h after birth. We determined ventricular index, anterior horn width, width of the third ventricle, width and length of the fourth ventricle for statistical analysis in relation to BW and GA. GA ranged from 23 weeks, 3 days to 42 weeks, 1 day (mean: 33 weeks), BW ranged from 345 to 5620 g (mean: 2146 g). Ventricular index and fourth ventricle width revealed a significant correlation to birth weight with r=0.75, each. A significant correlation to birth weight was also obtained for width and length of the third ventricle (r=0.55 and 0.47, respectively). Correlations obtained for ventricular measures in relation to GA were similar to those referring to BW. In preterm and term infants, ventricular sizes in relation to BW seem reliable for assessment and monitoring of ventricular pathologies, i.e. after intracranial hemorrhage. PMID:26378487

  13. Association of percentile ranking with citation impact and productivity in a large cohort of de novo NIMH-funded R01 grants.

    PubMed

    Doyle, J M; Quinn, K; Bodenstein, Y A; Wu, C O; Danthi, N; Lauer, M S

    2015-09-01

    Previous reports from National Institutes of Health and National Science Foundation have suggested that peer review scores of funded grants bear no association with grant citation impact and productivity. This lack of association, if true, may be particularly concerning during times of increasing competition for increasingly limited funds. We analyzed the citation impact and productivity for 1755 de novo investigator-initiated R01 grants funded for at least 2 years by National Institute of Mental Health between 2000 and 2009. Consistent with previous reports, we found no association between grant percentile ranking and subsequent productivity and citation impact, even after accounting for subject categories, years of publication, duration and amounts of funding, as well as a number of investigator-specific measures. Prior investigator funding and academic productivity were moderately strong predictors of grant citation impact. PMID:26033238

  14. Thoracic response targets for a computational model: a hierarchical approach to assess the biofidelity of a 50th-percentile occupant male finite element model.

    PubMed

    Poulard, David; Kent, Richard W; Kindig, Matthew; Li, Zuoping; Subit, Damien

    2015-05-01

    Current finite element human thoracic models are typically evaluated against a limited set of loading conditions; this is believed to limit their capability to predict accurate responses. In this study, a 50th-percentile male finite element model (GHBMC v4.1) was assessed under various loading environments (antero-posterior rib bending, point loading of the denuded ribcage, omnidirectional pendulum impact and table top) through a correlation metric tool (CORA) based on linearly independent signals. The load cases were simulated with the GHBMC model and response corridors were developed from published experimental data. The model was found to be in close agreement with the experimental data both qualitatively and quantitatively (CORA ratings above 0.75) and the response of the thorax was overall deemed biofidelic. This study also provides relevant corridors and an objective rating framework that can be used for future evaluation of thoracic models. PMID:25681717

  15. Assessment of biological chromium among stainless steel and mild steel welders in relation to welding processes.

    PubMed

    Edmé, J L; Shirali, P; Mereau, M; Sobaszek, A; Boulenguez, C; Diebold, F; Haguenoer, J M

    1997-01-01

    Air and biological monitoring were used for assessing external and internal chromium exposure among 116 stainless steel welders (SS welders) using manual metal arc (MMA), metal inert gas (MIG) and tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding processes (MMA: n = 57; MIG: n = 37; TIG: n = 22) and 30 mild steel welders (MS welders) using MMA and MIG welding processes (MMA: n = 14; MIG: n = 16). The levels of atmospheric total chromium were evaluated after personal air monitoring. The mean values for the different groups of SS welders were 201 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 185 micrograms/m3 (MIG), 52 micrograms/m3 (TIG) and for MS welders 8.1 micrograms/m3 (MMA) and 7.3 micrograms/m3 (MIG). The curve of cumulative frequency distribution from biological monitoring among SS welders showed chromium geometric mean concentrations in whole blood of 3.6 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 19.9), in plasma of 3.3 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 21.0) and in urine samples of 6.2 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 58.0). Among MS welders, mean values in whole blood and plasma were rather more scattered (1.8 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 9.3 and 1.3 micrograms/l, 95th percentile = 8.4, respectively) and in urine the value was 2.4 micrograms/l (95th percentile = 13.3). The analysis of variance of chromium concentrations in plasma previously showed a metal effect (F = 29.7, P < 0.001), a process effect (F = 22.2, P < 0.0001) but no metal-process interaction (F = 1.3, P = 0.25). Concerning urinary chromium concentration, the analysis of variance also showed a metal effect (F = 30, P < 0.0001), a process effect (F = 72, P < 0.0001) as well as a metal-process interaction (F = 13.2, P = 0.0004). Throughout the study we noted any significant differences between smokers and non-smokers among welders. Taking in account the relationships between chromium concentrations in whole, plasma or urine and the different welding process. MMA-SS is definitely different from other processes because the biological values

  16. Value of MR histogram analyses for prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Qin; Liang, He-Yue; Yang, Zhao-Xia; Ding, Ying; Zeng, Meng-Su; Rao, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective is to explore the value of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) histogram analyses in predicting microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifty-one patients with histologically confirmed HCC who underwent diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced MR imaging were included. Histogram analyses were performed and mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, 1th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentiles were derived. Quantitative histogram parameters were compared between HCCs with and without MVI. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were generated to compare the diagnostic performance of tumor size, histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and MR enhancement. The mean, 1th, 10th, and 50th percentiles of ADC maps, and the mean, variance. 1th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentiles of the portal venous phase (PVP) images were significantly different between the groups with and without MVI (P <0.05), with area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of 0.66 to 0.74 for ADC and 0.76 to 0.88 for PVP. The largest AUC of PVP (1th percentile) showed significantly higher accuracy compared with that of arterial phase (AP) or tumor size (P <0.001). MR histogram analyses—in particular for 1th percentile for PVP images—held promise for prediction of MVI of HCC. PMID:27368028

  17. Anatomist and the pioneer of radiology Étienne Destot--95th anniversary of his death.

    PubMed

    Báča, Václav; Kachlík, David; Báčová, Tereza; Bartoška, Radek; Marvan, Jiří; Douša, Pavel; Secrest, Thomas; Džupa, Valér

    2014-04-01

    Destot was a leading pioneer in radiology, a pupil of Ollier, an anatomist, and researcher who followed in the experimental medicine tradition of Claude Bérnard. This work is an extensive, in depth, look at the life and work of Étienne Destot. On February 5, 1896, he began performing X-ray examinations, less than two months after Roentgen's discovery! His pioneering work described a space bordered by the hamate, capitate, triquetrum, and lunate; this space is now known as Destot's space. Tanton stated that Destot was the first to reveal the mechanism of fractures of the posterior margin of the distal tibia and to emphasize their clinical relevance; in honor of this contribution, Tanton named such a fracture the “fracture of Destot.” Moreover, Destot is credited with being the first physician to use the term “pilon” in the orthopedic literature. He first described fractures of the scaphoid in 1905. He also described superficial hematomas, Destot's sign, located above the inguinal ligament or in the scrotum or thigh. Such hematomas are indicative of pelvic fractures. Destot is credited with inventing or improving many pieces of medical equipment (e.g., Lambotte's screw plates, anastomotic boutons for the digestive tube, monopolar endocavital radiological tubes). He was also active in developing technical aspects of equipment (e.g., radioscopic examination of the heart, a prototype of the mobile radiological laboratory). Étienne Destot is best known as a radiologist; however, his influence extends well beyond this field. He was an anatomist and surgeon, the founder of radiology in Lyon, prosector, physician, electrician, researcher, and artist. PMID:24772482

  18. Proceedings, 95th regular meeting: The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Finnie, D.G.

    1999-07-01

    In addition to the nine convention papers published in these proceedings, information is given on the membership and organization of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. The papers are concerned with the economics and management of coal companies, occupational safety of their employees, public anxiety of the environmental impacts of surface mining, and contracting for mining equipment maintenance. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. 75 FR 30780 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 95th Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    .... ] Commercial Hydrogen Gas Measuring Devices Item 360-1. Tentative Code for Hydrogen Gas-Measuring Devices--The... commercial measuring equipment used to deliver hydrogen fuel to highway vehicles, which are currently... Development of Commercial Hydrogen Measurement Standards that included key stakeholders and experts...

  20. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  1. Evaluation of microbiological air quality and of microclimate in university classrooms.

    PubMed

    Grisoli, Pietro; Rodolfi, Marinella; Chiara, Tiziana; Zonta, Laura Attinia; Dacarro, Cesare

    2012-07-01

    The proliferation of air-diffused microorganisms inside public buildings such as schools, hospitals, and universities, is often indicated as a possible health risk. In this research, we have illustrated the results of an investigation realized to determine the health of the air in some university classrooms, both from a microbiological and a microclimatic viewpoint, during the normal didactic activity of direct lessons. The results obtained have been expressed by means of contamination indices, already used in previous works. Very little contamination was recorded in the different phases of air treatment, which underlines the efficiency of the system and of the maintenance protocols. The Global Index of Microbial Contamination (GIMC per cubic meter) showed a value greater than the mean during the heating period (290), while the highest values (95th percentile 1,138.45) were recorded in the period using air conditioning. The index of mesophilic bacterial contamination, though it did not show any significant differences in the various modes of air treatment, showed a mean value (1.34) and the 95th percentile value (4.14), which was greater in the air-conditioning phase. Finally, the mean value of the amplification index underlined a decrease in the microbial contamination in comparison to the outside, while showing situations of increased microbial amplification during the period of simple ventilation (95th percentile 4.27). The 95th percentile values found for GICM in the three sampling periods, however, permitted us to identify the value of GIMC per cubic meter equal to 1,000 as a guide to provide a means of self-monitoring the quality of the air inside the classrooms. From a microclimatic viewpoint, two periods of the year manifested discomfort situations: during the heating phase (winter) and during the simple ventilation phase (spring). The results obtained indicate, therefore, a need to intervene on the environmental parameters, not being able, in this

  2. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  3. Risks to the public from historical releases of radionuclides and chemicals at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site.

    PubMed

    Till, John E; Rood, Arthur S; Voillequé, Paul G; McGavran, Patricia D; Meyer, Kathleen R; Grogan, Helen A; Sinclair, Warren K; Aanenson, Jill W; Meyer, H Robert; Mohler, H Justin; Rope, Susan K; Case, Marilyn J

    2002-09-01

    This paper summarizes the methods and results of estimating risks of cancer incidence resulting from plutonium, carbon tetrachloride, and beryllium releases from operations at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, near Denver, Colorado, from 1953 through 1989. The key findings show that people who lived near the facility were exposed to plutonium mainly through inhalation during routine operations, from a major fire in 1957, and from plutonium resuspended from contaminated soil from an outdoor drum storage area, called the 903 Area. Results were presented for five exposure scenarios that were location-independent. Individuals described by the laborer scenario received the highest risk of all scenarios considered. Upper bound (95th percentile) incremental lifetime cancer incidence risks for the laborer scenario were in about the 10(-4) range (1 chance in 10,000) for developing cancer from Rocky Flats plutonium releases during a lifetime. At the 5th percentile level, the maximum cancer risk was about 10(-7) (1 chance in 10 million) for developing cancer during a lifetime. Estimated cancer risks at the 95th percentile level are within the range of for acceptable risks established by the US Environmental Protection Agency of 10(-6) to 10(-4). Carbon tetrachloride was found to be the chemical that presented the highest risk to the public. The 5th and 95th percentile risk values for exposure to carbon tetrachloride were 9.2x10(-7) and 2.5x10(-5), respectively. PMID:12198584

  4. Vigorous exercise and the population distribution of bodyweight

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-09-18

    Background: While the benefits of vigorous exercise on body weight and regional adiposity are well established, whether these benefits affect equally the highest and lowest portions of the weight distribution has not been previously reported. The impact of exercise on the more extreme body weights and body circumferences is clinically important because these values represent individuals at greatest health risk. Method: We divided self-reported weights and body circumferences from a cross-sectional sample of 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners into five strata according to the distances run per week and within each stratum determined the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles. Then Least-squares regression was then employed at each percentile to determine the dose-response relationship between running distance and adiposity. Results: Per kilometer run per week, the associated decline for body mass index (BMI) was three-fold greater at the 95th than at the 5th percentile in men, and nine-fold greater at the 95th than the 5th percentile in women (all P<0.001). Reported waist circumference also declined more sharply at the 95th percentile than at the 5th percentile in men (-0.13/261 0.02 versus -0.06 plus or minus 0.01 cm per km/wk) and women (-0.18 plus or minus 0.04 versus -0.05 plusor minus 0.01 cm per km/wk). In women, both hip and chest circumferences declined more sharply per kilometer run at the 95th percentile than at the 5th percentile. Conclusions: These results support the hypothesis that running promotes the greatest weight loss specifically in those individuals who have the most to gain from losing weight. Comparisons based on average BMI or average body circumferences are likely to underestimate the health benefits of running because of the J-shaped relationship between adiposity and mortality. Whether the observed associations are primarily due to exercise-induced weight loss or self-selection remains to be determined.

  5. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  6. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  7. 77 FR 16907 - Special Conditions: Embraer S.A., Model EMB 505; Inflatable Side-Facing Seat Three-Point...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... that range from the fifth percentile female to the ninety-fifth percentile male. Energy absorption must... take into consideration a range of stature from a 5th percentile female to a 95th percentile male. The... Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov ....

  8. Blood lead reference values: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Baj, A; Bavazzano, P; Ganzi, A; Neri, G; Ronchi, A; Soleo, L; Di, Lorenzo L; Spinelli, P; Valente, T; Minoia, C

    2002-03-15

    This paper presents the results of a polycentric study carried out in seven different areas, organized by the Italian Society of Reference Values (SIVR) for assessing reference values of lead in blood (B-Pb) at the current doses of the metal to general population. The estimated arithmetic mean for B-Pb in males was of 45.1 microg/l and 30.6 microg/l in females; the 95th centile was 100 and 60 for males and females, respectively. The main variables influencing B-Pb levels were gender, age, BMI, outside sport practice, alcohol consumption and smoking habits, while the geographic area and the urban residence did not affect the metal concentration in blood. PMID:11883751

  9. Lifelong Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferguson-Florissant School District, Ferguson, MO.

    This booklet was developed by early education teachers to help parents teach their children values necessary for learning and for living. The introduction identifies six lifelong values, discusses the important role played by parents in teaching these values, and offers a checklist of positive ways parents interact with their children. Each of the…

  10. Probabilistic approach to estimating indoor air concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater: a case study in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic model, based on the Johnson-Ettinger algorithm, developed to characterize the current and historic exposure to tricholorethylene (TCE) and tetrachlorethylene (PCE) in indoor air from plumes of groundwater contamination emanating from the former Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. We estimate indoor air concentration, house by house, in 30 101 homes and compare the estimated concentrations with measured values in a small subset of homes. We also compare two versions of the Johnson-Ettinger model: one used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and another based on an alternative parametrization. The modeled mean predicted PCE concentration historically exceeded PCE screening levels (0.41 ug/m(3)) in 5.5% of houses, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded screening levels in 85.3% of houses. For TCE, the mean concentration exceeded the screening level (0.25 ug/m(3)) in 49% of homes, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded the screening level in 99% of homes. The EPA model predicts slightly lower indoor concentrations than the alternative parametrization. Comparison with measured samples suggests both models, with the inputs selected, underestimate indoor concentrations and that the 95th percentiles of the predicted concentrations are closer to measured concentrations than predicted mean values. PMID:21162557

  11. Lymphocytes subsets reference values in childhood.

    PubMed

    Tosato, F; Bucciol, G; Pantano, G; Putti, M C; Sanzari, M C; Basso, G; Plebani, M

    2015-01-01

    Immunophenotyping of blood lymphocyte subsets and activation markers is a basic tool in the diagnostic process of primary immunodeficiency diseases, its use becoming more and more widespread as the knowledge about these illnesses increases. However, the availability of reliable reference values, which need to be age-matched for the pediatric population, is a pre-requisite for the reliable interpretation of immunophenotyping data. Aim of this study is to analyze the lymphocyte subsets and activation markers distribution in children aged 0-18 years referring to the University Hospital of Padova and to create age-matched reference values expressed by percentiles, thus providing a valuable guideline for the interpretation of the immunophenotype. PMID:25132325

  12. Interfractional Uncertainty in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandran, Priya; Minn, A. Yuriko; Van Dam, Jacques; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the interfractional variation in pancreatic tumor position using bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Five consecutively treated patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Stanford University (Stanford, CA) underwent fiducial seed placement and treatment on the Varian Trilogy system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) with respiratory gating. Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging was performed to verify patient positioning, and isocenter shifts were made initially to match bony anatomy. Next, a final shift to the fiducial seeds was made under fluoroscopic guidance to confirm the location of the pancreatic tumor during the respiratory gated phase. All shifts were measured along three axes, left (+)-right (-), anterior (-)-posterior (+), and superior (+)-inferior (-), and the overall interfractional tumor movement was calculated based on these values. Results: A total of 140 fractions were analyzed. The mean absolute shift to fiducial markers after shifting to bony anatomy was 1.6 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-9 mm), 1.8 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-13 mm), and 4.1 mm (95th percentile, 12 mm; range, 0-19 mm) in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The mean interfractional vector shift distance was 5.5 mm (95th percentile, 14.5 mm; range, 0-19.3 mm). In 28 of 140 fractions (20%) no fiducial shift was required after alignment to bony anatomy. Conclusions: There is substantial residual uncertainty after alignment to bony anatomy when radiating pancreatic tumors using respiratory gating. Bony anatomy matched tumor position in only 20% of the radiation treatments. If bony alignment is used in conjunction with respiratory gating without implanted fiducials, treatment margins need to account for this uncertainty.

  13. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  14. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  15. A method to assess the influence of individual player performance distribution on match outcome in team sports.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Ritu; McIntosh, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This study developed a method to determine whether the distribution of individual player performances can be modelled to explain match outcome in team sports, using Australian Rules football as an example. Player-recorded values (converted to a percentage of team total) in 11 commonly reported performance indicators were obtained for all regular season matches played during the 2014 Australian Football League season, with team totals also recorded. Multiple features relating to heuristically determined percentiles for each performance indicator were then extracted for each team and match, along with the outcome (win/loss). A generalised estimating equation model comprising eight key features was developed, explaining match outcome at a median accuracy of 63.9% under 10-fold cross-validation. Lower 75th, 90th and 95th percentile values for team goals and higher 25th and 50th percentile values for disposals were linked with winning. Lower 95th and higher 25th percentile values for Inside 50s and Marks, respectively, were also important contributors. These results provide evidence supporting team strategies which aim to obtain an even spread of goal scorers in Australian Rules football. The method developed in this investigation could be used to quantify the importance of individual contributions to overall team performance in team sports. PMID:26853070

  16. Valuing Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watters, Kate

    2005-01-01

    How well are adult and community learning providers doing when it comes to ensuring equality of opportunity (EO) and valuing diversity? Many are in transition from a defensive position of emphasising legal compliance towards making respect for diversity intrinsic to their strategic aims, plans and actions, according to the February edition of…

  17. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  18. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  19. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  20. SU-E-P-36: Evaluation of MLC Positioning Errors in Dynamic IMRT Treatments by Analyzing Dynalog Files

    SciTech Connect

    Olasolo, J; Pellejero, S; Gracia, M; Gallardo, N; Martin, M; Lozares, S; Maneru, F; Bragado, L; Miquelez, S; Rubio, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of MLC positioning in Varian linear accelerator, in dynamic IMRT technique, from the analysis of dynalog files generated by the MLC controller. Methods: In Clinac accelerators (pre-TrueBeam technology), control system has an approximately 50ms delay (one control cycle time). Then, the system compares the measured position to the planned position corresponding to the next control cycle. As it has been confirmed by Varian technical support, this effect causes that measured positions appear in dynalogs one cycle out of phase with respect to the planned positions. Around 9000 dynalogs have been analyzed, coming from the three linear accelerators of our center (one Trilogy and two Clinac 21EX) equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC. In order to compare our results to recent publications, leaf positioning errors (RMS and 95th percentile) are calculated with and without delay effect. Dynalogs have been analyzed using a in-house Matlab software. Results: The RMS errors were 0.341, 0.339 and 0.348mm for each Linac; being the average error 0.343 mm. The 95th percentiles of the error were 0.617, 0.607 and 0.625; with an average of 0.617mm. A recent multi-institution study carried out by Kerns et al. found a mean leaf RMS error of 0.32mm and a 95th percentile error value of 0.64mm.Without delay effect, mean leaf RMS errors obtained were 0.040, 0.042 and 0.038mm for each treatment machine; being the average 0.040mm. The 95th percentile error values obtained were 0.057, 0.058 and 0.054 mm, with an average of 0.056mm. Conclusion: Results obtained for the mean leaf RMS error and the mean 95th percentile were consistent with the multi-institution study. Calculated error statistics with delay effect are significantly larger due to the speed proportional and systematic leaf offset. Consequently it is proposed to correct this effect in dynalogs analysis to determine the MLC performance.

  1. Factors affecting the estimated probabilistic acute dietary exposure to captan from apple consumption.

    PubMed

    Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szabó, I J; Szeitzné-Szabó, M; Ambrus, A; Vásárhelyi, A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the number of pesticide residue values below the LOQ/LOD of analytical methods, the variability of residues in individual fruits, mass of fruit units and the number of bootstrap iterations was studied on the probabilistically estimated acute exposure of consumers. The 4720 daily apple consumption data and the results of 1239 apple sample analyses for captan residues, performed within the Hungarian monitoring programme between 2005 and 2011, were used in this study as model matrix. Up to about 95th percentile exposure (µg/(kg bw·day)), simply multiplying each residue in composite samples with each consumption value gave similar estimates to those obtained with the complex procedure taking also into account the mass of and residues in individual fruits. However, the exposure above the 95th percentile calculated with the complex procedure gradually increased with increasing percentile level compared to the simple procedure. Including the high number of non-detects reduced the estimated exposure, which was the highest when only the residues measured in treated fruits were taken into account. The number of bootstrap iterations between 100 and 10,000 did not significantly affect the calculated exposure. The 99.99th percentile exposure amounted to 17.9% of the acute reference dose of 300 µg/(kg bw·day) for women of childbearing age. PMID:23742211

  2. Arm Anthropometry Indices in Turkish Children and Adolescents: Changes Over a Three-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Çiçek, Betül; Öztürk, Ahmet; Mazıcıoğlu, Mustafa Mümtaz; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Time-related changes and comparisons for mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF), arm fat area (AFA) are lacking for Turkish children and adolescents. To determine the arm anthropometry indices (MUAC, TSF, AFA) in children and adolescents and to also assess the changes in these indices over a 3-year time period. Methods: The data of the Anthropometry of Turkish Children Aged 0-6 Years (ATCA-06) study and the Second Study of Determination of the Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents (DAMTCA-II) were used to calculate the arm anthropometry percentiles in a total group of 6982 children and adolescents aged 28 days to 17 years. The 3rd-97th percentiles were computed by the LMS method. Results: In girls, 50th percentile MUAC values linearly increased with age. In boys, 50th percentile TSF values linearly increased until 10 years of age and decreased after age 11 years, while in girls, TSF values increased linearly with age. 50th percentile values for AFA showed a linear increase in both genders with age. Significant differences were found between the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile values for MUAC and AFA obtained in the two studies (DAMTCA-II and DAMTCA-I) in both boys and girls. Conclusions: The prominent finding was the significant and alarming increase in arm anthropometry indices in both genders within as short period of time as three years. PMID:25541892

  3. Assessment of Local Dose Reference Values for Recanalization of Chronic Total Occlusions and Other Occlusions in a High-Volume Catheterization Center.

    PubMed

    Maccia, Carlo; Malchair, Françoise; Gobert, Isabelle; Louvard, Yves; Lefevre, Thierry

    2015-10-15

    The increasing number and complexity of these procedures have led to a higher number of patients at risk for tissue reactions like skin injuries. Monitoring of their dose indicators is essential in recognizing these patients. The aim of this work was to determine local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) for recanalization of chronic total occlusion (CTO) and other occlusions procedures. All data from patients who underwent cardiac procedures were reviewed and classified according to their complexity. Dose indicators such as fluoroscopy time (FT), dose area product (DAP), and air kerma at patient entrance reference point (AKr) were recorded. Correlations with patient's body mass index, operators, procedure strategy, and complexity were studied. For CTO, the mean DAP, AKr, and FT were 252 ± 234 Gycm(2), 3,985 ± 3,579 mGy, and 47 ± 36 minutes, respectively. To better reflect the non-Gaussian distribution of data, the median and the 75th percentile values were also reported: median DAP, 172 Gycm(2); 75th percentile DAP, 350 Gycm(2); median AKr, 2,714 mGy; and 75th percentile AKr, 5,921 mGy. A tentative new set of values were suggested to take into account the complexity difference in recanalization of total occlusions according to their antegrade or retrograde approach. These approach-specific DRLs for total occlusions were mean DAP (120 ± 114 Gycm(2)), mean AKr (1,789 ± 1,933 mGy), and mean FT (22 ± 18 minutes) for antegrade approach and mean DAP (459 ± 304 Gycm(2)), mean AKr (6,881 ± 4,243 mGy), and mean FT (82 ± 40 minutes) for retrograde approach. The other significant values were median DAP (84 Gycm(2)), 75th percentile DAP (147 Gycm(2)), median AKr (1,160 mGy), and 75th percentile AKr (2,176 mGy) for antegrade approach and median DAP (422 Gycm(2)), 75th percentile DAP (552 Gycm(2)), median AKr (6,295 mGy), and 75th percentile AKr (8,064 mGy) for retrograde approach. In conclusion, a set of local DRL values from a large center were assessed

  4. C-reactive protein and its relation to high blood pressure in overweight or obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Juliana Andreia F.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.; Cardoso, Anajás da Silva; Gonzaga, Nathalia Costa; Ramos, Alessandra Teixeira; Ramos, André Luiz C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and high blood pressure (BP) in overweight or obese children and adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 184 overweight or obese children and adolescents aged from two to 18 years old, from April, 2009 to April, 2010. The classification of nutritional status used the body mass index (BMI). Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve, individuals were classified as: overweight (BMI between the 85th-95th percentiles), obesity (BMI between 95th-97th percentiles) and severe obesity (BMI >97th percentile). Abnormal values were considered for systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic (DBP) if ≥90th percentile of the BP curve recommended for children and adolescents in the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension, for waist circumference (WC) if ≥90th percentile of the curve established by the National Cholesterol Education Program, and for high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) if >3mg/dL. To evaluate the association of inadequate values of CRP and the studied groups, chi-square test and analysis of variance were applied, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the evaluated sample, 66.3% were female, 63.5%, non-white, 64.1% had severe obesity, 78.3% had altered WC and 70.6% presented high BP. There was a significant association of CRP high levels with altered WC and BMI ≥97th percentile. In adolescents, high CRP was related to high SBP. CRP mean values were higher in individuals with elevated SBP. CONCLUSIONS Inadequate values of hs-CRP were associated with severe obesity and high SBP in the studied population. These markers can be used to identify children and adolescents at higher risk for developing atherosclerosis. PMID:24142315

  5. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  6. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  7. Estimation of dietary exposure to acrylamide of Polish teenagers from an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Wyka, Joanna; Tajner-Czopek, Agnieszka; Broniecka, Anna; Piotrowska, Ewa; Bronkowska, Monika; Biernat, Jadwiga

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the dietary exposure to acrylamide (AA) in a group of teenagers (n = 261) from an urban environment. The intake of AA from food was estimated based on a 7-day food record diary (consecutive days). The food rations obtained (n = 1827) were used to calculate the amounts of the consumed food products, which were the main sources of AA. In the case of girls, the estimated dietary intake of AA per kg body weight (BW) amounted to 0.09 µg/kg BW/day (50th percentile), 0.32 µg/kg BW/day (75th percentile) and 1.04 µg/kg BW/day (95th percentile), and among boys it was 0.13, 0.41, and 1.18 µg/kg BW/day, respectively. The main sources of AA exposure were French fries, potato crisps, corn flakes, bread and salty sticks. The lowest values for margin of exposure (MOE) were calculated for the P95th percentiles of exposure, and ranged from 152 to 173. PMID:25445510

  8. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  9. Compendium of Materials on Zero-Base Budgeting in the States. 95th Congress; 1st Session. Committee Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S. , Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Government Operations.

    This is a collection of 16 articles on zero-based budgeting (ZBB), dealing primarily with the practice as it occurs in the states. Included is a lengthy report on ZBB practices in the states based on a survey conducted by the National Association of State Budget Officers and the Congressional Research Service. (IRT)

  10. The turnaround value of values.

    PubMed

    Thorbeck, J

    1991-01-01

    John Thorbeck is an executive with a ten-year career history of successes--and a sense of repeated failure. Just out of business school, he was marketing director at the Aspen Skiing Company for three years and helped to reverse thirteen seasons of decline. At the Timberland shoe company in the mid-1980s, he led a marketing strategy that tripled sales. At the Bass shoe company, where he was CEO from 1987 to 1990, he took the company from big losses to big profits. Now he is president, CEO, and part owner of a third shoe company--Geo. E. Keith--that is surely the oldest, perhaps the smallest, and arguably the finest shoemaker in the United States. But the high points of Thorbeck's résumé conceal a leadership education that led him only slowly to abandon confrontational management in favor of management by history, values, competence, and what he calls organizational coherence. In his first two marketing jobs, he fought wars with his opponents and won. Then at Bass, he tried to recapture the company's proud past. He revived company folklore and history, gave workers back their pride in workmanship, and used this rejuvenated company spirit to meet and win new markets. Yet he was trying to take Bass someplace its owners simply wouldn't let it go, and he left the company profitable but divided, the work force eager to go one way, owenership another. In each of his jobs, Thorbeck overlooked some vital part of the organizational community.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:10109472

  11. [Changes in heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Value of Poincareé's diagram].

    PubMed

    Copie, X; Le Heuzey, J Y; Iliou, M C; Pousset, F; Lavergne, T; Guize, L

    1995-11-01

    The variability of the heart rate is reduced after myocardial infarction. It then progressively increases, to return to near normal values after several months. However, these changes in heart rate variability occur at the same time as slowing of the heart rate which makes interpretation difficult. Poincaré's diagram is constructed from a Holter recording plotting each RR interval against the preceding RR interval. The authors have developed a geometric approach to this diagram to evaluate parasympathetic tone for a given heart rate. By measuring the dispersion in height of the Poincaré's diagram, the authors evaluate the shor-term variability for a given RR interval. Two 24 hr Holter recordings were performed in 52 patients at one and two weeks after a myocardial infarction. The dispersion in the height of the Poincaré's diagrams was measured at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the total dispersion. The authors have shown an increase in the short-term variability of the shortest RR intervals (1th, 25th and 50th percentiles) which is not observed in the longer RR intervals (75th and 90th percentiles). In conclusion, theres is an increase in the heart rate variability at the shortest RR intervals. This suggests that the recovery of parasympathic tone after myocardial infarction occurs mainly at the fastest heart rates. PMID:8745997

  12. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  13. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  14. The effects of fructose-containing sugars on weight, body composition and cardiometabolic risk factors when consumed at up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose.

    PubMed

    Lowndes, Joshua; Sinnett, Stephanie; Yu, Zhiping; Rippe, James

    2014-08-01

    The American Heart Association (AHA) and World Health Organization (WHO) have recommended restricting calories from added sugars at lower levels than the Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations, which are incorporated in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 (DGAs 2010). Sucrose (SUC) and high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) have been singled out for particular concern, because of their fructose content, which has been specifically implicated for its atherogenic potential and possible role in elevating blood pressure through uric acid-mediated endothelial dysfunction. This study explored the effects when these sugars are consumed at typical population levels up to the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose. Three hundred fifty five overweight or obese individuals aged 20-60 years old were placed on a eucaloric diet for 10 weeks, which incorporated SUC- or HFCS-sweetened, low-fat milk at 8%, 18% or 30% of calories. There was a slight change in body weight in the entire cohort (169.1 ± 30.6 vs. 171.6 ± 31.8 lbs, p < 0.01), a decrease in HDL (52.9 ± 12.2 vs. 52.0 ± 13.9 mg/dL, p < 0.05) and an increase in triglycerides (104.1 ± 51.8 vs. 114.1 ± 64.7 mg/dL, p < 0.001). However, total cholesterol (183.5 ± 42.8 vs. 184.4 mg/dL, p > 0.05), LDL (110.3 ± 32.0 vs. 110.5 ± 38.9 mg/dL, p > 0.05), SBP (109.4 ± 10.9 vs. 108.3 ± 10.9 mmHg, p > 0.05) and DBP (72.1 ± 8.0 vs. 71.3 ± 8.0 mmHg, p > 0.05) were all unchanged. In no instance did the amount or type of sugar consumed affect the response to the intervention (interaction p > 0.05). These data suggest that: (1) when consumed as part of a normal diet, common fructose-containing sugars do not raise blood pressure, even when consumed at the 90th percentile population consumption level for fructose (five times the upper level recommended by the AHA and three times the upper level recommended by WHO); (2) changes in the lipid profile are mixed, but modest. PMID:25111121

  15. Value Personalisation: A Base for Value Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Lydia

    This study examined the impact of the Value Clarification Action Plan on the quality of values education for secondary school students. The study identified values to be modeled through teacher behavior, created an action plan for preservice teachers through the values clarification process, trained students in values personalization, helped…

  16. Reference value of semen quality in Chinese young men.

    PubMed

    Junqing, Wu; Qiuying, Yang; Jianguo, Tao; Wei, Yuan; Liwei, Bo; Yuxian, Li; Yumei, Zhou; Kangshou, Yao; Weiqun, Lu; Lu, Chen; Ersheng, Gao

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate semen quality in young Chinese men and to establish reference values. Normal healthy young men from seven geographical areas were enrolled. The study showed that the mean sperm volume was 2.61 mL, and mean percent of sperm with forward progression was 59.89, while median of semen viability was 79.0%, and geometric mean of semen density was 55.45 x 10(6)/mL. Proportion of routine semen indexes that met World Health Organization (WHO) criteria were as follows: 81.9% for semen volume, 91.1% for liquefaction time, 93.4% for viscosity, 90.8% for pH, 81.3% for sperm with forward progression, 65.3% for sperm viability, 93.8% for semen density, 98.8% for normal sperm morphology, and 89.1% for total sperm count. Participants whose sperm met all WHO standard parameters accounted for 42.3%. Because the infertility rate in China is about 10-15%, the fifteenth percentile of semen parameters might be used as the lower limit of reference values, which may be more appropriate for young Chinese men. The fifteenth percentiles of parameters in this study were as follows: 1.5 mL for semen volume, 7.2 for pH value, 45% for proportion of sperm with forward progression, 68% for sperm viability, 30 x 10(6)/mL for semen density, 68% for proportion of sperm with normal morphology, and 50 x 10(6) for total sperm count. PMID:12057790

  17. Characterization of personal RF electromagnetic field exposure and actual absorption for the general public.

    PubMed

    Joseph, W; Vermeeren, G; Verloock, L; Heredia, Mauricio Masache; Martens, Luc

    2008-09-01

    In this paper, personal electromagnetic field exposure of the general public due to 12 different radiofrequency sources is characterized. Twenty-eight different realistic exposure scenarios based upon time, environment, activity, and location have been defined and a relevant number of measurements were performed with a personal exposure meter. Indoor exposure in office environments can be higher than outdoor exposure: 95th percentiles of field values due to WiFi ranged from 0.36 to 0.58 V m(-1), and for DECT values of 0.33 V m(-1) were measured. The downlink signals of GSM and DCS caused the highest outdoor exposures up to 0.52 V m(-1). The highest total field exposure occurred for mobile scenarios (inside a train or bus) from uplink signals of GSM and DCS (e.g., mobile phones) due to changing environmental conditions, handovers, and higher required transmitted signals from mobile phones due to penetration through windows while moving. A method to relate the exposure to the actual whole-body absorption in the human body is proposed. An application is shown where the actual absorption in a human body model due to a GSM downlink signal is determined. Fiftieth, 95th, and 99 th percentiles of the whole-body specific absorption rate (SAR) due to this GSM signal of 0.58 microW kg(-1), 2.08 microW kg(-1), and 5.01 microW kg(-1) are obtained for a 95th percentile of 0.26 V m(-1). A practical usable function is proposed for the relation between the whole-body SAR and the electric fields. The methodology of this paper enables epidemiological studies to make an analysis in combination with both electric field and actual whole-body SAR values and to compare exposure with basic restrictions. PMID:18695413

  18. Characteristics of nonylphenol and bisphenol A accumulation by fish and implications for ecological and human health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Jiang, Ling-Ying; Kuo, Yi-Ling; Chen, Chung-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Yi; Hung, Chung-Feng; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Fish populations constitute an important part of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, their accumulation of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) may pose risks to ecosystems and human health. This study analyzed the concentrations of NP and BPA in four types of fishes (i.e., wild/farmed freshwater fishes and wild/farmed marine fishes). Wild freshwater fishes contained higher concentrations of NP and BPA than the other three types of fishes. The concentrations of NP in the wild freshwater fishes ranged from 1.01 to 277 μg/kg ww, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranging from 74.0 to 2.60 × 10(4)L/kg and from 0.003 to 18.3, respectively. The wild freshwater fishes contained relatively low amounts of BPA, varying from ND to 25.2 μg/kg ww, with the BCFs and BSAFs ranging from 1.00 to 274L/kg and from 0.003 to 3.40, respectively. Five fish species particularly showed high BCFs and BSAFs, indicating that they could be an important source of NP for higher trophic levels, most likely resulting in ecological risks. The demersal fishes showed a greater ability to accumulate NP than the pelagic ones. The fact that the 95th percentile values of the risk quotient (RQ) for NP and BPA were higher than the acceptable threshold indicated that these two compounds would have adverse effects on aquatic organisms in Taiwanese rivers. The consumption of wild marine fishes had the highest 95th percentile values of hazard quotient (HQ) for NP and BPA among the four types of fishes, particularly for the population aged 0-3 years. However, the 95th percentile values of HQ for NP and BPA were all less than 1, suggesting that exposure to NP and BPA through fish consumption posed no remarkable risk to human health in Taiwan. PMID:25268571

  19. Early life cognitive abilities and body weight: cross-sectional study of the association of inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, and sustained attention with BMI percentiles in primary school children.

    PubMed

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  20. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  1. Utilities and Limitations of the World Health Organization 2009 Warning Signs for Adult Dengue Severity

    PubMed Central

    Lye, David C.; Yung, Chee-Fu; Leo, Yee-Sin

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2009, the World Health Organization (WHO) proposed seven warning signs (WS) as criteria for hospitalization and predictors of severe dengue (SD). We assessed their performance for predicting dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and SD in adult dengue. Method DHF, WS and SD were defined according to the WHO 1997 and 2009 dengue guidelines. We analyzed the prevalence, sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of WS before DHF and SD onset. Results Of 1507 cases, median age was 35 years (5th–95th percentile, 17–60), illness duration on admission 4 days (5th–95th percentile, 2–6) and length of hospitalization 5 days (5th–95th percentile, 3–7). DHF occurred in 298 (19.5%) and SD in 248 (16.5%). Of these, WS occurred before DHF in 124 and SD in 65 at median of two days before DHF or SD. Three commonest warning signs were lethargy, abdominal pain/tenderness and mucosal bleeding. No single WS alone or combined had Sn >64% in predicting severe disease. Specificity was >90% for both DHF and SD with persistent vomiting, hepatomegaly, hematocrit rise and rapid platelet drop, clinical fluid accumulation, and any 3 or 4 WS. Any one of seven WS had 96% Sn but only 18% Sp for SD. Conclusions No WS was highly sensitive in predicting subsequent DHF or SD in our confirmed adult dengue cohort. Persistent vomiting, hepatomegaly, hematocrit rise and rapid platelet drop, and clinical fluid accumulation, as well as any 3 or 4 WS were highly specific for DHF or SD. PMID:23350013

  2. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    A growing number of school districts are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. Districts using value-added data are encouraged by the results. But researchers who support value-added measures advise caution. The ratings, which use a statistical…

  3. Values for Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haydon, Graham

    2007-01-01

    What are values? Where do our values come from? How do our values make a difference in education? For educational leaders to achieve distinction in their practice, it is vital to establish clear personal values rather than reacting to the implicit values of others. This engaging book guides readers in considering the values they bring to their…

  4. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  5. Extreme values in the Chinese and American stock markets based on detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhang, Minjia

    2015-10-01

    This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of extreme values in the Chinese and American stock markets based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) algorithm using the daily data of Shanghai composite index and Dow Jones Industrial Average. The empirical results indicate that the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method is more objective than the traditional percentile method. The range of extreme value of Dow Jones Industrial Average is smaller than that of Shanghai composite index, and the extreme value of Dow Jones Industrial Average is more time clustering. The extreme value of the Chinese or American stock markets is concentrated in 2008, which is consistent with the financial crisis in 2008. Moreover, we investigate whether extreme events affect the cross-correlation between the Chinese and American stock markets using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis algorithm. The results show that extreme events have nothing to do with the cross-correlation between the Chinese and American stock markets.

  6. Population Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole in Subjects with Mild or Moderate Hepatic Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne-Hortense; Mujais, Salim; Townsend, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Isavuconazole, administered as the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using NONMEM (version 7.2) for subjects with hepatic impairment, using intravenous and oral administration data from two hepatic studies, and to simulate concentration profiles to steady state, thus evaluating the need for dose adjustment. A two-compartment model with Weibull absorption function and first-order elimination process adequately described plasma isavuconazole concentrations. The population mean clearance in healthy subjects was 2.5 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 2.0 and 3.1). The mean clearance values for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment decreased approximately to 1.55 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.3 and 1.8 liters/h) and 1.32 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.05 and 1.35), respectively. Peripheral volume of distribution increased with body mass index. Simulations of mean concentration time profiles to steady state showed less than a 2-fold increase in mean trough concentrations for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. After administration of the single dose, safety data for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were generally comparable to those for healthy subjects in both studies. Due to the <2-fold increase in trough concentrations and the established safety margin, dose adjustment appears to be unnecessary in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26953193

  7. Body composition and overweight prevalence in 1704 schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities123

    PubMed Central

    Caballero, Benjamin; Himes, John H; Lohman, Timothy; Davis, Sally M; Stevens, June; Evans, Marguerite; Going, Scott

    2016-01-01

    Background Nationwide data on obesity prevalence in American Indian communities are limited. Objective We describe the body composition and anthropometric characteristics of schoolchildren from 7 American Indian communities enrolled in the Pathways study, a randomized field trial evaluating a program for the primary prevention of obesity. Design A total of 1704 children in 41 schools were enrolled in the study. Basic anthropometric measurements included weight, height, and triceps and subscapular skinfold thicknesses. Percentage body fat was estimated from bioelectrical impedance and anthropometric variables with the use of an equation developed and validated for this population. Results The children's mean (± SD) age was 7.6 ± 0.6 y, and their mean weight and height were 32.1 ± 8.9 kg and 129.8 ± 6.3 cm, respectively. Mean body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) was 18.8 ± 3.9, and mean percentage body fat was 32.6 ± 6.8%. With the use of current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference values, 30.5% of girls and 26.8% of boys were above the 95th percentiles for BMI-for-age, and 21% of girls and 19.6% of boys were between the 85th and 95th percentiles. Although there was a wide range in BMI across study sites and for both sexes, the percentage of children with a BMI above the 95th percentile was consistently higher than the national averages in all communities studied and in both girls and boys. Conclusions Overweight can be documented in a substantial number of American Indian children by the time they reach elementary school. Despite differences in the prevalence of overweight observed among communities, rates are uniformly high relative to national all-race averages. PMID:12885714

  8. Modified STOP-Bang Tool for Stratifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk in Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088

  9. Population Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole in Subjects with Mild or Moderate Hepatic Impairment.

    PubMed

    Desai, Amit; Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne-Hortense; Mujais, Salim; Townsend, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Isavuconazole, administered as the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using NONMEM (version 7.2) for subjects with hepatic impairment, using intravenous and oral administration data from two hepatic studies, and to simulate concentration profiles to steady state, thus evaluating the need for dose adjustment. A two-compartment model with Weibull absorption function and first-order elimination process adequately described plasma isavuconazole concentrations. The population mean clearance in healthy subjects was 2.5 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 2.0 and 3.1). The mean clearance values for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment decreased approximately to 1.55 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.3 and 1.8 liters/h) and 1.32 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.05 and 1.35), respectively. Peripheral volume of distribution increased with body mass index. Simulations of mean concentration time profiles to steady state showed less than a 2-fold increase in mean trough concentrations for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. After administration of the single dose, safety data for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were generally comparable to those for healthy subjects in both studies. Due to the <2-fold increase in trough concentrations and the established safety margin, dose adjustment appears to be unnecessary in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26953193

  10. Occurrence of chlorinated and brominated dioxins/furans, PCBs, and brominated flame retardants in blood of German adults.

    PubMed

    Fromme, Hermann; Hilger, Bettina; Albrecht, Michael; Gries, Wolfgang; Leng, Gabriele; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2016-07-01

    Persistent organic pollutants are widespread in the environment, and are associated with a particular health and ecological concern. The human body burden of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenylether (PBDEs), and hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was determined. Blood samples were collected in Germany, originating from 42 randomly selected subjects between 20 and 68 years old. The median (95th percentile) concentrations, expressed as WHO2005-TEQ for PCDD/PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, were 6.2 (19.1) pg/g l.w. and 4.1 (8.8) pg/g l.w., respectively. PBDDs/Fs were found with a median of 2.8 pgTEQ/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 8.7 pgTEQ/g l.w. (using similar interim TEF values as for PCDDs/Fs) On a median basis, the contribution of PCDD/Fs, dioxin-like PCBs, and PBDDs/Fs to total TEQ were 47%, 31%, and 21%, respectively. The sum of the 6 non-dioxin-like PCBs exhibited a median of 267ng/g l.w. and a 95th percentile of 834ng/g l.w. The median value for the sum of six tetra- to hepta-PBDE congeners was 1.7ng/g l.w. (95th percentile: 4.9ng/g l.w.). BDE 209 was the most abundant congener with a median of 1.8ng/g l.w. HBCDs were only found in some samples, and concentrations ranged between the limit of detection (5ng/g l.w.) and the limit of quantification (16ng/g l.w.). Results for PBDEs and HBCDs are comparable to other European studies. Our study demonstrated that the body burden of PCDD/Fs and PCBs declined continously since the last three decades, but exposure may exceed precautionary guideline levels. PMID:27067547

  11. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  12. Healthy Eating in Out-of-School Time: The Promise and the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; Hall, Georgia; Gannett, Ellen; Roth, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 percent of American children are either overweight or obese, with a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or above. Although prevalence varies by age, sex, and ethnicity, all groups are affected. Risk of serious health problems increases with increasing BMI. Childhood obesity, characterized by BMI in the 95th percentile or…

  13. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  14. Estimate of Illnesses from Salmonella Enteritidis in Eggs, United States, 2000

    PubMed Central

    Naugle, Alecia Larew; Schlosser, Wayne D.; Hogue, Allan T.; Angulo, Frederick J.; Rose, Jonathon S.; Ebel, Eric D.; Disney, W. Terry; Holt, Kristin G.; Goldman, David P.

    2005-01-01

    Results from our model suggest that eating Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis–contaminated shell eggs caused 182,060 illnesses in the United States during 2000. Uncertainty about the estimate ranged from 81,535 (5th percentile) to 276,500 illnesses (95th percentile). Our model provides 1 approach for estimating foodborne illness and quantifying estimate uncertainty. PMID:15705332

  15. Predicting arsenic relative bioavailability in contaminated soils using meta analysis and relative bioavailability-bioaccessibility regression models.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Albert L; Weber, John; Smith, Euan

    2011-12-15

    A number of in vitro assays are available for the determination of arsenic (As) bioaccessibility and prediction of As relative bioavailability (RBA) to quantify exposure for site-specific risk assessment. These data are usually considered in isolation; however, meta analysis may provide predictive capabilities for source-specific As bioaccessibility and RBA. The objectives of this study were to predict As RBA using previously published in vivo/in vitro correlations and to assess the influence of As sources on As RBA independent of geographical location. Data representing 351 soils (classified based on As source) and 514 independent bioaccessibility values were retrieved from the literature for comparison. Arsenic RBA was predicted using published in vivo/in vitro regression models, and 90th and 95th percentiles were determined for each As source classification and in vitro methodology. Differences in predicted mean As RBA were observed among soils contaminated from different As sources and within source materials when various in vitro methodologies were utilized. However, when in vitro data were standardized by transforming SBRC intestinal, IVG, and PBET data to SBRC gastric phase values (through linear regression models), predicted As RBA values for As sources followed the order CCA posts ≥ herbicide/pesticide > mining/smelting > gossan soils with 95th percentiles for predicted As RBA of 78.0, 78.4, 67.0, and 23.7%, respectively. PMID:22059522

  16. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  17. Values as Defenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultman, Kenneth E.

    1976-01-01

    The author outlines a cognitive approach for explaining how and why people use values as defenses. He examines the relationship between defensive values and irrational beliefs, suggests a number of criteria for diagnosing the presence of defensive values, and proposes some strategies for dealing with defensive values in counseling. (Author)

  18. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  19. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  20. [Reference values of urinary mercury in the Italian population].

    PubMed

    Soleo, L; Elia, G; Russo, A; Schiavulli, N; Lasorsa, G; Mangili, A; Gilberti, E; Ronchi, A; Balducci, C; Minoia, C; Aprea, C; Sciarra, G F; Valente, T; Fenga, C

    2003-01-01

    This paper shows the results of a polycentric study performed to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in Italian population. 374 subjects from four Italian cities (Bari, Brescia, Genova e Siena) have been examined. A questionnaire on life style, dietary habits, occupational or environmental exposure to Hg and clinical history has been administered to every participant and number and surface of dental amalgams have been verified for all subjects. The determination of U-Hg has been performed on urinary extemporary samples by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS); urinary creatinine has been determinated to reduce the intraindividual variability. U-Hg reference values were: 0.21-3.20 micrograms/g creat (5 degrees and 95 degrees percentile) and 0.12-6.04 micrograms/g creat (range). Moreover study results have shown that number and surface of dental amalgams, dietary fish intake and body mass index (BMI) influenced significatively U-Hg excretion. U-Hg reference values from this polycentric study resulted comparable to those assessed in other European countries, whereas the mean U-Hg observed in the referent Italian population was lower. PMID:12696492

  1. Physical fitness normative values for 6-18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method.

    PubMed

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Psarra, Glykeria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Kavouras, Stavros A; Geladas, Nickos; Tokmakidis, Savas; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the this study was to establish age- and gender-specific physical fitness normative values and to compare percentiles and Z scores values in a large, nationwide sample of Greek children aged 6-18 years. From March 2014 to May 2014, a total of 424,328 boys and girls aged 6-18 years who attended school in Greece were enrolled. The studied sample was representative, in terms of age-sex distribution and geographical region. Physical fitness tests (i.e. 20 m shuttle run test (SRT), standing long jump, sit and reach, sit-ups, and 10 × 5 m SRT) were performed and used to calculate normative values, using the percentiles of the empirical distributions and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method. Normative values were presented as tabulated percentiles for five health-related fitness tests based on a large data set comprising 424,328 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and speed/agility, but lower on flexibility (all p values <0.001). Older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones (p < 0.001). Physical fitness tests' performances tended to peak at around the age of 15 years in both sexes. The presented population-based data are the most up-to-date sex- and age-values for the health-related fitness of children and adolescents in Greece and can be used as standard values for fitness screening and surveillance systems and for comparisons among the same health-related fitness scores of children from other countries similar to Greece. Schools need to make efforts to improve the fitness level of the schoolchildren through the physical education curriculum to prevent cardiovascular risk. PMID:26402318

  2. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese. PMID:23242940

  3. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  4. Education, Values, and Valuing in Cosmopolitan Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, David T.; Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie; Cammarano, Cristina; Obelleiro, Gonzalo

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe a cosmopolitan orientation toward the place of values in human life. We argue that a cosmopolitan outlook can assist people in engaging the challenges of being thrown together with others whose roots, traditions, and inheritances differ. We show that cosmopolitanism implies neither an elite nor an aloof posture toward…

  5. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  6. What's the Value in Value-Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffrin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    As the profession of teaching continues to get more attention given recent events, a growing number of school districts from New York to California are adopting "value-added" measures of teaching quality to award bonuses or even tenure. And two competitive federal grants are spurring them on. The Teacher Incentive Fund has awarded 95 grants since…

  7. A Search for Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abruscato, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    Explains the place the values of truth, freedom, skepticism and dissent, originality, order, and communication play in science, and states implications of these values for science curricula and instructional practices. (AL)

  8. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  9. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  10. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  11. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  12. Values Clarification in EFL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Mary S.

    1976-01-01

    This paper briefly outlines the theory and development of Values Clarification and explores its possible applications to English as a foreign language (EFL). The five basic types of Values Clarification exercises are discussed: (1) interviewing, (2) rank-ordering, (3) forced choice, (4) values continuum, and (5) sentence completion. The theory and…

  13. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  14. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  15. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  16. Value, a nursing outcome.

    PubMed

    Pappas, Sharon H

    2013-01-01

    This era of health care reform calls for the ability of hospitals to provide quality patient care while managing costs. Nursing practice is a key determinant of patient care quality and associated costs, or simply put, creating value. The value of nursing has been addressed by multiple qualified authors, yet there is no clear, consistent meaning of the term. Researchers and authors have developed some theoretical foundation for the concept of value, which evolved into important research questions that establish value as an important outcome that is sensitive to nursing practice. The opportunity to attend 2 sessions at the Harvard Business School on health care value has prompted the need for nursing to adapt to common thinking on health care value and establish its meaning for the nursing profession. This report summarizes the nursing literature on value, reflects on the executive education, and proposes direction for nursing leaders in education and practice. PMID:23454991

  17. Assessment of reference values for mercury in urine: the results of an Italian polycentric study.

    PubMed

    Apostoli, P; Cortesi, I; Mangili, A; Elia, G; Drago, I; Gagliardi, T; Soleo, L; Valente, T; Sciarra, G F; Aprea, C; Ronchi, A; Minoia, C

    2002-04-22

    The results of a polycentric study to assess the reference values of urinary mercury (U-Hg) in four Italian cities are presented. A total of 383 subjects were selected on the basis of standardised criteria by a questionnaire on personal habits, lifestyle, occupational or non-occupational exposure to Hg, medical history, number and area of dental amalgams. U-Hg was determined by hydride generation atomic absorption method (HG-AAS), with a detection limit of 0.5 microg/l and by flow injection (FI) inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), with a detection limit of 0.03 microg/l. The median value of U-Hg, determined by HG-AAS, was 0.78 microg/g creatinine (0.75 for males and 0.83 for females), with 5 degrees and 95 degrees percentiles, respectively, of 0.17 and 3.66 microg/g creatinine. When determined by FI ICP-MS, the median value was 0.79 microg/g creatinine (0.77 for males and 0.79 for females) with 5 degrees and 95 degrees percentiles of, respectively, 0.12 and 5.02 microg/g creatinine. Among the independent variables, city of origin, area of dental amalgams, fish intake and tobacco smoking significantly influenced the U-Hg levels. The U-Hg reference values from this survey are lower than those from other recent investigations, probably due to characteristics and selection of the examined individuals and to the strict control of pre-analytical and analytical factors of variability. PMID:12049389

  18. Performance of Eleven Simplified Methods for the Identification of Elevated Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ma, Chuanwei; Kelishadi, Roya; Hong, Young Mi; Bovet, Pascal; Khadilkar, Anuradha; Nawarycz, Tadeusz; Krzywińska-Wiewiorowska, Małgorzata; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Zong, Xin'nan; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Kim, Hae Soon; Khadilkar, Vaman; Krzyżaniak, Alicja; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Heshmat, Ramin; Chiplonkar, Shashi; Stawińska-Witoszyńska, Barbara; El Ati, Jalila; Qorbani, Mostafa; Kajale, Neha; Traissac, Pierre; Ostrowska-Nawarycz, Lidia; Ardalan, Gelayol; Parthasarathy, Lavanya; Zhao, Min; Xi, Bo

    2016-09-01

    The identification of elevated blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents relies on complex percentile tables. The present study compares the performance of 11 simplified methods for assessing elevated or high BP in children and adolescents using individual-level data from 7 countries. Data on BP were available for a total of 58 899 children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years from 7 national surveys in China, India, Iran, Korea, Poland, Tunisia, and the United States. Performance of the simplified methods for screening elevated or high BP was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve (area under the curve), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. When pooling individual data from the 7 countries, all 11 simplified methods performed well in screening high BP, with high area under the curve values (0.84-0.98), high sensitivity (0.69-1.00), high specificity (0.87-1.00), and high negative predictive values (≥0.98). However, positive predictive value was low for most simplified methods, but reached ≈0.90 for each of the 3 methods, including sex- and age-specific BP references (at the 95th percentile of height), the formula for BP references (at the 95th percentile of height), and the simplified method relying on a child's absolute height. These findings were found independently of sex, age, and geographical location. Similar results were found for simplified methods for screening elevated BP. In conclusion, all 11 simplified methods performed well for identifying high or elevated BP in children and adolescents, but 3 methods performed best and may be most useful for screening purposes. PMID:27432869

  19. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  20. ABPM vs office blood pressure to define blood pressure control in treated hypertensive paediatric renal transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, Jorge R; Ghezzi, Lidia; Waisman, Gabriel; Krmar, Rafael T

    2007-02-01

    While 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is an established tool for monitoring antihypertensive therapy in adults, data in children are scarce. We retrospectively analysed whether office blood pressure (BP) is reliable for the diagnosis of BP control in 26 treated hypertensive paediatric renal transplants. Controlled office BP was defined as the mean of three replicate systolic and diastolic BP recordings less than or equal to the 95th age-, sex- and height-matched percentile on the three-outpatient visits closest to ABPM. Controlled ABPM was defined as systolic and diastolic daytime BP < or =95th distribution adjusted height- and sex-related percentile of the adapted ABPM reference. Eight recipients (30%) with controlled office BP were in fact categorized as having non-controlled BP by ABPM criteria. Overall, when office BP and ABPM were compared using the Bland and Altman method, the 95% limits of agreement between office and daytime values ranged from -12.6 to 34.1 mmHg for systolic and -23.9 to 31.7 mmHg for diastolic BP, and the mean difference was 10.7 and 3.9 mmHg respectively. Office readings miss a substantial number of recipients who are hypertensive by ABPM criteria. Undertreatment of hypertension could be avoided if ABPM is applied as an adjunct to office readings. PMID:17239120

  1. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  2. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed. PMID:27055306

  3. Teaching Values through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghammer, Gretta

    One dramatic technique to aid students in their discovery of values and value systems is "theatre-in-education" (TIE), a theatre event that takes place in schools, with actors working through roles for and with children. TIE aims to fuse education and theatre by having team members function as both teachers and actors, and the audiences of young…

  4. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  5. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  6. Weak Value Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Shikano, Yutaka

    2011-03-28

    I show that the weak value theory is useful from the viewpoints of the experimentally verifiability, consistency, capacity for explanation as to many quantum paradoxes, and practical advantages. As an example, the initial state in the Hardy paradox can be experimentally verified using the weak value via the weak measurement.

  7. The Values Manifesto Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euvrard, George

    2006-01-01

    South Africa and Namibia, two countries building young democracies, face the task of transforming their public education systems to support the values articulated in their new constitutions. This article describes a project designed to incorporate these values into schools. A group of 50 Namibian teachers, who were enrolled in the author's…

  8. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  9. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  10. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  11. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  12. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  13. Selected Papers on Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackmon, C. Robert, Ed.

    This document contains papers and reports read at the August 1968, meeting of the Continuing Interest Group on Values, a subgroup of the National Conference of Professors of Educational Administration, held at the State University of New York at Albany. Included are three papers by C. Robert Blackmon; the first considers values as education's most…

  14. Values Clarification Through Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strugala, Richard A.

    1982-01-01

    An approach to using values clarification exercises in a college freshman composition or a high school English class is presented in this brief article. AUTHOR'S COMMENT (excerpt): Since the integration of writing and thinking is vital in the development of writing abilities, the values clarification experience is a natural bridge for students to…

  15. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  16. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  17. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  18. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  19. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  20. Natural background levels and threshold values for groundwater in fluvial Pleistocene and Tertiary marine aquifers in Flanders, Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coetsiers, Marleen; Blaser, Petra; Martens, Kristine; Walraevens, Kristine

    2009-05-01

    Aquifers from the same typology can have strongly different groundwater chemistry. Deducing the groundwater quality of less well-characterized aquifers from well-documented aquifers belonging to the same typology should be done with great reserve, and can only be considered as a preliminary approach. In the EU’s 6th FP BRIDGE project “Background cRiteria for the IDentification of Groundwater thrEsholds”, a methodology for the derivation of threshold values (TV) for groundwater bodies is proposed. This methodology is tested on four aquifers in Flanders of the sand and gravel typology. The methodology works well for all but the Ledo-Paniselian aquifer, where the subdivision into a fresh and saline part is disproved, as a gradual natural transition from fresh to saline conditions in the aquifer is observed. The 90 percentile is proposed as natural background level (NBL) for the unconfined Pleistocene deposits, ascribing the outliers to possible influence of pollution. For the Tertiary aquifers, high values for different parameters have a natural origin and the 97.7 percentile is preferred as NBL. The methodology leads to high TVs for parameters presenting low NBL, when compared to the standard used as a reference. This would allow for substantial anthropogenic inputs of these parameters.

  1. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  2. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  3. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values. PMID:21061069

  4. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    PubMed

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation. PMID:27317053

  5. Improving extreme value statistics.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Ashivni

    2014-11-01

    The rate of convergence in extreme value statistics is nonuniversal and can be arbitrarily slow. Further, the relative error can be unbounded in the tail of the approximation, leading to difficulty in extrapolating the extreme value fit beyond the available data. We introduce the T method, and show that by using simple nonlinear transformations the extreme value approximation can be rendered rapidly convergent in the bulk, and asymptotic in the tail, thus fixing both issues. The transformations are often parametrized by just one parameter, which can be estimated numerically. The classical extreme value method is shown to be a special case of the proposed method. We demonstrate that vastly improved results can be obtained with almost no extra cost. PMID:25493780

  6. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  7. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  8. Can Schools Teach Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold

    1987-01-01

    While the family is the main agency for helping young people develop the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of successful citizenship and work, schools can enrich the teacher-student relationship to the point that values rub off. (MT)

  9. Balancing Price and Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodigan, David L.

    1987-01-01

    In Carleton College's attempts to find a technique for measuring prospective students' perceptions of college price and educational quality, it discovered that student attitudes about educational value were reflected in the relationship between those two dimensions. (MSE)

  10. Navigating Value Based Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-12-01

    TMA is collaborating with TMF Health Quality Institute to connect Texas physicians to free TMF resources that will better position doctors for the rapid transition to value-based payment. PMID:26630238

  11. What Should Be the Energy Policy of the United States? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1978-1979. Senate, 95th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This collection of excerpts and bibliographies address the three debate propositions selected as subjects of the 1978-1979 debate question for high schools selected by the National University Extension Service, "What should be the energy policy of the United States?" The collection is divided into three parts each addressing one of the debate…

  12. Accreditation on Trial. Proceedings of the Annual Convention of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools (95th, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, December 10-12, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, Philadelphia, PA.

    The proceedings of the 1981 annual meeting of the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools, which focused on the issue of accreditation, are presented. Two papers on accreditation as well as the business meeting of the Association are included. In "Accreditation on Trial--The Indictment," Fred F. Harcleroad provides a historical…

  13. Rural Development: Seventh Annual Report of the President to the Congress on Government Services to Rural America. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    Analyzing 1975 Federal Outlays for 275 programs in terms of rural development and government services, this 7th annual report to the Congress pursuant to Title IX, Section 901 (e) of the Agricultural Act of 1970 includes tabular and narrative data pertaining to: metropolitan and nonmetropolitan distribution; regional distribution (census regions);…

  14. [Medical service of Russian Army in the First World War 1914-1918 (to the 95th anniversary of the beginning of war)].

    PubMed

    Korniushko, I G; Gladkikh, P F; Loktev, A E

    2009-08-01

    During the First World War 1914-1918 Russian Army hadn't a united medical service, military-medical affair was diluted in multiple governances. Evacuation of wounded and ill persons was an affair of Evacuation Governance of Main Governance the General Staff. Process of treatment in field and stationary medical formations was administered by sanitarium chiefs of armies and theaters of operation, bureaucrats of Russian Red Cross Society, Russian Union of Cities and Territorial Union. Supply by medical property, accounting and arrangement of medical staff was administered by Main Military-Sanitarium Governance, supply by sanitarium-household property--by Main Indent Governance, health resort affair--by Governance of Supreme chief of sanitarium and evacuation part in Empire of prince Ol'denburgskiy P.A. On the base of different sources were characterized casualty of Russian Army during the war. PMID:19916317

  15. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  16. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  17. Demystifying values assessment.

    PubMed

    Raffaele, R

    1996-01-01

    The current climate of networking and restructuring among healthcare providers calls for measurable methods to assess an organization's adherence to its fundamental values. In response to that need, the SSM Health Care System (SSMHCS) prepared a guide to assessing values integration. This innovation tool has proven to be adaptable for many uses: it helps organizations examine the compatibility of potential partners' values, as well as their own progress toward integration of their stated mission, values, and philosophy. The guide outlines 10 key areas that serve to focus and define the values assessment: Vision. Serving the poor. Serving the community. Continuous quality improvement. Employment practices. Role of leaders. Stewardship Advocacy. Wellness. Church. The guide includes a discussion of the significance of each of these key areas: the implications of including each area; and key indicators, or standards statements, for assessment. Users' response to the guide has been overwhelmingly positive. This guide should provide valuable systemwide data and identify areas of strength or needed growth. PMID:10161797

  18. Acceptance, values, and probability.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This essay makes a case for regarding personal probabilities used in Bayesian analyses of confirmation as objects of acceptance and rejection. That in turn entails that personal probabilities are subject to the argument from inductive risk, which aims to show non-epistemic values can legitimately influence scientific decisions about which hypotheses to accept. In a Bayesian context, the argument from inductive risk suggests that value judgments can influence decisions about which probability models to accept for likelihoods and priors. As a consequence, if the argument from inductive risk is sound, then non-epistemic values can affect not only the level of evidence deemed necessary to accept a hypothesis but also degrees of confirmation themselves. PMID:26386533

  19. Relative value health insurance.

    PubMed

    Korobkin, Russell

    2014-04-01

    Increases in health costs continue to outpace general inflation, and implementation of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act will exacerbate the problem by adding more Americans to the ranks of the insured. The most commonly proposed solutions--bureaucratic controls, greater patient cost sharing, and changes to physician incentives--all have substantial weaknesses. This article proposes a new paradigm for rationalizing health care expenditures called "relative value health insurance," a product that would enable consumers to purchase health insurance that covers cost-effective treatments but excludes cost-ineffective treatments. A combination of legal and informational impediments prevents private insurers from marketing this type of product today, but creative use of comparative effectiveness research, funded as a part of health care reform, could make relative value health insurance possible. Data deficits, adverse selection risks, and heterogeneous values among consumers create obstacles to shifting the health insurance system to this paradigm, but they could be overcome. PMID:24523448

  20. Value of Information spreadsheet

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  1. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  2. Values in action.

    PubMed

    Hearn, S A

    1997-01-01

    St. John Health System, Detroit, is committed to the values of wisdom, compassion, service to the neighbor, stewardship and servant leadership. When a patient walks through any one of the six St. John Hospitals, they see these words displayed many times. But what do they mean to the employees? Patients? The community? According to Anthony R. Tersigni, EdD, St. John president and CEO, "The values remind us of who we are and what our responsibilities are to the communities we serve." PMID:10168661

  3. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  4. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  5. Reference values for spirometry – report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies

    PubMed Central

    Backman, Helena; Lindberg, Anne; Odén, Anders; Ekerljung, Linda; Hedman, Linnéa; Kainu, Annette; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Lundbäck, Bo; Rönmark, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Abnormal lung function is commonly identified by comparing observed spirometric values to corresponding reference values. It is recommended that such reference values for spirometry are evaluated and updated frequently. The aim of this study was to estimate new reference values for Swedish adults by fitting a multivariable regression model to a healthy non-smoking general population sample from northern Sweden. Further aims were to evaluate the external validity of the obtained reference values on a contemporary sample from south-western Sweden, and to compare them to the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) reference values. Method Sex-specific multivariable linear regression models were fitted to the spirometric data of n=501 healthy non-smoking adults aged 22–91 years, with age and height as predictors. The models were extended to allow the scatter around the outcome variable to depend on age, and age-dependent spline functions were incorporated into the models to provide a smooth fit over the entire age range. Mean values and lower limits of normal, defined as the lower 5th percentiles, were derived. Result This modelling approach resulted in unbiased estimates of the spirometric outcomes, and the obtained estimates were appropriate not only for the northern Sweden sample but also for the south-western Sweden sample. On average, the GLI reference values for forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and, in particular, forced expiratory vital capacity (FVC) were lower than both the observed values and the new reference values, but higher for the FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion The evaluation based on the sample of healthy non-smokers from northern Sweden show that the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden reference values are valid. Furthermore, the evaluation based on the south-western Sweden sample indicates a high external validity. The comparison with GLI brought further evidence to the consensus that, when available, appropriate local

  6. R-values

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, K

    2009-03-03

    I'll try to keep this short and simple. R{sub LANL} = (beta cpm of X{sub exp} on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of {sup 99}Mo{sub exp} on system 'A')/ (beta cpm of X on system 'A', from thermal on {sup 235}U)/ (beta cpm of {sup 99}Mo on system 'A', from thermal on {sup 235}U). As I understand it, the above equation is the historical (as well as current) way of determining R-values using data from beta counting at LANL. The ratio in the denominator, a little 'r', is the 'baseline' or 'calibration' value for a specific beta detector. Over time, if the detector 'drifts' one would see a variation in this 'r' during a thermal calibration measurement. This baseline is what LANL likes to track to monitor specific detector performance - this is not relevant to LLNL where gamma detection is used for determining R-values. LANL states that uncertainty is only dependent upon the count statistics for the isotopes measured. If one tries to convert this to an atom basis, the uncertainties will increase due to the incorporation of the uncertainties in the nuclear data used to convert the cpm to atoms. LLNL switched to gamma detection methods in the 1970s thus replacing our beta counting effort. The equation below is how we have since determined R-values. The numerator ratios atom values of isotopes that are determined by measuring gamma cpm (usually? using several peaks per isotope) and then converting to particle decay in dpm using detector efficiency for each peak and the appropriate branch ratio for each gamma emission. Isotope decay is then converted to atoms using specific activity, mass or volume?, and Avogadro's number. The denominator is simply the ratio of published, cumulative fission product chain yields for isotopes produced in a thermal irradiation on 235U - values of England & Ryder are used by LLNL for the NTNF program. Uncertainties in LLNL R-values are dependent upon gamma counting statistics as well as the nuclear data for each isotope. R{sub LLNL} = (Atoms of X{sub exp

  7. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth. PMID:26273896

  8. Values and Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, John A.

    Science and technology are in trouble today. And the world of people and of other living things is in trouble because of them. This seven-part book provides an introduction to the origin and nature of these troubles. Major areas considered in the first six parts are: (1) values; (2) science and technology in an ideal world (examining growth of…

  9. Gender and Job Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marini, Margaret Mooney; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Discovers distinct differences and a few similarities between men and women concerning values and expectations associated with employment. Women attach greater importance to intrinsic, altruistic, and social rewards. Earlier research suggested significant gender differences regarding extrinsic rewards; however, this category revealed no…

  10. Valuing Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Amy

    2006-01-01

    It is not enough to declare that differentiated instruction is going to be the order of the day. It also is not enough to call in a consultant and have teachers listen to a presentation about product, process, and assessment paradigms. Differentiated instruction is a practice that grows out of certain values that are important in the way school…

  11. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  12. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  13. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  14. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  15. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  16. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  17. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  18. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  19. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  20. Dental amalgam and urinary mercury concentrations: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental amalgam is a source of elemental and inorganic mercury. The safety of dental amalgam in individuals remains a controversial issue. Urinary mercury concentrations are used to assess chronic exposure to elemental mercury. At present, there are no indications of mercury-associated adverse effects at levels below 5 μg Hg/g creatinine (Cr) or 7 μg Hg/L (urine). The purpose of the present study is to determine the overall urinary mercury level in the Canadian general population in relation to the number of dental amalgam surfaces. Methods Data come from the 2007/09 Canadian Health Measures Survey, which measured urinary mercury concentrations in a nationally representative sample of 5,418 Canadians aged 6–79 years. Urinary mercury concentrations were stratified by sex, age, and number of dental amalgam surfaces. Results The overall mean urinary mercury concentration varied between 0.12 μg Hg/L and 0.31 μg Hg/L or 0.13 μg Hg/g Cr and 0.40 μg Hg/g Cr. In general, females showed slightly higher mean urinary mercury levels than men. The overall 95th percentile was 2.95 μg Hg/L, the 99th percentile was 7.34E μg Hg/L, and the 99.9th percentile was 17.45 μg Hg/L. Expressed as μg Hg/g Cr, the overall 95th percentile was 2.57 μg Hg/g Cr, the 99th percentile was 5.65 μg Hg/g Cr, and the 99.9th percentiles was 12.14 μg Hg/g Cr. Overall, 98.2% of participants had urinary mercury levels below 7 μg Hg/L and 97.7% had urinary mercury levels below 5 μg Hg/g Cr. All data are estimates for the Canadian population. The estimates followed by the letter “E” should be interpreted with caution due to high sampling variability (coefficient of variation 16.6%-33.3%). Conclusions The mean urinary mercury concentrations in the general Canadian population are significantly lower than the values considered to pose any risks for health. PMID:24015978

  1. Suited and Unsuited Hybrid III Impact Testing and Finite Element Model Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria and injury assessment reference values (IARV) extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). For the ATD IARVs, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Each of these ATDs is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis (also known as the aerospace pelvis) and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. Sled testing of the Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was performed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WAPFB). Two 5th Percentile ATDs were tested, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and NASA owned Hybrid III ATDs with aerospace pelvises. Testing was also conducted with a NASA-owned 95th Percentile Male Hybrid III with aerospace pelvis at WPAFB. Testing was performed using an Orion seat prototype provided by Johnson Space Center (JSC). A 5-point harness comprised of 2 inch webbing was also provided by JSC. For suited runs, a small and extra-large Advanced Crew Escape System (ACES) suit and helmet were also provided by JSC. Impact vectors were combined frontal/spinal and rear/lateral. Some pure spinal and rear axis testing was also performed for model validation. Peak accelerations ranged between 15 and 20-g. This range was targeted because the ATD responses fell close to the IARV defined in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Rise times varied between 70 and 110 ms to assess differences in ATD responses and model correlation for different impact energies. The purpose of the test series was to evaluate the Hybrid III ATD models in Orion-specific landing orientations both with and without a spacesuit. The results of these tests were used

  2. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values." PMID:2318624

  3. Global value trees.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term "global value chains" (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  4. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  5. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  6. The structure of value.

    PubMed

    Daly, Rich

    2014-01-01

    Keys to success in developing the right framework for delivering greater value in an era of reform include the following: Have a compelling vision. In evaluating potential partnerships, carefully consider the extent to which the organizations' cultures are aligned. Ensure that initiatives stay on course. Develop sustainable energy among leaders and staff through early wins. Measure patient, physician, and employee satisfaction before and after initiatives are implemented and respond accordingly. PMID:24511778

  7. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  8. Values in health care.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities. PMID:6484620

  9. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  10. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  11. Tables for the metric evaluation of pair-matching of human skeletal elements.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Ubelaker, Douglas H; Byrd, John E

    2013-07-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves pair-matching of left and right skeletal elements. This can be achieved through visual pair-matching by evaluating similarities in morphology, and through osteometric sorting, a quantitative technique. To simplify the process of osteometric sorting, this article explains the use of a statistic (M), which captures the amount of size variation found between homologous bones from single individuals. A database of skeletal measurements for all major paired postcranial bones is used to calculate values of M from a variety of sources. The maximum value and the 90th and 95th percentiles of M are provided in tabular format, and values of M from forensic cases can be compared to these tables as an objective means for determining whether homologous bones could have originated from the same individual. This simple technique can be combined with visual pair-matching to be particularly effective in cases involving commingling of skeletons. PMID:23682771

  12. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    PubMed

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  13. Evaluation of Biomonitoring Data from the CDC National Exposure Report in a Risk Assessment Context: Perspectives across Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Kirman, Christopher R.; Schoeny, Rita; Portier, Christopher J.; Hays, Sean M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Biomonitoring data reported in the National Report on Human Exposure to Environmental Chemicals [NER; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2012)] provide information on the presence and concentrations of > 400 chemicals in human blood and urine. Biomonitoring Equivalents (BEs) and other risk assessment–based values now allow interpretation of these biomonitoring data in a public health risk context. Objectives: We compared the measured biomarker concentrations in the NER with BEs and similar risk assessment values to provide an across-chemical risk assessment perspective on the measured levels for approximately 130 analytes in the NER. Methods: We identified available risk assessment–based biomarker screening values, including BEs and Human Biomonitoring-I (HBM-I) values from the German Human Biomonitoring Commission. Geometric mean and 95th percentile population biomarker concentrations from the NER were compared to the available screening values to generate chemical-specific hazard quotients (HQs) or cancer risk estimates. Conclusions: Most analytes in the NER show HQ values of < 1; however, some (including acrylamide, dioxin-like chemicals, benzene, xylene, several metals, di-2(ethylhexyl)phthalate, and some legacy organochlorine pesticides) approach or exceed HQ values of 1 or cancer risks of > 1 × 10–4 at the geometric mean or 95th percentile, suggesting exposure levels may exceed published human health benchmarks. This analysis provides for the first time a means for examining population biomonitoring data for multiple environmental chemicals in the context of the risk assessments for those chemicals. The results of these comparisons can be used to focus more detailed chemical-specific examination of the data and inform priorities for chemical risk management and research. PMID:23232556

  14. Actual and future trends of extreme values of temperature for the NW Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taboada, J.; Brands, S.; Lorenzo, N.

    2009-09-01

    It is now very well established that yearly averaged temperatures are increasing due to anthropogenic climate change. In the area of Galicia (NW Spain) this trend has also been determined. The main objective of this work is to assess actual and future trends of different extreme indices of temperature, which are of curcial importance for many impact studies. Station data for the study was provided by the CLIMA database of the regional government of Galicia (NW Spain). As direct GCM-output significantly underestimates the variance of daily surface temperature variables in NW Spain, these variables are obtained by applying a statistical downscaling technique (analog method), using 850hPa temperature and mean sea level pressure as combined predictors. The predictor fields have been extracted from three GCMs participating in the IPCC AR4 under A1, A1B and A2 scenarios. The definitions of the extreme indices have been taken from the joint CCl/CLIVAR/JCOMM Expert Team (ET) on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) This group has defined a set of standard extreme values to simplify intercomparisons of data from different regions of the world. For the temperatures in the period 1960-2006, results show a significant increase of the number of days with maximum temperatures above the 90th percentile. Furthermore, a significant decrease of the days with maximum temperatures below the 10th percentile has been found. The tendencies of minimum temperatures are reverse: less nights with minimum temperatures below 10th percentile, and more with minimum temperatures above 90th percentile. Those tendencies can be observed all over the year, but are more pronounced in summer. We have also calculated the relationship between the above mentioned extreme values and different teleconnection patterns appearing in the North Atlantic area. Results show that local tendencies are associated with trends of EA (Eastern Atlantic) and SCA (Scandinavian) patterns. NAO (North Atlantic

  15. Uranium and thorium in urine of United States residents: Reference range concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Ting, B.G.; Paschal, D.C.; Jarrett, J.M.; Pirkle, J.L.; Jackson, R.J.; Sampson, E.J.; Miller, D.T.; Caudill, S.P. )

    1999-07-01

    The authors measured uranium and thorium in urine of 500 US residents to establish reference range concentrations using a magnetic-sector inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). They found uranium at detectable concentrations in 96.6% of the urine specimens and thorium in 39.6% of the specimens. The 95th percentile concentration for uranium was 34.5 ng/L (parts per trillion); concentrations ranged up to 4,080 ng/L. Thorium had a 95th percentile concentration of 3.09 ng/L; concentrations ranged up to 7.7 ng/L.

  16. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  17. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  18. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  19. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  20. Statistical Methods and Software for the Analysis of Occupational Exposure Data with Non-detectable Values

    SciTech Connect

    Frome, EL

    2005-09-20

    Environmental exposure measurements are, in general, positive and may be subject to left censoring; i.e,. the measured value is less than a ''detection limit''. In occupational monitoring, strategies for assessing workplace exposures typically focus on the mean exposure level or the probability that any measurement exceeds a limit. Parametric methods used to determine acceptable levels of exposure, are often based on a two parameter lognormal distribution. The mean exposure level, an upper percentile, and the exceedance fraction are used to characterize exposure levels, and confidence limits are used to describe the uncertainty in these estimates. Statistical methods for random samples (without non-detects) from the lognormal distribution are well known for each of these situations. In this report, methods for estimating these quantities based on the maximum likelihood method for randomly left censored lognormal data are described and graphical methods are used to evaluate the lognormal assumption. If the lognormal model is in doubt and an alternative distribution for the exposure profile of a similar exposure group is not available, then nonparametric methods for left censored data are used. The mean exposure level, along with the upper confidence limit, is obtained using the product limit estimate, and the upper confidence limit on an upper percentile (i.e., the upper tolerance limit) is obtained using a nonparametric approach. All of these methods are well known but computational complexity has limited their use in routine data analysis with left censored data. The recent development of the R environment for statistical data analysis and graphics has greatly enhanced the availability of high-quality nonproprietary (open source) software that serves as the basis for implementing the methods in this paper.

  1. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  2. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  3. Scarcity frames value.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anuj K; Shafir, Eldar; Mullainathan, Sendhil

    2015-04-01

    Economic models of decision making assume that people have a stable way of thinking about value. In contrast, psychology has shown that people's preferences are often malleable and influenced by normatively irrelevant contextual features. Whereas economics derives its predictions from the assumption that people navigate a world of scarce resources, recent psychological work has shown that people often do not attend to scarcity. In this article, we show that when scarcity does influence cognition, it renders people less susceptible to classic context effects. Under conditions of scarcity, people focus on pressing needs and recognize the trade-offs that must be made against those needs. Those trade-offs frame perception more consistently than irrelevant contextual cues, which exert less influence. The results suggest that scarcity can align certain behaviors more closely with traditional economic predictions. PMID:25676256

  4. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  5. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into ‘‘exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the

  6. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

  7. Critical Shields Values in Coarse-Bedded Steep Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.; Cenderelli, D. A.; Schneider, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Critical Shields values for poorly mobile, semi-alluvial mountain streams are not provided by the original Shields diagram and are still debated. This empirical study uses gravel bedload samples collected with unbiasing samplers at 22 stream sites and establishes a relation between instantaneous discharge and the largest sampled bedload particle size for each site. Using relations between flow depth and discharge, critical Shields values for particle sizes corresponding to the bed surface D50, D16, D84, and D50s sizes at each site can be backcomputed from the established critical flow or flow competence relations. Critical Shields values for all bed material particle size percentiles increase with stream gradient Sx and are stratifiable by relative flow depth d/D50 and relative roughness (D84/d) which improves prediction. Critical Shields values for the bed D16 sizes (τ*c16) are approximately three times larger than those for the D50 size (τ*c50), while those for the D84 size (τ*c84) are approximately half of τ*c50. It remains unclear to what extent physical processes or numerical artifacts contribute to determining critical Shields values. Specific critical Shields values are needed to predict the average largest particle size mobile at bankfull flow (DBmax,bf). So far, no Shields values are available for this common task, especially not in poorly mobile semi-alluvial streams. Critical bankfull Shields values (τ*cbf) backcomputed from the largest particles transported at bankfull flow approach τ*c16 at steep gradient streams and τ*c84 at low gradients and therefore increase very steeply with Sx. The relation τ*cbf = f(Sx) is stratified by bed mobility D50/DBmax,bf and predictable if bed mobility can be categorized in the field. Non-critical Shields values (τ*bf50) computed from bankfull flow depth and the bed surface D50 size differ from τ*c50 and from critical bankfull Shields values τ*cbf. Only in bankfull mobile streams where D50/DBmax,bf = 1 can

  8. Prognostic value of combined visualization of MR diffusion and perfusion maps in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Deike, Katerina; Wiestler, Benedikt; Graf, Markus; Reimer, Caroline; Floca, Ralf O; Bäumer, Philipp; Kickingereder, Philipp; Heiland, Sabine; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Wick, Wolfgang; Bendszus, Martin; Radbruch, Alexander

    2016-02-01

    We analyzed whether the combined visualization of decreased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values and increased cerebral blood volume (CBV) in perfusion imaging can identify prognosis-related growth patterns in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. Sixty-five consecutive patients were examined with diffusion and dynamic susceptibility-weighted contrast-enhanced perfusion weighted MRI. ADC and CBV maps were co-registered on the T1-w image and a region of interest (ROI) was manually delineated encompassing the enhancing lesion. Within this ROI pixels with ADC values percentile (ADCmin), pixels with CBV values >the 70th percentile (CBVmax) and the intersection of pixels with ADCmin and CBVmax were automatically calculated and visualized. Initially, all tumors with a mean intersection greater than the upper quartile of the normally distributed mean intersection of all patients were subsumed to the first growth pattern termed big intersection (BI). Subsequently, the remaining tumors' growth patterns were categorized depending on the qualitative representation of ADCmin, CBVmax and their intersection. Log-rank test exposed a significantly longer overall survival of BI (n = 16) compared to non-BI group (n = 49) (p = 0.0057). Thirty-one, four and 14 patients of the non-BI group were classified as predominant ADC-, CBV- and mixed growth group, respectively. In a multivariate Cox regression model, the BI-, CBV- and mixed groups had significantly lower adjusted hazard ratios (p-value, α(Bonferroni) < 0.006) when compared to the reference group ADC: 0.29 (0.0027), 0.11 (0.038) and 0.33 (0.0059). Our study provides evidence that the combination of diffusion and perfusion imaging allows visualization of different glioblastoma growth patterns that are associated with prognosis. A possible biological hypothesis for this finding could be the interpretation of the ADCmin fraction as the invasion-front of tumor cells while the CBVmax fraction might represent

  9. An Introduction to Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Kalman

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes consciousness as a quality which differentiates a human being from other living organisms. Excerpts various perspectives that are value-analyzed to illustrate two assumptions: (1) thinking leads to valuing and values and (2) all psychological perspectives are based upon some value system which can be identified. (JAC)

  10. Values in Education and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Norman T.

    Based on six years of research, this book is an interdisciplinary investigation of human values and value systems. The author believes that the concept of values enables the social scientist to bridge the gap between the analysis of the individual and the analysis of the society in which that individual lives. Chapter 1 discusses value systems and…

  11. Work Values and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongo, Celestine

    1978-01-01

    As career education calls for business educators to be concerned with developing students' work values as well as teaching skills, school experiences should be structured to influence work values development. The author discusses the nature of values, group differences, strategies for personal value sharing, industry-school interactions, and…

  12. Estimation and application of indicator values for common macroinvertebrate genera and families of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Moulton, S.R., II; Ruhl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa to chemical and physical stressors is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of bioassessment data, but many estimates lack empirical bases. Our main objective was to estimate genus- and family-level indicator values (IVs) from a data set of macroinvertebrate communities, chemical, and physical stressors collected in a consistent manner throughout the United States. We then demonstrated an application of these IVs to detect alterations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along gradients of urbanization in New England and Alabama. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create synthetic gradients of chemical stressors, for which genus- and family-level weighted averages (WAs) were calculated. Based on results of PCA, WAs were calculated for three synthetic gradients (ionic concentration, nutrient concentration, and dissolved oxygen/water temperature) and two uncorrelated physical variables (suspended sediment concentration and percent fines). Indicator values for each stress gradient were subsequently created by transforming WAs into ten ordinal ranks based on percentiles of values across all taxa. Mean IVs of genera and families were highly correlated to road density in Alabama and New England, and supported the conclusions of independent assessments of the chemical and physical stressors acting in each geographic area. Family IVs were nearly as responsive to urbanization as genus IVs. The limitations of widespread use of these IVs are discussed.

  13. Historical changes in Australian temperature extremes as inferred from extreme value distribution analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaolan L.; Trewin, Blair; Feng, Yang; Jones, David

    2013-02-01

    Abstract This study develops a generalized extreme <span class="hlt">value</span> (GEV) distribution analysis approach, namely, a GEV tree approach that allows for both stationary and nonstationary cases. This approach is applied to a century-long homogenized daily temperature data set for Australia to assess changes in temperature extremes from 1910 to 2010. Changes in 20 year return <span class="hlt">values</span> are estimated from the most suitable GEV distribution chosen from a GEV tree. Twenty year return <span class="hlt">values</span> of extreme low minimum temperature are found to have warmed strongly over the century in most parts of the continent. There is also a tendency toward warming of extreme high maximum temperatures, but it is weaker than that for minimum temperatures, with the majority of stations not showing significant trends. The observed changes in extreme temperatures are broadly consistent with observed changes in mean temperatures and in the frequency of temperatures above the ninetieth and below the tenth <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (i.e., extreme indices). The GEV tree analysis provides insight into behavior of extremes with re-occurrence times of several years to decades that are of importance to engineering design/applications, while extreme indices represent moderately extreme events with re-occurrence times of a year or shorter.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1651...94L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AIPC.1651...94L"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> taught, <span class="hlt">values</span> learned, attitude and performance in mathematics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Limbaco, K. S. A.</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among <span class="hlt">values</span> taught, <span class="hlt">values</span> learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of <span class="hlt">Values</span> Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, <span class="hlt">Values</span> and Education. Generally, most of the <span class="hlt">values</span> were taught by the teachers. All of the <span class="hlt">values</span> were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for <span class="hlt">values</span> taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, <span class="hlt">valuing</span> life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for <span class="hlt">values</span> learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, <span class="hlt">valuing</span> life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, <span class="hlt">values</span> were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. <span class="hlt">Values</span> can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between <span class="hlt">values</span> taught by the teachers and <span class="hlt">values</span> learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; <span class="hlt">values</span> taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach <span class="hlt">values</span>; <span class="hlt">values</span> learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCHEME+AND+RESEARCH&pg=7&id=ED521738','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=SCHEME+AND+RESEARCH&pg=7&id=ED521738"><span id="translatedtitle">Pay for <span class="hlt">Percentile</span>. NBER Working Paper No. 17194</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Barlevy, Gadi; Neal, Derek</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>We analyze an incentive pay scheme for educators that links educator compensation to the ranks of their students within appropriately defined comparison sets, and we show that under certain conditions this scheme induces teachers to allocate socially optimal levels of effort to all students. Moreover, because this scheme employs only ordinal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhy4.125..829C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2005JPhy4.125..829C"><span id="translatedtitle">Attempt for <span class="hlt">percentile</span> analysis of food colorants with photoacoustic method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Coelho, T. M.; Vidotti, E. C.; Rollemberg, M. C. E.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.</p> <p>2005-06-01</p> <p>In this work the photoacoustic (PAS) method is applied in polyester-type polyurethane foam (PUF) doped with food colorants. Aiming to resolve binary mixtures of synthetic colorants such as Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Brilliant Blue and Amaranth, a single spectroscopic method is described. Based upon individual spectra, a Gaussian deconvolution is used and the fraction of each colorant is found.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915937','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24915937"><span id="translatedtitle">Internal threshold of toxicological concern <span class="hlt">values</span>: enabling route-to-route extrapolation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Partosch, Falko; Mielke, Hans; Stahlmann, Ralf; Kleuser, Burkhard; Barlow, Susan; Gundert-Remy, Ursula</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>The TTC concept uses toxicological data from animal testing to derive generic human exposure threshold <span class="hlt">values</span> (TTC <span class="hlt">values</span>), below which the risk of adverse effects on human health is considered to be low. It uses distributions of no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) for substances. The 5th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> <span class="hlt">value</span> is divided by an uncertainty factor (100) to give a TTC <span class="hlt">value</span>. As the toxicological data underpinning the TTC concept are from tests with oral exposure, the exposure is to be understood as an external oral exposure. For risk assessment of substances with a low absorption (by the oral route, or through skin), the internal exposure is more relevant than the external exposure. European legislation allows that tests might not be necessary for substances with negligible absorption with low internal exposure. The aim of this work is to derive internal TTC <span class="hlt">values</span> to allow the TTC concept to be applied to situations of low internal exposure. The external NOAEL of each chemical of three databases (Munro, ELINCS, Food Contact Materials) was multiplied by the bioavailability of the individual chemical. Oral bioavailability was predicted using an in silico prediction tool (ACD Percepta). After applying a reduced uncertainty factor of 25, we derived internal TTC <span class="hlt">values</span>. For Cramer class I, the internal TTC <span class="hlt">values</span> are 6.9 μg/kg bw/d (90 % confidence interval: 3.8-11.5 mg/kg bw/d); for Cramer class II/III 0.1 μg/kg bw/d (90 % confidence interval: 0.08-0.14 μg/kg bw/d). PMID:24915937</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026909','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70026909"><span id="translatedtitle">Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Crawford, Charles G.</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and <span class="hlt">percentile</span> concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>, and 99th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true <span class="hlt">value</span> virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and <span class="hlt">percentile</span> pesticide concentrations can be minimized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmEn.102..366M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2015AtmEn.102..366M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">An approach to investigate new particle formation in the vertical direction on the basis of high time-resolution measurements at ground level and sea level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Meng, He; Zhu, Yujiao; Evans, Greg J.; Yao, Xiaohong</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In this study, we investigated new particle formation (NPF) in the vertical direction using high time-resolution (1 s) measurements made by Fast Mobility Particle Sizers at ground level and at sea level. The coefficient of variation (CV), i.e., the ratio of standard deviation to mean <span class="hlt">value</span> for <100-nm particle number concentration (N100) in every 30 s, is introduced as a metric to distinguish horizontal and vertical transport of atmospheric particles. We first examined the CV metric using the data collected at a semi-urban site in Toronto during the summer of 2007. The 50th and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> of CVs associated with horizontal transport were 1-13 times smaller than those during strong vertical transport. We then compared the N100, GMD55 (geometric mean diameter of <55-nm particles) and GMD100 corresponding to the 0-5th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> of CVs with those corresponding to the 95-100th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> of CVs in five NPF events. The comparative results are discussed in terms of different formation and growth rates in the vertical direction. The similar analysis was also conducted in various marine atmospheres. We found that the CV metric can improve our understanding of NPF in the vertical direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290660','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3290660"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p> Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight)with those for theRPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20551505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20551505"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p> radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated. PMID:20551505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PMB....55.3789H&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2010PMB....55.3789H&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George</p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p> Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span>-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight <span class="hlt">percentile</span> phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=values&pg=3&id=EJ1037177','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=values&pg=3&id=EJ1037177"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> in a Science of Social Work: <span class="hlt">Values</span>-Informed Research and Research-Informed <span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., <span class="hlt">values</span>-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that <span class="hlt">values</span> are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make <span class="hlt">values</span> a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed <span class="hlt">values</span>). In this…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Erik+AND+Erikson&pg=3&id=EJ091936','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Erik+AND+Erikson&pg=3&id=EJ091936"><span id="translatedtitle">Section III: Examining American <span class="hlt">Values</span>: <span class="hlt">Value</span> Choices Since Revolutionary Times</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Social Education, 1974</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American <span class="hlt">values</span> are followed by a <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ontrack&id=EJ1031353','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ontrack&id=EJ1031353"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluating the Predictive <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Growth Prediction Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Murphy, Daniel L.; Gaertner, Matthew N.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This study evaluates four growth prediction models--projection, student growth <span class="hlt">percentile</span>, trajectory, and transition table--commonly used to forecast (and give schools credit for) middle school students' future proficiency. Analyses focused on vertically scaled summative mathematics assessments, and two performance standards conditions (high…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=migrants+AND+children+AND+value&id=EJ1014373','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=migrants+AND+children+AND+value&id=EJ1014373"><span id="translatedtitle">"<span class="hlt">Value"ing</span> Children Differently? Migrant Children in Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Devine, Dympna</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper considers dilemmas around "<span class="hlt">value</span>" and the "<span class="hlt">valuing</span>" of children and childhood(s) in schools. I argue that in neo-liberal contexts, processes of children's identity making become aligned with the idea of the corporate citizen--<span class="hlt">value</span> and worth derived from the capacity to produce, excel, self-regulate as well as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ920025.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ920025.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Teacher <span class="hlt">Values</span> and Relationship: Factors in <span class="hlt">Values</span> Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brady, Laurie</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Intrigued by the notion that effective teaching is as much about relationship as it is about "technical" proficiency, the author examines the <span class="hlt">values</span> of teachers that inform classroom relationships, and poses the question as to whether there are particular teacher <span class="hlt">values</span> that are necessary for quality <span class="hlt">values</span> education. This question is addressed by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21590429','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21590429"><span id="translatedtitle">[{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Patterns in Lung Before Radiotherapy Identify Areas More Susceptible to Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Petit, Steven F.; Elmpt, Wouter J.C. van; Oberije, Cary J.G.; Vegt, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre L.A.J.; De Ruysscher, Dirk</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>Purpose: Our hypothesis was that pretreatment inflammation in the lung makes pulmonary tissue more susceptible to radiation damage. The relationship between pretreatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) uptake in the lungs (as a surrogate for inflammation) and the delivered radiation dose and radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) was investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied a prospectively obtained cohort of 101 non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with (chemo)radiation therapy (RT). [{sup 18}F]FDG-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans used for treatment planning were studied. Different parameters were used to describe [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake patterns in the lungs, excluding clinical target volumes, and the interaction with radiation dose. An increase in the dyspnea grade of 1 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) or more points compared to the pre-RT score was used as an endpoint for analysis of RILT. The effect of [{sup 18}F]FDG and CT-based variables, dose, and other patient or treatment characteristics that effected RILT was studied using logistic regression. Results: Increased lung density and pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were related to RILT after RT with univariable logistic regression. The <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the lungs remained significant in multivariable logistic regression (p = 0.016; odds ratio [OR] = 4.3), together with age (p = 0.029; OR = 1.06), and a pre-RT dyspnea score of {>=}1 (p = 0.005; OR = 0.20). Significant interaction effects were demonstrated among the 80th, 90th, and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> and the relative lung volume receiving more than 2 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: The risk of RILT increased with the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the lungs, excluding clinical tumor volume (OR = 4.3). The effect became more pronounced as the fraction of the 5%, 10%, and 20% highest standardized uptake <span class="hlt">value</span> voxels that</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AcAau..80...46B&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2012AcAau..80...46B&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Universal <span class="hlt">values</span> of Canadian astronauts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Values</span> are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal <span class="hlt">values</span> may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect <span class="hlt">value</span> priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established <span class="hlt">value</span> markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the <span class="hlt">values</span> of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' <span class="hlt">values</span>. We found a U-shaped pattern for the <span class="hlt">values</span> of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the <span class="hlt">value</span> of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned <span class="hlt">values</span> were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 <span class="hlt">values</span> of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the <span class="hlt">value</span> hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned <span class="hlt">value</span>, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned <span class="hlt">value</span> marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683509','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26683509"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Imaging Part II: <span class="hlt">Value</span> beyond Image Interpretation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' <span class="hlt">value</span>, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the <span class="hlt">value</span> of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate <span class="hlt">value</span> beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive <span class="hlt">value</span>, research that demonstrates the <span class="hlt">value</span> of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=integrity+AND+honesty&pg=3&id=EJ578799','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=integrity+AND+honesty&pg=3&id=EJ578799"><span id="translatedtitle">Business Education, <span class="hlt">Values</span> and Beliefs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Small, Michael W.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>An Australian study compared the <span class="hlt">value</span> systems of business students from primarily Western and Asian backgrounds. Their diverse conceptions of integrity, honesty, fairness, and other <span class="hlt">values</span> should be considered in teaching business ethics. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homer&pg=5&id=EJ182313','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=homer&pg=5&id=EJ182313"><span id="translatedtitle">Private <span class="hlt">Values</span> and Public Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ladner, Benjamin</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Explores the relationships among social change, <span class="hlt">values</span>, and education. Concludes that educators should inquire into and teach about <span class="hlt">values</span> through classic works by authors such as Homer, Plato, Ibsen, and Mark Twain. (Author/DB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3721023','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3721023"><span id="translatedtitle">Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying <span class="hlt">value</span>-based decision-making: from core <span class="hlt">values</span> to economic <span class="hlt">value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Value</span> plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more <span class="hlt">value</span> to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic <span class="hlt">value</span>, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual <span class="hlt">values</span> an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people <span class="hlt">value</span> what they <span class="hlt">value</span>, and why different people <span class="hlt">value</span> different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core <span class="hlt">values</span>, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core <span class="hlt">value</span> may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic <span class="hlt">value</span> computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core <span class="hlt">values</span> and their interactions with neural systems representing economic <span class="hlt">value</span>, we outline a common framework that integrates the core <span class="hlt">value</span> concept and neuroeconomic research on <span class="hlt">value</span>-based decision-making. PMID:23898252</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631357','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23631357"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessment of exposure of Korean consumers to acesulfame K and sucralose using a stepwise approach.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>Using a stepwise assessment of the exposure of Korean consumers to acesulfame K and sucralose, theoretical maximum daily intakes of the sweeteners were calculated using the Budget screening method, which resulted in <span class="hlt">values</span> greater than the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). Accordingly, the daily intakes of the sweeteners based on food consumption data and concentrations determined by instrumental analysis of 605 food samples were estimated for the more refined approach. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of all ordinary consumers were lower than the ADI, which was considered safe. However, for infants and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> high-level consumers (especially those who choose sucralose-containing foods), the EDIs of sucralose were very close to and higher than the ADI. Therefore, the sucralose concentration in sweetened beverages should be reduced; this would benefit the health of both high-level consumers and infants. PMID:23631357</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25356561','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25356561"><span id="translatedtitle">[Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ostendorp, G</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the <span class="hlt">95</span>(<span class="hlt">th</span>) <span class="hlt">percentile</span> was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline <span class="hlt">value</span> for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur. PMID:25356561</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240237','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1240237"><span id="translatedtitle">Metabolites of pyrethroid insecticides in urine specimens: current exposure in an urban population in Germany.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Heudorf, U; Angerer, J</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>Pyrethroids are important insecticides used in agriculture, forestry, horticulture, and in the home. In humans, they are rapidly metabolized and renally eliminated. In numerous studies, pyrethroid metabolites have been detected in urine after occupational exposure to insecticides. In this study, we used a new, reliable, easy, and sensitive analytical method to assess the internal pyrethroid exposure of an urban population without exposure to pyrethoids at home or at work (children and adults). A total of 1,177 persons took part in this investigation, including 331 children under 6 years of age and 247 children between 6 and 12 years of age. None of them reported exposure to pyrethroids at home or at work. Accordingly, the levels of permethrin found in household dust from their homes were lower than expected (median < limit of detection; <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>, 4.8 mg/kg; maximum <span class="hlt">value</span>, 19 mg/kg). Urine specimens were analyzed for cis-3-(2,2-dibromo-vinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclo-propanecarboxylic acid (Br(2)CA), cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-carboxylic acid (cis-Cl(2)CA and trans-Cl(2)CA), and 4-fluoro-3-phenoxybenzoic acid (F-PBA) using a gas chromatographic method with mass-selective detection. The limit of detection for pyrethroid metabolites was between 0.1 and 0.2 microg/L. trans-Cl(2)CA was detected in 65% of the urine specimens tested, cis-Cl(2)CA was detected in 30%, and Br(2)CA and F-PBA were found in 19% and 16%, respectively, of the urine specimens. The urinary metabolite levels in children did not differ from those in adults, and there was no correlation between the levels of metabolites and indoor exposure to permethrin in household dust. Moreover, no seasonal correlations could be found. The <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> levels in urine specimens were as follows: Br(2)CA, 0.30 microg/L; cis-Cl(2)CA, 0.51 microg/L; trans-Cl(2)CA, 1.43 microg/L; F-PBA, 0.27 microg/L. Background exposure to pyrethroids was found in the general population; it seems</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=real+AND+estate+AND+market&pg=4&id=EJ671995','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=real+AND+estate+AND+market&pg=4&id=EJ671995"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Valuing</span> Your Child Care Business.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Offers guidelines for putting a monetary <span class="hlt">value</span> on a child care business. Discusses reasons for <span class="hlt">valuing</span> the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, <span class="hlt">valuing</span> assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ987848.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ987848.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Principals' <span class="hlt">Values</span> in School Administration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aslanargun, Engin</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>School administration is <span class="hlt">value</span> driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human <span class="hlt">values</span> as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored <span class="hlt">values</span> and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970450','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24970450"><span id="translatedtitle">Negativity bias and basic <span class="hlt">values</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwartz, Shalom H</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Basic <span class="hlt">values</span> explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The <span class="hlt">values</span> most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. <span class="hlt">Value</span> conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+Responsibility+AND+Business+AND+Ethics&pg=6&id=EJ791377','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Social+AND+Responsibility+AND+Business+AND+Ethics&pg=6&id=EJ791377"><span id="translatedtitle">Making <span class="hlt">Values</span> Education Everyone's Business</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Katzner, Louis I.; Nieman, Donald G.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>Adults are typically required to make <span class="hlt">values</span>-based decisions multiple times each day. Why, then, should a discussion of <span class="hlt">values</span> not be explicit across the college curriculum and intentionally integrated into the cocurriculum? The authors describe a place where the work of <span class="hlt">values</span> education is widely shared. (Contains 9 notes.)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432135.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED432135.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">American <span class="hlt">Values</span> through Russian Eyes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zatsepina, Olga; Rodriguez, Julio</p> <p></p> <p>This paper discusses impressions held by Moscow State University (Russia) students about American <span class="hlt">values</span>. In class discussions and written assignments, students were asked to comment on thirteen <span class="hlt">values</span>, giving their perceptions of American attitudes in each case. The <span class="hlt">values</span> included: personal control over the environment; change; time and its…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inspection+AND+techniques&pg=4&id=EJ863338','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=inspection+AND+techniques&pg=4&id=EJ863338"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Value</span> Added in English Schools</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Value</span>-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and <span class="hlt">value</span>-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the <span class="hlt">value</span>-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=values&pg=4&id=EJ1047574','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=values&pg=4&id=EJ1047574"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Science</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Why and under what conditions might students <span class="hlt">value</span> their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the <span class="hlt">value</span> of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the <span class="hlt">value</span> of science. The authors…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-29/pdf/2013-20315.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2013-08-29/pdf/2013-20315.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">78 FR 53380 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-08-29</p> <p>... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF64 <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering AGENCY: Federal... Making (NPRM); request for comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA proposes to update the existing <span class="hlt">value</span> engineering... Leuderalbert, <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering and Utilities Program Manager, FHWA Office of Program Administration,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+process+AND+lake&pg=2&id=ED255438','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=physical+AND+process+AND+lake&pg=2&id=ED255438"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> Education: Interdisciplinary Curriculum Strand.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.</p> <p></p> <p>The instructional objectives of <span class="hlt">values</span> education to be taught in the K-12 Utah public schools are outlined and cross-referenced to each subject area in the curriculum. It is the responsibility of the schools to help students clarify perceptions and <span class="hlt">values</span> with respect to self and society. The major categories of <span class="hlt">values</span> education goals are: rights…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dalton+AND+John&pg=3&id=EJ268053','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Dalton+AND+John&pg=3&id=EJ268053"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Development and <span class="hlt">Values</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dalton, John D., Comp.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>In five articles explores the <span class="hlt">value</span> development of college students. Surveyed student personnel administrators to investigate ethical issues and <span class="hlt">values</span> in student development and educational approaches to <span class="hlt">values</span> development. Presents an approach to student ethical development. Discusses a rationale for developmental education considering…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138418','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23138418"><span id="translatedtitle">Reference <span class="hlt">values</span> for heavy metals in soils of the Brazilian agricultural frontier in Southwestern Amazônia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>dos Santos, Sabrina Novaes; Alleoni, Luís Reynaldo Ferracciú</p> <p>2013-07-01</p> <p>Guideline <span class="hlt">values</span> are used to identify polluted or contaminated areas based on background <span class="hlt">values</span>. Brazilian law establishes three guideline <span class="hlt">values</span> for pollutants: a quality reference <span class="hlt">value</span> (QRV), a prevention <span class="hlt">value</span>, and an intervention <span class="hlt">value</span>. Reference <span class="hlt">values</span> refer to the natural concentration of an element or a substance in soils that have not been modified by anthropogenic impacts. These <span class="hlt">values</span> inform assessments of soil quality and are used to establish maximum permissible limits. The objective of this study was to determine the natural levels and reference <span class="hlt">values</span> for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in samples from the surface layer (0-20 cm) of 19 representative soils of the states of Mato Grosso and Rondônia, on Brazil's agricultural frontier. Pseudo-total metal concentrations were obtained following microwave-assisted digestion using the aqua regia and EPA3051 methods. QRVs were calculated for each element as the 75th and 90th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> of the frequency distribution of the data. Natural levels of heavy metals in the soil samples followed the order: Cr > Zn > Cu > Co > Pb > Ni > and Cd (aqua regia) and Cr > Co > Cu > Pb > Zn > Ni > Cd (EPA3051). These <span class="hlt">values</span> are generally lower than those reported in the Brazilian and international literature, which highlights the importance of establishing reference <span class="hlt">values</span> for each state or for each soil type, taking into account the geomorphological, pedological, and geological diversity of the region under study. PMID:23138418</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12140851','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12140851"><span id="translatedtitle">Make your <span class="hlt">values</span> mean something.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lencioni, Patrick M</p> <p>2002-07-01</p> <p>Take a look at this list of corporate <span class="hlt">values</span>: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's <span class="hlt">values</span>. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate <span class="hlt">values</span> of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most <span class="hlt">values</span> statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty <span class="hlt">values</span> statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong <span class="hlt">values</span>--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their <span class="hlt">values</span> statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of <span class="hlt">values</span>: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a <span class="hlt">values</span> initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. <span class="hlt">Values</span> initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best <span class="hlt">values</span> efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core <span class="hlt">values</span> into everything. It's not enough to hang your <span class="hlt">values</span> statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate <span class="hlt">values</span> is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate <span class="hlt">values</span>. PMID:12140851</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262248','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4262248"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Value</span> of Robotically Assisted Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Goodman, Avi; Jarrett, Craig; Williams, Sarah J.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Mick, Stephanie L.; Bonatti, Johannes; Blackstone, Eugene H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Importance The <span class="hlt">value</span> of robotically assisted surgery for mitral valve disease is questioned because the high cost of care associated with robotic technology may outweigh its clinical benefits. Objective To investigate conditions under which benefits of robotic surgery mitigate high technology costs. Design Clinical cohort study comparing costs of robotic vs. three contemporaneous conventional surgical approaches for degenerative mitral disease. Surgery was performed from 2006–2011, and comparisons were based on intent-to-treat, with propensity-matching used to reduce selection bias. Setting Large multi-specialty academic medical center. Participants 1,290 patients aged 57±11 years, 27% women, underwent mitral repair for regurgitation from posterior leaflet prolapse. Robotic surgery was used in 473, complete sternotomy in 227, partial sternotomy in 349, and anterolateral thoracotomy in 241. Three propensity-matched groups were formed based on demographics, symptoms, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, valve pathophysiology, and echocardiographic measurements: robotic vs. sternotomy (n=198 pairs) vs. partial sternotomy (n=293 pairs) vs. thoracotomy (n=224 pairs). Interventions Mitral valve repair. Main Outcome Measures Cost of care, expressed as robotic capital investment, maintenance, and direct technical hospital cost, and benefit of care, based on differences in recovery time. Results Median cost of care for robotically assisted surgery exceeded the cost of alternative approaches by 27% (−5%, 68%), 32% (−6%, 70%), and 21% (−2%, 54%) (median [15th, 85th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span>]) for complete sternotomy, partial sternotomy, and anterolateral thoracotomy, respectively. Higher operative costs were partially offset by lower postoperative costs and earlier return to work: median 35 days for robotic surgery, 49 for complete sternotomy, 56 for partial sternotomy, and 42 for anterolateral thoracotomy. Resulting net differences in cost of robotic surgery vs. the three</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840733','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3840733"><span id="translatedtitle">Prognostic <span class="hlt">value</span> of alveolar volume in systolic heart failure: a prospective observational study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Ventilatory impairment is known to occur in patients with heart failure (HF). Alveolar volume (VA) is measured by the dilution of an inert gas during a single breath-hold maneuver. Such measurement is sensitive to ventilatory disturbances. We conducted a prospective, observational study to establish the prognostic <span class="hlt">value</span> of VA in systolic HF. Methods We studied 260 consecutive patients who were hospitalized for systolic HF. All patients were evaluated under stable clinical conditions, before hospital discharge. Lung function studies included spirometry and determination of the lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO) by the single-breath method. We also measured the cardiothoracic ratio on frontal chest radiographs, and the circulating levels of N-terminal pro-hormone of B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). The hazard ratio (HR) of death was estimated with Cox regression, and the <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> of survival time with Laplace regression. For survival analysis, VA was categorized as < 80% (n = 135), or ≥ 80% of the predicted <span class="hlt">value</span> (n = 125). Results Follow-up had a median duration of 2.7 years (interquartile range, 1.1 to 4.2 years). The crude mortality rate was 27% in the whole sample, 36% in patients with VA < 80%, and 16% in those with VA ≥ 80%. The HR of death was 2.3-fold higher in patients with VA < 80% than in those with VA ≥80% (p = 0.002). After adjusting for age, New York Heart Association class III-IV, cardiothoracic ratio >0.5, NT-proBNP, persistent atrial fibrillation, DLCO, COPD comorbidity, use of beta-blockers and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, the HR decreased to 1.9 but remained statistically significant (p = 0.039). Two percent of the patients with VA < 80% died about 0.9 years earlier than those with VA ≥ 80% (p = 0.033). The difference in survival time at the 20th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> was 0.8 years. Conclusions VA is a significant, independent predictor of reduced survival in</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24571532','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24571532"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> beyond <span class="hlt">value</span>? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Skeggs, Bev</p> <p>2014-03-01</p> <p>We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of <span class="hlt">values</span> and making it subject to capital's logic. All <span class="hlt">values</span> are reduced to <span class="hlt">value</span>. Yet <span class="hlt">values</span> and <span class="hlt">value</span> are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which <span class="hlt">value</span> eclipses <span class="hlt">values</span> and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how <span class="hlt">values</span> will always haunt <span class="hlt">value</span>. PMID:24571532</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26291751','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26291751"><span id="translatedtitle">Cyphenothrin Flea and Tick Squeeze-On for Dogs: Evaluation of Potential Health Risks Based on the Results of Observational Biological Monitoring.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Driver, Jeffrey H; Ross, John H; Holden, Larry R; Selim, Sami; Sharp, Janice K; Carlson, Dave; Nouvel, Larry</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>An observational biomonitoring study was conducted involving adults and children in households that purchased and applied a cyphenothrin-containing spot-on product for dogs as part of their normal pet care practices. The 3- to 6-yr-old children had greater exposure than the adult applicators in the same house, 3.8 and 0.6 μg/kg body weight, respectively. The mean measured <span class="hlt">values</span> in children were 13-fold lower than those estimated using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) current standard operating procedures (SOP) for pet products (assuming 5% dermal absorption), although the maximum absorbed dosage of one child on one day was equivalent to the default <span class="hlt">value</span> derived from the SOPs. With regard to potential human health risks, it can be concluded that despite the inherent conservatism in both the exposure and toxicology data, the margins of exposure (MOE) were consistently greater than 100 for average, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>, and maximum exposures. More specifically, the results of this study demonstrated that the MOE were consistently greater than 1,000 for mean exposures and exceeded 100 for <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> and maximum measured exposures, which clearly indicates a reasonable certainty of no harm when using the cyphenothrin spot-on products. It is also noteworthy that Sergeant's spot-on products containing cyphenothrin currently sold in the United States have lower weight percentages of active ingredient and lower applied amounts than those used by all but two of the participant households in this study. PMID:26291751</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3396587','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3396587"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Yang, M; Zhu, X R; Park, PC; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, R; Virshup, G; Clayton, J; Dong, L</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0–3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield Numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The <span class="hlt">values</span> recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced <span class="hlt">value</span> (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction. PMID:22678123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.4095Y','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012PMB....57.4095Y"><span id="translatedtitle">Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Yang, Ming; Zhu, X. Ronald; Park, Peter C.; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E.; Dong, Lei</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The <span class="hlt">values</span> recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced <span class="hlt">value</span> (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=factoring&pg=3&id=EJ909154','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=factoring&pg=3&id=EJ909154"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Parallel Analysis Methods for Determining the Number of Factors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Crawford, Aaron V.; Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo; Scott, Lietta; Svetina, Dubravka; Thompson, Marilyn S.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Population and sample simulation approaches were used to compare the performance of parallel analysis using principal component analysis (PA-PCA) and parallel analysis using principal axis factoring (PA-PAF) to identify the number of underlying factors. Additionally, the accuracies of the mean eigenvalue and the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> eigenvalue criteria…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Childhood+AND+Obesity&pg=5&id=EJ997841','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Childhood+AND+Obesity&pg=5&id=EJ997841"><span id="translatedtitle">Chef of the Week</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Thompson, Dee</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>There is an overwhelming amount of research and data on childhood nutrition due to drastic increases in childhood obesity (classified as a BMI index greater than the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> for their height/weight). Obesity amounts have tripled in the last 30 years for children who fall in the age range of the author's students. The effects of childhood…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED422356.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED422356.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Predictors of Academic Giftedness among U.S. High School Students: Evidence from a Nationally Representative Multivariate Analysis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Modi, Manisha; Konstantopoulos, Spyros; Hedges, Larry V.</p> <p></p> <p>Logistic regression analyses were employed using a nationally representative sample of high school seniors to determine how student, socioeconomic status, home environment, community, and school variables relate to academic talent. Students identified as talented scored at or above the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> on a composite academic achievement test.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212694','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=212694"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality of life in Mexican American children following a weight management program</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Our objective was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in at-risk for overweight and overweight Mexican American children after participating in 6 months of intensive weight management or self-help. Eighty sixth- and seventh-grade at-risk for overweight (BMI >= 85th to < <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>) and overweight...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=319785','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/Publications.htm?seq_no_115=319785"><span id="translatedtitle">Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-sec75-57.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title40-vol16/pdf/CFR-2010-title40-vol16-sec75-57.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">40 CFR 75.57 - General recordkeeping provisions.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-07-01</p> <p>... data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input). 9 <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>... period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input... lookback period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858608','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4858608"><span id="translatedtitle">Prognostic <span class="hlt">value</span> of FDG PET/CT-based metabolic tumor volumes in metastatic triple negative breast cancer patients</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Marinelli, Brett; Espinet-Col, Carina; Ulaner, Gary A; McArthur, Heather L; Gonen, Mithat; Jochelson, Maxine; Weber, Wolfgang A</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>FDG PET/CT-based measures of tumor burden show promise to predict survival in patients with metastatic breast cancer, but the patient populations studied so far are heterogeneous. The reports may have been confounded by the markedly different prognosis of the various subtypes of breast cancer. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the correlation between tumor burden on FDG PET/CT and overall survival (OS) in patients within a defined population: metastatic triple negative breast cancer (MTNBC). FDG PET/CT scans of 47 consecutive MTNBC patients (54±12 years-old) with no other known malignancies were analyzed. A total 393 lesions were identified, and maximum standardized uptake <span class="hlt">value</span> (SUVmax), mean SUV, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion number (TLN) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG), were measured and correlated with patient survival by Mantel-Cox tests and Cox regression analysis. At a median follow-up time of 12.4 months, 41 patients died with a median OS of 12.1 months. Patients with MTV less than 51.5 ml lived nearly three times longer (22 vs 7.1 months) than those with a higher MTV (χ2=21.3, P<0.0001). In a multivariate Cox regression analysis only TLN and MTV were significantly correlated with survival. Those with an MTV burden in the 75th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> versus the 25th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> had a hazard ratio of 6.94 (p=0.001). In patients with MTNBC, MTV appears to be a strong prognostic factor. If validated in prospective studies, MTV may be a valuable tool for risk stratification of MTNBC patients in clinical trials and to guide patient management. PMID:27186439</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16803974','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16803974"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">value</span> of life and the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life extension.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Horrobin, Steven</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life, as well as, and as distinct from the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic <span class="hlt">value</span> of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life's continuance and so to the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the <span class="hlt">value</span> of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental <span class="hlt">value</span>. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics. PMID:16803974</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sociology+AND+functionalist&id=EJ558709','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Sociology+AND+functionalist&id=EJ558709"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> Added: Some Sociological Interpretations of <span class="hlt">Values</span> Education.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hartley, David</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Examines current British concerns about the need for <span class="hlt">values</span> education from the perspective of postmodern social theorists. Argues that, viewed sociologically, the current approach to <span class="hlt">values</span> education is broadly functionalist (and conservative), for it fails to come to terms with the deep structure of contemporary society, specifically consumerism…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1045069.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1045069.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward <span class="hlt">Value</span> and <span class="hlt">Values</span> Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define <span class="hlt">value</span> and "<span class="hlt">values</span> education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JCoAM.170..145D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2004JCoAM.170..145D"><span id="translatedtitle">Updating the singular <span class="hlt">value</span> decomposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, Philip I.; Smith, M. I. Matthew I.</p> <p>2004-09-01</p> <p>The spectral decomposition of a symmetric matrix A with small off-diagonal and distinct diagonal elements can be approximated using a direct scheme of R. Davies and Modi (Linear Algebra Appl. 77 (1986) 61). In this paper a generalization of this method for computing the singular <span class="hlt">value</span> decomposition of close-to-diagonal is presented. When A has repeated or "close" singular <span class="hlt">values</span> it is possible to apply the direct method to split the problem in two with one part containing the well-separated singular <span class="hlt">values</span> and one requiring the computation of the "close" singular <span class="hlt">values</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22extension+bridges%22&id=EJ498547','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22extension+bridges%22&id=EJ498547"><span id="translatedtitle">Extension's <span class="hlt">Values</span>: A Bridge across Turbulent Times.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Safrit, R. Dale; And Others</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Cooperative Extension organizational <span class="hlt">values</span> systems include personnel <span class="hlt">values</span>, process <span class="hlt">values</span>, and product (program) <span class="hlt">values</span>. The <span class="hlt">values</span> systems are the basis for making program decisions and a source of professional satisfaction if the <span class="hlt">values</span> are congruent with beliefs. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=primary+AND+data&pg=2&id=EJ1061870','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=primary+AND+data&pg=2&id=EJ1061870"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Literacy Practices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of <span class="hlt">value</span>, that is, "which literacy practices do people most <span class="hlt">value</span>?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+impact&pg=3&id=EJ956974','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=social+AND+impact&pg=3&id=EJ956974"><span id="translatedtitle">Social <span class="hlt">Value</span> and Adult Learning</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lamb, Penny</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>An examination of the current government policy discourse on social <span class="hlt">value</span> and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social <span class="hlt">value</span> takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=VALUE+AND+ABSOLUTE&id=EJ765743"><span id="translatedtitle">Be Resolute about Absolute <span class="hlt">Value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidd, Margaret L.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This article explores how conceptualization of absolute <span class="hlt">value</span> can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute <span class="hlt">value</span> is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+situation&pg=2&id=EJ666662','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=international+AND+situation&pg=2&id=EJ666662"><span id="translatedtitle">Cultural <span class="hlt">Values</span> for International Schools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pearce, Richard</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Argues that understanding how <span class="hlt">values</span> operate, both in individual and cultural contexts, could help educators to determine what can and should be achieved with students and to build an appropriate program. Stresses that <span class="hlt">values</span> specific to the international school's situation must be considered. (AUTH/NB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newman&id=EJ1025940','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newman&id=EJ1025940"><span id="translatedtitle">Finding <span class="hlt">Value</span> in the University</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Harris, Suzy</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In the field of higher education Newman has been dismissed as irrelevant and out of date. Ronald Barnett, for example, is highly critical of his "<span class="hlt">value</span>-laden" vision of a particular kind of university. This article seeks to consider the question of <span class="hlt">values</span> more carefully, suggesting that Newman's writings do have strong resonances…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Humanistic+AND+therapies&pg=4&id=EJ134288','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Humanistic+AND+therapies&pg=4&id=EJ134288"><span id="translatedtitle">Marital Therapy and Changing <span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Implications of Feminist and Humanistic <span class="hlt">values</span> for marriage are conceptualized. Their effects on therapist orientation and definitions of the viable marriage are discussed, together with proposed alternatives in marital intervention. It is concluded that <span class="hlt">value</span> orientations and standards of positive mental health could provide therapists and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-08/pdf/2012-13903.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-06-08/pdf/2012-13903.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 34073 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-06-08</p> <p>... (53 FR 3140), and the Circular was last revised in May 1993 (58 FR 31056). The Circular specifically... BUDGET Office of Federal Procurement Policy <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering AGENCY: Office of Federal Procurement... Circular No. A-131, ``<span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering''. SUMMARY: The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) in...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polis&pg=4&id=ED277540','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=polis&pg=4&id=ED277540"><span id="translatedtitle">Modern Science and Human <span class="hlt">Values</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lowrance, William W.</p> <p></p> <p>Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how <span class="hlt">values</span> and science intersect and how social <span class="hlt">values</span> can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+shortage&pg=2&id=EJ180264','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+shortage&pg=2&id=EJ180264"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Valuing</span> Confrontations with the Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kelly, Joseph T.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Suggests teaching methods and materials for use by high school and college social studies teachers as they help students develop <span class="hlt">valuing</span> skills. Entitled <span class="hlt">Valuing</span> Confrontation With The Future (VCF), the materials promote consideration of provocative episodes such as electrical stimulation of the human brain and a congressional ban on large pets…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-15/pdf/2012-6244.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2012-03-15/pdf/2012-6244.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">77 FR 15250 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-03-15</p> <p>... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register at 76 FR 36410 soliciting public comments on its... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF40 <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... of <span class="hlt">value</span> engineering (VE) analysis in the planning and development of highway improvement...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hawthorn&pg=5&id=ED366528','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Hawthorn&pg=5&id=ED366528"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> Strategies for Classroom Teachers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating <span class="hlt">values</span> education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to <span class="hlt">values</span> in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychotherapy+AND+goal&pg=3&id=EJ397523','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=psychotherapy+AND+goal&pg=3&id=EJ397523"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> in Counseling and Psychotherapy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Patterson, C. H.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Considers various ways that <span class="hlt">values</span> enter into counseling or psychotherapy, with particular attention to goals of the process and methods or procedures by which counselor or therapist implements process. Suggests approach to counseling and psychotherapy that recognizes and incorporates <span class="hlt">values</span> basic to democratic philosophy and the goal of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teen+AND+picture&pg=3&id=EJ208996','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=teen+AND+picture&pg=3&id=EJ208996"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> Education: Texts and Supplements.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Curriculum Review, 1979</p> <p>1979-01-01</p> <p>This column describes and evaluates almost 40 texts, instructional kits, and teacher resources on <span class="hlt">values</span>, interpersonal relations, self-awareness, self-help skills, juvenile psychology, and youth suicide. Eight effective picture books for the primary grades and seven titles in <span class="hlt">values</span> fiction for teens are also reviewed. (SJL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4832092','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4832092"><span id="translatedtitle">SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM <span class="hlt">VALUES</span> FORM IRON <span class="hlt">VALUES</span> BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.</p> <p>1961-12-19</p> <p>A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron <span class="hlt">values</span>. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the <span class="hlt">values</span> to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593147','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24593147"><span id="translatedtitle">Human health risks of geothermally derived metals and other contaminants in wild-caught food.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Phillips, Ngaire R; Stewart, Michael; Olsen, Greg; Hickey, Christopher W</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) associated with geothermally influenced lakes and rivers represent a potential health risk to communities where wild-caught food is consumed. The Rotorua Lakes region of New Zealand has extensive natural geothermal activity and a large proportion (35%) of indigenous Māori population, for whom wild food gathering is an important cultural activity. The aim of this study was to measure selected heavy metal and organochlorine (OC) concentrations in important local fish and shellfish species and assess the potential health risk to the local population of consuming these species. Following U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) protocols, consumption limits were calculated based on both excess lifetime cancer risk and noncancer risk. These were compared with local consumption rates, which were determined by questionnaire (n = 19). Median and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> contaminant concentrations were calculated to approximate random and most extreme contaminant consumption scenarios. Only Hg concentrations exceeded established Food Standards Australia New Zealand (FSANZ) guideline <span class="hlt">values</span> of 0.5 mg/kg, namely, for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 62% of the study sites) and koura (freshwater crayfish; Paranephrops planifrons; 25% of sites). The major risk was from consumption of trout, where the local consumption rate (1.5 meals/mo) exceeded the consumption limit of 0.9 meals/mo (median data) and 0.4 meals/mo (<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> data). Shellfish--pipi (Paphies australis) and mussel (Perna canaliculus)--collected from the only estuarine site also had local consumption rates (3.5 meals/mo) above calculated consumption limits (2.6 and 2.9 meals/mo, respectively). Our results, while based on a limited sample size and therefore exploratory in nature, nevertheless provide the basis for developing consumption guidelines. This study makes a significant contribution to broadening our understanding of the complexities of managing customary fisheries. PMID</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317313','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317313"><span id="translatedtitle">Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>AIM: To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean <span class="hlt">values</span> of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - < <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> for age and sex), obesity (BMI ≥ <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:25685291</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4128468','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4128468"><span id="translatedtitle">Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: New insights to functional characteristics at diagnosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cortes-Telles, Arturo; Forkert, Lutz; O’Donnell, Denis E; Morán-Mendoza, Onofre</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: The lung function of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) has not been characterized in detail. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the heterogeneous physiological abnormalities that exist in patients with IPF during their initial clinical evaluation. METHODS: Lung function tests from 93 patients, performed within six months of the initial diagnosis of IPF, were obtained from a referral pulmonary function laboratory at a tertiary care hospital in Canada. A restrictive pattern was defined as total lung capacity (TLC) <<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of predicted <span class="hlt">value</span>. Patients with obstructive lung disease, lung cancer, emphysema and other restrictive lung diseases were excluded. RESULTS: On diagnosis, 73% of patients with IPF had a restrictive pattern, with a mean TLC of 72% of predicted. Mean forced vital capacity (FVC) was 71% and 44% of patients had an FVC <<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. Mean diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) was 60% and DLco/alveolar volume (VA) 92% of predicted. Increased severity of restriction – based on TLC – was associated with lower DLco (74% of predicted in mild restriction and 39% of predicted in severe restriction) and higher forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/FVC ratio (82% of predicted in mild restriction and 90% of predicted in severe restriction) but not with age (76 years in mild restriction and 69 years in severe restriction). Regardless of severity of restriction, the average DLco/VA (≥86% of predicted) remained within normal limits. CONCLUSIONS: One in four patients with IPF had normal TLC and more than one-half had a normal FVC during initial evaluation. As the severity of the restriction increased, FEV1/FVC increased, DLco decreased but DLco/VA remained normal. PMID:24712014</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316185','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316185"><span id="translatedtitle">A probabilistic estimation of fluoride intake by infants up to the age of 4 months from infant formula reconstituted with tap water in the fluoridated regions of Ireland.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Anderson, W A; Pratt, I; Ryan, M R; Flynn, A</p> <p>2004-01-01</p> <p>Two probabilistic models were developed to estimate the acute and chronic exposure to fluoride of exclusively formula-fed infants aged 0-4 months as a result of the consumption of infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated tap water in Ireland. The estimates were based on calculated infant formula consumption and accepted body weight standards, together with reported concentrations of fluoride in infant formula powder and measured <span class="hlt">values</span> for the fluoride content of water in Ireland. The mean acute exposure of infants to fluoride on any single day in areas served by 387 fluoridated water supplies was estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.14 mg/kg body weight depending on age group (<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> 0.2 and 0.26 mg/kg b.w., respectively). These predicted intakes were well below the intake of fluoride associated with acute toxic effects, which is considered to be 5 mg fluoride (F(-))/kg body weight. The mean chronic exposure of infants to fluoride was estimated to be between 0.106 and 0.170 mg/kg b.w./day depending on body weight (<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> 0.108 and 0.172 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). This estimate described the average daily fluoride intake of infants during the first 4 months of life residing in the areas served by 226 water supplies that achieved an average yearly fluoride concentration below 1.03 mg/l. Dental fluorosis may be considered to be the only risk at these low doses and from our work it is estimated that there is a very low risk of moderate dental fluorosis of the permanent dentition in infants exposed to fluoride at these levels. PMID:15316185</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..171C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ClDy..tmp..171C"><span id="translatedtitle">Rainfall variability and trends of the past six decades (1950-2014) in the subtropical NW Argentine Andes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Castino, F.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The eastern flanks of the Central Andes are characterized by deep convection, exposing them to hydrometeorological extreme events, often resulting in floods and a variety of mass movements. We assessed the spatiotemporal pattern of rainfall trends and the changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events (≥<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>) along an E-W traverse across the southern Central Andes using rain-gauge and high-resolution gridded datasets (CPC-uni and TRMM 3B42 V7). We generated different climate indices and made three key observations: (1) an increase of the annual rainfall has occurred at the transition between low (<0.5 km) and intermediate (0.5-3 km) elevations between 1950 and 2014. Also, rainfall increases during the wet season and, to a lesser degree, decreases during the dry season. Increasing trends in annual total amounts characterize the period 1979-2014 in the arid, high-elevation southern Andean Plateau, whereas trend reversals with decreasing annual total amounts were found at low elevations. (2) For all analyzed periods, we observed small or no changes in the median <span class="hlt">values</span> of the rainfall-frequency distribution, but significant trends with intensification or attenuation in the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. (3) In the southern Andean Plateau, extreme rainfall events exhibit trends towards increasing magnitude and, to a lesser degree, frequency during the wet season, at least since 1979. Our analysis revealed that low (<0.5 km), intermediate (0.5-3 km), and high-elevation (>3 km) areas respond differently to changing climate conditions, and the transition zone between low and intermediate elevations is characterized by the most significant changes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004564','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5004564"><span id="translatedtitle">The examination of relationship between socioeconomic factors and number of tuberculosis using quantile regression model for count data in Iran 2010-2011</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Sarvi, Fatemeh; Momenian, Somayeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Pahlavanzadeh, Bagher; Nasehi, Mahshid; Sekhavati, Eghbal</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Poverty and low socioeconomic status are the most important reasons of increasing the global burden of tuberculosis, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries for particular groups. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and the number of tuberculosis patients using quantile regression for count data. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 11,320 tuberculosis patients from March 2010 to March 201 in Iran. Data was gathered from the 345 sections of Iran by Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Statistical Center of Iran. The jittering method was applied for smoothing, and then, the quantile regression for count data was fitted. The AIC was used to compare the fitness of quantile regression for count data model and Poisson log-linear model. The R (3.0.1) software and Quantreg and AER packages were used for all analysis and modeling of the data. Results: The results of fitting the quantile regression for count data showed that in all <span class="hlt">percentiles</span>, the more increase in immigration rate, illiteracy rate, unemployment and urbanization rates, the more tuberculosis morbidity rate was increased. The maximum increase of tuberculosis due to immigration rate, urbanization rate, unemployment rate, and illiteracy rate was in <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (β^=0.315), 85'Th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (β^=0.162), 75'Th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (β^=0.114 ), and <span class="hlt">95</span>'<span class="hlt">Th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (β^=0.304), respectively. For 50th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> and higher <span class="hlt">percentiles</span>, with increasing the sum of physicians to the number of population, the tuberculosis morbidity rate was decreased, and the maximum decrease was in <span class="hlt">95</span>'<span class="hlt">Th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> ( β^=-0.1). For all <span class="hlt">percentiles</span>, the AIC showed that quantile regression for count data had been a better fit to data. Conclusion: With respect to the relationship between socioeconomic factors and TB rate, health care observers should pay close attention to improving these factors in Iran to reduce the TB mortality</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4826462','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4826462"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation under <span class="hlt">value</span>-based pricing</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘<span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime <span class="hlt">value</span> of an innovative drug (i.e., the <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime <span class="hlt">value</span> of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610623','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26610623"><span id="translatedtitle">Performance Measurement to Demonstrate <span class="hlt">Value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hyder, Joseph A; Hebl, James R</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>Anesthesiologists are obligated to demonstrate the <span class="hlt">value</span> of the care they provide. The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services has multiple performance-based payment programs to drive high-<span class="hlt">value</span> care and motivate integrated care for surgical patients and hospitalized patients. These programs rely on diverse arrays of performance measures and complex reporting rules. Among all specialties, anesthesiology has tremendous potential to effect wide-ranging change on diverse measures. Performance measures deserve scrutiny by anesthesiologists as tools to improve care, the means by which payment is determined, and as a means to demonstrate the <span class="hlt">value</span> of care to surgeons, hospitals, and patients. PMID:26610623</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11b4005O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016ERL....11b4005O"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average <span class="hlt">values</span> are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme <span class="hlt">values</span>, as represented by the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme <span class="hlt">values</span>, especially during warmer months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7072O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.7072O"><span id="translatedtitle">Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average <span class="hlt">values</span> are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme <span class="hlt">values</span>, as represented by the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme <span class="hlt">values</span>, especially during warmer months.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552725','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20552725"><span id="translatedtitle">Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> <span class="hlt">values</span> of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> <span class="hlt">values</span> of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI <span class="hlt">values</span> exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04). PMID:20552725</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sucs.conf..524S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010sucs.conf..524S"><span id="translatedtitle">Alerting of Laboratory Critical <span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Song, Sang Hoon; Park, Kyoung Un; Song, Junghan; Paik, Hyeon Young; Lee, Chi Woo; Bang, Su Mi; Hong, Joon Seok; Lee, Hyun Joo; Cho, In-Sook; Kim, Jeong Ah; Kim, Hyun-Young; Kim, Yoon</p> <p></p> <p>Critical <span class="hlt">value</span> is defined as a result suggesting that the patient is in danger unless appropriate action is taken immediately. We designed an automated reporting system of critical <span class="hlt">values</span> and evaluated its performance. Fifteen critical <span class="hlt">values</span> were defined and 2-4 doctors were assigned to receive short message service (SMS).Laboratory results in LIS and EMR were called back to the DIA server. The rule engine named U-brain in the CDSS server was run in real-time and decision if the laboratory data was critical was made. The CDSS system for alerting of laboratory critical <span class="hlt">values</span> was fast and stable without additional burden to the entire EMR system. Continuous communication with clinicians and feedback of clinical performance are mandatory for the refinement and development of user-friendly CDSS contents. Appropriate clinical parameters are necessary for demonstration of the usefulness of the system.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092260"><span id="translatedtitle">Assessing <span class="hlt">value</span> representation in animals.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome <span class="hlt">value</span> and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-<span class="hlt">value</span>. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome <span class="hlt">value</span> in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the <span class="hlt">value</span> of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions. PMID:25092260</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792499','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/792499"><span id="translatedtitle">ISO 14001 EMS <span class="hlt">VALUE</span> PROPOSITION.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>BRIGGS,S.L.K.</p> <p>2001-11-06</p> <p>The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and <span class="hlt">value</span> for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2563408','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2563408"><span id="translatedtitle">Public health and human <span class="hlt">values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Häyry, M</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the <span class="hlt">values</span> held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other <span class="hlt">values</span>. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044232','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4044232"><span id="translatedtitle">Clarifying <span class="hlt">values</span>: an updated review</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Consensus guidelines have recommended that decision aids include a process for helping patients clarify their <span class="hlt">values</span>. We sought to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to the use of <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification methods in patient decision aids. Methods Building on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration’s 2005 review of <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification methods in decision aids, we convened a multi-disciplinary expert group to examine key definitions, decision-making process theories, and empirical evidence about the effects of <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification methods in decision aids. To summarize the current state of theory and evidence about the role of <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification methods in decision aids, we undertook a process of evidence review and summary. Results <span class="hlt">Values</span> clarification methods (VCMs) are best defined as methods to help patients think about the desirability of options or attributes of options within a specific decision context, in order to identify which option he/she prefers. Several decision making process theories were identified that can inform the design of <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification methods, but no single “best” practice for how such methods should be constructed was determined. Our evidence review found that existing VCMs were used for a variety of different decisions, rarely referenced underlying theory for their design, but generally were well described in regard to their development process. Listing the pros and cons of a decision was the most common method used. The 13 trials that compared decision support with or without VCMs reached mixed results: some found that VCMs improved some decision-making processes, while others found no effect. Conclusions <span class="hlt">Values</span> clarification methods may improve decision-making processes and potentially more distal outcomes. However, the small number of evaluations of VCMs and, where evaluations exist, the heterogeneity in outcome measures makes it difficult to determine their</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10127040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10127040"><span id="translatedtitle">From <span class="hlt">value</span> chain to <span class="hlt">value</span> constellation: designing interactive strategy.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Normann, R; Ramírez, R</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>In today's fast-changing competitive environment, strategy is no longer a matter of positioning a fixed set of activities along that old industrial model, the <span class="hlt">value</span> chain. Successful companies increasingly do not just add <span class="hlt">value</span>, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of <span class="hlt">value</span> by new combinations of players. What is so different about this new logic of <span class="hlt">value</span>? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create <span class="hlt">value</span> for themselves. But as potential offerings grow more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the ongoing reconfiguration and integration of its competencies and customers. The authors provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational practices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national association have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations to enlarge their role, competencies, and profits. French public-service concessionaires have mastered the art of conducting a creative dialogue between their customers--local governments in France and around the world--and a perpetually expanding set of infrastructure competencies. PMID:10127040</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2851703','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2851703"><span id="translatedtitle">A nomogram for P <span class="hlt">values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background P <span class="hlt">values</span> are the most commonly used tool to measure evidence against a hypothesis. Several attempts have been made to transform P <span class="hlt">values</span> to minimum Bayes factors and minimum posterior probabilities of the hypothesis under consideration. However, the acceptance of such calibrations in clinical fields is low due to inexperience in interpreting Bayes factors and the need to specify a prior probability to derive a lower bound on the posterior probability. Methods I propose a graphical approach which easily translates any prior probability and P <span class="hlt">value</span> to minimum posterior probabilities. The approach allows to visually inspect the dependence of the minimum posterior probability on the prior probability of the null hypothesis. Likewise, the tool can be used to read off, for fixed posterior probability, the maximum prior probability compatible with a given P <span class="hlt">value</span>. The maximum P <span class="hlt">value</span> compatible with a given prior and posterior probability is also available. Results Use of the nomogram is illustrated based on results from a randomized trial for lung cancer patients comparing a new radiotherapy technique with conventional radiotherapy. Conclusion The graphical device proposed in this paper will enhance the understanding of P <span class="hlt">values</span> as measures of evidence among non-specialists. PMID:20233437</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15807043','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15807043"><span id="translatedtitle">The relative <span class="hlt">value</span> of growth.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mass, Nathaniel J</p> <p>2005-04-01</p> <p>Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder <span class="hlt">value</span>. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds <span class="hlt">value</span> over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative <span class="hlt">value</span> of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder <span class="hlt">value</span>. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver <span class="hlt">value</span> and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful <span class="hlt">value</span>-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels. PMID:15807043</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12859001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12859001"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Valuing</span> biodiversity: reality or mirage?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dore, Mohammed H I; Webb, David</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this paper was to consider the social <span class="hlt">value</span> of biological diversity and explore if this <span class="hlt">value</span> could be expressed in terms of a unidimensional metric in money. Economics distinguishes between use-<span class="hlt">values</span> and non-use-<span class="hlt">values</span>, which are critically evaluated for <span class="hlt">valuing</span> biodiversity. It is shown that these utility-based valuations have severe limitations as they treat species in isolation from their ecological contexts. In contrast, ecosystem ecology regards ecosystems as an integrated non-linear and nonconvex system in which ecosystem functions can be understood as a four-component cycle; exploitation, accumulation of biomass, creative destruction and renewal. Within such a cycle, ecosystems can be seen to have two properties: stability and resilience. A good proxy for resilience is the probability of extinction of species, and social <span class="hlt">value</span> of biodiversity can be expressed as a partial ordering with this probability as an index. This approach is consistent with decision theory, of which social choice is an important component, pioneered by Arrow. PMID:12859001</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21409456','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21409456"><span id="translatedtitle">Likely <span class="hlt">values</span> of the Higgs vacuum expectation <span class="hlt">value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation <span class="hlt">value</span> (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring <span class="hlt">values</span> close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25689102','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25689102"><span id="translatedtitle">Active inference and epistemic <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Friston, Karl; Rigoli, Francesco; Ognibene, Dimitri; Mathys, Christoph; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Pezzulo, Giovanni</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We offer a formal treatment of choice behavior based on the premise that agents minimize the expected free energy of future outcomes. Crucially, the negative free energy or quality of a policy can be decomposed into extrinsic and epistemic (or intrinsic) <span class="hlt">value</span>. Minimizing expected free energy is therefore equivalent to maximizing extrinsic <span class="hlt">value</span> or expected utility (defined in terms of prior preferences or goals), while maximizing information gain or intrinsic <span class="hlt">value</span> (or reducing uncertainty about the causes of valuable outcomes). The resulting scheme resolves the exploration-exploitation dilemma: Epistemic <span class="hlt">value</span> is maximized until there is no further information gain, after which exploitation is assured through maximization of extrinsic <span class="hlt">value</span>. This is formally consistent with the Infomax principle, generalizing formulations of active vision based upon salience (Bayesian surprise) and optimal decisions based on expected utility and risk-sensitive (Kullback-Leibler) control. Furthermore, as with previous active inference formulations of discrete (Markovian) problems, ad hoc softmax parameters become the expected (Bayes-optimal) precision of beliefs about, or confidence in, policies. This article focuses on the basic theory, illustrating the ideas with simulations. A key aspect of these simulations is the similarity between precision updates and dopaminergic discharges observed in conditioning paradigms. PMID:25689102</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694860','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25694860"><span id="translatedtitle">Education for <span class="hlt">values</span> and bioethics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>"Education for <span class="hlt">Values</span> and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the <span class="hlt">values</span> it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal <span class="hlt">Values</span> and Survey of Interpersonal <span class="hlt">Values</span>. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic <span class="hlt">values</span> of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6045789','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6045789"><span id="translatedtitle">Applied extreme-<span class="hlt">value</span> statistics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kinnison, R.R.</p> <p>1983-05-01</p> <p>The statistical theory of extreme <span class="hlt">values</span> is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical <span class="hlt">value</span>. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme <span class="hlt">value</span> theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme <span class="hlt">value</span> problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme <span class="hlt">value</span> problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lights+AND+work&id=EJ1054680','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lights+AND+work&id=EJ1054680"><span id="translatedtitle">Can <span class="hlt">Value</span> Added Add <span class="hlt">Value</span> to Teacher Evaluation?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Darling-Hammond, Linda</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The five thoughtful papers included in this issue of "Educational Researcher" ("ER") raise new questions about the use of <span class="hlt">value</span>-added methods (VAMs) to estimate teachers' contributions to students' learning as part of personnel evaluation. The papers address both technical and implementation concerns, considering potential…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=students%27+AND+self-realization&pg=3&id=EJ770869','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=students%27+AND+self-realization&pg=3&id=EJ770869"><span id="translatedtitle">On Improving the World: The <span class="hlt">Value(s</span>) of WICS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Grant, Barry</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Models of giftedness are not versions of the way the world is, but programmes for improving the world. They uphold visions of the good life, good society, and worthy character. They are vehicles for <span class="hlt">values</span>. Sternberg acknowledges this in his conclusion: "The important thing is to work together toward a common good--toward devising the best ways to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Plague&pg=7&id=EJ888366','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Plague&pg=7&id=EJ888366"><span id="translatedtitle">Being of <span class="hlt">Value</span>: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public <span class="hlt">Value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Dierking, Lynn D.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The discussion of public <span class="hlt">value</span> is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learn+AND+differently&pg=7&id=EJ1054679','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=learn+AND+differently&pg=7&id=EJ1054679"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> in <span class="hlt">Value</span> Added Depends on the Ecology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Braun, Henry</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>In this commentary, the author states that, as the contributions of the focal articles make clear, there is much to learn about how <span class="hlt">value</span>-added models (VAMs) are actually used in a variety of settings. Indeed, it is important to remember that VAM scores are but one component of a complex evaluation system that can play out differently in different…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strategic+AND+workshop&pg=2&id=EJ939512','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=strategic+AND+workshop&pg=2&id=EJ939512"><span id="translatedtitle">Diversity, <span class="hlt">Value</span> and Technology: Exposing <span class="hlt">Value</span> Pluralism in Institutional Strategy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Johnson, Mark; Smyth, Keith</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to explore ways in which <span class="hlt">value</span> pluralism in institutional learning-technology strategy can be exposed and managed with the use of learning activities involving stakeholder groups across and between educational institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The case-study of a series of national workshops on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MARGIN&pg=4&id=EJ997953','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MARGIN&pg=4&id=EJ997953"><span id="translatedtitle">What's the <span class="hlt">Value</span> of VAM (<span class="hlt">Value</span>-Added Modeling)?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Scherrer, Jimmy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The use of <span class="hlt">value</span>-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828068','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26828068"><span id="translatedtitle">Population and assay thresholds for the predictive <span class="hlt">value</span> of lipoprotein (a) for coronary artery disease: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Verbeek, Rutger; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Hovingh, G Kees; Witztum, Joseph L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>Variable agreement exists between different lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] measurement methods, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The predictive <span class="hlt">value</span> of Lp(a) measured by two different assays [Randox and University of California, San Diego (UCSD)] was determined in 623 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 948 controls in a case-control study within the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Participants were divided into sex-specific quintiles, and by Lp(a) <50 versus ∼50 mg/dl, which represents the 80th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> in northern European subjects. Randox and UCSD Lp(a) levels were strongly correlated; Spearman's correlation coefficients for men, women, and sexes combined were 0.905, 0.915, and 0.909, respectively (P< 0.001 for each). The >80th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> cutoff <span class="hlt">values</span>, however, were 36 mg/dl and 24 mg/dl for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. Despite this, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD risk, with odds ratios of 2.18 (1.58-3.01) and 2.35 (1.70-3.26) for people in the top versus bottom Lp(a) quintile for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. This study demonstrates that CAD risk is present at lower Lp(a) levels than the currently suggested optimal Lp(a) level of <50 mg/dl. Appropriate thresholds may need to be population and assay specific until Lp(a) assays are standardized and Lp(a) thresholds are evaluated broadly across all populations at risk for CVD and aortic stenosis. PMID:26828068</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21063909','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21063909"><span id="translatedtitle">Professional <span class="hlt">values</span>, aesthetic <span class="hlt">values</span>, and the ends of trade.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Edgar, Andrew</p> <p>2011-05-01</p> <p>Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The <span class="hlt">values</span> of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or <span class="hlt">value</span>. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional <span class="hlt">values</span> emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the <span class="hlt">values</span> that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the <span class="hlt">values</span> of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2862774','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2862774"><span id="translatedtitle">Re-<span class="hlt">valuing</span> the amygdala</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Morrison, Sara E.; Salzman, C. Daniel</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Summary Recent advances indicate that the amygdala represents valence: a general appetitive/aversive affective characteristic that bears similarity to the neuroeconomic concept of <span class="hlt">value</span>. Neurophysiological studies show that individual amygdala neurons respond differentially to a range of stimuli with positive or negative affective significance. Meanwhile, increasingly specific lesion/inactivation studies reveal that the amygdala is necessary for processes – e.g., fear extinction and reinforcer devaluation – that involve updating representations of <span class="hlt">value</span>. Furthermore, recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human amygdala mediates performance on many reward-based decision-making tasks. The encoding of affective significance by the amygdala might be best described as a representation of state <span class="hlt">value</span> – a representation that is useful for coordinating physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses in an affective/emotional context. PMID:20299204</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024399','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23024399"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> Question in Metaphysics.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kahane, Guy</p> <p>2012-07-01</p> <p>Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the <span class="hlt">value</span> of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which <span class="hlt">value</span> can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative <span class="hlt">value</span>. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3459319','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3459319"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> Question in Metaphysics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kahane, Guy</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the <span class="hlt">value</span> of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which <span class="hlt">value</span> can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative <span class="hlt">value</span>. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33E..04B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFMIN33E..04B"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Certainty (Invited)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barkstrom, B. R.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>It is clear that Earth science data are <span class="hlt">valued</span>, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of <span class="hlt">value</span> ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high <span class="hlt">value</span> on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places <span class="hlt">value</span> on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average <span class="hlt">value</span> of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme <span class="hlt">value</span> statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6518E..1KB','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6518E..1KB"><span id="translatedtitle">Realizing "<span class="hlt">value</span>-added" metrology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-<span class="hlt">value</span>-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "<span class="hlt">value</span>-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create <span class="hlt">value</span> through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate <span class="hlt">value</span> added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The <span class="hlt">value</span> of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-<span class="hlt">value</span>-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9697373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9697373"><span id="translatedtitle">Adding <span class="hlt">value</span> to your work.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chambers, D W</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Dentists and many staff enjoy characteristics of work associated with high levels of satisfaction and performance. Although <span class="hlt">value</span> can be added to oral health care professionals' jobs through enlargement, enrichment, rotations, and autonomous work groups, there are limits to these techniques. Controlling work performance by means of rewards is risky. Probably the most effective means of adding <span class="hlt">value</span> to jobs is through the Quality of Work Life approach, concentrating on job design and placement to make work meaningful and autonomous and to provide feedback. PMID:9697373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhyA..451..113L&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2016PhyA..451..113L&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Multifractal <span class="hlt">Value</span> at Risk model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>In this paper new <span class="hlt">Value</span> at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal <span class="hlt">Value</span> at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090040364','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090040364"><span id="translatedtitle">Thoughts on Earned <span class="hlt">Value</span> Assessments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Pido, Kelle</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned <span class="hlt">Value</span> reporting and Earned <span class="hlt">Value</span> Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003041','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5003041"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassava Breeding I: The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Breeding <span class="hlt">Value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding <span class="hlt">values</span> of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27621734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27621734"><span id="translatedtitle">Cassava Breeding I: The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Breeding <span class="hlt">Value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding <span class="hlt">values</span> of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding <span class="hlt">value</span> of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26407846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26407846"><span id="translatedtitle">High Levels of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in Brazilian Thermal Paper Receipts and Estimation of Daily Exposure.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rocha, Bruno Alves; Azevedo, Lara Ferreira; Gallimberti, Matheus; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor commonly employed as a color developer in thermal papers. Consequently, BPA derived from thermal papers has been considered an important source of exposure for humans, since this chemical may migrate from paper to skin upon contact. Further, due to recent restrictions on BPA use in some countries, it has been replaced by a new analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). The aim of the present study was to determine levels of BPA and BPS in 190 different thermal receipts, randomly collected from different locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, including receipts from supermarkets, general and fast-food restaurants, gas stations, bus and airplane tickets, and credit card and bank accounts. BPA and/or BPS were detected in 98% of samples at concentrations ranging from below the quantification limit to 4.3% (mg/100 mg paper). The obtained <span class="hlt">values</span> were higher than amounts previously reported in other countries. The estimated daily intake through dermal absorption from handling of thermal receipt papers was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of handling of papers by humans in both the general population and occupationally exposed individuals. Fifth <span class="hlt">percentile</span>, median, and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> daily intakes by the general population were 0.44, 1.42, and 2 μg/d, respectively, whereas the corresponding <span class="hlt">values</span> for occupationally exposed population are 21.8, 71 and 101 μg/d. The potential adverse consequences of elevated occupational exposure are currently being examined. PMID:26407846</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4845702','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4845702"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiac Autonomic Adjustments During Baroreflex Test in Obese and Non-Obese Preadolescents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Paschoal, Mário Augusto; Brunelli, Aline Carnio; Tamaki, Gabriela Midori; Magela, Sofia Serafim</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Recent studies have shown changes in cardiac autonomic control of obese preadolescents. Objective To assess the heart rate responses and cardiac autonomic modulation of obese preadolescents during constant expiratory effort. Methods This study assessed 10 obese and 10 non-obese preadolescents aged 9 to 12 years. The body mass index of the obese group was between the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> and 97th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> of the CDC National Center for Health Statistics growth charts, while that of the non-obese group, between the 5th and 85th <span class="hlt">percentiles</span>. Initially, they underwent anthropometric and clinical assessment, and their maximum expiratory pressures were obtained. Then, the preadolescents underwent a constant expiratory effort of 70% of their maximum expiratory pressure for 20 seconds, with heart rate measurement 5 minutes before, during and 5 minutes after it. Heart rate variability (HRV) and heart rate <span class="hlt">values</span> were analyzed by use of a software. Results The HRV did not differ when compared before and after the constant expiratory effort intra- and intergroup. The heart rate <span class="hlt">values</span> differed (p < 0.05) during the effort, being the total variation in non-obese preadolescents of 18.5 ± 1.5 bpm, and in obese, of 12.2 ± 1.3 bpm. Conclusion The cardiac autonomic modulation did not differ between the groups when comparing before and after the constant expiratory effort. However, the obese group showed lower cardiovascular response to baroreceptor stimuli during the effort, suggesting lower autonomic baroreflex sensitivity. PMID:27007224</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-22/pdf/2011-15540.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2011-06-22/pdf/2011-15540.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">76 FR 36410 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> Engineering</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-06-22</p> <p>... Columbia, and Puerto Rico. Frequency: One collection every year. Estimated Average Burden per Response: It... notice proposes updated regulations to enhance the integration of <span class="hlt">value</span> engineering (VE) analysis in the...'s VE regulations up-to-date and consistent with prior changes in legislation and regulations....</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211190','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18211190"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic demand and essential <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The <span class="hlt">value</span> of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential <span class="hlt">value</span> of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential <span class="hlt">value</span> determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer <span class="hlt">value</span>. PMID:18211190</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sex+AND+abuse&pg=5&id=EJ794764','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=sex+AND+abuse&pg=5&id=EJ794764"><span id="translatedtitle">Moral Rudders and Superintendent <span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kidder, Rushworth M.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>The core challenge is this--a difficult ethical decision, where <span class="hlt">values</span> are in play and both sides have powerful moral arguments in their favor. One case presented in this article outlines a dilemma faced by one teacher who became a superintendent herself. The case exploded dramatically in a midsize metropolitan school district, where a principal…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=companies+AND+models+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ921296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=companies+AND+models+AND+business&pg=2&id=EJ921296"><span id="translatedtitle">Forecasting the <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Training</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Basarab, Dave</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, <span class="hlt">value</span>, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+saving&pg=2&id=EJ566840','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+saving&pg=2&id=EJ566840"><span id="translatedtitle">Asian <span class="hlt">Values</span>, Education and Development.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cummings, William K.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>Maintains that many issues and questions concerning the relationship between Asian <span class="hlt">values</span> and education have never been addressed in a comprehensive and systematic manner. Outlines four broad areas of inquiry: origins of culture, savings/investment effect, quality effect, and stability effect. Includes statistical information on education and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=A&pg=4&id=EJ1051721','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=A&pg=4&id=EJ1051721"><span id="translatedtitle">A Blizzard of a <span class="hlt">Value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bostic, Jonathan D.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>"Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best <span class="hlt">value</span>?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=currency+AND+education&pg=3&id=EJ1029347','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=currency+AND+education&pg=3&id=EJ1029347"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of the Arts</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tubbs, Nigel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">value</span> of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tdcs+OR+tacs+OR+tms+AND+aggression+OR+violence&id=ED050180','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=tdcs+OR+tacs+OR+tms+AND+aggression+OR+violence&id=ED050180"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Values</span> Inventory for Children.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Guilford, Joan S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>The inventory is designed to measure seven dimensions of <span class="hlt">value</span> based on seven categories of needs: physiological; safety; love; esteem; aesthetic; self-actualization; and aggression. Each item was pretested and checked for validity and reliability. Two test formats, each containing 30 items, were prepared: a single picture format in which the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism+AND+united+AND+states&pg=6&id=EJ463211','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=capitalism+AND+united+AND+states&pg=6&id=EJ463211"><span id="translatedtitle">Baseball and American Cultural <span class="hlt">Values</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Briley, Ronald</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Presents a lesson plan exploring social <span class="hlt">values</span> and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2495752','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2495752"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">value</span> of percutaneous cholangiography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic <span class="hlt">value</span> to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=harvey&pg=5&id=EJ807538','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=harvey&pg=5&id=EJ807538"><span id="translatedtitle">More <span class="hlt">Value</span> to Defining Quality</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Van Kemenade, Everard; Pupius, Mike; Hardjono, Teun W.</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>There are lots of definitions of quality, and also of quality in education. Garvin (1984) discerns five approaches: the transcendental approach, the product-oriented approach, the customer-oriented approach, the manufacturing-oriented approach and the <span class="hlt">value</span>-for-money approach. Harvey and Green (1993) give five interrelated concepts of quality as:…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drum&pg=5&id=EJ726864','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=drum&pg=5&id=EJ726864"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching the <span class="hlt">Values</span> of Competition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buyer, Paul</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The author of this paper first learned about the <span class="hlt">values</span> of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ941596','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=effective+AND+research&pg=5&id=EJ941596"><span id="translatedtitle">What Works in <span class="hlt">Values</span> Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Berkowitz, Marvin W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Values</span> education (alternatively, moral education, character education) is the attempt, within schools, to craft pedagogies and supportive structures to foster the development of positive, ethical, pro-social inclinations and competencies in youth, including around strengthening their academic focus and achievement. Recent research has uncovered…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632282','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2632282"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> in Persons With Schizophrenia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This is an explorative study on the <span class="hlt">values</span> of persons with schizophrenia based on transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 40 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. <span class="hlt">Values</span> are action-guiding attitudes that subject human activities to be worthy of praise or blame. The schizophrenic <span class="hlt">value</span> system conveys an overall crisis of common sense. The outcome of this has been designated as antagonomia and idionomia. Antagonomia reflects the choice to take an eccentric stand in the face of commonly shared assumptions and the here and now “other.” Idionomia reflects the feeling of the radical uniqueness and exceptionality of one's being with respect to common sense and the other human beings. This sentiment of radical exceptionality is felt as a “gift,” often in view of an eschatological mission or a vocation to a superior, novel, metaphysical understanding of the world. The aim of this study is neither establishing new diagnostic criteria nor suggesting that <span class="hlt">values</span> play an etio-pathogenetical role in the development of schizophrenia but improving our understanding of the “meaning” of schizophrenic experiences and beliefs, and by doing so reducing stigmatization, and enhancing the specificity and validity of “psychotic symptoms” (especially bizarre delusions) and of “social and occupational dysfunction” through a detailed description of the anthropological and existential matrix they arise from. PMID:16940339</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183757','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27183757"><span id="translatedtitle">Promoting <span class="hlt">value</span> through antimicrobial stewardship.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lynch, John B</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>An institution that uses a <span class="hlt">value</span>-based approach to manage and prevent problems related to the suboptimal use of antibiotics will improve its bottom line through: Efficiencies brought about by aggressive management of institutional resources. Reductions in hospital admission/readmission. Fewer complications. Better transitions in care. Increased revenues through preferential referrals. PMID:27183757</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketer+AND+set+AND+goal&id=ED237391','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=marketer+AND+set+AND+goal&id=ED237391"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Value</span> Systems in International Business.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heiba, Farouk I.</p> <p></p> <p>Every society has a system of <span class="hlt">values</span> and seeks to achieve goals which it defines as desirable. To gain insight and a measure of understanding of another culture, international marketers can approach a country as a whole, seek out behavioral premises, obtain a theoretical knowledge of the culture, and learn the country's social heritage.…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=epistemology&pg=6&id=EJ1009841','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=epistemology&pg=6&id=EJ1009841"><span id="translatedtitle">The Epistemic <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Diversity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robertson, Emily</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic <span class="hlt">value</span>. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=authenticity&id=EJ904743','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=authenticity&id=EJ904743"><span id="translatedtitle">Richard Peters and <span class="hlt">Valuing</span> Authenticity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Degenhardt, M. A. B.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Richard Peters has been praised for the authenticity of his philosophy, and inquiry into aspects of the development of his philosophy reveals a profound authenticity. Yet authenticity is something he seems not to favour. The apparent paradox is resolved by observing historical changes in the understanding of authenticity as an important <span class="hlt">value</span>.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834926','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/834926"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Williams, Paul T.</p> <p>2002-12-21</p> <p>Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> as at the 5th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> than at the 5th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10662001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10662001"><span id="translatedtitle">Philanthropy's new agenda: creating <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Porter, M E; Kramer, M R</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>During the past two decades, the number of charitable foundations in the United States has doubled while the <span class="hlt">value</span> of their assets has increased more than 1,100%. As new wealth continues to pour into foundations, the authors take a timely look at the field and conclude that radical change is needed. First, they explain why. Compared with direct giving, foundations are strongly favored through tax preferences whose <span class="hlt">value</span> increases in rising stock markets. As a nation, then, we make a substantial investment in foundation philanthropy that goes well beyond the original gifts of private donors. We should therefore expect foundations to achieve a social impact disproportionate to their spending. If foundations serve merely as passive conduits for giving, then they not only fall far short of their potential but also fail to meet an important societal obligation. Drawing on Porter's work on competition and strategy, the authors then present a framework for thinking systematically about how foundations create <span class="hlt">value</span> and how the various approaches to <span class="hlt">value</span> creation can be deployed within the context of an overarching strategy. Although many foundations talk about "strategic" giving, much current practice is at odds with strategy. Among the common problems, foundations scatter their funding too broadly, they overlook the <span class="hlt">value</span>-creating potential of longer and closer working relationships with grantees, and they pay insufficient attention to the ultimate results of the work they fund. This article lays out a blueprint for change, challenging foundation leaders to spearhead the evolution of philanthropy from private acts of conscience into a professional field. PMID:10662001</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2007/292/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.usgs.gov/ds/2007/292/"><span id="translatedtitle">Drought-Trigger Ground-Water Levels in Chester County, Pennsylvania, for the Period of Record Ending May 2006</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Cinotto, Peter J.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), to update the drought-trigger water levels for the Chester County observation-well network. The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the CCWRA and the USGS to monitor local ground-water levels and trends and to determine drought conditions. In 1990 and again in 1997, drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for the majority of wells in the existing Chester County observation-well network of 23 wells. Since 1997, the Chester County observation-well network expanded to 29 wells, some of the original wells were destroyed, and additional monthly water-level observations were made to allow for better statistical relations. Because of these changes, new statistics for water-level triggers were required. For this study, 19 of the 29 wells in the observation-well network were used to compute drought-trigger water levels. An additional 'drought-watch water-level trigger' category was developed to make the Chester County drought-trigger water-level categories consistent with those implemented by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP). The three drought-trigger water-level categories, as defined by PaDEP are 1) 'drought watch' when at the 75th-<span class="hlt">percentile</span> level; 2) 'drought warning' when at the 90th-<span class="hlt">percentile</span> level; and 3) 'drought emergency' when at the <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th-percentile</span> level. A revised methodology, resulting from longer periods of record representing ground-water and climatic conditions and changes in local water use, has resulted in some observed differences in drought-trigger water levels. A comparison of current drought-trigger water levels to those calculated in 1997 shows the largest mean annual change in <span class="hlt">percentile</span> <span class="hlt">values</span> was in northeastern Chester County. In this northeastern region, the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854428','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4854428"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of Malnutrition on Left Ventricular Mass in a North-Malagasy Children Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Creta, Antonio; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Malnutrition among children population of less developed countries is a major health problem. Inadequate food intake and infectious diseases are combined to increase further the prevalence. Malnourishment brings to muscle cells loss with development of cardiac complications, like arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In developed countries, malnutrition has generally a different etiology, like chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between malnutrition and left ventricular mass in an African children population. Methods 313 children were studied, in the region of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with age ranging from 4 to 16 years old (mean 7,8 ± 3 years). A clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed with annotation of anthropometric and left ventricle parameters. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) <span class="hlt">value</span> age- and sex-specific of 16, 17 and 18,5 at the age of 18, or under the 15th <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. Left ventricle mass was indexed by height2.7 (LVMI). Results We identified a very high prevalence of children malnutrition: 124 children, according to BMI <span class="hlt">values</span>, and 100 children under the 15th <span class="hlt">percentile</span>. LVMI <span class="hlt">values</span> have shown to be increased in proportion to BMI <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> ranging from 29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2.7 in the malnutrition group to 45 ± 15,1 g/m2.7 in ><span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> group. LVMI <span class="hlt">values</span> in children < 15th BMI <span class="hlt">percentile</span> were significantly lower compared to normal nutritional status (29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2,7 vs. 32,9 ± 12,1 g/m2,7, p = 0.02). Also with BMI <span class="hlt">values</span> evaluation, malnourished children showed statistically lower <span class="hlt">values</span> of LVMI (29,3 ± 10,1 g/m2,7 vs. 33,6 ± 12,5 g/m2,7, p = 0.001). Conclusion In African children population, the malnourishment status is correlated with cardiac muscle mass decrease, which appears to be reduced in proportion to the decrease in body size. PMID:27140179</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15272960','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15272960"><span id="translatedtitle">The vulnerability of <span class="hlt">values</span> to attack: inoculation of <span class="hlt">values</span> and <span class="hlt">value</span>-relevant attitudes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bernard, Mark M; Maio, Gregory R; Olson, James M</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Based on the <span class="hlt">values</span>-as-truisms hypothesis and inoculation theory, two experiments tested whether providing cognitive defenses for the <span class="hlt">value</span> of equality induces resistance against a message attacking this <span class="hlt">value</span>. Experiment 1 found that participants who generated cognitive support in an active-supportive or an active-refutational defense were less persuaded by a subsequent message attacking equality than were participants who engaged in no prior defense. Experiment 2 examined the effects of an active-refutational defense and a passive-refutational defense, which simply asked participants to read reasons supporting or opposing equality. Results indicated additive effects of the active and passive defenses, such that participants were most resistant to the anti-equality message when they were given both defenses. Mediational analysis across both experiments revealed that the defenses increased counterargumentation of the anti-equality message, which led to increased post-attack importance of equality and predicted more favorable equality-relevant attitudes and <span class="hlt">values</span>. PMID:15272960</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10162486','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10162486"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality assessment tools add <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paul, L</p> <p>1996-10-01</p> <p>The rapid evolution of the health care marketplace can be expected to continue as we move closer to the 21st Century. Externally-imposed pressures for cost reduction will increasingly be accompanied by pressure within health care organizations as risk-sharing reimbursement arrangements become more commonplace. Competitive advantage will be available to those organizations that can demonstrate objective <span class="hlt">value</span> as defined by the cost-quality equation. The tools an organization chooses to perform quality assessment will be an important factor in its ability to demonstrate such <span class="hlt">value</span>. Traditional quality assurance will in all likelihood continue, but the extent to which quality improvement activities are adopted by the culture of an organization may determine its ability to provide objective evidence of better health status outcomes. PMID:10162486</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863596','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/863596"><span id="translatedtitle">Process for recovering actinide <span class="hlt">values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.</p> <p>1980-01-01</p> <p>A process for rendering actinide <span class="hlt">values</span> recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other <span class="hlt">values</span> along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26878308','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26878308"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Value</span>-Based Emergency Management.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Corrigan, Zachary; Winslow, Walter; Miramonti, Charlie; Stephens, Tim</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>This article touches on the complex and decentralized network that is the US health care system and how important it is to include emergency management in this network. By aligning the overarching incentives of opposing health care organizations, emergency management can become resilient to up-and-coming changes in reimbursement, staffing, and network ownership. Coalitions must grasp the opportunity created by changes in <span class="hlt">value</span>-based purchasing and impending Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services emergency management rules to engage payers, physicians, and executives. Hope and faith in doing good is no longer enough for preparedness and health care coalitions; understanding how physicians are employed and health care is delivered and paid for is now necessary. Incentivizing preparedness through <span class="hlt">value</span>-based compensation systems will become the new standard for emergency management. PMID:26878308</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11059205','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11059205"><span id="translatedtitle">Work <span class="hlt">values</span> among Lebanese workers.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sidani, Y M; Gardner, W L</p> <p>2000-10-01</p> <p>On the basis of a review of the existing literature, the authors tested 4 hypotheses to determine the applicability of work <span class="hlt">values</span> in Arab societies to employees in Lebanese organizations. Only 1 hypothesis was supported: Organizational policies that ran counter to the worker's religious <span class="hlt">values</span> had an adverse effect on job satisfaction. There was no support for the hypotheses (a) that workers' religiosity in inversely related to positive attitudes toward women's involvement at work, (b) that employee satisfaction is related to a mechanistic organizational design, or (c) that workers with an internal locus of control experience higher job satisfaction. The Lebanese workers, thus, did not appear to share some of the attributes claimed to exist in Arab societies. PMID:11059205</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6434189','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6434189"><span id="translatedtitle">Enduring <span class="hlt">values</span> of municipal utilities</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.</p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>The <span class="hlt">value</span> of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22690514','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22690514"><span id="translatedtitle">Maximising <span class="hlt">value</span> from PFI contracts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Prosser, Karen; Gates, Russell</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Against a backdrop where the Coalition Government has said more '<span class="hlt">value</span>' needs to be squeezed out of existing healthcare PFI projects, Karen Prosser, head of the health sector team at built asset consultancy, EC Harris, and Russell Gates, one of the company's partners on the same team, set out some of the key elements that NHS Trusts with operational PFI contracts should consider when undertaking a contract savings review. PMID:22690514</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280045','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27280045"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical Medical <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Donguibogam.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical <span class="hlt">value</span>, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical <span class="hlt">value</span> of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical <span class="hlt">value</span>, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887747','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4887747"><span id="translatedtitle">Historical Medical <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Donguibogam</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical <span class="hlt">value</span>, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical <span class="hlt">value</span> of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical <span class="hlt">value</span>, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4235976','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4235976"><span id="translatedtitle">ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING THORIUM <span class="hlt">VALUES</span> FROM URANIUM <span class="hlt">VALUES</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Schubert, J.</p> <p>1959-08-01</p> <p>An improved ion exchange method is described for recovery of uranium and thorium <span class="hlt">values</span> as separate functions from an aqueous acidic solution containing less than 10/sup -3/ M thorium ions and between 0.1 and 1 M uranyl ions. The solution is passed through a bed of cation exchange resin in the acid form to adsorb all the thorium ions and a portion of the uranyl ions. The uranium is eluted by means of aqueous 0.1 to 0.4 M sulfuric acid. The thorium may then be stripped from the resin by elution with aqueous 0.5 M oxalic acid.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4547111','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4547111"><span id="translatedtitle">Reference <span class="hlt">Values</span> for the Marx Activity Rating Scale in a Young Athletic Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Cameron, Kenneth L.; Peck, Karen Y.; Thompson, Brandon S.; Svoboda, Steven J.; Owens, Brett D.; Marshall, Stephen W.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: Activity-related patient-reported outcome measures are an important component of assessment after knee ligament injury in young and physically active patients; however, normative data for most activity scales are limited. Objective: To present reference <span class="hlt">values</span> by sex for the Marx Activity Rating Scale (MARS) within a young and physically active population while accounting for knee ligament injury history and sex. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Level of Evidence: Level 2. Methods: All incoming freshman entering a US Service Academy in June of 2011 were recruited to participate in this study. MARS was administered to 1169 incoming freshmen (203 women) who consented to participate within the first week of matriculation. All subjects were deemed healthy and medically fit for military service on admission. Subjects also completed a baseline questionnaire that asked for basic demographic information and injury history. We calculated means with standard deviations, medians with interquartile ranges, and <span class="hlt">percentiles</span> for ordinal and continuous variables, and frequencies and proportions for dichotomous variables. We also compared median scores by sex and history of knee ligament injury using the Kruskal-Wallis test. MARS was the primary outcome of interest. Results: The median MARS score was significantly higher for men when compared with women (χ2 = 13.22, df = 1, P < 0.001) with no prior history of knee ligament injury. In contrast, there was no significant difference in median MARS scores between men and women (χ2 = 0.47, df = 1, P = 0.493) who reported a history of injury. Overall, median MARS scores were significantly higher among those who reported a history of knee ligament injury when compared with those who did not (χ2 = 9.06, df = 1, P = 0.003). Conclusion: Assessing activity as a patient-reported outcome after knee ligament injury is important, and reference <span class="hlt">values</span> for these instruments need to account for the influence of prior injury and sex</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+value&pg=3&id=EJ955028','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=personal+AND+value&pg=3&id=EJ955028"><span id="translatedtitle">Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General <span class="hlt">Values</span> for Work <span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Carlstrom, Aaron H.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Advances in the understanding of general <span class="hlt">values</span> from personality and social psychology apply to work <span class="hlt">values</span>. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of <span class="hlt">values</span>, <span class="hlt">value</span> priorities, motivational goals, <span class="hlt">value</span> types, and personal <span class="hlt">value</span> systems used to clarify work <span class="hlt">values</span>. I also introduce the terms basic and broad <span class="hlt">value</span> and work <span class="hlt">value</span> types. Second, I…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+relativism&pg=4&id=EJ371433','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=moral+AND+relativism&pg=4&id=EJ371433"><span id="translatedtitle">The School and the Articulation of <span class="hlt">Values</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lovin, Robin W.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Value</span> neutrality and <span class="hlt">values</span> clarification fail to foster critical thinking about <span class="hlt">values</span>. The <span class="hlt">values</span> articulation approach identifies the rationality that is applied to <span class="hlt">value</span> claims. It avoids noncognitivism and moral relativism and suggests ways the discussion of <span class="hlt">values</span> in the classroom prepares students to deal with broader moral issues. (VM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072123','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24072123"><span id="translatedtitle">Making equity a <span class="hlt">value</span> in <span class="hlt">value</span>-based health care.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Alberti, Philip M; Bonham, Ann C; Kirch, Darrell G</p> <p>2013-11-01</p> <p>Equity in health and health care in America continues to be a goal unmet. Certain demographic groups in the United States-including racial and ethnic minorities and individuals with lower socioeconomic status-have poorer health outcomes across a wide array of diseases, and have higher all-cause mortality. Yet despite growing understanding of how social-, structural-, and individual-level factors maintain and create inequities, solutions to reduce or eliminate them have been elusive. In this article, the authors envision how disparities-related provisions in the Affordable Care Act and other recent legislation could be linked with new <span class="hlt">value</span>-based health care requirements and payment models to create incentives for narrowing health care disparities and move the nation toward equity.Specifically, the authors explore how recent legislative actions regarding payment reform, health information technology, community health needs assessments, and expanding health equity research could be woven together to build an evidence base for solutions to health care inequities. Although policy interventions at the clinical and payer levels alone will not eliminate disparities, given the significant role the social determinants of health play in the etiology and maintenance of inequity, such policies can allow the health care system to better identify and leverage community assets; provide high-quality, more equitable care; and demonstrate that equity is a <span class="hlt">value</span> in health. PMID:24072123</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671670','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4671670"><span id="translatedtitle">The Cut-Off Point and Boundary <span class="hlt">Values</span> of Waist-to-Height Ratio as an Indicator for Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Chinese Adults from the PURE Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Peng, Yaguang; Li, Wei; Wang, Yang; Bo, Jian; Chen, Hui</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>To explore a scientific boundary of WHtR to evaluate central obesity and CVD risk factors in a Chinese adult population. The data are from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) China study that was conducted from 2005–2007. The final study sample consisted of 43 841 participants (18 019 men and 25 822 women) aged 35–70 years. According to the group of CVD risk factors proposed by Joint National Committee 7 version and the clustering of risk factors, some diagnosis parameters, such as sensitivity, specificity and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve least distance were calculated for hypertension, diabetes, high serum triglyceride (TG), high serum low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), low serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and clustering of risk factors (number≥2) to evaluate the efficacy at each <span class="hlt">value</span> of the WHtR cut-off point. The upper boundary <span class="hlt">value</span> for severity was fixed on the point where the specificity was above 90%. The lower boundary <span class="hlt">value</span>, which indicated above underweight, was determined by the <span class="hlt">percentile</span> distribution of WHtR, specifically the 5th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> (P5) for both males and females population. Then, based on convenience and practical use, the optimal boundary <span class="hlt">values</span> of WHtR for underweight and obvious central obesity were determined. For the whole study population, the optimal WHtR cut-off point for the CVD risk factor cluster was 0.50. The cut-off points for severe central obesity were 0.57 in the whole population. The upper boundary <span class="hlt">values</span> of WHtR to detect the risk factor cluster with specificity above 90% were 0.55 and 0.58 for men and women, respectively. Additionally, the cut-off points of WHtR for each of four cardiovascular risk factors with specificity above 90% in males ranged from 0.55 to 0.56, whereas in females, it ranged from 0.57 to 0.58. The P5 of WHtR, which represents the lower boundary <span class="hlt">values</span> of WHtR that indicates above underweight, was 0.40 in the whole population. WHtR 0.50 was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942129','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/942129"><span id="translatedtitle">RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TECHNETIUM KD <span class="hlt">VALUES</span> IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kaplan, D</p> <p>2008-10-28</p> <p>Performance assessments (PAs) are risk calculations used to estimate the amount of low-level radioactive waste that can be disposed at DOE sites. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d} <span class="hlt">values</span>) are input parameters used in PA calculations to provide a measure of radionuclide sorption to sediment; the greater the K{sub d} <span class="hlt">value</span>, the greater the sorption and the slower the estimated movement of the radionuclide through sediment. Understanding and quantifying K{sub d} <span class="hlt">value</span> variability is important for estimating the uncertainty of PA calculations. Without this information, it is necessary to make overly conservative estimates about the possible limits of K{sub d} <span class="hlt">values</span>, which in turn may increase disposal costs. Finally, technetium is commonly found to be amongst the radionuclides posing potential risk at waste disposal locations because it is believed to be highly mobile in its anionic form (pertechnetate, TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), it exists in relatively high concentrations in SRS waste, and it has a long half-life (213,000 years). The objectives of this laboratory study were to determine under SRS environmental conditions: (1) whether and to what extent TcO{sub 4}{sup -} sorbs to sediments, (2) the range of Tc K{sub d} <span class="hlt">values</span>, (3) the distribution (normal or log-normal) of Tc K{sub d} <span class="hlt">values</span>, and (4) how strongly Tc sorbs to SRS sediments through desorption experiments. Objective 3, to identify the Tc K{sub d} distribution is important because it provides a statistical description that influences stochastic modeling of estimated risk. The approach taken was to collect 26 sediments from a non-radioactive containing sediment core collected from E-Area, measure Tc K{sub d} <span class="hlt">values</span> and then perform statistical analysis to describe the measured Tc K{sub d} <span class="hlt">values</span>. The mean K{sub d} <span class="hlt">value</span> was 3.4 {+-} 0.5 mL/g and ranged from -2.9 to 11.2 mL/g. The data did not have a Normal distribution (as defined by the Shapiro-Wilk's Statistic) and had a 95-<span class="hlt">percentile</span> range of 2.4 to 4.4 m</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10118430','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/10118430"><span id="translatedtitle">UMTRA Project <span class="hlt">value</span> engineering plan</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1990-06-01</p> <p>The objective of <span class="hlt">value</span> engineering (VE) on the Uranium MILL Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is to ensure that remedial action at the UMTRA Project sites is performed to meet the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for inactive uranium mill tailings sites at the lowest cost, while maintaining a high quality of work. Through review of designs and consideration of reasonable, less expensive alternatives, VE can be an effective cost reduction tool and a means to improve the design. The UMTRA Project products are the design and construction of stabilized tailings embankments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321396','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15321396"><span id="translatedtitle">Medical science and social <span class="hlt">values</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caton, D</p> <p>2004-07-01</p> <p>Social <span class="hlt">Values</span>, no less than medical science, have shaped the medical management of the pain of childbirth. Nineteenth century feminists fought for greater use of anesthesia in obstetrics at a time when physicians held back for fear of its effects on labor, hemorrhage, rates of infection and the condition of the child. A century later, after physicians became comfortable with the use of anesthesia, a new generation of feminists challenged the use of such drugs, once again citing social considerations. The personalities of colorful and charismatic obstetricians such as James Young Simpson and Grantley Dick-Read played a strong part in the outcome of each confrontation. PMID:15321396</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238441','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/238441"><span id="translatedtitle">Critique of ``Expected <span class="hlt">Value</span>`` models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>May, W.L.</p> <p>1996-06-01</p> <p>There are a number of models in the defense community which use a methodology referred to as ``Expected <span class="hlt">Value</span>`` to perform sequential calculations of unit attritions or expenditures. The methodology applied to two-sided, dependent, sequential events can result in an incorrect model. An example of such an incorrect model is offered to show that these models may yield results which deviate significantly from a stochastic or Markov process approach. The example was derived from an informal discussion at the Center for Naval Analyses.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6804989','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6804989"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Value</span> basis for conservation policy</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Leiss, W.</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular <span class="hlt">value</span> (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930042433&hterms=complex+synthesis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcomplex%2Bsynthesis','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930042433&hterms=complex+synthesis&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D40%26Ntt%3Dcomplex%2Bsynthesis"><span id="translatedtitle">The complex structured singular <span class="hlt">value</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Packard, A.; Doyle, J.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>A tutorial introduction to the complex structured singular <span class="hlt">value</span> (mu) is presented, with an emphasis on the mathematical aspects of mu. The mu-based methods discussed here have been useful for analyzing the performance and robustness properties of linear feedback systems. Several tests for robust stability and performance with computable bounds for transfer functions and their state space realizations are compared, and a simple synthesis problem is studied. Uncertain systems are represented using linear fractional transformations which naturally unify the frequency-domain and state space methods.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877784','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4877784"><span id="translatedtitle">Is Neck Circumference an Indicator for Metabolic Complication of Childhood Obesity?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hassan, Nayera E.; Atef, Abeer; El-Masry, Sahar A.; Ibrahim, Amany; Al-Tohamy, Muhammad; Rasheed, Enas Abdel; Elashry, Galal Ismail Ahmed</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: The possible role of neck circumference (NC) for screening childhood obesity and its complication is not well characterized. AIM: To assess NC and to explore its increase as risk factor with metabolic syndrome (MS) variables. METHODS: Cross sectional case-control study included 50 obese children (BMI ≥<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>) and 50 healthy (BMI 15th-‹85th <span class="hlt">percentile</span>). All were subjected to clinical examination, measuring blood pressure (BP), body weight, height, NC, waist (WC) and hip (HC)., fasting blood glucose, insulin and lipid profile. RESULTS: MS was detected among 52% of obese participants, but not among controls (0%). Clinical parameters and most of the laboratory <span class="hlt">values</span> were higher in subjects with MS than in non-metabolic subjects, with statistical significance only in blood pressure and triglycerides. Among obese without MS, NC showed significantly positive correlations with age, weight, height, WC, HC and negative with LDL. While among Obese with MS, NC showed significantly positive correlations with age, weight, height, BMI-SDS, WC, HC and DBP. CONCLUSION: NC can be considered as a good indicator and predictor for obesity, especially central obesity. However, NC has no relation with lipid profile or fasting blood sugar.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3370100','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3370100"><span id="translatedtitle">A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, André; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeinera, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, William J.; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mägi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Kemp, John P.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Mònica; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Gilliland, Frank D.; Heinrich, Joachim; Wheeler, Eleanor; Barroso, Inês; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Power, Chris; Palmer, Lyle J.; Hinney, Anke; Widen, Elisabeth; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Hebebrand, Johannes; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Smith, George Davey; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made to establish genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American-Australian-European collaborative meta-analysis of fourteen studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight novel signals yielding association with P < 5×10−6 in to nine independent datasets (n = 2,818 cases and 4,083 controls) we observed two loci that yielded a genome wide significant combined P-<span class="hlt">value</span>, namely near OLFM4 on 13q14 (rs9568856; P=1.82×10−9; OR=1.22) and within HOXB5 on 17q21 (rs9299; P=3.54×10−9; OR=1.14). Both loci continued to show association when including two extreme childhood obesity cohorts (n = 2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). Finally, these two loci yielded directionally consistent associations in the GIANT meta-analysis of adult BMI1. PMID:22484627</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197893','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25197893"><span id="translatedtitle">Spacecraft occupant protection requirements: a review of the recent changes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Somers, Jeffrey T; Gohmert, Dustin M; Brinkley, James W</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>NASA has recently updated spacecraft design requirements for protecting crewmembers during dynamic spaceflight phases. The details of the update are available in a NASA publication (NASA TM-2013-217380) and are summarized here. Previously, NASA's occupant protection requirements relied primarily on the multiaxial dynamic response criterion, which NASA refers to as the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria (BDRC). Although simple to implement, there are several important ground rules that must be met for the injury predictions to be applicable. These include proper restraint, flail controls, proper seating support, pressure suit considerations, head protection including consideration of helmet mass, and spaceflight deconditioning. Even if these ground rules are met, there are limitations to the model that must be addressed, including: model validation, sex differences, age effects, anthropometry effects, and differences between the physical fitness of military test subjects and future crewmembers. To address these limitations, new injury assessment reference <span class="hlt">values</span> (IARV) have been prescribed for the 5(th) <span class="hlt">percentile</span> female and <span class="hlt">95</span>(<span class="hlt">th</span>) <span class="hlt">percentile</span> male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). These metrics are head-injury criterion, head-rotational acceleration, neck injury criterion, neck-axial-force limits, flail prevention, and lumbar-axial compression force. Using these new ATD IARVs, NASA can have increased confidence that vehicle designs mitigate the risk of injury during dynamic phases of flight. PMID:25197893</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26476063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26476063"><span id="translatedtitle">Concentrations and patterns of organochlorines (OCs) in various fish species from the Indus River, Pakistan: A human health risk assessment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Robinson, Timmer; Ali, Usman; Mahmood, Adeel; Chaudhry, Muhammad Jamshed Iqbal; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan; Jones, Kevin C; Malik, Riffat Naseem</p> <p>2016-01-15</p> <p>The present study was conducted to reveal the concentrations and patterns of organochlorines [i.e., organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)] in freshwater fish species collected from four ecologically important sites of the Indus River i.e., Taunsa (TAU), Rahim Yar Khan (RYK), Guddu (GUD) and Sukkur (SUK). In the fish muscle tissues, concentrations of 15 OCPs (∑15OCPs) and 29 PCBs (∑29PCBs) varied between 1.93-61.9 and 0.81-44.2 ng/g wet weight (ww), respectively. Overall, the rank order of OCs was DDTs>PCBs>hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs)>chlordanes (CHLs). The patterns of PCBs showed maximum contribution of tri-CBs (59%). Ratios of individual HCH and DDT analytes contributing to the summed <span class="hlt">values</span> indicated both recent and past use of these chemicals in the region, depending upon fish species. To assess the associated health risks, carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic risks were calculated through hazard ratios (HRs). For carcinogenic risk, HR was >1 at both 50th and <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span> concentrations, suggesting that the daily exposure to OCPs and PCBs yields a lifetime cancer risk of 1 in a million. HR for non-cancerous risk was <1 at both the <span class="hlt">percentiles</span>, signifying no adverse effect by OCs exposure in native population. PMID:26476063</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214029','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27214029"><span id="translatedtitle">Total <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Phosphorus Recovery.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total <span class="hlt">value</span> of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total <span class="hlt">value</span> of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783460','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4783460"><span id="translatedtitle">Manifold-<span class="hlt">valued</span> Dirichlet Processes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Xu, Jia; Vemuri, Baba C.; Singh, Vikas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Statistical models for manifold-<span class="hlt">valued</span> data permit capturing the intrinsic nature of the curved spaces in which the data lie and have been a topic of research for several decades. Typically, these formulations use geodesic curves and distances defined locally for most cases — this makes it hard to design parametric models globally on smooth manifolds. Thus, most (manifold specific) parametric models available today assume that the data lie in a small neighborhood on the manifold. To address this ‘locality’ problem, we propose a novel nonparametric model which unifies multivariate general linear models (MGLMs) using multiple tangent spaces. Our framework generalizes existing work on (both Euclidean and non-Euclidean) general linear models providing a recipe to globally extend the locally-defined parametric models (using a mixture of local models). By grouping observations into sub-populations at multiple tangent spaces, our method provides insights into the hidden structure (geodesic relationships) in the data. This yields a framework to group observations and discover geodesic relationships between covariates X and manifold-<span class="hlt">valued</span> responses Y, which we call Dirichlet process mixtures of multivariate general linear models (DP-MGLM) on Riemannian manifolds. Finally, we present proof of concept experiments to validate our model. PMID:26973982</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318586','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24318586"><span id="translatedtitle">American <span class="hlt">values</span> and contraceptive acceptance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rzepka, J R</p> <p>1979-07-01</p> <p>A number of individual personality factors and social norms may be associated with reproductive confusion and/or irresponsibility. More specifically, the <span class="hlt">values</span> underlying common American social norms may contribute to ineffective birth planning in the following ways: 1) The traditional roles of women in our society seem to encourage parenthood. The rule has been early marriage, closely spaced children, and few alternate sources of satisfaction or self-esteem. 2) Our culture strongly encourages family life. Children are a symbol of normalcy. 3) The importance of sexual enjoyment per se often conflicts with contraceptive use. Conversely, innocence is also <span class="hlt">valued</span> and also contributes to unprotected sexual activity. 4) Religious reasons or adherence to concepts of natural law are almost always given by people opposed to contraception. 5) Health is important to Americans, and birth control methods negatively affect health in real and imagined ways. Social norms, though changing, remain essentially congruent with former contraceptive technology and former ideologies, customs, and dreams. PMID:24318586</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407754','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4407754"><span id="translatedtitle">Normative <span class="hlt">Values</span> for Corneal Nerve Morphology Assessed Using Corneal Confocal Microscopy: A Multinational Normative Data Set</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tavakoli, Mitra; Ferdousi, Maryam; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Morris, Julie; Pritchard, Nicola; Zhivov, Andrey; Ziegler, Dan; Pacaud, Danièle; Romanchuk, Kenneth; Perkins, Bruce A.; Lovblom, Leif E.; Bril, Vera; Singleton, J. Robinson; Smith, Gordon; Boulton, Andrew J.M.; Efron, Nathan</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>OBJECTIVE Corneal confocal microscopy is a novel diagnostic technique for the detection of nerve damage and repair in a range of peripheral neuropathies, in particular diabetic neuropathy. Normative reference <span class="hlt">values</span> are required to enable clinical translation and wider use of this technique. We have therefore undertaken a multicenter collaboration to provide worldwide age-adjusted normative <span class="hlt">values</span> of corneal nerve fiber parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 1,965 corneal nerve images from 343 healthy volunteers were pooled from six clinical academic centers. All subjects underwent examination with the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph corneal confocal microscope. Images of the central corneal subbasal nerve plexus were acquired by each center using a standard protocol and analyzed by three trained examiners using manual tracing and semiautomated software (CCMetrics). Age trends were established using simple linear regression, and normative corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve fiber branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL), and corneal nerve fiber tortuosity (CNFT) reference <span class="hlt">values</span> were calculated using quantile regression analysis. RESULTS There was a significant linear age-dependent decrease in CNFD (−0.164 no./mm2 per year for men, P < 0.01, and −0.161 no./mm2 per year for women, P < 0.01). There was no change with age in CNBD (0.192 no./mm2 per year for men, P = 0.26, and −0.050 no./mm2 per year for women, P = 0.78). CNFL decreased in men (−0.045 mm/mm2 per year, P = 0.07) and women (−0.060 mm/mm2 per year, P = 0.02). CNFT increased with age in men (0.044 per year, P < 0.01) and women (0.046 per year, P < 0.01). Height, weight, and BMI did not influence the 5th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> normative <span class="hlt">values</span> for any corneal nerve parameter. CONCLUSIONS This study provides robust worldwide normative reference <span class="hlt">values</span> for corneal nerve parameters to be used in research and clinical practice in the study of diabetic and other peripheral</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1100358.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1100358.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Student Views on the <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Feedback</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Marie, Jenny A.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper investigates the <span class="hlt">value</span> that a sample of students placed on feedback, what they <span class="hlt">valued</span> it for and the conditions that affected this <span class="hlt">value</span> judgement. I show that not all students <span class="hlt">value</span> feedback particularly highly, especially when considered in relation to other factors in their education and when considered for its intrinsic <span class="hlt">value</span> as…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10144293','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10144293"><span id="translatedtitle">Sharing <span class="hlt">values</span>, sharing a vision</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Not Available</p> <p>1993-12-31</p> <p>Teamwork, partnership and shared <span class="hlt">values</span> emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4810242','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4810242"><span id="translatedtitle">Support <span class="hlt">Values</span> for Genome Phylogenies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Klötzl, Fabian; Haubold, Bernhard</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>We have recently developed a distance metric for efficiently estimating the number of substitutions per site between unaligned genome sequences. These substitution rates are called “anchor distances” and can be used for phylogeny reconstruction. Most phylogenies come with bootstrap support <span class="hlt">values</span>, which are computed by resampling with replacement columns of homologous residues from the original alignment. Unfortunately, this method cannot be applied to anchor distances, as they are based on approximate pairwise local alignments rather than the full multiple sequence alignment necessary for the classical bootstrap. We explore two alternatives: pairwise bootstrap and quartet analysis, which we compare to classical bootstrap. With simulated sequences and 53 human primate mitochondrial genomes, pairwise bootstrap gives better results than quartet analysis. However, when applied to 29 E. coli genomes, quartet analysis comes closer to the classical bootstrap. PMID:26959064</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921028','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/921028"><span id="translatedtitle">Shale Oil <span class="hlt">Value</span> Enhancement Research</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>James W. Bunger</p> <p>2006-11-30</p> <p>Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product <span class="hlt">value</span> in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23880563','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23880563"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">value</span> of preoperative planning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Graves, Matt L</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>"Better to throw your disasters into the waste paper basket than to consign your patients to the scrap heap" has been a proverb of Jeff Mast, one of the greatest fracture and deformity surgeons in the history of our specialty. Stated slightly more scientifically, one of the major <span class="hlt">values</span> of simulation is that it allows one to make mistakes in a consequence-free environment. Preoperative planning is the focus of this article. The primary goal is not to provide you with a recipe of how to steps. Rather, the primary goal of this article is to explain why preoperative planning should be standard, to clarify what should be included, and to provide examples of what can happen when planning is ignored. At the end of this, we should all feel the need to approach fracture care more intellectually with forethought, both in our own practices and in our educational system. PMID:23880563</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268015','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26268015"><span id="translatedtitle">Shouldering the load, maximising <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Baillie, Jonathan</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>In mid-November last year Ryhurst signed what it dubbed 'a ground-breaking strategic estates partnership' agreement with the Isle of Wight NHS Trust (HEJ - January 2015). Under the Wight Life Partnership, the two organisations will work in partnership 'to comprehensively review the estate across all the Trust's sites to ensure that buildings and grounds are being fully utilised, and suitable for modern healthcare'. This is Ryhurst's third such 'whole estate' joint-venture agreement with the NHS, and the first with a non-Foundation Trust, harnessing an approach that sees the company shoulder a considerable part of the burden of making optimum use of, and deriving 'maximum <span class="hlt">value</span>' from, large healthcare estates. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:26268015</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A32B..03S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014AGUFM.A32B..03S"><span id="translatedtitle">The <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Clean Air</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shindell, D. T.</p> <p>2014-12-01</p> <p>How can society place a <span class="hlt">value</span> on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. <span class="hlt">Values</span> consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233410','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7233410"><span id="translatedtitle">[Evaluating <span class="hlt">values</span>: social structures and handling <span class="hlt">values</span> (author's transl)].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Brüll, D</p> <p>1981-05-01</p> <p>Expectations regarding justice and legislation have been lagging behind developments in society. The (enforcement of) the law is no longer a matter of morals but rather of efficiency and is one of (several) means available to the state to make the population do (and omit) what it considers to be necessary because of 'Sachzwang'. In the final (technocratic) stage (Ellul) of the technological phase, the control of social processes is the main objective, implying, among others, making all positions and professions official and making all actions uniform. In his cyclic theory of the law, Ellul describes the appearance of groups having entirely new <span class="hlt">values</span> as a counter-force. These are sub-cultures which turn away from thinking in terms of economic efficiency, i.e. they refuse to take part in those types of performance on which technocracy is base ('Leistungsverweigerung', Böll). To get to know which part is merely protest and which are germs for the future, the evolutionary phase will have to be considered in addition to the cyclic phase. Of particular importance is the fundamental sociological law (Steiner) which implies that there is a trend in society, which is marked by the fact that institutions are increasingly becoming only acceptable to the extent to which they are conductive to the individual development of members. Whatever the concrete forms of future social structures may be, if they are to maintain themselves, they will have to possess the basic characteristic of individual development without power. PMID:7233410</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChEd..76....5M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999JChEd..76....5M"><span id="translatedtitle">Do We Really <span class="hlt">Value</span> Learning?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Moore, John W.</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>University faculty think of their institutions as places in which learning is <span class="hlt">valued</span> and pride themselves on the discovery of new knowledge. Indeed universities have been unusually successful in supporting research and developing new knowledge that has been enormously beneficial to society, and university faculty <span class="hlt">value</span> learning far more than the average. But some kinds of learning are more <span class="hlt">valued</span> than others-a fact that I believe is detrimental to the long-term welfare of both universities and society. By far the most <span class="hlt">valued</span> learning is by someone who discovers what nobody else has learned before. We call the process of achieving such learning "research". It is the coin of the academic realm, at least partly because it is easy to evaluate. Those who do it creatively can reap the rewards of respect from their colleagues, better facilities and instrumentation from their institutions, regional and national awards from their disciplinary societies, and increased funding from government and industry for their endeavors. Significantly less <span class="hlt">valued</span> are activities that help others to learn, especially when the learning involves things already known by many. We call such activities "teaching", although the dictionary definition of "teach" ("to show how to do something; give instructions to; train") is not broad enough to encompass the range of activities currently being used to encourage learning. There is a widespread notion that teaching is easy and requires no real creativity. Nontenured faculty are often warned that time spent on teaching will be thought of as "wasted", and those well established in research have been criticized for spending too much of their time on the "unproductive" activity of teaching. Teaching is held out to students as a fall-back position in case their other career plans do not pan out, and sometimes those who educate teachers are willing to accept less than the highest quality from the students to whom they provide credentials. Those who employ</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045822','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25045822"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Valuing</span> vaccines using <span class="hlt">value</span> of statistical life measures.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the <span class="hlt">value</span> of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11656690','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11656690"><span id="translatedtitle">Consequentialism, reasons, <span class="hlt">value</span> and justice.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Savulescu, Julian</p> <p>1998-07-01</p> <p>Over the past 10 years, John Harris has made important contributions to thinking about distributive justice in health care. In his latest work, Harris controversially argues that clinicians should stop prioritising patients according to prognosis. He argues that the good or benefit of health care is providing each individual with an opportunity to live the best and longest life possible for him or her. I call this thesis, opportunism. For the purpose of distribution of resources in health care, Harris rejects welfarism (the thesis that the good of health care is well-being) and argues that utilitarianism in general may lead to de facto discrimination against groups of people needing health care. I argue that well-being is a superior theory of the good of health care to Harris' opportunism. Harris' concerns about utilitarianism can be better addressed by: (i) relating justice more closely to reasons for action; (ii) by conceptualising the relationship between reasons for action and the <span class="hlt">value</span> of the consequences of those actions as a plateau rather than scalar relationship. Justice can be understood as satisfying as many equally rational claims on resources as possible. The rationality of a person's claim on health resources turns on the strength of that person's reasons to promote certain health-related states of affairs. I argue that the strength of that reason does not track the expected <span class="hlt">value</span> of that state of affairs in a fully scalar fashion. Rather a person can have most reason to promote some state of affairs, even though he or she could promote other more valuable states of affairs. Thus there can be equal reason for a distributor of public resources to save either of two people, even though one will have a better and more valuable life. This approach, while addressing many of Harris' concerns about utilitarianism, does not imply that doctors should give up prioritising patients according to prognosis altogether, but it does allow that patients with lower but</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARA43001L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012APS..MARA43001L"><span id="translatedtitle">Science, the Scientists and <span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Leshner, Alan</p> <p>2012-02-01</p> <p>Although individual scientists engage in research for diverse reasons, society only supports the enterprise because it benefits humankind. We cannot always predict how that will happen, or whether individual projects will have clear and direct benefits, but in the aggregate, there is widespread agreement that we are all better off because of the quality and diversity of the science that is done. However, what scientists do and how it benefits humankind is often unclear to the general public and can at times be misunderstood or misrepresented. Moreover, even when members of the public do understand what science is being done they do not always like what it is showing and feel relatively free to disregard or distort its findings. This happens most often when findings are either politically inconvenient or encroach upon issues of core human <span class="hlt">values</span>. The origins of the universe can fit into that latter category. This array of factors contributes to the obligation of scientists to reach out to the public and share the results of their work and its implications. It also requires the scientific community to engage in genuine dialogue with the public and find common ground where possible.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22869304','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22869304"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of head injury assessment reference <span class="hlt">values</span> based on NASA injury modeling.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Somers, Jeffrey T; Granderson, Bradley; Melvin, John W; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Patalak, John</p> <p>2011-11-01</p> <p>NASA is developing a new crewed vehicle and desires a lower risk of injury compared to automotive or commercial aviation. Through an agreement with the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. (NASCAR®), an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new injury assessment reference <span class="hlt">values</span> (IARV) that may be more relevant to NASA's context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by analyzing all NASCAR recorded impact data for the 2002-2008 race seasons. From the 4015 impact files, 274 impacts were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Hybrid III 50th <span class="hlt">percentile</span> male Finite Element Model (FEM) in LS-DYNA. Head injury occurred in 27 of the 274 selected impacts, and all of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 247 noninjury impacts selected were representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of impacts. The probability of head injury was estimated for each metric using an ordered probit regression analysis. Four metrics had good correlation with the head injury data: head resultant acceleration, head change in velocity, HIC 15, and HIC 36. For a 5% risk of AIS≥1/AIS≥2 head injuries, the following IARVs were found: 121.3/133.2 G (head resultant acceleration), 20.3/22.0 m/s (head change in velocity), 1,156/1,347 (HIC 15), and 1,152/1,342 (HIC 36) respectively. Based on the results of this study, further analysis of additional datasets is recommended before applying these results to future NASA vehicles. PMID:22869304</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638095','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20638095"><span id="translatedtitle">Predicting pathogen risks to aid beach management: the real <span class="hlt">value</span> of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ashbolt, Nicholas J; Schoen, Mary E; Soller, Jeffrey A; Roser, David J</p> <p>2010-09-01</p> <p>There has been an ongoing dilemma for agencies that set criteria for safe recreational waters in how to provide for a seasonal assessment of a beach site versus guidance for day-to-day management. Typically an overall 'safe' criterion level is derived from epidemiologic studies of sewage-impacted beaches. The decision criterion is based on a <span class="hlt">percentile</span> <span class="hlt">value</span> for a single sample or a moving median of a limited number (e.g. five per month) of routine samples, which are reported at least the day after recreator exposure has occurred. The focus of this paper is how to better undertake day-to-day recreational site monitoring and management. Internationally, good examples exist where predictive empirical regression models (based on rainfall, wind speed/direction, etc.) may provide an estimate of the target faecal indicator density for the day of exposure. However, at recreational swimming sites largely impacted by non-sewage sources of faecal indicators, there is concern that the indicator-illness associations derived from studies at sewage-impacted beaches may be inappropriate. Furthermore, some recent epidemiologic evidence supports the relationship to gastrointestinal (GI) illness with qPCR-derived measures of Bacteroidales/Bacteroides spp. as well as more traditional faecal indicators, but we understand less about the environmental fate of these molecular targets and their relationship to bather risk. Modelling pathogens and indicators within a quantitative microbial risk assessment framework is suggested as a way to explore the large diversity of scenarios for faecal contamination and hydrologic events, such as from waterfowl, agricultural animals, resuspended sediments and from the bathers themselves. Examples are provided that suggest that more site-specific targets derived by QMRA could provide insight, directly translatable to management actions. PMID:20638095</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol2-sec152-107.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2011-title19-vol2-sec152-107.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 152.107 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-04-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">value</span> or computed <span class="hlt">value</span> may be used. (c) Deductive <span class="hlt">value</span>. The “90 days” requirement for the sale of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used... of Merchandise § 152.107 <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec152-107.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2010-title19-vol2-sec152-107.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 152.107 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">value</span> or computed <span class="hlt">value</span> may be used. (c) Deductive <span class="hlt">value</span>. The “90 days” requirement for the sale of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used... of Merchandise § 152.107 <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol2-sec152-107.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol2-sec152-107.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 152.107 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... <span class="hlt">value</span> or computed <span class="hlt">value</span> may be used. (c) Deductive <span class="hlt">value</span>. The “90 days” requirement for the sale of... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used... of Merchandise § 152.107 <span class="hlt">Value</span> if other <span class="hlt">values</span> cannot be determined or used. (a)...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=values&id=EJ1071510','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=values&id=EJ1071510"><span id="translatedtitle">More <span class="hlt">Value</span> through Greater Differentiation: Gender Differences in <span class="hlt">Value</span> Beliefs about Math</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Expectancy-<span class="hlt">value</span> theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with <span class="hlt">value</span> beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-<span class="hlt">value</span> theory defines 4 <span class="hlt">value</span> components: intrinsic <span class="hlt">value</span>, attainment <span class="hlt">value</span>, utility <span class="hlt">value</span>, and cost. The present study followed up on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=job+AND+stereotypes+AND+united+AND+states&pg=3&id=ED153053','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=job+AND+stereotypes+AND+united+AND+states&pg=3&id=ED153053"><span id="translatedtitle">American Women Workers in a Full Employment Economy. A Compendium of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, 1st Session, September 15, 1977.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This compendium of seventeen papers discusses women's overall role in a full employment economy and their problems in fulfilling that role. It begins with a comprehensive summary of the authors' views and then presents the papers in six sections: (1) overview; (2) overcoming barriers; (3) support services and adjusted conditions; (4) education and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disability+AND+hearing+AND+%22physical+education%22&pg=3&id=ED145633','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=disability+AND+hearing+AND+%22physical+education%22&pg=3&id=ED145633"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of Programs for the Handicapped, 1977. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Human Resources, U.S. Senate, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, First Session. Part 1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.</p> <p></p> <p>Presented in the first of three documents is testimony given before the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped regarding the delivery of services to and programs for the handicapped. Included are statements from representatives of such agencies as the National Association of State Directors of Special Education, the Model Secondary School for the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chandler&pg=7&id=ED144135','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=chandler&pg=7&id=ED144135"><span id="translatedtitle">International Communications and Information; Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, First Session, June 8-10, 1977. Washington, D.C.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs.</p> <p></p> <p>This volume presents the hearings on the implications of international communications and information held before the Senate Subcommittee on International Operations of the Ninety-fifth Congress. Statements taken from Otis Chandler, publisher of the "Los Angeles Times," Andrew Heiskell, chair of Time Incorporated, Glenn E. Watts, president of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trimble&id=ED167313','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=trimble&id=ED167313"><span id="translatedtitle">Status of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization. Hearing Before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, 2nd Session on Oversight on the Status of the Reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.</p> <p></p> <p>The objective of the August 16, 1978, United States Senate hearing was to determine reorganization plans for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, two Deputy Secretaries, and Mr. Charles Trimble of the United Effort Trust testified before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. The…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transfer+AND+public+AND+lands&pg=2&id=ED143857','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=transfer+AND+public+AND+lands&pg=2&id=ED143857"><span id="translatedtitle">An Act to Provide Employment and Training Opportunities for Youth, and to Provide for Other Improvements in Employment and Training Programs. Public Law 95-93. <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>Enacted by Congress in August 1977 to provide employment and training opportunities for youth and to provide for other improvements in employment and training programs, this act is cited as the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977. It has three titles. Title I--Young Adult Conservation Corps--amends the Comprehensive Employment…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Easter&pg=6&id=ED145635','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Easter&pg=6&id=ED145635"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of Programs for the Handicapped, 1977. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Human Resources, U.S. Senate, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, First Session. Part 3. February 28, March 2, 21, 22.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.</p> <p></p> <p>Presented in the third of three documents is testimony given before the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped regarding the delivery of services to and programs for the handicapped. Included are statements from representatives of such agencies as the American Foundation for the Blind, National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Epilepsy+AND+Human&pg=2&id=ED145636','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Epilepsy+AND+Human&pg=2&id=ED145636"><span id="translatedtitle">Oversight on the Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Human Resources, U.S. Senate, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, First Session.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.</p> <p></p> <p>Presented is testimony given before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Senate Committee on Human Resources regarding the Developmentally Disabled Assistance and Bill of Rights Act. Statements are included from representatives of such agencies and organizations as the National Association for Retarded Citizens, American Occupational Therapy…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+smith&pg=5&id=ED156381','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=water+AND+smith&pg=5&id=ED156381"><span id="translatedtitle">Economic Problems of Rural America. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, 1st Session (June 7 and 15, 1977).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>The purpose of the two-day hearings (Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas presiding) was to provide a forum to examine the whole range of rural economic problems and to educate members of the House and Senate as to the seriousness and need for comprehensive rural development programs. The proceedings contain remarks and prepared statements by the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED171453.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED171453.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Youth Hostels. Hearing before the Subcommittee on National Parks and Insular Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, Second Session on H.R. 13557 (August 14, 1978).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>Representatives from the House of Representatives, American Youth Hostels, Inc. (AYH), the Council on International Exchange, Amtrak, the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Trancare, Inc. of Maryland, and the East Coast Bicycle Congress testified in favor of H.R. 13557 at the August 14, 1978, hearing in Washington, D.C. H.R. 13557…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=causes+AND+truancy&pg=5&id=ED135091','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=causes+AND+truancy&pg=5&id=ED135091"><span id="translatedtitle">Challenge for the Third Century: Education In a Safe Environment--Final Report on the Nature and Prevention of School Violence and Vandalism. Report of the Subcommittee to Investigate Juvenile Delinquency. <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, 1st Session. Committee Print.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bayh, Birch</p> <p></p> <p>This final report is designed to present a concise and practical overview of violence and vandalism with a particular emphasis on some of the factors underlying these problems and the various strategies that may be helpful in mitigating them. The report is intended primarily for the administrators, students, teachers, parents, and school staff…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Expiration&pg=7&id=ED138711','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Expiration&pg=7&id=ED138711"><span id="translatedtitle">A Bill to Amend Title 38, United States Code, to Provide Counseling for Certain Veterans; . . . and Utilization of Veterans Readjustment Assistance Programs. H.R. 2231. <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, 1st Session.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.</p> <p></p> <p>This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2231), to be cited, if enacted, as the Comprehensive Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1977, would amend title 38, United States Code, to provide counseling for certain veterans; to permit acceleration of monthly educational assistance payments to eligible veterans and dependents; to revise the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MEDICAL+AND+DEVICES&pg=6&id=ED145634','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=MEDICAL+AND+DEVICES&pg=6&id=ED145634"><span id="translatedtitle">Review of Programs for the Handicapped, 1977. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Human Resources, U.S. Senate, <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress, First Session. Part 2. February 8, 24, 25.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.</p> <p></p> <p>Presented in the second of three documents is testimony given before the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped regarding the delivery of services to and programs for the handicapped. Included are statements from representatives of such agencies as the Council for Exceptional Children, the Higher Education Consortium for Special Education, White…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Television+AND+broadcasting&pg=7&id=ED168547','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Television+AND+broadcasting&pg=7&id=ED168547"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex and Violence on TV. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Communications of the Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce, House of Representatives. <span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> Congress. First Session on the Issue of Televised Violence and Obscenity. Serial No. 95-130.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Interstate and Foreign Commerce.</p> <p></p> <p>These transcripts of statements on televised violence and obscenity presented by government officials and representatives from universities, national organizations, and the television industry, include an outline of the proposed Murphy Bill. This bill would limit the control of the three networks over television programming and promote competition…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25181044','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25181044"><span id="translatedtitle">Particulate matter modifies the association between airborne pollen and daily medical consultations for pollinosis in Tokyo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Konishi, Shoko; Ng, Chris Fook Sheng; Stickley, Andrew; Nishihata, Shinichi; Shinsugi, Chisa; Ueda, Kayo; Takami, Akinori; Watanabe, Chiho</p> <p>2014-11-15</p> <p>Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for pollinosis. A total of 11,713 daily pollinosis cases (International Classification of Diseases, ICD-10, J30.1) from January to May, 2001-2011, were obtained from a clinic in Chiyoda, Tokyo. Daily pollen counts and the daily mean <span class="hlt">values</span> of air pollutants (PM2.5, SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, and O3) were collected from monitoring stations across Tokyo. The effects of pollen were stratified by the level of PM2.5 and SPM to examine the interaction effect of pollen and particulate pollutants. We found a statistically significant interaction between pollen concentration and PM2.5/SPM. On days with a high level of PM2.5 (><span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>), an interquartile increase in the mean cumulative pollen count (an average of 28 pollen grains per cm(2) during lag-days 0 to 5) corresponded to a 10.30% (95%CI: 8.48%-12.16%) increase in daily new pollinosis cases, compared to 8.04% (95%CI: 7.28%-8.81%) on days with a moderate level of PM2.5 (5th-<span class="hlt">95</span><span class="hlt">th</span> <span class="hlt">percentile</span>). This interaction persisted when different <span class="hlt">percentile</span> cut-offs were used and was robust to the inclusion of other air pollutants. A similar interaction pattern was observed between SPM and pollen when a less extreme cut-off for SPM was used to stratify the effect of pollen. Our study showed the acute effect of pollen was greater when the concentration of air particulate pollutant, specifically PM2.5 and SPM, was higher. These findings are consistent with the notion that particulate air pollution may act as an adjuvant that promotes allergic disease (i</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alpha&pg=7&id=EJ1083967','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=alpha&pg=7&id=EJ1083967"><span id="translatedtitle">Students' Reasoning about p-<span class="hlt">Values</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Aquilonius, Birgit C.; Brenner, Mary E.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Results from a study of 16 community college students are presented. The research question concerned how students reasoned about p-<span class="hlt">values</span>. Students' approach to p-<span class="hlt">values</span> in hypothesis testing was procedural. Students viewed p-<span class="hlt">values</span> as something that one compares to alpha <span class="hlt">values</span> in order to arrive at an answer and did not attach much meaning to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED381423.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED381423.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> Education in American Secondary Schools.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Titus, Dale N.</p> <p></p> <p>This paper highlights trends in <span class="hlt">values</span> education in public secondary schools, crucial issues in both religious and secular <span class="hlt">values</span> education, and effective strategies for teaching <span class="hlt">values</span> in formal and invisible curricula. A review of the history of <span class="hlt">values</span> education in the public schools is accompanied by relevant research pertaining to the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol2-sec152-106.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2014-title19-vol2-sec152-106.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 152.106 - Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>. (a) Elements. The computed <span class="hlt">value</span> of imported merchandise is the sum of: (1) The cost or <span class="hlt">value</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2012-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1437.301 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. 1437.301 Section 1437.301 Agriculture... Coverage Using <span class="hlt">Value</span> § 1437.301 <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. (a) Special provisions are required to assess losses and.... Assistance for these commodities is calculated based on the loss of <span class="hlt">value</span> at the time of disaster. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf','CFR'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2010-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2010-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1437.301 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2010&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. 1437.301 Section 1437.301 Agriculture... Coverage Using <span class="hlt">Value</span> § 1437.301 <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. (a) Special provisions are required to assess losses and.... Assistance for these commodities is calculated based on the loss of <span class="hlt">value</span> at the time of disaster. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol2-sec152-106.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2013-title19-vol2-sec152-106.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 152.106 - Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>. (a) Elements. The computed <span class="hlt">value</span> of imported merchandise is the sum of: (1) The cost or <span class="hlt">value</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf','CFR2013'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2013-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2013-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1437.301 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2013&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. 1437.301 Section 1437.301 Agriculture... Coverage Using <span class="hlt">Value</span> § 1437.301 <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. (a) Special provisions are required to assess losses and.... Assistance for these commodities is calculated based on the loss of <span class="hlt">value</span> at the time of disaster. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf','CFR2011'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2011-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2011-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1437.301 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2011&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. 1437.301 Section 1437.301 Agriculture... Coverage Using <span class="hlt">Value</span> § 1437.301 <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. (a) Special provisions are required to assess losses and.... Assistance for these commodities is calculated based on the loss of <span class="hlt">value</span> at the time of disaster. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol2-sec152-106.pdf','CFR2012'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2012-title19-vol2/pdf/CFR-2012-title19-vol2-sec152-106.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">19 CFR 152.106 - Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2012&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed <span class="hlt">value</span>. (a) Elements. The computed <span class="hlt">value</span> of imported merchandise is the sum of: (1) The cost or <span class="hlt">value</span> of...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf','CFR2014'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/CFR-2014-title7-vol10/pdf/CFR-2014-title7-vol10-sec1437-301.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">7 CFR 1437.301 - <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collectionCfr.action?selectedYearFrom=2014&page.go=Go">Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. 1437.301 Section 1437.301 Agriculture... Coverage Using <span class="hlt">Value</span> § 1437.301 <span class="hlt">Value</span> loss. (a) Special provisions are required to assess losses and.... Assistance for these commodities is calculated based on the loss of <span class="hlt">value</span> at the time of disaster. The...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+export&id=EJ584568','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=culture+AND+export&id=EJ584568"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Values</span> in Science: An Educational Perspective.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Allchin, Douglas</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>Argues that epistemic and cultural <span class="hlt">values</span> guide scientific progress and that the social structure of science is strengthened by a diversity of <span class="hlt">values</span>. Claims that science exports <span class="hlt">values</span> to the larger culture. Reasons that science teachers who understand the multifaceted relationship between science and <span class="hlt">values</span> can more effectively guide students in…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monetary+AND+economics&pg=2&id=EJ646735','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monetary+AND+economics&pg=2&id=EJ646735"><span id="translatedtitle">Determining the <span class="hlt">Value</span> of Lifelong Learning.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Parrott, Allen</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>In contemporary educational discourse, <span class="hlt">value</span> in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary <span class="hlt">value</span>, or mathematical or numerical <span class="hlt">value</span>. "Added <span class="hlt">value</span>" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474232.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED474232.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Work Ethic and <span class="hlt">Values</span> in HRD. Symposium.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>2002</p> <p></p> <p>This document contains four papers from a symposium on work ethic and <span class="hlt">values</span> in human resource development (HRD). "<span class="hlt">Value</span> Priorities of HRD Scholars and Practitioners" (Reid Bates, Hsin Chih Chen, Tim Hatcher) presents the results of a study that identified and analyzed six HRD <span class="hlt">values</span> reflecting two <span class="hlt">value</span> facets (locus of HRD influence and HRD…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.</small> </div> </center> <div id="footer-wrapper"> <div class="footer-content"> <div id="footerOSTI" class=""> <div class="row"> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-push-4 footer-content-center"><small><a href="http://www.science.gov/disclaimer.html">Privacy and Security</a></small> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center col-md-pull-4 footer-content-left"> <img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/DOE_SC31.png" alt="U.S. Department of Energy" usemap="#doe" height="31" width="177"><map style="display:none;" name="doe" id="doe"><area shape="rect" coords="1,3,107,30" href="http://www.energy.gov" alt="U.S. Deparment of Energy"><area shape="rect" coords="114,3,165,30" href="http://www.science.energy.gov" alt="Office of Science"></map> <a ref="http://www.osti.gov" style="margin-left: 15px;"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/ostigov53.png" alt="Office of Scientific and Technical Information" height="31" width="53"></a> <div class="visible-sm visible-xs push_footer"></div> </div> <div class="col-md-4 text-center footer-content-right"> <a href="http://www.osti.gov/nle"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/NLElogo31.png" alt="National Library of Energy" height="31" width="79"></a> <a href="http://www.science.gov"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/scigov77.png" alt="science.gov" height="31" width="98"></a> <a href="http://worldwidescience.org"><img src="https://www.osti.gov/images/footerimages/wws82.png" alt="WorldWideScience.org" height="31" width="90"></a> </div> </div> </div> </div> </div> <p><br></p> </div><!-- container --> </body> </html>