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Sample records for 95th percentile values

  1. Using Microsoft Excel to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI).

    PubMed

    Vickers, Linda D

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the method using Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Corporation One Microsoft Way Redmond, WA 98052-6399) to compute the 5% overall site X/Q value and the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest maximally exposed offsite individual (MEOI) in accordance with guidance from DOE-STD-3009-1994 and U.S. NRC Regulatory Guide 1.145-1982. The accurate determination of the 5% overall site X/Q value is the most important factor in the computation of the 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI. This method should be used to validate software codes that compute the X/Q. The 95th percentile of the distribution of doses to the nearest MEOI must be compared to the U.S. DOE Evaluation Guide of 25 rem to determine the relative severity of hazard to the public from a postulated, unmitigated design basis accident that involves an offsite release of radioactive material.

  2. Validation of the 5th and 95th Percentile Hybrid III Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2014-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley criteria and injury metrics extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD's). For the ATD injury metrics, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Furthermore, each of these ATD's is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. The requirements require that physical testing be performed with both ATD's to demonstrate compliance. Before compliance testing can be conducted, extensive modeling and simulation are required to determine appropriate test conditions, simulate conditions not feasible for testing, and assess design features to better ensure compliance testing is successful. While finite element (FE) models are currently available for many of the physical ATD's, currently there are no complete models for either the 5th percentile female or the 95th percentile male Hybrid III with a straight spine and articulating pelvis. The purpose of this work is to assess the accuracy of the existing Livermore Software Technology Corporation's FE models of the 5th and 95th percentile ATD's. To perform this assessment, a series of tests will be performed at Wright Patterson Air Force Research Lab using their horizontal impact accelerator sled test facility. The ATD's will be placed in the Orion seat with a modified-advanced-crew-escape-system (MACES) pressure suit and helmet, and driven with loadings similar to what is expected for the actual Orion vehicle during landing, launch abort, and chute deployment. Test data will be compared to analytical predictions and modelling uncertainty factors will be determined for each injury metric. Additionally, the test data will be used to

  3. Effect of Anatomical Modeling on Space Radiation Dose Estimates: A Comparison of Doses for NASA Phantoms and 5th, 50th, and 95th Percentile UF Hybrid Phantoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, A.; VanBaalen, M.; Shavers, M.; Semones, E.; Dodge, C.; Bolch, W.

    2010-01-01

    The estimate of absorbed dose to individual organs of a space crewmember is affected by the geometry of the anatomical model of the astronaut used in the radiation transport calculation. For astronaut dosimetry, NASA currently uses the computerized anatomical male (CAM) and computerized anatomical female (CAF) stylized phantoms to represent astronauts in its operational radiation dose analyses. These phantoms are available in one size and in two body positions. In contrast, the UF Hybrid Adult Male and Female (UFHADM and UFHADF) phantoms have organ shapes based on actual CT data. The surfaces of these phantoms are defined by non-uniform rational B-spline surfaces, and are thus flexible in terms of body morphometry and extremity positioning. In this study, UFHADM and UFHADF are scaled to dimensions corresponding to 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile (PCTL) male and female astronauts. A ray-tracing program is written in Visual Basic 2008, which is then used to create areal density maps for dose points corresponding to various organs within the phantoms. The areal density maps, along with appropriate space radiation spectra, are input into the NASA program couplet HZETRN/BRYNTRN, and organ doses are calculated. The areal density maps selected tissues and organs of the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared. In addition, the organ doses for the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female phantoms are presented and compared to organ doses for CAM and CAF.

  4. Dosimetric impacts of microgravity: an analysis of 5th, 50th and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Baalen, Mary Van; Shavers, Mark R; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2012-02-21

    Computational phantoms serve an important role in organ dosimetry and risk assessment performed at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). A previous study investigated the impact on organ dose equivalents and effective doses from the use of the University of Florida hybrid adult male (UFHADM) and adult female (UFHADF) phantoms at differing height and weight percentiles versus those given by the two existing NASA phantoms, the computerized anatomical man (CAM) and female (CAF) (Bahadori et al 2011 Phys. Med. Biol. 56 1671-94). In the present study, the UFHADM and UFHADF phantoms of different body sizes were further altered to incorporate the effects of microgravity. Body self-shielding distributions are generated using the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT), and the results are combined with depth dose data from the NASA codes BRYNTRN and HZETRN to yield organ dose equivalents and their rates for a variety of space radiation environments. It is found that while organ dose equivalents are indeed altered by the physiological effects ofmicrogravity, the magnitude of the change in overall risk (indicated by the effective dose) is minimal for the spectra and simplified shielding configurations considered. The results also indicate, however, that UFHADMand UFHADF could be useful in designing dose reduction strategies through optimized positioning of an astronaut during encounters with solar particle events.

  5. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahadori, Amir A.; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R.; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2011-03-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  6. The effect of anatomical modeling on space radiation dose estimates: a comparison of doses for NASA phantoms and the 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile male and female astronauts.

    PubMed

    Bahadori, Amir A; Van Baalen, Mary; Shavers, Mark R; Dodge, Charles; Semones, Edward J; Bolch, Wesley E

    2011-03-21

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) performs organ dosimetry and risk assessment for astronauts using model-normalized measurements of the radiation fields encountered in space. To determine the radiation fields in an organ or tissue of interest, particle transport calculations are performed using self-shielding distributions generated with the computer program CAMERA to represent the human body. CAMERA mathematically traces linear rays (or path lengths) through the computerized anatomical man (CAM) phantom, a computational stylized model developed in the early 1970s with organ and body profiles modeled using solid shapes and scaled to represent the body morphometry of the 1950 50th percentile (PCTL) Air Force male. With the increasing use of voxel phantoms in medical and health physics, a conversion from a mathematical-based to a voxel-based ray-tracing algorithm is warranted. In this study, the voxel-based ray tracer (VoBRaT) is introduced to ray trace voxel phantoms using a modified version of the algorithm first proposed by Siddon (1985 Med. Phys. 12 252-5). After validation, VoBRAT is used to evaluate variations in body self-shielding distributions for NASA phantoms and six University of Florida (UF) hybrid phantoms, scaled to represent the 5th, 50th, and 95th PCTL male and female astronaut body morphometries, which have changed considerably since the inception of CAM. These body self-shielding distributions are used to generate organ dose equivalents and effective doses for five commonly evaluated space radiation environments. It is found that dosimetric differences among the phantoms are greatest for soft radiation spectra and light vehicular shielding.

  7. Anthropometry of height, weight, arm, wrist, abdominal circumference and body mass index, for Bolivian adolescents 12 to 18 years: Bolivian adolescent percentile values from the MESA study.

    PubMed

    Baya Botti, A; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Vasquez Monllor, P A; Kolsteren, P W

    2009-01-01

    Anthropometry is important as clinical tool for individual follow-up as well as for planning and health policy-making at population level. Recent references of Bolivian Adolescents are not available. The aim of this cross sectional study was to provide age and sex specific centile values and charts of Body Mass Index, height, weight, arm, wrist and abdominal circumference from Bolivian Adolescents. Data from the MEtabolic Syndrome in Adolescents (MESA) study was used. Thirty-two Bolivian clusters from urban and rural areas were selected randomly considering population proportions, 3445 school going adolescents, 12 to 18 y, 45% males; 55% females underwent anthropometric evaluation by trained personnel using standardized protocols for all interviews and examinations. Weight, height, wrist, arm and abdominal circumference data were collected. Body Mass Index was calculated. Smoothed age- and gender specific 3rd, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th and 97th Bolivian adolescent percentiles(BAP) and Charts(BAC) where derived using LMS regression. Percentile-based reference data for the antropometrics of for Bolivian Adolescents are presented for the first time.

  8. A Comparison of Growth Percentile and Value-Added Models of Teacher Performance. Working Paper #39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guarino, Cassandra M.; Reckase, Mark D.; Stacy, Brian W.; Wooldridge, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    School districts and state departments of education frequently must choose between a variety of methods to estimating teacher quality. This paper examines under what circumstances the decision between estimators of teacher quality is important. We examine estimates derived from student growth percentile measures and estimates derived from commonly…

  9. Percentile Values for Running Sprint Field Tests in Children Ages 6-17 Years: Influence of Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro-Pinero, Jose; Gonzalez-Montesinos, Jose Luis; Keating, Xiaofen D.; Mora, Jesus; Sjostrom, Michael; Ruiz, Jonatan R.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to provide percentile values for six different sprint tests in 2,708 Spanish children (1,234 girls) ages 6-17.9 years. We also examined the influence of weight status on sprint performance across age groups, with a focus on underweight and obese groups. We used the 20-m, 30-m, and 50-m running sprint standing start and…

  10. A methodology for calculating percentile values of annual direct normal solar irradiation series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peruchena, Carlos M. Fernández; Ramírez, Lourdes; Silva, Manuel; Lara, Vicente; Bermejo, Diego; Gastón, Martín; Moreno, Sara; Pulgar, Jesús; Liria, Juan; Macías, Sergio; Gonzalez, Rocio; Bernardos, Ana; Castillo, Nuria; Bolinaga, Beatriz; Valenzuela, Rita X.; Zarzalejo, Luis

    2016-05-01

    A detailed knowledge of the solar resource is a critical point in the performance of an economic feasibility analysis of solar thermal electricity plants. In particular, the Direct Normal solar Irradiance (DNI) is the most determining variable in its final energy yield. Inter-annual variations of DNI can be large and seriously compromise the viability of solar energy projects. In this work, a methodology for evaluating the statistical properties of annual DNI series is presented for generating inputs to risk assessments in an economic feasibility analysis of a solar power plant. The methodology relies on the construction of a cumulative distribution function of annual DNI values, which allows for the evaluation of both mean and extreme climate characterization at a particular location in the long term.

  11. Information Policy: Public Laws from the 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on House Administration.

    This compilation of abstracts provides brief descriptions of the 74 new public laws relating to computers and information policy that were enacted during the 95th Congress. Each of these bills is concerned with information, although the diverse subject matter--e.g., energy and clean water, food and health, foreign investments, ethics in…

  12. Development of a percentile based three-dimensional model of the buttocks in computer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lijing; He, Xueli; Li, Hongpeng

    2016-05-01

    There are diverse products related to human buttocks, which need to be designed, manufactured and evaluated with 3D buttock model. The 3D buttock model used in present research field is just simple approximate model similar to human buttocks. The 3D buttock percentile model is highly desired in the ergonomics design and evaluation for these products. So far, there is no research on the percentile sizing system of human 3D buttock model. So the purpose of this paper is to develop a new method for building three-dimensional buttock percentile model in computer system. After scanning the 3D shape of buttocks, the cloud data of 3D points is imported into the reverse engineering software (Geomagic) for the reconstructing of the buttock surface model. Five characteristic dimensions of the buttock are measured through mark-points after models being imported into engineering software CATIA. A series of space points are obtained by the intersecting of the cutting slices and 3D buttock surface model, and then are ordered based on the sequence number of the horizontal and vertical slices. The 1st, 5th, 50th, 95th, 99th percentile values of the five dimensions and the spatial coordinate values of the space points are obtained, and used to reconstruct percentile buttock models. This research proposes a establishing method of percentile sizing system of buttock 3D model based on the percentile values of the ischial tuberosities diameter, the distances from margin to ischial tuberosity and the space coordinates value of coordinate points, for establishing the Nth percentile 3D buttock model and every special buttock types model. The proposed method also serves as a useful guidance for the other 3D percentile models establishment for other part in human body with characteristic points.

  13. Metabolic syndrome and its components among obese (BMI ≥95th) Mexican adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Evia-Viscarra, Maria Lola; Rodea-Montero, Edel Rafael; Apolinar-Jiménez, Evelia; Quintana-Vargas, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) and its components in obese Mexican adolescents and to compare the clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical characteristics between patients with and without MS by sex. We conducted a cross-sectional study with a sample of 110 obese adolescents (boys and girls) from 8 to 16 years old (BMI ≥95th percentile), who were recruited in the pediatric obesity clinic of a third-level care hospital. A frequency analysis was used to estimate the prevalence of MS and its components, and the assessments were compared between the sexes and between the groups with and without MS using the Kruskal–Wallis test. The prevalence of MS was 62%. In order of prevalence, the following components of MS were observed in the sample: abdominal obesity (88%), high triglycerides (TG) (85%), low HDL-C (60%), hypertension (35%), and hyperglycemia (5%). In the groups with MS, hypertension (P<0.001), waist circumference (P=0.003), and TG (P=0.012) were significantly higher, and HDL-C (P<0.001) was significantly lower. In conclusion the prevalence of MS and its components is high among obese Mexican-Hispanic children. These findings show the importance of preventing and treating obesity in the early stages of life in order to decrease the incidence rates of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:24145615

  14. ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE, WITH LAKE SHORE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION, LOOKING SOUTH FROM 95th STREET DRAWBRIDGE, WITH LAKE SHORE & MICHIGAN SOUTHERN RAILWAY BRIDGES IN RAISED POSITION. - Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railway, Bridge No. 6, Spanning Calumet River, east of Chicago Skyway (I-90), Chicago, Cook County, IL

  15. Dosimetry of infant exposure to power-frequency magnetic fields: variation of 99th percentile induced electric field value by posture and skin-to-skin contact.

    PubMed

    Li, Congsheng; Wu, Tongning

    2015-04-01

    Infant exposure to 50 Hz magnetic fields from power lines was numerically analyzed in this study. Dosimetric variability due to posture and skin-to-skin contact was evaluated using human anatomical models including a recently developed model of a 12-months-old infant. As proposed by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the induced E-field strength (99th percentile value, E99 ) for the central nerve systems (E99_CNS ) and peripheral nerve system (E99_PNS ), were used as metrics. Results showed that the single (free of contact with others) infant model has lower E99 (E99_CNS and E99_PNS inclusive) compared with single adult and child models when exposed to the same power-frequency magnetic field. Also, studied postures of sitting, standing, or arm-up, would not change E99 _PNS . However, skin-to-skin contact with other models could significantly raise induced E-field strength in the infant (e.g., contact on 0.93% of the infant's total surface increased E99_PNS by 213%). Simulations with canonical models were conducted to assess different factors contributing to the E99 enhancement. Results indicated the importance of thoroughly investigating the conservativeness of current safety guidelines in the case of skin-to-skin contact, especially with infants.

  16. Waist Circumferences of Chilean Students: Comparison of the CDC-2012 Standard and Proposed Percentile Curves

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Campos, Rossana; Lee Andruske, Cinthya; Hespanhol, Jefferson; Sulla Torres, Jose; Arruda, Miguel; Luarte-Rocha, Cristian; Cossio-Bolaños, Marco Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of waist circumference (WC) is considered to be an important means to control overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. The objectives of the study were to (a) compare the WC measurements of Chilean students with the international CDC-2012 standard and other international standards, and (b) propose a specific measurement value for the WC of Chilean students based on age and sex. A total of 3892 students (6 to 18 years old) were assessed. Weight, height, body mass index (BMI), and WC were measured. WC was compared with the CDC-2012 international standard. Percentiles were constructed based on the LMS method. Chilean males had a greater WC during infancy. Subsequently, in late adolescence, males showed values lower than those of the international standards. Chilean females demonstrated values similar to the standards until the age of 12. Subsequently, females showed lower values. The 85th and 95th percentiles were adopted as cutoff points for evaluating overweight and obesity based on age and sex. The WC of Chilean students differs from the CDC-2012 curves. The regional norms proposed are a means to identify children and adolescents with a high risk of suffering from overweight and obesity disorders. PMID:26184250

  17. Predictive value of human biomonitoring in environmental medicine: experiences at the outpatient unit of environmental medicine (UEM) of the University Hospital Aachen, Germany.

    PubMed

    Straff, Wolfgang; Möller, Manfred; Jakobi, Nikolaus; Weishoff-Houben, Michaela; Dott, Wolfgang; Wiesmüller, Gerhard Andreas

    2002-07-01

    There is little data on the distribution of biomonitoring parameters in patients at outpatient Units of Environmental Medicine (UEM). We evaluated the biomonitoring parameters of 646 UEM outpatients from our University Hospital 1988-1998. Few patients were exposed to specific substances. Data of patients who were not obviously exposed was analysed statistically (geometric mean, standard deviation, median, 95th percentile). Results were compared with reference values in literature. Normal distribution of biomonitoring parameters was rare. 95th percentiles for arsenic, chromium, selenium, zinc, phenol and toluene were below standard, 95th percentiles for copper and mercury above, and 95th percentiles for lead, cadmium, pentachlorophenol, lindane, and beta-hexachlorocyclohexane were within the published range of reference values. Thallium as well as most volatile organic compounds analyzed were below detection levels. Aluminum and fluorine exposure was rarely analysed. In view of these results, it is concluded that the indication for biomonitoring needs to be stringent as levels of biomonitoring parameters are generally not risen in patients of the UEM.

  18. 60th anniversary of state sanitary inspection and 95th anniversary of sanitary services in Poland.

    PubMed

    Posobkiewicz, Marek; Kalinowska-Morka, Joanna; Świekatowski, Bartosz

    2015-01-01

    2014 was a year of two jubilees in the remit of public health in Poland: 95th anniversary of sanitary services and 60th anniversary of State Sanitary Inspection. It was an opportunity to organize a conference so as to remind the events concerning a birth of the institution which, after the First World War, had originated structures of epidemiological and sanitary supervision in Poland, the one we have nowadays. A conference took place on 16th December 2014 in Warsaw, at Palladium Theatre.

  19. A Comparison of Three Conditional Growth Percentile Methods: Student Growth Percentiles, Percentile Rank Residuals, and a Matching Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyse, Adam E.; Seo, Dong Gi

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a brief overview and comparison of three conditional growth percentile methods; student growth percentiles, percentile rank residuals, and a nonparametric matching method. These approaches seek to describe student growth in terms of the relative percentile ranking of a student in relationship to students that had the same…

  20. Federal Student Assistance: Legislative History, 95th Congress 2nd Session. Report No. 79-6 EPW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stedman, Jim

    A chronology of the tuition tax credit legislation and a series of amendments to existing federal student aid programs during the second session of the 95th Congress is presented. In each chamber of Congress legislative activity proceded along four routes: (1) authorizing legislation from the education committees (amendments to existing student…

  1. New population based reference values for spinal mobility measures based on the NHANES 2009–10

    PubMed Central

    Assassi, Shervin; Weisman, Michael H.; Lee, MinJae; Savage, Laurie; Diekman, Laura; Graham, Tiffany A.; Rahbar, Mohammad H.; Schall, Joan I.; Gensler, Lianne S.; Deodhar, Atul A.; Clegg, Daniel O.; Colbert, Robert A.; Reveille, John D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To report population based percentile reference values for selected spinal mobility measures in a nationally representative sample of 5103 U.S. adults ages 20–69 years examined in the 2009–10 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Methods Occiput-to-Wall Distance (OWD), Thoracic Expansion (TE), and Anterior Lumbar Flexion (ALF – modified Schober test) were measured by trained examiners in a standardized fashion. TE was measured at the xyphosternal level while the lower reference point for ALF was a line marked at the level of the superior margin of the lateral iliac crests. We report reference values based on the 95th percentile of OWD and 5th percentile of TE and ALF measurements, as well as other summary statistics for these measures in the study population. Results An OWD of more than zero was present in 3.8 % of participants while 8.8% of participants had out of range values for TE based the commonly used threshold of 2.5 cm. The 95th percentile of OWD measurement was zero while the 5th percentile measurements for TE and ALF were 1.9 and 2 cm, respectively. The spinal measures were significantly associated with gender, age, ethnicity, height, and body mass index. Exclusion of individuals with severe obesity (BMI > 35) changed the proposed reference values for TE and ALF to 2.2 and 1.9 cm, respectively. Conclusion We verified the reference value of zero for OWD. Using the reported population based percentile values, new reference values for TE and the ALF can be derived. PMID:24782356

  2. Percentile curves for skinfold thickness for Canadian children and youth

    PubMed Central

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian; Maguire, Bryan; Hamilton, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements are a reliable and feasible method for assessing body fat in children but their use and interpretation is hindered by the scarcity of reference values in representative populations of children. The objective of the present study was to develop age- and sex-specific percentile curves for five SFT measures (biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, medial calf) in a representative population of Canadian children and youth. Methods. We analyzed data from 3,938 children and adolescents between 6 and 19 years of age who participated in the Canadian Health Measures Survey cycles 1 (2007/2009) and 2 (2009/2011). Standardized procedures were used to measure SFT. Age- and sex-specific centiles for SFT were calculated using the GAMLSS method. Results. Percentile curves were materially different in absolute value and shape for boys and girls. Percentile girls in girls steadily increased with age whereas percentile curves in boys were characterized by a pubertal centered peak. Conclusions. The current study has presented for the first time percentile curves for five SFT measures in a representative sample of Canadian children and youth. PMID:27547554

  3. Evaluation of the growth percentiles of children with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Martins da Silva, Viviane; de Oliveira Lopes, Marcos Venícios; Leite de Araujo, Thelma

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between anthropometric measures of children with congenital heart disease with percentiles that represent their growth indicators. Anthropometric evaluations of 135 hospitalized children with congenital heart disease were performed in a hospital specialized in cardiac diseases in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil. For the growth evaluation, percentiles of height by age, weight by height and weight by age were calculated. Children's average age was 4.74 months (+ 3.78) and 66.7% of the children were male. The medians of the three percentiles presented values below percentile 10, indicating a high proportion of values considered of risk. The subscapular thickness presented positive correlation with the three percentiles. The values of percentiles studied indicated growth delay.

  4. An Activity for Learning to Find Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Richard G.

    2016-01-01

    This classroom activity is designed to help students practice calculating percentiles. The approach of the activity involves physical sorting and full classroom participation in each calculation. The design encourages a more engaged approach than simply having students make a calculation with numbers on a paper.

  5. Reference values of total serum IgE and their significance in the diagnosis of allergy in young European adults.

    PubMed

    Carosso, Aurelia; Bugiani, Massimiliano; Migliore, Enrica; Antò, Josep Maria; DeMarco, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    Allergic sensitization mediated by immunoglobulin E (IgE) is the basis of allergic diseases, and elevated total IgE, in spite of some well-known limitations, is frequently included as a diagnostic criterion for allergic diseases. The reference value of total IgE (IgE-t) in the literature (1.5-144 kU/l) was established almost 2 decades ago. The aim of this study was to establish IgE-t reference values, establishing an updated cutoff value able to identify atopic subjects, defined as a positive CAP-radioallergosorbent test to at least one of a panel of common allergens, among young European adults. The study included 6,670 subjects from 10 Western European countries within the framework of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II. IgE-t and specific IgE (IgE-s) were measured for the main inhalant allergens; IgE-s in class 0 for all allergens (66.2%) characterized non-atopy. The reference values were estimated by means of linear regression using a 50% random subsample of non-atopic subjects. Two non-atopic subsamples were examined so that one subsample could be used to establish reference IgE-t values, and these values were compared to those in the second non-atopic subsample to validate the findings. Sensitivity and specificity for atopy were assessed on the other 50% of non-atopic and on all atopic subjects. The 95th percentile of IgE-t reference values in non-smokers was 148 kU/l in women and 169 kU/l in men, while it was 194 and 220 kU/l in female and male smokers, respectively: serum IgE-t above the 95th percentile identifies <32% and above the 99th percentile <20% of atopic adults (low sensitivity), but a serum IgE-t below the 95th percentile identifies >90% and below the 99th percentile identifies >95% of non-atopic adults (good specificity). Due to the adequate specificity, IgE-t values exceeding the normal limits confirm a suspected atopic status; however, because of the low sensitivity, values below the cutoff seem not to exclude an atopic status

  6. [From the Russian Balneological Society to innovative technologies of spa and health resort-based treatment. The 95th anniversary of the Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneology].

    PubMed

    Efimenko, N V

    2015-01-01

    This article is dedicated to the 95th anniversary of the Federal state budgetary institution "Pyatigorsk State Research Institute of Balneology", Russian Federal Medico-Biological Agency. The main stages of the development of the institution are described with special reference to its scientific achievements and the principal lines of current activities.

  7. Reference Values for Body Composition and Anthropometric Measurements in Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Diana A.; Dawson, John A.; Matias, Catarina N.; Rocha, Paulo M.; Minderico, Cláudia S.; Allison, David B.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Silva, Analiza M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of body composition in athletes, reference sex- and sport-specific body composition data are lacking. We aim to develop reference values for body composition and anthropometric measurements in athletes. Methods Body weight and height were measured in 898 athletes (264 female, 634 male), anthropometric variables were assessed in 798 athletes (240 female and 558 male), and in 481 athletes (142 female and 339 male) with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). A total of 21 different sports were represented. Reference percentiles (5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th) were calculated for each measured value, stratified by sex and sport. Because sample sizes within a sport were often very low for some outcomes, the percentiles were estimated using a parametric, empirical Bayesian framework that allowed sharing information across sports. Results We derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following DXA outcomes: total (whole body scan) and regional (subtotal, trunk, and appendicular) bone mineral content, bone mineral density, absolute and percentage fat mass, fat-free mass, and lean soft tissue. Additionally, we derived reference percentiles for height-normalized indexes by dividing fat mass, fat-free mass, and appendicular lean soft tissue by height squared. We also derived sex- and sport-specific reference percentiles for the following anthropometry outcomes: weight, height, body mass index, sum of skinfold thicknesses (7 skinfolds, appendicular skinfolds, trunk skinfolds, arm skinfolds, and leg skinfolds), circumferences (hip, arm, midthigh, calf, and abdominal circumferences), and muscle circumferences (arm, thigh, and calf muscle circumferences). Conclusions These reference percentiles will be a helpful tool for sports professionals, in both clinical and field settings, for body composition assessment in athletes. PMID:24830292

  8. Evaluation of short neck: new neck length percentiles and linear correlations with height and sitting height.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, P V; Bharucha, B A

    1994-10-01

    Qualitative impressions of neck length are often used as aids to dysmorphology in syndromes like Turner, Noonan, Klippel-Feil and in craniovertebral anomalies, some of which have serious neurological implications. There are no national or international standards for neck length. The present study attempted to create standards and percentile charts for Indian children and compute age-independent correlations of neck length with linear measurements such as standing and sitting height. A total of 2724 children of both sexes between 3 and 15 years, whose heights and weights conformed to ICMR standards were inducted. Neck length was measured by a modified two-point discriminator between two fixed bony points-inion and spinous process of C7 with the head held in neutral position. Percentiles (5th-95th) were constructed for both sexes. Growth was rapid from 3 to 6 years. Neck length formed a mean of 12.7 +/- 4.58% of height and 20.1 +/- 6.73% of sitting height. Age independent linear regression equations: Neck length = 10 + (0.035 x height) and Neck length = 9.65 + (0.07 x sitting height) were highly significant (p < 0.001). Neck length relationships of 30 randomly selected normal children clustered around the regression lines and 16 with genetic syndromes fell below the regression lines.

  9. Bias and imprecision in posture percentile variables estimated from short exposure samples

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Upper arm postures are believed to be an important risk determinant for musculoskeletal disorder development in the neck and shoulders. The 10th and 90th percentiles of the angular elevation distribution have been reported in many studies as measures of neutral and extreme postural exposures, and variation has been quantified by the 10th-90th percentile range. Further, the 50th percentile is commonly reported as a measure of "average" exposure. These four variables have been estimated using samples of observed or directly measured postures, typically using sampling durations between 5 and 120 min. Methods The present study examined the statistical properties of estimated full-shift values of the 10th, 50th and 90th percentile and the 10th-90th percentile range of right upper arm elevation obtained from samples of seven different durations, ranging from 5 to 240 min. The sampling strategies were realized by simulation, using a parent data set of 73 full-shift, continuous inclinometer recordings among hairdressers. For each shift, sampling duration and exposure variable, the mean, standard deviation and sample dispersion limits (2.5% and 97.5%) of all possible sample estimates obtained at one minute intervals were calculated and compared to the true full-shift exposure value. Results Estimates of the 10th percentile proved to be upward biased with limited sampling, and those of the 90th percentile and the percentile range, downward biased. The 50th percentile was also slightly upwards biased. For all variables, bias was more severe with shorter sampling durations, and it correlated significantly with the true full-shift value for the 10th and 90th percentiles and the percentile range. As expected, shorter samples led to decreased precision of the estimate; sample standard deviations correlated strongly with true full-shift exposure values. Conclusions The documented risk of pronounced bias and low precision of percentile estimates obtained from short

  10. An hour-specific nomogram for transcutaneous bilirubin values in term and late preterm Hispanic neonates.

    PubMed

    Engle, William D; Lai, Susanna; Ahmad, Naveed; Manning, M Denise; Jackson, Gregory L

    2009-06-01

    We sought to determine percentile values for hour-specific transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) measurements in Hispanic neonates during the first 72 hours of age. Neonates with gestational age >or= 35 weeks and body weight >or= 2100 g were included. All neonates were screened with JM-103 TcB measurements at a minimum of every 24 hours by nursing personnel, and only TcB values obtained in Hispanic neonates with postnatal ages of 10 to 74 hours were analyzed. The 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile curves were determined. These data were compared with a previously published TcB nomogram predominantly composed of white, non-Hispanic neonates. A total of 3284 TcB values were measured in 2005 neonates. A nomogram was constructed for this exclusively Hispanic population, identifying the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 95th percentile curves. The 95th percentile values at 24, 48, and 72 hours were 7.6, 11.0, and 12.4 mg/dL, respectively. The comparison between our results and those of the previously published study indicated that small but consistent differences between the two study populations were apparent, with the Hispanic neonates having significantly higher TcB values at the majority of time points analyzed. These observations were made despite a higher proportion of neonates >or= 40 weeks' gestation ( p < 0.001) and a lower proportion exclusively breast-fed ( p < 0.001) in the Hispanic population versus those in the previous study. Although higher bilirubin levels for certain populations are well documented, such differences in Hispanic neonates have not been confirmed. A TcB nomogram for Hispanic neonates is presented as a tool that will aid the clinician in the management of jaundice for this population. Compared with the previous study, this report indicates that although differences were relatively small, significantly higher TcB values were observed in the Hispanic population.

  11. Waist-to-Height Ratio Percentiles and Cutoffs for Obesity: A Cross-sectional Study in Brazilian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Zanetti Passos, Maria Aparecida; dos Santos, Luana Caroline; da Costa Machado, Helymar; Fisberg, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to describe the distribution of waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) percentiles and cutoffs for obesity in Brazilian adolescents. A cross-sectional study including adolescents aged 10 to 15 years was conducted in the city of São Paulo, Brazil; anthropometric measurements (weight, height, and waist-circumference) were taken, and WHtRs were calculated and then divided into percentiles derived by using Least Median of Squares (LMS) regression. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used in determining cutoffs for obesity (BMI ≥97th percentile) and Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for comparing variables. The study included 8,019 adolescents from 43 schools, of whom 54.5% were female, and 74.8% attended public schools. Boys had higher mean WHtR than girls (0.45±0.06 vs 0.44±0.05; p=0.002) and higher WHtR at the 95th percentile (0.56 vs 0.54; p<0.05). The WHtR cutoffs according to the WHO criteria ranged from 0.467 to 0.506 and 0.463 to 0.496 among girls and boys respectively, with high sensitivity (82.8-95%) and specificity (84-95.5%). The WHtR was significantly associated with body adiposity measured by BMI. Its age-specific percentiles and cutoffs may be used as additional surrogate markers of central obesity and its co-morbidities. PMID:25395904

  12. Using weight-for-age percentiles to screen for overweight and obese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gamliel, Adir; Ziv-Baran, Tomer; Siegel, Robert M; Fogelman, Yacov; Dubnov-Raz, Gal

    2015-12-01

    There are relatively low rates of screening for overweight and obesity among children and adolescents in primary care. A simplified method for such screening is needed. The study objective was to examine if weight-for-age percentiles are sufficiently sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity in children and adolescents. We used data from two distinct sources: four consecutive cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from the years 2005 to 2012, using participants aged 2-17.9 years for whom data on age, sex, weight, and height were available (n=12,884), and primary care clinic measurements (n=15,152). Primary outcomes were the threshold values of weight-for-age percentiles which best discriminated between normal weight, overweight, and obesity status. Receiver operating characteristic analyses demonstrated that weight-for-age percentiles well discriminated between normal weight and overweight and between non-obese and obese individuals (area under curve=0.956 and 0.977, respectively, both p<0.001). Following Classification and Regression Trees analysis, the 90th and 75th weight-for-age percentiles were chosen as appropriate cutoffs for obesity and overweight, respectively. These cutoffs had high sensitivity and negative predictive value in identifying obese participants (94.3% and 98.6%, respectively, for the 90th percentile) and in identifying overweight participants (93.2% and 95.9%, respectively, for the 75th percentile). The sensitivities and specificities were nearly identical across race and sex, and in the validation data from NHANES 2011 to 2012 and primary care. We conclude that weight-for-age percentiles can discriminate between normal weight, overweight and obese children, and adolescents. The 75th and 90th weight-for-age percentiles correspond well with the BMI cutoffs for pediatric overweight and obesity, respectively.

  13. Reference percentiles for FEV1 and BMI in European children and adults with cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical course of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is usually measured using the percent predicted FEV1 and BMI Z-score referenced against a healthy population, since achieving normality is the ultimate goal of CF care. Referencing against age and sex matched CF peers may provide valuable information for patients and for comparison between CF centers or populations. Here, we used a large database of European CF patients to compute CF specific reference equations for FEV1 and BMI, derived CF-specific percentile charts and compared these European data to their nearest international equivalents. Methods 34859 FEV1 and 40947 BMI observations were used to compute European CF specific percentiles. Quantile regression was applied to raw measurements as a function of sex, age and height. Results were compared with the North American equivalent for FEV1 and with the WHO 2007 normative values for BMI. Results FEV1 and BMI percentiles illustrated the large variability between CF patients receiving the best current care. The European CF specific percentiles for FEV1 were significantly different from those in the USA from an earlier era, with higher lung function in Europe. The CF specific percentiles for BMI declined relative to the WHO standard in older children. Lung function and BMI were similar in the two largest contributing European Countries (France and Germany). Conclusion The CF specific percentile approach applied to FEV1 and BMI allows referencing patients with respect to their peers. These data allow peer to peer and population comparisons in CF patients. PMID:22958330

  14. Derivation and selection of freshwater sediment quality values in Washington state

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbage, J.; Breidenbach, S.; Batts, D.

    1995-12-31

    To derive chemical-based Freshwater Sediment Quality Values (FSQV), bioassay data (Hyalella azteca, Microtox, Chironomus tentans, Daphnia magna, Ceriodaphnia dubia, and Hexagenia limbata) and chemistry data (metals, PAH, pesticide/PCBs, and phenols) were merged from 33 studies and 245 sites in Washington and Oregon into a single database. Apparent Effects Thresholds (AET) and Probable AETs (PAET: 95th percentile of no effects sites) were calculated for Hyalella azteca (n = 228) and Microtox. The efficiency and sensitivity of these values in predicting biological response from chemical concentrations were compared with Ontario`s Severe Effects Level (SEL), Environment Canada`s Probable Effects Level (PEL) and Threshold Effects Level (TEL), EPA`s Equilibrium Partitioning (EQP), and Washington`s marine Sediment management Standards (SMS). For PAH, dry weight normalized values for AETs and PAETs were significantly more sensitive and efficient than organic carbon normalized values. TEL was always the most sensitive and least efficient.

  15. Comparison of Updated Weight and Height Percentiles with Previous References in 6-17-Year-Old Children in Kayseri, Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Zararsız, Gökmen; Çiçek, Betül; Kondolot, Meda; Mazıcıoğlu, M. Mümtaz; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To compare updated weight and height percentiles of 6-17-year-old children from all socio-economic levels in Kayseri with previous local references and other national/international data. Methods: The second study “Determination of Anthropometric Measurements of Turkish Children and Adolescents study (DAMTCA II)” was conducted in Kayseri, between October 2007 and April 2008. Weight and height measurements from 4321 (1926 boys, 2395 girls) school children aged between 6 to 17 years were included in this cross-sectional study. Using these data, weight and height percentile curves were produced with generalized additive models for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS) and compared with the most recent references. Results: Smoothed percentile curves including the 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 85th, 90th, 95th, and 97th percentiles were obtained for boys and girls. These results were compared with DAMTCA I study and with two national (İstanbul and Ankara) and international data from Asia and from Europe. Conclusion: This study provides updated weight and height references for Turkish school children aged between 6 and 17 years residing in Kayseri. PMID:27507256

  16. Alternative Statistical Frameworks for Student Growth Percentile Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, J. R.; Castellano, Katherine E.

    2015-01-01

    This article suggests two alternative statistical approaches for estimating student growth percentiles (SGP). The first is to estimate percentile ranks of current test scores conditional on past test scores directly, by modeling the conditional cumulative distribution functions, rather than indirectly through quantile regressions. This would…

  17. Contrasting OLS and Quantile Regression Approaches to Student "Growth" Percentiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Katherine Elizabeth; Ho, Andrew Dean

    2013-01-01

    Regression methods can locate student test scores in a conditional distribution, given past scores. This article contrasts and clarifies two approaches to describing these locations in terms of readily interpretable percentile ranks or "conditional status percentile ranks." The first is Betebenner's quantile regression approach that results in…

  18. Wingate Anaerobic Test Percentile Norms in Colombian Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Albán, Carlos A; La Rotta-Villamizar, Diego R; Romero-García, Jesús A; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    The Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT) became one of the most convenient tests used to evaluate anaerobic capacity and the effectiveness of anaerobic training programs for a variety of power sports. However, its use and interpretation as an evaluative measurement are limited because there are few published reference values derived from large numbers of subjects in nonathletic populations. We present reference values for the WAnT in Colombian healthy adults (aged 20-80 years old). The sample comprised 1,873 subjects (64% men) from Cali, Colombia, who were recruited for the study between 2002 and 2012. The 30-second WAnT was performed on a Monark ergometer. The WAnT resistance was set at 0.075 kp · kg(-1) body mass (BM). The mean absolute peak power (PP), relative PP normalized to the BM, and the fatigue index (FI%) were calculated using the LMS method (L [curve Box-Cox], M [curve median], and S [curve coefficient of variation]) and expressed as tabulated percentiles from 3 to 97 and as smoothed centile curves (P3, P10, P25, P50, P75, P90, P97). Mean ± SD values for the patients' anthropometric data were 38.1 ± 11.7 years of age, 72.7 ± 14.2 kg weight, 1.68 ± 0.09 m height, and 25.6 ± 4.2 body mass index. Our results show that mean absolute PP value, relative PP relative values normalized to BM, and FI were 527.4 ± 131.7 W, 7.6 ± 2.3 W · kg(-1), and 29.0 ± 15.7%, respectively. Men performed better than women in terms of PP and FI values. Nevertheless, the mean PP decreased with age and sex. Age-specific PP and FI normative values among healthy Colombian adults are defined. A more specific set of reference values is useful for clinicians and researchers studying anaerobic capacity in healthy adults.

  19. Age and gender-related reference values for serum dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol levels in Saudi population.

    PubMed

    Al-Saleh, Iman; El-Doush, Inaam; Billedo, Grisellhi

    2007-09-01

    We established a reference range for dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol in a Saudi population previously selected for a cross-sectional study evaluating selenium and vitamin status. Concentrations of dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol were 0.999 +/- 0.31 mg/dL (n=994, range 0.11-3.42 mg/dL) and 49.14 +/- 24.15 micro/dL (n=1000, range 11.20-400.85 microg/dL), respectively. The levels of dl-alpha-tocopherol and all-trans-retinol in serum were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) equipped with a UV detector. We took the influence of age and gender into account. Both had significant effect on the levels of all-trans-retinol in serum, except in the case of dl-alpha-tocopherol, where no gender related effect was found. We used the 5th and 95th percentiles as reference limits. Based on these criteria, it was found that these reference limits differed between genders for all-trans-retinol. Our lower and upper limits for dl-alpha-tocopherol classified by three age groups were very close to the normal range of 0.5-1.6 mg/dL, as found in previous studies. The 5th percentile of all-trans-retinol in both males and females, stratified by age, was close to a level of <20 microg/dL, which could be regarded as a mild vitamin A deficiency according to WHO criteria. But the value corresponding to the 95th percentile was higher than the upper limit of vitamin A's normal range of 70 microg/dL, suggesting a potentially harmful high dietary intake of vitamin A. The reference intervals elaborated here may help in the assessment of the vitamin status and in detecting subjects at risk of developing pathologies associated with either excess intake or deficiency.

  20. Prognostic Value of Frontal QRS-T Angle in Patients without Clinical Evidence of Cardiovascular Disease (From the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA])

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Joseph A; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Ilkhanoff, Leonard; Ning, Hongyan; Liu, Kiang; Nazarian, Saman; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M.

    2013-01-01

    Abnormal frontal QRS-T angle on a 12 lead electrocardiogram (ECG) is associated with incident coronary heart disease and total mortality in a biracial cohort but there have been no studies to date examining QRS-T angle’s prognostic value across multiple ethnicities. We studied 6,814 participants (52.7% women, mean age 62) from MESA; a multi-ethnic cohort aged 45–84 free of clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) at enrollment. Baseline examination included measurement of traditional risk factors and 12-lead ECG’s. Frontal QRS-T axis was defined as normal (<75th percentile), borderline (75–95th percentile) or abnormal (≥ 95th percentile) and participants were followed for the composite endpoint of incident CVD events: cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, angina pectoris or heart failure. After 7.6 years of follow up there were 444 total events. Borderline ((HR 1.37 95% Confidence Interval (CI) (1.10,1.70)) and abnormal QRS-T angle (HR 2.2 95% CI (1.63, 2.97)) was associated with incident CVD events in multivariable-adjusted models. However, after adjusting for T wave abnormalities there was no statistically significant association of either borderline (HR 1.12 95% CI (0.90, 1.41)) or abnormal (HR 1.31 95% CI (0.93, 1.84)) QRS-T angle with incident CVD events. Abnormal frontal QRS-T angle predicts incident CVD events in a multiethnic population and this increased risk is primarily mediated through T wave abnormalities. QRS-T angle provides an easily interpretable, continuous marker of abnormal ventricular repolarization that can aid the everyday clinician in risk prediction. PMID:24063831

  1. Percentile growth charts for biomedical studies using a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Corson, A M; Laws, J; Laws, A; Litten, J C; Lean, I J; Clarke, L

    2008-12-01

    Increasing rates of obesity and heart disease are compromising quality of life for a growing number of people. There is much research linking adult disease with the growth and development both in utero and during the first year of life. The pig is an ideal model for studying the origins of developmental programming. The objective of this paper was to construct percentile growth curves for the pig for use in biomedical studies. The body weight (BW) of pigs was recorded from birth to 150 days of age and their crown-to-rump length was measured over the neonatal period to enable the ponderal index (PI; kg/m3) to be calculated. Data were normalised and percentile curves were constructed using Cole's lambda-mu-sigma (LMS) method for BW and PI. The construction of these percentile charts for use in biomedical research will allow a more detailed and precise tracking of growth and development of individual pigs under experimental conditions.

  2. Punching Wholes into Parts, or Beating the Percentile Averages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carwile, Nancy R.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a facetious, ingenious resolution to the percentile dilemma concerning above- and below-average test scores. If schools enrolled the same number of pigs as students and tested both groups, the pigs would fill up the bottom half and all children would rank in the top 50 percent. However, some wrinkles need to be ironed out! (MLH)

  3. Examining the Reliability of Student Growth Percentiles Using Multidimensional IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li

    2015-01-01

    Student growth percentiles (SGPs, Betebenner, 2009) are used to locate a student's current score in a conditional distribution based on the student's past scores. Currently, following Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is most often used operationally to estimate the SGPs. Alternatively, multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) may…

  4. Statewide analysis of the drainage-area ratio method for 34 streamflow percentile ranges in Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Roussel, Meghan C.; Vrabel, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    The drainage-area ratio method commonly is used to estimate streamflow for sites where no streamflow data are available using data from one or more nearby streamflow-gaging stations. The method is intuitive and straightforward to implement and is in widespread use by analysts and managers of surface-water resources. The method equates the ratio of streamflow at two stream locations to the ratio of the respective drainage areas. In practice, unity often is assumed as the exponent on the drainage-area ratio, and unity also is assumed as a multiplicative bias correction. These two assumptions are evaluated in this investigation through statewide analysis of daily mean streamflow in Texas. The investigation was made by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. More than 7.8 million values of daily mean streamflow for 712 U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in Texas were analyzed. To account for the influence of streamflow probability on the drainage-area ratio method, 34 percentile ranges were considered. The 34 ranges are the 4 quartiles (0-25, 25-50, 50-75, and 75-100 percent), the 5 intervals of the lower tail of the streamflow distribution (0-1, 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, and 4-5 percent), the 20 quintiles of the 4 quartiles (0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-25, 25-30, 30-35, 35-40, 40-45, 45-50, 50-55, 55-60, 60-65, 65-70, 70-75, 75-80, 80-85, 85-90, 90-95, and 95-100 percent), and the 5 intervals of the upper tail of the streamflow distribution (95-96, 96-97, 97-98, 98-99 and 99-100 percent). For each of the 253,116 (712X711/2) unique pairings of stations and for each of the 34 percentile ranges, the concurrent daily mean streamflow values available for the two stations provided for station-pair application of the drainage-area ratio method. For each station pair, specific statistical summarization (median, mean, and standard deviation) of both the exponent and bias-correction components of the drainage-area ratio

  5. Bronchodilator response cut-off points and FEV 0.75 reference values for spirometry in preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Burity, Edjane Figueiredo; Pereira, Carlos Alberto de Castro; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Sayão, Larissa Bouwman; de Andrade, Armèle Dornelas; de Britto, Murilo Carlos Amorim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the cut-off points for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% bronchodilator responses in healthy preschool children and to generate reference values for FEV0.75. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study involving children 3-5 years of age. Healthy preschool children were selected by a standardized questionnaire. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilator use. The cut-off point of the response was defined as the 95th percentile of the change in each parameter. Results: We recruited 266 children, 160 (60%) of whom were able to perform acceptable, reproducible expiratory maneuvers before and after bronchodilator use. The mean age and height were 57.78 ± 7.86 months and 106.56 ± 6.43 cm, respectively. The success rate for FEV0.5 was 35%, 68%, and 70% in the 3-, 4-, and 5-year-olds, respectively. The 95th percentile of the change in the percentage of the predicted value in response to bronchodilator use was 11.6%, 16.0%, 8.5%, and 35.5% for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75%, respectively. Conclusions: Our results provide cut-off points for bronchodilator responsiveness for FEV1, FEV0.75, FEV0.5, and FEF25-75% in healthy preschool children. In addition, we proposed gender-specific reference equations for FEV0.75. Our findings could improve the physiological assessment of respiratory function in preschool children. PMID:27812631

  6. Should we use customized fetal growth percentiles in urban Canada?

    PubMed

    Melamed, Nir; Ray, Joel G; Shah, Prakesh S; Berger, Howard; Kingdom, John C

    2014-02-01

    An increasingly common challenge in antenatal care of the small for gestational age (SGA) fetus is the distinction between the constitutionally (physiologically) small fetus and the fetus affected by pathological intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR). We discuss here the rationale and the evidence for the use of customized growth percentiles for the purpose of distinguishing between the fetus with true IUGR and the fetus with constitutional SGA. We also provide estimates of the potential effects of adopting ethnicity-specific birth weight curves on the rates of SGA and large for gestational age status in multi-ethnic metropolitan cities in North America and Europe, such as the City of Toronto. Using customized growth percentiles would result in a considerable decline in the rate of a false-positive diagnosis of SGA among visible minorities, and improve the detection rate of true large for gestational age fetuses among these groups.

  7. Trend estimates of AERONET-observed and model-simulated AOT percentiles between 1993 and 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea; Chang, Dong Yeong; Lelieveld, Jos

    2016-04-01

    Recent Aerosol Optical thickness (AOT) trend studies used monthly or annual arithmetic means that discard details of the generally right-skewed AOT distributions. Potentially, such results can be biased by extreme values (including outliers). This study additionally uses percentiles (i.e., the lowest 5%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 95% of the monthly cumulative distributions fitted to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET)-observed and ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC)-model simulated AOTs) that are less affected by outliers caused by measurement error, cloud contamination and occasional extreme aerosol events. Since the limited statistical representativeness of monthly percentiles and means can lead to bias, this study adopts the number of observations as a weighting factor, which improves the statistical robustness of trend estimates. By analyzing the aerosol composition of AERONET-observed and EMAC-simulated AOTs in selected regions of interest, we distinguish the dominant aerosol types and investigate the causes of regional AOT trends. The simulated and observed trends are generally consistent with a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.89) and small bias (slope±2σ = 0.75 ± 0.19). A significant decrease in EMAC-decomposed AOTs by water-soluble compounds and black carbon is found over the USA and the EU due to environmental regulation. In particular, a clear reversal in the AERONET AOT trend percentiles is found over the USA, probably related to the AOT diurnal cycle and the frequency of wildfires.

  8. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI of Cervical Cancers: Temporal Percentile Screening of Contrast Enhancement Identifies Parameters for Prediction of Chemoradioresistance

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, Erlend K.F.; Hole, Knut Hakon; Lund, Kjersti V.; Sundfor, Kolbein; Kristensen, Gunnar B.; Lyng, Heidi; Malinen, Eirik

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: To systematically screen the tumor contrast enhancement of locally advanced cervical cancers to assess the prognostic value of two descriptive parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Methods and Materials: This study included a prospectively collected cohort of 81 patients who underwent DCE-MRI with gadopentetate dimeglumine before chemoradiotherapy. The following descriptive DCE-MRI parameters were extracted voxel by voxel and presented as histograms for each time point in the dynamic series: normalized relative signal increase (nRSI) and normalized area under the curve (nAUC). The first to 100th percentiles of the histograms were included in a log-rank survival test, resulting in p value and relative risk maps of all percentile-time intervals for each DCE-MRI parameter. The maps were used to evaluate the robustness of the individual percentile-time pairs and to construct prognostic parameters. Clinical endpoints were locoregional control and progression-free survival. The study was approved by the institutional ethics committee. Results: The p value maps of nRSI and nAUC showed a large continuous region of percentile-time pairs that were significantly associated with locoregional control (p < 0.05). These parameters had prognostic impact independent of tumor stage, volume, and lymph node status on multivariate analysis. Only a small percentile-time interval of nRSI was associated with progression-free survival. Conclusions: The percentile-time screening identified DCE-MRI parameters that predict long-term locoregional control after chemoradiotherapy of cervical cancer.

  9. Physical Fitness Percentiles of German Children Aged 9–12 Years: Findings from a Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Golle, Kathleen; Muehlbauer, Thomas; Wick, Ditmar; Granacher, Urs

    2015-01-01

    Background Generating percentile values is helpful for the identification of children with specific fitness characteristics (i.e., low or high fitness level) to set appropriate fitness goals (i.e., fitness/health promotion and/or long-term youth athlete development). Thus, the aim of this longitudinal study was to assess physical fitness development in healthy children aged 9–12 years and to compute sex- and age-specific percentile values. Methods Two-hundred and forty children (88 girls, 152 boys) participated in this study and were tested for their physical fitness. Physical fitness was assessed using the 50-m sprint test (i.e., speed), the 1-kg ball push test, the triple hop test (i.e., upper- and lower- extremity muscular power), the stand-and-reach test (i.e., flexibility), the star run test (i.e., agility), and the 9-min run test (i.e., endurance). Age- and sex-specific percentile values (i.e., P10 to P90) were generated using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Adjusted (for change in body weight, height, and baseline performance) age- and sex-differences as well as the interactions thereof were expressed by calculating effect sizes (Cohen’s d). Results Significant main effects of Age were detected for all physical fitness tests (d = 0.40–1.34), whereas significant main effects of Sex were found for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.55), flexibility (d = 0.81), agility (d = 0.44), and endurance (d = 0.32) only. Further, significant Sex by Age interactions were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (d = 0.36), flexibility (d = 0.61), and agility (d = 0.27) in favor of girls. Both, linear and curvilinear shaped curves were found for percentile values across the fitness tests. Accelerated (curvilinear) improvements were observed for upper-extremity muscular power (boys: 10–11 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), agility (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–11 yrs), and endurance (boys: 9–10 yrs; girls: 9–10 yrs). Tabulated percentiles for the 9-min run test

  10. Waist circumference percentiles among Turkish children under the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Nihal; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Poyrazoglu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Horoz, Duygu; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    Waist circumference, a proxy measure of abdominal obesity, is associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors in childhood and adolescence. Although there are numerous studies about waist circumference percentiles in children, only a few studies cover preschool children. The aim of this study was to develop age- and gender-specific waist circumference smoothed reference curves in Turkish preschool children to determine abdominal obesity prevalence and to compare them with reference curves obtained from different countries. The design of the study was cross-sectional. A total of 2,947 children (1,471 boys and 1,476 girls) aged 0-6 years were included in the study. The subjects were divided according to their gender. Waist circumference was measured by using a standardized procedure. The age- and gender-specific waist circumference reference curves were constructed and smoothed with LMS method. The reference values of waist circumference, including 3rd, 10th 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentiles, and standard deviations were given for preschool children. Waist circumference values increased with age, and there were differences between genders. The prevalence of abdominal obesity was calculated as 10.1 % for boys and 10.7 % for girls. Having compared our data with two other countries' data, we found that our waist circumference data were significantly lower. This is the first cross-sectional study for age- and gender-specific references of 0- to 6-year-old Turkish children. The gender- and age-specific waist circumference percentiles can be used to determine the risk of central obesity.

  11. Reference values of mechanical and thermal pain tests in a pain-free population.

    PubMed

    Neziri, Alban Y; Scaramozzino, Pasquale; Andersen, Ole K; Dickenson, Anthony H; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Curatolo, Michele

    2011-04-01

    Quantitative sensory tests are widely used in human research to evaluate the effect of analgesics and explore altered pain mechanisms, such as central sensitization. In order to apply these tests in clinical practice, knowledge of reference values is essential. The aim of this study was to determine the reference values of pain thresholds for mechanical and thermal stimuli, as well as withdrawal time for the cold pressor test in 300 pain-free subjects. Pain detection and pain tolerance thresholds to pressure, heat and cold were determined at three body sites: (1) lower back, (2) suprascapular region and (3) second toe (for pressure) or the lateral aspect of the leg (for heat and cold). The influences of gender, age, height, weight, body-mass index (BMI), body side of testing, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and parameters of Short-Form 36 (SF-36) were analyzed by multiple regressions. Quantile regressions were performed to define the 5th, 10th and 25th percentiles as reference values for pain hypersensitivity and the 75th, 90th and 95th percentiles as reference values for pain hyposensitivity. Gender, age and/or the interaction of age with gender were the only variables that consistently affected the pain measures. Women were more pain sensitive than men. However, the influence of gender decreased with increasing age. In conclusion, normative values of parameters related to pressure, heat and cold pain stimuli were determined. Reference values have to be stratified by body region, gender and age. The determination of these reference values will now allow the clinical application of the tests for detecting abnormal pain reactions in individual patients.

  12. Regression Equations for Monthly and Annual Mean and Selected Percentile Streamflows for Ungaged Rivers in Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dudley, Robert W.

    2015-12-03

    The largest average errors of prediction are associated with regression equations for the lowest streamflows derived for months during which the lowest streamflows of the year occur (such as the 5 and 1 monthly percentiles for August and September). The regression equations have been derived on the basis of streamflow and basin characteristics data for unregulated, rural drainage basins without substantial streamflow or drainage modifications (for example, diversions and (or) regulation by dams or reservoirs, tile drainage, irrigation, channelization, and impervious paved surfaces), therefore using the equations for regulated or urbanized basins with substantial streamflow or drainage modifications will yield results of unknown error. Input basin characteristics derived using techniques or datasets other than those documented in this report or using values outside the ranges used to develop these regression equations also will yield results of unknown error.

  13. Colorado Growth Model--Brief Report: Student Growth Percentiles and FRL Status. Accountability & Data Analysis Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado Department of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    This report examines the relationship between socioeconomic status, as defined by a free-and-reduced lunch proxy variable, and student growth percentiles by elementary, middle, and high school grade levels for math, reading, and writing. Comparisons were made between median growth percentiles for each educational level by free and reduced lunch…

  14. Percentile benchmarks in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: Health Assessment Questionnaire as a quality indicator (QI)

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Eswar; Tugwell, Peter; Fries, James F

    2004-01-01

    Physicians are in need of a simple objective, standardized tool to compare their patients with rheumatoid arthritis, as a group and individually, with national standards. The Disability Index of the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ-DI) is a simple, robust tool that can fulfill these needs. However, use of this tool as a quality indicator (QI) is hampered by the unavailability of national reference values or benchmarks based on large, multicentric, heterogenous longitudinal patient cohorts. We utilized the 20-year longitudinal prospective data from 11 data banks of Arthritis Rheumatism and Aging Medical Information to calculate reference values for HAQ-DI. Overall, 6436 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were longitudinally followed for 32,324 person-years over the 20 years from 1981 to 2000. There were 64,647 HAQ-DI measurements, with an average of 19 measurements per person. Overall, 75% of patients were women and 89% were Caucasian; the median baseline age was 58.4 years and the median baseline HAQ-DI was 1.13. Few patients were treated with biologics. The HAQ-DI values had a Gaussian distribution except for the approximately 10% of observations showing no disability. Percentile benchmarks allow disability outcomes to be compared and contrasted between different patient populations. Reference values for the HAQ-DI, presented here numerically and graphically, can be used in clinical practice as a QI measure to track functional disability outcomes and to measure response to therapy, and by arthritis patients in self-management programs. PMID:15535828

  15. Reference values for ethylenethiourea in urine in Northern Italy: results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Colosio, Claudio; Visentin, Sara; Birindelli, Sarah; Campo, Laura; Fustinoni, Silvia; Mariani, Franco; Tiramani, Manuela; Tommasini, Michele; Brambilla, Gabri; Maroni, Marco

    2006-04-10

    This study was carried out to define reference values for urinary ethylenethiourea (ETU) in the Northern Italy population and to identify the sources of exposure. Ninety-five healthy subjects were selected. A spot urine sample was collected in the morning, and analyzed using GC/MS in the EI/SIM mode. Thirty-nine subjects showed urinary ETU concentrations lower than the limit of detection (LOD, 0.4 microg/g creatinine), and the remainders ETU concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 11.6 microg/g creatinine. No correlation was shown between smoke or alcohol intake and urinary ETU concentrations. Based on data on ethylene-bis-dithiocarbamate (EBDC) concentrations in food, we estimated a total EBDCs intake of 31.7-50.1 microg/day. These values are largely below the ADIs, but explain the presence of small amounts of ETU in the urine samples we have analyzed. Finally, it was estimated that the mean ETU in urine in the Italian general population is 0.6-0.8 microg/g creatinine, with a 95th percentile of 4.5-5.0 microg/g creatinine. These values can be used as reference, to compare the results of biological monitoring activities carried out on EBDCs occupationally and environmentally exposed populations.

  16. Waist circumference percentile thresholds for identifying adolescents with insulin resistance in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Davis, Matthew M; Woolford, Susan J; Gurney, James G

    2009-08-01

    We formally evaluated waist circumference (WC) percentile cutoffs for predicting insulin resistance (IR) and whether different cutoffs should be used for adolescents of different race/ethnicities. Analysis was performed for 1575 adolescents aged 12-18 yr from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002. Adolescents were classified as having IR if they had a homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance level, a validated measure of IR, of >4.39, and WC percentile was classified according to previously published universal (all races combined) and race/ethnicity-specific WC percentile cutoffs. Receiver operating characteristic curves for predicting IR were constructed comparing the race/ethnicity-specific vs. universal WC percentile cutoffs, and area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Comparing universal with race/ethnicity-specific WC percentiles, there were no significant differences in AUC for Black, Mexican-American, or White adolescents. Because race/ethnicity-specific thresholds did not discriminate better than universal WC thresholds, universal WC thresholds may be used effectively to identify adolescents with IR in primary care practices. A WC > or =75th or > or =90th percentile for all race/ethnicities combined would be appropriate to apply in clinical practice for identification of adolescents with IR, a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes.

  17. Pregnancy prognosis in women with anti-Müllerian hormone below the tenth percentile.

    PubMed

    Koshy, Aby Kottal; Gudi, Anil; Shah, Amit; Bhide, Priya; Timms, Peter; Homburg, Roy

    2013-07-01

    Although serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is considered a good predictor of ovarian response during in vitro fertilisation (IVF), pregnancies have been reported with low values, questioning its usefulness as a predictor of treatment outcome. A retrospective study was therefore carried out to assess the IVF treatment outcomes in women with AMH below the tenth percentile of the study population. In all, 134 women with AMH ≤ 3 pmol/L underwent 180 IVF cycles. The mean age at the time of treatment was 37 ± 5 years. Fifty-three (29.4%) cycles were abandoned because of poor response to gonadotrophins, 12 (6.7%) due to absence of eggs at oocyte retrieval and 18 (10%) due to fertilisation failure. Seven (3.8%) had a biochemical pregnancy, 4 (2.2%) had a missed miscarriage and 8 (4.4%) had a live birth. When stratified by age, women older than 42 years had less number of follicles (p < 0.05) and those older than 39 years had less oocytes (p < 0.01) compared to those 35 years and younger. Live births declined with increasing age, when age was assessed as a continuous variable (p = 0.023). Women with low AMH levels have a high probability of treatment cancellation, failure to proceed to embryo transfer and a low chance of achieving a viable pregnancy.

  18. Use of Pearson's Chi-Square for Testing Equality of Percentile Profiles across Multiple Populations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, William D; Beyl, Robbie A; Burton, Jeffrey H; Johnson, Callie M; Romer, Jacob E; Zhang, Lei

    2015-08-01

    In large sample studies where distributions may be skewed and not readily transformed to symmetry, it may be of greater interest to compare different distributions in terms of percentiles rather than means. For example, it may be more informative to compare two or more populations with respect to their within population distributions by testing the hypothesis that their corresponding respective 10(th), 50(th), and 90(th) percentiles are equal. As a generalization of the median test, the proposed test statistic is asymptotically distributed as Chi-square with degrees of freedom dependent upon the number of percentiles tested and constraints of the null hypothesis. Results from simulation studies are used to validate the nominal 0.05 significance level under the null hypothesis, and asymptotic power properties that are suitable for testing equality of percentile profiles against selected profile discrepancies for a variety of underlying distributions. A pragmatic example is provided to illustrate the comparison of the percentile profiles for four body mass index distributions.

  19. Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.

    PubMed

    Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.

  20. NIH peer review percentile scores are poorly predictive of grant productivity

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ferric C; Bowen, Anthony; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Peer review is widely used to assess grant applications so that the highest ranked applications can be funded. A number of studies have questioned the ability of peer review panels to predict the productivity of applications, but a recent analysis of grants funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in the US found that the percentile scores awarded by peer review panels correlated with productivity as measured by citations of grant-supported publications. Here, based on a re-analysis of these data for the 102,740 funded grants with percentile scores of 20 or better, we report that these percentile scores are a poor discriminator of productivity. This underscores the limitations of peer review as a means of assessing grant applications in an era when typical success rates are often as low as about 10%. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13323.001 PMID:26880623

  1. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children With Fragile X Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection. PMID:19721738

  2. Using percentile schedules to increase eye contact in children with Fragile X syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hall, Scott S; Maynes, Natalee P; Reiss, Allan L

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS. Results showed that although aversion to eye contact is often thought to be unamenable to change in FXS, it can be shaped in some individuals using percentile schedules either alone or in combination with overcorrection.

  3. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  4. Student Growth Percentiles Based on MIRT: Implications of Calibrated Projection. CRESST Report 842

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Scott; Cai, Li; Choi, Kilchan

    2014-01-01

    This research concerns a new proposal for calculating student growth percentiles (SGP, Betebenner, 2009). In Betebenner (2009), quantile regression (QR) is used to estimate the SGPs. However, measurement error in the score estimates, which always exists in practice, leads to bias in the QR-­based estimates (Shang, 2012). One way to address this…

  5. User Guide for the 2014-15 Teacher Median Student Growth Percentile Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2016

    2016-01-01

    On March 22, 2016, the New Jersey Department of Education ("the Department") published a broadcast memo sharing secure district access to 2014-15 median Student Growth Percentile (mSGP) data for all qualifying teachers. These data describe student growth from the last school year, and comprise 10% of qualifying teachers' 2014-15…

  6. Empirical Percentile Growth Curves with Z-scores Considering Seasonal Compensatory Growths for Japanese Thoroughbred Horses

    PubMed Central

    ONODA, Tomoaki; YAMAMOTO, Ryuta; SAWAMURA, Kyohei; MURASE, Harutaka; NAMBO, Yasuo; INOUE, Yoshinobu; MATSUI, Akira; MIYAKE, Takeshi; HIRAI, Nobuhiro

    2013-01-01

    Percentile growth curves are often used as a clinical indicator to evaluate variations of children’s growth status. In this study, we propose empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores adapted for Japanese Thoroughbred horses, with considerations of the seasonal compensatory growth that is a typical characteristic of seasonal breeding animals. We previously developed new growth curve equations for Japanese Thoroughbreds adjusting for compensatory growth. Individual horses and residual effects were included as random effects in the growth curve equation model and their variance components were estimated. Based on the Z-scores of the estimated variance components, empirical percentile growth curves were constructed. A total of 5,594 and 5,680 body weight and age measurements of male and female Thoroughbreds, respectively, and 3,770 withers height and age measurements were used in the analyses. The developed empirical percentile growth curves using Z-scores are computationally feasible and useful for monitoring individual growth parameters of body weight and withers height of young Thoroughbred horses, especially during compensatory growth periods. PMID:24834004

  7. Using Percentile Schedules to Increase Eye Contact in Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Scott S.; Maynes, Natalee P.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2009-01-01

    Aversion to eye contact is a common behavior of individuals diagnosed with Fragile X syndrome (FXS); however, no studies to date have attempted to increase eye-contact duration in these individuals. In this study, we employed a percentile reinforcement schedule with and without overcorrection to shape eye-contact duration of 6 boys with FXS.…

  8. Covariate Measurement Error Correction for Student Growth Percentiles Using the SIMEX Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shang, Yi; VanIwaarden, Adam; Betebenner, Damian W.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we examined the impact of covariate measurement error (ME) on the estimation of quantile regression and student growth percentiles (SGPs), and find that SGPs tend to be overestimated among students with higher prior achievement and underestimated among those with lower prior achievement, a problem we describe as ME endogeneity in…

  9. Acculturation determines BMI percentile and noncore food intake in Hispanic children.

    PubMed

    Wiley, James F; Cloutier, Michelle M; Wakefield, Dorothy B; Hernandez, Dominica B; Grant, Autherene; Beaulieu, Annamarie; Gorin, Amy A

    2014-03-01

    Hispanic children in the United States are disproportionately affected by obesity. The role of acculturation in obesity is unclear. This study examined the relation between child obesity, dietary intake, and maternal acculturation in Hispanic children. We hypothesized that children of more acculturated mothers would consume more unhealthy foods and would have higher body mass index (BMI) percentiles. A total of 209 Hispanic mothers of children aged 2-4 y (50% female, 35.3 ± 8.7 mo, BMI percentile: 73.1 ± 27.8, 30% obese, 19% overweight) were recruited for an obesity prevention/reversal study. The associations between baseline maternal acculturation [Brief Acculturation Rating Scale for Mexican Americans-II (Brief ARSMA-II)], child BMI percentile, and child diet were examined. Factor analysis of the Brief ARSMA-II in Puerto Rican mothers resulted in 2 new factors, which were named the Hispanic Orientation Score (4 items, loadings: 0.64-0.81) and U.S. Mainland Orientation Score (6 items, loadings: -0.61-0.92). In the total sample, children who consumed more noncore foods were more likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.01). Additionally, children of mothers with greater acculturation to the United States consumed more noncore foods (P < 0.0001) and had higher BMI percentiles (P < 0.04). However, mothers with greater Hispanic acculturation served fewer noncore foods (P < 0.0001). In the Puerto Rican subgroup of mothers, Puerto Rican mothers with greater acculturation to the United States served more noncore foods (P < 0.0001), but there was no association between acculturation and child BMI percentile in this subgroup. These mothers, however, served fewer sugar-sweetened beverages (P < 0.01) compared with non-Puerto Rican mothers, and this may have negated the effect of noncore food consumption on BMI percentile. These data suggest a complex relation between acculturation, noncore food consumption, and child BMI percentile in Puerto Rican and non-Puerto Rican

  10. Biological reference values for chemical compounds in the work area (BARs): an approach for evaluating biomonitoring data.

    PubMed

    Göen, Thomas; Schaller, Karl-Heinz; Drexler, Hans

    2012-07-01

    Biological monitoring is a routine method that has been applied in occupational medical practice for many years. A requirement for its application is the availability of criteria suitable for evaluating biomonitoring data. Health-based threshold values are particularly useful as a criterion, yet only for substances for which effect thresholds can reliably be determined. For substances for which the concept of health-based threshold values is not applicable, the Working Group Setting of Threshold Limit Values in Biological Materials of the DFG Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area has recently established "Biologische Arbeitsstoff-Referenzwerte" (BARs, Biological Reference Values for Chemical Compounds in the Work Area) as an approach for evaluating biomonitoring data. The BAR represents the upper reference concentration of a biomarker in the general adult population without occupational exposure to the agent. It is derived from biomonitoring data of a sample of a defined population group. In general, a BAR corresponds to the 95th percentile of the sample distribution. Ideally, national environmental surveys including human biomonitoring results are used as basis for deriving BARs. The influence of age, sex, social status, residential area and life style factors on background exposure is considered in the evaluation of these values. Because tobacco smoking is the most frequent influencing factor, several BARs have been determined for non-smokers only. To date, BARs for 17 substances or substance groups are listed in the List of MAK and BAT Values 2011. BARs for another five substances have been discussed, but have not been established because of the insufficient scientific database. Establishing the BARs aims to facilitate the evaluation of human exposure to chemical compounds for which no health-based threshold values can be derived but an adequate assessment of exposure is required due to their toxicity. The

  11. Plotting equation for gaussian percentiles and a spreadsheet program for generating probability plots

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balsillie, J.H.; Donoghue, J.F.; Butler, K.M.; Koch, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    Two-dimensional plotting tools can be of invaluable assistance in analytical scientific pursuits, and have been widely used in the analysis and interpretation of sedimentologic data. We consider, in this work, the use of arithmetic probability paper (APP). Most statistical computer applications do not allow for the generation of APP plots, because of apparent intractable nonlinearity of the percentile (or probability) axis of the plot. We have solved this problem by identifying an equation(s) for determining plotting positions of Gaussian percentiles (or probabilities), so that APP plots can easily be computer generated. An EXCEL example is presented, and a programmed, simple-to-use EXCEL application template is hereby made publicly available, whereby a complete granulometric analysis including data listing, moment measure calculations, and frequency and cumulative APP plots, is automatically produced.

  12. Percentile Analysis for Goodness-of-Fit Comparisons of Models to Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Science, 1, 11-38. Roberts, S., & Pashler, H. (2000). How persuasive is a good fit ? A comment on theory testing . Psychological Review, 107, 358-367...Percentile analysis for goodness -of- fit comparisons of models to data Sangeet Khemlani and J. Gregory Trafton skhemlani@gmail.com, trafton...modeling, it is routine to report a goodness -of- fit index (e.g., R2 or RMSE) between a putative model’s predictions and an observed dataset

  13. Relationships between walking and percentiles of adiposity inolder and younger men

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2005-06-01

    To assess the relationship of weekly walking distance to percentiles of adiposity in elders (age {ge} 75 years), seniors (55 {le} age <75 years), middle-age men (35 {le} age <55 years), and younger men (18 {le} age <35 years old). Cross-sectional analyses of baseline questionnaires from 7,082 male participants of the National Walkers Health Study. The walkers BMIs were inversely and significantly associated with walking distance (kg/m{sup 2} per km/wk) in elders (slope {+-} SE: -0.032 {+-} 0.008), seniors (-0.045 {+-} 0.005), and middle-aged men (-0.037 {+-} 0.007), as were their waist circumferences (-0.091 {+-} 0.025, -0.045 {+-} 0.005, and -0.091 {+-} 0.015 cm per km/wk, respectively), and these slopes remained significant when adjusted statistically for reported weekly servings of meat, fish, fruit, and alcohol. The declines in BMI associated with walking distance were greater at the higher than lower percentiles of the BMI distribution. Specifically, compared to the decline at the 10th BMI percentile, the decline in BMI at the 90th percentile was 5.1-fold greater in elders, 5.9-fold greater in seniors, and 6.7-fold greater in middle-age men. The declines in waist circumference associated with walking distance were also greater among men with broader waistlines. Exercise-induced weight loss (or self-selection) causes an inverse relationship between adiposity and walking distance in men 35 and older that is substantially greater among fatter men.

  14. Resulting Shifts in Percentile and Standard Placements after Comparison of the BOD POD and DXA

    PubMed Central

    HEDEN, TIMOTHY; SHEPARD, STEVE; SMITH, JOHN; COVINGTON, KAY; LECHEMINANT, JAMES

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of the BOD POD® when compared to the DXA and if placement on a percentile chart and standard table is affected by any differences between the two measures. A total of 244 (27.7 ± 10.8 yrs, 77.3 ± 16.1 kg, 171.4 ± 10.1 cm, 26.31 ± 5.42 BMI) males and females between the ages of 18 and 52 were recruited to participate in this study. The participant’s body fat percentage (%BF) was tested in random order on the BOD POD® and DXA during a 30-minute session following manufacturer’s guidelines and procedures. Dependent t-test indicated the %BF measured by the BOD POD® (23.4% ± 12.8) was significantly lower when compared to the DXA (29.5% ± 12.1), p = .001. The Pearson’s Product moment correlation was 0.95 (p = .001), indicating a very strong relationship between the two instruments. Using estimates of %BF from the BOD POD® also resulted in more favorable shifts on a percentile chart and standard table. Since a high correlation was evident between the two, the BOD POD® can be used as an instrument to track %BF changes over time during a diet and/or exercise intervention. However, caution should be made when classifying %BF with percentile charts or standard tables using the BOD POD® %BF estimates. PMID:27182302

  15. Adaptive urn designs for estimating several percentiles of a dose--response curve.

    PubMed

    Mugno, Raymond; Zhus, Wei; Rosenberger, William F

    2004-07-15

    Dose--response experiments are crucial in biomedical studies. There are usually multiple objectives in such experiments and among the goals is the estimation of several percentiles on the dose--response curve. Here we present the first non-parametric adaptive design approach to estimate several percentiles simultaneously via generalized Pólya urns. Theoretical properties of these designs are investigated and their performance is gaged by the locally compound optimal designs. As an example, we re-investigated a psychophysical experiment where one of the goals was to estimate the three quartiles. We show that these multiple-objective adaptive designs are more efficient than the original single-objective adaptive design targeting the median only. We also show that urn designs which target the optimal designs are slightly more efficient than those which target the desired percentiles directly. Guidelines are given as to when to use which type of design. Overall we are pleased with the efficiency results and hope compound adaptive designs proposed in this work or their variants may prove to be a viable non-parametric alternative in multiple-objective dose--response studies.

  16. Percentile Distributions of Birth Weight according to Gestational Ages in Korea (2010-2012)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The Pediatric Growth Chart (2007) is used as a standard reference to evaluate weight and height percentiles of Korean children and adolescents. Although several previous studies provided a useful reference range of newborn birth weight (BW) by gestational age (GA), the BW reference analyzed by sex and plurality is not currently available. Therefore, we aimed to establish a national reference range of neonatal BW percentiles considering GA, sex, and plurality of newborns in Korea. The raw data of all newborns (470,171 in 2010, 471,265 in 2011, and 484,550 in 2012) were analyzed. Using the Korean Statistical Information Service data (2010–2012), smoothed percentile curves (3rd–97th) by GA were created using the lambda-mu-sigma method after exclusion and the data were distinguished by all live births, singleton births, and multiple births. In the entire cohort, male newborns were heavier than female newborns and singletons were heavier than twins. As GA increased, the difference in BW between singleton and multiples increased. Compared to the previous data published 10 years ago in Korea, the BW of newborns 22–23 gestational weeks old was increased, whereas that of others was smaller. Other countries' data were also compared and showed differences in BW of both singleton and multiple newborns. We expect this updated data to be utilized as a reference to improve clinical assessments of newborn growth. PMID:27247504

  17. The Prevalence of Nocturia and Nocturnal Polyuria: Can New Cutoff Values Be Suggested According to Age and Sex?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of nocturia and nocturnal polyuria (NP) and to define new cutoff values according to age and sex for both conditions. Methods Data from a population-based prevalence survey conducted among a random sample of 2,128 adults were analyzed in this study. Participants were requested to fill out a questionnaire including the International Continence Society (ICS) definitions of lower urinary tract symptoms and the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire - Short Form. Additionally, a 1-day bladder diary was given to each individual. The participants were divided into 5 age groups. The prevalence of nocturia was calculated based on definitions of nocturia as ≥1 voiding episodes, ≥2 episodes, and ≥3 episodes. NP was evaluated according to the ICS definition. The mean±standard errors and 95th percentile values were calculated in each group as new cutoff values for NP. Results The prevalence of nocturia was estimated as 28.4%, 17.6%, and 8.9% for ≥1, ≥2, and ≥3 voiding episodes each night, respectively. When nocturia was defined as 2 or more voiding episodes at night, the prevalence decreased significantly. The mean NP index was 29.4%±15.0% in men and 23.1%±11.8% in women. For the age groups of <50 years, 50–59 years, and ≥60 years, the new cutoff values for the diagnosis of NP were calculated as 48%, 69%, and 59% for men and 41%, 50%, and 42% for women, respectively. Conclusions We found that the definition of nocturia was still controversial and that waking up once for voiding might be within the normal spectrum of behavior. The definition of NP should be modified, and new cutoff values should be defined using the data presented in our study and in other forthcoming studies. PMID:28043108

  18. Basic values for heart and respiratory rates during different sleep stages in healthy infants.

    PubMed

    Heimann, Konrad; Heussen, Nicole; Vaeßen, Peter; Wallmeier, Cathrin; Orlikowsky, Thorsten; Wenzl, Tobias G

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically register data for respiratory and heart rates (RR and HR, respectively) during different sleep stages [active (AS, i.e., rapid eye movement) and quiet (QS, i.e., non-rapid eye movement) sleep] and age in a large number of healthy infants (277) during the first year of life to simplify polysomnography. The reference values in this age group differ significantly between the number of patients and age at time of investigation. According to strict inclusion and exclusion criteria, the measurement of polysomnography included HR (beats per minute, or bpm), RR (breaths per minute, or breaths/min), brain waves, SO2, sound, and video. Data recording and evaluation occurred via Alice 3®/3.5®(Respironics®), classification into AS and QS sleep according to maturity. For RR, the 5th-95th percentiles during AS decreased from 25.8-47.7 breaths/min (1st month) to 17.8-27.7 breaths/min (>9 months). During QS, RR ranged from 27.4-51.5 breaths/min (1st month) to 17.8-29.2 breaths/min (>9 months). HR decreased during AS from 118.3-150.6 bpm (1st month) to 100.9-126.4 bpm (>9 months). During QS, HR decreased from 116.0-149.9 bpm (1st month) to 93.7-119.8 bpm (>9 months). The mean HR and RR significantly decreased with age in both sleep stages (p<0.05). The mean HR is significantly lower during QS compared with AS (p<0.05). Our data may serve as basic values for HR and RR in different sleep stages during the first year of life.

  19. Determinants of active and environmental exposure to tobacco smoke and upper reference value of urinary cotinine in not exposed individuals.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Polledri, Elisa; Bechtold, Petra; Gatti, Giulia; Ranzi, Andrea; Lauriola, Paolo; Goldoni, Carlo Alberto; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to explore the behavioral and sociodemographic factors influencing urinary cotinine (COT-U) levels in active smokers and in environmental tobacco smoke (ETS)-exposed individuals, (2) to assess the specificity and sensitivity of the questionnaire for identifying active smokers and nonsmokers, and (3) to derive the upper reference value of COT-U in non-ETS exposed individuals. The COT-U levels of 495 adults (age range 18-69 years) who classified themselves as active smokers (29%) or as nonsmokers with (17%) or without (83%) ETS exposure were quantified by LC-MS-MS (quantification limit: 0.1µg/L, range of linearity: 0.1-4000µg/L). Median COT-U levels in these groups were 883, 1.38, and 0.39µg/L, respectively. Significant determinants of COT-U levels in active smokers were the number of cigarettes per day, type of smoking product, smoking environment, as well as time between the last cigarette and urine collection. Among ETS-exposed nonsmokers, significant determinants were living with smokers, being exposed to smoke at home, ETS exposure duration, as well as time between the last exposure and urine collection. When a 30-µg/L COT-U cut-off value was used to identify active daily smoking, the sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were 94% and 98%, respectively. For ETS exposure, the COT-U value of 1.78 (0.90 confidence interval 1.75-1.78) µg/L, corresponding to the 95th percentiles of the COT-U distribution in non-ETS-exposed participants, is proposed as upper reference value to identify environmental exposure.

  20. Individual variability in preference for energy-dense foods fails to predict child BMI percentile.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christina; Griggs, Rebecca L; Ferriday, Danielle; Rogers, Peter J; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    Many studies show that higher dietary energy density is associated with greater body weight. Here we explored two propositions: i) that child BMI percentile is associated with individual differences in children's relative preference for energy-dense foods, ii) that child BMI percentile is associated with the same individual differences between their parents. Child-parent dyads were recruited from a local interactive science center in Bristol (UK). Using computerized tasks, participants ranked their preference and rated their liking for a range of snack foods that varied in energy density. Children (aged 3-14years, N=110) and parents completed the tasks for themselves. Parents also completed two further tasks in which they ranked the foods in the order that they would prioritize for their child, and again, in the order that they thought their child would choose. Children preferred (t(109)=3.91, p<0.001) and better liked the taste of (t(109)=3.28, p=0.001) higher energy-dense foods, and parents correctly estimated this outcome (t(109)=7.18, p<0.001). Conversely, lower energy-dense foods were preferred (t(109)=-4.63, p<0.001), better liked (t(109)=-2.75, p=0.007) and served (t(109)=-15.06, p<0.001) by parents. However, we found no evidence that child BMI percentile was associated with child or parent preference for, or liking of, energy-dense foods. Therefore, we suggest that the observed relationship between dietary energy density and body weight is not explained by individual differences in preference for energy density.

  1. The effects of percentile versus fixed criterion schedules on smoking with equal incentive magnitude for initial abstinence.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2014-08-01

    Incentives have been successfully used to reduce smoking in hard-to-treat (HTT) smokers by progressively reinforcing lower levels of breath carbon monoxide (CO). When compared with schedules only providing incentives for smoking abstinence, using a progressive (percentile) criterion facilitates longer periods of smoking abstinence. However, participants receiving incentives for lower breath CO levels on percentile schedules typically earn more for their first abstinent breath CO sample relative to participants receiving incentives only for smoking abstinence. Many studies show that larger incentive magnitude increases abstinence rates. The present study tested the effects of different incentive schedules on rates of abstinence maintenance while holding the initial incentive magnitude constant for 93 HTT smokers to eliminate initial abstinence incentive magnitude as a potential confound. Smokers were randomized to percentile, fixed criterion, or random incentive schedules. The incentive magnitude for the first abstinent breath CO sample (<3 ppm) was $5 for percentile and fixed criterion incentive participants, and then increased by $0.50 for each consecutive abstinent breath CO sample. All groups had similar patterns of meeting the abstinence criterion for at least 1 visit. However, once this abstinence criterion was met, abstinence was more likely to be maintained by fixed criterion incentive participants. Unlike previous studies comparing percentile and fixed criterion schedules, percentile incentive schedules were not associated with longer periods of abstinence relative to fixed criterion incentive schedules. Further studies that manipulate initial incentive magnitude are needed to test whether the difference between the current and previous studies was due to initial incentive magnitude.

  2. Development of a simplified finite element model of the 50th percentile male occupant lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Doron; Moreno, Daniel P; Stitzel, Joel D; Gayzik, F Scott

    2014-01-01

    A simplified lower extremity model was developed using the geometry from the Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant model v4.1.1 (M50) as a base. This simplified model contains 31.4x103 elements and has structures that represent bone (assumed rigid) and soft tissue. This element total is substantially reduced compared to 117.7x103 elements in the original M50 lower extremity. The purpose of this simplified computational model is to output rapid kinematic and kinetic data when detailed structural response or injury prediction data is not required. The development process included evaluating the effects of element size, material properties, and contact definitions on total run time and response. Two simulations were performed to analyze this model; a 4.9 m/s knee bolster impact and a 6.9 m/s lateral knee impact using LS-DYNA R6.1.1. The 40 ms knee bolster impact and lateral knee impact tests required 5 and 7 minutes to run, respectively on 4 cores. The original detailed M50 lower extremity model required 94 and 112 minutes to run the same boundary conditions, on the same hardware, representing a reduction in run time of on average 94%. A quantitative comparison was made by comparing the peak force of the impacts between the two models. This simplified leg model will become a component in a simplified full body model of the seated, 50th percentile male occupant. The significantly reduced run time will be valuable for parametric studies with a full body finite element model.

  3. Reference values of cadmium, arsenic and manganese in blood and factors associated with exposure levels among adult population of Rio Branco, Acre, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Freire, Carmen; Koifman, Rosalina Jorge; Fujimoto, Denys; de Oliveira Souza, Vanessa Cristina; Barbosa, Fernando; Koifman, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the distribution and factors influencing blood levels of Cadmium (Cd), Arsenic (As), and Manganese (Mn), and to determine their reference values in a sample of blood donors residing in Rio Branco, capital city of Acre State, Brazil. Blood samples were collected from all blood donors attending the Central Hemotherapic Unit in Rio Branco between 2010 and 2011. Among these, 1183 donors (98.9%) answered to a questionnaire on sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Blood metal concentrations were determined by atomic spectrometry. Association between Cd, As and Mn levels and donors' characteristics was examined by linear regression analysis. Reference values were estimated as the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the 95th percentile of metal levels. References values were 0.87 μg L(-1) for Cd, 9.87 μg L(-1) for As, and 29.32 μg L(-1) for Mn. Reference values of Cd and As in smokers were 2.66 and 10.86 μg L(-1), respectively. Factors contributing to increase Cd levels were smoking, ethnicity (non-white), and lower education, whereas drinking tea and non-bottled water were associated with lower Cd. Lower levels of As were associated with higher household income, living near industrial facilities, working in a glass factory, a compost plant or in metal mining activities. Risk factors for Mn exposure were not identified. In general, blood Cd concentrations were in the range of exposure levels reported for other people from the general population, whereas levels of As and Mn were higher than in other non-occupationally exposed populations elsewhere.

  4. Control over response number by a targeted percentile schedule: reinforcement loss and the acute effects of d-amphetamine.

    PubMed Central

    Galbicka, G; Fowler, K P; Ritch, Z J

    1991-01-01

    Two fixed-consecutive-number-like procedures were used to examine effects of acute d-amphetamine administration on control over response number. In both procedures, rats were required to press the left lever at least once and then press the right lever to complete a trial. The consecutive left-lever presses on each trial comprised a "run." Under the targeted percentile schedule, reinforcement was provided if the current run length was closer to the target length (16) than half of the most recent 24 runs. This differentially reinforced run length while holding reinforcement probability constant at .5. A second group acquired the differentiation under the targeted percentile schedule, but were then shifted to a procedure that yoked reinforcement probability by subject and run length to that obtained under the targeted percentile schedule. The two procedures generated practically identical control run lengths, response rates, reinforcement probabilities, and reinforcement rates. Administration of d-amphetamine disrupted percentile responding to a greater degree than yoked control responding. This disruption decreased reinforcement frequency less in the former than the latter procedure. The similar baseline responding under these two procedures suggests that this difference in sensitivity was due to behavioral adjustments to drug prompted by reduction of reinforcement density in the yoked control but not the percentile schedule. These adjustments attenuate the drug's effects under the former, but not the latter, procedure. PMID:1955813

  5. Practical Differences Among Aggregate-Level Conditional Status Metrics: From Median Student Growth Percentiles to Value-Added Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellano, Katherine E.; Ho, Andrew D.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregate-level conditional status metrics (ACSMs) describe the status of a group by referencing current performance to expectations given past scores. This article provides a framework for these metrics, classifying them by aggregation function (mean or median), regression approach (linear mean and nonlinear quantile), and the scale that supports…

  6. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  7. Parental Activity as Influence on Children`s BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M

    2014-09-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children's lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children's BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children's MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children's PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children's PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key pointsA higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents.Children's BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one physically

  8. Parental Activity as Influence on Childrenˋs BMI Percentiles and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Erkelenz, Nanette; Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Drenowatz, Clemens; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2014-01-01

    Parents play a crucial role in the development of their children’s lifestyle and health behaviour. This study aims to examine associations between parental physical activity (PA) and children’s BMI percentiles (BMIPCT), moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) as well as participation in organised sports. Height and body weight was measured in 1615 in German children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, 50.3% male) and converted to BMIPCT. Parental BMI was calculated based on self-reported height and body weight. Children’s MVPA and sports participation as well as parental PA were assessed via parental questionnaire. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), controlling for age and family income was used to examine the association between parental and children’s PA levels as well as BMIPCT. 39.7% of the parents classified themselves as physically active and 8.3% of children were classified as overweight or obese. Lower BMIPCT were observed with both parents being physically active (44.5 ± 26.3 vs. 50.2 ± 26.9 and 52.0 ± 28.4, respectively). There was no association between parental and children’s PA levels but children with at least one active parent displayed a higher participation in organised sports (102.0 ± 96.6 and 117.7 ± 123.6 vs. 73.7 ± 100.0, respectively). Children of active parents were less likely to be overweight and obese. The lack of association between subjectively assessed parental PA and child MVPA suggests that parental support for PA in children is more important than parents being a role model. More active parents, however, may be more likely to facilitate participation in organised sports. These results underline the importance of the inclusion of parents in health promotion and obesity prevention programmes in children. Key points A higher prevalence of overweight or obese children was found with inactive parents. Children’s BMI percentiles were lower if both parents were physically active compared to children whose parents were both inactive or only had one

  9. Standard Errors of Equating for the Percentile Rank-Based Equipercentile Equating with Log-Linear Presmoothing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Tianyou

    2009-01-01

    Holland and colleagues derived a formula for analytical standard error of equating using the delta-method for the kernel equating method. Extending their derivation, this article derives an analytical standard error of equating procedure for the conventional percentile rank-based equipercentile equating with log-linear smoothing. This procedure is…

  10. Comparisons of infant mortality using a percentile-based method of standardization for birthweight or gestational age.

    PubMed

    Hertz-Picciotto, I; Din-Dzietham, R

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons of infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations with different birthweight or gestational age distributions are problematic. Summary measures with adjustment for birthweight or gestational age frequently are invalid or lack interpretability. We propose a percentile-based method of standardization for comparing infant, perinatal, or neonatal mortality across populations that have different distributions of birthweight and/or gestational age. The underlying concept is a simple one: comparable health for two population groups will be expressed as equal rates of disease or mortality at equal quantiles in the two distributions of birthweight or gestational age. We describe this method mathematically and present an example comparing mortality rates for African-American vs European-American infants in North Carolina. When gestational age is transformed to its rank, the well-known crossover in mortality rates, in which preterm African-American infants die at lower rates but term infants at higher rates, disappears: African-Americans show higher mortality rates at any percentile of gestational age. With homogeneous mortality rate ratios, a summary statistic becomes meaningful. We also demonstrate adjustment for percentile-transformed gestational age or birthweight in multiple logistic regression models. Percentile standardization is easily implemented, has advantages over other methods of internal standardization such as that of Wilcox and Russell, and communicates an intuitive public health-based concept of equality of mortality across populations.

  11. Analysis of the Stability of Teacher-Level Growth Scores from the Student Growth Percentile Model. REL 2016-104

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lash, Andrea; Makkonen, Reino; Tran, Loan; Huang, Min

    2016-01-01

    This study, undertaken at the request of the Nevada Department of Education, examined the stability over years of teacher-level growth scores from the Student Growth Percentile (SGP) model, which many states and districts have selected as a measure of effectiveness in their teacher evaluation systems. The authors conducted a generalizability study…

  12. Development of THOR-FLx: A Biofidelic Lower Extremity for Use with 5th Percentile Female Crash Test Dummies.

    PubMed

    Shams, Tariq; Beach, David; Huang, Tsai-Jeon; Rangarajan, N; Haffner, Mark

    2002-11-01

    A new lower leg/ankle/foot system has been designed and fabricated to assess the potential for lower limb injuries to small females in the automotive crash environment. The new lower extremity can be retrofitted at present to the distal femur of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummy. Future plans are for integration of this design into the 5th percentile female THOR dummy now under development. The anthropometry of the lower leg and foot is based mainly on data developed by Robbins for the 5th percentile female, while the biomechanical response requirements are based upon scaling of 50th percentile male THOR-Lx responses. The design consists of the knee, tibia, ankle joints, foot, a representation of the Achilles tendon, and associated flesh/skins. The new lower extremity, known as THOR-FLx, is designed to be biofidelic under dynamic axial loading of the tibia, static and dynamic dorsiflexion, static plantarflexion and inversion/eversion. Instrumentation includes accelerometers, load cells, and rotary potentiometers to capture relevant kinematic and dynamic information from the foot and tibia. This paper will describe the performance requirements for THOR-FLx, the methodology used in its' development, results of component tests, and the biofidelity tests conducted on the full assembly.

  13. Determination of and correlation between urine protein excretion and urine protein-to-creatinine ratio values during a 24-hour period in healthy horses and ponies.

    PubMed

    Uberti, Benjamin; Eberle, D Bernard; Pressler, Barrak M; Moore, George E; Sojka, Janice E

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To determine whether urine protein-to-creatinine (UP:C) ratio assessment provides an estimate of urine protein excretion (UPE) over a 24-hour period in horses and ponies, establish a preliminary UP:C ratio reference range, and determine UP:C ratio variation over time in healthy equids. ANIMALS-11 female horses and 6 female ponies. PROCEDURES-Urine was collected from all equids at 4-hour intervals for 24 hours. Total 24-hour UPE (mg of protein/kg of body weight) and UP:C ratio were determined; these variables were also assessed in aliquots of urine collected at 4-hour intervals. On 2 additional days, urine samples were also obtained from 6 horses (1 sample/horse/d) to determine day-to-day variation in UP:C ratio. Correlation between 4-hour or 24-hour UPE and UP:C ratio values was assessed. Reference ranges for 24-hour UPE, 24-hour UP:C ratio, and 4-hour UP:C ratios were calculated as central 95th percentiles of observed values. RESULTS-Mean 24-hour UPE (4.28 +/- 2.99 mg/kg) and 24-hour UP:C ratio (0.0 to 0.37) had excellent correlation (R = 0.826; P < 0.001) in both horses and ponies; analysis of 4-hour data also revealed good correlation (R = 0.782; P < 0.001) with these variables. Calculated UPE and UP:C ratio reference ranges were similar to established ranges in other species. Day-to-day variability in UP:C ratio was minimal, and all results were within the reference range calculated by use of the 24-hour urine samples. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Assessment of the UP:C ratio appears to be a reliable method for estimating 24-hour UPE in horses and ponies.

  14. Assessment of in vitro human dermal absorption studies on pesticides to determine default values, opportunities for read-across and influence of dilution on absorption.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, M; Battalora, M; Fisher, P; Hüser, A; Parr-Dobrzanski, R; Soufi, M; Mostert, V; Strupp, C; Whalley, P; Wiemann, C; Billington, R

    2014-04-01

    Dermal absorption is an integral part of non-dietary human safety risk assessments for agrochemicals. Typically, dermal absorption data for agrochemical active substances are generated from the undiluted formulation concentrate and its spray dilutions. European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) guidance, which combines highly conservative default values, very limited opportunities for read-across from existing data and other overly conservative conclusions, was the driver for this assessment. To investigate the reliability of the EFSA guidance, a homogeneous data-set of 190 GLP and OECD guideline compliant in vitro human skin studies, chosen to match the test method preferred by EU data requirements, was evaluated. These studies represented a wide range of active substances, formulation types, and concentrations. In alignment with EFSA guidance on human exposure assessment, a conservative estimate of absorption (95th percentile) was chosen to define defaults, which were also based on the EFSA worst-case assumption that all material in skin, excluding the first two tape strips, is absorbed. The analysis supports dermal absorption defaults of 6% for liquid concentrates, 2% for solid concentrates, and 30% for all spray dilutions, irrespective of the active substance concentration. Relatively high dermal absorption values for organic solvent-based formulations, compared to water-based or solid concentrates, support their use as worst-case surrogate data for read-across to other formulation types. The current review also shows that dermal absorption of sprays does not increase linearly with increasing dilution, and provides a novel, science-based option for extrapolation from existing data.

  15. On establishing reference values.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Mullen, K

    1978-01-01

    In order to establish a range of reference values for any characteristic one can use Gaussian or nonparametric techniques, whichever are most appropriate. One has the choice of calculating tolerance intervals or percentile intervals. A tolerance interval is said to contain, say 95% of the population with probability, say 0.90. A percentile interval simply simply calculates the values between which 95% of the observations fall. If the data can be said to have a Gaussian distribution, the same precision can be obtained with smaller sample sizes than using the nonparametric techniques. In some cases, data which are not Gaussian can be transformed into a Gaussian form and hence make use of the more efficient Gaussian techniques. In both cases, the data should be checked for outliers or rogue observations and these should be eliminated if the testing procedure fails to imply that they are an integral part of the data. PMID:688072

  16. The effect of obesity on skin disease and epidermal permeability barrier status in children.

    PubMed

    Nino, Massimiliano; Franzese, Adriana; Ruggiero Perrino, Nunzia; Balato, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Obese adult patients have many dermatoses, such as skin tags, candida infection, cellulite, and intertrigo, but only limited data have been published on obese children and the barrier function of their skin. Sixty-five overweight and obese children (n = 40, BMI 85th-95th percentile; n = 25, BMI > 95th percentile) (aged 8-15; mean age 11.6) and 30 normal-weight controls (aged 7-15; mean age 11.1) underwent a clinical evaluation and calculation of transepidermal water loss (TEWL). Higher weight percentile was associated with a higher incidence of some dermatoses. Skin tags were found in 40% of subjects in the 95th percentile and 2.5% of those in the 85th percentile. Striae distensae were observed in 32% of patients in the 95th percentile and 22.5% of those in the 85th percentile. Plantar hyperkeratosis was observed only in 20% of the 95th percentile subjects and was not observed in the other groups. TEWL values at the forearm site were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in obese children than in the control group, but no significant differences in TEWL values according to BMI level were found between the two groups of obese children. Degree of obesity influences the incidence of some associated dermatoses; skin tags, striae distensae, and plantar hyperkeratosis were more frequent in children in the 95th percentile of BMI. Obesity increases the TEWL rate, suggesting that obese children might become more easily overheated as weight increases, with more profuse sweating because of the thick layers of subcutaneous fat.

  17. Reference data and percentile curves of body composition measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in healthy Chinese children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bin; Xu, Yi; Gong, Jian; Tang, Yongjin; Shang, Jingjie; Xu, Hao

    2015-09-01

    Measurements of body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) have evident value in evaluating skeletal and muscular status in growing children and adolescents. This study aimed to generate age-related trends for body composition in Chinese children and adolescents, and to establish gender-specific reference percentile curves for the assessment of muscle-bone status. A total of 1541 Chinese children and adolescents aged from 5 to 19 years were recruited from southern China. Bone mineral content (BMC), lean mass (LM) and fat mass (FM) were measured for total body and total body less head (TBLH). After 14 years, total body LM was significantly higher in boys than girls (p < 0.001). However, total body FM was significantly higher in girls than boys in age groups 13-19 years (p < 0.01). Both LM and FM were consistent independent predictors of total body and subcranial bone mass in both sexes, even after adjustment for the well-known predictors of BMC. The results of multiple linear regression identified LM as the stronger predictor of total body and subcranial skeleton BMC while the fat mass contributed less. For all the subjects, significant positive correlations were observed between total body LM, height, total body BMC and subcranial BMC (p < 0.01). Subcranial BMC had a better correlation with LM than total body BMC. We have also presented gender-specific percentile curves for LM-for-height and BMC-for-LM which could be used to evaluate and follow various pediatric disorders with skeletal manifestations in this population.

  18. Metabolic profil in a group of obese Moroccan children enrolled in schools in the city of Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Mouane, Nezha; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Ettair, Said; Meskini, Toufik; Khalloufi, Nabil; Bouklouze, Aziz; Barkat, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Introduction To determine the metabolic profile in a group of obese children in Morocco. Methods The BMI, the waist circumference, the blood pressure and metabolic parameters in 73 children (37 obese and 36 normal) were compared. Results 80% of obese children had abdominal obesity (p <0.0001). For systolic blood pressure among children who have a higher value than the 95th percentile, 85.7% were obese and 14.3% children are normal children. For diastolic blood pressure, 83.34% of obese children had higher diastolic blood pressure values in the 95th percentile and 16.6% of normal children have a higher value than the 95th percentile (p=0.013). No obese child had hyperglycemia. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. Conclusion Obesity is number one risk of cardiovascular disease for children. Early detection can help for an appropriate care. PMID:25977740

  19. Percentile-Based Journal Impact Factors: A Neglected Collection Development Metric

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Various normalization techniques to transform journal impact factors (JIFs) into a standard scale or range of values have been reported a number of times in the literature, but have seldom been part of collection development librarians' tool kits. In this paper, JIFs as reported in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR) database are converted to…

  20. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  1. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box–Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9–17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia. PMID:27669294

  2. Triceps and Subscapular Skinfold Thickness Percentiles and Cut-Offs for Overweight and Obesity in a Population-Based Sample of Schoolchildren and Adolescents in Bogota, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; López-Cifuentes, Mario Ferney; Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; González-Ruíz, Katherine; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Córdoba-Rodríguez, Diana Paola; Vivas, Andrés; Triana-Reina, Hector Reynaldo; Schmidt-RioValle, Jacqueline

    2016-09-24

    The assessment of skinfold thickness is an objective measure of adiposity. The aims of this study were to establish Colombian smoothed centile charts and LMS L (Box-Cox transformation), M (median), and S (coefficient of variation) tables for triceps, subscapular, and triceps + subscapular skinfolds; appropriate cut-offs were selected using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis based on a population-based sample of children and adolescents in Bogotá, Colombia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 9618 children and adolescents (55.7% girls; age range of 9-17.9 years). Triceps and subscapular skinfold measurements were obtained using standardized methods. We calculated the triceps + subscapular skinfold (T + SS) sum. Smoothed percentile curves for triceps and subscapular skinfold thickness were derived using the LMS method. ROC curve analyses were used to evaluate the optimal cut-off point of skinfold thickness for overweight and obesity, based on the International Obesity Task Force definitions. Subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS were significantly higher in girls than in boys (p < 0.001). The ROC analysis showed that subscapular and triceps skinfolds and T + SS have a high discriminatory power in the identification of overweight and obesity in the sample population in this study. Our results provide sex- and age-specific normative reference standards for skinfold thickness values from a population from Bogotá, Colombia.

  3. Analysis of CREW 3.1 System Center of Mass (COM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    5th percentile male values based on the 1988 U.S. Army Anthropometry Survey ( ANSUR ) (Gordon et al., 1989). Body weights were determined to be 216.21...corresponding figures were set at 95th, 50th and 5th percentile male values according to the 1988 ANSUR database (Gordon et al., 1989), and the...Sons, Inc.: New York, 1990. 13 List of Symbols, Abbreviations, and Acronyms ANSUR U.S. Army Anthropometry Survey CAD Computer-aided Design COM

  4. SAFETY study: Alanine aminotransferase cutoff values are set too high for reliable detection of pediatric chronic liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Schwimmer, Jeffrey B.; Dunn, Winston; Norman, Gregory J.; Pardee, Perrie E.; Middleton, Michael S.; Kerkar, Nanda; Sirlin, Claude B.

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims The appropriate alanine aminotransferase (ALT) threshold value to use for diagnosis of chronic liver disease in children is unknown. We sought to develop sex-specific, biology-based, pediatric ALT thresholds. Methods The screening ALT for elevation in today’s youth (SAFETY) study collected observational data from acute care children’s hospitals, the national health and nutrition examination survey (NHANES, 1999–2006), overweight children with and without non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and children with chronic Hepatitis B virus (HBV) or Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. The study compared the sensitivity and specificity of ALT thresholds currently used by children’s hospitals versus study-derived, sex-specific, biology-based, ALT thresholds for detecting children with NAFLD, HCV, or HBV. Results The median upper limit of ALT at children’s hospitals was 53 U/L (range, 30–90). The 95th percentile levels for ALT in healthy weight, metabolically normal, liver disease-free, NHANES pediatric participants were 25.8 U/L (boys) and 22.1 U/L (girls). The concordance statistics of these NHANES-derived thresholds for liver disease detection were 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–0.96) in boys and 0.91 (95% CI 0.83–0.99) in girls for NAFLD, 0.80 (95% CI 0.70–0.91) in boys and 0.79 (95% CI 0.69–0.89) in girls for HBV, and 0.86 (95% CI 0.77–0.95) in boys and 0.84 (95% CI 0.75–0.93) in girls for HCV. Using current children’s hospitals ALT thresholds, the median sensitivity for detection of NAFLD, HBV, and HCV ranged from 32% to 48%; median specificity was 92% (boys) and 96% (girls). Using NHANES-derived thresholds, the sensitivities were 72% (boys) and 82% (girls); specificities were 79% (boys) and 85% (girls). Conclusions The upper limit of ALT used in children’s hospitals varies widely and is set too high to reliably detect chronic liver disease. Biology-based thresholds provide higher sensitivity and only

  5. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Sarikhani, Yaser; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6–151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3–105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood. PMID:28191019

  6. Associated Factors and Standard Percentiles of Blood Pressure among the Adolescents of Jahrom City of Iran, 2014.

    PubMed

    Sarikhani, Yaser; Heydari, Seyed Taghi; Emamghorashi, Fatemeh; Jafari, Fatemeh; Tabrizi, Reza; Karimpour, Saeed; Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Akbari, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Background. High blood pressure in adults is directly correlated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension in childhood and adolescence could be considered among the major causes of this problem in adults. This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with hypertension among the adolescents of Jahrom city in Iran and also standard percentiles of blood pressure were estimated for this group. Methods. In this community-based cross-sectional study 983 high school students from different areas of the city were included using a multistage random cluster sampling method in 2014. Blood pressure, weight, and height of each student measured using standard methods. Data were analyzed by statistical software SPSS 16. Results. In total, 498 male and 454 female students were included in this study. Average systolic blood pressure of students was 110.27 mmHg with a variation range of 80.6-151.3. Average diastolic blood pressure was 71.76 mmHg with the variation range of 49.3-105. Results of this study indicated that there was a significant relationship between gender, body mass index, and parental education level with systolic and diastolic blood pressure of the students (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Body mass index was one of the most important changeable factors associated with blood pressure in adolescents. Paying attention to this factor in adolescence could be effective in prevention of cardiovascular diseases in adulthood.

  7. [Placental weight percentiles and its relationship with fetal weight according to gestational age in an urban area of Buenos Aires].

    PubMed

    Grandi, Carlos; Roman, Estela; Dipierri, Jose

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes: El peso placentario (PP) y los índices de su relación con el peso al nacer (PN) (PN/PP, PP/PN) predicen morbi-mortalidad perinatal y resultados alejados de la salud. Objetivos: Calcular percentilos del PP e índices por sexo y edad gestacional correspondientes a 867 RNV de la Maternidad Sardá de Buenos Aires, Argentina y compararlos con referencias internacionales. Material y métodos: Se excluyeron feto muerto, embarazo múltiple, edad gestacional <22 y >42 semanas y PP<100g y >2500g. Características maternas y fetales: edad, educación, tabaco, paridad, diabetes, preeclampsia, corioamnionitis, restricción del crecimiento, malformación congénita y prematurez. Se calcularon estadísticos de resumen y percentilos con el método LMS. Las comparaciones se realizaron con test t-Student, ANOVA y referencias internacionales. Resultados: Edad materna media 24 años, educación 10.1 años, 24.5% primíparas, 12.6% fumadoras, 4.9% presentaron diabetes, 8.7% preeclampsia, 7.9% corioamnionitis y 13.0% restricción del crecimiento fetal. El 55.3% de los RN fueron varones, 51.6% prematuros, 18.9% PEG y 7.1% malformados. El PN y EG promedio fue de 2581g y 35.6 semanas respectivamente. Elevada correlación positiva de la EG con PP y PN/PP y negativa con PP/PN (p%lt;0.001); el peso de la placenta e índices fueron mayores en varones. Se presentan los percentiles de PP, PN/PP y PP/PN. Las diferencias con las referencias oscilaron de 0.46% -13%, 4.91% -12.1% y 5.81% -14% para el PP, PN/PP y PP/PN respectivamente. Conclusiones: los percentilos generados son aplicables en investigaciones sobre la relación de la placenta con resultados perinatales y la salud durante el ciclo vital.

  8. Comparison of changes in growth percentiles of US children on CDC 2000 growth charts with corresponding changes on WHO 2006 growth charts.

    PubMed

    Mei, Zuguo; Grummer-Strawn, Laurence M

    2011-05-01

    Longitudinal data with 37 964 length and weight measurements from 10 844 children who participated in the California Child Health and Development Study was used to compare the proportion of children aged ≤24 months who crossed major percentile lines on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 growth charts with the percentage who crossed corresponding lines on the World Health Organization (WHO) 2006 growth charts. Percentage of children aged ≤24 months who crossed at least 2 major percentile lines for length-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-length according to CDC 2000 charts were compared with the percentage who did so according to WHO 2006 charts. The results from this analysis suggest that pediatricians who monitor children's growth on the basis of WHO 2006 growth charts may be more likely to refer children aged <6 months and less likely to refer those aged 6 to 12 months for further evaluation for failure to thrive.

  9. Fourth-grade children's dietary recall accuracy for energy intake at school meals differs by social desirability and body mass index percentile in a study concerning retention interval.

    PubMed

    Guinn, Caroline H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hardin, James W; Mackelprang, Alyssa J; Smith, Albert F

    2010-05-01

    Data from a study concerning retention interval and school-meal observation on children's dietary recalls were used to investigate relationships of social desirability score (SDS) and body mass index percentile (BMI%) to recall accuracy for energy for observed (n = 327) children, and to reported energy for observed and unobserved (n = 152) children. Report rates (reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS and BMI%. Correspondence rates (correctly reported/observed) correlated negatively with SDS. Inflation ratios (overreported/observed) correlated negatively with BMI%. The relationship between reported energy and each of SDS and BMI% did not depend on observation status. Studies utilizing children's dietary recalls should assess SDS and BMI%.

  10. High blood pressure in the pediatric age group.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Helena; Antonio, Natália; Rodrigues, Dina; Da Silva, Marinho; Pêgo, Mariano; Providência, Luís Augusto

    2010-03-01

    The definition of hypertension (HT) in the pediatric age group is based on the normal distribution of blood pressure (BP) in healthy children. Normal BP is defined as being below the 90th percentile for gender, age and height, and hypertension as equal to or higher than the 95th percentile on at least three separate occasions. If the values are above the 90th percentile but below the 95th percentile, the child should be considered prehypertensive. Ambulatory BP monitoring is useful in the assessment of BP levels in the young. P values in children and adolescents have creased in the last decade, in parallel with increases in body mass index, and HT now has a prevalence of 2-5%. Obesity in childhood and adolescence is one of the main predictors of HT in adulthood, but it is also associated with other cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism, insulin resistance, inflammation and impaired vascular function. Left ventricular hypertrophy is the most prominent evidence of target organ damage caused by hypertension in children and adolescents. The goal for antihypertensive treatment is to reduce BP below the 95th percentile. Weight control, with regular physical activity and dietary changes, is the primary therapy for obesity-related hypertension. Weight loss decreases not only BP but also other cardiovascular risk factors. The indications for use of antihypertensive drugs are: symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, established hypertensive target organ damage, stage 2 hypertension and failure of nonpharmacologic measures.

  11. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  12. Body fat percentile curves for Korean children and adolescents: a data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kirang; Yun, Sung Ha; Jang, Myoung Jin; Oh, Kyung Won

    2013-03-01

    A valid assessment of obesity in children and adolescents is important due to significant change in body composition during growth. This study aimed to develop percentile curves of body fat and fat free mass using the Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method, and to examine the relationship among body mass index (BMI), fat mass and fat free mass in Korean children and adolescents, using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2009-2010. The study subjects were 834 for boys and 745 for girls aged between 10 and 18 yr. Fat mass and fat free mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. The patterns of development in body fat percentage, fat mass and fat free mass differed for boys and girls, showing a decreased fat mass with an increased fat free mass in boys but gradual increases with age in girls. The considerable proportion of boys and girls with relatively normal fat mass appeared to be misclassified to be at risk of overweight based on the BMI criteria. Therefore, the information on the percentiles of body fat and fat free mass with their patterns would be helpful to complement assessment of overweight and obesity based on BMI for Korean children and adolescents.

  13. Non-small cell lung cancer: Whole-lesion histogram analysis of the apparent diffusion coefficient for assessment of tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Naoko; Doai, Mariko; Usuda, Katsuo; Uramoto, Hidetaka

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Investigating the diagnostic accuracy of histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for determining non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor grades, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. Materials and methods We studied 60 surgically diagnosed NSCLC patients. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) was performed in the axial plane using a navigator-triggered single-shot, echo-planar imaging sequence with prospective acquisition correction. The ADC maps were generated, and we placed a volume-of-interest on the tumor to construct the whole-lesion histogram. Using the histogram, we calculated the mean, 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles of ADC, skewness, and kurtosis. Histogram parameters were correlated with tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion, and pleural invasion. We performed a receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis to assess the diagnostic performance of histogram parameters for distinguishing different pathologic features. Results The ADC mean, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles showed significant differences among the tumor grades. The ADC mean, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were significant histogram parameters between high- and low-grade tumors. The ROC analysis between high- and low-grade tumors showed that the 95th percentile ADC achieved the highest area under curve (AUC) at 0.74. Lymphovascular invasion was associated with the ADC mean, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles, skewness, and kurtosis. Kurtosis achieved the highest AUC at 0.809. Pleural invasion was only associated with skewness, with the AUC of 0.648. Conclusions ADC histogram analyses on the basis of the entire tumor volume are able to stratify NSCLCs' tumor grade, lymphovascular invasion and pleural invasion. PMID:28207858

  14. Clinical aspects of hypertension in children.

    PubMed

    Yared, Aida

    2010-01-01

    The importance of measuring blood pressure routinely in children over 3 years, and in specific circumstances in younger children, is increasingly recognized. The incidence of pediatric hypertension is relatively high, its prevalence increasing, and high blood pressure tends to track into adulthood. Interpretation of a blood pressure measurement requires knowledge of sex-, age-, and height-specific normative values. Blood pressure is classified as normal if < 90th percentile, and high if > 95th percentile, and as prehypertension if 90-95th percentile. The methods available to measure blood pressure together with their advantages and disadvantages, as well as pitfalls in measurement, are discussed. Also discussed is Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring which may define if there is "dipping", i.e. a decrease in blood pressure by > 10% during sleep, a novel parameter that may help identify children at risk of sustained hypertension or its complications. Signs, symptoms and physical findings of the child with hypertension are reviewed.

  15. A human dietary risk assessment associated with glycoalkaloid responses of potato to Colorado potato beetle defoliation.

    PubMed

    Dinkins, Courtney L Pariera; Peterson, Robert K D

    2008-08-01

    A quantitative human dietary risk assessment was conducted using the glycoalkaloid concentrations measured from tubers of plants defoliated by Colorado potato beetles and undefoliated (control). There was a significantly greater production of glycoalkaloids for defoliated plants compared to control plants for both skin and inner tissue of tubers. The dietary risk posed to different human subgroups associated with the consumption of potatoes was estimated for the 50th, 95th, and 99.9th percentile US national consumption values. Exposures were compared to a toxic threshold of 1.0mg/kg body weight. Defoliation by Colorado potato beetles increased dietary risk by approximately 48%. Glycoalkaloid concentrations within the inner tissue of tubers, including undefoliated controls, exceeded the toxic threshold for all human subgroups at less than the 99.9th percentile of exposure, but not the 95th percentile.

  16. Age-specific reference values for serum FSH and estradiol levels throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Plebani, Maddalena; Milani, Silvano; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale; La Marca, Antonio

    2014-06-01

    High serum day 3 FSH levels are associated with poor ovarian reserve and reduced fertility, but the interpretation of FSH values according to age is still not univocal. The purpose of this study was to determine age-dependent reference values in women with regular menstrual cycles and FSH as a guide for specialists. The study was performed at the Department of Mother-Infant of a University-based tertiary care centre. One-hundred ninety-two healthy normal menstruating women were recruited for the study. All patients attended the department on menstrual cycle day 3 for a blood sample for FSH and estradiol determination. A linear relationship between FSH or estradiol serum levels and age was observed. The FSH level increased by 0.11 IU for every year of age (1 IU for every 9 years of age). The values of FSH and estradiol corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 95th centiles for any specific age have been calculated. Serum FSH levels need to be interpreted according to age-dependent reference values. Serum FSH levels on 95th centile for any age may represent a warning sign for reduced ovarian reserve.

  17. Relationship between Urbanization and Cancer Incidence in Iran Using Quantile Regression.

    PubMed

    Momenyan, Somayeh; Sadeghifar, Majid; Sarvi, Fatemeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Mosavi-Jarrahi, Alireza; Ghaffari, Mohammad Ebrahim; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Quantile regression is an efficient method for predicting and estimating the relationship between explanatory variables and percentile points of the response distribution, particularly for extreme percentiles of the distribution. To study the relationship between urbanization and cancer morbidity, we here applied quantile regression. This cross-sectional study was conducted for 9 cancers in 345 cities in 2007 in Iran. Data were obtained from the Ministry of Health and Medical Education and the relationship between urbanization and cancer morbidity was investigated using quantile regression and least square regression. Fitting models were compared using AIC criteria. R (3.0.1) software and the Quantreg package were used for statistical analysis. With the quantile regression model all percentiles for breast, colorectal, prostate, lung and pancreas cancers demonstrated increasing incidence rate with urbanization. The maximum increase for breast cancer was in the 90th percentile (β=0.13, p-value<0.001), for colorectal cancer was in the 75th percentile (β=0.048, p-value<0.001), for prostate cancer the 95th percentile (β=0.55, p-value<0.001), for lung cancer was in 95th percentile (β=0.52, p-value=0.006), for pancreas cancer was in 10th percentile (β=0.011, p-value<0.001). For gastric, esophageal and skin cancers, with increasing urbanization, the incidence rate was decreased. The maximum decrease for gastric cancer was in the 90th percentile(β=0.003, p-value<0.001), for esophageal cancer the 95th (β=0.04, p-value=0.4) and for skin cancer also the 95th (β=0.145, p-value=0.071). The AIC showed that for upper percentiles, the fitting of quantile regression was better than least square regression. According to the results of this study, the significant impact of urbanization on cancer morbidity requirs more effort and planning by policymakers and administrators in order to reduce risk factors such as pollution in urban areas and ensure proper nutrition

  18. Plasma chemistry references values in psittaciformes.

    PubMed

    Lumeij, J T; Overduin, L M

    1990-04-01

    Reference values for 17 plasma chemical variables in African greys. Amazons, cockatoos and macaws were established for use in avian clinical practice. The inner limits are given for the percentiles P(2.5) and P(97.5) with a probability of 90%. The following variables were studied: urea, creatinine, uric acid, urea/uric acid ratio, osmolality, sodium, potassium, calcium, glucose, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, gamma glutamyltransferase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, bile acids, total protein, albumin/globulin ratio. Differences between methods used and values found in this study and those reported previously are discussed.

  19. The U.S. Federal Government's Efforts to Estimate an Economic Value for Reduced Carbon Emissions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolverton, A.

    2010-12-01

    This presentation will summarize the technical process and results from recent U.S. Federal government efforts to estimate the “social cost of carbon” (SCC); the monetized damages associated with an incremental increase in carbon dioxide emissions in a given year. The purpose of the SCC estimates is to make it possible for Federal agencies to incorporate the social benefits from reducing CO2 emissions into cost-benefit analyses of regulatory actions that have relatively small impacts on cumulative global emissions. An interagency working group initiated a comprehensive analysis using three integrated assessment models. The interagency group chose to rely on three of the most widely recognized peer-reviewed models to fairly represent differences in the way in which economic impacts from climate change are modeled (DICE, PAGE, and FUND). The main objective of this process was to develop a range of SCC values using a defensible set of input assumptions grounded in the existing scientific and economic literatures. In this way, key uncertainties and model differences transparently and consistently inform the range of SCC estimates used in the rulemaking process. This proved challenging since the literature did not always agree on the best path forward. In some cases the group agreed to a range of assumptions to allow for uncertainty analysis (e.g., they include 5 different socioeconomic scenarios in the Monte Carlo analysis to reflect uncertainty about how future economic and population growth and energy systems will develop over the next 100 years). The four values selected for regulatory analysis included three estimates based on the average SCC from three integrated assessment models over a range of discount rates, since there is wide disagreement on which to apply in an inter-generational context. The fourth value represents the 95th percentile SCC estimate across all three models at a 3 percent discount rate and is included to represent higher

  20. 75 FR 30780 - National Conference on Weights and Measures 95th Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    .... ] Commercial Hydrogen Gas Measuring Devices Item 360-1. Tentative Code for Hydrogen Gas-Measuring Devices--The... commercial measuring equipment used to deliver hydrogen fuel to highway vehicles, which are currently... Development of Commercial Hydrogen Measurement Standards that included key stakeholders and experts...

  1. Proceedings, 95th regular meeting: The Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Finnie, D.G.

    1999-07-01

    In addition to the nine convention papers published in these proceedings, information is given on the membership and organization of the Rocky Mountain Coal Mining Institute. The papers are concerned with the economics and management of coal companies, occupational safety of their employees, public anxiety of the environmental impacts of surface mining, and contracting for mining equipment maintenance. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. National Energy Conservation Policy Act. Public Law 95-619, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This publication is the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (P.L. 95-619). The purposes of this act are to provide for the regulation of interstate commerce, to reduce the growth in demand for energy in the United States, and to conserve nonrenewable energy resources produced in this nation and elsewhere, without inhibiting beneficial economic…

  3. Reference values of fetal erythrocytes in maternal blood during pregnancy established using flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    de Wit, Harry; Nabbe, Karin C A M; Kooren, Jurgen A; Adriaansen, Henk J; Roelandse-Koop, Elianne A; Schuitemaker, Joost H N; Hoffmann, Johannes J M L

    2011-10-01

    The aim of our study was to assess the fetal RBC count in maternal blood during uncomplicated pregnancies from 26 weeks onward. We used a flow cytometric method specifically designed for use in a routine hematology analyzer. Pregnant women were recruited through midwives. The participating laboratories used the FMH QuikQuant method (Trillium Diagnostics, Brewer, ME) in a CELL-DYN Sapphire hematology analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). The method is based on a monoclonal antibody to hemoglobin F. Flow cytometric data were analyzed by 2 independent observers. The 95th percentile reference range was estimated according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. A total of 236 samples were statistically analyzed. Gestational ages ranged from 21.6 to 41 weeks (mean, 32.0 weeks), and the fetal RBC count in maternal blood ranged from 0.00% to 0.50% (median, 0.025%). The fetal RBC count in maternal blood shows no correlation with gestational age. The established reference range during normal pregnancy is less than 0.125%.

  4. Comparison of theoretical and experimental values for plant uptake of pesticide from soil

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jeong-In; Lee, Sung-Eun; Kim, Jang-Eok

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides that persist in soils may be taken up by the roots of plants. One way to assess plant uptake is to theoretically predict the extent of plant uptake using a mathematical model. In this study, a model was developed to predict plant uptake of pesticide residues in soils using various parameters, such as pesticide mobility within soil, plant transpiration stream, root–soil transfer rate, plant growth, and pesticide dissipation in either soils or plants. The accuracy of the model was evaluated by comparing the modeled concentrations with measured uptake concentrations of chlorpyrifos (CP) in lettuce, grown on treated soils with concentrations of approximately 10 and 20 mg kg-1 CP. Measured concentrations of CP in lettuce at 21, 30, and 40 d after planting were between the 5th and 95th percentiles of model variation. A high correlation coefficient of > 0.97 between modeled and measured concentrations was found. Coefficients of variation of mean factors to residual errors were between 25.3 and 48.2%. Overall, modeling results matched the experimental results well. Therefore, this plant uptake model could be used as an assessment tool to predict the extent of plant uptake of pesticide residues in soils. PMID:28212386

  5. Severe Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk in Children: Comparison from Two International Classification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, Giuliana; Maffeis, Claudio; Balsamo, Antonio; Del Giudice, Emanuele Miraglia; Brufani, Claudia; Grugni, Graziano; Licenziati, Maria Rosaria; Brambilla, Paolo; Manco, Melania

    2013-01-01

    Objectives There is no agreed-upon definition for severe obesity (Sev-OB) in children. We compared estimates of Sev-OB as defined by different cut-points of body mass index (BMI) from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) or the World Health Organization (WHO) curves and the ability of each set of cut-points to screen for the presence of cardiometabolic risk factors. Research Design and Methods Cross-sectional, multicenter study involving 3,340 overweight/obese young subjects. Sev-OB was defined as BMI ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile of the CDC or the WHO curves. High blood pressure, hypertriglyceridemia, low High Density Lipoprotein -cholesterol and impaired fasting glucose were considered as cardiometabolic risk factors. Results The estimated prevalence of Sev-OB varied widely between the two reference systems. Either using the cut-point ≥99th percentile or ≥1.2 times the 95th percentile, less children were defined as Sev-OB by CDC than WHO (46.8 vs. 89.5%, and 63.3 vs. 80.4%, respectively p<0.001). The CDC 99th percentile had lower sensitivity (58.5 vs 94.2), higher specificity (57.6 vs 12.3) and higher positive predictive value (34.4 vs 28.9) than WHO in identifying obese children with ≥2 cardiometabolic risk factors. These differences were mitigated using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile (sensitivity 73.9 vs. 88.1; specificity 40.7 vs. 22.5; positive predictive value 32.1 vs. 30.1). Substantial agreement between growth curves was found using the 1.2 times the 95th percentile, in particular in children ≤10 years. Conclusions Estimates of Sev-OB and cardiometabolic risk as defined by different cut-points of BMI are influenced from the reference systems used. The 1.2 times the 95th percentile of BMI of either CDC or WHO standard has a discriminatory advantage over the 99th percentile for identifying severely obese children at increased cardiometabolic risk, particularly under 10 years of age. PMID:24386280

  6. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  7. [WHO child growth standards for children 0-5 years. Percentile charts of length/height, weight, body mass index and head circumference].

    PubMed

    Woynarowska, Barbara; Palczewska, Iwona; Oblacińska, Anna

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to present the growth standards for children aged 0-5 years - which is a new tool for the assessment of health, growth and nutritional status recommended by WHO for use all over the world. These standards were elaborated in 2006 on the basis of the results of the WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (a longitudinal and cross-sectional survey) carried out between 1997-2003 in Brazil, Ghana, India, Norway, Oman and the USA. An innovative approach to developing growth reference was applied. Healthy children living under conditions allowing them to achieve their full genetic potential were the sample of children under study. The results showed that the growth pattern of children in their early childhood in different countries, ethnic groups and of different socioeconomic status was the same when their health and care needs were met. The new standards indicate how children should grow in all countries, rather than merely describing how they grew at a particular place and time. The WHO Child Growth Standards for Children 0-5 years were adapted and used in over 100 countries. Activities designed to adapt WHO standards in Poland were undertaken in 2009. The comparison between the growth reference for Warsaw children and WHO standards showed no differences, or very small ones. Following discussion with the participation of many experts, in 2011 recommendations concerning the implementation of these standards were signed by the Committee of Human Development and the Committee of Anthropology of the Polish Academy of Science, the Main Board of the Polish Anthropological Society, the Institute of Mother and Child, and the Institute of Food and Nutrition. The percentile charts were adapted to the set of percentiles hitherto used in Poland.

  8. Does the bathing water classification depend on sampling strategy? A bootstrap approach for bathing water quality assessment, according to Directive 2006/7/EC requirements.

    PubMed

    López, Iago; Alvarez, César; Gil, José L; Revilla, José A

    2012-11-30

    Data on the 95th and 90th percentiles of bacteriological quality indicators are used to classify bathing waters in Europe, according to the requirements of Directive 2006/7/EC. However, percentile values and consequently, classification of bathing waters depend both on sampling effort and sample-size, which may undermine an appropriate assessment of bathing water classification. To analyse the influence of sampling effort and sample size on water classification, a bootstrap approach was applied to 55 bacteriological quality datasets of several beaches in the Balearic Islands (Spain). Our results show that the probability of failing the regulatory standards of the Directive is high when sample size is low, due to a higher variability in percentile values. In this way, 49% of the bathing waters reaching an "Excellent" classification (95th percentile of Escherichia coli under 250 cfu/100 ml) can fail the "Excellent" regulatory standard due to sampling strategy, when 23 samples per season are considered. This percentage increases to 81% when 4 samples per season are considered. "Good" regulatory standards can also be failed in bathing waters with an "Excellent" classification as a result of these sampling strategies. The variability in percentile values may affect bathing water classification and is critical for the appropriate design and implementation of bathing water Quality Monitoring and Assessment Programs. Hence, variability of percentile values should be taken into account by authorities if an adequate management of these areas is to be achieved.

  9. Value of MR histogram analyses for prediction of microvascular invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ya-Qin; Liang, He-Yue; Yang, Zhao-Xia; Ding, Ying; Zeng, Meng-Su; Rao, Sheng-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The objective is to explore the value of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) histogram analyses in predicting microvascular invasion (MVI) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fifty-one patients with histologically confirmed HCC who underwent diffusion-weighted and contrast-enhanced MR imaging were included. Histogram analyses were performed and mean, variance, skewness, kurtosis, 1th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentiles were derived. Quantitative histogram parameters were compared between HCCs with and without MVI. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analyses were generated to compare the diagnostic performance of tumor size, histogram analyses of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps, and MR enhancement. The mean, 1th, 10th, and 50th percentiles of ADC maps, and the mean, variance. 1th, 10th, 50th, 90th, and 99th percentiles of the portal venous phase (PVP) images were significantly different between the groups with and without MVI (P <0.05), with area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of 0.66 to 0.74 for ADC and 0.76 to 0.88 for PVP. The largest AUC of PVP (1th percentile) showed significantly higher accuracy compared with that of arterial phase (AP) or tumor size (P <0.001). MR histogram analyses—in particular for 1th percentile for PVP images—held promise for prediction of MVI of HCC. PMID:27368028

  10. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers.

    PubMed

    House, R A

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.

  11. Factors affecting plasma aluminum concentrations in nonexposed workers

    SciTech Connect

    House, R.A. )

    1992-10-01

    In this study, the distribution and determinants of plasma aluminum concentrations were examined in 71 office employees not occupationally exposed to aluminum. The samples were analyzed by Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and were found to be log normally distributed. After using the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry (IFCC) recommended procedure for removal of likely aberrant values, the 95th percentile value was 198 nmol/L (90% CI:165-238); when those using antacids were also excluded, the 95th percentile value fell to 175 nmol/L (90% CI:147-208). Multiple regression analysis indicated that the factors most predictive of log plasma aluminum were the batch in which the sample was analyzed and the use of antacids containing aluminum. The statistical significance of the batch variable likely indicates the well-recognized problem of contamination in sampling and analyzing aluminum.35 references.

  12. Standing adult human phantoms based on 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of male and female Caucasian populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassola, V. F.; Milian, F. M.; Kramer, R.; de Oliveira Lira, C. A. B.; Khoury, H. J.

    2011-07-01

    Computational anthropomorphic human phantoms are useful tools developed for the calculation of absorbed or equivalent dose to radiosensitive organs and tissues of the human body. The problem is, however, that, strictly speaking, the results can be applied only to a person who has the same anatomy as the phantom, while for a person with different body mass and/or standing height the data could be wrong. In order to improve this situation for many areas in radiological protection, this study developed 18 anthropometric standing adult human phantoms, nine models per gender, as a function of the 10th, 50th and 90th mass and height percentiles of Caucasian populations. The anthropometric target parameters for body mass, standing height and other body measures were extracted from PeopleSize, a well-known software package used in the area of ergonomics. The phantoms were developed based on the assumption of a constant body-mass index for a given mass percentile and for different heights. For a given height, increase or decrease of body mass was considered to reflect mainly the change of subcutaneous adipose tissue mass, i.e. that organ masses were not changed. Organ mass scaling as a function of height was based on information extracted from autopsy data. The methods used here were compared with those used in other studies, anatomically as well as dosimetrically. For external exposure, the results show that equivalent dose decreases with increasing body mass for organs and tissues located below the subcutaneous adipose tissue layer, such as liver, colon, stomach, etc, while for organs located at the surface, such as breasts, testes and skin, the equivalent dose increases or remains constant with increasing body mass due to weak attenuation and more scatter radiation caused by the increasing adipose tissue mass. Changes of standing height have little influence on the equivalent dose to organs and tissues from external exposure. Specific absorbed fractions (SAFs) have also

  13. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility.

  14. Value, Value, Where Is the Value?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Discusses measurement in performance improvement, including the Kirkpatrick four-level model of evaluation for training, and adding value. Highlights include adding value at all levels of organizational performance, for the clients and society; other models of performance improvement; the major focus of HPT (human performance technology); and…

  15. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  16. Probabilistic approach to estimating indoor air concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds from contaminated groundwater: a case study in San Antonio, Texas.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jill E; Gibson, Jacqueline MacDonald

    2011-02-01

    This paper describes a probabilistic model, based on the Johnson-Ettinger algorithm, developed to characterize the current and historic exposure to tricholorethylene (TCE) and tetrachlorethylene (PCE) in indoor air from plumes of groundwater contamination emanating from the former Kelly Air Force Base in San Antonio, Texas. We estimate indoor air concentration, house by house, in 30 101 homes and compare the estimated concentrations with measured values in a small subset of homes. We also compare two versions of the Johnson-Ettinger model: one used by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and another based on an alternative parametrization. The modeled mean predicted PCE concentration historically exceeded PCE screening levels (0.41 ug/m(3)) in 5.5% of houses, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded screening levels in 85.3% of houses. For TCE, the mean concentration exceeded the screening level (0.25 ug/m(3)) in 49% of homes, and the 95th percentile of the predicted concentration exceeded the screening level in 99% of homes. The EPA model predicts slightly lower indoor concentrations than the alternative parametrization. Comparison with measured samples suggests both models, with the inputs selected, underestimate indoor concentrations and that the 95th percentiles of the predicted concentrations are closer to measured concentrations than predicted mean values.

  17. Allowable CO2 concentrations under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a function of the climate sensitivity probability distribution function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, L. D. Danny

    2007-03-01

    Article 2 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) calls for stabilization of greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations at levels that prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference (DAI) in the climate system. Until recently, the consensus viewpoint was that the climate sensitivity (the global mean equilibrium warming for a doubling of atmospheric CO2 concentration) was 'likely' to fall between 1.5 and 4.5 K. However, a number of recent studies have generated probability distribution functions (pdfs) for climate sensitivity with the 95th percentile of the expected climate sensitivity as large as 10 K, while some studies suggest that the climate sensitivity is likely to fall in the lower half of the long-standing 1.5 4.5 K range. This paper examines the allowable CO2 concentration as a function of the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf (ranging from 2 to 8 K) and for the following additional assumptions: (i) the 50th percentile for the pdf of the minimum sustained global mean warming that causes unacceptable harm equal to 1.5 or 2.5 K and (ii) 1%, 5% or 10% allowable risks of unacceptable harm. For a 1% risk tolerance and the more stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO2 concentration ranges from 323 to 268 ppmv as the 95th percentile of the climate sensitivity pdf increases from 2 to 8 K, while for a 10% risk tolerance and the less stringent harm-threshold pdf, the allowable CO2 concentration ranges from 531 to 305 ppmv. In both cases it is assumed that non-CO2 GHG radiative forcing can be reduced to half of its present value, otherwise; the allowable CO2 concentration is even smaller. Accounting for the fact that the CO2 concentration will gradually fall if emissions are reduced to zero, and that peak realized warming will then be less than the peak equilibrium warming (related to peak radiative forcing) allows the CO2 concentration to peak at 10 40 ppmv higher than the limiting values given above for a climate sensitivity

  18. An inflatable belt system in the rear seat occupant environment: investigating feasibility and benefit in frontal impact sled tests with a 50th percentile male ATD

    PubMed Central

    Forman, Jason L.; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J.; Dennis, Nate; Kent, Richard W.; Tanji, Hiromasa; Higuchi, Kazuo

    2010-01-01

    Frontal-impact airbag systems have the potential to provide a benefit to rear seat occupants by distributing restraining forces over the body in a manner not possible using belts alone. This study sought to investigate the effects of incorporating a belt-integrated airbag (“airbelt”) into a rear seat occupant restraint system. Frontal impact sled tests were performed with a Hybrid III 50th percentile male anthropomorphic test device (ATD) seated in the right-rear passenger position of a 2004 mid-sized sedan buck. Tests were performed at 48 km/h (20 g, 100 ms acceleration pulse) and 29 km/h (11 g, 100 ms). The restraints consisted of a 3-point belt system with a cylindrical airbag integrated into the upper portion of the shoulder belt. The airbag was tapered in shape, with a maximum diameter of 16 cm (at the shoulder) that decreased to 4 cm at the mid-chest. A 2.5 kN force-limiter was integrated into the shoulder-belt retractor, and a 2.3 kN pretensioner was present in the out-board anchor of the lap belt. Six ATD tests (three 48 km/h and three 29 km/h) were performed with the airbelt system. These were compared to previous frontal-impact, rear seat ATD tests with a standard (not-force-limited, not-pretensioned) 3-point belt system and a progressive force-limiting (peak 4.4 kN), pretensioning (FL+PT) 3-point belt system. In the 48 km/h tests, the airbelt resulted in significantly less (p<0.05, two-tailed Student’s t-test) posterior displacement of the sternum towards the spine (chest deflection) than both the standard and FL+PT belt systems (airbelt: average 13±1.1 mm standard deviation; standard belt: 33±2.3 mm; FL+PT belt: 23±2.6 mm). This was consistent with a significant reduction in the peak upper shoulder belt force (airbelt: 2.7±0.1 kN; standard belt: 8.7±0.3 kN; FL+PT belt: 4.4±0.1 kN), and was accompanied by a small increase in forward motion of the head (airbelt: 54±0.4 cm; standard belt: 45±1.3 cm; FL+PT belt: 47±1.1 cm) The airbelt system

  19. Interfractional Uncertainty in the Treatment of Pancreatic Cancer With Radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jayachandran, Priya; Minn, A. Yuriko; Van Dam, Jacques; Norton, Jeffrey A.; Koong, Albert C.; Chang, Daniel T.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: To compare the interfractional variation in pancreatic tumor position using bony anatomy and implanted fiducial markers. Methods and Materials: Five consecutively treated patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma who received definitive intensity-modulated radiation therapy at Stanford University (Stanford, CA) underwent fiducial seed placement and treatment on the Varian Trilogy system (Varian, Palo Alto, CA) with respiratory gating. Daily orthogonal kilovoltage imaging was performed to verify patient positioning, and isocenter shifts were made initially to match bony anatomy. Next, a final shift to the fiducial seeds was made under fluoroscopic guidance to confirm the location of the pancreatic tumor during the respiratory gated phase. All shifts were measured along three axes, left (+)-right (-), anterior (-)-posterior (+), and superior (+)-inferior (-), and the overall interfractional tumor movement was calculated based on these values. Results: A total of 140 fractions were analyzed. The mean absolute shift to fiducial markers after shifting to bony anatomy was 1.6 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-9 mm), 1.8 mm (95th percentile, 7 mm; range, 0-13 mm), and 4.1 mm (95th percentile, 12 mm; range, 0-19 mm) in the anterior-posterior, left-right, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. The mean interfractional vector shift distance was 5.5 mm (95th percentile, 14.5 mm; range, 0-19.3 mm). In 28 of 140 fractions (20%) no fiducial shift was required after alignment to bony anatomy. Conclusions: There is substantial residual uncertainty after alignment to bony anatomy when radiating pancreatic tumors using respiratory gating. Bony anatomy matched tumor position in only 20% of the radiation treatments. If bony alignment is used in conjunction with respiratory gating without implanted fiducials, treatment margins need to account for this uncertainty.

  20. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher,…

  1. A method to assess the influence of individual player performance distribution on match outcome in team sports.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Sam; Gupta, Ritu; McIntosh, Sam

    2016-10-01

    This study developed a method to determine whether the distribution of individual player performances can be modelled to explain match outcome in team sports, using Australian Rules football as an example. Player-recorded values (converted to a percentage of team total) in 11 commonly reported performance indicators were obtained for all regular season matches played during the 2014 Australian Football League season, with team totals also recorded. Multiple features relating to heuristically determined percentiles for each performance indicator were then extracted for each team and match, along with the outcome (win/loss). A generalised estimating equation model comprising eight key features was developed, explaining match outcome at a median accuracy of 63.9% under 10-fold cross-validation. Lower 75th, 90th and 95th percentile values for team goals and higher 25th and 50th percentile values for disposals were linked with winning. Lower 95th and higher 25th percentile values for Inside 50s and Marks, respectively, were also important contributors. These results provide evidence supporting team strategies which aim to obtain an even spread of goal scorers in Australian Rules football. The method developed in this investigation could be used to quantify the importance of individual contributions to overall team performance in team sports.

  2. Adding Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orsini, Larry L.; Hudack, Lawrence R.; Zekan, Donald L.

    1999-01-01

    The value-added statement (VAS), relatively unknown in the United States, is used in financial reports by many European companies. Saint Bonaventure University (New York) has adapted a VAS to make it appropriate for not-for-profit universities by identifying stakeholder groups (students, faculty, administrators/support personnel, creditors, the…

  3. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  4. Redeeming Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitwell, Stuart C. A.

    1995-01-01

    Presents an essay on organizational transformation and the way successful marketing transformations redeem a sense of value. Focuses on challenges faced by not-for-profit institutions, current changes in the library profession, and implications of the American Library Association's Goal 2000. A sidebar summarizes an interview with the director of…

  5. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  6. SU-E-P-36: Evaluation of MLC Positioning Errors in Dynamic IMRT Treatments by Analyzing Dynalog Files

    SciTech Connect

    Olasolo, J; Pellejero, S; Gracia, M; Gallardo, N; Martin, M; Lozares, S; Maneru, F; Bragado, L; Miquelez, S; Rubio, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To assess the accuracy of MLC positioning in Varian linear accelerator, in dynamic IMRT technique, from the analysis of dynalog files generated by the MLC controller. Methods: In Clinac accelerators (pre-TrueBeam technology), control system has an approximately 50ms delay (one control cycle time). Then, the system compares the measured position to the planned position corresponding to the next control cycle. As it has been confirmed by Varian technical support, this effect causes that measured positions appear in dynalogs one cycle out of phase with respect to the planned positions. Around 9000 dynalogs have been analyzed, coming from the three linear accelerators of our center (one Trilogy and two Clinac 21EX) equipped with a Millennium 120 MLC. In order to compare our results to recent publications, leaf positioning errors (RMS and 95th percentile) are calculated with and without delay effect. Dynalogs have been analyzed using a in-house Matlab software. Results: The RMS errors were 0.341, 0.339 and 0.348mm for each Linac; being the average error 0.343 mm. The 95th percentiles of the error were 0.617, 0.607 and 0.625; with an average of 0.617mm. A recent multi-institution study carried out by Kerns et al. found a mean leaf RMS error of 0.32mm and a 95th percentile error value of 0.64mm.Without delay effect, mean leaf RMS errors obtained were 0.040, 0.042 and 0.038mm for each treatment machine; being the average 0.040mm. The 95th percentile error values obtained were 0.057, 0.058 and 0.054 mm, with an average of 0.056mm. Conclusion: Results obtained for the mean leaf RMS error and the mean 95th percentile were consistent with the multi-institution study. Calculated error statistics with delay effect are significantly larger due to the speed proportional and systematic leaf offset. Consequently it is proposed to correct this effect in dynalogs analysis to determine the MLC performance.

  7. Ratio of Monocytes to Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood Identifies Adults at Risk of Incident Tuberculosis Among HIV-Infected Adults Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Naidoo, Kogieleum; Abdool Karim, Quarraisha; Warimwe, George M.; McShane, Helen; Fletcher, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background. Eight decades ago, the ratio of monocytes to lymphocytes (hereafter, the “ML ratio”) was noted to affect outcomes of mycobacterial infection in rabbits. Recent transcriptomic studies support a role for relative proportions of myeloid and lymphoid transcripts in tuberculosis outcomes. The ML ratio in peripheral blood is known to be governed by hematopoietic stem cells with distinct biases. Methods. The predictive value of the baseline ML ratio was modeled in 2 prospective cohorts of HIV-infected adults starting cART in South Africa (primary cohort, 1862 participants; replication cohort, 345 participants). Incident tuberculosis was diagnosed with clinical, radiographic, and microbiologic methods per contemporary guidelines. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses and Cox proportional hazards modeling were conducted. Results. The incidence rate of tuberculosis differed significantly by baseline ML ratio: 32.61 (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.38–61.54), 16.36 (95% CI, 12.39–21.23), and 51.80 (95% CI, 23.10–101.71) per 1000 patient-years for ML ratios of less than the 5th percentile, between the 5th and 95th percentiles, and greater than the 95th percentile, respectively (P = .007). Neither monocyte counts nor lymphocyte counts alone were associated with tuberculosis. After adjustment for sex, World Health Organization human immunodeficiency virus disease stage, CD4+ T-cell counts, and previous history of tuberculosis, hazards of disease were significantly higher for patients with ML ratios of less than the 5th percentile or greater than the 95th percentile (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.47; 95% CI, 1.39–4.40; P = .002). Conclusions. The ML ratio may be a useful, readily available tool to stratify the risk of tuberculosis and suggests involvement of hematopoietic stem cell bias in tuberculosis pathogenesis. PMID:24041796

  8. Factors affecting the estimated probabilistic acute dietary exposure to captan from apple consumption.

    PubMed

    Zentai, A; Sali, J; Szabó, I J; Szeitzné-Szabó, M; Ambrus, A; Vásárhelyi, A

    2013-01-01

    The effect of the number of pesticide residue values below the LOQ/LOD of analytical methods, the variability of residues in individual fruits, mass of fruit units and the number of bootstrap iterations was studied on the probabilistically estimated acute exposure of consumers. The 4720 daily apple consumption data and the results of 1239 apple sample analyses for captan residues, performed within the Hungarian monitoring programme between 2005 and 2011, were used in this study as model matrix. Up to about 95th percentile exposure (µg/(kg bw·day)), simply multiplying each residue in composite samples with each consumption value gave similar estimates to those obtained with the complex procedure taking also into account the mass of and residues in individual fruits. However, the exposure above the 95th percentile calculated with the complex procedure gradually increased with increasing percentile level compared to the simple procedure. Including the high number of non-detects reduced the estimated exposure, which was the highest when only the residues measured in treated fruits were taken into account. The number of bootstrap iterations between 100 and 10,000 did not significantly affect the calculated exposure. The 99.99th percentile exposure amounted to 17.9% of the acute reference dose of 300 µg/(kg bw·day) for women of childbearing age.

  9. Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978. Public Law 95-523--Oct. 27, 1978. 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The Full Employment and Balanced Growth Act of 1978 is reproduced in its entirety. The act, public law 95-523, is designed to translate into practical reality the right of all Americans to full opportunity for useful paid employment at fair compensation rates; to assert the federal government's responsibility to use all programs and policies…

  10. Planning Value vs Earned Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    20 196 10 98 7 Postmortem 4 200 2 100 Les Dupaix - 17Earned Value Duration Charts Gantt (Bar) Chart Si lmp e Can show dependencies Tracking planned vs...7 7 4 2 Identify Requirements 78 86 39 43 4 6 96 103 43 3 Match Requirements 20 106 10 53 5 7 24 127 53 to Phases 4 Identify Risk Areas 20 126 10 63

  11. C-reactive protein and its relation to high blood pressure in overweight or obese children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Juliana Andreia F.; Medeiros, Carla Campos M.; Cardoso, Anajás da Silva; Gonzaga, Nathalia Costa; Ramos, Alessandra Teixeira; Ramos, André Luiz C.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and high blood pressure (BP) in overweight or obese children and adolescents. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 184 overweight or obese children and adolescents aged from two to 18 years old, from April, 2009 to April, 2010. The classification of nutritional status used the body mass index (BMI). Based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention curve, individuals were classified as: overweight (BMI between the 85th-95th percentiles), obesity (BMI between 95th-97th percentiles) and severe obesity (BMI >97th percentile). Abnormal values were considered for systolic BP (SBP) and/or diastolic (DBP) if ≥90th percentile of the BP curve recommended for children and adolescents in the V Brazilian Guidelines on Hypertension, for waist circumference (WC) if ≥90th percentile of the curve established by the National Cholesterol Education Program, and for high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) if >3mg/dL. To evaluate the association of inadequate values of CRP and the studied groups, chi-square test and analysis of variance were applied, using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 17.0 and adopting a significance level of 5%. RESULTS Among the evaluated sample, 66.3% were female, 63.5%, non-white, 64.1% had severe obesity, 78.3% had altered WC and 70.6% presented high BP. There was a significant association of CRP high levels with altered WC and BMI ≥97th percentile. In adolescents, high CRP was related to high SBP. CRP mean values were higher in individuals with elevated SBP. CONCLUSIONS Inadequate values of hs-CRP were associated with severe obesity and high SBP in the studied population. These markers can be used to identify children and adolescents at higher risk for developing atherosclerosis. PMID:24142315

  12. Valuing hope.

    PubMed

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  13. Valuing Stillbirths

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this paper we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women’s reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  14. Transcutaneous bilirubin nomograms in African neonates

    PubMed Central

    Mabogunje, Cecilia A.; Imosemi, Donald O.; Emokpae, Abieyuwa A.

    2017-01-01

    Background The use of transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) as a screening tool, based on relevant population-specific nomogram, or proxy for total serum bilirubin (TSB) levels in assessing the risk of subsequent hyperbilirubinemia is supported by several clinical guidelines on the management of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. However, while TcB has been found to significantly over-estimate TSB in neonates of African-American ancestry, with variations across TcB devices, no nomogram has been specifically reported for this racial group. This study therefore set out to develop TcB nomograms for healthy late pre-term and term black African neonates derived from two widely used bilirubinometers. Methods A retrospective analysis of 12,377 TcB measurements obtained from 6,373 neonates in the first postnatal week, over a period of 48 months using Bilichek and JM-103 bilirubinometers. TcB percentiles were computed from hour-specific TcB values and nomograms developed for each of the screening devices. Predictive ability of the 75th and 95th percentiles to detect significant hyperbilirubinemia was evaluated between 24–96 hours of age. The 95th percentile curve was compared with those from other populations. Results The velocity of TcB rise at 75th and 95th percentiles was generally higher with JM-103 than Bilichek. Both percentiles also peaked at higher TcB levels with JM-103. The 95th percentile for both instruments showed a downward trend as from approximately 114 hours. Both instruments had high negative predictive values across the selected time-epochs and lower discriminatory ability than reported in non-black populations. Conclusions The predictive utility of TcB as a potential screening tool varies across devices in black African neonates with or without risk of significant hyperbilirubinemia, and lower than levels reported in non-black populations. Equipment-specific nomograms should be considered for TcB monitoring in this racial population where TSB is not routinely

  15. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  16. [Spirographic reference values. Mathematical models and practical use (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Drouet, D; Kauffmann, F; Brille, D; Lellouch, J

    1980-01-01

    Various models predicting VC and FEV1 from age and height have been compared by both theoretical and practical approaches on several subgroups of a working population examined in 1960 and 1972. The models in which spirographic values are proportional to the cube of the height give a significantly worse fit of the data. All the other models give similar predicted values in practical terms, but cutoff points depend on the distributions of VC and FEV1 given age and height. Results show that these distributions are closer to a normal than to a lognormal distribution. The use of reference values and classical cutoffs is then discussed. Rather than using a single cutoff point, a more quantitative way is proposed to describe the subjects' functional status, for example by situating him in the percentile of the reference population. In screening, cutoff points cannot be choosen without specifying first the decision considered and the population concerned.

  17. Evaluation of maximal respiratory pressures in myasthenia gravis. Prognostic value.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Fernández, Carmen; Díez Tejedor, Exuperio; Frank Garcia, Ana; Pino, Jose María; Pérez Conde, Concepción; Barreiro Tella, Pablo

    2004-01-01

    We assess the prognosis of mild forms of myasthenia gravis (MG) by maximal respiratory pressures (MRP) and single fiber electromyography (SFEMG). Fifty MG patients (12 form I, 21 form IIa and 17 form IIb) are valued by MRP [maximal expiratory pressure (MEP) and maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP)] and SFEMG, and are followed-up clinically. We have found in form I patients developing form IIa and form IIa worsening to form IIb, MEP and MIP mean relative values significantly lower than the rest. Inversely, IIb form patients improving to IIa form display MIP mean relative values higher than the rest; no difference appears with MEP. A reduction under 50% of fifth-percentile implies clinical deterioration in forms I and IIa, while its surpassing in IIb form suggests a tendency to improvement. No evident differences are found by SFEMG. MRP allow the follow-up of MG patients and could warn us of a clinical prognosis.

  18. [Changes in heart rate variability after myocardial infarction. Value of Poincareé's diagram].

    PubMed

    Copie, X; Le Heuzey, J Y; Iliou, M C; Pousset, F; Lavergne, T; Guize, L

    1995-11-01

    The variability of the heart rate is reduced after myocardial infarction. It then progressively increases, to return to near normal values after several months. However, these changes in heart rate variability occur at the same time as slowing of the heart rate which makes interpretation difficult. Poincaré's diagram is constructed from a Holter recording plotting each RR interval against the preceding RR interval. The authors have developed a geometric approach to this diagram to evaluate parasympathetic tone for a given heart rate. By measuring the dispersion in height of the Poincaré's diagram, the authors evaluate the shor-term variability for a given RR interval. Two 24 hr Holter recordings were performed in 52 patients at one and two weeks after a myocardial infarction. The dispersion in the height of the Poincaré's diagrams was measured at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 90th percentiles of the total dispersion. The authors have shown an increase in the short-term variability of the shortest RR intervals (1th, 25th and 50th percentiles) which is not observed in the longer RR intervals (75th and 90th percentiles). In conclusion, theres is an increase in the heart rate variability at the shortest RR intervals. This suggests that the recovery of parasympathic tone after myocardial infarction occurs mainly at the fastest heart rates.

  19. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  20. 49 CFR 571.202 - Standard No. 202; Head restraints; Applicable at the manufacturers option until September 1, 2009.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... applicable. Each manufacturer must, upon request from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... 95th percentile adult male with an approved representation of a human, articulated neck structure,...

  1. Development and Implementation of the Aircrew Modified Equipment Leading to Increased Accommodation (AMELIA) Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    equipment (ALSS) was designed to accommodate the 5th through the 95th percentile size of the 1964 U.S. male population. Since a large portion of the...by naval aviation personnel was designed to fit the 5th through the 95th percentile size of the U.S. male population based on a 1964 anthropometric...apparent as equipment designed for the male body was issued to women. Temporary solutions to correct the sizing problems have had minimal effects

  2. A Probabilistic Risk Assessment for Deployed Military Personnel After the Implementation of the Leishmaniasis Control Program at Tallil Air Base, Iraq

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    from 0.00007 to 33.3 at the 95th percentile. Acute exposure to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos exceeded the RQ LOC. Subchronic RQs for...truck-mounted ULV and residual sprays ranged from 0.00008 to 32.8 at the 95th percentile. Subchronic exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin and chlorpyrifos ...exceeded the LOC. However, estimated exposures to lambda-cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, and chlorpyrifos did not exceed their respective no observed

  3. Values in Education and Education in Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halstead, J. Mark, Ed.; Taylor, Monica J., Ed.

    The major purpose of this book is to set out some of the key issues and debates relating to the importance of values in education and of education in values. After an introductory chapter about the concept of values and values education, part 1 provides a variety of perspectives on the values that underpin contemporary education. The introduction…

  4. Early Life Cognitive Abilities and Body Weight: Cross-Sectional Study of the Association of Inhibitory Control, Cognitive Flexibility, and Sustained Attention with BMI Percentiles in Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Wirt, Tamara; Schreiber, Anja; Kesztyüs, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jürgen M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of different cognitive abilities with children's body weight adjusted for further weight influencing sociodemographic, family, and lifestyle factors. Cross-sectional data of 498 primary school children (7.0 ± 0.6 years; 49.8% boys) participating in a health promotion programme in southwest Germany were used. Children performed a computer-based test battery (KiTAP) including an inhibitory control task (Go-Nogo paradigm), a cognitive flexibility task, and a sustained attention task. Height and weight were measured in a standardized manner and converted to BMI percentiles based on national standards. Sociodemographic features (migration background and parental education), family characteristics (parental body weight), and children's lifestyle (TV consumption, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and breakfast habits) were assessed via parental questionnaire. A hierarchical regression analysis revealed inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility to be significant cognitive predictors for children's body weight. There was no association concerning sustained attention. The findings suggest that especially cognitive abilities known as executive functions (inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility) are associated with children's body weight. Future longitudinal and intervention studies are necessary to investigate the directionality of the association and the potential of integrating cognitive training in obesity prevention strategies. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov DRKS00000494. PMID:25874122

  5. The influence of physique on dose conversion coefficients for idealised external photon exposures: a comparison of doses for Chinese male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile anthropometric parameters.

    PubMed

    Lv, Wei; He, Hengda; Liu, Qian

    2017-03-22

    For evaluating radiation risk, the construction of anthropomorphic computational phantoms with a variety of physiques can help reduce the uncertainty that is due to anatomical variation. In our previous work, three deformable Chinese reference male phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th percentile body mass indexes and body circumference physiques (DCRM-10, DCRM-50 and DCRM-90) were constructed to represent underweight, normal weight and overweight Chinese adult males, respectively. In the present study, the phantoms were updated by correcting the fat percentage to improve the precision of radiological dosimetry evaluations. The organ dose conversion coefficients for each phantom were calculated and compared for four idealized external photon exposures from 15 keV to 10 MeV, using the Monte Carlo method. The dosimetric results for the three deformable Chinese reference male phantom (DCRM) phantoms indicated that variations in physique can cause as much as a 20% difference in the organ dose conversion coefficients. When the photon energy was <50 keV, the discrepancy was greater. The irradiation geometry and organ position can also affect the difference in radiological dosimetry between individuals with different physiques. Hence, it is difficult to predict the conversion coefficients of the phantoms from the anthropometric parameters alone. Nevertheless, the complex organ conversion coefficients presented in this report will be helpful for evaluating the radiation risk for large groups of people with various physiques.

  6. Characteristics of nonylphenol and bisphenol A accumulation by fish and implications for ecological and human health.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Jiang, Ling-Ying; Kuo, Yi-Ling; Chen, Chung-Yu; Hsieh, Chia-Yi; Hung, Chung-Feng; Tien, Chien-Jung

    2015-01-01

    Fish populations constitute an important part of aquatic ecosystems. Thus, their accumulation of nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) may pose risks to ecosystems and human health. This study analyzed the concentrations of NP and BPA in four types of fishes (i.e., wild/farmed freshwater fishes and wild/farmed marine fishes). Wild freshwater fishes contained higher concentrations of NP and BPA than the other three types of fishes. The concentrations of NP in the wild freshwater fishes ranged from 1.01 to 277 μg/kg ww, with bioconcentration factors (BCFs) and biota-sediment accumulation factors (BSAFs) ranging from 74.0 to 2.60 × 10(4)L/kg and from 0.003 to 18.3, respectively. The wild freshwater fishes contained relatively low amounts of BPA, varying from ND to 25.2 μg/kg ww, with the BCFs and BSAFs ranging from 1.00 to 274L/kg and from 0.003 to 3.40, respectively. Five fish species particularly showed high BCFs and BSAFs, indicating that they could be an important source of NP for higher trophic levels, most likely resulting in ecological risks. The demersal fishes showed a greater ability to accumulate NP than the pelagic ones. The fact that the 95th percentile values of the risk quotient (RQ) for NP and BPA were higher than the acceptable threshold indicated that these two compounds would have adverse effects on aquatic organisms in Taiwanese rivers. The consumption of wild marine fishes had the highest 95th percentile values of hazard quotient (HQ) for NP and BPA among the four types of fishes, particularly for the population aged 0-3 years. However, the 95th percentile values of HQ for NP and BPA were all less than 1, suggesting that exposure to NP and BPA through fish consumption posed no remarkable risk to human health in Taiwan.

  7. Can the laboratory assay of protein C activity assist in monitoring the hemostatic function in pre-eclampsia?

    PubMed

    He, S; Bremme, K; Blombäck, M

    1999-04-01

    Published reports do not agree about whether protein C activity is non-significantly changed or decreased in a hypercoagulable state induced by pre-eclampsia without hemolysis-elevated liver enzyme/low platelet (HELLP) syndrome. In order to assess the relationship between this anticoagulant and enhanced hemostasis, levels of protein C activity, thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble fibrin, fibrin D-dimers and antithrombin were determined in 30 pre-eclampsia patients without the HELLP syndrome, in 22 normal pregnant women in gestational weeks 30-35, and in 13 non-pregnant controls. Levels of thrombin-antithrombin complexes, soluble fibrin and D-dimers increased (P < 0.05) whereas antithrombin decreased (P < 0.05) in patients with pre-eclampsia, compared with normal pregnant women. Levels of protein C did not differ significantly between patients with pre-eclampsia, normal pregnant women and controls (P > 0.05). The 5th and 95th percentiles of protein C levels in normal pregnant women were 0.53 and 1.30 U/ml, respectively; levels between these two values could be considered physiological. When the pre-eclampsia patients were subdivided according to these percentiles, none belonged to the subgroup with protein C < or = 5th percentile; 23% (seven of 30) fell into the subgroup with protein C > or = 95th percentile. Elevated levels of hypercoagulation markers were shown in the groups whose protein C fell within 5th-95th or > or = 95th percentiles (P < 0.05), compared with normal pregnant women. Concentrations of protein C and thrombin-antithrombin complex were significantly correlated (r = 0.69, P > 0.05) in patients with pre-eclampsia. In summary, in subjects with pre-eclampsia without the HELLP syndrome, protein C activity may be similar to that in normal pregnant women. However, such a 'physiological' anticoagulant level in association with the enhanced thrombin generation and fibrin formation does not necessarily reflect a physiological capability of coagulation

  8. Reference values in ovarian response to controlled ovarian stimulation throughout the reproductive period.

    PubMed

    La Marca, Antonio; Grisendi, Valentina; Spada, Elena; Argento, Cindy; Milani, Silvano; Plebani, Maddalena; Seracchioli, Renato; Volpe, Annibale

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The age-related decline in ovarian response to gonadotropins has been well known since the beginning of ovarian stimulation in IVF cycles and has been considered secondary to the age-related decline in ovarian reserve. The objective of this study was to establish reference values and to construct nomograms of ovarian response for any specific age to gonadotropins in IVF/ICSI cycles. We analyzed our database containing information on IVF cycles. According to inclusion and exclusion criteria, a total of 703 patients were selected. Among inclusion criteria, there were regular menstrual cycle, treatment with a long GnRH agonist protocol and starting follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) dose of at least 200 IU per day. To estimate the reference values of ovarian response, the CG-LMS method was used. A linear decline in the parameters of ovarian response with age was observed: the median number of oocytes decreases approximately by one every three years, and the median number of follicles >16 mm by one every eight years. The number of oocytes and growing follicles corresponding to the 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th and 95th centiles has been calculated. This study confirmed the well known negative relationship between ovarian response to FSH and female ageing and permitted the construction of nomograms of ovarian response.

  9. Rear impact responses of different sized adult Hybrid III dummies.

    PubMed

    DeRosia, John; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A

    2004-03-01

    Rear impact sled tests were conducted using 5th, 50th, and 95th percentile Hybrid III dummies to evaluate proposed injury criteria. Different head restraint height (750, 800 mm) and backset (0, 50, 100 mm) positions were used to determine axial and shear forces, bending moments, and injury criteria (NIC, N(ij), and N(km)). The time sequence to attain each parameter was also determined. Three events were identified in the response. Event I was coincident with the maximum rearward motion of the torso, Event II occurred at the time of the peak upper neck flexion moment, and Event III occurred at the time of maximum rearward motion of the head. Parameters such as backset, head restraint height, seat-head restraint interaction, and anthropometry affected impact responses. Head rotations increased with increasing backset and increasing head restraint height. However, N(ij) and N(km) did not exhibit such clear trends. The 50th percentile dummy responded with consistent injury criteria values (e.g., the magnitude of the injury criteria increased with backset increase or head restraint height decrease). However, the 5th and 95th percentile dummies did not demonstrate such trends. These findings underscore the need to include subject anthropometry in addition to seat and head restraint characteristics for better assessment of rear impact responses.

  10. Towards a biological monitoring guidance value for acrylamide.

    PubMed

    Sams, C; Jones, K; Warren, N; Cocker, J; Bell, S; Bull, P; Cain, M

    2015-08-19

    Acrylamide is classified as a potential human carcinogen and neurotoxicant. Biological monitoring is a useful tool for monitoring worker exposure. However, other sources of exposure to acrylamide (including cigarette smoke and diet) also need to be considered. This study has performed repeat measurements of the urinary mercapturic acids of acrylamide (AAMA) and its metabolite glycidamide (GAMA) and determined globin adducts in 20 production-plant workers at a UK acrylamide production facility. The relationship between biomarker levels and environmental monitoring data (air levels and hand washes) was investigated. Good correlations were found between all of the biomarkers (r(2)=0.86-0.91) and moderate correlations were found between the biomarkers and air levels (r(2) = 0.56-0.65). Our data show that urinary AAMA is a reliable biomarker of acrylamide exposure. Occupational hygiene data showed that acrylamide exposure at the company was well within the current UK Workplace Exposure Limit. The 90th percentile of urinary AAMA in non-smoking production-plant workers (537 μmol/mol creatinine (n = 59 samples)) is proposed as a possible biological monitoring guidance value. This 90th percentile increased to 798 μmol/mol if smokers were included (n = 72 samples). These values would be expected following an airborne exposure of less than 0.07 mg/m(3), well below the current UK workplace exposure limit of 0.3mg/m(3). Comparison of biomarker levels in non-occupationally exposed individuals suggests regional variations (between UK and Germany), possibly due to differences in diet.

  11. [Umbilical artery blood gases of term neonates at altitude].

    PubMed

    Villamonte, Wilfredo; Escalante, Darío; Yabar, Janet; Jerí, María; Peralta, Paola; Ochoa, Robert

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine the normal values of arterial blood gases in the umbilical artery of term infants at 3400 m altitude, a cross-sectional study was conducted. It was performed in the umbilical artery blood of 300 term infants, with an adequate gestational age and whose birth took place between January 2010 and December 2011 at the Essalud National Hospital Adolfo Guevara Velazco (Cusco, Peru). It was found that the average pH of healthy term infants was 7.33 ± 0.07; the values for percentiles 5 and 95 were 7.18 and 7.40 respectively. Tables with the 5th and 95th percentiles for pH, pO2, pCO2, SO2, p50, base excess and HCO3 of the umbilical artery of term infants at 3400 m altitude are provided.

  12. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  13. Population Pharmacokinetics of Isavuconazole in Subjects with Mild or Moderate Hepatic Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt-Hoffmann, Anne-Hortense; Mujais, Salim; Townsend, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Isavuconazole, administered as the prodrug isavuconazonium sulfate, was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for the treatment of adults with invasive aspergillosis and mucormycosis. The objective of this analysis was to develop a population pharmacokinetic model using NONMEM (version 7.2) for subjects with hepatic impairment, using intravenous and oral administration data from two hepatic studies, and to simulate concentration profiles to steady state, thus evaluating the need for dose adjustment. A two-compartment model with Weibull absorption function and first-order elimination process adequately described plasma isavuconazole concentrations. The population mean clearance in healthy subjects was 2.5 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 2.0 and 3.1). The mean clearance values for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment decreased approximately to 1.55 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.3 and 1.8 liters/h) and 1.32 liters/h (5th and 95th percentiles: 1.05 and 1.35), respectively. Peripheral volume of distribution increased with body mass index. Simulations of mean concentration time profiles to steady state showed less than a 2-fold increase in mean trough concentrations for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment compared with healthy subjects. After administration of the single dose, safety data for subjects with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were generally comparable to those for healthy subjects in both studies. Due to the <2-fold increase in trough concentrations and the established safety margin, dose adjustment appears to be unnecessary in subjects with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. PMID:26953193

  14. Quantifying the distribution of paste-void spacing of hardened cement paste using X-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yun, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Yeom; Choo, Jinhyun; Kang, Dong Hun

    2012-11-15

    The distribution of paste-void spacing in cement-based materials is an important feature related to the freeze-thaw durability of these materials, but its reliable estimation remains an unresolved problem. Herein, we evaluate the capability of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for reliable quantification of the distribution of paste-void spacing. Using X-ray CT images of three mortar specimens having different air-entrainment characteristics, we calculate the distributions of paste-void spacing of the specimens by applying previously suggested methods for deriving the exact spacing of air-void systems. This methodology is assessed by comparing the 95th percentile of the cumulative distribution function of the paste-void spacing with spacing factors computed by applying the linear-traverse method to 3D air-void system and reconstructing equivalent air-void distribution in 3D. Results show that the distributions of equivalent void diameter and paste-void spacing follow lognormal and normal distributions, respectively, and the ratios between the 95th percentile paste-void spacing value and the spacing factors reside within the ranges reported by previous numerical studies. This experimental finding indicates that the distribution of paste-void spacing quantified using X-ray CT has the potential to be the basis for a statistical assessment of the freeze-thaw durability of cement-based materials. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The paste-void spacing in 3D can be quantified by X-ray CT. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The distribution of the paste-void spacing follows normal distribution. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The spacing factor and 95th percentile of CDF of paste-void spacing are correlated.

  15. Modified STOP-Bang Tool for Stratifying Obstructive Sleep Apnea Risk in Adolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Combs, Daniel; Goodwin, James L.; Quan, Stuart F.; Morgan, Wayne J.; Parthasarathy, Sairam

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in children and diagnostic polysomnography is costly and not readily available in all areas. We developed a pediatric modification of a commonly used adult clinical prediction tool for stratifying the risk of OSA and the need for polysomnography. Methods A total of 312 children (age 9–17 years) from phase 2 of the Tucson Children’s Assessment of Sleep Apnea cohort study, with complete anthropomorphic data, parent questionnaires, and home polysomnograms were included. An adolescent modification of STOP-Bang (teen STOP-Bang) was developed and included snoring, tired, observed apnea, blood pressure ≥ 95th percentile, BMI > 95th percentile, academic problems, neck circumference >95th percentile for age, and male gender. An apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 1.5 events/hour was considered diagnostic of OSA. Results Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curves for parent-reported STOP-Bang scores were generated for teenage and pre-teen children. A STOP-Bang score of < 3 in teenagers was associated with a negative predictive value of 0.96. ROC curves were also generated based upon child-reported sexual maturity rating (SMR; n = 291). The ability of teen STOP-Bang to discriminate the presence or absence of OSA as measured by the AUC for children with SMR ≥ 4 (0.83; 95%CI 0.71–0.95) was better than children with SMR < 4 (0.63; 95%CI 0.46–0.81; p = 0.048). Conclusions In community dwelling adolescents, teen STOP-Bang may be useful in stratifying the risk of OSA. PMID:26581088

  16. Prevalence of abnormal findings when adopting new national and international Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for spirometry in the Finnish general population

    PubMed Central

    Kainu, Annette; Lindqvist, Ari; Sovijärvi, Anssi R. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background New Finnish (Kainu2015) and international Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI2012) reference values for spirometry were recently published. The aim of this study is to compare the interpretative consequences of adopting these new reference values with older, currently used Finnish reference values (Viljanen1982) in the general population of native Finns. Methods Two Finnish general population samples including 1,328 adults (45% males) aged 21–74 years were evaluated. Airway obstruction was defined as a reduced ratio of forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), possible restrictive pattern as reduced FVC, and decreased ventilatory capacity as reduced FEV1 below their respective 2.5th percentiles. The severity gradings of reduced lung function were also compared. Results Using the Kainu2015 reference values, the prevalence of airway obstruction in the population was 5.6%; using GLI2012 it was 4.0% and with Viljanen1982 it was 13.0%. Possible restrictive pattern was found in 4.2% using the Kainu2015 values, in 2.0% with GLI2012, and 7.9% with the Viljanen1982 values. The prevalence of decreased ventilatory capacity was 6.8, 4.0, and 13.3% with the Kainu2015, GLI2012 and Viljanen1982 values, respectively. Conclusions The application of the GLI2012 reference values underestimates the prevalence of abnormal spirometric findings in native Finns. The adoption of the Kainu2015 reference values reduces the prevalences of airways obstruction, decreased ventilatory capacity, and restrictive impairment by approximately 50%. Changing from the 2.5th percentile, the previously used lower limit of normal, to the 5th percentile recommended by the American Thoracic Society/European Respiratory Society will not increase the prevalence of abnormal findings in the implementation of spirometry reference values. PMID:27608270

  17. Extreme values in the Chinese and American stock markets based on detrended fluctuation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Guangxi; Zhang, Minjia

    2015-10-01

    This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of extreme values in the Chinese and American stock markets based on the detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) algorithm using the daily data of Shanghai composite index and Dow Jones Industrial Average. The empirical results indicate that the multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis (MF-DFA) method is more objective than the traditional percentile method. The range of extreme value of Dow Jones Industrial Average is smaller than that of Shanghai composite index, and the extreme value of Dow Jones Industrial Average is more time clustering. The extreme value of the Chinese or American stock markets is concentrated in 2008, which is consistent with the financial crisis in 2008. Moreover, we investigate whether extreme events affect the cross-correlation between the Chinese and American stock markets using multifractal detrended cross-correlation analysis algorithm. The results show that extreme events have nothing to do with the cross-correlation between the Chinese and American stock markets.

  18. Reference values of respiratory and peripheral muscle function in rats.

    PubMed

    Barreiro, E; Marín-Corral, J; Sanchez, F; Mielgo, V; Alvarez, F J; Gáldiz, J B; Gea, J

    2010-12-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a common systemic manifestation in several prevalent diseases. Predictive values are useful tools for the diagnosis and prognosis of diseases. In experimental animals, no reference values of muscle function evaluation have been so far reported. The objective was to obtain predictive values of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and grip strength measurements in healthy rats. In 70 healthy rats, MIP and grip strength were measured in vivo weekly for five consecutive weeks using non-invasive methodologies. Three ranges of rat body weights (250-299, 300-349 and 350-399 g) and lengths (37.0-41.0, 41.1-42.0 and 42.1-44.0 cm) were established. MIP and grip strength measurements falling within the ranges of weight 350-399 and 300-349 g and length 42.1-44.0 cm were significantly greater than values falling within 250-299 g and 37.0-41.0 cm ranges respectively. Specific weight- and length-percentile distributions for MIP and grip strength measurements were calculated. As significant direct correlations were observed between rat weights and lengths and either MIP or grip strength measurements, regression equations relating all these variables were also determined. Skeletal muscle dysfunction is frequently associated with highly prevalent conditions. The significant predictive equations described for both MIP and grip strength measurements will enable scientists to better estimate the respiratory and peripheral muscle dysfunctions of laboratory animals, especially when conducting follow-up and/or intervention investigations.

  19. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  20. The upper values of plasma creatine kinase of professional soccer players during the Brazilian National Championship.

    PubMed

    Lazarim, Fernanda L; Antunes-Neto, Joaquim M F; da Silva, Fernando O C; Nunes, Lázaro A S; Bassini-Cameron, Adriana; Cameron, Luiz-Cláudio; Alves, Armindo A; Brenzikofer, René; de Macedo, Denise Vaz

    2009-01-01

    The current schedule of the Brazilian Soccer Championship may not give players enough recovery time between games. This could increase the chances of muscle damage and impaired performance. We hypothesized that plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity could be a reliable indirect marker of muscle overload in soccer players, so we sought to identify the reference values for upper limits of CK activity during a real-life elite competition. This study analyzed changes in plasma CK activity in 128 professional soccer players at different times during the Brazilian Championship. The upper limits of the 97.5th and 90th percentiles determined for CK activity were 1.338U/L and 975U/L, respectively, markedly higher than values previously reported in the literature. We also evaluated a team monthly throughout the Championship. The upper limit of the 90th percentile, 975U/L, was taken as the decision limit. Six players showing plasma CK values higher than this were asked to decrease their training for 1 week. These players presented lower CK values afterwards. Only one player with a CK value higher than the decision limit (1800U/L 1 day before a game) played on the field and was unfortunately injured during the game. The CK activity in all the other players showed a significant decrease over the course of the Championship, and the values became more homogeneous at the end. The results presented here suggest that plasma CK upper limit values can be used as a practical alternative for early detection of muscle overload in competing soccer players.

  1. Atmospheric Dispersion Analysis using MACCS2

    SciTech Connect

    Glaser, R; Yang, J M

    2004-02-02

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Regulatory Guide 1.145 requires an evaluation of the offsite atmospheric dispersion coefficient, {Chi}/Q, as a part of the acceptance criteria in the accident analysis. In it, it requires in sequence computations of (1) the overall site 95th percentile {Chi}/Q, (2) the maximum of the sixteen sector 99.5th percentile {Chi}/Q, and (3) comparison and selection of the worst of the two values for reporting in the safety analysis report (SAR). In all cases, the site-specific meteorology and sector-specific site boundary distances are employed in the evaluation. There are sixteen 22.5-sectors, the nearest site boundary of which is determined within the 45-arc centered on each of the sixteen compass directions.

  2. Kinematics of U.S. Army helicopter crashes: 1979-85.

    PubMed

    Shanahan, D F; Shanahan, M O

    1989-02-01

    All records of U.S. Army Class A and B mishaps of four types of helicopters occurring from Oct. 1, 1979, through Sept. 30, 1985, were reviewed for terrain impact kinematic parameters. During this 6-year period, there were 298 mishaps involving 303 aircraft. Approximately 88% of these crashes were considered survivable. Mean and 95th percentile vertical velocity changes at the most severe terrain impact were similar for all aircraft types except the UH-60, which experienced significantly higher impact velocities (p less than 0.001). Overall 95th percentile vertical and horizontal velocity changes at the most severe terrain impact were 11.2 m.s-1 and 25.5 m.s-1, respectively. Both these values are substantially different from values cited in current design standards. Roll, pitch, and yaw attitudes at impact were similar for all aircraft and agreed with the values in current design standards, except that the distribution of roll angles was considerably wider. The importance of using current kinematic parameters for crashworthiness design standards and crash injury prevention is stressed. Recommendations are made to improve crashworthiness design standards.

  3. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  4. Healthy Eating in Out-of-School Time: The Promise and the Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiecha, Jean L.; Hall, Georgia; Gannett, Ellen; Roth, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    More than 30 percent of American children are either overweight or obese, with a body mass index (BMI) in the 85th percentile or above. Although prevalence varies by age, sex, and ethnicity, all groups are affected. Risk of serious health problems increases with increasing BMI. Childhood obesity, characterized by BMI in the 95th percentile or…

  5. Cross-sectional reference values for mid-upper arm circumference, triceps skinfold thickness and arm fat area of Turkish children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, Ahmet; Budak, Nurten; Cicek, Betul; Mazicioglu, M Mumtaz; Bayram, Fahri; Kurtoglu, Selim

    2009-06-01

    The aim of the study was to establish cross-sectional reference values for the mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC), triceps skinfold thickness (TSF) and arm fat area (AFA) of Turkish children and adolescents. In total 5,553 students aged between 6 and 17 years were selected by a multistage sampling method from schools representing city centre, rural and urban areas of Kayseri, Central Anatolia. The MUAC and TSF were measured, and the arm muscle area, arm area, AFA and fat percentage (%) were calculated. The LMS method was employed to calculate the MUAC, TSF and AFA curve parameters. The MUAC, TSF, AFA and fat percentage in each age group were significantly higher in girls than in boys. In boys, the TSF 50th percentile ranged from 7.6 mm at 17 years to 9.0 mm at 11 years; whereas in girls this ranged from 9.4 mm at 6 years to 14.6 mm at 17 years. The MUAC 50th percentile ranged from 17.0 to 23.6 cm in boys, and from 15.6 cm to 20.9 cm in girls. The AFA 50th percentile measurements ranged from 4.5 cm at 6 years to 5.8 cm at 12-14 years in boys; and ranged from 7.2 cm at 6 years to 14.8 cm at 17 years in girls. The percentile distribution was more disperse towards higher TSF and AFA values in boys than in girls.

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. Values: A Symposium Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, T. A., Ed.

    This publication brings together a set of four papers prepared for a symposium on values at the 1972 annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association. The first paper, by Fred N. Kerlinger, establishes a rationale for values research. The discussion focuses on the definition of values, relationship between values and attitudes,…

  8. Values and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  9. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  10. Physical fitness normative values for 6-18-year-old Greek boys and girls, using the empirical distribution and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method.

    PubMed

    Tambalis, Konstantinos D; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Psarra, Glykeria; Daskalakis, Stelios; Kavouras, Stavros A; Geladas, Nickos; Tokmakidis, Savas; Sidossis, Labros S

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the this study was to establish age- and gender-specific physical fitness normative values and to compare percentiles and Z scores values in a large, nationwide sample of Greek children aged 6-18 years. From March 2014 to May 2014, a total of 424,328 boys and girls aged 6-18 years who attended school in Greece were enrolled. The studied sample was representative, in terms of age-sex distribution and geographical region. Physical fitness tests (i.e. 20 m shuttle run test (SRT), standing long jump, sit and reach, sit-ups, and 10 × 5 m SRT) were performed and used to calculate normative values, using the percentiles of the empirical distributions and the lambda, mu, and sigma statistical method. Normative values were presented as tabulated percentiles for five health-related fitness tests based on a large data set comprising 424,328 test performances. Boys typically scored higher than girls on cardiovascular endurance, muscular strength, muscular endurance, and speed/agility, but lower on flexibility (all p values <0.001). Older boys and girls had better performances than younger ones (p < 0.001). Physical fitness tests' performances tended to peak at around the age of 15 years in both sexes. The presented population-based data are the most up-to-date sex- and age-values for the health-related fitness of children and adolescents in Greece and can be used as standard values for fitness screening and surveillance systems and for comparisons among the same health-related fitness scores of children from other countries similar to Greece. Schools need to make efforts to improve the fitness level of the schoolchildren through the physical education curriculum to prevent cardiovascular risk.

  11. Probabilistic health risk assessment for ingestion of seafood farmed in arsenic contaminated groundwater in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liang, Ching-Ping; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Chen, Jui-Sheng; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Lee, Jin-Jing; Liu, Chen-Wuing

    2013-08-01

    Seafood farmed in arsenic (As)-contaminated areas is a major exposure pathway for the ingestion of inorganic As by individuals in the southwestern part of Taiwan. This study presents a probabilistic risk assessment using limited data for inorganic As intake through the consumption of the seafood by local residents in these areas. The As content and the consumption rate are both treated as probability distributions, taking into account the variability of the amount in the seafood and individual consumption habits. The Monte Carlo simulation technique is utilized to conduct an assessment of exposure due to the daily intake of inorganic As from As-contaminated seafood. Exposure is evaluated according to the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) established by the FAO/WHO and the target risk based on the US Environmental Protection Agency guidelines. The assessment results show that inorganic As intake from five types of fish (excluding mullet) and shellfish fall below the PTWI threshold values for the 95th percentiles, but exceed the target cancer risk of 10(-6). The predicted 95th percentile for inorganic As intake and lifetime cancer risks obtained in the study are both markedly higher than those obtained in previous studies in which the consumption rate of seafood considered is a deterministic value. This study demonstrates the importance of the individual variability of seafood consumption when evaluating a high exposure sub-group of the population who eat higher amounts of fish and shellfish than the average Taiwanese.

  12. p21 Expression and DNA ploidy in chemically-induced transitional cell carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, S.W.

    1987-01-01

    Occupational and environmental exposure to chemical carcinogens and the incidence of bladder carcinoma suggest that biochemical indicators for individual risk, and early detection would be beneficial in facilitating timely intervention and cancer management. Further, such objective measures may provide a quantitative basis for determination of the biological potential of tumors and the development of end point markers in chemical risk assessment. In this study quantitative measures for biochemical alterations were developed for in situ measurement of the ras oncoprotein, p21, and DNA ploidy in tissue sections. These assays were then applied to an animal model in which transitional cell carcinoma was induced with N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxybutyl) nitrosamine, which primarily induced low grade tumors. Three measures of DNA ploidy were utilized: (A) 95th percentile of cellular DNA content (C value), (B) percent of cells with a DNA complement greater than 5.0C, and (C) mode. The 95th percentile C value was able to delineate normal and hyperplastic tissues from tumor tissues. The percent of cells with a DNA content greater than 5.0C was capable of differentiating invasive lesions from noninvasive lesions.

  13. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  14. Values in the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wees, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    Teaching for values instead of knowledge would significantly change education. Could the psychosocial values of goodness, beauty, search for truth, social organization, and economics be rank ordered? Can and how should such life-survival values as health, sex, aggression and self-defense, language, and love be taught in school? (Author/SB)

  15. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  16. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  17. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  18. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  19. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  20. Economics of place-based monitoring under the safe drinking water act, part III: performance evaluation of place-based monitoring strategies.

    PubMed

    Brands, Edwin; Rajagopal, R

    2008-08-01

    The goals of environmental legislation and associated regulations are to protect public health, natural resources, and ecosystems. In this context, monitoring programs should provide timely and relevant information so that the regulatory community can implement legislation in a cost-effective and efficient manner. The Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) of 1974 attempts to ensure that public water systems (PWSs) supply safe water to its consumers. As is the case with many other federal environmental statutes, SDWA monitoring has been implemented in relatively uniform fashion across the USA. In this three part series, we present over 30 years of evidence to demonstrate unique patterns in water quality contaminants over space and time, develop alternative place-based monitoring approaches that exploit such patterns, and evaluate the economic performance of such approaches to current monitoring practice. Part III: Place-based (PBA) and current SDWA monitoring approaches were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from 19 water systems and evaluated based on the following criteria: percent of total detections, percent detections above threshold values (e.g. 20, 50, 90% of MCL), and cost. The PBA outperformed the current SDWA monitoring requirements in terms of total detections, missed only a small proportion of detections below the MCL, and captured all detections above 50% of the MCL. Essentially the same information obtained from current compliance monitoring requirements can be gained at approximately one-eighth the cost by implementing the PBA. Temporal sampling strategies were implemented on test datasets (1995-2001) from four water systems and evaluated by the following criteria: parameter estimation, percent deviation from "true" 90th, 95th, and 99th percentiles, and number of samples versus accuracy of the estimate. Non event-based (NEB) strategies were superior in estimating percentiles 1-50, but underestimated the higher percentiles. Event-based strategies were

  1. The Influence of the Reference Values on the Interpretation of Lung Function in Children: Comparison of Global Lung Initiative 2012 and Polish 1998 Reference Values.

    PubMed

    Peradzyńska, Joanna; Krenke, Katarzyna; Szylling, Anna; Krenke, Rafał; Kulus, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation of spirometry strongly depends on the applied predicted values. New Global Lung Initiative (GLI) reference values have recently been published but their influence on spirometry interpretation in children has not been widely evaluated. The aim of the study was to compare the interpretation of spirometry using GLI-2012 vs. Polish-1998 reference values. Spirometry results of 315 Caucasian children aged 4-18 were analyzed. Airway obstruction was defined as FEV1/FVCpercentile, -1,64 standard deviation), while restrictive ventilatory pattern as FVCLLN. The findings were that FEV1 and FVC expressed as GLI-2012 or Polish-1998 z-scores differed significantly (p<0.05). The mean FEV1 z-score was -0.68±1.25 vs. -0.13±1.70 and the mean FVC was -0.34±1.08 vs. 0.30±1.15 for GLI-2012 and Polish-1998, respectively. There was no difference for FEV1/FVC z-scores. Obstructive and restrictive ventilatory patterns were diagnosed in 20.3% and 7.6% children using GLI-2012 values compared with 17.5% and 3.8% when using Polish-1998 reference values, respectively. In conclusion, the use of GLI-2012 reference values in the population of Polish children increases the number of detected lung function abnormalities compared with Polish-1998 reference values.

  2. Neck Circumference to Assess Obesity in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Kondolot, Meda; Horoz, Duygu; Poyrazoğlu, Serpil; Borlu, Arda; Öztürk, Ahmet; Kurtoğlu, Selim; Mazıcıoğlu, Mümtaz M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Limited information is available about the use of neck circumference (NC) to assess obesity in preschool children. This study aims to provide NC percentiles and determine the cut-off levels of NC as a measure to assess obesity in preschool children. Methods: The data were obtained from the Anthropometry of Turkish Children aged 0-6 years (ATCA-06) study database. A total of 21 family health centers were chosen and children aged 2-6 years old from all socioeconomic levels were randomly selected from the lists of district midwives; 1766 children (874 male and 892 female; 88.3% of sample size) were included in the study. The smoothed centile curves of NC were constructed by the LMS method. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to calculate cut-off points for NC using body mass index ≥95th percentile. Results: Mean NC was greater in males than females. Cut-off values for obesity were found to be statistically significant in both genders other than 3 years old boys. The NC percentiles of Turkish preschool children were slightly greater than those of other European preschool children in both genders. This difference disappeared around the adiposity rebound period. The 97th percentile values for Turkish preschool children continue to be greater in both genders. Conclusion: NC may be useful to define obesity in preschool children. Since ethnic and various other factors may have a role in incidence of obesity, local reference data are important in assessment of obesity. PMID:27660068

  3. Extracellular water across the adult lifespan: reference values for adults.

    PubMed

    Silva, Analiza M; Wang, Jack; Pierson, Richard N; Wang, Zimian; Spivack, John; Allison, David B; Heymsfield, Steven B; Sardinha, Luis B; Heshka, Stanley

    2007-05-01

    Extracellular water (ECW) is a large and clinically important body compartment that varies widely in volume both in health and disease. Interpretation of ECW measurements in the clinical setting requires consideration of potential influencing factors such as age, race, sex and other variables that influence fluid status. An important gap in physiological research is a lack of normative ECW values against which to reference perturbations in fluid homeostasis. The current study's aim was to develop conditional quantile equations for ECW based on weight, height, age, sex and race using a large (n = 1538, 854 females and 684 males) healthy adult multi-ethnic (African American, Asian, European American, Hispanic) sample. ECW was derived from total body water and potassium measured by isotope dilution and whole-body 40K counting, respectively. Quantile regression methods were used to identify five percentile levels (10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th). Weight and height were significant variables at each quantile in both males and females; age made a significant contribution in the male but not the female sample. These regression equations provide ECW quantile reference values based on a large multi-ethnic adult population that should not only prove useful in clinical settings and physiological research, but serve as a model approach for developing body composition normative ranges.

  4. ECG is an inefficient screening-tool for left ventricular hypertrophy in normotensive African children population

    PubMed Central

    Creta, Antonio; Campanale, Cosimo Marco; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a marker of pediatric hypertension and predicts development of cardiovascular events. Electrocardiography (ECG) screening is used in pediatrics to detect LVH thanks to major accessibility, reproducibility and easy to use compared to transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), that remains the standard technique. Several diseases were previously investigated, but no data exists regarding our study population. The aim of our study was to evaluate the relationship between electrocardiographic and echocardiographic criteria of LVH in normotensive African children. Methods We studied 313 children (mean age 7,8 ± 3 yo), in north-Madagascar. They underwent ECG and TTE. Sokolow-Lyon index was calculated to identify ECG-LVH (>35 mm). Left ventricle mass (LVM) with TTE was calculated and indexed by height2.7 (LVMI2.7) and weight (LVMIw). We report the prevalence of TTE-LVH using three methods: (1) calculating percentiles age- and sex- specific with values >95th percentile identifying LVH; (2) LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7; (3) LVMIw >3.4 g/weight. Results 40 (13%) children showed LVMI values >95th percentile, 24 children (8%) an LVMI2.7 >51 g/m2.7 while 19 children (6%) an LVMIw >3.4 g/kg. LVH-ECG by Sokolow-Lyon index was present in five, three and three children respectively, with poor values of sensitivity (ranging from 13 to 16%), positive predictive value (from 11 to 18%) and high values of specificity (up to 92%). The effects of anthropometrics parameters on Sokolow-Lyon were analyzed and showed poor correlation. Conclusion ECG is a poor screening test for detecting LVH in children. In clinical practice, TTE remains the only tool to be used to exclude LVH. PMID:27651998

  5. What Should Be the Energy Policy of the United States? National Debate Topic for High Schools, 1978-1979. Senate, 95th Congress, 2d Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Congressional Research Service.

    This collection of excerpts and bibliographies address the three debate propositions selected as subjects of the 1978-1979 debate question for high schools selected by the National University Extension Service, "What should be the energy policy of the United States?" The collection is divided into three parts each addressing one of the…

  6. Nutrition Education, Part One. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Domestic Marketing, Consumer Relations, and Nutrition of the Committee on Agriculture, House of Representatives, 95th Congress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Agriculture.

    These meetings of the House Subcommittee on Agriculture were held to discuss the state of public health and its relation to good nutrition. The education of consumers was the prime focus, and witnesses before the committee were nutrition experts and consumers, who expressed their concerns, demands, and needs. (JD)

  7. Urinary Concentrations of Dialkylphosphate Metabolites of Organophosphorus Pesticides: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2004

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Dana Boyd; Wong, Lee-Yang; Bravo, Roberto; Weerasekera, Gayanga; Odetokun, Martins; Restrepo, Paula; Kim, Do-Gyun; Fernandez, Carolina; Whitehead, Ralph D.; Perez, Jose; Gallegos, Maribel; Williams, Bryan L.; Needham, Larry L.

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides were among the first pesticides that EPA reevaluated as part of the Food Quality Protection Act of 1996. Our goal was to assess exposure to OP insecticides in the U.S. general population over a six-year period. We analyzed 7,456 urine samples collected as part of three two-year cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1999–2004. We measured six dialkylphosphate metabolites of OP pesticides to assess OP pesticide exposure. In NHANES 2003–2004, dimethylthiophosphate was detected most frequently with median and 95th percentile concentrations of 2.03 and 35.3 μg/L, respectively. Adolescents were two to three times more likely to have diethylphosphate concentrations above the 95th percentile estimate of 15.5 μg/L than adults and senior adults. Conversely, for dimethyldithiophosphate, senior adults were 3.8 times and 1.8 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than adults and adolescents, respectively, while adults were 2.1 times more likely to be above the 95th percentile than the adolescents. Our data indicate that the most vulnerable segments of our population—children and older adults—have higher exposures to OP pesticides than other population segments. However, according to DAP urinary metabolite data, exposures to OP pesticides have declined during the last six years at both the median and 95th percentile levels. PMID:21909292

  8. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  9. The Value of the P Value.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2015-12-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research.

  10. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  11. Values Take Center Stage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    of mind? Think about the many other circumstances where your mood, outlook, and effectiveness are influenced by values that may be unconscious and...a leader’s values. Aspiring leaders everywhere identify role models, including Abraham Lincoln, Nelson Mandela , Mahatma Gandhi, George Washington...and others whose strongly held and effectively communicated values contrib- uted to their profound impact. While there are many differ- ent

  12. Deodorants, value, and performance.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, L N

    1997-11-01

    For the health-care market, like the deodorant market, the message is clear: Add value or your product will not be competitive. For physicians of all specialties, the best way to add value is to measure and improve performance. Performance measurement is critical to improvement in health care. Without measurement, there can be no improvement in quality. Without improvement in quality, there is no added value. Oncologists can take at least two actions to add value for their health plans: (1) measure practice performance and demonstrate a quality improvement; and (2) become the personal-care physician for cancer patients.

  13. Measuring Nursing Care Value.

    PubMed

    Welton, John M; Harper, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    The value of nursing care as well as the contribution of individual nurses to clinical outcomes has been difficult to measure and evaluate. Existing health care financial models hide the contribution of nurses; therefore, the link between the cost and quality o nursing care is unknown. New data and methods are needed to articulate the added value of nurses to patient care. The final results and recommendations of an expert workgroup tasked with defining and measuring nursing care value, including a data model to allow extraction of key information from electronic health records to measure nursing care value, are described. A set of new analytic metrics are proposed.

  14. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  15. High coking value pitch

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  16. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  17. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  18. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  19. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  20. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  1. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  2. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  3. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) cut-off values and the metabolic syndrome in a general adult population: effect of gender and age: EPIRCE cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance has been associated with metabolic and hemodynamic alterations and higher cardio metabolic risk. There is great variability in the threshold homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels to define insulin resistance. The purpose of this study was to describe the influence of age and gender in the estimation of HOMA-IR optimal cut-off values to identify subjects with higher cardio metabolic risk in a general adult population. Methods It included 2459 adults (range 20–92 years, 58.4% women) in a random Spanish population sample. As an accurate indicator of cardio metabolic risk, Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), both by International Diabetes Federation criteria and by Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, were used. The effect of age was analyzed in individuals with and without diabetes mellitus separately. ROC regression methodology was used to evaluate the effect of age on HOMA-IR performance in classifying cardio metabolic risk. Results In Spanish population the threshold value of HOMA-IR drops from 3.46 using 90th percentile criteria to 2.05 taking into account of MetS components. In non-diabetic women, but no in men, we found a significant non-linear effect of age on the accuracy of HOMA-IR. In non-diabetic men, the cut-off values were 1.85. All values are between 70th-75th percentiles of HOMA-IR levels in adult Spanish population. Conclusions The consideration of the cardio metabolic risk to establish the cut-off points of HOMA-IR, to define insulin resistance instead of using a percentile of the population distribution, would increase its clinical utility in identifying those patients in whom the presence of multiple metabolic risk factors imparts an increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk. The threshold levels must be modified by age in non-diabetic women. PMID:24131857

  4. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  5. 4-Second Exercise Test: Reference Values for Ages 18–81 Years

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Claudio Gil; de Castro, Claudia Lucia Barros; Franca, João Felipe; Ramos, Plínio Santos

    2015-01-01

    Background Physiological reflexes modulated primarily by the vagus nerve allow the heart to decelerate and accelerate rapidly after a deep inspiration followed by rapid movement of the limbs. This is the physiological and pharmacologically validated basis for the 4-s exercise test (4sET) used to assess the vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. Objective To present reference data for 4sET in healthy adults. Methods After applying strict clinical inclusion/exclusion criteria, 1,605 healthy adults (61% men) aged between 18 and 81 years subjected to 4sET were evaluated between 1994 and 2014. Using 4sET, the cardiac vagal index (CVI) was obtained by calculating the ratio between the duration of two RR intervals in the electrocardiogram: 1) after a 4-s rapid and deep breath and immediately before pedaling and 2) at the end of a rapid and resistance-free 4-s pedaling exercise. Results CVI varied inversely with age (r = -0.33, p < 0.01), and the intercepts and slopes of the linear regressions between CVI and age were similar for men and women (p > 0.05). Considering the heteroscedasticity and the asymmetry of the distribution of the CVI values according to age, we chose to express the reference values in percentiles for eight age groups (years): 18–30, 31–40, 41–45, 46–50, 51–55, 56–60, 61–65, and 66+, obtaining progressively lower median CVI values ranging from 1.63 to 1.24. Conclusion The availability of CVI percentiles for different age groups should promote the clinical use of 4sET, which is a simple and safe procedure for the evaluation of vagal modulation of cardiac chronotropism. PMID:25830712

  6. Centile Curves and Reference Values for Height, Body Mass, Body Mass Index and Waist Circumference of Peruvian Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Maia, José

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4–17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers. PMID:25761169

  7. Centile curves and reference values for height, body mass, body mass index and waist circumference of Peruvian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Alcibíades; Freitas, Duarte; Pan, Huiqi; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Maia, José

    2015-03-09

    This study aimed to provide height, body mass, BMI and waist circumference (WC) growth centile charts for school-children, aged 4-17 years, from central Peru, and to compare Peruvian data with North-American and Argentinean references. The sample consisted of 8753 children and adolescents (4130 boys and 4623 girls) aged 4 to 17 years, from four Peruvian cities: Barranco, La Merced, San Ramón and Junín. Height, body mass and WC were measured according to standardized techniques. Centile curves for height, body mass, BMI and WC were obtained separately for boys and girls using the LMS method. Student t-tests were used to compare mean values. Overall boys have higher median heights than girls, and the 50th percentile for body mass increases curvilinearly from 4 years of age onwards. In boys, the BMI and WC 50th percentiles increase linearly and in girls, the increase presents a curvilinear pattern. Peruvian children are shorter, lighter and have higher BMI than their counterparts in the U.S. and Argentina; in contrast, age and sex-specific WC values are lower. Height, body mass and WC of Peruvian children increased with age and variability was higher at older ages. The growth patterns for height, body mass, BMI and WC among Peruvian children were similar to those observed in North-American and Argentinean peers.

  8. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  9. Quantity and quantity value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Luca; Giordani, Alessandro

    2012-12-01

    The concept system around ‘quantity’ and ‘quantity value’ is fundamental for measurement science, but some very basic issues are still open on such concepts and their relation. This paper argues that quantity values are in fact individual quantities, and that a complementarity exists between measurands and quantity values. This proposal is grounded on the analysis of three basic ‘equality’ relations: (i) between quantities, (ii) between quantity values and (iii) between quantities and quantity values. A consistent characterization of such concepts is obtained, which is then generalized to ‘property’ and ‘property value’. This analysis also throws some light on the elusive concept of magnitude. A preliminary version of this paper was presented and discussed at the Joint International IMEKO TC1, TC7 & TC13 Symposium, 31 August to 2 September 2011, Jena, Germany.

  10. Value of Information References

    SciTech Connect

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  11. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  12. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    PubMed

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation.

  13. Circulation patterns related to debris-flow triggering in the Zermatt valley in current and future climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van den Heuvel, Floor; Goyette, Stéphane; Rahman, Kazi; Stoffel, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to investigate the types of large-scale meteorological situations that are conducive to the precipitation and temperature conditions most likely to trigger debris flows in the Zermatt valley, Switzerland, under current and future climates. A two-dimensional Bayesian probability calculation was applied to take account of uncertainties in debris-flow triggering. Precipitation quantities exceeding the 95th percentile of daily precipitation amounts were found to have a significantly higher probability to coincide with observed debris flows. A different relationship exists for extreme temperatures, however. Southerly air flows, weak horizontal pressure gradients over Europe, and westerly flows are mostly associated with observed debris flows and 95th precipitation percentile exceedances. These principal flow directions are well represented in the regional climate model (RCM) HIRHAM control simulations for events exceeding the 95th precipitation percentile and the 30th temperature percentile. Under the IPCC A2 emission scenario, westerly and southerly flows are mostly responsible for these precipitation and temperature conditions under the hypothesis of slow adaptation to climate change (HS1/HC1). Under the hypothesis of rapid adaptation to climate change (HS1/HS1), southerly flows and weak horizontal pressure gradients are likely to gain in importance. In both scenarios for the future, southeasterly flows are among the principal flow directions responsible for the joint exceedance of the 95th precipitation percentile and the 30th temperature percentile, while these were absent in observations and the control simulation.

  14. Critical Serum Creatinine Values in Very Preterm Newborns

    PubMed Central

    Bruel, Alexandra; Rozé, Jean-Christophe; Flamant, Cyril; Simeoni, Umberto; Roussey-Kesler, Gwenaëlle; Allain-Launay, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Background Renal failure in neonates is associated with an increased risk of mortality and morbidity. But critical values are not known. Objective To define critical values for serum creatinine levels by gestational age in preterm infants, as a predictive factor for mortality and morbidity. Study Design This was a retrospective study of all preterm infants born before 33 weeks of gestational age, hospitalized in Nantes University Hospital NICU between 2003 and 2009, with serum creatinine levels measured between postnatal days 3 to 30. Children were retrospectively randomized into either training or validation set. Critical creatinine values were defined within the training set as the 90th percentile values of highest serum creatinine (HSCr) in infants with optimal neurodevelopmental at two years of age. The relationship between these critical creatinine values and neonatal mortality, and non-optimal neural development at two years, was then assessed in the validation set. Results and Conclusion The analysis involved a total of 1,461 infants (gestational ages of 24-27 weeks (n=322), 28-29 weeks (n=336), and 30-32 weeks (803)), and 14,721 creatinine assessments. The critical values determined in the training set (n=485) were 1.6, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/dL for each gestational age group, respectively. In the validation set (n=976), a serum creatinine level above the critical value was significantly associated with neonatal mortality (Odds ratio: 8.55 (95% confidence interval: 4.23-17.28); p<0.01) after adjusting for known renal failure risk factors, and with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome at two years (odds ratio: 2.06 (95% confidence interval: 1.26-3.36); p=0.004) before adjustment. Creatinine values greater than 1.6, 1.1 and 1.0 mg/dL respectively at 24-27, 28-29, 30-32 weeks of gestation were associated with mortality before and after adjustment for risk factors, and with non-optimal neurodevelopmental outcome, before adjustment. PMID:24386431

  15. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  16. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  17. European risk assessment of LAS in agricultural soil revisited: species sensitivity distribution and risk estimates.

    PubMed

    Jensen, John; Smith, Stephen R; Krogh, Paul Henning; Versteeg, Donald J; Temara, Ali

    2007-10-01

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is used at a rate of approximately 430,000 tons/y in Western Europe, mainly in laundry detergents. It is present in sewage sludge (70-5,600 mg/kg; 5-95th percentile) because of its high usage per capita, its sorption and precipitation in primary settlers, and its lack of degradation in anaerobic digesters. Immediately after amendment, calculated and measured concentrations are <1 to 60 mg LAS/kg soil. LAS biodegrades rapidly in soil with primary and ultimate half-lives of up to 7 and 30 days, respectively. Calculated residual concentrations after the averaging time (30 days) are 0.24-18 mg LAS/kg soil. The long-term ecotoxicity to soil microbiota is relatively low (EC10 >or=26 mg sludge-associated LAS/kg soil). An extensive review of the invertebrate and plant ecotoxicological data, combined with a probabilistic assessment approach, led to a PNEC value of 35 mg LAS/kg soil, i.e. the 5th percentile (HC5) of the species sensitivity distribution (lognormal distribution of the EC10 and NOEC values). Risk ratios were identified to fall within a range of 0.01 (median LAS concentration in sludge) to 0.1 (95th percentile) and always below 0.5 (maximum LAS concentration measured in sludge) according to various scenarios covering different factors such as local sewage influent concentration, water hardness, and sewage sludge stabilisation process. Based on the present information, it can be concluded that LAS does not represent an ecological risk in Western Europe when applied via normal sludge amendment to agricultural soil.

  18. Consumer exposure to substances in plastic packaging. I. Assessment of the contribution of styrene from yogurt pots.

    PubMed

    Vitrac, Olivier; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2007-02-01

    A generic methodology for the assessment of consumer exposure to substances migrating from packaging materials into foodstuffs during storage is presented. Consumer exposure at the level of individual households is derived from the probabilistic modeling of the contamination of all packed food product units (e.g. yogurt pot, milk bottle, etc.) consumed by a given household over 1 year. Exposure of a given population is estimated by gathering the exposure distributions of individual households to suitable weights (conveniently, household sizes). Calculations are made by combining (i) an efficient resolution of migration models and (ii) a methodology utilizing different sources of uncertainty and variability. The full procedure was applied to the assessment of consumer exposure to styrene from yogurt pots based on yearly purchase data of more than 5400 households in France (about 2 million yogurt pots) and an initial concentration c0 of styrene in yogurt pot walls, which is assumed to be normally distributed with an average value of 500 mg kg-1 and a standard deviation of 150 mg kg-1. Results are discussed regarding both sensitivity of the migration model to boundary conditions and household practices. By assuming a partition coefficient of 1 and a Biot number of 100, the estimated median household exposure to styrene ranged between 1 and 35 microg day-1 person-1 (5th and 95th percentiles) with a likely value of 12 microg day-1 person-1 (50th percentile). It was found that exposure does not vary independently with the average consumption rate and contact times. Thus, falsely assuming a uniform contact time equal to the sell-by-date for all yogurts overestimates significantly the daily exposure (5th and 95th percentiles of 2 and 110 microg day-1 person-1, respectively) since high consumers showed quicker turnover of stock.

  19. Levels and profiles of organochlorines and flame retardants in car and house dust from Kuwait and Pakistan: implication for human exposure via dust ingestion.

    PubMed

    Ali, Nadeem; Ali, Lulwa; Mehdi, Toufeer; Dirtu, Alin C; Al-Shammari, Fatema; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2013-05-01

    There are only few studies documenting indoor pollution in the Middle East and the Indian subcontinent. In present study, we have evaluated the occurrence of various organochlorines (OCs) and flame retardants (FRs) in dust from cars and houses of Pakistan and Kuwait. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs), organophosphate FRs (PFRs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were investigated in indoor dust from urban houses (N=15 per country) and cars (N=15 per country). PFRs were the major analytes in all four microenvironments, followed by PBDEs>NBFRs>OCPs>PCBs. For all classes of analytes, relatively lower levels were observed in car and house dust from Pakistan than Kuwait. Levels of ∑PBDEs, ∑NBFRs and ∑PFRs were higher in car dust, while ∑OCPs and ∑PCBs were higher in house dust from both countries. ∑PFRs occurred at average concentrations of 16,900, 87,900, 475, and 2500ng/g in Kuwaiti house and car, and Pakistani house and car dust, respectively. For both countries, the profiles of analytes in car dust were different from those in the house dust. Different exposure scenarios using 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile levels were estimated for adult, taxi drivers and toddlers. For Kuwaiti toddlers, assuming high dust intake and mean and 95th percentile concentrations, the values computed for ∑OCPs (1500ng/kg bw/day) were higher than RfD values, while for ∑PCBs (14.5ng/kg bw/day) it was only two-fold lower than the corresponding RfDs.

  20. Mineral concentrations in diets, water, and milk and their value in estimating on-farm excretion of manure minerals in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Castillo, A R; St-Pierre, N R; Silva del Rio, N; Weiss, W P

    2013-05-01

    Thirty-nine commercial dairies in Merced County, California were enrolled in the present study to (1) compare lactating cow mineral intakes (via drinking water and total mixed ration) to the National Research Council (NRC) requirements, (2) evaluate the association between dietary concentrations of minerals with and without drinking water and adjusted for mineral concentrations in milk, and (3) compare 4 different methods to estimate excretion of minerals using either assays or estimations of milk mineral outputs and total daily mineral intake per cow with or without minerals coming from drinking water. Dairies were selected to represent a range of herd milk yields and a range of water mineral contents. Samples of total mixed ration, drinking water, and bulk tank milk were taken on 2 different days, 3 to 7d apart in each farm. Across-farm medians and percentile distributions were used to analyze results. The herd median milk yield interquartile ranged (10th to 90th percentile) from less than 25 to more than 39 kg/d and the concentration of total solids in water interquartile ranged from less than 200 to more than 1,490 mg/L. Including drinking water minerals in the diets increased dietary concentrations by <4% for all minerals except for Na and Cl, which increased by 9.3 and 6.5%, respectively. Concentrations of P and K in milk were essentially the same as the NRC value to estimate lactation requirements. However, NRC milk values of Ca, Cl, and Zn were 10 to 20% greater than dairy farm values; and Na, Cu, Fe, and Mn were no less than 36% below NRC values. Estimated excretion of minerals via manure varied substantially across farms. Farms in the 10th percentile did have 2 to 3 times less estimated mineral excretions than those in the 90th percentile (depending on the mineral). Although including water minerals increased excretion of most minerals, the actual median effect of Ca, Mg, S, Cu, Fe, and Mn was less than 5%, and about 8% for Na and Cl. Replacing assayed

  1. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  2. A values-based Motivational Interviewing (MI) intervention for pediatric obesity: study design and methods for MI Values.

    PubMed

    Bean, Melanie K; Mazzeo, Suzanne E; Stern, Marilyn; Bowen, Deborah; Ingersoll, Karen

    2011-09-01

    To reduce pediatric obesity in clinical settings, multidisciplinary behaviorally-based treatment programs are recommended. High attrition and poor compliance are two difficulties frequently encountered in such programs. A brief, empathic and directive clinical intervention, Motivational Interviewing (MI), might help address these motivational and behavioral issues, ultimately resulting in more positive health outcomes. The efficacy of MI as an adjunct in the treatment of pediatric obesity remains relatively understudied. MI Values was developed to implement within an existing multidisciplinary treatment program for obese, ethnically diverse adolescents, the T.E.E.N.S. Program (Teaching, Encouragement, Exercise, Nutrition, Support). T.E.E.N.S. participants who consent to MI Values are randomized to either MI or an education control condition. At weeks 1 and 10 of T.E.E.N.S. participation, the subset of participants assigned to the MI condition engages in individual MI sessions and control participants view health education videos. All MI sessions are audiotaped and coded to monitor treatment fidelity, which has been satisfactory thus far. Participants complete comprehensive assessments at baseline, 3- and 6-month follow-ups. We hypothesize that MI participants will demonstrate greater reductions in Body Mass Index (BMI) percentile, improved diet and physical activity behaviors, better compliance with T.E.E.N.S., and lower attrition than participants in the control group. We present study design and methods for MI Values as well as data on feasibility of recruitment methods and treatment integrity. At study completion, findings will contribute to the emerging literature examining the efficacy of MI in the treatment of pediatric obesity.

  3. The cutoff values of indirect indices for measuring insulin resistance for metabolic syndrome in Korean children and adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jun Woo; Park, Sang Hoo; Kim, Yoojin; Im, Minji

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and percentile distribution of insulin resistance (IR) among Korean children and adolescents were investigated. The cutoff values of IR were calculated to identify high-risk MetS groups. Methods Data from 3,313 Korean subjects (1,756 boys and 1,557 girls, aged 10–18 years) were included from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey conducted during 2007–2010. Three different sets of criteria for MetS were used. Indirect measures of IR were homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride and glucose (TyG) index. The cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were obtained from the receiver operation characteristic curves. Results According to the MetS criteria of de Ferranti el al., Cook et al., and the International Diabetes Federation, the prevalence rates in males and females were 13.9% and 12.3%, 4.6% and 3.6%, and 1.4% and 1.8%, respectively. Uses these 3 criteria, the cutoff values of the HOMA-IR and TyG index were 2.94 and 8.41, 3.29 and 8.38, and 3.54 and 8.66, respectively. The cutoff values using each of the 3 criteria approximately corresponds to the 50th–75th, 75th, and 75th–90th percentiles of normal HOMA-IR and TyG index levels. Conclusion This study describes the prevalence rates of MetS in Korean children and adolescents, an index of IR, and the cutoff values for MetS with the aim of detecting high-risk groups. The usefulness of these criteria needs to be verified by further evaluation. PMID:27777906

  4. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  5. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  6. Values and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…

  7. Classifying Values by Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gündüz, Mevlüt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make a new classification regarding the fact that the current classifications may change constantly because of values? gaining a different dimension and importance every single day. In this research descriptive research, which was used frequently in qualitative research methods, was preferred. This research was…

  8. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  9. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  10. Implementing Target Value Design.

    PubMed

    Alves, Thais da C L; Lichtig, Will; Rybkowski, Zofia K

    2017-04-01

    An alternative to the traditional way of designing projects is the process of target value design (TVD), which takes different departure points to start the design process. The TVD process starts with the client defining an allowable cost that needs to be met by the design and construction teams. An expected cost in the TVD process is defined through multiple interactions between multiple stakeholders who define wishes and others who define ways of achieving these wishes. Finally, a target cost is defined based on the expected profit the design and construction teams are expecting to make. TVD follows a series of continuous improvement efforts aimed at reaching the desired goals for the project and its associated target value cost. The process takes advantage of rapid cycles of suggestions, analyses, and implementation that starts with the definition of value for the client. In the traditional design process, the goal is to identify user preferences and find solutions that meet the needs of the client's expressed preferences. In the lean design process, the goal is to educate users about their values and advocate for a better facility over the long run; this way owners can help contractors and designers to identify better solutions. This article aims to inform the healthcare community about tools and techniques commonly used during the TVD process and how they can be used to educate and support project participants in developing better solutions to meet their needs now as well as in the future.

  11. Making People Feel Valued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  12. Changing Values & Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagschal, Harry; Beagle, Robert

    A transcript of a two-member panel discussion on changing values and higher education is presented. The transcript includes two speeches and members' responses to the questions of the moderator and audience. The first paper, presented by Robert Beagle (Assistant to the President, Edinboro State College, Pennsylvania) stresses that the key to…

  13. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  14. Adding Value through Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Stephen S.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    PPG's training department enhanced its value to the organization by getting closer to its internal customer and helping them build the competencies needed to meet business goals. Techniques included the training, development, and education process model and a professional development sourcebook clarifying competencies and activities for acquiring…

  15. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  16. Planting Seeds - Growing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, Judith L.

    2004-01-01

    Nurturing positive values with youth often involves connecting with them during times of internal struggle and relating these struggles to external influences in their lives. Care and support provided by adults is crucial in these times, even when a youth's outward expression of struggles create conflict or concern. In this article, the author…

  17. Not Without Value. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2002-01-01

    To reverse the decline in volunteerism in education, administrators must understand the difference between true volunteering and participation coerced under the guise of volunteering. Appreciation is essential for promoting volunteerism, for no one wishes to be considered without value. But if coercion and exploitation are part of the growing…

  18. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  19. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  20. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  1. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  2. Suited and Unsuited Hybrid III Impact Testing and Finite Element Model Characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, C.; Somers, J. T.; Baldwin, M. A.; Wells, J. A.; Newby, N.; Currie, N. J.

    2016-01-01

    NASA spacecraft design requirements for occupant protection are a combination of the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria and injury assessment reference values (IARV) extracted from anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). For the ATD IARVs, the requirements specify the use of the 5th percentile female Hybrid III and the 95th percentile male Hybrid III. Each of these ATDs is required to be fitted with an articulating pelvis (also known as the aerospace pelvis) and a straight spine. The articulating pelvis is necessary for the ATD to fit into spacecraft seats, while the straight spine is required as injury metrics for vertical accelerations are better defined for this configuration. Sled testing of the Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female Anthropomorphic Test Device (ATD) was performed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WAPFB). Two 5th Percentile ATDs were tested, the Air Force Research Lab (AFRL) and NASA owned Hybrid III ATDs with aerospace pelvises. Testing was also conducted with a NASA-owned 95th Percentile Male Hybrid III with aerospace pelvis at WPAFB. Testing was performed using an Orion seat prototype provided by Johnson Space Center (JSC). A 5-point harness comprised of 2 inch webbing was also provided by JSC. For suited runs, a small and extra-large Advanced Crew Escape System (ACES) suit and helmet were also provided by JSC. Impact vectors were combined frontal/spinal and rear/lateral. Some pure spinal and rear axis testing was also performed for model validation. Peak accelerations ranged between 15 and 20-g. This range was targeted because the ATD responses fell close to the IARV defined in the Human-Systems Integration Requirements (HSIR) document. Rise times varied between 70 and 110 ms to assess differences in ATD responses and model correlation for different impact energies. The purpose of the test series was to evaluate the Hybrid III ATD models in Orion-specific landing orientations both with and without a spacesuit. The results of these tests were used

  3. Age and Sex Specific Reference Intervals for Modifiable Risk Factors of Cardiovascular Diseases for Gujarati Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Sibasis; Shah, Komal H.; Konat, Ashwati R.; Sharma, Kamal H.; Tripathi, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We aimed to establish age and sex specific percentile reference data for cardiovascular risk factors such as lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI in apparently healthy and disease-free Gujarati population. Methods. In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 3265 apparently healthy and disease-free individuals of both genders residing in Gujarat state. Fasting samples of blood were used for biochemical estimations of lipids and sugar. The measurement of BMI and blood pressure was also done according to the standard guidelines. Age and gender specific 5th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles were obtained. Results. The mean values of lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI were significantly (p < 0.001) higher in males as compared to female population. Age-wise distribution trends showed increase in the risk factors from the 2nd decade until the 5th to 6th decade in most of the cases, where loss of premenopausal protection in females was also observed. Specific trends according to gender and age were observed in percentile values of various parameters. Conclusion. The outcome of current study will contribute significantly to proposing clinically important reference values of various lipids, sugar, blood pressure, and BMI that could be used to screen the asymptomatic Gujarati Indian population with a propensity of developing dyslipidemia, diabetes, blood pressure, and obesity. PMID:26824054

  4. Physical fitness reference standards in French youth: The BOUGE program.

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Julien, Julien Labreuche; Beghin, Laurent; Drumez, Elodie; Fardy, Paul S; Chapelot, Didier; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zekya

    2016-09-16

    The aim of this study was to establish gender- and age-specific physical fitness percentiles in French youth. A sample of 11 186 children and adolescents (5 546 boys, 5 640 girls), ages 10-15 years, was assessed in the French national BOUGE study. Participants were tested on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and agility using the following tests: 20-m shuttle run tests, curl ups test, 50-m sprint test, back-saver sit and reach test and 10 x 5 m shuttle run test. Percentile values were estimated for French youth as a function of age stratified by gender using the generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). In general, physical fitness was better in boys than girls, except for the back-saver sit and reach test, in which girls performed better. Except for the back-saver sit and reach test and 10 x 5 m shuttle run test, physical fitness performance was significantly associated with age. Gender and age-specific normative values for physical fitness tests in French youth expressed as percentiles from the 5th to the 95th are provided. Reference values provide normative data for French youth. The data are useful in identifying special needs for appropriate intervention programs.

  5. Thailand: refining cultural values.

    PubMed

    Ratanakul, P

    1990-01-01

    In the second of a set of three articles concerned with "bioethics on the Pacific Rim," Ratanakul, director of a research center for Southeast Asian cultures in Thailand, provides an overview of bioethical issues in his country. He focuses on four issues: health care allocation, AIDS, determination of death, and euthanasia. The introduction of Western medicine into Thailand has brought with it a multitude of ethical problems created in part by tension between Western and Buddhist values. For this reason, Ratanakul concludes that "bioethical enquiry in Thailand must not only examine ethical dilemmas that arise in the actual practice of medicine and research in the life sciences, but must also deal with the refinement and clarification of applicable Thai cultural and moral values."

  6. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  7. Education: A Core Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    1. Teaching our Children. ACS should develop an intensive course in modern teaching methods, challenges and responsibilities, and press for streamlined teacher certification procedures for advanced degree or life experience chemists.
    2. Teaching our Future Colleagues. As President I will encourage companies to make scientists with special skills available to universities, and will encourage universities to utilize these scientists to round out areas of study not covered by their existing faculty.
    3. Teaching our Members. ACS should develop functional and management-related courses for scientists to facilitate career advancement from the bench to research management or from science to business.
    4. Teaching the Public. The President is the most visible representative of the Society, and should devote significant time to communication with lay audiences.
    Value Matters. My first priority as President will be to increase value creation, communication and quantification so members can easily identify programs that fill their needs and exceed their expectations.

  8. The value of anecdote.

    PubMed

    Parodi, Juan C; Parodi, Federico E

    2014-04-01

    Anecdote is defined as "a usually short narrative of an interesting, amusing, or biographical incident" and are not often deemed scientifically valuable (www.merriam-webster.com). Anecdotes can be analyzed, however, and those observations can become the initiation of important and groundbreaking work. In this article, we describe aecdotes of several cases which by themselves had seemingly little value. The value was added later, when these concepts were extrapolated to important projects, which expanded into series of experiences, which were reproducible and able to be analyzed and judged as valuable devices and/or methods. The authors recognize that some of the images are old and not of great quality but the information provided is as complete as possible and reliable.

  9. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  10. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  11. Tables for the metric evaluation of pair-matching of human skeletal elements.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Richard M; Ubelaker, Douglas H; Byrd, John E

    2013-07-01

    A common task in forensic anthropology involves pair-matching of left and right skeletal elements. This can be achieved through visual pair-matching by evaluating similarities in morphology, and through osteometric sorting, a quantitative technique. To simplify the process of osteometric sorting, this article explains the use of a statistic (M), which captures the amount of size variation found between homologous bones from single individuals. A database of skeletal measurements for all major paired postcranial bones is used to calculate values of M from a variety of sources. The maximum value and the 90th and 95th percentiles of M are provided in tabular format, and values of M from forensic cases can be compared to these tables as an objective means for determining whether homologous bones could have originated from the same individual. This simple technique can be combined with visual pair-matching to be particularly effective in cases involving commingling of skeletons.

  12. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    PubMed

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability.

  13. Complex-Valued Autoencoders

    PubMed Central

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-01-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L2 norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory. PMID:22622264

  14. Values in health care.

    PubMed

    Gish, O

    1984-01-01

    The first part of the paper is concerned with the health care values of various groups; namely, those which are resource oriented, disease oriented, political decision-makers, organized sellers and purchasers of health care and patients. These groups are further divided according to selected political/ideological and socio-economic characteristics, essentially along capitalist and socialist lines. Some of the ways in which the values held by these groups are determined, formulated and, by implication at least, changed and the political, economic and other bases for some of their practical applications are identified. The second part of the paper focuses upon values in public health education and related practice. It is argued that to become more useful to the 'health of the public' the new public health worker will have to become more activist, assuming an adversarial stance toward the market economy in capitalist countries and oppressive governmental structures everywhere. A wider integration of knowledge concerning the effects of health of all types of economic, social and political practices is required; this, in turn, would contribute to the emergence of alternative forms of public health analysis and practice. The recognition of wider forms of public health leadership should follow, coupled with organizational changes directed at the greater participation of popular groupings in all types of public health activities.

  15. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  16. The value of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    In addition to its intrinsic value (nature working as it is; species are the product of a long history of continuing evolution by means of ecological processes, and so they have the right to continued existence), biodiversity also plays a fundamental role as ecosystem services in the maintenance of natural ecological processes. The economic or utilitarian values of biodiversity rely upon the dependence of man on biodiversity; products that nature can provide: wood, food, fibers to make paper, resins, chemical organic products, genes as well as knowledge for biotechnology, including medicine and cosmetic sub-products. It also encompasses ecosystem services, such as climate regulation, reproductive and feeding habitats for commercial fish, some organisms that can create soil fertility through complex cycles and interactions, such as earthworms, termites and bacteria, in addition to fungi responsible for cycling nutrients like nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur and making them available to plant absorption. These services are the benefits that people indirectly receive from natural ecosystem functions (air quality maintenance, regional climate, water quality, nutrient cycling, reproductive habitats of commercial fish, etc.) with their related economic values.

  17. Primary hyperlipidemia in a pediatric population: classification and effect of dietary treatment.

    PubMed

    Polonsky, S M; Bellet, P S; Sprecher, D L

    1993-01-01

    Patients seen at a pediatric lipid clinic over a 27-month period were reviewed retrospectively to evaluate types of primary lipid disorders and effect of dietary treatment at the first follow-up visit. One hundred eighty-two patients were classified into one of four categories: (1) elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) with LDL-C > 95th percentile (32%); (2) isolated triglyceride (TG)/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) abnormalities, with TG > 95th percentile and/or HDL-C < 5th percentile (30%); (3) borderline LDL-C, TG, or HDL-C (29%); (4) normal (9%). The American Heart Association Step-One Diet was prescribed for all patients older than 2 years, and they received extensive nutritional and risk-management counseling. Of these patients, 59 (32%) returned for at least one follow-up visit and mean changes in lipid values between initial and first follow-up visits were evaluated. Levels of LDL-C decreased by 24 mg/dL in 22 patients with elevated LDL-C levels. Triglyceride levels decreased by a mean of 22 mg/dL and HDL-C increased by a mean of 4 mg/dL in 21 patients with isolated TG/HDL-C abnormalities. Levels of LDL-C tended to rise in this group, but not to a significant degree. A new finding of this report is that screening for total cholesterol results in the identification of many children with TG or HDL-C abnormalities alone and that the Step-One Diet appears to be effective in improving both TG and HDL-C levels in these patients.

  18. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  19. A Methodology for Assessing the Impact of Sea Level Rise on Representative Military Installation in the Southwestern United States (RC-1703)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-01

    events during winter months (November–March) that exceed the 95th percentile (the binomial-filtered event count, cyan curve) for at least 6...1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 M et er s (N A V D )     72   Decadal-scale MSLR variability is also evident (Figure 2-50, cyan ), with peaks...that exceed the 95th percentile (the binomial-filtered event count, cyan curve) for at least 6 consecutive hours. Historical NTR variability in the

  20. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  1. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  2. Normative Reference Values for Handgrip Strength in Colombian Schoolchildren: The FUPRECOL Study.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson; Morales, Olimpo; Peña-Ibagon, Jhonatan C; Palacios-López, Adalberto; Prieto-Benavides, Daniel H; Vivas, Andrés; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; Lobelo, Felipe; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-01-01

    Ramírez-Vélez, R, Morales, O, Peña-Ibagon, JC, Palacios-López, A, Prieto-Benavides, DH, Vivas, A, Correa-Bautista, JE, Lobelo, F, Alonso-Martínez, AM, and Izquierdo, M. Normative reference values for handgrip strength in Colombian schoolchildren: the FUPRECOL study. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 217-226, 2017-The primary aim of this study was to generate normative handgrip (HG) strength data for 10 to 17.9 year olds. The secondary aim was to determine the relative proportion of Colombian children and adolescents that fall into established Health Benefit Zones (HBZ). This cross-sectional study enrolled 7,268 schoolchildren (boys n = 3,129 and girls n = 4,139, age 12.7 [2.4] years). Handgrip was measured using a hand dynamometer with an adjustable grip. Five HBZs (Needs Improvement, Fair, Good, Very Good, and Excellent) have been established that correspond to combined HG. Centile smoothed curves, percentile, and tables for the third, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 97th percentile were calculated using Cole's LMS method. Handgrip peaked in the sample at 22.2 (8.9) kg in boys and 18.5 (5.5) kg in girls. The increase in HG was greater for boys than for girls, but the peak HG was lower in girls than in boys. The HBZ data indicated that a higher overall percentage of boys than girls at each age group fell into the "Needs Improvement" zone, with differences particularly pronounced during adolescence. Our results provide, for the first time, sex- and age-specific HG reference standards for Colombian schoolchildren aged 9-17.9 years.

  3. The Effect of Care Setting in the Delivery of High-Value Colon Cancer Care

    PubMed Central

    Veenstra, Christine M.; Epstein, Andrew J.; Liao, Kaijun; Morris, Arden M.; Pollack, Craig E.; Armstrong, Katrina A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The effect of care setting on value of colon cancer care is unknown. METHODS A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare cohort study of 6544 patients aged ≥66 years with stage IV colon cancer (based on the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system) who were diagnosed between 1996 and 2005 was performed. All patients were followed through December 31, 2007. Using outpatient and carrier claims, patients were assigned to a treating hospital based on the hospital affiliation of the primary oncologist. Hospitals were classified academic or nonacademic using the SEER-Medicare National Cancer Institute Hospital File. RESULTS Of the 6544 patients, 1605 (25%) received care from providers affiliated with academic medical centers. The unadjusted median cancer-specific survival was 16.0 months at academic medical centers versus 13.9 months at nonacademic medical centers (P<.001). After adjustment, treatment at academic hospitals remained significantly associated with a reduced risk of death from cancer (hazard ratio, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.82–0.93 [P<.001]). Adjusted mean 12-month Medicare spending was $8571 higher at academic medical centers (95% CI, $2340–$14,802; P =.007). The adjusted median cost was $1559 higher at academic medical centers; this difference was not found to be statistically significant (95% CI, −$5239 to $2122; P =.41). A small percentage of patients who received very expensive care skewed the difference in mean cost; the only statistically significant difference in adjusted costs in quantile regressions was at the 99.9th percentile of costs (P<.001). CONCLUSIONS Among Medicare beneficiaries with stage IV colon cancer, treatment by a provider affiliated with an academic medical center was associated with a 2 month improvement in overall survival. Except for patients in the 99.9th percentile of the cost distribution, costs at academic medical centers were not found to be significantly

  4. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-07

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  5. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  6. Network connectivity value.

    PubMed

    Dragicevic, Arnaud; Boulanger, Vincent; Bruciamacchie, Max; Chauchard, Sandrine; Dupouey, Jean-Luc; Stenger, Anne

    2017-02-23

    In order to unveil the value of network connectivity, we formalize the construction of ecological networks in forest environments as an optimal control dynamic graph-theoretic problem. The network is based on a set of bioreserves and patches linked by ecological corridors. The node dynamics, built upon the consensus protocol, form a time evolutive Mahalanobis distance weighted by the opportunity costs of timber production. We consider a case of complete graph, where the ecological network is fully connected, and a case of incomplete graph, where the ecological network is partially connected. The results show that the network equilibrium depends on the size of the reception zone, while the network connectivity depends on the environmental compatibility between the ecological areas. Through shadow prices, we find that securing connectivity in partially connected networks is more expensive than in fully connected networks, but should be undertaken when the opportunity costs are significant.

  7. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  8. Value of periangiography hydration.

    PubMed

    Kerstein, M D; Puyau, F A

    1984-11-01

    The value of contrast dye to the planning and evaluation of cardiovascular disease cannot be overestimated. However, adverse renal sequellae may cause the surgeon to hesitate in obtaining an arteriogram, especially in patients with compromised renal function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of renal dysfunction in patients requiring angiography. Standard contrast angiography for cerebral or peripheral vascular disease was administered to 150 consecutive patients (89 men and 61 women), with an average age of 63.3 years (range 49 to 89 years). All patients received 100 to 150 ml of dye, with a concentration of approximately 50% iodine. Patients were hydrated with 0.5 N saline/5% dextrose, intravenously, for 8 hours before the procedure (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). In 31 patients (11 women and 20 men) the serum BUN and/or creatinine levels were elevated (mean BUN value of 48 +/- 9 mg/dl; mean creatinine level of 2.8 +/- 0.6 mg/dl). The patients with abnormal renal function received an additional 300 to 500 ml of intravenous fluid, plus 20 to 40 mg intravenous furosemide, 1 hour before roentgenography to establish a diuresis. All patients were hydrated for 6 hours after angiography with the same solution at the same rate (1 to 3 ml/kg/hr). There were no episodes of compromised renal or cardiopulmonary dysfunction because of contrast angiography. In no patient did the BUN or creatinine level rise, nor was there evidence of acute tubular necrosis, as documented by oliguria and abnormal cells in the urine. Angiography is a safe procedure, even with patients who may have compromised renal function, if appropriate prehydration/posthydration and diuretic measures are undertaken.

  9. Critical Shields Values in Coarse-Bedded Steep Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunte, K.; Abt, S. R.; Swingle, K. W.; Cenderelli, D. A.; Schneider, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    Critical Shields values for poorly mobile, semi-alluvial mountain streams are not provided by the original Shields diagram and are still debated. This empirical study uses gravel bedload samples collected with unbiasing samplers at 22 stream sites and establishes a relation between instantaneous discharge and the largest sampled bedload particle size for each site. Using relations between flow depth and discharge, critical Shields values for particle sizes corresponding to the bed surface D50, D16, D84, and D50s sizes at each site can be backcomputed from the established critical flow or flow competence relations. Critical Shields values for all bed material particle size percentiles increase with stream gradient Sx and are stratifiable by relative flow depth d/D50 and relative roughness (D84/d) which improves prediction. Critical Shields values for the bed D16 sizes (τ*c16) are approximately three times larger than those for the D50 size (τ*c50), while those for the D84 size (τ*c84) are approximately half of τ*c50. It remains unclear to what extent physical processes or numerical artifacts contribute to determining critical Shields values. Specific critical Shields values are needed to predict the average largest particle size mobile at bankfull flow (DBmax,bf). So far, no Shields values are available for this common task, especially not in poorly mobile semi-alluvial streams. Critical bankfull Shields values (τ*cbf) backcomputed from the largest particles transported at bankfull flow approach τ*c16 at steep gradient streams and τ*c84 at low gradients and therefore increase very steeply with Sx. The relation τ*cbf = f(Sx) is stratified by bed mobility D50/DBmax,bf and predictable if bed mobility can be categorized in the field. Non-critical Shields values (τ*bf50) computed from bankfull flow depth and the bed surface D50 size differ from τ*c50 and from critical bankfull Shields values τ*cbf. Only in bankfull mobile streams where D50/DBmax,bf = 1 can

  10. Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

  11. Reference Ranges for Uterine Artery Pulsatility Index during the Menstrual Cycle: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Guedes-Martins, Luís; Gaio, Rita; Saraiva, Joaquim; Cerdeira, Sofia; Matos, Liliana; Silva, Elisabete; Macedo, Filipe; Almeida, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Cyclic endometrial neoangiogenesis contributes to changes in local vascular patterns and is amenable to non-invasive assessment with Doppler sonography. We hypothesize that the uterine artery (UtA) impedance, measured by its pulsatility index (PI), exhibits a regular pattern during the normal menstrual cycle. Therefore, the main study objective was to derive normative new day-cycle-based reference ranges for the UtA-PI during the entire cycle from days 1 to 34 according to the isolated time effect and potential confounders such as age and parity. Methods From January 2009 to December 2012, a cross-sectional study of 1,821 healthy women undergoing routine gynaecological ultrasound was performed. The Doppler flow of the right and left UtA-PI was studied transvaginally by colour and pulsed Doppler imaging. The mean right and left values and the presence or absence of a bilateral protodiastolic notch were recorded. Reference intervals for the PI according to the cycle day were generated by classical linear regression. Results The majority of patients (97.5%) presented unilateral or bilateral UtA notches. The crude 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves of the UtA-PI at 1–34 days of the normal menstrual cycle were derived. In all curves, a progressive significant decrease occurred during the first 13 days, followed by an increase and recovery in the UtA-PI. The adjusted 5th, 50th, and 95th reference percentile curves for the effects of age and parity were also obtained. These two conditions generated an approximately identical UtA-PI pattern during the cycle, except with small but significant reductions at the temporal extremes. Conclusions The median, 5th, and the 95th percentiles of the UtA-PI decrease during the first third of the menstrual cycle and recover to their initial values during the last two thirds of the cycle. The rates of decrease and recovery depend significantly on age and parity. PMID:25742286

  12. Reference change values.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Callum G

    2011-09-30

    Reference change values (RCV) provide objective tools for assessment of the significance of differences in serial results from an individual. The concept is simple and the calculation easy, since all laboratories know their analytical imprecision (CV(A)) and estimates of within-subject biological variation (CV(I)) are available for a large number of quantities. Generally, CV(I) are constant over time, geography, methodology and in health and chronic stable disease. The formula is RCV=2(1/2) · Z · (CV(A)(2) + CV(I)(2))(1/2), where Z is the number of standard deviations appropriate to the probability. Correct interpretation of the semantics describing the clinical use of RCV is vital for selection of the Z-score. Many quantities of clinically importance exist for which good estimates of RCV are unavailable. Derivation of CV(I) may be difficult for such quantities: flair and imagination are required in selecting populations with chronic but stable disease on whom CV(I) can be determined. RCV can be used for delta-checking and auto-verification and laboratory information management systems (LIMS) can be adapted to do this. Recently, log-normal transformation to obtain unidirectional RCV has been used. Gaps in knowledge of RCV still require filling since the need for measures of change is clearly expressed in guidelines.

  13. Precision of Student Growth Percentiles with Small Sample Sizes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbertson, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    States in the Regional Educational Laboratory (REL) Central region serve a largely rural population with many states enrolling fewer than 350,000 students. A common challenge identified among REL Central educators is identifying appropriate methods for analyzing data with small samples of students. In particular, members of the REL Central…

  14. Attempt for percentile analysis of food colorants with photoacoustic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coelho, T. M.; Vidotti, E. C.; Rollemberg, M. C. E.; Baesso, M. L.; Bento, A. C.

    2005-06-01

    In this work the photoacoustic (PAS) method is applied in polyester-type polyurethane foam (PUF) doped with food colorants. Aiming to resolve binary mixtures of synthetic colorants such as Sunset Yellow, Tartrazine, Brilliant Blue and Amaranth, a single spectroscopic method is described. Based upon individual spectra, a Gaussian deconvolution is used and the fraction of each colorant is found.

  15. Comparison of Echocardiographic Measures in a Hispanic/Latino Population with the 2005 and 2015 American Society of Echocardiography Reference Limits [The Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL)

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Waqas T.; Leigh, J. Adam; Swett, Katrina; Ajay, Dharod; Allison, Matthew A.; Cai, Jianwen; Gonzalez, Franklyn; Hurwitz, Barry E.; Shah, Sanjiv J.; Desai, Ankit A.; Spevack, Daniel M.; Rodriguez, Carlos J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Reference limits for echocardiographic quantification of cardiac chambers in Hispanics are not well studied. Methods and Results We examined the reference values of left atrium (LA) and ventricle (LV) structure in a large ethnically diverse Hispanic cohort. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography was performed in 1,818 participants of the Echocardiographic Study of Latinos (ECHO-SOL). Individuals with body mass index ≥30kg/m2, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease and atrial fibrillation were excluded leaving 525 participants defined as healthy reference-cohort. We estimated 95th weighted percentiles of LV end systolic volume, LV end diastolic volume, relative wall and septal thickness, LV mass and left atrial volume. We then used upper reference limits of the 2005 and 2015 American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) and 95th percentile of reference cohort to classify the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL) target population into abnormal and normal. Reference limits were also calculated for each of 6 Hispanic origins. Using ASE 2015 defined reference values we categorized 7%, 21%, 57% and 17% of males and 18%, 29%, 60% and 26% of females as having abnormal LV mass index, relative, septal and posterior wall thickness, respectively. Conversely, 10%, and 11% of males and 4% and 2% of females were classified as having abnormal end-diastolic volume and internal diameter by ASE 2015 cut-offs, respectively. Similar differences were found when we used 2005 ASE cut offs. Several differences were noted in distribution of cardiac structure and volumes among various Hispanic/Latino origins. Cubans had highest values of echocardiographic measures and Central Americans had the lowest. Conclusions This is the first large study that provides normal reference values for cardiac structure. It further demonstrates that a considerable segment of Hispanic/Latinos residing in US may be classified as having abnormal measures

  16. An Introduction to Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Kalman

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes consciousness as a quality which differentiates a human being from other living organisms. Excerpts various perspectives that are value-analyzed to illustrate two assumptions: (1) thinking leads to valuing and values and (2) all psychological perspectives are based upon some value system which can be identified. (JAC)

  17. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Procoagulant Microparticles in Patients with Glioblastoma: Prognostic Value

    PubMed Central

    Reynés, Gaspar; Vila, Virtudes; Fleitas, Tania; Reganon, Edelmiro; Font de Mora, Jaime; Jordá, María; Martínez-Sales, Vicenta

    2013-01-01

    Aim Circulating endothelial cells and microparticles are prognostic factors in cancer. However, their prognostic and predictive value in patients with glioblastoma is unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the potential prognostic value of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma treated with standard radiotherapy and concomitant temozolomide. In addition, we have analyzed the methylation status of the MGMT promoter. Methods Peripheral blood samples were obtained before and at the end of the concomitant treatment. Blood samples from healthy volunteers were also obtained as controls. Endothelial cells were measured by an immunomagnetic technique and immunofluorescence microscopy. Microparticles were quantified by flow cytometry. Microparticle-mediated procoagulant activity was measured by endogen thrombin generation and by phospholipid-dependent clotting time. Methylation status of MGMT promoter was determined by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Results Pretreatment levels of circulating endothelial cells and microparticles were higher in patients than in controls (p<0.001). After treatment, levels of microparticles and thrombin generation decreased, and phospholipid-dependent clotting time increased significantly. A high pretreatment endothelial cell count, corresponding to the 99th percentile in controls, was associated with poor overall survival. MGMT promoter methylation was present in 27% of tumor samples and was associated to a higher overall survival (66 weeks vs 30 weeks, p<0.004). Conclusion Levels of circulating endothelial cells may have prognostic value in patients with glioblastoma. PMID:23922679

  18. Estimation and application of indicator values for common macroinvertebrate genera and families of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlisle, D.M.; Meador, M.R.; Moulton, S.R.; Ruhl, P.M.

    2007-01-01

    Tolerance of macroinvertebrate taxa to chemical and physical stressors is widely used in the analysis and interpretation of bioassessment data, but many estimates lack empirical bases. Our main objective was to estimate genus- and family-level indicator values (IVs) from a data set of macroinvertebrate communities, chemical, and physical stressors collected in a consistent manner throughout the United States. We then demonstrated an application of these IVs to detect alterations in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages along gradients of urbanization in New England and Alabama. Principal components analysis (PCA) was used to create synthetic gradients of chemical stressors, for which genus- and family-level weighted averages (WAs) were calculated. Based on results of PCA, WAs were calculated for three synthetic gradients (ionic concentration, nutrient concentration, and dissolved oxygen/water temperature) and two uncorrelated physical variables (suspended sediment concentration and percent fines). Indicator values for each stress gradient were subsequently created by transforming WAs into ten ordinal ranks based on percentiles of values across all taxa. Mean IVs of genera and families were highly correlated to road density in Alabama and New England, and supported the conclusions of independent assessments of the chemical and physical stressors acting in each geographic area. Family IVs were nearly as responsive to urbanization as genus IVs. The limitations of widespread use of these IVs are discussed.

  19. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  20. Sampling strategies for estimating acute and chronic exposures of pesticides in streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crawford, Charles G.

    2004-01-01

    The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires that human exposure to pesticides through drinking water be considered when establishing pesticide tolerances in food. Several systematic and seasonally weighted systematic sampling strategies for estimating pesticide concentrations in surface water were evaluated through Monte Carlo simulation, using intensive datasets from four sites in northwestern Ohio. The number of samples for the strategies ranged from 4 to 120 per year. Sampling strategies with a minimal sampling frequency outside the growing season can be used for estimating time weighted mean and percentile concentrations of pesticides with little loss of accuracy and precision, compared to strategies with the same sampling frequency year round. Less frequent sampling strategies can be used at large sites. A sampling frequency of 10 times monthly during the pesticide runoff period at a 90 km 2 basin and four times monthly at a 16,400 km2 basin provided estimates of the time weighted mean, 90th, 95th, and 99th percentile concentrations that fell within 50 percent of the true value virtually all of the time. By taking into account basin size and the periodic nature of pesticide runoff, costs of obtaining estimates of time weighted mean and percentile pesticide concentrations can be minimized.

  1. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hum Na, Yong; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F.; Xu, X. George

    2010-07-01

    Carlo radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  2. Deformable adult human phantoms for radiation protection dosimetry: anthropometric data representing size distributions of adult worker populations and software algorithms.

    PubMed

    Na, Yong Hum; Zhang, Binquan; Zhang, Juying; Caracappa, Peter F; Xu, X George

    2010-07-07

    radiation transport simulations. This paper also compares absorbed organ doses for the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom (165 cm in height and 56 kg in weight) and the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom (188 cm in height and 110 kg in weight) with those for the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom (176 cm in height and 73 kg in weight) from exposures to 0.5 MeV external photon beams. The results suggest a general finding that the phantoms representing a slimmer and shorter individual male received higher absorbed organ doses because of lesser degree of photon attenuation due to smaller amount of body fat. In particular, doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-5th-height and -weight percentile phantom is about 10% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom approximating the ICRP Reference Man. On the other hand, the doses to the prostate and adrenal in the RPI-AM-95th-height and -weight percentile phantom are approximately 20% greater than those in the RPI-AM-50th-height and -weight percentile phantom. Although this study only considered the photon radiation of limited energies and irradiation geometries, the potential to improve the organ dose accuracy using the deformable phantom technology is clearly demonstrated.

  3. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  4. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  5. [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose Uptake Patterns in Lung Before Radiotherapy Identify Areas More Susceptible to Radiation-Induced Lung Toxicity in Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Petit, Steven F.; Elmpt, Wouter J.C. van; Oberije, Cary J.G.; Vegt, Erik; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C.; Lambin, Philippe; Dekker, Andre L.A.J.; De Ruysscher, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: Our hypothesis was that pretreatment inflammation in the lung makes pulmonary tissue more susceptible to radiation damage. The relationship between pretreatment [{sup 18}F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]FDG) uptake in the lungs (as a surrogate for inflammation) and the delivered radiation dose and radiation-induced lung toxicity (RILT) was investigated. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively studied a prospectively obtained cohort of 101 non-small-cell lung cancer patients treated with (chemo)radiation therapy (RT). [{sup 18}F]FDG-positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) scans used for treatment planning were studied. Different parameters were used to describe [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake patterns in the lungs, excluding clinical target volumes, and the interaction with radiation dose. An increase in the dyspnea grade of 1 (Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0) or more points compared to the pre-RT score was used as an endpoint for analysis of RILT. The effect of [{sup 18}F]FDG and CT-based variables, dose, and other patient or treatment characteristics that effected RILT was studied using logistic regression. Results: Increased lung density and pretreatment [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake were related to RILT after RT with univariable logistic regression. The 95th percentile of the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the lungs remained significant in multivariable logistic regression (p = 0.016; odds ratio [OR] = 4.3), together with age (p = 0.029; OR = 1.06), and a pre-RT dyspnea score of {>=}1 (p = 0.005; OR = 0.20). Significant interaction effects were demonstrated among the 80th, 90th, and 95th percentiles and the relative lung volume receiving more than 2 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: The risk of RILT increased with the 95th percentile of the [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake in the lungs, excluding clinical tumor volume (OR = 4.3). The effect became more pronounced as the fraction of the 5%, 10%, and 20% highest standardized uptake value voxels that

  6. Integrating Value and Utility Concepts into a Value Decomposition Model for Value-Based Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönkkö, Mikko; Frühwirth, Christian; Biffl, Stefan

    Value-based software engineering (VBSE) is an emerging stream of research that addresses the value considerations of software and extends the traditional scope of software engineering from technical issues to business-relevant decision problems. While the concept of value in VBSE relies on the well-established economic value concept, the exact definition for this key concept within VBSE domain is still not well defined or agreed upon. We argue the discourse on value can significantly benefit from drawing from research in management, particularly software business. In this paper, we present three aspects of software: as a technology, as a design, and as an artifact. Furthermore, we divide the value concept into three components that are relevant for software product development companies and their customers: intrinsic value, externalities and option value. Finally, we propose a value decomposition matrix based on technology views and value components.

  7. Aircraft Crash Survival Design Guide. Volume 1. Design Criteria and Checklists

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    50th 99 percentile dummy (Reference 36) it, Test 1 and a clad 95th-percentile dummy in Test 2. Dynamic testing of multipla -occupant seats shnuld be...Idiyn nir-rf l ATFl rAr T nflrTn Rubbins, D. H.., et al, uEVELUOI’IIE I Ali,’u TEa , I ING ur ilIURlMIU JLLMI nLJI IN, SYST[ MS , Highway Safety Research

  8. Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the notion that effective teaching is as much about relationship as it is about "technical" proficiency, the author examines the values of teachers that inform classroom relationships, and poses the question as to whether there are particular teacher values that are necessary for quality values education. This question is…

  9. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions,…

  10. Evaluating the Predictive Value of Growth Prediction Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Daniel L.; Gaertner, Matthew N.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates four growth prediction models--projection, student growth percentile, trajectory, and transition table--commonly used to forecast (and give schools credit for) middle school students' future proficiency. Analyses focused on vertically scaled summative mathematics assessments, and two performance standards conditions (high…

  11. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  12. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model.

    PubMed

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation.

  13. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  14. Model-based tsunami warnings derived from observed impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. C. R.; Greenslade, D. J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Joint Australian Tsunami Warning Centre uses the T2 tsunami scenario database to provide forecast guidance for potential tsunami threats to the coastlines of mainland Australia and its external territories. This study describes a method for generating coastal tsunami warnings from model data obtained from the T2 scenario database. Consideration of observed coastal impacts for nine past events leads to retrospective or "ideal" warning schemes being designed. The 95th percentile values of maximum amplitude within designated coastal zones are examined and thresholds that produce the best match for the ideal schemes are selected. This empirical method is impact-based and allows the T2 scenarios to be used as a proxy for potential impacts on the coast in order to generate warnings for the Australian region.

  15. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  16. Private Values and Public Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladner, Benjamin

    1978-01-01

    Explores the relationships among social change, values, and education. Concludes that educators should inquire into and teach about values through classic works by authors such as Homer, Plato, Ibsen, and Mark Twain. (Author/DB)

  17. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  18. Work Values of Singaporean Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Esther

    This study attempted to determine the predominant work values among Singaporean students, possible changes in the work values of adolescents as they proceed from early to late adolescence, and the role of gender in forming work values. Using a cross-sectional design and stratified random sampling techniques, a sample of 645 boys and 735 girls was…

  19. Identifying and Clarifying Organizational Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    Of the 14 organizational values ranked by a majority of 146 New Mexico Cooperative Extension educators as extremely valued, 9 were extremely evident in organizational policies and procedures. A values audit such as this forms an important initial step in strategic planning. (SK)

  20. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  1. Value Added in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ray, Andrew; McCormack, Tanya; Evans, Helen

    2009-01-01

    Value-added indicators are now a central part of school accountability in England, and value-added information is routinely used in school improvement at both the national and the local levels. This article describes the value-added models that are being used in the academic year 2007-8 by schools, parents, school inspectors, and other…

  2. 78 FR 53380 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF64 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal... Making (NPRM); request for comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA proposes to update the existing value engineering... Leuderalbert, Value Engineering and Utilities Program Manager, FHWA Office of Program Administration,...

  3. 76 FR 36410 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Parts 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... notice proposes updated regulations to enhance the integration of value engineering (VE) analysis in the...-131 on Value Engineering. These revisions will also address certain findings contained in a...

  4. 77 FR 15250 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... of value engineering (VE) analysis in the planning and development of highway improvement projects... Value Engineering. These revisions also will address certain findings contained in a 2007 Office...

  5. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  6. Teacher Values in Teaching Recycling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joseph E.; Harako, Eiichiro Atom

    1994-01-01

    Examines teachers' perceived values about recycling and how their values then influence the teaching of recycling. Results suggest that the teachers surveyed have a strong supportive feeling toward recycling and consequently impose their values onto their students in the teaching/learning exchange. (Contains 16 references.) (Author/MDH)

  7. Making Values Education Everyone's Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katzner, Louis I.; Nieman, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    Adults are typically required to make values-based decisions multiple times each day. Why, then, should a discussion of values not be explicit across the college curriculum and intentionally integrated into the cocurriculum? The authors describe a place where the work of values education is widely shared. (Contains 9 notes.)

  8. Valuing Diversity: The Primary Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCracken, Janet Brown

    Noting that children who learn to accept and value human diversity will develop the open, flexible approach to life that is needed in today's world, this book examines ways to help young children learn to appreciate cultural diversity in the classroom. Following introductory chapters on the value of diversity and a child's right to the valuing of…

  9. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  10. Student Development and Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, John D., Comp.

    1982-01-01

    In five articles explores the value development of college students. Surveyed student personnel administrators to investigate ethical issues and values in student development and educational approaches to values development. Presents an approach to student ethical development. Discusses a rationale for developmental education considering…

  11. Make your values mean something.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2002-07-01

    Take a look at this list of corporate values: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's values. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate values of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most values statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty values statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong values--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their values statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of values: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a values initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. Values initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best values efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core values into everything. It's not enough to hang your values statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate values is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate values.

  12. Histogram Analysis of CT Perfusion of Hepatocellular Carcinoma for Predicting Response to Transarterial Radioembolization: Value of Tumor Heterogeneity Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Reiner, Caecilia S. Gordic, Sonja; Puippe, Gilbert; Morsbach, Fabian; Wurnig, Moritz; Schaefer, Niklaus; Veit-Haibach, Patrick; Pfammatter, Thomas; Alkadhi, Hatem

    2016-03-15

    PurposeTo evaluate in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), whether assessment of tumor heterogeneity by histogram analysis of computed tomography (CT) perfusion helps predicting response to transarterial radioembolization (TARE).Materials and MethodsSixteen patients (15 male; mean age 65 years; age range 47–80 years) with HCC underwent CT liver perfusion for treatment planning prior to TARE with Yttrium-90 microspheres. Arterial perfusion (AP) derived from CT perfusion was measured in the entire tumor volume, and heterogeneity was analyzed voxel-wise by histogram analysis. Response to TARE was evaluated on follow-up imaging (median follow-up, 129 days) based on modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST). Results of histogram analysis and mean AP values of the tumor were compared between responders and non-responders. Receiver operating characteristics were calculated to determine the parameters’ ability to discriminate responders from non-responders.ResultsAccording to mRECIST, 8 patients (50 %) were responders and 8 (50 %) non-responders. Comparing responders and non-responders, the 50th and 75th percentile of AP derived from histogram analysis was significantly different [AP 43.8/54.3 vs. 27.6/34.3 mL min{sup −1} 100 mL{sup −1}); p < 0.05], while the mean AP of HCCs (43.5 vs. 27.9 mL min{sup −1} 100 mL{sup −1}; p > 0.05) was not. Further heterogeneity parameters from histogram analysis (skewness, coefficient of variation, and 25th percentile) did not differ between responders and non-responders (p > 0.05). If the cut-off for the 75th percentile was set to an AP of 37.5 mL min{sup −1} 100 mL{sup −1}, therapy response could be predicted with a sensitivity of 88 % (7/8) and specificity of 75 % (6/8).ConclusionVoxel-wise histogram analysis of pretreatment CT perfusion indicating tumor heterogeneity of HCC improves the pretreatment prediction of response to TARE.

  13. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonow, Jordan T; Follette, William C

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in harm to the client or the general public. Although the code is appropriately designed as a defense against potential and actual abuses of professional power, this general proscription against directly targeting client values for change is based on an understanding of values that grants them special ontological status and has resulted in limited clinical interventions focusing solely on “values clarification.” With its strong foundation in a unified philosophical system, clinical behavior analysis offers a sophisticated alternative approach to values that both defines what they are and identifies when they can be ethically targeted to improve the lives of clients. PMID:22478514

  14. Cadmium bioaccumulation in Mediterranean spider crab (Maya squinado): human consumption and health implications for exposure in Italian population.

    PubMed

    Angeletti, Roberto; Binato, Giovanni; Guidotti, Marco; Morelli, Stefania; Pastorelli, Augusto Alberto; Sagratella, Elisabetta; Ciardullo, Silvia; Stacchini, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    Cd bioaccumulation pattern was investigated in Mediterranean spider crab (Maya squinado, Herbst, 1788) collected from the northern Adriatic Sea. Specimens were caught in the framework of a monitoring plan in order to quantify the Cd distribution into different organs and tissues of crab. For this purpose, Cd level was studied in appendages, cephalothorax, abdomen as well as gonads. Cd concentrations were found largely below the Maximum Level (ML) established at the European Union (EU) level for muscle from crab appendages (found mean 0.011 mg kg(-1)) and approximately amounted to 2% of the EU ML (0.50 mg kg(-1)). The higher Cd concentrations were found in organs and tissues included in crab body such as abdomen, chephalotorax and gonads with respect to appendages. Chephalotorax showed the highest metal concentration (mean value of 1.19 mg kg(-1)). The possible differences in Cd bioaccumulation rate among crab organs and tissues were also investigated applying a parametric linear regression. A major Cd bioaccumulation rate was revealed in chephalotorax with respect to other analyzed organs and tissues. Furthermore, the evaluation of health risk related to human consumption of the Mediterranean spider crab has been studied for median of total population, median and 95th percentile of consumers of Italy. The observed results highlighted that the consumption of organs and tissues included in crab body such as abdomen, gonads and, in particular, chephalotorax substantially increased the Cd intake reaching also alarming Estimated Weekly Intake (EWI) values especially for median and 95th percentile of Italian consumers.

  15. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, X Ronald; Park, Peter C; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-07

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.

  16. Comprehensive analysis of proton range uncertainties related to patient stopping-power-ratio estimation using the stoichiometric calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming; Zhu, X. Ronald; Park, Peter C.; Titt, Uwe; Mohan, Radhe; Virshup, Gary; Clayton, James E.; Dong, Lei

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze factors affecting proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimations and range uncertainties in proton therapy planning using the standard stoichiometric calibration. The SPR uncertainties were grouped into five categories according to their origins and then estimated based on previously published reports or measurements. For the first time, the impact of tissue composition variations on SPR estimation was assessed and the uncertainty estimates of each category were determined for low-density (lung), soft, and high-density (bone) tissues. A composite, 95th percentile water-equivalent-thickness uncertainty was calculated from multiple beam directions in 15 patients with various types of cancer undergoing proton therapy. The SPR uncertainties (1σ) were quite different (ranging from 1.6% to 5.0%) in different tissue groups, although the final combined uncertainty (95th percentile) for different treatment sites was fairly consistent at 3.0-3.4%, primarily because soft tissue is the dominant tissue type in the human body. The dominant contributing factor for uncertainties in soft tissues was the degeneracy of Hounsfield numbers in the presence of tissue composition variations. To reduce the overall uncertainties in SPR estimation, the use of dual-energy computed tomography is suggested. The values recommended in this study based on typical treatment sites and a small group of patients roughly agree with the commonly referenced value (3.5%) used for margin design. By using tissue-specific range uncertainties, one could estimate the beam-specific range margin by accounting for different types and amounts of tissues along a beam, which may allow for customization of range uncertainty for each beam direction.

  17. Value of Robotically Assisted Surgery for Mitral Valve Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mihaljevic, Tomislav; Koprivanac, Marijan; Kelava, Marta; Goodman, Avi; Jarrett, Craig; Williams, Sarah J.; Gillinov, A. Marc; Bajwa, Gurjyot; Mick, Stephanie L.; Bonatti, Johannes; Blackstone, Eugene H.

    2014-01-01

    Importance The value of robotically assisted surgery for mitral valve disease is questioned because the high cost of care associated with robotic technology may outweigh its clinical benefits. Objective To investigate conditions under which benefits of robotic surgery mitigate high technology costs. Design Clinical cohort study comparing costs of robotic vs. three contemporaneous conventional surgical approaches for degenerative mitral disease. Surgery was performed from 2006–2011, and comparisons were based on intent-to-treat, with propensity-matching used to reduce selection bias. Setting Large multi-specialty academic medical center. Participants 1,290 patients aged 57±11 years, 27% women, underwent mitral repair for regurgitation from posterior leaflet prolapse. Robotic surgery was used in 473, complete sternotomy in 227, partial sternotomy in 349, and anterolateral thoracotomy in 241. Three propensity-matched groups were formed based on demographics, symptoms, cardiac and noncardiac comorbidities, valve pathophysiology, and echocardiographic measurements: robotic vs. sternotomy (n=198 pairs) vs. partial sternotomy (n=293 pairs) vs. thoracotomy (n=224 pairs). Interventions Mitral valve repair. Main Outcome Measures Cost of care, expressed as robotic capital investment, maintenance, and direct technical hospital cost, and benefit of care, based on differences in recovery time. Results Median cost of care for robotically assisted surgery exceeded the cost of alternative approaches by 27% (−5%, 68%), 32% (−6%, 70%), and 21% (−2%, 54%) (median [15th, 85th percentiles]) for complete sternotomy, partial sternotomy, and anterolateral thoracotomy, respectively. Higher operative costs were partially offset by lower postoperative costs and earlier return to work: median 35 days for robotic surgery, 49 for complete sternotomy, 56 for partial sternotomy, and 42 for anterolateral thoracotomy. Resulting net differences in cost of robotic surgery vs. the three

  18. Chef of the Week

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Dee

    2012-01-01

    There is an overwhelming amount of research and data on childhood nutrition due to drastic increases in childhood obesity (classified as a BMI index greater than the 95th percentile for their height/weight). Obesity amounts have tripled in the last 30 years for children who fall in the age range of the author's students. The effects of childhood…

  19. Evaluation of Parallel Analysis Methods for Determining the Number of Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Aaron V.; Green, Samuel B.; Levy, Roy; Lo, Wen-Juo; Scott, Lietta; Svetina, Dubravka; Thompson, Marilyn S.

    2010-01-01

    Population and sample simulation approaches were used to compare the performance of parallel analysis using principal component analysis (PA-PCA) and parallel analysis using principal axis factoring (PA-PAF) to identify the number of underlying factors. Additionally, the accuracies of the mean eigenvalue and the 95th percentile eigenvalue criteria…

  20. 40 CFR 75.57 - General recordkeeping provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input). 9 95th percentile... period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and heat input... lookback period (moisture missing data algorithm depends on which equations are used for emissions and...

  1. Quality of life in Mexican American children following a weight management program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate quality of life (QOL) in at-risk for overweight and overweight Mexican American children after participating in 6 months of intensive weight management or self-help. Eighty sixth- and seventh-grade at-risk for overweight (BMI >= 85th to < 95th percentile) and overweight...

  2. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  3. Nurses' professional and personal values.

    PubMed

    Rassin, Michal

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure professional and personal values among nurses, and to identify the factors affecting these values. The participants were 323 Israeli nurses, who were asked about 36 personal values and 20 professional values. The three fundamental professional nursing values of human dignity, equality among patients, and prevention of suffering, were rated first. The top 10 rated values all concerned nurses' responsibility towards patients. Altruism and confidentiality were not highly rated, and health promotion and nursing research were rated among the last three professional values. For personal (instrumental) values, honesty, responsibility and intelligence were rated first, while ambition and imagination were rated 14th and 16th respectively out of 18. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were found among some personal and professional values rated as functions of culture, education, professional seniority, position and field of expertise. The results may assist in understanding the motives of nurses with different characteristics and help to promote their work according to professional ethical values.

  4. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonow, Jordan T.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in…

  5. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  6. Value Orientations [and] Leader's Guide for the Value Orientations Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grove, Cornelius Lee

    A values exercise suitable for secondary school students is divided into three sections. The first section, an introduction to students, explains the concepts of and interrelationships between basic human needs, culture, values orientation, and global perspectives. The intent of the exercise, to help students appreciate how a set of value…

  7. The value of life and the value of life extension.

    PubMed

    Horrobin, Steven

    2006-05-01

    Recent developments in aging research have added new urgency to the bioethical debate concerning life and death issues, the value of life, and the reasonable limits of medicine. This paper analyzes the basic structures of the liberal and conservative components of this debate, showing that there has hitherto been inadequate analysis on both sides concerning the nature and implications of the value of life, as well as, and as distinct from the value of life extension. Classic concepts of the intrinsic or extrinsic value of life are argued to be tangential or actually irrelevant to the value of life's continuance and so to the value of life extension. An analysis of personhood is proposed which focuses explicitly upon the value of life extension to persons. This analysis shows that persons may only intelligibly be understood as processes, for whom life extension is an inalienable and fundamental value. It is further proposed that, properly understood, such an analysis may significantly narrow the liberal/conservative divide in bioethics.

  8. Measuring values with the Short Schwartz's Value Survey.

    PubMed

    Lindeman, Marjaana; Verkasalo, Markku

    2005-10-01

    The reliability and validity of the Short Schwartz's Value Survey (SSVS) was examined in 4 studies. In Study 1 (N = 670), we examined whether value scores obtained with the SSVS correlate with those obtained with Schwartz's Value Survey (SVS; Schwartz, 1992, 1996) and the Portrait Values Questionnaire (Schwartz et al., 2001) and whether the quasi-circular structure of values can be found with the SSVS. In Study 2 (N = 3,261), we replicated the quasi-circular structure in a more heterogeneous sample and assessed whether the SSVS can differentiate appropriately between gender, religiosity, students from different fields, and supporters of left- and right-wing political parties. In Study 3 (N = 112), we examined the test-retest reliability of the SSVS and in Study 4 (N = 38), time saving gained by the SSVS compared to the SVS. The results show that the new scale had good reliability and validity and that the values measured by the SSVS were arrayed on a circle identical to the theoretical structure of values. We also provided equations that can be used in future studies to measure individuals' scores on the 2 main value dimensions, Self-Transcendence and Conservation.

  9. Values and Values Education in Estonian Preschool Child Care Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ülavere, Pärje; Veisson, Marika

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the study was to provide an outline of the values that principals, teachers and parents of preschool child care institutions consider important to be taught to children, and which activities, in their estimation, should be used to implement values education in child care institutions. A total of 978 respondents from all 15…

  10. Value-based Insurance Design.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-02-17

    The increasing awareness of the scarcity of health care resources is forcing the health care industry to improve quality while lowering the cost. One method by which employers and insurance companies are attempting to do this is with value-based insurance design. In these plans, patients pay a lower amount for certain services that are considered high value and a higher amount for services that are considered low value.

  11. Value-based Insurance Design.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2017-03-01

    The increasing awareness of the scarcity of health care resources is forcing the health care industry to improve quality while lowering the cost. One method by which employers and insurance companies are attempting to do this is with value-based insurance design. In these plans, patients pay a lower amount for certain services that are considered high value and a higher amount for services that are considered low value.

  12. Achieving Value in Primary Care: The Primary Care Value Model

    PubMed Central

    Rollow, William; Cucchiara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The patient-centered medical home (PCMH) model provides a compelling vision for primary care transformation, but studies of its impact have used insufficiently patient-centered metrics with inconsistent results. We propose a framework for defining patient-centered value and a new model for value-based primary care transformation: the primary care value model (PCVM). We advocate for use of patient-centered value when measuring the impact of primary care transformation, recognition, and performance-based payment; for financial support and research and development to better define primary care value-creating activities and their implementation; and for use of the model to support primary care organizations in transformation. PMID:26951592

  13. Congruence and functions of personal and cultural values: do my values reflect my culture's values?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Ronald

    2006-11-01

    Two studies are described examining the correlation between self- and culture-referenced values at a culture level (Study 1) and correlation between self- and culture-referenced values and self-reported behavior at an individual level (Study 2). It is found that values related to individual-group relationships (embeddedness) and expression and experience of affective feelings and emotions (affective autonomy) are significantly correlated at a culture level. In Study 2, culture-referenced values are shown to correlate with behaviors attached to social norms, whereas self-rated values are found to correlate with behaviors that are not norm-governed. Implications for measurement of cultural values and cultural and cross-cultural research designs are discussed.

  14. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  15. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating values education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to values in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…

  16. Personality, Sex, and Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde; Hartman, Timothy

    1978-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPA) and the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) were administered to 115 undergraduates. A two-factor MANOVA was performed with personality types (VPI) and sex as independent variables and work values (OWVI) as dependent variables. The F-ratios for main effects were significant. (Author/SJL)

  17. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  18. Modern Science and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowrance, William W.

    Designed to provide scientific personnel, policymakers, and the public with a succinct summary of the public aspects of scientific issues, this book focuses on how values and science intersect and how social values can be brought to bear on complex technical enterprises. Themes examined include: (1) relation of science and technology to human…

  19. Marital Therapy and Changing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsoi-Hoshmand, Lisa

    1976-01-01

    Implications of Feminist and Humanistic values for marriage are conceptualized. Their effects on therapist orientation and definitions of the viable marriage are discussed, together with proposed alternatives in marital intervention. It is concluded that value orientations and standards of positive mental health could provide therapists and…

  20. The Value of Location Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvrcek, Dan; Kumpost, Marek; Matyas, Vashek; Danezis, George

    The value attached to privacy has become a common notion in the press, featuring frequent stories of people selling sensitive personal information for a couple of dollars. Syverson argues [1] that we should incorporate the risk of data misuse into our reasoning about privacy valuations. Yet there are doubts as to whether people can, and do, value their privacy correctly and appropriately.

  1. How Is Physician Work Valued?

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Jeffrey P; Lahey, Stephen J; Nichols, Francis C; Levett, James M; Johnston, George Gilbert; Freeman, Richard K; St Louis, James D; Painter, Julie; Yohe, Courtney; Wright, Cameron D; Kanter, Kirk R; Mayer, John E; Naunheim, Keith S; Rich, Jeffrey B; Bavaria, Joseph E

    2017-02-01

    Strategies to value physician work continue to evolve. The Society of Thoracic Surgeons and The Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database have an increasingly important role in this evolution. An understanding of the Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) system (American Medical Association [AMA], Chicago, IL) and the Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) is necessary to comprehend how physician work is valued. In 1965, with the dawn of increasingly complex medical care, immense innovation, and the rollout of Medicare, the need for a common language describing medical services and procedures was recognized as being of critical importance. In 1966, the AMA, in cooperation with multiple major medical specialty societies, developed the CPT system, which is a coding system for the description of medical procedures and medical services. The RUC was created by the AMA in response to the passage of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1989, legislation of the United States of America Federal government that mandated that the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services adopt a relative value methodology for Medicare physician payment. The role of the RUC is to develop relative value recommendations for the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. These recommendations include relative value recommendations for new procedures or services and also updates to relative value recommendations for previously valued procedures or services. These recommendations pertain to all physician work delivered to Medicare beneficiaries and propose relative values for all physician services, including updates to those based on the original resource-based relative value scale developed by Hsaio and colleagues. In so doing, widely differing work and services provided can be reviewed and comparisons of their relative value (to each other) can be established. The resource-based relative value scale assigns value to physician services using relative value units (RVUs), which consist

  2. An assessment of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in the indoor dust of e-waste recycling facilities in South Africa: implications for occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Abafe, Ovokeroye A; Martincigh, Bice S

    2015-09-01

    Workplace exposure to persistent organic pollutants is a concern for human health. This study examined the presence of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the indoor dust from two major e-waste recycling sites and a university electronic equipment repair workshop in Durban, South Africa, in order to evaluate the implication of dust for occupational exposure. The mean ∑(n = 8)PBDEs and ∑(n = 3)PCBs were 20,094 and 235 ng g(-1), respectively. The levels of PBDEs and PCBs obtained in one of the recycling sites (123-27,530 and 161-593 ng g(-1)) were significantly higher than the levels obtained (91-7686 and 95th percentile, and the median and mean concentrations measured at the sites. By assuming a mean and a high dust intake rate, the average and 95th percentile daily exposure doses (∑DED/ng kg(-1) bw day(-1)) of PBDEs were 3.98, 8.52 and 7.58, 16.19, respectively, and of PCBs were 0.047, 0.094 and 0.089, 0.179, respectively. The ∑DEDs of PBDEs and PCBs were lower than the reference (RfD) values for BDE 47, BDE 99, BDE 153 and BDE 209, and Aroclor 1254 and 1016. Nevertheless, continual exposure to high levels of these pollutants is a concern; but as shown, the exposure can be significantly reduced if the e-waste facilities are cleaned thoroughly regularly.

  3. A probabilistic estimation of fluoride intake by infants up to the age of 4 months from infant formula reconstituted with tap water in the fluoridated regions of Ireland.

    PubMed

    Anderson, W A; Pratt, I; Ryan, M R; Flynn, A

    2004-01-01

    Two probabilistic models were developed to estimate the acute and chronic exposure to fluoride of exclusively formula-fed infants aged 0-4 months as a result of the consumption of infant formula reconstituted with fluoridated tap water in Ireland. The estimates were based on calculated infant formula consumption and accepted body weight standards, together with reported concentrations of fluoride in infant formula powder and measured values for the fluoride content of water in Ireland. The mean acute exposure of infants to fluoride on any single day in areas served by 387 fluoridated water supplies was estimated to be between 0.11 and 0.14 mg/kg body weight depending on age group (95th percentiles 0.2 and 0.26 mg/kg b.w., respectively). These predicted intakes were well below the intake of fluoride associated with acute toxic effects, which is considered to be 5 mg fluoride (F(-))/kg body weight. The mean chronic exposure of infants to fluoride was estimated to be between 0.106 and 0.170 mg/kg b.w./day depending on body weight (95th percentiles 0.108 and 0.172 mg/kg b.w./day, respectively). This estimate described the average daily fluoride intake of infants during the first 4 months of life residing in the areas served by 226 water supplies that achieved an average yearly fluoride concentration below 1.03 mg/l. Dental fluorosis may be considered to be the only risk at these low doses and from our work it is estimated that there is a very low risk of moderate dental fluorosis of the permanent dentition in infants exposed to fluoride at these levels.

  4. Obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among US adolescents with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Messiah, Sarah E; Vidot, Denise C; Somarriba, Gabriel; Haney, Kanathy; Aytur, Semra; Natale, Ruby A; Brosco, Jeffrey P; Arheart, Kristopher L

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To generate prevalence estimates of weight status and cardiometabolic disease risk factors among adolescents with and without disabilities. METHODS: Analysis of the 1999-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data was conducted among 12-18 years old with (n = 256) and without disabilities (n = 5020). Mean values of waist circumference, fasting glucose, high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic syndrome (MetS, ≥ 3 risk factors present) were examined by the following standardized body mass index (BMI) categories for those with and without disabilities; overweight (BMI ≥ 85th - < 95th percentile for age and sex), obesity (BMI ≥ 95th percentile) and severe obesity (BMI ≥35 kg/m2). Linear regression models were fit with each cardiometabolic disease risk factor independently as continuous outcomes to show relationships with disability status. RESULTS: Adolescents with disabilities were significantly more likely to be overweight (49.3%), obese (27.6%) and severely obese (12%) vs their peers without disabilities (33.1%, 17.5% and 3.6%, respectively, P ≤ 0.01 for all). A higher proportion of overweight, obese and severely obese children with disabilities had abnormal SBP, fasting lipids and glucose as well as MetS (18.9% of overweight, 32.3% of obese, 55% of severely obese) vs their peers without disabilities (9.7%, 16.8%, 36.3%, respectively). US adolescents with disabilities are over three times as likely to have MetS (OR = 3.45, 95%CI: 1.08-10.99, P = 0.03) vs their peers with no disabilities. CONCLUSION: Results show that adolescents with disabilities are disproportionately affected by obesity and poor cardiometabolic health vs their peers with no disabilities. Health care professionals should monitor the cardiometabolic health of adolescents with disabilities. PMID:25685291

  5. Rainfall variability and trends of the past six decades (1950-2014) in the subtropical NW Argentine Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castino, F.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2017-02-01

    The eastern flanks of the Central Andes are characterized by deep convection, exposing them to hydrometeorological extreme events, often resulting in floods and a variety of mass movements. We assessed the spatiotemporal pattern of rainfall trends and the changes in the magnitude and frequency of extreme events (≥95th percentile) along an E-W traverse across the southern Central Andes using rain-gauge and high-resolution gridded datasets (CPC-uni and TRMM 3B42 V7). We generated different climate indices and made three key observations: (1) an increase of the annual rainfall has occurred at the transition between low (<0.5 km) and intermediate (0.5-3 km) elevations between 1950 and 2014. Also, rainfall increases during the wet season and, to a lesser degree, decreases during the dry season. Increasing trends in annual total amounts characterize the period 1979-2014 in the arid, high-elevation southern Andean Plateau, whereas trend reversals with decreasing annual total amounts were found at low elevations. (2) For all analyzed periods, we observed small or no changes in the median values of the rainfall-frequency distribution, but significant trends with intensification or attenuation in the 95th percentile. (3) In the southern Andean Plateau, extreme rainfall events exhibit trends towards increasing magnitude and, to a lesser degree, frequency during the wet season, at least since 1979. Our analysis revealed that low (<0.5 km), intermediate (0.5-3 km), and high-elevation (>3 km) areas respond differently to changing climate conditions, and the transition zone between low and intermediate elevations is characterized by the most significant changes.

  6. Valuing Puget Sound’s Valued Ecosystems Components

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    tively new field of “ecological economics” incorporates a combination of utilitarian and “ecologistic” values. More broadly, the writings of Aldo ... Leopold have become a touch- stone for many contemporary thinkers on environmental ethics, values and aesthetics. In his much cited essay, The Land...Ethic, Leopold said, “A thing is right when it tends to preserve the integrity, stability and beauty of the biotic community. It is wrong when it

  7. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  8. The examination of relationship between socioeconomic factors and number of tuberculosis using quantile regression model for count data in Iran 2010-2011

    PubMed Central

    Sarvi, Fatemeh; Momenian, Somayeh; Khodadost, Mahmoud; Pahlavanzadeh, Bagher; Nasehi, Mahshid; Sekhavati, Eghbal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Poverty and low socioeconomic status are the most important reasons of increasing the global burden of tuberculosis, not only in developing countries but also in developed countries for particular groups. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between socioeconomic factors and the number of tuberculosis patients using quantile regression for count data. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 11,320 tuberculosis patients from March 2010 to March 201 in Iran. Data was gathered from the 345 sections of Iran by Ministry of Health and Medical Education and Statistical Center of Iran. The jittering method was applied for smoothing, and then, the quantile regression for count data was fitted. The AIC was used to compare the fitness of quantile regression for count data model and Poisson log-linear model. The R (3.0.1) software and Quantreg and AER packages were used for all analysis and modeling of the data. Results: The results of fitting the quantile regression for count data showed that in all percentiles, the more increase in immigration rate, illiteracy rate, unemployment and urbanization rates, the more tuberculosis morbidity rate was increased. The maximum increase of tuberculosis due to immigration rate, urbanization rate, unemployment rate, and illiteracy rate was in 95th percentile (β^=0.315), 85'Th percentile (β^=0.162), 75'Th percentile (β^=0.114 ), and 95'Th percentile (β^=0.304), respectively. For 50th percentiles and higher percentiles, with increasing the sum of physicians to the number of population, the tuberculosis morbidity rate was decreased, and the maximum decrease was in 95'Th percentile ( β^=-0.1). For all percentiles, the AIC showed that quantile regression for count data had been a better fit to data. Conclusion: With respect to the relationship between socioeconomic factors and TB rate, health care observers should pay close attention to improving these factors in Iran to reduce the TB mortality

  9. Reference values of tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity in healthy pediatric patients, calculation of z score, and comparison to tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion.

    PubMed

    Koestenberger, Martin; Nagel, Bert; Ravekes, William; Avian, Alexander; Heinzl, Bernd; Cvirn, Gerhard; Fritsch, Peter; Fandl, Andrea; Rehak, Thomas; Gamillscheg, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The tricuspid annular peak systolic velocity (TAPSV) is an echocardiographic measurement assessing right ventricular systolic function in children and adults. We determined the growth-related changes of the TAPSV to establish the references values for the entire pediatric age group. A prospective study was conducted of a group of 860 healthy pediatric patients (age 1 day to 18 years; body surface area [BSA] 0.14 to 2.30 m(2)). We determined the effects of age, gender, and BSA on the TAPSV values. Stepwise linear multiple regression analysis was used to estimate the TAPSV from the age, BSA, and gender. A correlation of normal TAPSV with normal tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values was performed. The TAPSV ranged from a mean of 7.2 cm/s (z score ± 2: 4.8 to 9.5 cm/s) in the newborn to 14.3 cm/s (z score ± 2: 10.6 to 18.6 cm/s) in the 18-year-old adolescent. The TAPSV values showed a positive correlation with age and BSA, with a nonlinear course. No significant difference was found in the TAPSV values according to gender. A significant correlation was found between the TAPSV and tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion values in our pediatric population. In conclusion, the z scores of the TAPSV values were calculated, and percentile charts were established to serve as reference data for patients with congenital heart disease.

  10. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  11. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.

    2016-02-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  12. Health risk assessment of abandoned agricultural soils based on heavy metal contents in Hong Kong, the world's most populated city.

    PubMed

    Man, Yu Bon; Sun, Xiao Lin; Zhao, Yin Ge; Lopez, Brenda Natalia; Chung, Shan Shan; Wu, Sheng Chun; Cheung, Kwai Chung; Wong, Ming H

    2010-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequence of changing and using agricultural soils to other purposes in Hong Kong with respect to risk to human health. This study established concentrations of the following priority elements: As, Cu, Cd, Cr, Pb and Zn in terms of total burden (using mixed acid microwave digestion) and with respect to metal bioaccessibility (using an in vitro simulated gastric solution). 55 locations were sampled representing 12 different land use types, namely, agricultural (A), abandoned agricultural (Ab), organic farm (OF), container storage (CS), construction waste (CW), e-waste storage (EW (S)), e-waste dismantling workshop (EW (DW)), e-waste open burning site (EW (OBS)), open burning site (OBS), petrol station (PS), metal recycling workshop (MRW) and car dismantling workshop (CDW). The elemental concentrations were subsequently used to establish Hazard Indices (for adults and children). 95th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined (ingestion, dermal and inhalation) Hazard Index (HI) only for adults where the EW (DW) land use type indicated the potential for increased harm (HI=1.16). On the other hand, where 5th percentile values of total elemental concentrations were used to derive a combined Hazard Index (HI) for children the HI values exceeded 1 for CS, MRW, PS, EW (DW), EW (OBS) and CDW land use types (respectively, 1.21, 1.19, 1.52, 1.21, 1.81 and 2.04).

  13. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  14. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  15. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  16. Environmental values in American culture

    SciTech Connect

    Baron, J.

    1995-12-31

    The effects of humans on the environment are mostly unintended. But people throughout the world have become more aware of these effects and have begun to try to control them, both through individual action and through government policy. Such efforts at control are based on people`s understanding of the environment and on their values toward it. The title of this important book, Environmental Values in American Culture, is deceptive. It is about understanding as much as values. It provides a more thorough account of the forces that shape our behavior than a study of values alone would provide. Its main concern is the attitude of US citizens toward global warming (the greenhouse effect), but its conclusions surely have more general significance. The book is also well written and easily understood (except for one chapter on individual differences) by a complete newcomer to the field. It deserves a wide audience.

  17. Teaching Values in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Richard A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the major criticisms that have appeared in the literature and argues that values clarification should not be used in the public schools or by such quasi-public agencies as Scouts, Planned Parenthood, and 4-H. (JOW)

  18. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  19. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  20. Establishing geochemical background variation and threshold values for 59 elements in Australian surface soil.

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; de Caritat, Patrice

    2017-02-01

    During the National Geochemical Survey of Australia over 1300 top (0-10cm depth) and bottom (~60-80cm depth) sediment samples (including ~10% field duplicates) were collected from the outlet of 1186 catchments covering 81% of the continent at an average sample density of 1 site/5200km(2). The <2mm fraction of these samples was analysed for 59 elements by ICP-MS following an aqua regia digestion. Results are used here to establish the geochemical background variation of these elements, including potentially toxic elements (PTEs), in Australian surface soil. Different methods of obtaining geochemical threshold values, which differentiate between background and those samples with unusually high element concentrations and requiring attention, are presented and compared to Western Australia's 'ecological investigation levels' (EILs) established for 14 PTEs. For Mn and V these EILs are so low that an unrealistically large proportion (~24%) of the sampled sites would need investigation in Australia. For the 12 remaining elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn and Zn) few sample sites require investigation and as most of these are located far from human activity centres, they potentially suggest either minor local contamination or mineral exploration potential rather than pollution. No major diffuse source of contamination by PTEs affects Australian soil at the continental scale. Of the statistical methods used to establish geochemical threshold values, the most pertinent results come from identifying breaks in cumulative probability distributions, the Tukey inner fence and the 98th percentile. Geochemical threshold values for 59 elements, including emerging 'high-tech' critical elements such as lanthanides, Be, Ga or Ge, for which no EILs currently exist, are presented.

  1. Value based care in hepatology.

    PubMed

    Strazzabosco, Mario; Allen, John I; Teisberg, Elizabeth O

    2017-01-10

    The migration from legacy fee-for-service reimbursement to payments linked to high value health care is accelerating in the United States because of new legislation and re-design of payments from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS). Since patients with chronic diseases account for substantial use of health care resources, payers and health systems are focusing on maximizing the value of care for these patients. Since chronic liver diseases impose a major health burden worldwide affecting the health and lives of many individuals and families as well as substantial costs for individuals and payers, hepatologists must understand how they can improve their practices . Hepatologists practice a high-intensity cognitive sub-specialty, using complex and costly procedures and medications. High value patient care requires multi-disciplinary coordination, labor-intensive support for critically ill patients and effective chronic disease management. Under current fee for service reimbursement, patient values, medical success and financial success all can be misaligned. Many current attempts to link health outcomes to reimbursement are based on compliance with process measures with less emphasis on outcomes that matter most to patients, thus slowing transformation to higher-value team-based care. Outcome measures that reflect the entire cycle of care are needed to assist both clinicians and administrators in improving quality and value of care. A comprehensive set of outcome measures for liver diseases is not currently available. Numerous researchers now are attempting to fill this gap by devising and testing outcome indicators and patients reported outcomes (PROMs) for the major liver conditions. These indicators will provide tools to implement a value-based approach for patients with chronic liver diseases to compare results and value of care between referral centers, to perform health technology assessment and to guide decision-making processes for health

  2. Transporting values by technology transfer.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Leonardo D

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of new medical technologies into a developing country is usually greeted with enthusiasm as the possible benefits become an object of great anticipation and provide new hope for therapy or relief. The prompt utilization of new discoveries and inventions by a medical practitioner serves as a positive indicator of high standing in the professional community. But the transfer of medical technology also involves a transfer of concomitant values. There is a danger that, in the process of adopting a particular technology, the user takes for granted the general utility and desirability of the implements and procedures under consideration without recognizing the socio-cultural peculiarities of the adopting country. A sensitivity to the social conditions and cultural traditions is important so that the emergence of new values can be examined critically and the transfer of necessary technology can be effected smoothly. In the Philippines, efforts to boost patronage of transplant technology appear to have overlooked this need for socio-cultural sensitivity. Legislative fiat cannot be used to override deep-seated values. There is a need to be more sensitive to the possible confrontation of values that the transfer of technology brings in order to avoid the erosion of indigenous socio-cultural values and minimize the intrusiveness of beneficial medical technology.

  3. Can Value Added Add Value to Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The five thoughtful papers included in this issue of "Educational Researcher" ("ER") raise new questions about the use of value-added methods (VAMs) to estimate teachers' contributions to students' learning as part of personnel evaluation. The papers address both technical and implementation concerns, considering potential…

  4. Values Education, the Judgment of Value and Self-Esteem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eidle, William R.

    If individuals have an objectified, firm understanding of themselves as subjects who exist within a basic self-constituting process for knowing and valuing, they will discover that their authenticity as human beings exists in fulfilling the requirements through which this self-constituting process effectively expresses itself. Self-appropriation…

  5. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told.

  6. Population and assay thresholds for the predictive value of lipoprotein (a) for coronary artery disease: the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study.

    PubMed

    Verbeek, Rutger; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Stoekenbroek, Robert M; Hovingh, G Kees; Witztum, Joseph L; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandhu, Manjinder S; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Tsimikas, Sotirios

    2016-04-01

    Variable agreement exists between different lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] measurement methods, but their clinical relevance remains unclear. The predictive value of Lp(a) measured by two different assays [Randox and University of California, San Diego (UCSD)] was determined in 623 coronary artery disease (CAD) cases and 948 controls in a case-control study within the EPIC-Norfolk Prospective Population Study. Participants were divided into sex-specific quintiles, and by Lp(a) <50 versus ∼50 mg/dl, which represents the 80th percentile in northern European subjects. Randox and UCSD Lp(a) levels were strongly correlated; Spearman's correlation coefficients for men, women, and sexes combined were 0.905, 0.915, and 0.909, respectively (P< 0.001 for each). The >80th percentile cutoff values, however, were 36 mg/dl and 24 mg/dl for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. Despite this, Lp(a) levels were significantly associated with CAD risk, with odds ratios of 2.18 (1.58-3.01) and 2.35 (1.70-3.26) for people in the top versus bottom Lp(a) quintile for the Randox and UCSD assays, respectively. This study demonstrates that CAD risk is present at lower Lp(a) levels than the currently suggested optimal Lp(a) level of <50 mg/dl. Appropriate thresholds may need to be population and assay specific until Lp(a) assays are standardized and Lp(a) thresholds are evaluated broadly across all populations at risk for CVD and aortic stenosis.

  7. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  8. The Value of Certainty (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkstrom, B. R.

    2009-12-01

    It is clear that Earth science data are valued, in part, for their ability to provide some certainty about the past state of the Earth and about its probable future states. We can sharpen this notion by using seven categories of value ● Warning Service, requiring latency of three hours or less, as well as uninterrupted service ● Information Service, requiring latency less than about two weeks, as well as unterrupted service ● Process Information, requiring ability to distinguish between alternative processes ● Short-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of five years or less, e.g. crop insurance ● Mid-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of twenty-five years or less, e.g. power plant siting ● Long-term Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable record of the statistics of a parameter for an interval of a century or less, e.g. one hundred year flood planning ● Doomsday Statistics, requiring ability to construct a reliable statistical record that is useful for reducing the impact of `doomsday' scenarios While the first two of these categories place high value on having an uninterrupted flow of information, and the third places value on contributing to our understanding of physical processes, it is notable that the last four may be placed on a common footing by considering the ability of observations to reduce uncertainty. Quantitatively, we can often identify metrics for parameters of interest that are fairly simple. For example, ● Detection of change in the average value of a single parameter, such as global temperature ● Detection of a trend, whether linear or nonlinear, such as the trend in cloud forcing known as cloud feedback ● Detection of a change in extreme value statistics, such as flood frequency or drought severity For such quantities, we can quantify uncertainty in terms

  9. Transfer of value from fit.

    PubMed

    Higgins, E Tory; Chen Idson, Lorraine; Freitas, Antonio L; Spiegel, Scott; Molden, Daniel C

    2003-06-01

    People experience regulatory fit when they pursue a goal in a manner that sustains their regulatory orientation (E. T. Higgins, 2000). Five studies tested whether the value experienced from regulatory fit can transfer to a subsequent evaluation of an object. In Studies 1 and 2, participants gave the same coffee mug a higher price if they had chosen it with a strategy that fit their orientation (eager strategy/promotion; vigilant strategy/prevention) than a strategy that did not fit. Studies 3-5 investigated possible mechanisms underlying this effect. Value transfer was independent of positive mood, perceived effectiveness (instrumentality), and perceived efficiency (ease), and occurred for an object that w as independent of the fit process itself. The findings supported a value confusion account of transfer.

  10. Re-valuing the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sara E.; Salzman, C. Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent advances indicate that the amygdala represents valence: a general appetitive/aversive affective characteristic that bears similarity to the neuroeconomic concept of value. Neurophysiological studies show that individual amygdala neurons respond differentially to a range of stimuli with positive or negative affective significance. Meanwhile, increasingly specific lesion/inactivation studies reveal that the amygdala is necessary for processes – e.g., fear extinction and reinforcer devaluation – that involve updating representations of value. Furthermore, recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human amygdala mediates performance on many reward-based decision-making tasks. The encoding of affective significance by the amygdala might be best described as a representation of state value – a representation that is useful for coordinating physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses in an affective/emotional context. PMID:20299204

  11. System for Memorizing Maximum Values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozeman, Richard J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    The invention discloses a system capable of memorizing maximum sensed values. The system includes conditioning circuitry which receives the analog output signal from a sensor transducer. The conditioning circuitry rectifies and filters the analog signal and provides an input signal to a digital driver, which may be either liner or logarithmic. The driver converts the analog signal to discrete digital values, which in turn triggers an output signal on one of a plurality of driver output lines n. The particular output lines selected is dependent on the converted digital value. A microfuse memory device connects across the driver output lines, with n segments. Each segment is associated with one driver output line, and includes a microfuse that is blown when a signal appears on the associated driver output line.

  12. Universal norms and conflicting values.

    PubMed

    Selgelid, Michael J

    2005-09-01

    While UNESCO's Universal Draft Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights highlights appropriate ethical values, its principles are stated in absolute terms and conflict with one another. The Draft Declaration fails to sufficiently address the possibility of conflict between principles, and it provides no real guidance on how to strike a balance between them in cases where conflict occurs. The document's inadequate treatment of conflicting values is revealed by examination of cases where principles aimed at the promotion of autonomy and liberty conflict with those aimed at benefit maximization and harm minimization. I argue that liberty (and autonomy) may be less important in the context of health care than in other contexts, and I conclude by suggesting specific ways in which some of UNESCO's principles should be revised in order to better address the reality of conflicting values.

  13. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  14. Realizing "value-added" metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunday, Benjamin; Lipscomb, Pete; Allgair, John; Patel, Dilip; Caldwell, Mark; Solecky, Eric; Archie, Chas; Morningstar, Jennifer; Rice, Bryan J.; Singh, Bhanwar; Cain, Jason; Emami, Iraj; Banke, Bill, Jr.; Herrera, Alfredo; Ukraintsev, Vladamir; Schlessinger, Jerry; Ritchison, Jeff

    2007-03-01

    The conventional premise that metrology is a "non-value-added necessary evil" is a misleading and dangerous assertion, which must be viewed as obsolete thinking. Many metrology applications are key enablers to traditionally labeled "value-added" processing steps in lithography and etch, such that they can be considered integral parts of the processes. Various key trends in modern, state-of-the-art processing such as optical proximity correction (OPC), design for manufacturability (DFM), and advanced process control (APC) are based, at their hearts, on the assumption of fine-tuned metrology, in terms of uncertainty and accuracy. These trends are vehicles where metrology thus has large opportunities to create value through the engineering of tight and targetable process distributions. Such distributions make possible predictability in speed-sorts and in other parameters, which results in high-end product. Additionally, significant reliance has also been placed on defect metrology to predict, improve, and reduce yield variability. The necessary quality metrology is strongly influenced by not only the choice of equipment, but also the quality application of these tools in a production environment. The ultimate value added by metrology is a result of quality tools run by a quality metrology team using quality practices. This paper will explore the relationships among present and future trends and challenges in metrology, including equipment, key applications, and metrology deployment in the manufacturing flow. Of key importance are metrology personnel, with their expertise, practices, and metrics in achieving and maintaining the required level of metrology performance, including where precision, matching, and accuracy fit into these considerations. The value of metrology will be demonstrated to have shifted to "key enabler of large revenues," debunking the out-of-date premise that metrology is "non-value-added." Examples used will be from critical dimension (CD

  15. High Levels of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S in Brazilian Thermal Paper Receipts and Estimation of Daily Exposure.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bruno Alves; Azevedo, Lara Ferreira; Gallimberti, Matheus; Campiglia, Andres Dobal; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an endocrine and metabolic disruptor commonly employed as a color developer in thermal papers. Consequently, BPA derived from thermal papers has been considered an important source of exposure for humans, since this chemical may migrate from paper to skin upon contact. Further, due to recent restrictions on BPA use in some countries, it has been replaced by a new analogue, bisphenol S (BPS). The aim of the present study was to determine levels of BPA and BPS in 190 different thermal receipts, randomly collected from different locations in São Paulo State, Brazil, including receipts from supermarkets, general and fast-food restaurants, gas stations, bus and airplane tickets, and credit card and bank accounts. BPA and/or BPS were detected in 98% of samples at concentrations ranging from below the quantification limit to 4.3% (mg/100 mg paper). The obtained values were higher than amounts previously reported in other countries. The estimated daily intake through dermal absorption from handling of thermal receipt papers was estimated on the basis of concentrations and frequencies of handling of papers by humans in both the general population and occupationally exposed individuals. Fifth percentile, median, and 95th percentile daily intakes by the general population were 0.44, 1.42, and 2 μg/d, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for occupationally exposed population are 21.8, 71 and 101 μg/d. The potential adverse consequences of elevated occupational exposure are currently being examined.

  16. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  17. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  18. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  19. Relationship of adiposity to the population distribution of plasma triglyceride concentrations in vigorously active men and women

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Paul T.

    2002-12-21

    Context and Objective: Vigorous exercise, alcohol and weight loss are all known to increase HDL-cholesterol, however, it is not known whether these interventions raise low HDL as effectively as has been demonstrated for normal HDL. Design: Physician-supplied medical data from 7,288 male and 2,359 female runners were divided into five strata according to their self-reported usual running distance, reported alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Within each stratum, the 5th, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, 90th, and 95th percentiles for HDL-cholesterol were then determined. Bootstrap resampling of least-squares regression was applied to determine the cross-sectional relationships between these factors and each percentile of the HDL-cholesterol distribution. Results: In both sexes, the rise in HDL-cholesterol per unit of vigorous exercise or alcohol intake was at least twice as great at the 95th percentile as at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. There was also a significant graded increase in the slopes relating exercise (km run) and alcohol intake to HDL between the 5th and the 95th percentile. Men's HDL-cholesterol decreased in association with fatness (BMI and waist circumference) more sharply at the 95th than at the 5th percentile of the HDL-distribution. Conclusions: Although exercise, alcohol and adiposity were all related to HDL-cholesterol, the elevation in HDL per km run or ounce of alcohol consumed, and reduction in HDL per kg of body weight (men only), was least when HDL was low and greatest when HDL was high. These cross-sectional relationships support the hypothesis that men and women who have low HDL-cholesterol will be less responsive to exercise and alcohol (and weight loss in men) as compared to those who have high HDL-cholesterol.

  20. Value Systems in International Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiba, Farouk I.

    Every society has a system of values and seeks to achieve goals which it defines as desirable. To gain insight and a measure of understanding of another culture, international marketers can approach a country as a whole, seek out behavioral premises, obtain a theoretical knowledge of the culture, and learn the country's social heritage.…

  1. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  2. Separating Growth from Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeagley, Raymond

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses Rochester's two academic models that offer different tools for different purposes--measuring individual learning and measuring what affects learning. The main focus of currently available growth measures is formative assessment--providing data to inform instructional planning. Value-added assessment is not a student…

  3. A Clash of Values: Censorship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neill, S. D.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between the responsibility of librarians to reject materials that threaten the moral and social values of the community and support for intellectual freedom by the library profession. Criteria that justify the censorship of materials are identified and discussed. (16 references) (CLB)

  4. More Value to Defining Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kemenade, Everard; Pupius, Mike; Hardjono, Teun W.

    2008-01-01

    There are lots of definitions of quality, and also of quality in education. Garvin (1984) discerns five approaches: the transcendental approach, the product-oriented approach, the customer-oriented approach, the manufacturing-oriented approach and the value-for-money approach. Harvey and Green (1993) give five interrelated concepts of quality as:…

  5. Value of Personnel Classification Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abellera, James W.; And Others

    The study outlines the development of a methodology for meaningfully estimating the value of classification information used by the Air Force to make selection and job assignment decisions which lead to the satisfaction of first-term enlisted manpower requirements. The methodology, called the optimal allocation strategy, is employed to solve a…

  6. What Works in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Marvin W.

    2011-01-01

    Values education (alternatively, moral education, character education) is the attempt, within schools, to craft pedagogies and supportive structures to foster the development of positive, ethical, pro-social inclinations and competencies in youth, including around strengthening their academic focus and achievement. Recent research has uncovered…

  7. Values in Persons With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This is an explorative study on the values of persons with schizophrenia based on transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 40 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. Values are action-guiding attitudes that subject human activities to be worthy of praise or blame. The schizophrenic value system conveys an overall crisis of common sense. The outcome of this has been designated as antagonomia and idionomia. Antagonomia reflects the choice to take an eccentric stand in the face of commonly shared assumptions and the here and now “other.” Idionomia reflects the feeling of the radical uniqueness and exceptionality of one's being with respect to common sense and the other human beings. This sentiment of radical exceptionality is felt as a “gift,” often in view of an eschatological mission or a vocation to a superior, novel, metaphysical understanding of the world. The aim of this study is neither establishing new diagnostic criteria nor suggesting that values play an etio-pathogenetical role in the development of schizophrenia but improving our understanding of the “meaning” of schizophrenic experiences and beliefs, and by doing so reducing stigmatization, and enhancing the specificity and validity of “psychotic symptoms” (especially bizarre delusions) and of “social and occupational dysfunction” through a detailed description of the anthropological and existential matrix they arise from. PMID:16940339

  8. "Teacher Leadership": Values and Voice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, David

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on teacher leadership, an important dimension of the work of the Leadership for Learning network which is the focus of this special issue. More specifically, the article focuses on the launch of a journal--"Teacher Leadership"--as a strategy for promoting key values: shared leadership, teachers' leadership of…

  9. Adding Value to Indiana's Commodities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1995-01-01

    Food processing plants are adding value to bulk and intermediate products to sell overseas. The Asian Pacific Rim economies constituted the largest market for consumer food products in 1993. This shift toward consumer food imports in this area is due to more women working outside the home, the internationalization of populations, and dramatic…

  10. Unshackled by Visions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  11. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  12. Academic Freedom vs. Community Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, David R.

    2007-01-01

    A frequent refrain in Utah County, which prides itself on being one of the most conservative communities in the country, is that its public institution of higher education, Utah Valley State College, should reflect "community values." Generally, the argument goes something like this: local taxpayers, who support the school, should not…

  13. Value Orientations in Heterosexual Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Susan D.; Peplau, Letitia Anne

    1985-01-01

    Results challenge the stereotype that whereas women are more concerned with close-knit attachments, men are more eager to maintain personal autonomy. No sex differences were found in attachment values, and women gave significantly more importance than did men to equal sharing and maintaining their personal autonomy. (Author/BL)

  14. Sexual Values of 783 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Emily; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The sexual values of absolutism (abstinence until marriage), relativism (sexual decisions made in reference to the nature of the relationship), and hedonism ("if it feels good, do it") were assessed in a convenience sample of 783 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university. Results revealed that relativism (62.1%) was the predominate…

  15. Value and Pricing of MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Rose M.; Passmore, David L.

    2016-01-01

    Reviewed in this article is the potential for Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) to transform higher education delivery, accessibility, and costs. Next, five major value propositions for MOOCs are considered (headhunting, certification, face-to-face learning, personalized learning, integration with services external to the MOOC, marketing). Then,…

  16. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  17. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  18. WORK VALUES OF THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNANE, JOHN F.; SUZIEDELIS, ANTANAS

    TO DETERMINE THE WORK VALUES OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, A WORK MOTIVATION SCHEDULE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 200 NORMAL WHITE MEN AND 200 WOMEN OF REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL AVERAGE AGE AND EDUCATION AND TO CEREBRAL PALSIED, DEAF, 63 RECENT AMPUTEES FROM THE VIETNAM WAR AND NEURO-PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. COMPARISON OF THE TWO GROUPS SHOWED…

  19. The Epistemic Value of Curiosity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitt, Frederick F.; Lahroodi, Reza

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, Frederick Schmitt and Reza Lahroodi explore the value of curiosity for inquiry and knowledge. They defend an appetitive account of curiosity, viewing curiosity as a motivationally original desire to know that arises from having one's attention drawn to the object and that in turn sustains one's attention to it. Distinguishing…

  20. Baseball and American Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

  1. Drought-Trigger Ground-Water Levels in Chester County, Pennsylvania, for the Period of Record Ending May 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cinotto, Peter J.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), to update the drought-trigger water levels for the Chester County observation-well network. The Chester County observation-well network was established in 1973 through a cooperative agreement between the CCWRA and the USGS to monitor local ground-water levels and trends and to determine drought conditions. In 1990 and again in 1997, drought-warning and drought-emergency water-level triggers were determined for the majority of wells in the existing Chester County observation-well network of 23 wells. Since 1997, the Chester County observation-well network expanded to 29 wells, some of the original wells were destroyed, and additional monthly water-level observations were made to allow for better statistical relations. Because of these changes, new statistics for water-level triggers were required. For this study, 19 of the 29 wells in the observation-well network were used to compute drought-trigger water levels. An additional 'drought-watch water-level trigger' category was developed to make the Chester County drought-trigger water-level categories consistent with those implemented by the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP). The three drought-trigger water-level categories, as defined by PaDEP are 1) 'drought watch' when at the 75th-percentile level; 2) 'drought warning' when at the 90th-percentile level; and 3) 'drought emergency' when at the 95th-percentile level. A revised methodology, resulting from longer periods of record representing ground-water and climatic conditions and changes in local water use, has resulted in some observed differences in drought-trigger water levels. A comparison of current drought-trigger water levels to those calculated in 1997 shows the largest mean annual change in percentile values was in northeastern Chester County. In this northeastern region, the

  2. Effects of Malnutrition on Left Ventricular Mass in a North-Malagasy Children Population

    PubMed Central

    Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Creta, Antonio; Fittipaldi, Mario; Giorgino, Riccardo; Quintarelli, Fabio; Satriano, Umberto; Cruciani, Alessandro; Antinolfi, Vincenzo; Di Berardino, Stefano; Costanzo, Davide; Bettini, Ranieri; Mangiameli, Giuseppe; Caricato, Marco; Mottini, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background Malnutrition among children population of less developed countries is a major health problem. Inadequate food intake and infectious diseases are combined to increase further the prevalence. Malnourishment brings to muscle cells loss with development of cardiac complications, like arrhythmias, cardiomyopathy and sudden death. In developed countries, malnutrition has generally a different etiology, like chronic diseases. The aim of our study was to investigate the correlation between malnutrition and left ventricular mass in an African children population. Methods 313 children were studied, in the region of Antsiranana, Madagascar, with age ranging from 4 to 16 years old (mean 7,8 ± 3 years). A clinical and echocardiographic evaluation was performed with annotation of anthropometric and left ventricle parameters. Malnutrition was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value age- and sex-specific of 16, 17 and 18,5 at the age of 18, or under the 15th percentile. Left ventricle mass was indexed by height2.7 (LVMI). Results We identified a very high prevalence of children malnutrition: 124 children, according to BMI values, and 100 children under the 15th percentile. LVMI values have shown to be increased in proportion to BMI percentiles ranging from 29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2.7 in the malnutrition group to 45 ± 15,1 g/m2.7 in >95th percentile group. LVMI values in children < 15th BMI percentile were significantly lower compared to normal nutritional status (29,8 ± 10,8 g/m2,7 vs. 32,9 ± 12,1 g/m2,7, p = 0.02). Also with BMI values evaluation, malnourished children showed statistically lower values of LVMI (29,3 ± 10,1 g/m2,7 vs. 33,6 ± 12,5 g/m2,7, p = 0.001). Conclusion In African children population, the malnourishment status is correlated with cardiac muscle mass decrease, which appears to be reduced in proportion to the decrease in body size. PMID:27140179

  3. Value Assessment at the Point of Care: Incorporating Patient Values throughout Care Delivery and a Draft Taxonomy of Patient Values.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Melissa J; Mullins, C Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Incorporation of patient values is a key element of patient-centered care, but consistent incorporation of patient values at the point of care is lacking. Shared decision making encourages incorporation of patient values in decision making, but associated tools often lack guidance on value assessment. In addition, focusing on patient values relating only to specific decisions misses an opportunity for a more holistic approach to value assessment that could impact other aspects of clinical encounters, including health care planning, communication, and stakeholder involvement. In this commentary, we propose a taxonomy of values underlying patient decision making and provide examples of how these impact provision of health care. The taxonomy describes four categories of patient values: global, decisional, situational, and external. Global values are personal values impacting decision making at a universal level and can include value traits and life priorities. Decisional values are the values traditionally conceptualized in decision making, including considerations such as efficacy, toxicity, quality of life, convenience, and cost. Situational values are values tied to a specific moment in time that modify patients' existing global and decisional values. Finally, discussion of external values acknowledges that many patients consider values other than their own when making decisions. Recognizing the breadth of values impacting patient decision making has implications for both overall health care delivery and shared decision making because value assessments focusing only on decisional values may miss important patient considerations. This draft taxonomy highlights different values impacting decision making and facilitates a more complete value assessment at the point of care.

  4. American values and contraceptive acceptance.

    PubMed

    Rzepka, J R

    1979-07-01

    A number of individual personality factors and social norms may be associated with reproductive confusion and/or irresponsibility. More specifically, the values underlying common American social norms may contribute to ineffective birth planning in the following ways: 1) The traditional roles of women in our society seem to encourage parenthood. The rule has been early marriage, closely spaced children, and few alternate sources of satisfaction or self-esteem. 2) Our culture strongly encourages family life. Children are a symbol of normalcy. 3) The importance of sexual enjoyment per se often conflicts with contraceptive use. Conversely, innocence is also valued and also contributes to unprotected sexual activity. 4) Religious reasons or adherence to concepts of natural law are almost always given by people opposed to contraception. 5) Health is important to Americans, and birth control methods negatively affect health in real and imagined ways. Social norms, though changing, remain essentially congruent with former contraceptive technology and former ideologies, customs, and dreams.

  5. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  6. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  7. Maximising value from PFI contracts.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Karen; Gates, Russell

    2012-05-01

    Against a backdrop where the Coalition Government has said more 'value' needs to be squeezed out of existing healthcare PFI projects, Karen Prosser, head of the health sector team at built asset consultancy, EC Harris, and Russell Gates, one of the company's partners on the same team, set out some of the key elements that NHS Trusts with operational PFI contracts should consider when undertaking a contract savings review.

  8. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  9. Engineering Design Handbook: Value Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-07-20

    worthwhile contribution to those goings-on, is often as important to the employee as the amount of compensation he receives. Training in the elements...be set up for: top management, operational management, operating personnel, and value engineers. 4-2.3.1 TOP Managiement Briefings In these...that is what you are being paid to handle, and the level of compensation is very likely to be (or should be) commensurate with your efficacy in

  10. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine.

  11. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  12. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING THORIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Schubert, J.

    1959-08-01

    An improved ion exchange method is described for recovery of uranium and thorium values as separate functions from an aqueous acidic solution containing less than 10/sup -3/ M thorium ions and between 0.1 and 1 M uranyl ions. The solution is passed through a bed of cation exchange resin in the acid form to adsorb all the thorium ions and a portion of the uranyl ions. The uranium is eluted by means of aqueous 0.1 to 0.4 M sulfuric acid. The thorium may then be stripped from the resin by elution with aqueous 0.5 M oxalic acid.

  13. Indian Education. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 95th Congress, 1st Session (February 1 and 2, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The Subcommittee focused its 1-2 February 1977 hearings on the educational activity of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), as the beginning of an effort to obtain an accurate picture of the current state of educational programs dealing with Indians and the development of ways to improve both the programs and their delivery. On 1 February a panel…

  14. Economic Problems of Rural America. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 95th Congress, 1st Session (June 7 and 15, 1977).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    The purpose of the two-day hearings (Senator Lloyd Bentsen of Texas presiding) was to provide a forum to examine the whole range of rural economic problems and to educate members of the House and Senate as to the seriousness and need for comprehensive rural development programs. The proceedings contain remarks and prepared statements by the…

  15. Review of Programs for the Handicapped, 1977. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on the Handicapped of the Committee on Human Resources, U.S. Senate, 95th Congress, First Session. Part 3. February 28, March 2, 21, 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate.

    Presented in the third of three documents is testimony given before the Senate Subcommittee on the Handicapped regarding the delivery of services to and programs for the handicapped. Included are statements from representatives of such agencies as the American Foundation for the Blind, National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults,…

  16. Status of the Bureau of Indian Affairs Reorganization. Hearing Before the United States Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs, 95th Congress, 2nd Session on Oversight on the Status of the Reorganization of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    The objective of the August 16, 1978, United States Senate hearing was to determine reorganization plans for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA). The Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Indian Affairs, two Deputy Secretaries, and Mr. Charles Trimble of the United Effort Trust testified before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. The…

  17. A Bill to Amend Title 38, United States Code, to Provide Counseling for Certain Veterans; . . . and Utilization of Veterans Readjustment Assistance Programs. H.R. 2231. 95th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    This U.S. House of Representatives bill (H.R. 2231), to be cited, if enacted, as the Comprehensive Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act of 1977, would amend title 38, United States Code, to provide counseling for certain veterans; to permit acceleration of monthly educational assistance payments to eligible veterans and dependents; to revise the…

  18. Youth Hostels. Hearing before the Subcommittee on National Parks and Insular Affairs of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. House of Representatives, 95th Congress, Second Session on H.R. 13557 (August 14, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    Representatives from the House of Representatives, American Youth Hostels, Inc. (AYH), the Council on International Exchange, Amtrak, the National Association for Foreign Student Affairs, Trancare, Inc. of Maryland, and the East Coast Bicycle Congress testified in favor of H.R. 13557 at the August 14, 1978, hearing in Washington, D.C. H.R. 13557…

  19. International Communications and Information; Hearings before the Subcommittee on International Operations of the Committee on Foreign Relations United States Senate, 95th Congress, First Session, June 8-10, 1977. Washington, D.C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U. S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Foreign Affairs.

    This volume presents the hearings on the implications of international communications and information held before the Senate Subcommittee on International Operations of the Ninety-fifth Congress. Statements taken from Otis Chandler, publisher of the "Los Angeles Times," Andrew Heiskell, chair of Time Incorporated, Glenn E. Watts,…

  20. Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, 95th Congress, 1st Session, September 26-27, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    Presented are testimony and written statements from the September, 1977 Hearings before the House Subcommittee on Select Education regarding P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act. Included are testimony and statements from individuals representing such agencies as the U.S. Office of Education (E. Boyer and E. Martin, Jr.),…

  1. American Women Workers in a Full Employment Economy. A Compendium of Papers Submitted to the Subcommittee on Economic Growth and Stabilization of the Joint Economic Committee, Congress of the United States, 95th Congress, 1st Session, September 15, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joint Economic Committee, Washington, DC.

    This compendium of seventeen papers discusses women's overall role in a full employment economy and their problems in fulfilling that role. It begins with a comprehensive summary of the authors' views and then presents the papers in six sections: (1) overview; (2) overcoming barriers; (3) support services and adjusted conditions; (4) education and…

  2. Value-based insurance design: embracing value over cost alone.

    PubMed

    Fendrick, A Mark; Chernew, Michael E; Levi, Gary W

    2009-12-01

    The US healthcare system is in crisis, with documented gaps in quality, safety, access, and affordability. Many believe the solution to unsustainable cost increases is increased patient cost-sharing. From an overall cost perspective, reduced consumption of certain essential services may yield short-term savings but lead to worse health and markedly higher costs down the road--in complications, hospitalizations, and increased utilization. Value-based insurance design (VBID) can help plug the inherent shortfalls in "across-the-board" patient cost-sharing. Instead of focusing on cost or quality alone, VBID focuses on value, aligning the financial and nonfinancial incentives of the various stakeholders and complementing other current initiatives to improve quality and subdue costs, such as high-deductible consumer-directed health plans, pay-for-performance programs, and disease management. Mounting evidence, both peer-reviewed and empirical, indicates not only that VBID can be implemented, but also leads to desired changes in behavior. For all its documented successes and recognized promise, VBID is in its infancy and is not a panacea for the current healthcare crisis. However, the available research and documented experiences indicate that as an overall approach, and in its fully evolved and widely adopted form, VBID will promote a healthier population and therefore support cost-containment efforts by producing better health at any price point.

  3. Threshold of toxicological concern values for non-genotoxic effects in industrial chemicals: re-evaluation of the Cramer classification.

    PubMed

    Kalkhof, H; Herzler, M; Stahlmann, R; Gundert-Remy, U

    2012-01-01

    The TTC concept employs available data from animal testing to derive a distribution of NOAELs. Taking a probabilistic view, the 5th percentile of the distribution is taken as a threshold value for toxicity. In this paper, we use 824 NOAELs from repeated dose toxicity studies of industrial chemicals to re-evaluate the currently employed TTC values, which have been derived for substances grouped according to the Cramer scheme (Cramer et al. in Food Cosm Toxicol 16:255-276, 1978) by Munro et al. (Food Chem Toxicol 34:829-867, 1996) and refined by Kroes and Kozianowski (Toxicol Lett 127:43-46, 2002), Kroes et al. 2000. In our data set, consisting of 756 NOAELs from 28-day repeated dose testing and 57 NOAELs from 90-days repeated dose testing, the experimental NOAEL had to be extrapolated to chronic TTC using regulatory accepted extrapolation factors. The TTC values derived from our data set were higher than the currently used TTC values confirming the safety of the latter. We analysed the prediction of the Cramer classification by comparing the classification by this tool with the guidance values for classification according to the Globally Harmonised System of classification and labelling of the United Nations (GHS). Nearly 90% of the chemicals were in Cramer class 3 and assumed as highly toxic compared to 22% according to the GHS. The Cramer classification does underestimate the toxicity of chemicals only in 4.6% of the cases. Hence, from a regulatory perspective, the Cramer classification scheme might be applied as it overestimates hazard of a chemical.

  4. RANGE AND DISTRIBUTION OF TECHNETIUM KD VALUES IN THE SRS SUBSURFACE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D

    2008-10-28

    Performance assessments (PAs) are risk calculations used to estimate the amount of low-level radioactive waste that can be disposed at DOE sites. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d} values) are input parameters used in PA calculations to provide a measure of radionuclide sorption to sediment; the greater the K{sub d} value, the greater the sorption and the slower the estimated movement of the radionuclide through sediment. Understanding and quantifying K{sub d} value variability is important for estimating the uncertainty of PA calculations. Without this information, it is necessary to make overly conservative estimates about the possible limits of K{sub d} values, which in turn may increase disposal costs. Finally, technetium is commonly found to be amongst the radionuclides posing potential risk at waste disposal locations because it is believed to be highly mobile in its anionic form (pertechnetate, TcO{sub 4}{sup -}), it exists in relatively high concentrations in SRS waste, and it has a long half-life (213,000 years). The objectives of this laboratory study were to determine under SRS environmental conditions: (1) whether and to what extent TcO{sub 4}{sup -} sorbs to sediments, (2) the range of Tc K{sub d} values, (3) the distribution (normal or log-normal) of Tc K{sub d} values, and (4) how strongly Tc sorbs to SRS sediments through desorption experiments. Objective 3, to identify the Tc K{sub d} distribution is important because it provides a statistical description that influences stochastic modeling of estimated risk. The approach taken was to collect 26 sediments from a non-radioactive containing sediment core collected from E-Area, measure Tc K{sub d} values and then perform statistical analysis to describe the measured Tc K{sub d} values. The mean K{sub d} value was 3.4 {+-} 0.5 mL/g and ranged from -2.9 to 11.2 mL/g. The data did not have a Normal distribution (as defined by the Shapiro-Wilk's Statistic) and had a 95-percentile range of 2.4 to 4.4 m

  5. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci.

    PubMed

    Bradfield, Jonathan P; Taal, H Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J; Scherag, André; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Cousminer, Diana L; Sleiman, Patrick M A; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I; Vimaleswaran, Karani S; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E; Evans, David M; St Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; van Duijn, Cornelia M; van der Valk, Ralf J P; de Jongste, Johan C; Postma, Dirkje S; Boomsma, Dorret I; Gauderman, W James; Hassanein, Mohamed T; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Mägi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A G; Neville, Charlotte E; Moreno, Luis A; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M; Kemp, John P; Buxton, Jessica L; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Mònica; Hirschhorn, Joel N; Gillman, Matthew W; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Gilliland, Frank D; Heinrich, Joachim; Wheeler, Eleanor; Barroso, Inês; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Power, Chris; Palmer, Lyle J; Hinney, Anke; Widen, Elisabeth; Farooqi, I Sadaf; McCarthy, Mark I; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Hebebrand, Johannes; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Smith, George Davey; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F A

    2012-05-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made in establishing genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American, Australian and European collaborative meta-analysis of 14 studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th percentile of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight newly discovered signals yielding association with P < 5 × 10(-6) in nine independent data sets (2,818 cases and 4,083 controls), we observed two loci that yielded genome-wide significant combined P values near OLFM4 at 13q14 (rs9568856; P = 1.82 × 10(-9); odds ratio (OR) = 1.22) and within HOXB5 at 17q21 (rs9299; P = 3.54 × 10(-9); OR = 1.14). Both loci continued to show association when two extreme childhood obesity cohorts were included (2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). These two loci also yielded directionally consistent associations in a previous meta-analysis of adult BMI(1).

  6. Using a higher criticism statistic to detect modest effects in a genome-wide study of rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Parkhomenko, Elena; Tritchler, David; Lemire, Mathieu; Hu, Pingzhao; Beyene, Joseph

    2009-12-15

    In high-dimensional studies such as genome-wide association studies, the correction for multiple testing in order to control total type I error results in decreased power to detect modest effects. We present a new analytical approach based on the higher criticism statistic that allows identification of the presence of modest effects. We apply our method to the genome-wide study of rheumatoid arthritis provided in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 16 Problem 1 data set. There is evidence for unknown bias in this study that could be explained by the presence of undetected modest effects. We compared the asymptotic and empirical thresholds for the higher criticism statistic. Using the asymptotic threshold we detected the presence of modest effects genome-wide. We also detected modest effects using 90th percentile of the empirical null distribution as a threshold; however, there is no such evidence when the 95th and 99th percentiles were used. While the higher criticism method suggests that there is some evidence for modest effects, interpreting individual single-nucleotide polymorphisms with significant higher criticism statistics is of undermined value. The goal of higher criticism is to alert the researcher that genetic effects remain to be discovered and to promote the use of more targeted and powerful studies to detect the remaining effects.

  7. A genome-wide association meta-analysis identifies new childhood obesity loci

    PubMed Central

    Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Taal, H. Rob; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Scherag, André; Lecoeur, Cecile; Warrington, Nicole M.; Hypponen, Elina; Holst, Claus; Valcarcel, Beatriz; Thiering, Elisabeth; Salem, Rany M.; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Cousminer, Diana L.; Sleiman, Patrick M.A.; Zhao, Jianhua; Berkowitz, Robert I.; Vimaleswaran, Karani S.; Jarick, Ivonne; Pennell, Craig E.; Evans, David M.; St. Pourcain, Beate; Berry, Diane J.; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeinera, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; van der Valk, Ralf J.P.; de Jongste, Johan C.; Postma, Dirkje S.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Gauderman, William J.; Hassanein, Mohamed T.; Lindgren, Cecilia M.; Mägi, Reedik; Boreham, Colin A.G.; Neville, Charlotte E.; Moreno, Luis A.; Elliott, Paul; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Li, Mingyao; Raitakari, Olli; Lehtimäki, Terho; Eriksson, Johan G.; Palotie, Aarno; Dallongeville, Jean; Das, Shikta; Deloukas, Panos; McMahon, George; Ring, Susan M.; Kemp, John P.; Buxton, Jessica L.; Blakemore, Alexandra I.F.; Bustamante, Mariona; Guxens, Mònica; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bisgaard, Hans; Gilliland, Frank D.; Heinrich, Joachim; Wheeler, Eleanor; Barroso, Inês; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.; Power, Chris; Palmer, Lyle J.; Hinney, Anke; Widen, Elisabeth; Farooqi, I. Sadaf; McCarthy, Mark I.; Froguel, Philippe; Meyre, David; Hebebrand, Johannes; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Smith, George Davey; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F.A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic variants have been associated with adult obesity and a few with severe obesity in childhood; however, less progress has been made to establish genetic influences on common early-onset obesity. We performed a North American-Australian-European collaborative meta-analysis of fourteen studies consisting of 5,530 cases (≥95th percentile of body mass index (BMI)) and 8,318 controls (<50th percentile of BMI) of European ancestry. Taking forward the eight novel signals yielding association with P < 5×10−6 in to nine independent datasets (n = 2,818 cases and 4,083 controls) we observed two loci that yielded a genome wide significant combined P-value, namely near OLFM4 on 13q14 (rs9568856; P=1.82×10−9; OR=1.22) and within HOXB5 on 17q21 (rs9299; P=3.54×10−9; OR=1.14). Both loci continued to show association when including two extreme childhood obesity cohorts (n = 2,214 cases and 2,674 controls). Finally, these two loci yielded directionally consistent associations in the GIANT meta-analysis of adult BMI1. PMID:22484627

  8. Reference ranges of PR duration and P-wave indices in individuals free of cardiovascular disease: the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Soliman, Elsayed Z; Alonso, Alvaro; Misialek, Jeffrey R.; Jain, Aditya; Watson, Karol E.; Lloyd-Jones, Don; Lima, Joao; Shea, Steven; Burke, Gregory L; Heckbert, Susan R.

    2013-01-01

    In this brief report, we provide normal reference ranges for PR duration [unadjusted and heart rate adjusted] and P-wave indices [duration, amplitude and terminal force in V1] in individuals free of cardiovascular disease and its risk factors. We used automatically processed digital ECG data from 1252 US participants [mean age 59 (± 10) years, 738 women, 588 whites, 207 African-Americans, 217 Hispanics, 240 Chinese] from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [MESA]. In multivariable adjusted linear regression models with PR and each P-wave variable as a separate outcome, significant age, sex and race differences in these markers were observed. Subsequently, we report reference ranges for abnormal [2nd and 98th percentiles], borderline abnormal [5th and 95th percentiles] and mean [SD] values of PR and P-wave indices stratified by age [middle age (45–64 years) and seniors (65–84 years)], sex [men and women] and race [whites, African Americans, Hispanics and Chinese]. PMID:23806475

  9. Spacecraft occupant protection requirements: a review of the recent changes.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Gohmert, Dustin M; Brinkley, James W

    2014-09-01

    NASA has recently updated spacecraft design requirements for protecting crewmembers during dynamic spaceflight phases. The details of the update are available in a NASA publication (NASA TM-2013-217380) and are summarized here. Previously, NASA's occupant protection requirements relied primarily on the multiaxial dynamic response criterion, which NASA refers to as the Brinkley Dynamic Response Criteria (BDRC). Although simple to implement, there are several important ground rules that must be met for the injury predictions to be applicable. These include proper restraint, flail controls, proper seating support, pressure suit considerations, head protection including consideration of helmet mass, and spaceflight deconditioning. Even if these ground rules are met, there are limitations to the model that must be addressed, including: model validation, sex differences, age effects, anthropometry effects, and differences between the physical fitness of military test subjects and future crewmembers. To address these limitations, new injury assessment reference values (IARV) have been prescribed for the 5(th) percentile female and 95(th) percentile male Hybrid III anthropomorphic test devices (ATD). These metrics are head-injury criterion, head-rotational acceleration, neck injury criterion, neck-axial-force limits, flail prevention, and lumbar-axial compression force. Using these new ATD IARVs, NASA can have increased confidence that vehicle designs mitigate the risk of injury during dynamic phases of flight.

  10. Learning the value of VE

    SciTech Connect

    Sperling, R.B.

    1989-03-03

    Describing lessons learned from Value Engineers (VE) studies at a government-funded research laboratory reveals how project managers were encouraged to use VE and how their projects benefited from the VE savings. The five major lessons were: An officer of ''free'' VE is a low-risk incentive to encourage the use of VE; More costs savings can be identified by VE studies than cost reviews or design reviews; Large projects can benefit from repeat VE studies; VE teams can identify surprising savings when allowed to challenge all design criteria; VE programs can be costs effective even though return on investment may vary among projects. 6 tabs.

  11. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  12. Valuing vaccines: deficiencies and remedies.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E

    2015-06-08

    Current evaluation models for the value of vaccines typically account for a small subset of the full social and economic benefits of vaccination. Health investments yield positive economic benefits via several channels at the household, community, and national levels. Underestimating, or worse, not considering these benefits can lead to ill-founded recommendations regarding the introduction of vaccines into immunization programs. The clear and strong links between health and wealth suggest the need to redesign valuation frameworks for vaccination so that the full costs may be properly weighed against the full benefits of vaccines.

  13. [Spirituality - Value of the relationship].

    PubMed

    Utsch, M

    2016-11-01

    Nowadays, issues of religiosity and spirituality are viewed differently than 50 years ago. Social upheaval, migration and secularization have changed the interpretation of religious meaning but have not made religion obsolete. This article describes the differences between a religious and a secular global view and defines spirituality as attachment to a larger entirety. The resources of spirituality are described and the dangers of fanaticism and fundamentalism should not be neglected. Criteria for healthy belief are compared to religious delusion. In the context of attachment theory and the concept of self-transcendence, the value of spirituality is explained by connectedness and relationship.

  14. Posthumanist's values in worldwide movies.

    PubMed

    Pensieri, Claudio; Vitali, Andrea Massimiliano; Tambone, Vittoradolfo

    2014-01-01

    Pop-Philosophy can broadcast lots of important messages, because of its popular way to communicate with people. We can say that one of the most important media used from pop philosophy to achieve its objectives is Cinema. In 2011, 818 films were produced. In 2012, cinema admissions in the USA were 1,360 million while in Europe they were 1,190 million. For this reason we decided to test a new methodology in order to investigate the Campus Bio-Medico University's students' "perception" of Values conveyed by films. In the first phase, we asked 296 students to tell us the titles of the films they have seen that dealt with the disclosure of posthumanist values. From this first phase, we identified the 5 most popular and cited films. In the second phase, we interviewed 175 students on the relationship that each of the 5 selected films had to convey the Idea of God, the Idea of Man and the Idea of Nature. The survey we carried out, allows us to simply see the gap between the message that according to the posthumanist experts should be transmitted in a certain direction with respect to the message received by a selected portion of cinematographic audience.

  15. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-05

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  16. Manifold-valued Dirichlet Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Xu, Jia; Vemuri, Baba C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models for manifold-valued data permit capturing the intrinsic nature of the curved spaces in which the data lie and have been a topic of research for several decades. Typically, these formulations use geodesic curves and distances defined locally for most cases — this makes it hard to design parametric models globally on smooth manifolds. Thus, most (manifold specific) parametric models available today assume that the data lie in a small neighborhood on the manifold. To address this ‘locality’ problem, we propose a novel nonparametric model which unifies multivariate general linear models (MGLMs) using multiple tangent spaces. Our framework generalizes existing work on (both Euclidean and non-Euclidean) general linear models providing a recipe to globally extend the locally-defined parametric models (using a mixture of local models). By grouping observations into sub-populations at multiple tangent spaces, our method provides insights into the hidden structure (geodesic relationships) in the data. This yields a framework to group observations and discover geodesic relationships between covariates X and manifold-valued responses Y, which we call Dirichlet process mixtures of multivariate general linear models (DP-MGLM) on Riemannian manifolds. Finally, we present proof of concept experiments to validate our model. PMID:26973982

  17. Linking manager values and behavior with employee values and behavior: a study of values and safety in the hairdressing industry.

    PubMed

    Maierhofer, N I; Griffin, M A; Sheehan, M

    2000-10-01

    Five theoretical processes that link values and behavior were identified: value congruence, value-behavior consistency, behavioral modeling, value internalization, and descriptive norms. A values questionnaire was administered to 219 employees and their managers. Values for preventive safety procedures and time urgency were linked to safety behavior of employees in the hairdressing industry. Hairdressers are frequently exposed to hazardous chemicals, and the safety behavior measured was wearing protective gloves. Results support value internalization (linking manager's and employee's values) and behavioral modeling (linking manager's and employee's behavior). Employee time urgency values were also negatively related to safety behavior (value-behavior consistency). Descriptive norms and value congruence were not supported. Strategies to align values within organizations and the management of safety at work are considered.

  18. Values in Prime-Time Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selnow, Gary W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how values are portrayed on prime-time network television. Looks at the prominence of values incidents in a story line and at how fully the values are explained. Examines how values incidents are structured and linked. Concludes that values incidents play an integral, if not principal, role in television programs. (RS)

  19. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  20. Student Views on the Value of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Jenny A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the value that a sample of students placed on feedback, what they valued it for and the conditions that affected this value judgement. I show that not all students value feedback particularly highly, especially when considered in relation to other factors in their education and when considered for its intrinsic value as…

  1. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... § 152.103(j)(2)(i). The factors that will be examined to determine if the transaction value closely... be acceptable, in determining if the transaction value closely approximates any of the test values. Customs will be consistent in determining if one value “closely approximates” another value. The...

  2. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 152.103(j)(2)(i). The factors that will be examined to determine if the transaction value closely... be acceptable, in determining if the transaction value closely approximates any of the test values. Customs will be consistent in determining if one value “closely approximates” another value. The...

  3. Shouldering the load, maximising value.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    In mid-November last year Ryhurst signed what it dubbed 'a ground-breaking strategic estates partnership' agreement with the Isle of Wight NHS Trust (HEJ - January 2015). Under the Wight Life Partnership, the two organisations will work in partnership 'to comprehensively review the estate across all the Trust's sites to ensure that buildings and grounds are being fully utilised, and suitable for modern healthcare'. This is Ryhurst's third such 'whole estate' joint-venture agreement with the NHS, and the first with a non-Foundation Trust, harnessing an approach that sees the company shoulder a considerable part of the burden of making optimum use of, and deriving 'maximum value' from, large healthcare estates. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports.

  4. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  5. Clinical value of bone densitometry.

    PubMed

    Sartoris, D J

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide insight into the long-standing controversy over the clinical value of noninvasive measurement of bone mass. Results of recent studies have increasingly supported the judicious use of bone densitometry as a clinical tool [1]. These reports contradict editorials on the limitations of bone densitometry that have appeared in a variety of subspecialty publications [2,3]. The importance of bone mass measurement is underscored by the lack of success in predicting bone density from various combinations of anthropometric and historical variables. Growing evidence suggests that densitometry is a useful tool for determining which women near menopause are at risk for osteoporosis and, therefore, are candidates for estrogen-replacement therapy. This article summarizes current concepts on the subject and attempts to prove that bone densitometry is a beneficial and indicated procedure for selected patients.

  6. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  7. The value of brain scanning

    PubMed Central

    Riddoch, D.; Drolc, Z.

    1972-01-01

    Over a 3-year period, 667 brain scans were performed, of which the results in 632 have been analysed. Positive scans were found in 68% of 204 cerebral tumours. There was a high rate of detection of meningiomas and malignant gliomas. Scanning was less helpful in visualizing slowly growing gliomas, and those tumours situated in the mid-line or posterior fossa. Metastases occupied an intermediate position. Positive scans occurred in a proportion of patients following acute cerebro-vascular accidents, and in a few other miscellaneous disorders. Virtually all patients with transient cerebral ischaemia, migraine, epilepsy and presenile dementia had normal brain scans. The value and limitations of this investigation have been discussed. PMID:5076491

  8. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  9. Do We Really Value Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-01-01

    University faculty think of their institutions as places in which learning is valued and pride themselves on the discovery of new knowledge. Indeed universities have been unusually successful in supporting research and developing new knowledge that has been enormously beneficial to society, and university faculty value learning far more than the average. But some kinds of learning are more valued than others-a fact that I believe is detrimental to the long-term welfare of both universities and society. By far the most valued learning is by someone who discovers what nobody else has learned before. We call the process of achieving such learning "research". It is the coin of the academic realm, at least partly because it is easy to evaluate. Those who do it creatively can reap the rewards of respect from their colleagues, better facilities and instrumentation from their institutions, regional and national awards from their disciplinary societies, and increased funding from government and industry for their endeavors. Significantly less valued are activities that help others to learn, especially when the learning involves things already known by many. We call such activities "teaching", although the dictionary definition of "teach" ("to show how to do something; give instructions to; train") is not broad enough to encompass the range of activities currently being used to encourage learning. There is a widespread notion that teaching is easy and requires no real creativity. Nontenured faculty are often warned that time spent on teaching will be thought of as "wasted", and those well established in research have been criticized for spending too much of their time on the "unproductive" activity of teaching. Teaching is held out to students as a fall-back position in case their other career plans do not pan out, and sometimes those who educate teachers are willing to accept less than the highest quality from the students to whom they provide credentials. Those who employ

  10. Hematology and biochemistry reference values for the light horse.

    PubMed Central

    Lumsden, J H; Rowe, R; Mullen, K

    1980-01-01

    Reference hematology and biochemistry intervals are presented for a number of variables of clinical interest determined for blood samples obtained from 60 thoroughbred mares, 12 thoroughbred foals and 50 standardbred horses in training. The observations for each variable were examined for outliers and Gaussian distribution. Parametric analysis was used where the observations were Gaussian initially or after any of four transformations, otherwise nonparametric analysis was required for estimation of the 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles. Description of the sample collection procedures, laboratory methods and statistical analysis are available allowing comparison and judicious application of these reference intervals by interested researchers and clinicians. PMID:7397597

  11. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-03

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing.

  12. 38 CFR 0.601 - Core Values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Core Values. VA's Core Values define VA employees. They describe the organization's culture and... their individual responsibilities and organizational responsibilities. (c) Advocacy. VA employees...

  13. 38 CFR 0.601 - Core Values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Core Values. VA's Core Values define VA employees. They describe the organization's culture and... their individual responsibilities and organizational responsibilities. (c) Advocacy. VA employees...

  14. More Value through Greater Differentiation: Gender Differences in Value Beliefs about Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with value beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-value theory defines 4 value components: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost. The present study followed up on…

  15. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  16. Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Has Diagnostic and Prognostic Value in Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Wu, Alan H. B.; Yue, John K.; Manley, Geoffrey T.; Sair, Haris I.; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Everett, Allen D.; Okonkwo, David O.; Valadka, Alex B.; Gordon, Wayne A.; Maas, Andrew I.R.; Mukherjee, Pratik; Yuh, Esther L.; Lingsma, Hester F.; Puccio, Ava M.; Schnyer, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and regeneration. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic values of serum BDNF in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined serum BDNF in two independent cohorts of TBI cases presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH; n = 76) and San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH, n = 80), and a control group of JHH ED patients without TBI (n = 150). Findings were subsequently validated in the prospective, multi-center Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study (n = 159). We investigated the association between BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) and recovery from TBI at 6 months in the TRACK-TBI Pilot cohort. Incomplete recovery was defined as having either post-concussive syndrome or a Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended score <8 at 6 months. Median day-of-injury BDNF concentrations (ng/mL) were lower among TBI cases (JHH TBI, 17.5 and SFGH TBI, 13.8) than in JHH controls (60.3; p = 0.0001). Among TRACK-TBI Pilot subjects, median BDNF concentrations (ng/mL) were higher in mild (8.3) than in moderate (4.3) or severe TBI (4.0; p = 0.004. In the TRACK-TBI cohort, the 75 (71.4%) subjects with very low BDNF values (i.e., percentile for non-TBI controls, <14.2 ng/mL) had higher odds of incomplete recovery than those who did not have very low values (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-11.0). The area under the receiver operator curve for discriminating complete and incomplete recovery was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.52-0.78) for BDNF, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.49-0.73) for GFAP, and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.43-0.66) for UCH-L1. The addition of GFAP/UCH-L1 to BDNF did not improve outcome prediction significantly. Day-of-injury serum BDNF is associated with TBI diagnosis and also provides 6-month prognostic information regarding recovery from TBI. Thus

  17. Circulating Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Has Diagnostic and Prognostic Value in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Korley, Frederick K; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon; Wu, Alan H B; Yue, John K; Manley, Geoffrey T; Sair, Haris I; Van Eyk, Jennifer; Everett, Allen D; Okonkwo, David O; Valadka, Alex B; Gordon, Wayne A; Maas, Andrew I R; Mukherjee, Pratik; Yuh, Esther L; Lingsma, Hester F; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M

    2016-01-15

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is important for neuronal survival and regeneration. We investigated the diagnostic and prognostic values of serum BDNF in traumatic brain injury (TBI). We examined serum BDNF in two independent cohorts of TBI cases presenting to the emergency departments (EDs) of the Johns Hopkins Hospital (JHH; n = 76) and San Francisco General Hospital (SFGH, n = 80), and a control group of JHH ED patients without TBI (n = 150). Findings were subsequently validated in the prospective, multi-center Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in TBI (TRACK-TBI) Pilot study (n = 159). We investigated the association between BDNF, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) and recovery from TBI at 6 months in the TRACK-TBI Pilot cohort. Incomplete recovery was defined as having either post-concussive syndrome or a Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended score <8 at 6 months. Median day-of-injury BDNF concentrations (ng/mL) were lower among TBI cases (JHH TBI, 17.5 and SFGH TBI, 13.8) than in JHH controls (60.3; p = 0.0001). Among TRACK-TBI Pilot subjects, median BDNF concentrations (ng/mL) were higher in mild (8.3) than in moderate (4.3) or severe TBI (4.0; p = 0.004. In the TRACK-TBI cohort, the 75 (71.4%) subjects with very low BDNF values (i.e., percentile for non-TBI controls, <14.2 ng/mL) had higher odds of incomplete recovery than those who did not have very low values (odds ratio, 4.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5-11.0). The area under the receiver operator curve for discriminating complete and incomplete recovery was 0.65 (95% CI: 0.52-0.78) for BDNF, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.49-0.73) for GFAP, and 0.55 (95% CI: 0.43-0.66) for UCH-L1. The addition of GFAP/UCH-L1 to BDNF did not improve outcome prediction significantly. Day-of-injury serum BDNF is associated with TBI diagnosis and also provides 6-month prognostic information regarding recovery from TBI. Thus, day

  18. Development of head injury assessment reference values based on NASA injury modeling.

    PubMed

    Somers, Jeffrey T; Granderson, Bradley; Melvin, John W; Tabiei, Ala; Lawrence, Charles; Feiveson, Alan; Gernhardt, Michael; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Patalak, John

    2011-11-01

    NASA is developing a new crewed vehicle and desires a lower risk of injury compared to automotive or commercial aviation. Through an agreement with the National Association of Stock Car Auto Racing, Inc. (NASCAR®), an analysis of NASCAR impacts was performed to develop new injury assessment reference values (IARV) that may be more relevant to NASA's context of vehicle landing operations. Head IARVs associated with race car impacts were investigated by analyzing all NASCAR recorded impact data for the 2002-2008 race seasons. From the 4015 impact files, 274 impacts were selected for numerical simulation using a custom NASCAR restraint system and Hybrid III 50th percentile male Finite Element Model (FEM) in LS-DYNA. Head injury occurred in 27 of the 274 selected impacts, and all of the head injuries were mild concussions with or without brief loss of consciousness. The 247 noninjury impacts selected were representative of the range of crash dynamics present in the total set of impacts. The probability of head injury was estimated for each metric using an ordered probit regression analysis. Four metrics had good correlation with the head injury data: head resultant acceleration, head change in velocity, HIC 15, and HIC 36. For a 5% risk of AIS≥1/AIS≥2 head injuries, the following IARVs were found: 121.3/133.2 G (head resultant acceleration), 20.3/22.0 m/s (head change in velocity), 1,156/1,347 (HIC 15), and 1,152/1,342 (HIC 36) respectively. Based on the results of this study, further analysis of additional datasets is recommended before applying these results to future NASA vehicles.

  19. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  20. The double malnutritional burden and regional disparities in Taiwan elementary school children: survey database and reference values.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wen-Harn; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    This special issue on the Nutrition and Health Survey in Taiwan Elementary School Children carried out during 2001-2002 (NAHSIT Children 2001-2002) portrays the current dilemma of the so-called "double nutritional burden" in Taiwanese children with papers addressing topics on the dietary characteristics, nutrition-related knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors, usage of nutritional supplements, nutritional biochemistry, and various aspects of diet, nutrition, behavior, health and wellbeing in children. The emergence of a double health burden in Taiwanese children is more prevalent in the underprivileged and less urbanized communities than in metropolitan cities. The NAHSIT Children 2001-2002 survey provides age-, and gender- specific percentile values for anthropometric measurements, physiological variables like physical fitness, blood pressure and pulse, respiratory function and bone density; nutritional hematology and biochemistry. For international comparison, these reference data are tabulated in this report and the survey data are made available in the data archive system maintained by the Center for Survey Research, Academia Sinica.

  1. Students' Reasoning about p-Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilonius, Birgit C.; Brenner, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Results from a study of 16 community college students are presented. The research question concerned how students reasoned about p-values. Students' approach to p-values in hypothesis testing was procedural. Students viewed p-values as something that one compares to alpha values in order to arrive at an answer and did not attach much meaning to…

  2. Sources of Teachers' Values and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collinson, Vivienne

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers have written extensively about values and have long understood that internalized values define character and decisions. However, scholarship on sources of values, particularly for teachers, remains relatively unexplored. Sources of teachers' values are usually mentioned only in passing in books or articles dealing with other aspects…

  3. Values in American and Hispanic Children's Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafle, June D.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Assessment of the values (positive behavior, positive feelings, negative behavior, negative feelings, traditional values, Judeo-Christian religious values, other religious values, and neutral situations) presented in both American and Hispanic basal reader series found several differences among publishers and cultural groups that lead to…

  4. Values and Work Environment: Mapping 32 Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Ariel; Sagiv, Lilach

    2004-01-01

    The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N = 652; mean age = 47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified…

  5. Value and Performance in the IT Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jo

    This paper discusses valuing information and its supporting technologies in the global environment. Different value propositions are explored from a financial, social, cultural, political, economic, corporate, and personal values perspective. Various means of measuring the relevancy of these value propositions to the individual, organization or…

  6. The Education of Developing Responsibility Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Güngör, Semra Kiranli; Güzel, Deniz Bostan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research is to improve different responsibility value education activities in pre-school value education. In Turkey, there is a yearly programme in which value should be gained in pre-school value education, but it is lack of activities and how. This research was performed with the studies in a total of 26 students aged five and…

  7. Value Cycles in the English Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joseph O.

    1986-01-01

    Discussed are the value cycles which English teachers have experienced since the break up of American cultural cohesion at the beginning of this century. Included are value centered, method centered/value free education, values clarification, moral development, and the current movement of moral objectivism. (Author/MT)

  8. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  9. Determining the Value of Lifelong Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parrott, Allen

    2002-01-01

    In contemporary educational discourse, value in relation to lifelong learning can mean a moral/ethical concept, economic or monetary value, or mathematical or numerical value. "Added value" is devoid of ethical/moral meaning; it encourages a view of learning that is purely technical. (SK)

  10. Work Ethic and Values in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on work ethic and values in human resource development (HRD). "Value Priorities of HRD Scholars and Practitioners" (Reid Bates, Hsin Chih Chen, Tim Hatcher) presents the results of a study that identified and analyzed six HRD values reflecting two value facets (locus of HRD influence…

  11. Brief report: value priorities of early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Tulviste, Tiia; Tamm, Anni

    2014-07-01

    Although adolescence is considered to be the formative period of values, relatively few studies have addressed values held by adolescents. The present short-term longitudinal study explores value priorities of early adolescents from two social groups (among ethnic Estonians and Russian-speaking minority) in terms of the 10 value types defined by Schwartz, and the question whether values change during one year. 575 early adolescents filled out a 21-item version of the Portrait Values Questionnaire. Adolescents' value priorities differed from the pan-cultural value hierarchy of adults (Bardi, Lee, Hoffmann-Towfigh, & Soutar, 2009) by attributing more importance to hedonism and stimulation, and less importance to benevolence and conformity. Although Russian-speaking students rated Self-Enhancement and Openness to Change more highly than Estonians, the value hierarchy of adolescents from two social groups was rather similar. Boys considered Self-Enhancement more important than girls. More value change was observable in Russian-speaking students, and boys.

  12. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  13. An interpretation of differences between field and laboratory pH values reported by the national atmospheric deposition program/national trends network monitoring program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bigelow, D.S.; Sisterson, D.L.; Schroder, L.J.

    1989-01-01

    Differences between field and laboratory pH values reported by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN) monitoring program from 1984 through 1986 are investigated. Median differences in hydrogen ion concentration between laboratory and field pH determinations at sites averaged -4.6 ??equiv/L in natural precipitation samples on an annual basis. The median difference found in external quality assurance samples analyzed during the same time period was -11 ??equiv/L. The results suggest a systematic bias in pH values reported by the NADP/NTN network. The bias appears to have a fixed component of approximately -7 ??equiv/L, which can be attributed to the sampling bucket and lid, and a seasonal and regional component that ranges from +4 to -22 ??equiv/L at the 10th and 90th percentiles. Differences were found to be independent of sample pH and sample volume. The magnitude of the bias has implications for the interpretation of previously published pH and hydrogen ion concentration and deposition values in the western United States.

  14. Value-based partnering in health care.

    PubMed

    Young, D W; Pinakiewicz, D C; McCarthy, S M; Barrett, D; Kenagy, J

    2001-01-01

    Many companies are beginning to focus on value in their health care purchasing decisions, and some are going beyond value-based purchasing to value-based partnering. Value-based partnering recognizes the interdependencies among stakeholder groups in the health care system and creates a strategic reason for them to exchange information and create long-term strategic alliances. This article discusses the principles of value-based partnering, impediments to practicing it and its future role in the health care system.

  15. Buying into conservation: intrinsic versus instrumental value.

    PubMed

    Justus, James; Colyvan, Mark; Regan, Helen; Maguire, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Many conservation biologists believe the best ethical basis for conserving natural entities is their claimed intrinsic value, not their instrumental value for humans. But there is significant confusion about what intrinsic value is and how it could govern conservation decision making. After examining what intrinsic value is supposed to be, we argue that it cannot guide the decision making conservation requires. An adequate ethical basis for conservation must do this, and instrumental value does it best.

  16. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  17. Assessment of the Compound Topographic Index CTI to predict Potential Ephemeral Gullies in Navarre (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahor, Y.; Casalí, J.; Giménez, R.

    2012-04-01

    Ephemeral gullies are relatively small (susceptible of being obliterated by conventional tillage operation) eroded channels that are able to generate however important in-site and off-site damages (removal of top soil and nutrients, degradation of drinking water quality, contamination of aquatic ecosystems, siltation, etc.). Gully initiation and development in a watershed is greatly driven by topographic factors. Precisely, several topographic indexes have been used to identify areas with risk of gully erosion. Among them, the Compound Topographic Index (CTI= A.S.PLANC; A: upstream drainage area, S: local slope, PLANC: planform curvature) is an approach recently implemented in the AnnAGNPS (Annualized Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution) model. It allows defining the location of potential ephemeral gullies (PEG). The aim of this work was to assess the capability of CTI for predicting PEG mouths (potential headcut) location in an agricultural field of Navarre (Spain) through AnnAGNPS. The study was carried out in a 450 ha area cultivated with wheat and located in Pitillas (southern Navarre). The climate is continental Mediterranean with a mean temperature of 13°C and annual rainfall of 500 mm. Top soil textures are mostly loamy and silt-loam. The 3 topographic components of the CTI were computed by TOPAZ program implemented in AnnAGNPS 5.10 using a digital elevation model of 5-m resolution. The CTI is computed for each raster grid. Then all the values are arranged from the smallest to the largest and then percentiles are calculated (for example, the 95th percentile is the threshold CTI value below which 95% of the CTI values may be found). Grid cells whose values correspond to a percentile lower than 90% are discarded by the model by default. On the other hand, 31 ephemeral gullies located within the studied agricultural field were selected from orthophotos (1:5,000). Natural drainage channels located in abandoned, steep pieces of terrain were not considered in

  18. Calibration and evaluation of the Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System for improved wildland fire danger rating in the UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Jong, M. C.; Wooster, M. J.; Kitchen, K.; Manley, C.; Gazzard, R.

    2015-11-01

    height of the most recent severe wildfire period in the UK (2 May 2011), 50 % of all wildfires occurred in areas where the FWI component exceeded the 99th percentile, and for each of the ten most serious wildfire events that occurred in the 2010-2012 period, at least one FWI component per event was found to surpass the 95th percentile. Overall, we demonstrate the significant advantages of using a calibrated, percentile-based approach for classifying UK fire danger, and believe our findings provide useful insights for any future redevelopment of the current operational UK FDRS.

  19. How Accurate Is a Single Cutpoint to Identify High Blood Pressure in Adolescents?

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Paolo; Andreano, Anita; Antolini, Laura; Bedogni, Giorgio; Salvatoni, Alessandro; Iughetti, Lorenzo; Moreno, Luis Alberto; Pietrobelli, Angelo; Genovesi, Simonetta

    2017-01-13

    In 2007 the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) proposed single blood pressure (BP) cutpoints (systolic: ≥130 mm Hg and diastolic: ≥85 mm Hg) for the diagnosis of high blood pressure (HBP) in adolescents. Before this proposal, HBP had been defined as BP at or above the 95th percentile for age, sex, and height percentile (reference standard). In this study, we evaluated the risk for misclassification when using the IDF single-cutpoints criteria. We first applied the IDF criteria to a reconstructed population with the same age, sex, and height distribution as the population used to develop the reference standard. The proposed single cutpoints corresponded to percentiles from the 81.6th to 99.9th for systolic BP and from the 92.9th to 98.9th for diastolic BP in the reconstructed population. Using IDF criteria, there were high false-negative fractions for both systolic and diastolic BP (from 54% to 93%) in 10- to 12-year-olds and a false-positive fraction up to 35% in older subjects. We then applied the IDF criteria to 1,162 overweight/obese adolescents recruited during 1998-2000 from pediatric clinical centers in Milano, Varese, and Modena in Italy and in Zaragoza, Spain. Overall false-negative and false-positive fractions were 22% and 2%, respectively; negative predictive values were especially low for 10- to 12-year-old subjects. The use of IDF's single cutpoints carries a high risk of misclassification, mostly due to false negatives in younger subjects. The effort to simplify diagnosis could be overcome by the risk of undiagnosed HBP.

  20. Vitamin D status among adolescents in Europe: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study.

    PubMed

    González-Gross, Marcela; Valtueña, Jara; Breidenassel, Christina; Moreno, Luis A; Ferrari, Marika; Kersting, Matilde; De Henauw, Stefaan; Gottrand, Frederic; Azzini, Elena; Widhalm, Kurt; Kafatos, Anthony; Manios, Yannis; Stehle, Peter

    2012-03-01

    An adequate vitamin D status is essential during childhood and adolescence, for its important role in cell growth, skeletal structure and development. It also reduces the risk of conditions such as CVD, osteoporosis, diabetes mellitus, infections and autoimmune disease. As comparable data on the European level are lacking, assessment of vitamin D concentrations was included in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. Fasting blood samples were obtained from a subsample of 1006 adolescents (470 males; 46·8 %) with an age range of 12·5-17·5 years, selected in the ten HELENA cities in the nine European countries participating in this cross-sectional study, and analysed for 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D) by ELISA using EDTA plasma. As specific reference values for adolescents are missing, percentile distribution were computed by age and sex. Median 25(OH)D levels for the whole population were 57·1 nmol/l (5th percentile 24·3 nmol/l, 95th percentile 99·05 nmol/l). Vitamin D status was classified into four groups according to international guidelines (sufficiency/optimal levels ≥ 75 nmol/l; insufficiency 50-75 nmol/l; deficiency 27·5-49·99 nmol/l and severe deficiency < 27·5 nmol/l). About 80 % of the sample had suboptimal levels (39 % had insufficient, 27 % deficient and 15 % severely deficient levels). Vitamin D concentrations increased with age (P < 0·01) and tended to decrease according to BMI. Geographical differences were also identified. Our study results indicate that vitamin D deficiency is a highly prevalent condition in European adolescents and should be a matter of concern for public health authorities.