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Sample records for 96-h ec50 values

  1. Acute toxicity of metals and reference toxicants to a freshwater ostracod, Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 and correlation to EC(50) values of other test models.

    PubMed

    Khangarot, B S; Das, Sangita

    2009-12-30

    The ostracod Cypris subglobosa Sowerby, 1840 static bioassay test on the basis of a 48h of 50% of immobilization (EC(50)) has been used to measure the toxicity of 36 metals and metalloids and 12 reference toxicants. Among the 36 metals and metalloids, osmium (Os) was found to be the most toxic in the test while boron (B), the least toxic. The EC(50) values of this study revealed positive linear relationship with the established test models of cladoceran (Daphnia magna), sludge worm (Tubifex tubifex), chironomid larvae (Chironomus tentans), protozoan (Tetrahymena pyriformis), fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas), bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and aquatic macrophyte duckweed (Lemna minor). Correlation coefficients (r(2)) for 17 physicochemical properties of metals or metal ions and EC(50)s (as pM) were examined by linear regression analysis. The electronegativity, ionization potential, melting point, solubility product of metal sulfides (pK(sp)), softness parameter and some other physicochemical characteristics were significantly correlated with EC(50)s of metals to C. subglobosa. The reproducibility of toxicity test was determined using 12 reference toxicants. The coefficient of variability of the EC(50)s ranged from 6.95% to 55.37% and variability was comparable to that noticed for D. magna and other aquatic test models. The study demonstrated the need to include crustacean ostracods in a battery of biotests to detect the presence of hazardous chemicals in soils, sewage sludges, sediments and aquatic systems. PMID:19683870

  2. Statistical strategies for averaging EC50 from multiple dose-response experiments.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2015-11-01

    In most dose-response studies, repeated experiments are conducted to determine the EC50 value for a chemical, requiring averaging EC50 estimates from a series of experiments. Two statistical strategies, the mixed-effect modeling and the meta-analysis approach, can be applied to estimate average behavior of EC50 values over all experiments by considering the variabilities within and among experiments. We investigated these two strategies in two common cases of multiple dose-response experiments in (a) complete and explicit dose-response relationships are observed in all experiments and in (b) only in a subset of experiments. In case (a), the meta-analysis strategy is a simple and robust method to average EC50 estimates. In case (b), all experimental data sets can be first screened using the dose-response screening plot, which allows visualization and comparison of multiple dose-response experimental results. As long as more than three experiments provide information about complete dose-response relationships, the experiments that cover incomplete relationships can be excluded from the meta-analysis strategy of averaging EC50 estimates. If there are only two experiments containing complete dose-response information, the mixed-effects model approach is suggested. We subsequently provided a web application for non-statisticians to implement the proposed meta-analysis strategy of averaging EC50 estimates from multiple dose-response experiments.

  3. Summarizing EC50 estimates from multiple dose-response experiments: a comparison of a meta-analysis strategy to a mixed-effects model approach.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoqi; Kopp-Schneider, Annette

    2014-05-01

    Dose-response studies are performed to investigate the potency of a compound. EC50 is the concentration of the compound that gives half-maximal response. Dose-response data are typically evaluated by using a log-logistic model that includes EC50 as one of the model parameters. Often, more than one experiment is carried out to determine the EC50 value for a compound, requiring summarization of EC50 estimates from a series of experiments. In this context, mixed-effects models are designed to estimate the average behavior of EC50 values over all experiments by considering the variabilities within and among experiments simultaneously. However, fitting nonlinear mixed-effects models is more complicated than in a linear situation, and convergence problems are often encountered. An alternative strategy is the application of a meta-analysis approach, which combines EC50 estimates obtained from separate log-logistic model fitting. These two proposed strategies to summarize EC50 estimates from multiple experiments are compared in a simulation study and real data example. We conclude that the meta-analysis strategy is a simple and robust method to summarize EC50 estimates from multiple experiments, especially suited in the case of a small number of experiments.

  4. Hormonal and electrolyte responses of conscious sheep to 96 h of hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Curran-Everett, D C; Claybaugh, J R; Miki, K; Hong, S K; Krasney, J A

    1988-08-01

    Hypoxia alters the relationship of aldosterone secretion to plasma renin activity. The potential role plasma electrolytes play in this modification is not clear. This study analyzed the interrelationships among renin, aldosterone, vasopressin (ADH), and plasma electrolytes during 96 h of normobaric hypoxia. Eight ewes were exposed, in discrete experiments, to hypocapnic hypoxia [arterial O2 tension (PaO2) 37-42 mmHg, arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) 26-28 mmHg] and eucapnic hypoxia (PaO2 40-43 mmHg, PaCO2 28-31 mmHg) by N2 dilution in an environmental chamber. Urine output (24 h) was measured, and arterial plasma samples were collected during the normoxic control period and at 24-h intervals of hypoxia. Plasma Na+, K+, renin, and ADH levels did not change from the normoxic values during either hypocapnic or eucapnic hypoxia. However, urinary aldosterone excretion [critical significance (alpha) less than 0.046] and K+ excretion (alpha less than 0.046) decreased markedly during each type of hypoxia. All sheep developed a pronounced negative K+ balance by 96 h of hypoxia. These data suggest that plasma K+ concentration is preserved by movement of K+ out of the intracellular compartment; this change in K+ distribution may inhibit aldosterone secretion during hypoxia.

  5. Predicted EC50 and EC95 of Remifentanil for Smooth Removal of a Laryngeal Mask Airway Under Propofol Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Ji Young; Kwak, Hyun Jeong; Lee, Kyung Cheon; Kim, Go Wun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect-site concentration (Ce) of remifentanil in 50% of patients (EC50) and 95% of patients (EC95) for smooth laryngeal mask airway (LMA) removal in adults under propofol and remifentanil anesthesia. Materials and Methods Twenty-five patients of ASA physical status I-II and ages 18-60 years who were to undergo minor gynecological or orthopedic surgery were assessed in this study. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil target-controlled infusion (TCI). Remifentanil was maintained at a predetermined Ce during the emergence period. The modified Dixon's up-and-down method was used to determine the remifentanil concentration, starting from 1.0 ng/mL (step size of 0.2 ng/mL). Successful removal of the LMA was regarded as absence of coughing/gagging, clenched teeth, gross purposeful movements, breath holding, laryngospasm, or desaturation to SpO2<90%. Results The mean±SD Ce of remifentanil for smooth LMA removal after propofol anesthesia was 0.83±0.16 ng/mL. Using isotonic regression with a bootstrapping approach, the estimated EC50 and EC95 of remifentanil Ce were 0.91 ng/mL [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-1.07 ng/mL] and 1.35 ng/mL (95% CI, 1.16-1.38 ng/mL), respectively. Conclusion Our results showed that remifentanil TCI at an established Ce is a reliable technique for achieving safe and smooth emergence without coughing, laryngospasm, or other airway reflexes. PMID:26069139

  6. 96 h LC50, behavioural alterations and histopathological effects due to wastewater toxicity in a freshwater fish Channa punctatus.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajbir; Dua, Anish

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the toxic impact of wastewater from sites 1 and 2 of Tung Dhab drain in the state of Punjab, India, on fish behaviour, morphology and gill histopathological biomarkers in comparison to control group. Static non-renewal tests were conducted for 96 h to determine LC50 of the wastewater for both sites using five concentrations (6.25-100%). Fish were regularly noticed for any deviation in behaviour and external morphology. Physico-chemical analysis of wastewater was done using standard methods recommended by APHA/AWWA/WEF (2005). Chronic toxicity tests were conducted for 15 and 30 days with sublethal concentrations of wastewater (50-90% of LC50) and gill histopathology was assessed. Wastewater near a paper mill was more toxic as observed from LC50 values of 72.45%. There was evident deterioration of water quality as the recorded values of some parameters were higher than the standard discharge limits. The test fish exhibited increased air gulping and surfacing, erratic movements initially and decreased opercular movements as the exposure period increased. Morphological observations include increased body colouration, mucus secretion, scale loss and haemorrhages on the skin and lower lip. Alterations in the gill histology such as complete lamellar fusion, epithelial lifting and intraepithelial oedema, haemorrhages, lamellar necrosis and aneurysm were noted in the test fish. Results demonstrate that the fish exposed to wastewater from both sites showed significantly greater change in gill organ index (IG) as compared to control fish for 15 and 30 days.

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O96:H19 Associated with a Severe Foodborne Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Pettengill, Emily A; Hoffmann, Maria; Binet, Rachel; Roberts, Richard J; Payne, Justin; Allard, Marc; Michelacci, Valeria; Minelli, Fabio; Morabito, Stefano

    2015-08-06

    We present here the complete genome sequence of a strain of enteroinvasive Escherichia coli O96:H19 from a severe foodborne outbreak in a canteen in Italy in 2014. The complete genome may provide important information about the acquired pathogenicity of this strain and the transition between commensal and pathogenic E. coli.

  8. Utility of Gene Expression and Ex vivo Steroid Production in a 96 h Assay for Predicting Impacts of Endocrine Active Chemicals on Fish Reproduction.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Development of efficient test methods that can generate reliable data to inform risk assessment is an on-going challenge in the field of ecotoxicology. In the present study we evaluated whether a 96 h in vivo assay focused on a small number of quantitative real-time polymerase ch...

  9. Prediction of the acute toxicity (96-h LC50) of organic compounds to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) using a group contribution method.

    PubMed

    Martin, T M; Young, D M

    2001-10-01

    A group contribution method has been developed to correlate the acute toxicity (96-h LC50) to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) for 397 organic chemicals. Multilinear regression and computational neural networks (CNNs) were used for model building. The models were able to achieve a fairly good correlation of the data (r2 > 0.9). The linear model, which included four specific interaction terms, provided a rapid means of predicting the toxicity of a compound. The CNN model was able to yield virtually the same predictions with or without the four interaction terms that were included in the multilinear model.

  10. Developmental toxicity of p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, their metabolites, and benzo[a]pyrene in Xenopus laevis embryos.

    PubMed

    Saka, Masahiro

    2004-04-01

    Since 1995, high incidences of deformed frogs have been documented in Kitakyushu, Japan. In this area, relatively high concentrations of DDT, trinitrotoluene (TNT), their metabolites (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene [DDE], p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane [DDD], 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene [2ADNT], and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene [4ADNT]), and benzo[a]pyrene [BaP]) have been identified from field samples. I used a standardized assay with Xenopus laevis embryos (frog embryo teratogenesis assay--Xenopus, FETAX) to examine the developmental toxicity of these compounds. Both DDE and BaP were considered nearly nontoxic in embryonic development because they induced low (< 10%) mortality and malformation incidence even at the highest concentrations tested (DDE, 393 microM; BaP, 13.2 microM). The DDD (96-h median lethal concentration [LC50] = 44.1 microM, 96-h median effective concentration [EC50] for malformation = 14.9 microM) was more lethal and teratogenic than its parent compound, DDT (96-h LC50 = 101 microM, 96-h EC50 = 41.5 microM). Predominant symptoms observed were axial malformations (DDT and DDD) and irregular gut coiling (DDT). However, DDT and DDD should not act as major lethal or teratogenic toxicants in the aquatic environment within a short-term exposure via water because their 96-h LC50 and 96-h EC50 values were extremely high, considering their low solubility in water. The TNT (96-h LC50 = 16.7 microM) was more lethal than 2ADNT (96-h LC50 = 166 microM) or 4ADNT (96-h LC50 = 115 microM). Although 4ADNT (96-h EC50 = 85.8 microM) induced various tadpole malformations, it was a weak teratogen compared with TNT (96-h EC50 = 9.78 microM) and 2ADNT (96-h EC50 = 16.9 microM). The most typical malformations observed were axial malformations, eye abnormalities (TNT), edema, and irregular gut coiling (2ADNT and 4ADNT). The 96-h LC50 and 96-h EC50 values of TNT, 2ADNT, and 4ADNT were lower than their saturated concentrations in water. Therefore, these

  11. Influence of light, nutrients, and temperature on the toxicity of atrazine to the algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata: Implications for the risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard A; Lissemore, Linda; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S

    2016-10-01

    The acute toxicity of herbicides to algae is commonly assessed under conditions (e.g., light intensity, water temperature, concentration of nutrients, pH) prescribed by standard test protocols. However, the observed toxicity may vary with changes in one or more of these parameters. This study examined variation in toxicity of the herbicide atrazine to a representative green algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) with changes in light intensity, water temperature, concentrations of nutrients or combinations of these three parameters. Conditions were chosen that could be representative of the intensive corn growing Midwestern region of the United States of America where atrazine is used extensively. Varying light intensity (4-58µmol/m(2)s) resulted in no observable trend in 96-h EC50 values for growth rate. EC50 values for PSII yield generally increased with decreasing light intensity but not significantly in all cases. The 96-h EC50 values for growth rate decreased with decreases in temperature (20-5°C) from standard conditions (25°C), but EC50 values for PSII yield at lower temperatures were not significantly different from standard conditions. Finally, there was no clear trend in 96-h EC50 values for both endpoints with increases in nitrogen (4.1-20mg/L) and phosphorus (0.24-1.2mg/L). The 96-h EC50 values for both endpoints under combinations of conditions mimicking aquatic systems in the Midwestern U.S. were not significantly different from EC50 values generated under standard test conditions. This combination of decreased light intensity and temperature and increased nutrients relative to standard conditions does not appear to significantly affect the observed toxicity of atrazine to R. subcapitata. For atrazine specifically, and for perhaps other herbicides, this means current laboratory protocols are useful for extrapolating to effects on algae under realistic environmental conditions. PMID:27340884

  12. Influence of light, nutrients, and temperature on the toxicity of atrazine to the algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata: Implications for the risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard A; Lissemore, Linda; Solomon, Keith R; Hanson, Mark L; Prosser, Ryan S

    2016-10-01

    The acute toxicity of herbicides to algae is commonly assessed under conditions (e.g., light intensity, water temperature, concentration of nutrients, pH) prescribed by standard test protocols. However, the observed toxicity may vary with changes in one or more of these parameters. This study examined variation in toxicity of the herbicide atrazine to a representative green algal species Raphidocelis subcapitata (formerly Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata) with changes in light intensity, water temperature, concentrations of nutrients or combinations of these three parameters. Conditions were chosen that could be representative of the intensive corn growing Midwestern region of the United States of America where atrazine is used extensively. Varying light intensity (4-58µmol/m(2)s) resulted in no observable trend in 96-h EC50 values for growth rate. EC50 values for PSII yield generally increased with decreasing light intensity but not significantly in all cases. The 96-h EC50 values for growth rate decreased with decreases in temperature (20-5°C) from standard conditions (25°C), but EC50 values for PSII yield at lower temperatures were not significantly different from standard conditions. Finally, there was no clear trend in 96-h EC50 values for both endpoints with increases in nitrogen (4.1-20mg/L) and phosphorus (0.24-1.2mg/L). The 96-h EC50 values for both endpoints under combinations of conditions mimicking aquatic systems in the Midwestern U.S. were not significantly different from EC50 values generated under standard test conditions. This combination of decreased light intensity and temperature and increased nutrients relative to standard conditions does not appear to significantly affect the observed toxicity of atrazine to R. subcapitata. For atrazine specifically, and for perhaps other herbicides, this means current laboratory protocols are useful for extrapolating to effects on algae under realistic environmental conditions.

  13. Free and Compulsory School Age Requirements. ECS 50-State Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    Policymakers across the nation continue to push for expanded free and compulsory school age requirements. More states are considering granting students earlier access to a free education so that they can begin their academic pursuits earlier in life. Similarly, every year a number of states consider extending the upper limit for compulsory school…

  14. State Funding for Students with Disabilities. ECS 50-State Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millard, Maria; Aragon, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    About 13 percent of all public school students receive special educational services and state spending for these students is rising. In Michigan, for example, spending rose 60 percent from 2000 to 2010. While service costs have been increasing, the share of the costs covered by federal funding has been decreasing. Six years ago, the Individuals…

  15. The interactive effects of essential ions and salinity on the survival of Mysidopsis bahia in 96-H acute toxicity tests of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine receiving waters

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, W.S.; Horne, M.T.

    1997-10-01

    The importance of salinity in whole effluent toxicity tests using marine organisms has been acknowledged in most testing protocols. However, little if any attention has been given to the specific effects of alteration of the ionic composition of seawater solutions to the test organism. The presence of persistent toxicity in effluents with no apparent toxic agents prompted examination of the potential influence of essential ions on the survival of the opossum shrimp, Mysidopsis bahia, a common effluent toxicity indicator organism. Through stepwise additions of ionic salts to deionized water, the minimum complement of salts to maintain survival of M. bahia during 96-h exposures was determined to be Ca, Mg, K, Br, Na, and Cl. The toxicity curves for Ca, Mg, K, and Br were then determined across test salinity ranging from 10 to 35 parts per thousand. These curves for Ca, Mg, and K revealed that there are significant negative effects on survival when the essential ions are present in either low or high concentrations relative to the levels in natural seawater. Although there were no statistically detectable effects of Br on organism survival over the concentration range tested (5--480 mg/L). Br toxicity at concentrations less than 5 mg/L and greater than 700 mg/L have been shown in other studies. In addition, the tolerance ranges for K, Ca, and Mg were shown to shift significantly with changes in salinity, with lower salinity causing an apparent decrease in tolerance to an excess of essential ions. Tests with toxic effluents from five industrial and municipal sources revealed that adjustment of the ionic balance prior to testing reduced or eliminated toxicity in four of the five whole effluents tested. Suggestions for integrating this information into biomonitoring programs and toxicity identification evaluations are presented.

  16. Toxicity assessment and vitellogenin expression in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos and larvae acutely exposed to bisphenol A, endosulfan, heptachlor, methoxychlor and tetrabromobisphenol A.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wing Shan; Chan, Winson Ka-Lun; Chan, King Ming

    2013-07-01

    Organochlorine pesticides and brominated flame retardants, such as tetrabromobisphenol A and polybrominated diphenyl ethers, pose an environmental hazard owing to their persistence, low solubility and estrogenic effects, and concerns have been raised regarding their effects on aquatic biota. In the present study, zebrafish embryos and larvae were used as a model to investigate the sublethal and lethal effects of three different organochlorine pesticides, namely methoxychlor, endosulfan and heptachlor, as well as the flame retardant tetrabromobisphenol A, and its precursor compound bisphenol A. Preliminary data for chemical exposure tests were obtained by determining the 96 h median effective concentration EC50 (hatching rate) and 96 h median lethal concentration LC50 . Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to investigate the gene expression levels of the biomarker vitellogenin (vtg1) after 96 h exposures to 10, 25, 50 and 75% of the 96 h EC50 value for embryos and 96 h LC50 value for larvae. The use of vtg1 mRNA induction in zebrafish embryos and larvae was found to be a sensitive biomarker of exposure to these organic compounds, and was helpful in elucidating their adverse effects and setting water quality guidelines.

  17. Sensitivity or artifact? -- IQ Toxicity Test -- effluent values

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, K.R.; Novotny, A.N.; Batista, N.

    1995-12-31

    Several complex effluents were DAPHNIA MAGNA IQ TOXICITY TESTED -- (1.25 hours) and conventionally tested with Daphnia magna (48 hours). In many samples the IQ Technology yielded low EC50 values while the 48 hour exposures yielded no acute toxicity. Possible explanations have been suggested for this occurrence such as: genotoxicity, mutagenicity, substrate interference, and enzyme satiation. To identify the causative agent(s) of this response a Toxicity Identification Evaluation was performed on one of the samples. To define the nature of the response, THE SOS-CHROMOTEST KIT and THE MUTA-CHROMOPLATE KIT were utilized to characterize genotoxicity and mutagenicity respectively. The sample did not test positive for genotoxicity but tested positive for mutagenicity only after activation with S9 enzymes, suggesting the presence of promutagens. Additional work needs to be performed to correlate IQ TOXICITY TEST sensitivity with positive MUTA-CHROMOPLATE response.

  18. Role of exposure mode in the bioavailability of triphenyl phosphate to aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Huckins, James N.; Fairchild, James F.; Boyle, Terence P.

    1991-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the role of the route of triphenyl phosphate (TPP) entry on its aquatic bioavailability and acute biological effects. Three TPP treatments were used for exposures of fish and invertebrates. These consisted of TPP dosed directly into water with and without clean sediment and TPP spiked onto sediment prior to aqueous exposures. Results of static acute toxicity tests (no sediment) were 0.78 mg/L (96-h LC50) for bluegill, 0.36 mg/L (48-h EC50) for midge, and 0.25 mg/L (96-h EC50) for scud. At 24 h, the sediment (1.1% organic carbon)/water partition coefficient (Kp) for TPP was 112. Use of this partition coefficient model to predict the sediment-mediated reduction of TPP concentration in water during toxicity tests resulted in a value that was only 10% less than the nominal value. However, the required nominal concentration of TPP to cause acute toxicity responses in test organisms was significantly higher than the predicted value by the model for both clay and soil-derived sediment. Direct spiking of TPP to soil minimized TPP bioavailability. Data from parallel experiments designed to track TPP residues in water through time suggest that sorption kinetics control residue bioavailability in the initial 24 h of exposure and may account for observed differences in LC50 and EC50 values from the sediment treatments.

  19. Valuing Essays: Essaying Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Badley, Graham

    2010-01-01

    The essay regularly comes under attack. It is criticised for being rigidly linear rather than flexible and reflective. I first challenge this view by examining reasons why the essay should be valued as an important genre. Secondly, I propose that in using the essay form students and academics necessarily exemplify their own critical values. Essays…

  20. Effects of pyrethroid insecticides in urban runoff on Chinook salmon, steelhead trout, and their invertebrate prey.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Schlenk, Daniel; Riar, Navneet; Lydy, Michael J; Brooks, Marjorie L

    2015-03-01

    Pyrethroid insecticides can affect salmonids either indirectly through toxicity to their prey or directly by toxicity to the fish themselves. In support of a study on pyrethroid impacts to Chinook salmon and steelhead trout in the American River (Sacramento, California, USA), 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) and median lethal concentration (LC50) values for the pyrethroid bifenthrin were determined for taxa not traditionally used for toxicity testing but of interest as salmonid prey, including a chironomid, caddisflies, mayflies, and stoneflies. A laboratory was constructed on the banks of the American River to expose macroinvertebrates, Chinook salmon, and steelhead trout to flow-through river water containing urban runoff during storm events. Bifenthrin from urban runoff was found in river water following 5 rain events, reaching 14.6 ng/L. Mortality to the exposed salmonids was not observed, and sublethal effects were not seen in vitellogenin or sex steroid levels. Indirect effects via toxicity to salmonid prey are possible. Mortality to Hyalella azteca, a potential prey, was observed in every event tested, and peak bifenthrin concentrations were comparable to the 96-h EC50 of the caddisfly, Hydropsyche sp., the most important prey species on a biomass basis for American River Chinook salmon. The other invertebrates tested had EC50s exceeding bifenthrin concentrations seen in the American River, though could potentially be at risk at concentrations previously reported in smaller urban tributaries. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:649-657. © 2014 SETAC. PMID:25545717

  1. What Value "Value Added"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Two quantitative measures of school performance are currently used, the average points score (APS) at Key Stage 2 and value-added (VA), which measures the rate of academic improvement between Key Stage 1 and 2. These figures are used by parents and the Office for Standards in Education to make judgements and comparisons. However, simple…

  2. Influence of pH on the acute toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsills siliquoidea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Erickson, R.J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Brunson, E.L.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of pH on the toxicity of ammonia to juvenile freshwater mussels. Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity tests were conducted with 10-d-old juvenile mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) at five pH levels ranging from 6.5 to 9.0 in flow-through diluter systems at 20??C. Acute 48-h tests with amphipods (Hyalella azteca) and 96-h tests with oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were conducted concurrently under the same test conditions to determine the sensitivity of mussels relative to these two commonly tested benthic invertebrate species. During the exposure, pH levels were maintained within 0.1 of a pH unit and ammonia concentrations were relatively constant through time (coefficient of variation for ammonia concentrations ranged from 2 to 30% with a median value of 7.9%). The median effective concentrations (EC50s) of total ammonia nitrogen (N) for mussels were at least two to six times lower than the EC50s for amphipods and oligochaetes, and the EC50s for mussels decreased with increasing pH and ranged from 88 mg N/L at pH 6.6 to 0.96 mg N/L at pH 9.0. The EC50s for mussels were at or below the final acute values used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's acute water quality criterion (WQC). However, the quantitative relationship between pH and ammonia toxicity to juvenile mussels was similar to the average relationship for other taxa reported in the WQC. These results indicate that including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC would lower the acute criterion but not change the WQC mathematical representation of the relative effect of pH on ammonia toxicity. ?? 2008 SETAC.

  3. Contribution for the Derivation of a Soil Screening Value (SSV) for Uranium, Using a Natural Reference Soil

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Ana Luisa; Marques, Catarina R.; Gavina, Ana; Carvalho, Fernando; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    In order to regulate the management of contaminated land, many countries have been deriving soil screening values (SSV). However, the ecotoxicological data available for uranium is still insufficient and incapable to generate SSVs for European soils. In this sense, and so as to make up for this shortcoming, a battery of ecotoxicological assays focusing on soil functions and organisms, and a wide range of endpoints was carried out, using a natural soil artificially spiked with uranium. In terrestrial ecotoxicology, it is widely recognized that soils have different properties that can influence the bioavailability and the toxicity of chemicals. In this context, SSVs derived for artificial soils or for other types of natural soils, may lead to unfeasible environmental risk assessment. Hence, the use of natural regional representative soils is of great importance in the derivation of SSVs. A Portuguese natural reference soil PTRS1, from a granitic region, was thereby applied as test substrate. This study allowed the determination of NOEC, LOEC, EC20 and EC50 values for uranium. Dehydrogenase and urease enzymes displayed the lowest values (34.9 and <134.5 mg U Kg, respectively). Eisenia andrei and Enchytraeus crypticus revealed to be more sensitive to uranium than Folsomia candida. EC50 values of 631.00, 518.65 and 851.64 mg U Kg were recorded for the three species, respectively. Concerning plants, only Lactuca sativa was affected by U at concentrations up to 1000 mg U kg1. The outcomes of the study may in part be constrained by physical and chemical characteristics of soils, hence contributing to the discrepancy between the toxicity data generated in this study and that available in the literature. Following the assessment factor method, a predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value of 15.5 mg kg−1dw was obtained for U. This PNEC value is proposed as a SSV for soils similar to the PTRS1. PMID:25353962

  4. Further validation of FETAX: evaluation of the developmental toxicity of five known mammalian teratogens and non-teratogens.

    PubMed

    Bantle, J A; Fort, D J; Rayburn, J R; DeYoung, D J; Bush, S J

    1990-01-01

    The developmental toxicity of five compounds was evaluated with the Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus (FETAX). Late Xenopus laevis blastulae were exposed to 5-azacytidine, methotrexate, pseudoephedrine, aspartame, and amaranth for 96 h. Three separate static-renewal assays were conducted for each compound. Based on Teratogenic Index [LC50/EC50 (malformation)] values, types and severity of induced malformations, and embryo growth, 5-azacytidine and methotrexate tested as having strong teratogenic potential. Pseudoephedrine scored as having moderate teratogenic potential, but amaranth and aspartame had little or no teratogenic potential. Results support the use of FETAX for the screening of developmental toxicants.

  5. Copper toxicity in a natural reference soil: ecotoxicological data for the derivation of preliminary soil screening values.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Ana Luísa; Marques, Catarina Ribeiro; Gonçalves, Fernando; da Silva, Eduardo Ferreira; Pereira, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The risk assessment of contaminated soils is conventionally done with the support of soil screening values (SSVs). Since SSVs are still unavailable for many European countries, including Portugal, standardized toxicity tests are urgently claimed for their derivation. Hence, this work aimed the generation of toxicity values for copper (Cu) in a natural reference soil (PTRS1) targeting different terrestrial species, endpoints and soil functions, as to derive a preliminary Cu SSV. For this, the Assessment Factor approach was applied, which allowed calculating predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC) for Cu that will be the basis for SSV proposal. In order to increase the reliability of the PNEC, and hence of the SSV, a lab/field factor was applied to correct the toxicity values used for PNEC determination. Cu affected urease, cellulase and nitrogen mineralization activities. The EC50 values calculated for the invertebrates reproduction were 130.9, 165.1 and 191.6 mg Cu Kg(-1) soildw for Eisenia andrei, Enchytraeus crypticus and Folsomia candida, respectively. Cu inhibited seed germination mainly for Lactuca sativa, whilst it was toxic for the growth of different plant species (EC50s between 89 and 290.5 mg Cu Kg(-1) soildw). Based on the outcomes gathered, we proposed SSVs for Cu ranging between 26.3 and 31.8 mg Kg(-1) soildw, which is above the background values reported and below all the EC20s recorded for the species and endpoints herein analyzed. Overall, this work describes a procedure that could be easily followed by other European countries wishing to derive SSVs adjusted to their soils. PMID:26520436

  6. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Ingersoll, Christopher G; Hardesty, Douglas K; Ivey, Christopher D; Kunz, James L; May, Thomas W; Dwyer, F James; Roberts, Andy D; Augspurger, Tom; Kane, Cynthia M; Neves, Richard J; Barnhart, M Chris

    2007-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 microg Cu/L (except 15 microg Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were <45 microg Cu/L or <12 mg N/L and were often at or below the final acute values (FAVs) used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 1996 acute water quality criterion (WQC) for copper and 1999 acute WQC for ammonia. However, the chlorine EC50s for mussels generally were >40 microg/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC.

  7. Evaluation of acute copper toxicity to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, lampsilis siliquoidea) in natural and reconstituted waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Mebane, C.A.; Kunz, J.L.; Ingersoll, C.G.; May, T.W.; Arnold, W.R.; Santore, R.C.; Augspurger, T.; Dwyer, F.J.; Barniiart, M.C.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and water composition on the toxicity of copper to juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) were evaluated in natural and reconstituted waters. Acute 96-h copper toxicity tests were conducted at four nominal DOC concentrations (0, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/L as carbon [C]) in dilutions of natural waters and in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) reconstituted hard water. Toxicity tests also were conducted in ASTM soft, moderately hard, hard, and very hard reconstituted waters (nominal hardness 45-300 mg/L as CaCO3). Three natural surface waters (9.5-11 mg/L DOC) were diluted to obtain a series of DOC concentrations with diluted well water, and an extract of natural organic matter and commercial humic acid was mixed with ASTM hard water to prepare a series of DOC concentrations for toxicity testing. Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for dissolved copper varied >40-fold (9.9 to >396 ??g Cu/L) over all 21 treatments in various DOC waters. Within a particular type of DOC water, EC50s increased 5- to 12-fold across DOC concentrations of 0.3 to up to 11 mg C/L. However, EC50s increased by only a factor of 1.4 (21 30 ??g Cu/L) in the four ASTM waters with wide range of water hardness (52-300 mg CaCO 3/L). Predictions from the biotic ligand model (BLM) for copper explained nearly 90% of the variability in EC50s. Nearly 70% of BLM-normalized EC50s for fatmucket tested in natural waters were below the final acute value used to derive the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency acute water quality criterion for copper, indicating that the criterion might not be protective of fatmucket and perhaps other mussel species. ?? 2009 SETAC.

  8. Response of the green alga Oophila sp., a salamander endosymbiont, to a PSII-inhibitor under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Hosmer, Alan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In a rare example of autotroph-vertebrate endosymbiosis, eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are colonized by a green alga (Oophila sp.) that significantly enhances salamander development. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for impacts to the salamander embryo when growth of the algae is impaired by exposure to herbicides. To further investigate this relationship, the authors characterized the response of the symbiotic algae (Oophila sp.) alone to the photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor atrazine under controlled laboratory conditions. After extraction of the alga from A. maculatum eggs and optimization of culturing conditions, 4 toxicity assays (96 h each) were conducted. Recovery of the algal population was also assessed after a further 96 h in untreated media. Average median effective concentration (EC50) values of 123 µg L(-1) (PSII yield), 169 µg L(-1) (optical density), and 299 µg L(-1) (growth rate) were obtained after the 96-h exposure. Full recovery of exposed algal populations after 96 h in untreated media was observed for all endpoints, except for optical density at the greatest concentration tested (300 µg L(-1) ). Our results show that, under laboratory conditions, Oophila sp. is generally less sensitive to atrazine than standard test species. Although conditions of growth in standard toxicity tests are not identical to those in the natural environment, these results provide an understanding of the tolerance of this alga to PSII inhibitors as compared with other species.

  9. Response of the green alga Oophila sp., a salamander endosymbiont, to a PSII-inhibitor under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Leilan; Brain, Richard; Rodriguez-Gil, Jose Luis; Hosmer, Alan; Solomon, Keith; Hanson, Mark

    2014-08-01

    In a rare example of autotroph-vertebrate endosymbiosis, eggs of the yellow-spotted salamander (Ambystoma maculatum) are colonized by a green alga (Oophila sp.) that significantly enhances salamander development. Previous studies have demonstrated the potential for impacts to the salamander embryo when growth of the algae is impaired by exposure to herbicides. To further investigate this relationship, the authors characterized the response of the symbiotic algae (Oophila sp.) alone to the photosystem II (PSII) inhibitor atrazine under controlled laboratory conditions. After extraction of the alga from A. maculatum eggs and optimization of culturing conditions, 4 toxicity assays (96 h each) were conducted. Recovery of the algal population was also assessed after a further 96 h in untreated media. Average median effective concentration (EC50) values of 123 µg L(-1) (PSII yield), 169 µg L(-1) (optical density), and 299 µg L(-1) (growth rate) were obtained after the 96-h exposure. Full recovery of exposed algal populations after 96 h in untreated media was observed for all endpoints, except for optical density at the greatest concentration tested (300 µg L(-1) ). Our results show that, under laboratory conditions, Oophila sp. is generally less sensitive to atrazine than standard test species. Although conditions of growth in standard toxicity tests are not identical to those in the natural environment, these results provide an understanding of the tolerance of this alga to PSII inhibitors as compared with other species. PMID:24782078

  10. Value Added?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    UCLA IDEA, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Value added measures (VAM) uses changes in student test scores to determine how much "value" an individual teacher has "added" to student growth during the school year. Some policymakers, school districts, and educational advocates have applauded VAM as a straightforward measure of teacher effectiveness: the better a teacher, the better students…

  11. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA.

  12. Toxicity of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid to plants and aquatic invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Hui

    2009-02-01

    Acute toxicities of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were tested on four freshwater species and three plant species. PFOS was more toxic than PFOA for all species tested in this study. Similar time-response patterns of PFOS and PFOA toxicity were observed for each tested species. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOS for all test species ranged from 27 to 233 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 10 to 178 mg/L. Values of the 48-h LC(50) of PFOA for all test species ranged from 181 to 732 mg/L and values of the 96-h LC(50) for three of the species ranged from 337 to 672 mg/L. The most sensitive freshwater species to PFOS was green neon shrimp (Neocaridina denticulate) with a 96-h LC(50) of 10 mg/L. Of the aquatic organisms tested, the aquatic snail (Physa acuta) always has the highest resistance to PFOS or PFOA toxicity over each exposure period. Both PFOS and PFOA had no obvious adverse effect on seed germination for all three plant species. Five-day EC(50) of root elongation was more sensitive to LC(50) of seed germination in this study. Based on EC(10), EC(50), and NOECs, the 5-day root elongation sensitivity of test plants to both PFOS and PFOA was in the order of lettuce (Lactuca sativa) > pakchoi (Brassica rapa chinensis) > cucumber (Cucumis sativus). Based on the results of this study and other published literature, it is suggested that current PFOS and PFOA levels in freshwater may have no acute harmful ecological impact on the aquatic environment. However, more research on the long-term ecological effects of PFOS and PFOA on aquatic fauna are needed to provide important information to adequately assess ecological risk of PFOS and PFOA. PMID:18461560

  13. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, M. Roy

    2015-01-01

    With more than a thousand honors programs or colleges in the United States and that number growing every year, defining the value of honors is a significant undertaking. Honors seems to have become an obligatory upgrade that no college or university president can afford to be without, but there is more than institutional trending to be considered,…

  14. Value Added

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Matt

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles retiring values teacher Gene Doxey and describes his foundational contributions to the students of California's Ramona Unified School District. Every one of the Ramona Unified School District's 7,200 students is eventually funneled through Doxey's Contemporary Issues class, a required rite of passage between elementary school…

  15. Toxicity of oil dispersant, crude oil and dispersed crude oil to a marine amphipod and gastropod

    SciTech Connect

    Gulec, I.; Holdway, D.A.

    1995-12-31

    The importance of appropriate oil spill remedial action was emphasized during the recent Iron Barron oil spill off of the Tamar river in North Tasmania. One important potential oil spill response is dispersion, but little information exists on the toxicity of dispersants and dispersed oil to Australian marine species. This research was undertaken to assess the acute toxicity of Corexit 9527 (a widely used dispersant), water accommodated fractions of Bass Strait crude oil and dispersed Bass Strait crude oil, to the saltwater amphipod, Allorchestes compressa under semi-static conditions. Acute 96 h LC50`s were determined for each toxicant as well as for the reference toxicants sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and zinc sulfate. Sublethal bioassays were undertaken for the same 3 toxicants utilizing the marines and snail Polinices conicus as the test species. No-observed-effect-concentrations (NOEC) and lowest-observed-effect-concentrations (LOEC) were determined using ANOVA while EC50`s and EC0`s were calculated using regression analysis. Mean acute 96 h LC50 (S.E.) values for A. compressa exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate were 3.6 mg/l (0.28) and 41.6 mg/l (9.01) respectively. EC50 (S.E.) concentrations for P. conicus exposed to SDS and zinc sulfate for 30 minutes were 44.7 mg/l and 246 mg/l respectively using burying behavior as an endpoint. These sublethal EC50`s were reduced to 20.7 mg/l for SDS and 23.5 mg/l for zinc sulfate following 24 hours of exposure.

  16. Acute and chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to nymphs of a mayfly species and some notes on seasonal differences.

    PubMed

    Van den Brink, Paul J; Van Smeden, Jasper M; Bekele, Robel S; Dierick, Wiebe; De Gelder, Daphne M; Noteboom, Maarten; Roessink, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mayfly nymphs are among the most sensitive taxa to neonicotinoids. The present study presents the acute and chronic toxicity of 3 neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) to a mayfly species (Cloeon dipterum) and some notes on the seasonality of the toxicity of imidacloprid to C. dipterum and 5 other invertebrate species. Imidacloprid and thiamethoxam showed equal acute and chronic toxicity to a winter generation of C. dipterum, whereas thiacloprid was approximately twice as toxic. The acute and chronic toxicity of imidacloprid was much higher for the C. dipterum summer generation than for the winter one. The acute toxicity differs by a factor of 20 for the 96-h 50% effective concentration (EC50) and by a factor of 5.4 for the chronic 28-d EC50. Temperature had only a slight effect on the sensitivity of C. dipterum to imidacloprid because we only found a factor of 1.7 difference in the 96-h EC50 between tests performed at 10 °C and 18 °C. The difference in sensitivity between summer and overwintering generations was also found for 3 other insect species. The results indicate that if the use and environmental fate of the 3 neonicotinoids are comparable, replacing imidacloprid by another neonicotinoid might not reduce the environmental impact on the mayfly nymph C. dipterum. The results also show the importance of reporting which generation is tested because sensitivity values of insects in the summer might be underestimated by the experiments performed with neonicotinoids and an overwintering population.

  17. Assessment of diclofenac LC50 reference values in juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Praskova, E; Voslarova, E; Siroka, Z; Plhalova, L; Macova, S; Marsalek, P; Pistekova, V; Svobodova, Z

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the acute toxicity of diclofenac to juvenile and embryonic stages of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Acute toxicity tests were performed on the aquarium fish Danio rerio, which is one of the model organisms most commonly used in toxicity testing. The tests were performed using a semi-static method according to OECD guideline No. 203 (Fish, acute toxicity test). Embryo toxicity tests were performed in zebrafish embryos (Danio rerio) in compliance with OECD No. 212 methodology (Fish, short-term toxicity test on embryo and sac-fry stages). The results were subjected to a probit analysis using the EKO-TOX 5.2 programme to determine 96hLC50 and 144hLC50 (median lethal concentration, 50% mortality after a 96 h or 144 h interval, respectively) values of diclofenac. The statistical significance of the difference between LC50 values in juvenile and embryonic stages of Danio rerio was tested using the Mann-Whitney non-parametric test implemented in the Unistat 5.1 programme. The LC50 mean value of diclofenac was 166.6 +/- 9.8 mg/L in juvenile Danio rerio, and 6.11 +/- 2.48 mg/L in embryonic stages of Danio rerio. The study demonstrated a statistically higher sensitivity to diclofenac (P < 0.05) in embryonic stages compared to the juvenile fish.

  18. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending.

  19. Valuing Stillbirths.

    PubMed

    Phillips, John; Millum, Joseph

    2015-07-01

    Estimates of the burden of disease assess the mortality and morbidity that affect a population by producing summary measures of health such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). These measures typically do not include stillbirths (fetal deaths occurring during the later stages of pregnancy or during labor) among the negative health outcomes they count. Priority-setting decisions that rely on these measures are therefore likely to place little value on preventing the more than three million stillbirths that occur annually worldwide. In contrast, neonatal deaths, which occur in comparable numbers, have a substantial impact on burden of disease estimates and are commonly seen as a pressing health concern. In this article we argue in favor of incorporating unintended fetal deaths that occur late in pregnancy into estimates of the burden of disease. Our argument is based on the similarity between late-term fetuses and newborn infants and the assumption that protecting newborns is important. We respond to four objections to counting stillbirths: (1) that fetuses are not yet part of the population and so their deaths should not be included in measures of population health; (2) that valuing the prevention of stillbirths will undermine women's reproductive rights; (3) that including stillbirths implies that miscarriages (fetal deaths early in pregnancy) should also be included; and (4) that birth itself is in fact ethically significant. We conclude that our proposal is ethically preferable to current practice and, if adopted, is likely to lead to improved decisions about health spending. PMID:25395144

  20. A chronic toxicity test for the tropical marine snail Nassarius dorsatus to assess the toxicity of copper, aluminium, gallium, and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Joost W; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; Streten, Claire; Gibb, Karen; van Dam, Rick A

    2016-07-01

    Chronic toxicity test methods for assessing the toxicity of contaminants to tropical marine organisms are generally lacking. A 96-h chronic growth rate toxicity test was developed for the larval stage of the tropical dogwhelk, Nassarius dorsatus. Growth rates of N. dorsatus larvae were assessed following exposures to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), and molybdenum (Mo). Exposure to Cu at 28 °C validated the sensitivity of the test method, with 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) effect concentrations of 4.2 μg/L and 7.3 μg/L Cu, respectively. The EC10 and EC50 values for Al (<0.45-μm filtered fraction) at 28 °C were 115 μg/L and 185 μg/L, respectively. The toxicity of Cu and Al was also assessed at 24 °C and 31 °C, representing average year-round water temperatures for subtropical and tropical Australian coastal environments. At 24 °C, the growth rate of control larvae was reduced by 52% compared with the growth rate at 28 °C and there was an increase in sensitivity to Cu (EC50 = 4.7 μg/L) but a similar sensitivity to Al (EC50 = 180 μg/L). At 31 °C the control growth rate increased by 35% from that measured at 28 °C and there was reduced sensitivity to both Cu and Al (EC50s = 8.5 μg/L and 642 μg/L, respectively). There was minimal toxicity resulting from Ga (EC50 = 4560 μg/L) and Mo (no effect at ≤7000 μg/L Mo). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1788-1795. © 2015 SETAC. PMID:26643415

  1. A chronic toxicity test for the tropical marine snail Nassarius dorsatus to assess the toxicity of copper, aluminium, gallium, and molybdenum.

    PubMed

    Trenfield, Melanie A; van Dam, Joost W; Harford, Andrew J; Parry, David; Streten, Claire; Gibb, Karen; van Dam, Rick A

    2016-07-01

    Chronic toxicity test methods for assessing the toxicity of contaminants to tropical marine organisms are generally lacking. A 96-h chronic growth rate toxicity test was developed for the larval stage of the tropical dogwhelk, Nassarius dorsatus. Growth rates of N. dorsatus larvae were assessed following exposures to copper (Cu), aluminium (Al), gallium (Ga), and molybdenum (Mo). Exposure to Cu at 28 °C validated the sensitivity of the test method, with 10% (EC10) and 50% (EC50) effect concentrations of 4.2 μg/L and 7.3 μg/L Cu, respectively. The EC10 and EC50 values for Al (<0.45-μm filtered fraction) at 28 °C were 115 μg/L and 185 μg/L, respectively. The toxicity of Cu and Al was also assessed at 24 °C and 31 °C, representing average year-round water temperatures for subtropical and tropical Australian coastal environments. At 24 °C, the growth rate of control larvae was reduced by 52% compared with the growth rate at 28 °C and there was an increase in sensitivity to Cu (EC50 = 4.7 μg/L) but a similar sensitivity to Al (EC50 = 180 μg/L). At 31 °C the control growth rate increased by 35% from that measured at 28 °C and there was reduced sensitivity to both Cu and Al (EC50s = 8.5 μg/L and 642 μg/L, respectively). There was minimal toxicity resulting from Ga (EC50 = 4560 μg/L) and Mo (no effect at ≤7000 μg/L Mo). Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1788-1795. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. Valuing vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  3. Sensitivity of early life stages of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) to acute and chronic toxicity of lead, cadmium, and zinc in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Ivey, C.D.; Hardesty, D.K.; May, T.W.; Augspurger, T.; Roberts, A.D.; Van Genderen, E.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Toxicity of lead, cadmium, or zinc to early life stages of freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea; Neosho mucket, L. rafinesqueana) was evaluated in 48-h exposures with mussel larvae (glochidia), in 96-h exposures with newly transformed (5-d-old) and two- or six-month-old juvenile mussels, or in 28-d exposures with two- or four-month-old mussels in reconstituted soft water. The 24-h median effect concentrations (EC50s) for fatmucket glochidia (>299??g Pb/L, >227??g Cd/L, 2,685??g Zn/L) and 96-h EC50s for two- or six-month-old fatmucket (>426??g Pb/L, 199??g Cd/L, 1,700??g Zn/L) were much higher than 96-h EC50s for newly transformed fatmucket (142 and 298??g Pb/L, 16??g Cd/L, 151 and 175??g Zn/L) and Neosho mucket (188??g Pb/L, 20??g Cd/L, 145??g Zn/L). Chronic values for fatmucket were 10??g Pb/L, 6.0??g Cd/L, and 63 and 68??g Zn/L. When mussel data from the present study and the literature were included in updated databases for deriving U.S. Environmental Protection Agency water quality criteria, mussel genus mean acute values were in the lower percentiles of the sensitivity distribution of all freshwater species for Pb (the 26th percentile), Cd (the 15th to 29th percentile), or Zn (the 12th to 21st percentile). The mussel (Lampsilis) genus mean chronic value was the lowest value ever reported for Pb (the 9th percentile) but was near the middle of the sensitivity distribution for Cd (the 61st percentile) or Zn (the 44th percentile). These results indicate that mussels were relatively sensitive to the acute toxicity of these three metals and to the chronic toxicity of Pb, but were moderately sensitive to the chronic toxicity of Cd or Zn compared to other freshwater species. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  4. Mixture effects of organic micropollutants present in water: towards the development of effect-based water quality trigger values for baseline toxicity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Janet Y M; McCarty, Shane; Glenn, Eva; Neale, Peta A; Warne, Michel St J; Escher, Beate I

    2013-06-15

    In this study we propose for the first time an approach for the tentative derivation of effect-based water quality trigger values for an apical endpoint, the cytotoxicity measured by the bioluminescence inhibition in Vibrio fischeri. The trigger values were derived for the Australian Drinking Water Guideline and the Australian Guideline for Water Recycling as examples, but the algorithm can be adapted to any other set of guideline values. In the first step, a Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR) describing the 50% effect concentrations, EC50, was established using chemicals known to act according to the nonspecific mode of action of baseline toxicity. This QSAR described the effect of most of the chemicals in these guidelines satisfactorily, with the exception of antibiotics, which were more potent than predicted by the baseline toxicity QSAR. The mixture effect of 10-56 guideline chemicals mixed at various fixed concentration ratios (equipotent mixture ratios and ratios of the guideline values) was adequately described by concentration addition model of mixture toxicity. Ten water samples were then analysed and 5-64 regulated chemicals were detected (from a target list of over 200 chemicals). These detected chemicals were mixed in the ratios of concentrations detected and their mixture effect was predicted by concentration addition. Comparing the effect of these designed mixtures with the effect of the water samples, it became evident that less than 1% of effect could be explained by known chemicals, making it imperative to derive effect-based trigger values. The effect-based water quality trigger value, EBT-EC50, was calculated from the mixture effect concentration predicted for concentration-additive mixture effects of all chemicals in a given guideline divided by the sum of the guideline concentrations for individual components, and dividing by an extrapolation factor that accounts for the number of chemicals contained in the guidelines and for

  5. Comparative toxicity of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate to freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Geer, Tyler D; Kinley, Ciera M; Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Rodgers, John H

    2016-10-01

    Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) is a granular algaecide containing H2O2 as an active ingredient to control growth of noxious algae. Measurements of sensitivities of target and non-target species to hydrogen peroxide are necessary for water resource managers to make informed decisions and minimize risks for non-target species when treating noxious algae. The objective of this study was to measure and compare responses among a target noxious alga (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa) and non-target organisms including a eukaryotic alga (chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), microcrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia), benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to exposures of hydrogen peroxide as SCP. Hydrogen peroxide exposures were confirmed using the I3(-) method. SCP margins of safety for these organisms were compared with published toxicity data to provide context for other commonly used algaecides and herbicides (e.g. copper formulations, endothall, and diquat dibromide). Algal responses (cell density and chlorophyll a concentrations) and animal mortality were measured after 96h aqueous exposures to SCP in laboratory-formulated water to estimate EC50 and LC50 values, as well as potency slopes. Despite a shorter test duration, M. aeruginosa was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide as SCP (96h EC50:0.9-1.0mgL(-)(1) H2O2) than the eukaryotic alga P. subcapitata (7-d EC50:5.2-9.2mgL(-1) H2O2), indicating potential for selective control of prokaryotic algae. For the three non-target animals evaluated, measured 96-h LC50 values ranged from 1.0 to 19.7mgL(-1) H2O2. C. dubia was the most sensitive species, and the least sensitive species was P. promelas, which is not likely to be affected by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide as SCP that would be used to control noxious algae (e.g. M. aeruginosa). Based on information from peer-reviewed literature, other algaecides could be similarly selective for cyanobacteria. Of the

  6. Comparative toxicity of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate to freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Geer, Tyler D; Kinley, Ciera M; Iwinski, Kyla J; Calomeni, Alyssa J; Rodgers, John H

    2016-10-01

    Sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate (SCP) is a granular algaecide containing H2O2 as an active ingredient to control growth of noxious algae. Measurements of sensitivities of target and non-target species to hydrogen peroxide are necessary for water resource managers to make informed decisions and minimize risks for non-target species when treating noxious algae. The objective of this study was to measure and compare responses among a target noxious alga (cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa) and non-target organisms including a eukaryotic alga (chlorophyte Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), microcrustacean (Ceriodaphnia dubia), benthic amphipod (Hyalella azteca), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) to exposures of hydrogen peroxide as SCP. Hydrogen peroxide exposures were confirmed using the I3(-) method. SCP margins of safety for these organisms were compared with published toxicity data to provide context for other commonly used algaecides and herbicides (e.g. copper formulations, endothall, and diquat dibromide). Algal responses (cell density and chlorophyll a concentrations) and animal mortality were measured after 96h aqueous exposures to SCP in laboratory-formulated water to estimate EC50 and LC50 values, as well as potency slopes. Despite a shorter test duration, M. aeruginosa was more sensitive to hydrogen peroxide as SCP (96h EC50:0.9-1.0mgL(-)(1) H2O2) than the eukaryotic alga P. subcapitata (7-d EC50:5.2-9.2mgL(-1) H2O2), indicating potential for selective control of prokaryotic algae. For the three non-target animals evaluated, measured 96-h LC50 values ranged from 1.0 to 19.7mgL(-1) H2O2. C. dubia was the most sensitive species, and the least sensitive species was P. promelas, which is not likely to be affected by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide as SCP that would be used to control noxious algae (e.g. M. aeruginosa). Based on information from peer-reviewed literature, other algaecides could be similarly selective for cyanobacteria. Of the

  7. Toxicity of fuel oil water accommodated fractions on two marine microalgae, Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp.

    PubMed

    Chao, Min; Shen, Xinqiang; Lun, Fengxia; Shen, Anglv; Yuan, Qi

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, the acute toxicity of four fuel oils including F120, F180, F380 and No.-20 was evaluated by exposing the marine microalgae Chlorela spp. (Chlorophyta) and Skeletonema costatum (Bacillariophyta) in the fuel oil water accommodated fractions (WAF). The bioassay showed that F180 WAF was the most toxic to both microalgae. The 96 h EC(50) value of F180 WAF for Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp. was 9.41 and 13.63 mg/L expressed in concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons, respectively. WAFs of F120, F180 and F380 were more toxic to Skeletonema costatum than to Chlorela spp. In contrast, No.-20 WAF did not show significant toxicity for both Skeletonema costatum and Chlorela spp. PMID:22349279

  8. Increased RO concentrate toxicity following application of antiscalants - acute toxicity tests with the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli.

    PubMed

    Feiner, Mona; Beggel, Sebastian; Jaeger, Nadine; Geist, Juergen

    2015-02-01

    In reverse osmosis, a frequently used technology in water desalination processes, wastewater (RO concentrate) is generated containing the retained solutes as well as so-called antiscalants (AS), i.e. chemical substances that are commonly applied to prevent membrane-blocking. In this study, a risk assessment of a possible discharge of concentrate into a small stream was conducted. The acute toxicity of two concentrates containing two different ASs and of concentrate without AS to the amphipods Gammarus pulex and Gammarus roeseli was studied. Mortality of gammarids exposed to the concentrate without AS was not different to the control, whereas concentrates including ASs caused mortality rates up to 100% at the highest test concentrations after 168 h. Resulting EC50-values were 36.2-39.4% (v/v) after 96 h and 26.6-58.0% (v/v) after 168 h. These results suggest that the ecotoxicological relevance of antiscalants is greater than currently assumed.

  9. A low concentration of atrazine does not influence the acute toxicity of the insecticide terbufos or its breakdown products to Chironomus tepperi.

    PubMed

    Choung, Catherine B; Hyne, Ross V; Stevens, Mark M; Hose, Grant C

    2010-11-01

    The acute toxicities of the insecticide terbufos and its major breakdown products individually, as binary mixtures, and in combination with the co-applied herbicide atrazine were evaluated using final instar larvae of the midge Chironomus tepperi. Terbufos, terbufos sulfoxide and terbufos sulfone were highly toxic to C. tepperi with mean 96-h EC50 values of 2.13, 3.64 and 2.59 μg/l, respectively. No interaction was observed between atrazine (25 μg/l) and terbufos or its breakdown products while the binary mixture of terbufos sulfoxide and terbufos sulfone exhibited additive toxicity. The high toxicities of terbufos and its environmentally persistent oxidation products suggest that contamination of aquatic systems with this insecticide pose a threat to aquatic organisms whether or not atrazine is also present.

  10. Toxicity of the insecticide terbufos, its oxidation metabolites, and the herbicide atrazine in binary mixtures to Ceriodaphnia cf dubia.

    PubMed

    Choung, Catherine B; Hyne, Ross V; Stevens, Mark M; Hose, Grant C

    2011-04-01

    The acute toxicity of terbufos and its major metabolites, tested alone, in binary mixtures or in combination with atrazine were evaluated using neonates of the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia cf dubia. Terbufos, terbufos sulfoxide, and terbufos sulfone tested individually were highly toxic to C. cf dubia, with mean 96-h EC(50) values of 0.08, 0.36, and 0.19 μg/l, respectively. The addition of atrazine (10 μg/l) significantly increased the toxicity of terbufos. The toxicity of terbufos sulfone was unaffected by atrazine, whereas the results for terbufos sulfoxide were equivocal. Equitoxic mixtures of the metabolites showed additive toxicity to C. cf dubia. The high toxicities of terbufos and its environmentally persistent oxidative metabolites suggest that contamination of aquatic systems with this insecticide mixture and the coapplied herbicide atrazine might pose a greater hazard to some biota than their individual toxicities.

  11. Ecotoxicological effects of perfluorooctanoic acid on freshwater microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Changwei; Luo, Qi; Huang, Qingguo

    2014-05-01

    As a persistent bioaccumulative compound, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) is found in various ecosystems and receives growing attention. The acute toxicity of PFOA was tested on 2 freshwater microalgae, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Scenedesmus obliquus. The 96-h concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50) values were measured, physiological responses of the algae were investigated, and uptake of PFOA by the algae was quantified. The EC50 values for C. reinhardtii and S. obliquus were 51.9 ± 1.0 mg/L and 44.0 ± 1.5 mg/L PFOA, respectively. After 8-d exposure to PFOA ranging from 10 mg/L to 40 mg/L, the growth of C. reinhardtii was significantly inhibited, whereas that of S. obliquus was only slightly suppressed. Increases in malonaldehyde and proline levels were observed in the 2 algae when exposed to PFOA at certain concentrations, for instance, 20 mg/L and 40 mg/L, which is indicative of the trigger of a defensive mechanism. The percentage of PFOA that was adsorbed by the algae after 8-d exposure at a dosage between 5 mg/L and 20 mg/L ranged from 5.5% to 7.5%, and the uptake of PFOA by the algae exceeded 10%. PMID:24464740

  12. Effects of Calcium and Magnesium Ions on Acute Copper Toxicity to Glochidia and Early Juveniles of the Chinese Pond Mussel Anodonta woodiana.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiubao; Su, Yanping; Kang, Ik Joon; Qiu, Xuchun; Shimasaki, Yohei; Oshima, Yuji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    We evaluated the effects of calcium (Ca(2+)) and magnesium (Mg(2+)) ions on copper (Cu) toxicity to glochidia and newly-transformed juvenile mussels (age 1-2 days) of the Chinese pond mussel (Anodonta woodiana). Acute Cu toxicity tests were performed with glochidia for 24 h and juveniles for 96 h with measured Ca(2+) concentrations of 1.1, 14, 26, 51, and 99 mg L(-1), or measured Mg(2+) concentrations of 2.6, 11, 21, and 39 mg L(-1). The Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) cations provided no statistically significant protection against Cu toxicity to glochidia or juveniles. The 24-h EC50 value for glochidia was 82 μg L(-1) Cu, and contrastly, 96-h EC50 value for newly-transformed juvenile mussels was as low as 12 μg L(-1) Cu, implying that the juveniles of A. woodiana are more vulnerable to Cu contamination at concentrations close to currently-accepted levels.

  13. Toxicity of hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine to larval zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mukhi, S.; Pan, X.; Cobb, G.P.; Patino, R.

    2005-01-01

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine, a cyclonitramine commonly known as RDX, is used in the production of military munitions. Contamination of soil, sediment, and ground and surface waters with RDX has been reported in different places around the world. Acute and subacute toxicities of RDX have been relatively well documented in terrestrial vertebrates, but among aquatic vertebrates the information available is limited. The objective of this study was to characterize the acute toxicity of RDX to larval zebrafish. Mortality (LC50) and incidence of vertebral column deformities (EC50) were two of the end points measured in this study. The 96-h LC50 was estimated at 22.98 and 25.64 mg l-1 in two different tests. The estimated no-observed-effective- concentration (NOEC) values of RDX on lethality were 13.27 ?? 0.05 and 15.32 ?? 0.30 mg l-1; and the lowest-observed-effective- concentration (LOEC) values were 16.52 ?? 0.05 and 19.09 ?? 0.23 mg l-1 in these two tests, respectively. The 96-h EC50 for vertebral deformities on survivors from one of the acute lethality tests was estimated at 20.84 mg l-1, with NOEC and LOEC of 9.75 ?? 0.34 and 12.84 ?? 0.34 mg l-1, respectively. Behavioral aberrations were also noted in this acute toxicity study, including the occurrence of whirling movement and lethargic behavior. The acute effects of RDX on survival, incidence of deformities, and behavior of larval zebrafish occurred at the high end of the most frequently reported concentrations of RDX in aquatic environments. The chronic effects of RDX in aquatic vertebrates need to be determined for an adequate assessment of the ecological risk of environmental RDX. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Derivation of guideline values for gold (III) ion toxicity limits to protect aquatic ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Nam, Sun-Hwa; Lee, Woo-Mi; Shin, Yu-Jin; Yoon, Sung-Ji; Kim, Shin Woong; Kwak, Jin Il; An, Youn-Joo

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on estimating the toxicity values of various aquatic organisms exposed to gold (III) ion (Au(3+)), and to propose maximum guideline values for Au(3+) toxicity that protect the aquatic ecosystem. A comparative assessment of methods developed in Australia and New Zealand versus the European Community (EC) was conducted. The test species used in this study included two bacteria (Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis), one alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), one euglena (Euglena gracilis), three cladocerans (Daphnia magna, Moina macrocopa, and Simocephalus mixtus), and two fish (Danio rerio and Oryzias latipes). Au(3+) induced growth inhibition, mortality, immobilization, and/or developmental malformations in all test species, with responses being concentration-dependent. According to the moderate reliability method of Australia and New Zealand, 0.006 and 0.075 mg/L of guideline values for Au(3+) were obtained by dividing 0.33 and 4.46 mg/L of HC5 and HC50 species sensitivity distributions (SSD) with an FACR (Final Acute to Chronic Ratio) of 59.09. In contrast, the EC method uses an assessment factor (AF), with the 0.0006 mg/L guideline value for Au(3+) being divided with the 48-h EC50 value for 0.60 mg/L (the lowest toxicity value obtained from short term results) by an AF of 1000. The Au(3+) guideline value derived using an AF was more stringent than the SSD. We recommend that more toxicity data using various bioassays are required to develop more accurate ecological risk assessments. More chronic/long-term exposure studies on sensitive endpoints using additional fish species and invertebrates not included in the current dataset will be needed to use other derivation methods (e.g., US EPA and Canadian Type A) or the "High Reliability Method" from Australia/New Zealand. Such research would facilitate the establishment of guideline values for various pollutants that reflect the universal effects of various pollutants in aquatic ecosystems. To

  15. The Value of Reciprocity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  16. ACUTE TOXICITY OF HEAVY METALS TO ACETATE-UTILIZING MIXED CULTURES OF SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIA: EC100 AND EC50

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from abandoned mines and acid mine pitlakes is an important environmental contaminant concern and usually contains appreciable concentrations of heavy metals. Since sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are involved in the treatment of AMD, knowledge of acute m...

  17. Comparative toxicity and bioconcentration of nonylphenol in freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Spehar, Robert L; Brooke, Larry T; Markee, Thomas P; Kahl, Michael D

    2010-09-01

    Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates to more persistent alkylphenols such as nonylphenol occurs in wastewater treatment plants where nonylphenol is released to aquatic systems. In this study, acute and chronic tests were conducted to determine the toxicity and bioconcentration of nonylphenol to freshwater organisms for use in deriving national water quality criteria. Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) based on loss of equilibrium, immobility, and lethality for species representing several taxonomic groups ranged from 21 to 596 microg/L. The EC50s were up to a factor of 2 less than median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and decreased with time over the test periods of 24 to 96 h. In chronic tests, early life stages of rainbow trout were 14 times more sensitive to nonylphenol than in acute tests and approximately 20 times more sensitive than Daphnia magna exposed over their complete life cycle. Comparisons of chronic test endpoints showed that 20% effect concentrations (EC20s), determined by regression testing, and chronic values, determined by hypothesis testing, were similar for both the rainbow trout and Daphnia magna. The lowest mean tissue-effect concentrations of nonylphenol appeared to be greater for the fathead minnow than bluegill, and ranged from approximately 130 to 160 microg/g after 96-h exposure and from approximately 20 to 90 microg/g after 28-d exposure. Mean lipid normalized bioconcentration factors (BCFs) associated with no-effect concentrations were approximately 180 and 50 for the fathead minnow and bluegill, respectively. The present test results suggest that long-term exposures to nonylphenol at concentrations found in some surface waters could adversely impact sensitive components of freshwater communities.

  18. Comparative toxicity and bioconcentration of nonylphenol in freshwater organisms.

    PubMed

    Spehar, Robert L; Brooke, Larry T; Markee, Thomas P; Kahl, Michael D

    2010-09-01

    Degradation of alkylphenol ethoxylates to more persistent alkylphenols such as nonylphenol occurs in wastewater treatment plants where nonylphenol is released to aquatic systems. In this study, acute and chronic tests were conducted to determine the toxicity and bioconcentration of nonylphenol to freshwater organisms for use in deriving national water quality criteria. Acute median effect concentrations (EC50s) based on loss of equilibrium, immobility, and lethality for species representing several taxonomic groups ranged from 21 to 596 microg/L. The EC50s were up to a factor of 2 less than median lethal concentrations (LC50s) and decreased with time over the test periods of 24 to 96 h. In chronic tests, early life stages of rainbow trout were 14 times more sensitive to nonylphenol than in acute tests and approximately 20 times more sensitive than Daphnia magna exposed over their complete life cycle. Comparisons of chronic test endpoints showed that 20% effect concentrations (EC20s), determined by regression testing, and chronic values, determined by hypothesis testing, were similar for both the rainbow trout and Daphnia magna. The lowest mean tissue-effect concentrations of nonylphenol appeared to be greater for the fathead minnow than bluegill, and ranged from approximately 130 to 160 microg/g after 96-h exposure and from approximately 20 to 90 microg/g after 28-d exposure. Mean lipid normalized bioconcentration factors (BCFs) associated with no-effect concentrations were approximately 180 and 50 for the fathead minnow and bluegill, respectively. The present test results suggest that long-term exposures to nonylphenol at concentrations found in some surface waters could adversely impact sensitive components of freshwater communities. PMID:20821669

  19. Maslow and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Rodney

    1978-01-01

    Identifies major value bases which have been used to teach values in the classroom and outlines a values education program which stresses teaching about values without indoctrination. Based upon the hierarchy of human needs developed by psychologist Abraham Maslow, the program is based upon universal values, basic human needs, and recognition of…

  20. The toxic effect and bioaccumulation in aquatic oligochaete Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri after combined exposure to cadmium and perfluorooctane sulfonate at different pH values.

    PubMed

    Qu, Ruijuan; Liu, Jiaoqin; Wang, Liansheng; Wang, Zunyao

    2016-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) have been detected in aquatic environment. In this study, we investigated the acute effect, bioaccumulation and oxidative stress status in the aquatic oligocheate Limnodrilus hoffmeisteri after exposure to Cd and PFOS at different pH values. In the studied pH range, acute Cd toxicity was significantly enhanced with pH increasing from 6.2 to 8.0, and the 48h-EC50 of Cd was (significantly) decreased in the presence of PFOS. Bioaccumulation analysis results show that the accumulated Cd/PFOS in single exposure group increased with increasing exposure concentrations, and co-exposure makes internal Cd concentration significantly lowered for Cd(0.1) group at pH 8.0. Significant changes in superoxide dismutase activity, glutathione level and malondialdehyde content were observed in single and combined treatments. Based on IBR value, single Cd and PFOS exposure caused largest damage to the antioxidant defense system at pH 8.0 and pH 6.2, respectively, while the harmful effects of joint exposure were always the "compromise" between single Cd and PFOS exposure. This work could provide useful information for the risk assessment of co-exposure to perfluorinated compounds and heavy metals in natural environment.

  1. Agricultural Education: Value Adding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riesenberg, Lou E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    This issue develops the theme of "Agricultural Education--Value Adding." The concept value adding has been a staple in the world of agricultural business for describing adding value to a commodity that would profit the producer and the local community. Agricultural education should add value to individuals and society to justify agricultural…

  2. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  3. On Literature and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beach, Richard

    In reviewing the ancient, well-worn debate on the relationship between literature and values, it may be seen that the current pedagogical theory of developing response to literature is parallel to the argument for helping students articulate their own values. Two approaches to clarifying values are the values clarification approach (Louis Raths,…

  4. Five Values of Giftedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  5. Exploring Existence Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madariaga, Bruce; McConnell, Kenneth E.

    1987-05-01

    The notion that individuals value the preservation of water resources independent of their own use of these resources is discussed. Issues in defining this value, termed "existence value," are explored. Economic models are employed to assess the role of existence value in benefit-cost analysis. The motives underlying existence value are shown to matter to contingent valuation measurement of existence benefits. A stylized contingent valuation experiment is used to study nonusers' attitudes regarding projects to improve water quality in the Chesapeake Bay. Survey results indicate that altruism is one of the motives underlying existence value and that goods other than environmental and natural resources may provide existence benefits.

  6. Share Your Values

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Share Your Values Page Content Article Body Today, teenagers are bombarded ... mid-twenties. The Most Effective Way to Instill Values? By Example Your words will carry more weight ...

  7. The Dubious Value of Value Neutrality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2006-01-01

    Hard science is properly value neutral. But when that ideological neutrality extends to the whole university, the traditional foundation crumbles. Steve Balch laments the moral vacuum that now substitutes for fundamental principles, because it is impossible to frame a program of education--especially in the humanities and social sciences--without…

  8. The values of life.

    PubMed

    Den Hartogh, Govert

    1997-01-01

    In Life's Dominion Dworkin aims at defusing the controversy about abortion and euthanasia by redefining its terms. Basically it is not a dispute about the right to life, but about its value. Liberals should grant that human life has not only a personal, but also an intrinsic value; conservatives should accept the principle of toleration which requires to let people decide for themselves about matters of intrinsic value. Dworkin fails, however, to distinguish between two kinds of personal value: (1) the value of something to a person, when he actually or dispositionally desires it, or finds it pleasant; and (2) the value of something to a person, when it's objectively contributes to his well-being, as defined by reference to his personal point of view, whether or not he ever perceives it as so contributing. He also fails to distinguish between two meanings of the concept of 'intrinsic value': (3) ultimate, i.e. non-instrumental personal value of kind (2); (4) the impersonal value of something which is not good-for-anybody, but simply good, i.e. not a constituent of someone's well-being. Dworkin argues that the human fetus from conception onwards has a value, that it is not a personal value of kind (1), and therefore must be an intrinsic value. But the value of the life of the fetus is not a personal value of kind (2) either and therefore not an intrinsic value of kind (3): it is normally a constituent of the well-being of the pregnant woman, but that doesn't constitute its value, and it is not good 'for' the fetus itself in the relevant sense, because it doesn't have a personal point of view. If, however, the fetus' life is allowed to have an intrinsic value of kind (4), the conservative cannot be refuted by appeal to the principle of toleration, for this only concerns intrinsic value of kind (3). The liberal, indeed, should recognize that the fetus' life has a value, but it is neither a personal value (1) or (2), nor an impersonal value (4), but rather a relational

  9. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value.

  10. Values Drive the Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Les P.

    2010-01-01

    Values-integrated strategic planning provides the opportunity to clarify professional values as one envisions a future that is exciting and perhaps a bit provocative. This chapter explores the role and importance of student affairs and institutional values in strategic planning. It also looks at the historical roots of the profession and methods…

  11. Hierarchical Classification of Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ergen, Gürkan

    2015-01-01

    Values are of utmost importance for the creation, development and sustainability of a life worthy of human dignity. However, because even superficial views of values are regarded as values themselves, they have become relative and become degenerated; therefore, they have lost the properties--potentials and powers--essential to human dignity. This…

  12. Hospital perceived value.

    PubMed

    Moliner, Miguel A

    2006-01-01

    The creation, distribution and communication of value have been considered to be the key element of marketing (American Marketing Association, 2004, www.marketingpower.com). The aim of this article is to identify the indicators of perceived value in a hospital context. The results show that perceived quality and emotions are key dimensions of perceived value. PMID:17077707

  13. Values: Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargraves, Richard B.

    The Quinmester course "Values" includes nine areas of study designed to develop student awareness and development of a personal value system: (1) consideration of a positive self-image as part of a system of values; (2) differentiation between acts of tolerance and intolerance; (3) investigation of the role mental preparedness based on positive…

  14. Information Economics: Valuing Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinberg, Herbert R.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the question of why previous articles and studies on the value of information have failed to provide meaningful techniques for measuring that value. The discussion covers four principle causes for confusion surrounding the valuation of information and draws conclusions about the value added model of information. (seven references) (CLB)

  15. Values in Further Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John, Ed.

    This book explores educational values in the British further education system. Following an introductory discussion of educational values by the editor, John Halliday, the book contains 21 short essays organized in the areas of cultural values, curriculum, and management and staff development. The following are included: "Democratic…

  16. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  17. Measuring Teacher Value Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ames, Russell; Lied, Terry

    The purpose of this study was to develop and assess the psychometric properties of a measure of teacher value systems. Three value systems were defined as values associated with (1) the pursuit of truth, (2) social and interpersonal relations, and (3) authority and its exercise. The scale was taken through three stages of development and field…

  18. Sensitivity of juvenile Macomona liliana (bivalvia) to UV-photoactivated fluoranthene toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Michael J; Nieuwenhuis, Ronald; Hickey, Christopher W

    2002-12-01

    This study assessed the sensitivity of Macomona liliana (bivalvia, tellinacea) to UV-photoactivated fluoranthene toxicity. Juvenile clams (0.5-2.0 mm) were exposed to a range of aqueous fluoranthene concentrations (5-500 microg/L) for 96 h, after which the clams' ability to rebury in control sediment was determined. Survivors of these fluoranthene-only toxicity tests were then exposed in clean seawater to UV radiation from a solar radiation-simulating light source for 1 h. The differences between EC(50) values before and after UV exposure provided a measure of phototoxicity of the bioaccumulated fluoranthene. Fluoranthene tissue burdens corresponding to the EC(50) values were determined by exposing a second batch of clams to (14)C-radiolabeled fluoranthene. A third experiment quantified the kinetics of fluoranthene uptake and elimination in water-only exposures. Fluoranthene phototoxicity was found to depend on the dose of fluoranthene and the duration of UV exposure. Exposure of animals to 1 h of UV radiation resulted fluoranthene toxicity that was 3 times higher (EC(50) = 46 microg/L) than that of those with no UV exposure (EC(50) = 153 microg/L). The corresponding critical body burden (i.e., fluoranthene tissue concentration at which 50% of the clams failed to rebury) was 6 ng/clam (or 700 microg/g dry weight [dw]) and 21 ng/clam (or 2300 microg/g dw) for UV-exposed and UV-unexposed animals, respectively. First-order uptake and elimination coefficients, determined in the kinetics experiment, were 0.825 Lg(-1) h(-1) and 0.059 h(-1), respectively, indicating rapid uptake and a short fluoranthene tissue half-life of approximately 12 h for M. liliana. Compared with other bivalve species of similar size, M. liliana appeared to be more than 1 order of magnitude less sensitive to UV-activated fluoranthene toxicity, although these differences may be a result in part of differences in the UV exposure regime. Nonetheless, the majority of M. liliana exposed to a

  19. The problem with value

    PubMed Central

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  20. Demands, values, and burnout

    PubMed Central

    Leiter, Michael P.; Frank, Erica; Matheson, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE T o explore the interaction between workload and values congruence (personal values with health care system values) in the context of burnout and physician engagement and to explore the relative importance of these factors by sex, given the distinct work patterns of male and female physicians. DESIGN National mailed survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A random sample of 8100 Canadian physicians (response rate 40%, N = 3213); 2536 responses (from physicians working more than 35 hours per week) were analyzed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Levels of burnout, values congruence, and workload, by sex, measured by the Maslach Burnout Inventory—General Scale and the Areas of Worklife Scale. RESULTS Results showed a moderate level of burnout among Canadian physicians, with relatively positive scores on exhaustion, average scores on cynicism, and mildly negative scores on professional efficacy. A series of multiple regression analyses confirmed parallel main effect contributions from manageable workload and values congruence. Both workload and values congruence predicted exhaustion and cynicism for men and women (P = .001). Only values congruence provided a significant prediction of professional efficacy for both men and women (P = .001) These predictors interacted for women on all 3 aspects of burnout (exhaustion, cynicism, and diminished efficacy). Howevever, overall levels of the burnout indicators departed only modestly from normative levels. CONCLUSION W orkload and values congruence make distinct contributions to physician burnout. Work overload contributes to predicting exhaustion and cynicism; professional values crises contribute to predicting exhaustion, cynicism, and low professional efficacy. The interaction of values and workload for women in particular has implications for the distinct work-life patterns of male and female physicians. Specifically, the congruence of individual values with values inherent in the health care system appeared to be of greater

  1. Business Value Game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  2. Valuing Youth. Leader's Notebook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; And Others

    This leader's notebook is an attempt to present value education tools for persons working with elementary age children in various YMCA settings. These tools are value education strategies designed to stimulate discussion by the children and to help create a learning environment. The strategies are presented in two ways. First, a series of basic…

  3. How I Taught Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Annis

    2005-01-01

    Values are principles or standards that people have decided are desirable to live by. The question of whether values can or should be taught to college students has been debated for decades, with the pros incorporating moral concepts into curricula and the antes scorning such efforts as not only inappropriate but also intellectually dull. In this…

  4. Do We Value Caring?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weissbourd, Richard; Anderson, Trisha Ross

    2016-01-01

    When asked about their child-rearing priorities, parents in the United States are likely to say it's more important to raise children who are caring than to raise high achievers. Schools, too, typically trumpet values such as caring, honesty, and fairness. These values are posted on walls, reiterated in assemblies, and included in mission…

  5. Looking for Core Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  6. Teaching Values through Drama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berghammer, Gretta

    One dramatic technique to aid students in their discovery of values and value systems is "theatre-in-education" (TIE), a theatre event that takes place in schools, with actors working through roles for and with children. TIE aims to fuse education and theatre by having team members function as both teachers and actors, and the audiences of young…

  7. Work Values across Generations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  8. Art's Educational Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richmond, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores critically the nature of art's value in education and argues in favor of both intrinsic and instrumental value. Form and expression, while being out of favor in some contemporary circles, are re-claimed as appropriate features of art. Concepts and forms in art as elsewhere serve to structure impressions and experience and…

  9. Sustaining NCTE Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  10. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  11. Cognitive and Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machamer, Peter; Douglas, Heather

    1999-01-01

    Criticizes Hugh Lacey's separation of cognitive values and social values in discussions of the nature of science. Claims that attempting to distinguish between cognitive and social ignores crucial complexities in the development and use of knowledge. Proposes that the proper distinction be between legitimate and illegitimate reasons in science as…

  12. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  13. Values Concepts and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This book contains 29 articles for elementary and secondary teachers dealing with fundamental concepts and teaching techniques in values education. Part one of the book deals with concepts. Louis E. Raths examines valuing and its relationship to freedom and intelligence. The cognitive developmental approach to moral education is discussed by…

  14. Management Values Survey Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Barbara; Payne, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes results of a survey conducted to compare values of members of the Association for Educational Communications and Technology (AECT) with managers in business and industry. Issues discussed include job satisfaction, opportunities for advancement, attitudes toward management, and salary; a summary of each value system is provided. (LRW)

  15. Understanding Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Tomayko, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an understanding of place value and the base-ten number system is considered a fundamental goal of the early primary grades. For years, teachers have anecdotally reported that students struggle with place-value concepts. Among the common errors cited are misreading such numbers as 26 and 62 by seeing them as identical in meaning,…

  16. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  17. Ecology and Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    "Ecology and Human Values" is an interdisciplinary course designed for senior year high school students in social studies and/or science. Its main thrust is the investigation of human values as they relate to the environment, although rooted in the natural sciences as a means of understanding the complexities inherent in the environment. Use is…

  18. The Value of the P Value

    PubMed Central

    Vyas, Dinesh; Balakrishnan, Archana; Vyas, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the discussion on the implications of irreproducibility in the sciences has been brought into the spotlight. This topic has been discussed for years in the literature. A multitude of reasons have been attributed to this issue; one commonly labeled culprit is the overuse of the p value as a determinant of significance by the scientific community. Both scientists and statisticians have questioned the use of null hypothesis testing as the basis of scientific analysis. This survey of the current issues at hand in irreproducibility in research emphasizes potential causes of the issue, impacts that this can have for drug development and efforts been taken to increase transparency of findings in research. PMID:27430018

  19. Genotoxic effects and LC50 value of NaOCl on Orthrias angorae (Steindachner 1897).

    PubMed

    Gül, Süleyman; Ozkan, Oktay; Nur, Gökhan; Aksu, Pinar

    2008-06-01

    Studies show that different organisms used as bio-indicators have indicated several genotoxic and mutagenic effects of disinfected waters. In this study, the 96 h LC(50 )mean value of NaOCl for Orthrias angorae was calculated to be 0.5509 mg/L. The results showed that NaOCl is highly toxic to O. angorae specimens. Statistical analysis demonstrated a significant increase in micronuclei after the induction of 0.5 mg/L NaOCl concentration after 36 h. The same increase has been reported for 0.37 and 0.5 mg/L NaOCl concentrations after 72 h. Even though the MN frequency of 0.37 mg/L was similar after 36 and 72 h, only 72 h micronuclei frequency was statistically significant. The 72 h MN frequency of the negative control group was smaller than 36 h MN frequency of the negative control group. This discrepancy has led to 72 h MN frequency being statistically significant. MN frequency of 0.25 mg/L NaOCl concentration was insignificant when compared to negative test groups. The benzene treatment also caused a significant increase (p < 0.01) in the frequency of micronucleated erythrocytes.

  20. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values. PMID:21061069

  1. Professional values and nursing.

    PubMed

    Sellman, Derek

    2011-05-01

    The values of nursing arise from a concern with human flourishing. If the desire to become a nurse is a reflection of an aspiration to care for others in need then we should anticipate that those who choose to nurse have a tendency towards the values we would normally associate with a caring profession (care, compassion, perhaps altruism, and so on). However, these values require a secure base if they are not to succumb to the corrupting pressures of the increasingly instrumental nature of the values of the institutions in which healthcare in general and nursing in particular takes place. One way of securing a base for withstanding the corrupting influences of the institution is to understand nursing as a practice in the sense in which Alasdair MacIntyre uses that term. In this brief paper I will outline ways in which the managerial imperative of meeting targets is both distorting practice and undermining nursing's values. I conclude that understanding nursing as a MacIntyrean practice provides a refuge from what might otherwise be overwhelming pressures for nurses to adopt instrumental values to the detriment of professional caring values.

  2. Can Schools Teach Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Harold

    1987-01-01

    While the family is the main agency for helping young people develop the ideas, attitudes, and behavior of successful citizenship and work, schools can enrich the teacher-student relationship to the point that values rub off. (MT)

  3. Navigating Value Based Care.

    PubMed

    Sorrel, Amy Lynn

    2015-12-01

    TMA is collaborating with TMF Health Quality Institute to connect Texas physicians to free TMF resources that will better position doctors for the rapid transition to value-based payment. PMID:26630238

  4. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice.

  5. Value of Information References

    DOE Data Explorer

    Morency, Christina

    2014-12-12

    This file contains a list of relevant references on value of information (VOI) in RIS format. VOI provides a quantitative analysis to evaluate the outcome of the combined technologies (seismology, hydrology, geodesy) used to monitor Brady's Geothermal Field.

  6. Working with Missing Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acock, Alan C.

    2005-01-01

    Less than optimum strategies for missing values can produce biased estimates, distorted statistical power, and invalid conclusions. After reviewing traditional approaches (listwise, pairwise, and mean substitution), selected alternatives are covered including single imputation, multiple imputation, and full information maximum likelihood…

  7. Education and Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inlow, Gail M.

    1972-01-01

    A selection from Values in Transition: A Handbook", its thesis is that formal education...has an obligation to educate broadly along lines of the intellectual, emotional, and social components, notjust the intellectual one per se." (Author)

  8. Economics: Mangroves' hidden value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Brian C.

    2012-11-01

    Mangroves are being lost at an alarming rate as their conversion for aquaculture and other uses is profitable. Research, however, suggests that valuing the deep reserves of carbon in mangrove sediments may be the key to their survival.

  9. Values in psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Holmes, J

    1996-01-01

    There is a tension between those who hold that psychotherapy is a scientific discipline and therefore "value-free," and those who believe that values are inherent in the nature of psychotherapy. Psychoanalysis has moved from a science-based ideology, through the ethical concerns of Melanie Klein, to a recognition of the "aesthetic" dimension--the creation of suitable forms that can contain psychological distress. From this latter perspective, the antagonism between religion and psychotherapy, initiated by Freud, becomes less acute. Action-based ethical systems, which ignore the inner world, are critically scrutinized. The evidence suggesting there is a relationship between good outcome in psychotherapy and shared values between therapist and client is reviewed. It is posited that through examination of the "ethical countertransference," therapists should become aware of their own value systems and how they influence practice. PMID:8886227

  10. Values in action.

    PubMed

    Hearn, S A

    1997-01-01

    St. John Health System, Detroit, is committed to the values of wisdom, compassion, service to the neighbor, stewardship and servant leadership. When a patient walks through any one of the six St. John Hospitals, they see these words displayed many times. But what do they mean to the employees? Patients? The community? According to Anthony R. Tersigni, EdD, St. John president and CEO, "The values remind us of who we are and what our responsibilities are to the communities we serve."

  11. Value of Fundamental Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Alexey

    Fundamental science is a hard, long-term human adventure that has required high devotion and social support, especially significant in our epoch of Mega-science. The measure of this devotion and this support expresses the real value of the fundamental science in public opinion. Why does fundamental science have value? What determines its strength and what endangers it? The dominant answer is that the value of science arises out of curiosity and is supported by the technological progress. Is this really a good, astute answer? When trying to attract public support, we talk about the ``mystery of the universe''. Why do these words sound so attractive? What is implied by and what is incompatible with them? More than two centuries ago, Immanuel Kant asserted an inseparable entanglement between ethics and metaphysics. Thus, we may ask: which metaphysics supports the value of scientific cognition, and which does not? Should we continue to neglect the dependence of value of pure science on metaphysics? If not, how can this issue be addressed in the public outreach? Is the public alienated by one or another message coming from the face of science? What does it mean to be politically correct in this sort of discussion?

  12. Getting Value from Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2004-03-01

    During the past decade the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly, as recently documented in Robert Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000). The vertically integrated single-firm research-through-product value chains of the twentieth century are gone, replaced by value chains the various elements of which can come from different firms in different parts of the world as described, e.g., by Henry W. Cheesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). The consequences of this change are profound for national R policy, the R strategies of specific firms, and individual researchers. (See e.g., C. B. Duke, How to get value from R, Physics World, 17 (August 1997), 17.) In this presentation I sketch the strategies that firms employ to generate value from their research. Then I discuss the ingredients that are required to implement these strategies by creating value chains to deliver the fruits of research to customers. I indicate how the role of physical sciences is changing as unique hardware, based on advanced research in the physical sciences, becomes an increasingly minor (and often outsourced) component of integrated systems offerings. I close by noting implications of these developments on the nature of the careers that physicists can expect in industry and on the skills and cultural attributes that are required to be successful in the new industrial research environment.

  13. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  14. Leading Change, Adding Value.

    PubMed

    Evans, Nick

    2016-09-12

    Essential facts Leading Change, Adding Value is NHS England's new nursing and midwifery framework. It is designed to build on Compassion in Practice (CiP), which was published 3 years ago and set out the 6Cs: compassion, care, commitment, courage, competence and communication. CiP established the values at the heart of nursing and midwifery, while the new framework sets out how staff can help transform the health and care sectors to meet the aims of the NHS England's Five Year Forward View. PMID:27615573

  15. Value of space defenses

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1992-10-29

    This report discusses the economic value of defenses against Near-Earth Object (NEO) impacts is bounded by calculating expected losses in their absence, which illustrates the contributions from NEOs of different sizes and the sensitivity of total expected losses to impact frequencies. For typical size distributions and damage of only a few decades duration, losses are most sensitive to small NEOs, and lead to defenses worth a few $M/yr. When the persistence of damage with NEO size is taken into account, that shifts the loss to the largest NEOs and greatly increases expected loss and values.

  16. Value of Information spreadsheet

    DOE Data Explorer

    Trainor-Guitton, Whitney

    2014-05-12

    This spreadsheet represents the information posteriors derived from synthetic data of magnetotellurics (MT). These were used to calculate value of information of MT for geothermal exploration. Information posteriors describe how well MT was able to locate the "throat" of clay caps, which are indicative of hidden geothermal resources. This data is full explained in the peer-reviewed publication: Trainor-Guitton, W., Hoversten, G. M., Ramirez, A., Roberts, J., Júlíusson, E., Key, K., Mellors, R. (Sept-Oct. 2014) The value of spatial information for determining well placement: a geothermal example, Geophysics.

  17. Valuing Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillay, Gerald J.

    2009-01-01

    The question of the value of higher education is today set in the context of an unprecedented banking and financial crisis. In this context of fundamental change and financial realignment, it is important that we as members of the university remake our case for why the university deserves to be considered alongside all those other worthy causes…

  18. Easy Absolute Values? Absolutely

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Sharon E.; Mittag, Kathleen Cage

    2015-01-01

    The authors teach a problem-solving course for preservice middle-grades education majors that includes concepts dealing with absolute-value computations, equations, and inequalities. Many of these students like mathematics and plan to teach it, so they are adept at symbolic manipulations. Getting them to think differently about a concept that they…

  19. Materialistic Values and Goals.

    PubMed

    Kasser, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Materialism comprises a set of values and goals focused on wealth, possessions, image, and status. These aims are a fundamental aspect of the human value/goal system, standing in relative conflict with aims concerning the well-being of others, as well as one's own personal and spiritual growth. Substantial evidence shows that people who place a relatively high priority on materialistic values/goals consume more products and incur more debt, have lower-quality interpersonal relationships, act in more ecologically destructive ways, have adverse work and educational motivation, and report lower personal and physical well-being. Experimentally activating materialistic aims causes similar outcomes. Given these ills, researchers have investigated means of decreasing people's materialism. Successful interventions encourage intrinsic/self-transcendent values/goals, increase felt personal security, and/or block materialistic messages from the environment. These interventions would likely be more effective if policies were also adopted that diminished contemporary culture's focus on consumption, profit, and economic growth.

  20. Not Without Value. Editorial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, George H.

    2002-01-01

    To reverse the decline in volunteerism in education, administrators must understand the difference between true volunteering and participation coerced under the guise of volunteering. Appreciation is essential for promoting volunteerism, for no one wishes to be considered without value. But if coercion and exploitation are part of the growing…

  1. Communication and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sillars, Malcolm O.

    Communication experts and researchers have done little to help prepare themselves or others to cope with values in the communication revolution that is taking place. The problem goes beyond the influence the media has in the United States; it has implications of international issues of survival. What is needed is an emphasis on research and…

  2. Classifying Values by Categories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gündüz, Mevlüt

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to make a new classification regarding the fact that the current classifications may change constantly because of values? gaining a different dimension and importance every single day. In this research descriptive research, which was used frequently in qualitative research methods, was preferred. This research was…

  3. Technostress and Library Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Discusses information overload and society's and libraries' responses to technology. Considers eight values that libraries should focus on and how they relate to technology in libraries: democracy, stewardship, service, intellectual freedom, privacy, rationalism, equity of access, and building harmony and balance. (LRW)

  4. The Value of Pretending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Marilyn; Adcock, Don

    By participating in their children's imaginative play or pretending, parents may be able to understand better their children's feelings, resolve parent-child conflicts, communicate parental values, and build parent-child relationships based on mutual respect. Many people seem to believe that pretending appears automatically in young children, that…

  5. Public Values, Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devins, Neal E.

    Controversy surrounding private education involves questions of compulsory education's role in inculcating values, how much alike public and private schools should be, and the duty of educational institutions to conform to constitutional norms. This book examines government regulation and resistance, legislative and judicial approaches, and issues…

  6. Making People Feel Valued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergueson, Susan; Aimone, Logan

    2002-01-01

    Suggests many quick, easy and inexpensive ways to help make staff members of student publications feel valued and keep staff motivation levels high. Includes additional articles that describe how an editor can support efforts to motivate, suggest that staff retreats lead to success, note how banquets serve as reward, and suggest some favorite…

  7. Developing Human Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Brian P.; And Others

    The process by which human beings, as they grow toward maturity, develop values is not an automatic one. The process can be fostered by a number of teaching strategies. The strategies include the techniques of self-discovery, the provision of learning environments that encourage growth, and the practice of specific skills. This volume provides a…

  8. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  9. Whose Religious Values?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Joanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Public schools, since their founding in America in 1647, have reflected the demographic characteristics of the communities in which they are located. Because the United States has, until recently, been mostly Protestant Christian, many schooling practices have built upon the values of this faith. Pupils have sung Christmas songs at Christmas…

  10. Researching Values in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halliday, John

    2002-01-01

    Considers methodological issues that arise when values form the main focus of empirical educational research. Includes discussion of the idea that social science, in general, and educational research, in particular, are forms of moral inquiry. Outlines a methodology of educational research, drawing from work by Imre Lakatos, Alasdair MacIntyre,…

  11. Values in Literature: Primary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Mary Ellen

    Offering students some thinking and coping tools they can use to make sound decisions based on strong values, this resource book presents numerous selections from children's literature and suggested activities and projects. The book begins with a brief introduction, advice to teachers on using the book, ways to make the classroom more conducive to…

  12. Estimating fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds for ruminants using in vitro gas production technique

    PubMed Central

    Taher-Maddah, M.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Salamatdoustnobar, R.; Ahmadzadeh, A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the chemical composition and estimation of fermentation characteristics and nutritive value of ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds using in vitro gas production technique. Samples were collected, mixed, processed (ensiled and dried) and incubated in vitro with rumen liquor taken from three fistulated Iranian native (Taleshi) steers at 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 h. The results showed that ensiling lead to significant increase in gas production of pomegranate seeds at all incubation times. The gas volume at 24 h incubation, were 25.76 and 17.91 ml/200mg DM for ensiled and dried pomegranate seeds, respectively. The gas production rate (c) also was significantly higher for ensiled groups than dried (0.0930 vs. 0.0643 ml/h). The organic matter digestibility (OMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy for lactation (NEL) and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) of ensiled pomegranate seeds were significantly higher than that of dried samples (43.15%, 6.37 MJ/kg DM, 4.43 MJ/kg DM, 0.5553 mmol for ensiled samples vs. 34.62%, 5.10 MJ/kg DM, 3.56 MJ/kg DM, 0.3680 mmol for dried samples, respectively). It can be concluded that ensiling increases the nutritive value of pomegranate seeds. PMID:26623290

  13. Radiology's value chain.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Dieter R

    2012-04-01

    A diagnostic radiology value chain is constructed to define its main components, all of which are vulnerable to change, because digitization has caused disaggregation of the chain. Some components afford opportunities to improve productivity, some add value, while some face outsourcing to lower labor cost and to information technology substitutes, raising commoditization risks. Digital image information, because it can be competitive at smaller economies of scale, allows faster, differential rates of technological innovation of components, initiating a centralization-to-decentralization technology trend. Digitization, having triggered disaggregation of radiology's professional service model, may soon usher in an information business model. This means moving from a mind-set of "reading images" to an orientation of creating and organizing information for greater accuracy, faster speed, and lower cost in medical decision making. Information businesses view value chain investments differently than do small professional services. In the former model, producing a better business product will extend image interpretation beyond a radiologist's personal fund of knowledge to encompass expanding external imaging databases. A follow-on expansion with integration of image and molecular information into a report will offer new value in medical decision making. Improved interpretation plus new integration will enrich and diversify radiology's key service products, the report and consultation. A more robust, information-rich report derived from a "systems" and "computational" radiology approach will be facilitated by a transition from a professional service to an information business. Under health care reform, radiology will transition its emphasis from volume to greater value. Radiology's future brightens with the adoption of a philosophy of offering information rather than "reads" for decision making. Staunchly defending the status quo via turf wars is unlikely to constitute a

  14. Bivariate extreme value distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshamy, M.

    1992-01-01

    In certain engineering applications, such as those occurring in the analyses of ascent structural loads for the Space Transportation System (STS), some of the load variables have a lower bound of zero. Thus, the need for practical models of bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions with lower limits was identified. We discuss the Gumbel models and present practical forms of bivariate extreme probability distributions of Weibull and Frechet types with two parameters. Bivariate extreme value probability distribution functions can be expressed in terms of the marginal extremel distributions and a 'dependence' function subject to certain analytical conditions. Properties of such bivariate extreme distributions, sums and differences of paired extremals, as well as the corresponding forms of conditional distributions, are discussed. Practical estimation techniques are also given.

  15. Education: A Core Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, William F., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    1. Teaching our Children. ACS should develop an intensive course in modern teaching methods, challenges and responsibilities, and press for streamlined teacher certification procedures for advanced degree or life experience chemists.
    2. Teaching our Future Colleagues. As President I will encourage companies to make scientists with special skills available to universities, and will encourage universities to utilize these scientists to round out areas of study not covered by their existing faculty.
    3. Teaching our Members. ACS should develop functional and management-related courses for scientists to facilitate career advancement from the bench to research management or from science to business.
    4. Teaching the Public. The President is the most visible representative of the Society, and should devote significant time to communication with lay audiences.
    Value Matters. My first priority as President will be to increase value creation, communication and quantification so members can easily identify programs that fill their needs and exceed their expectations.

  16. Global Value Trees

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhen; Puliga, Michelangelo; Cerina, Federica; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    The fragmentation of production across countries has become an important feature of the globalization in recent decades and is often conceptualized by the term “global value chains” (GVCs). When empirically investigating the GVCs, previous studies are mainly interested in knowing how global the GVCs are rather than how the GVCs look like. From a complex networks perspective, we use the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) to study the evolution of the global production system. We find that the industry-level GVCs are indeed not chain-like but are better characterized by the tree topology. Hence, we compute the global value trees (GVTs) for all the industries available in the WIOD. Moreover, we compute an industry importance measure based on the GVTs and compare it with other network centrality measures. Finally, we discuss some future applications of the GVTs. PMID:25978067

  17. Complex-valued autoencoders.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Pierre; Lu, Zhiqin

    2012-09-01

    Autoencoders are unsupervised machine learning circuits, with typically one hidden layer, whose learning goal is to minimize an average distortion measure between inputs and outputs. Linear autoencoders correspond to the special case where only linear transformations between visible and hidden variables are used. While linear autoencoders can be defined over any field, only real-valued linear autoencoders have been studied so far. Here we study complex-valued linear autoencoders where the components of the training vectors and adjustable matrices are defined over the complex field with the L(2) norm. We provide simpler and more general proofs that unify the real-valued and complex-valued cases, showing that in both cases the landscape of the error function is invariant under certain groups of transformations. The landscape has no local minima, a family of global minima associated with Principal Component Analysis, and many families of saddle points associated with orthogonal projections onto sub-space spanned by sub-optimal subsets of eigenvectors of the covariance matrix. The theory yields several iterative, convergent, learning algorithms, a clear understanding of the generalization properties of the trained autoencoders, and can equally be applied to the hetero-associative case when external targets are provided. Partial results on deep architecture as well as the differential geometry of autoencoders are also presented. The general framework described here is useful to classify autoencoders and identify general properties that ought to be investigated for each class, illuminating some of the connections between autoencoders, unsupervised learning, clustering, Hebbian learning, and information theory.

  18. The value of certification.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Roberta

    2011-01-01

    Certification is defined in the nursing literature in several ways; no one consistent definition of certification exists. Nursing specialty certification programs are intended for consumer protection. Certification protects the public by enabling consumers to identify competent people more readily. However, benefits for stakeholders other than patients and families are also described in the literature. This article describes the value of specialty certification from the perspective of the patient and family, nurse, and employer.

  19. Minimum Critical Values Study

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, P.B.

    2005-07-11

    This report provides minimum critical values for various 30-cm water-reflected uranium and plutonium oxide and nitrate aqueous mixtures as calculated by the SCALE CSAS1X sequence using the 238-group ENDF/B-V neutron cross-section library. The minimum values were determined through parametric searches in one-dimensional geometry. The calculations have been performed to obtain the minimum values: critical volume and mass for spheres, critical radius for cylinders, critical thickness for slabs, and minimum critical concentration (infinite geometry) for the following homogeneous mixtures: (1) UO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (2) UNH for 3, 4, 5, 20, and 100 wt % {sup 235}U; (3) PuO{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu); and (4) PuNH for 100/0/0, 95/5/0, 90/5/5, 80/10/10, and 71/17/11/1 wt % of {sup 239}Pu/{sup 240}Pu/{sup 241}Pu(/{sup 242}Pu). All bounding surfaces were fully reflected by 30 cm of H{sub 2}O.

  20. Value Encounters - Modeling and Analyzing Co-creation of Value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, Hans

    Recent marketing and management literature has introduced the concept of co-creation of value. Current value modeling approaches such as e3-value focus on the exchange of value rather than co-creation. In this paper, an extension to e3-value is proposed in the form of a “value encounter”. Value encounters are defined as interaction spaces where a group of actors meet and derive value by each one bringing in some of its own resources. They can be analyzed from multiple strategic perspectives, including knowledge management, social network management and operational management. Value encounter modeling can be instrumental in the context of service analysis and design.

  1. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals. PMID:26915590

  2. Effects of water hardness and alkalinity on the toxicity of uranium to a tropical freshwater hydra (Hydra viridissima).

    PubMed

    Riethmuller, N; Markich, S J; Van Dam, R A; Parry, D

    2001-01-01

    In tropical Australian freshwaters, uranium (U) is of potential ecotoxicological concern, largely as a consequence of mining activities. Although the toxicity of uranium to Australian freshwater biota is comprehensive, by world standards, few data are available on the effects of physicochemical variables, such as hardness, alkalinity, pH and organic matter, on uranium speciation and bioavailability. This study determined the individual effects of water hardness (6.6, 165 and 330 mg l(-1) as CaCO3) and alkalinity (4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3), at a constant pH (6.0), on the toxicity (96 h population growth) of uranium to Hydra viridissima (green hydra). A 50-fold increase in hardness (Ca and Mg concentration) resulted in a 92% (two-fold) decrease in the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima [i.e. an increase in the EC50 value and 95% confidence interval from 114 (107-121) to 219 (192-246) µg l(-1)]. Conversely, at a constant hardness (165 mg l-1 as CaCO3), the toxicity of uranium to H. viridissima was not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by a 25-fold increase in alkalinity (carbonate concentration) [i.e. EC50 values of 177 (166-188) and 171 (150-192) µg l(-1) at 4.0 and 102 mg l(-1) as CaCO3, respectively]. A knowledge of the relationship between water chemistry variables, including hardness and alkalinity, and uranium toxicity is useful for predicting the potential ecological detriment in aquatic systems, and can be used to relax national water quality guidelines on a site-specific basis.

  3. Endocrine disruption screening by protein and gene expression of vitellogenin in freshly isolated and cryopreserved rainbow trout hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Markell, Lauren K; Mingoia, Robert T; Peterson, Heather M; Yao, Jianhong; Waters, Stephanie M; Finn, James P; Nabb, Diane L; Han, Xing

    2014-08-18

    Xenobiotics may activate the estrogen receptor, resulting in alteration of normal endocrine functions in animals and humans. Consequently, this necessitates development of assay end points capable of identifying estrogenic xenobiotics. In the present study, we screened the potential estrogenicity of chemicals via their ability to induce vitellogenin (VTG) expression in cultured primary hepatocytes from male trout. A routine method for VTG detection measures the secretion of the protein by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in freshly isolated trout hepatocytes. However, this lengthy (6 days) culturing procedure requires that hepatocyte isolation is performed each time the assay is run. We optimized this methodology by investigating the utility of cryopreserved hepatocytes, shortening the incubation time, performing a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) method for VTG quantification, and verifying the model system with reference chemicals 17β-estradiol, estrone, diethylstilbestrol, hexestrol, genistein, and a negative control, corticosterone. To test the performance of both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, mRNA was collected from hepatocytes following 24 h treatment for VTG gene expression analysis, whereas cell culture media was collected for a VTG ELISA 96 h post-treatment. EC50 values were obtained for each reference chemical except for corticosterone, which exhibited no induction of VTG gene or protein level. Our results show linear concordance between ELISA and qPCR detection methods. Although there was approximately 50% reduction in VTG inducibility following cryopreservation, linear concordance of EC50 values was found between freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes, indicating that cryopreservation does not alter the functional assessment of estrogen receptor activation and therefore VTG expression. These studies demonstrate that qPCR is a sensitive and specific method for detecting VTG gene expression that can be used together

  4. Effects of artificial sweeteners on metal bioconcentration and toxicity on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongwei; Deng, Yuanyuan; Fan, Yunfei; Zhang, Pengfei; Sun, Hongwen; Gan, Zhiwei; Zhu, Hongkai; Yao, Yiming

    2016-05-01

    The ecotoxicity of heavy metals depends much on their speciation, which is influenced by other co-existing substances having chelating capacity. In the present study, the toxic effects of Cd(2+) and Cu(2+) on a green algae Scenedesmus obliquus were examined in the presence of two artificial sweeteners (ASs), acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) by comparing the cell specific growth rate μ and pulse-amplitude-modulated (PAM) parameters (maximal photosystem II photochemical efficiency Fv/Fm, actual photochemical efficiency Yield, and non-photochemical quenching NPQ) of the algae over a 96-h period. Simultaneously, the bioconcentration of the metals by the algal cells in the presence of the ASs was measured. The presence of ACE enhanced the growth of S. obliquus and promoted the bioconcentration of Cd(2+) in S. obliquus, while the impacts of SUC were not significant. Meanwhile, EC50 values of Cd(2+) on the growth of S. obliquus increased from 0.42 mg/L to 0.54 mg/L and 0.48 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. As for Cu(2+), EC50 values increased from 0.13 mg/L to 0.17 mg/L and 0.15 mg/L with the addition of 1.0 mg/L ACE and SUC, respectively. In summary, the two ASs reduced the toxicity of the metals on the algae, with ACE showing greater effect than SUC. Although not as sensitive as the cell specific growth rate, PAM parameters could disclose the mechanisms involved in metal toxicity at subcellular levels. This study provides the first evidence for the possible impact of ASs on the ecotoxicity of heavy metals.

  5. Recovery of uranium values

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K. B.; Crouse, Jr., D. J.; Moore, J. G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine fn the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected anine dissolved in a nonpolar waterimmiscible organfc solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely extracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by water, and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  6. Earned Value-Added

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Earned value management [EVM] ...either you swear by it, or swear at it. Either way, there s no getting around the fact that EVM can be one of the most efficient and insightful methods of synthesizing cost, schedule, and technical status information into a single set of program health metrics. Is there a way of implementing EVM that allows a program to reap its early warning benefits while avoiding the pitfalls that make it infamous to its detractors? That s the question recently faced by the International Space Station [ISS] program.

  7. RECOVERY OF URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Brown, K.B.; Crouse, D.J. Jr.; Moore, J.G.

    1959-03-10

    A liquid-liquid extraction method is presented for recovering uranium values from an aqueous acidic solution by means of certain high molecular weight amine in the amine classes of primary, secondary, heterocyclic secondary, tertiary, or heterocyclic tertiary. The uranium bearing aqueous acidic solution is contacted with the selected amine dissolved in a nonpolar water-immiscible organic solvent such as kerosene. The uranium which is substantially completely exiracted by the organic phase may be stripped therefrom by waters and recovered from the aqueous phase by treatment into ammonia to precipitate ammonium diuranate.

  8. Volume to value.

    PubMed

    Leaver, William B

    2013-01-01

    Traditional fee-for-service medicine has put physicians on an unsustainable treadmill of volume that escalates healthcare costs regardless of the quality of care they provide. This article shares the experience of UnityPoint Health (formerly Iowa Health System) in designing and implementing patient-centered, physician-led, coordinated care as a building block for transforming the delivery system. Keys to the effort's success include aligning physicians, hospitals, and home care delivery in terms of organizational goals and having the ability to gather, analyze, and share data to manage population health. On April 16, 2013, Iowa Health System became UnityPoint Health, dedicated to transforming the delivery of care through a coordinated system that offers regional, organized systems of care in most of our markets in Iowa and Illinois. These capabilities allowed the system to enter into value-based accountable care organization contracts that cover more than 220,000 lives. The transition ultimately will lead to population health-driven approaches in which compensation will be based on the management of specific populations or chronic diseases over a specified period. As increased value from care coordination becomes clear, the external environment will demand this better system, and patients will expect it. PMID:23858985

  9. Intra- and interlaboratory variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Augspurger, T.; Barnhart, M.C.; Bidwell, Joseph R.; Cope, W.G.; Dwyer, F.J.; Geis, S.; Greer, I.E.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kane, C.M.; May, T.W.; Neves, R.J.; Newton, T.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Whites, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The present study evaluated the performance and variability in acute toxicity tests with glochidia and newly transformed juvenile mussels using the standard methods outlined in American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). Multiple 48-h toxicity tests with glochidia and 96-h tests with juvenile mussels were conducted within a single laboratory and among five laboratories. All tests met the test acceptability requirements (e.g., ???90% control survival). Intralaboratory tests were conducted over two consecutive mussel-spawning seasons with mucket (Actinonaias ligamentina) or fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. For the glochidia of both species, the variability of intralaboratory median effective concentrations (EC50s) for the three toxicants, expressed as the coefficient of variation (CV), ranged from 14 to 27% in 24-h exposures and from 13 to 36% in 48-h exposures. The intralaboratory CV of copper EC50s for juvenile fatmucket was 24% in 48-h exposures and 13% in 96-h exposures. Interlaboratory tests were conducted with fatmucket glochidia and juveniles by five laboratories using copper as a toxicant. The interlaboratory CV of copper EC50s for glochidia was 13% in 24-h exposures and 24% in 48-h exposures, and the interlaboratory CV for juveniles was 22% in 48-h exposures and 42% in 96-h exposures. The high completion success and the overall low variability in test results indicate that the test methods have acceptable precision and can be performed routinely. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  10. Value Differences among Gifted Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colangelo, Nicholas; Parker, Marolyn

    1981-01-01

    Gifted high school students (N=58) responded to a values survey consisting of two sets of 18 values: instrumental values and terminal values. Results showed no differences by sex in value patterns, academic performance, and self-concept. Suggests that sex-role stereotyped expectations still persist for the gifted in school and society. (RC)

  11. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice.

  12. Energy and American values

    SciTech Connect

    Barbour, I.; Brooks, H.; Lakoff, S.; Opie, J.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-disciplinary team consisting of an engineer, a political scientist, an historian, and a professor of religion and physics view the question of energy and values from each other's perspective. The result is a synthesis of the team's views on all aspects of energy technology and how it affects human life in general as well as the lives of different classes and specific groups in our society. It begins with an historic overview of the way an abundance of energy has shaped America's use of it. It continues by considering the energy debate as a conflict between Jeffersonians who believe in decentralized, appropriate technology and the centralized, efficient technology of Hamiltonians. The authors wrestle with regional and geographical differences in energy resources, environmental impacts, and ethical problems. 384 references.

  13. The value of reputation.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Thomas; Tran, Lily; Krumme, Coco; Rand, David G

    2012-11-01

    Reputation plays a central role in human societies. Empirical and theoretical work indicates that a good reputation is valuable in that it increases one's expected payoff in the future. Here, we explore a game that couples a repeated Prisoner's Dilemma (PD), in which participants can earn and can benefit from a good reputation, with a market in which reputation can be bought and sold. This game allows us to investigate how the trading of reputation affects cooperation in the PD, and how participants assess the value of having a good reputation. We find that depending on how the game is set up, trading can have a positive or a negative effect on the overall frequency of cooperation. Moreover, we show that the more valuable a good reputation is in the PD, the higher the price at which it is traded in the market. Our findings have important implications for the use of reputation systems in practice. PMID:22718993

  14. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain. PMID:17580654

  15. The innovation value chain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Morten T; Birkinshaw, Julian

    2007-06-01

    The challenges of coming up with fresh ideas and realizing profits from them are different for every company. One firm may excel at finding good ideas but may have weak systems for bringing them to market. Another organization may have a terrific process for funding and rolling out new products and services but a shortage of concepts to develop. In this article, Hansen and Birkinshaw caution executives against using the latest and greatest innovation approaches and tools without understanding the unique deficiencies in their companies' innovation systems. They offer a framework for evaluating innovation performance: the innovation value chain. It comprises the three main phases of innovation (idea generation, conversion, and diffusion) as well as the critical activities performed during those phases (looking for ideas inside your unit; looking for them in other units; looking for them externally; selecting ideas; funding them; and promoting and spreading ideas companywide). Using this framework, managers get an end-to-end view of their innovation efforts. They can pinpoint their weakest links and tailor innovation best practices appropriately to strengthen those links. Companies typically succumb to one of three broad "weakest-link" scenarios. They are idea poor, conversion poor, or diffusion poor. The article looks at the ways smart companies - including Intuit, P&G, Sara Lee, Shell, and Siemens- modify the best innovation practices and apply them to address those organizations' individual needs and flaws. The authors warn that adopting the chain-based view of innovation requires new measures of what can be delivered by each link in the chain. The approach also entails new roles for employees "external scouts" and "internal evangelists," for example. Indeed, in their search for new hires, companies should seek out those candidates who can help address particular weaknesses in the innovation value chain.

  16. The forecaster's added value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turco, M.; Milelli, M.

    2009-09-01

    To the authors' knowledge there are relatively few studies that try to answer this topic: "Are humans able to add value to computer-generated forecasts and warnings ?". Moreover, the answers are not always positive. In particular some postprocessing method is competitive or superior to human forecast (see for instance Baars et al., 2005, Charba et al., 2002, Doswell C., 2003, Roebber et al., 1996, Sanders F., 1986). Within the alert system of ARPA Piemonte it is possible to study in an objective manner if the human forecaster is able to add value with respect to computer-generated forecasts. Every day the meteorology group of the Centro Funzionale of Regione Piemonte produces the HQPF (Human QPF) in terms of an areal average for each of the 13 regional warning areas, which have been created according to meteo-hydrological criteria. This allows the decision makers to produce an evaluation of the expected effects by comparing these HQPFs with predefined rainfall thresholds. Another important ingredient in this study is the very dense non-GTS network of rain gauges available that makes possible a high resolution verification. In this context the most useful verification approach is the measure of the QPF and HQPF skills by first converting precipitation expressed as continuous amounts into ‘‘exceedance'' categories (yes-no statements indicating whether precipitation equals or exceeds selected thresholds) and then computing the performances for each threshold. In particular in this work we compare the performances of the latest three years of QPF derived from two meteorological models COSMO-I7 (the Italian version of the COSMO Model, a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) and IFS (the ECMWF global model) with the HQPF. In this analysis it is possible to introduce the hypothesis test developed by Hamill (1999), in which a confidence interval is calculated with the bootstrap method in order to establish the real difference between the

  17. Synergistic Effects of Nano-Sized Titanium Dioxide and Zinc on the Photosynthetic Capacity and Survival of Anabaena sp.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yulin; Li, Shuyan; Qiao, Junlian; Wang, Hongtao; Li, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Anabaena sp. was used to examine the toxicity of exposure to a nano-TiO2 suspension, Zn2+ solution, and mixtures of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ suspensions. Typical chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, including effective quantum yield, photosynthetic efficiency and maximal electron transport rate, were measured by a pulse-amplitude modulated fluorometer. Nano-TiO2 particles exhibited no significant toxicity at concentrations lower than 10.0 mg/L. The 96 h concentration for the 50% maximal effect (EC50) of Zn2+ alone to Anabaena sp. was 0.38 ± 0.004 mg/L. The presence of nano-TiO2 at low concentrations (<1.0 mg/L) significantly enhanced the toxicity of Zn2+ and consequently reduced the EC50 value to 0.29 ± 0.003 mg/L. However, the toxicity of the Zn2+/TiO2 system decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration because of the substantial adsorption of Zn2+ by nano-TiO2. The toxicity curve of the Zn2+/TiO2 system as a function of incremental nano-TiO2 concentrations was parabolic. The toxicity significantly increased at the initial stage, reached its maximum, and then decreased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. Hydrodynamic sizes, concentration of nano-TiO2 and Zn2+ loaded nano-TiO2 were the main parameters for synergistic toxicity. PMID:23852017

  18. An Introduction to Value Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takacs, Kalman

    1983-01-01

    Emphasizes consciousness as a quality which differentiates a human being from other living organisms. Excerpts various perspectives that are value-analyzed to illustrate two assumptions: (1) thinking leads to valuing and values and (2) all psychological perspectives are based upon some value system which can be identified. (JAC)

  19. Work Values and Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mongo, Celestine

    1978-01-01

    As career education calls for business educators to be concerned with developing students' work values as well as teaching skills, school experiences should be structured to influence work values development. The author discusses the nature of values, group differences, strategies for personal value sharing, industry-school interactions, and…

  20. Values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limbaco, K. S. A.

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify, describe and find the relationship among values taught, values learned, attitude and performance in mathematics. The researcher used descriptive-correlational method of research to gather information and to describe the nature of situation. The following instruments were used in this study: Math Attitude Inventory, Inventory of Values Taught and Learned which were content validated by experts in the field of Mathematics, Values and Education. Generally, most of the values were taught by the teachers. All of the values were learned by the students. The following got the highest mean ratings for values taught: moral strength, sharing, charity, valuing life, love of God, truth and honesty, reason, alternativism and articulation. The following got highest mean ratings for values learned: patience/tolerance, sharing, charity, valuing life, faith, love of God, truth and honesty, analogical thinking, confidence and individual liberty. Majority of the respondents have moderately positive attitude towards mathematics. Positive statements in the Mathematics Attitude Inventory are "Generally true" while negative statements are "Neutral." In conclusion, values were taught by mathematics teacher, thus, learned by the students. Therefore, mathematics is very much related to life. Values can be learned and strengthened through mathematics; there is a significant relationship between values taught by the teachers and values learned by the students and attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics; values taught does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance in mathematics even if the mathematics teacher did not teach values; values learned does not affect attitude towards mathematics and performance in mathematics. A student may have a positive attitude towards mathematics or have an exemplary performance

  1. Neurobiology of value integration: when value impacts valuation.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyoung Q; Kahnt, Thorsten; Rieskamp, Jörg; Heekeren, Hauke R

    2011-06-22

    Everyday choice options have advantages (positive values) and disadvantages (negative values) that need to be integrated into an overall subjective value. For decades, economic models have assumed that when a person evaluates a choice option, different values contribute independently to the overall subjective value of the option. However, human choice behavior often violates this assumption, suggesting interactions between values. To investigate how qualitatively different advantages and disadvantages are integrated into an overall subjective value, we measured the brain activity of human subjects using fMRI while they were accepting or rejecting choice options that were combinations of monetary reward and physical pain. We compared different subjective value models on behavioral and neural data. These models all made similar predictions of choice behavior, suggesting that behavioral data alone are not sufficient to uncover the underlying integration mechanism. Strikingly, a direct model comparison on brain data decisively demonstrated that interactive value integration (where values interact and affect overall valuation) predicts neural activity in value-sensitive brain regions significantly better than the independent mechanism. Furthermore, effective connectivity analyses revealed that value-dependent changes in valuation are associated with modulations in subgenual anterior cingulate cortex-amygdala coupling. These results provide novel insights into the neurobiological underpinnings of human decision making involving the integration of different values.

  2. Values in a Science of Social Work: Values-Informed Research and Research-Informed Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longhofer, Jeffrey; Floersch, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    While social work must be evaluative in relation to its diverse areas of practice and research (i.e., values-informed research), the purpose of this article is to propose that values are within the scope of research and therefore research on practice should make values a legitimate object of investigation (i.e., research-informed values). In this…

  3. Section III: Examining American Values: Value Choices Since Revolutionary Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1974

    1974-01-01

    The statements of Erik Erikson and Urie Bronfenbrenner on American values are followed by a values clarification exercise and an activity based on biographical sketches of five Americans who lived before and after the American Revolution. (KM)

  4. The value ground of nursing.

    PubMed

    Snellman, Ingrid; Gedda, Kersti M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this literature study was to suggest a value ground for nursing anchored in two ethical principles: the principle of human value and the right to experience a meaningful life. Previous nursing research between the years 2000 and 2009 was analysed. Presented values suggested in this value ground are thus in line with the nursing context and science of today. Statements within ethical literature have been used in order to formulate arguments aimed at supporting the values that were found in the study. In the literature study six values were found: trust, nearness, sympathy, support, knowledge and responsibility. These values hold equal status and are not presented in hierarchical order. They vary due to the persons involved, nursing situations and cultural surroundings, but have the common requirement of being non-excluding. In order to implement the values within the value ground, two prerequisites are discussed and claimed as essential: ethical dialogue and a caring encounter between care provider and patients.

  5. Integrating Value and Utility Concepts into a Value Decomposition Model for Value-Based Software Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rönkkö, Mikko; Frühwirth, Christian; Biffl, Stefan

    Value-based software engineering (VBSE) is an emerging stream of research that addresses the value considerations of software and extends the traditional scope of software engineering from technical issues to business-relevant decision problems. While the concept of value in VBSE relies on the well-established economic value concept, the exact definition for this key concept within VBSE domain is still not well defined or agreed upon. We argue the discourse on value can significantly benefit from drawing from research in management, particularly software business. In this paper, we present three aspects of software: as a technology, as a design, and as an artifact. Furthermore, we divide the value concept into three components that are relevant for software product development companies and their customers: intrinsic value, externalities and option value. Finally, we propose a value decomposition matrix based on technology views and value components.

  6. Teacher Values and Relationship: Factors in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Laurie

    2011-01-01

    Intrigued by the notion that effective teaching is as much about relationship as it is about "technical" proficiency, the author examines the values of teachers that inform classroom relationships, and poses the question as to whether there are particular teacher values that are necessary for quality values education. This question is addressed by…

  7. [Value-Added--Adding Economic Value in the Food Industry].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Mary A., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This booklet focuses on the economic concept of "value added" to goods and services. A student activity worksheet illustrates how the steps involved in processing food are examples of the concept of value added. The booklet further links food processing to the idea of value added to the Gross National Product (GNP). Discussion questions, a student…

  8. Universal values of Canadian astronauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brcic, Jelena; Della-Rossa, Irina

    2012-11-01

    Values are desirable, trans-situational goals, varying in importance, that guide behavior. Research has demonstrated that universal values may alter in importance as a result of major life events. The present study examines the effect of spaceflight and the demands of astronauts' job position as life circumstances that affect value priorities. We employed thematic content analysis for references to Schwartz's well-established value markers in narratives (media interviews, journals, and pre-flight interviews) of seven Canadian astronauts and compared the results to the values of National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and Russian Space Agency (RKA) astronauts. Space flight did alter the level of importance of Canadian astronauts' values. We found a U-shaped pattern for the values of Achievement and Tradition before, during, and after flight, and a linear decrease in the value of Stimulation. The most frequently mentioned values were Achievement, Universalism, Security, and Self-Direction. Achievement and Self Direction are also within the top 4 values of all other astronauts; however, Universalism was significantly higher among the Canadian astronauts. Within the value hierarchy of Canadian astronauts, Security was the third most frequently mentioned value, while it is in seventh place for all other astronauts. Interestingly, the most often mentioned value marker (sub-category) in this category was Patriotism. The findings have important implications in understanding multi-national crew relations during training, flight, and reintegration into society.

  9. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported.

  10. The Value of Imaging Part II: Value beyond Image Interpretation.

    PubMed

    Duong, Phuong-Anh T; Pastel, David A; Sadigh, Gelareh; Ballard, David; Sullivan, Joseph C; Bresnahan, Brian; Buch, Karen; Duszak, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although image interpretation is an essential part of radiologists' value, there are other ways in which we contribute to patient care. Part II of the value of imaging series reviews current initiatives that demonstrate value beyond the image interpretation. Standardizing processes, reducing the radiation dose of our examinations, clarifying written reports, improving communications with patients and providers, and promoting appropriate imaging through decision support are all ways we can provide safer, more consistent, and higher quality care. As payers and policy makers push to drive value, research that demonstrates the value of these endeavors, or lack thereof, will become increasingly sought after and supported. PMID:26683509

  11. Neurocognitive mechanisms underlying value-based decision-making: from core values to economic value

    PubMed Central

    Brosch, Tobias; Sander, David

    2013-01-01

    Value plays a central role in practically every aspect of human life that requires a decision: whether we choose between different consumer goods, whether we decide which person we marry or which political candidate gets our vote, we choose the option that has more value to us. Over the last decade, neuroeconomic research has mapped the neural substrates of economic value, revealing that activation in brain regions such as ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), ventral striatum or posterior cingulate cortex reflects how much an individual values an option and which of several options he/she will choose. However, while great progress has been made exploring the mechanisms underlying concrete decisions, neuroeconomic research has been less concerned with the questions of why people value what they value, and why different people value different things. Social psychologists and sociologists have long been interested in core values, motivational constructs that are intrinsically linked to the self-schema and are used to guide actions and decisions across different situations and different time points. Core value may thus be an important determinant of individual differences in economic value computation and decision-making. Based on a review of recent neuroimaging studies investigating the neural representation of core values and their interactions with neural systems representing economic value, we outline a common framework that integrates the core value concept and neuroeconomic research on value-based decision-making. PMID:23898252

  12. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic toxic effects of sulfonamides on Escherichia coli?

    PubMed

    Qin, Mengnan; Lin, Zhifen; Wang, Dali; Long, Xi; Zheng, Min; Qiu, Yanling

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria in the environment face the threat of antibiotics. However, most studies investigating the toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics have been conducted on microorganisms in aerobic conditions, while studies examining the anaerobic toxicity and toxicity mechanisms of antibiotics are still limited. In this study, we determined the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities of sulfonamides (SAs) on Escherichia coli. Next, a comparison of the aerobic and anaerobic toxicities indicated that the SAs could be divided into three groups: Group I: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)>log(1/EC50-aerobic) (EC50-anaerobic/EC50-aerobic, the median effective concentration under anaerobic/aerobic conditions), Group II: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)≈log(1/EC50-aerobic), and Group III: log(1/EC50-anaerobic)EC50-aerobic). Furthermore, this division was not based on the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level or the interaction energy (Ebinding) value, which represents the affinity between SAs and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps) but rather on the total binding energy. Furthermore, SAs with greatly similar structures were categorized into different groups. This deep insight into the difference between aerobic and anaerobic toxicities will benefit environmental science, and the results of this study will serve as a reference for the risk assessment of chemicals in the environment.

  13. American Values through Russian Eyes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zatsepina, Olga; Rodriguez, Julio

    This paper discusses impressions held by Moscow State University (Russia) students about American values. In class discussions and written assignments, students were asked to comment on thirteen values, giving their perceptions of American attitudes in each case. The values included: personal control over the environment; change; time and its…

  14. Values Education: Interdisciplinary Curriculum Strand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The instructional objectives of values education to be taught in the K-12 Utah public schools are outlined and cross-referenced to each subject area in the curriculum. It is the responsibility of the schools to help students clarify perceptions and values with respect to self and society. The major categories of values education goals are: rights…

  15. Student Development and Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, John D., Comp.

    1982-01-01

    In five articles explores the value development of college students. Surveyed student personnel administrators to investigate ethical issues and values in student development and educational approaches to values development. Presents an approach to student ethical development. Discusses a rationale for developmental education considering…

  16. The Logic of Values Clarification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazepides, A. C.

    1977-01-01

    Traces the origin of the Values Clarification movement in education in Carl Roger's clien-centered therapy and exposes its unwarranted extreme ethical stance. Examines a model episode of values clarification and shows how the theoretical confusions of the Values Clarification proponents are reflected in their actual teaching strategies. (Editor/RK)

  17. Teaching the Value of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shumow, Lee; Schmidt, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    Why and under what conditions might students value their science learning? To find out, the authors observed approximately 400 science classes. They found that although several teachers were amazingly adept at regularly promoting the value of science, many others missed out on important opportunities to promote the value of science. The authors…

  18. Identifying and Clarifying Organizational Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seevers, Brenda S.

    2000-01-01

    Of the 14 organizational values ranked by a majority of 146 New Mexico Cooperative Extension educators as extremely valued, 9 were extremely evident in organizational policies and procedures. A values audit such as this forms an important initial step in strategic planning. (SK)

  19. Integrating values in job descriptions.

    PubMed

    Craig, R P

    1987-12-01

    The Mission Services Division of the Sisters of Charity of the Incarnate Word Health Care Corporation, Houston, has established training sessions to help various facilities develop criteria-based job descriptions that integrate values. A major problem with traditional job descriptions is that they do not contain enough information for value integration to occur. Each facet of the job description--the responsibility statement, the task statement, and the standard--can integrate the facilities' values in explicit and implicit ways. Such integration reduces the possibility of a supervisor arbitrarily defining the qualitative aspects of how an employee performs the job and provides a better method for evaluating the quality of the employee's performance. The first step in value integration is to identify the organization's values. Next, illustrative behaviors are identified to emphasize value integration in both activity-based task statements and results-based standards. The final step is to integrate the values in the job description, which makes the value operational and bridges the gap between commitment to values and behavior that exemplifies those values. Although values cannot be measured as objectively as the successful accomplishment of a procedure with a specified method of measurement, evaluation of values is not fruitless. When the employee and supervisor agree on specific qualitative aspects of patient care or other tasks, the consistency of the qualitative aspects of the job can be evaluated.

  20. 78 FR 53380 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF64 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal... Making (NPRM); request for comments. SUMMARY: The FHWA proposes to update the existing value engineering... Leuderalbert, Value Engineering and Utilities Program Manager, FHWA Office of Program Administration,...

  1. Principals' Values in School Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslanargun, Engin

    2012-01-01

    School administration is value driven area depending on the emotions, cultures, and human values as well as technique and structure. Over the long years, educational administration throughout the world have experienced the influence of logical positivism that is based on rational techniques more than philosophical consideration, ignored values and…

  2. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  3. Teaching Values through Children's Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramp, Ellen; Ridout, Susan Ramp

    Suggesting that reading teachers can use children's literature as a vehicle for teaching values, this paper presents an annotated bibliography of children's literature and lesson plans that can help teach the values of honesty, respect, responsibility, compassion, self-discipline, perseverance, and giving. After a brief description of the values,…

  4. Sex Differences in Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beutell, Nicholas J.; Brenner, O. C.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated sex differences in work values. Significant sex differences were found on 18 of 25 values with women rating 12 of these values higher than men. However, despite item differences, there was a clear trend toward similarity in the importance of work outcomes among women and men. (Author/BL)

  5. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  6. Make your values mean something.

    PubMed

    Lencioni, Patrick M

    2002-07-01

    Take a look at this list of corporate values: Communication. Respect. Integrity. Excellence. They sound pretty good, don't they? Maybe they even resemble your own company's values. If so, you should be nervous. These are the corporate values of Enron, as claimed in its 2000 annual report. And they're absolutely meaningless. Indeed, most values statements, says the author, are bland, toothless, or just plain dishonest. And far from being harmless, as some executives assume, they're often highly destructive. Empty values statements create cynical and dispirited employees and undermine managerial credibility. But coming up with strong values--and sticking to them--isn't easy. Organizations that want their values statements to really mean something should follow four imperatives. First, understand the different types of values: core, aspirational, permission-to-play, and accidental. Confusing them with one another can bewilder employees and make management seem out of touch. Second, be aggressively authentic. Too many companies view a values initiative in the same way they view a marketing launch: a onetime event measured by the initial attention it receives, not by its content. Third, own the process. Values initiatives are about imposing a set of fundamental, strategically sound beliefs on a broad group of people. That's why the best values efforts are driven by small teams. Finally, weave core values into everything. It's not enough to hang your values statement on the wall; it must be integrated into every employee-related process--hiring methods, performance management systems, even dismissal policies. Living by stated corporate values is difficult. But the benefits of doing so can be profound; so can the damage from adopting a hollow set of corporate values.

  7. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value. PMID:24571532

  8. Values beyond value? Is anything beyond the logic of capital?

    PubMed

    Skeggs, Bev

    2014-03-01

    We are living in a time when it is frequently assumed that the logic of capital has subsumed every single aspect of our lives, intervening in the organization of our intimate relations as well as the control of our time, including investments in the future (e.g. via debt). The theories that document the incursion of this logic (often through the terms of neoliberalism and/or governmentality) assume that this logic is internalized, works and organizes everything including our subjectivity. These theories performatively reproduce the very conditions they describe, shrinking the domain of values and making it subject to capital's logic. All values are reduced to value. Yet values and value are always dialogic, dependent and co-constituting. In this paper I chart the history by which value eclipses values and how this shrinks our sociological imagination. By outlining the historical processes that institutionalized different organizations of the population through political economy and the social contract, producing ideas of proper personhood premised on propriety, I detail how forms of raced, gendered and classed personhood was formed. The gaps between the proper and improper generate significant contradictions that offer both opportunities to and limits on capitals' lines of flight. It is the lacks, the residues, and the excess that cannot be captured by capital's mechanisms of valuation that will be explored in order to think beyond the logic of capital and show how values will always haunt value.

  9. Acute and chronic toxicity of selected disinfection byproducts to Daphnia magna, Cyprinodon variegatus, and Isochrysis galbana.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Daniel; Yonkos, Lance; Ziegler, Gregory; Friedel, Elizabeth; Burton, Dennis

    2014-05-15

    Ballast water treatment has become a major issue in the last decade due to the problem of invasive species transported and released by the uptake and discharge of ballast water for shipping operations. One of the important issues considering ballast water treatment is to determine whether treated ballast water, once discharged, is safe to the aquatic environment. The International Maritime Organization (IMO) Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) has determined that prior to approval of a ballast water management system, aquatic toxicity data must be available for both the active substance and relevant byproducts. Many proposed ballast water treatment systems use chlorine as the active ingredient. Although there are sufficient toxicity data concerning active substances such as chlorine, there are limited toxicity data concerning disinfection (halogenated) byproducts including dibromochloromethane, four haloacetic acids and sodium bromate. Acute and chronic toxicity were determined for these disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Acute toxicity values ranged from 96-h LC50s of 46.8 mg/l for Daphnia magna for both dibromochloromethane and sodium bromate to a 96-h LC50 of 376.4 mg/l for Cyprinodon variegatus for tribromoacetic acid. Acute Isochrysis galbana population growth effect values ranged from a 72-h EC10 of 39.9 mg/l for dichloroacetic acid to a 72-h EC50 of 15,954 mg/l for sodium bromate. Chronic toxicity mortality/reproduction effects values for D. magna ranged from a 21-d IC25 of 160.9 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid to a 21-d LOEC of 493.0 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid. Chronic toxicity mortality/growth values for C. variegatus ranged from a 32-d IC25 of 246.8 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to a 32-d LOEC of 908.1 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. I. galbana 96-h chronic population growth effects values ranged from an EC10 of 38.5 mg/l for trichloroacetic acid to an LOEC of 500.0 mg/l for tribromoacetic acid. Acute to chronic ratios for all of these

  10. An efficient laboratory workflow for environmental risk assessment of organic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linyan; Santiago-Schübel, Beatrix; Xiao, Hongxia; Thiele, Björn; Zhu, Zhiliang; Qiu, Yanling; Hollert, Henner; Küppers, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a fast and efficient workflow to investigate the transformation mechanism of organic chemicals and evaluate the toxicity of their transformation products (TPs) in laboratory scale. The transformation process of organic chemicals was first simulated by electrochemistry coupled online to mass spectrometry (EC-MS). The simulated reactions were scaled up in a batch EC reactor to receive larger amounts of a reaction mixture. The mixture sample was purified and concentrated by solid phase extraction (SPE) for the further ecotoxicological testing. The combined toxicity of the reaction mixture was evaluated in fish egg test (FET) (Danio rerio) compared to the parent compound. The workflow was verified with carbamazepine (CBZ). By using EC-MS seven primary TPs of CBZ were identified; the degradation mechanism was elucidated and confirmed by comparison to literature. The reaction mixture and one primary product (acridine) showed higher ecotoxicity in fish egg assay with 96 h EC50 values of 1.6 and 1.0 mg L(-1) than CBZ with the value of 60.8 mg L(-1). The results highlight the importance of transformation mechanism study and toxicological effect evaluation for organic chemicals brought into the environment since transformation of them may increase the toxicity. The developed process contributes a fast and efficient laboratory method for the risk assessment of organic chemicals and their TPs.

  11. Acute toxicity of butachlor and atrazine to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata.

    PubMed

    He, Hongzhi; Yu, Jing; Chen, Guikui; Li, Wenyang; He, Jinbo; Li, Huashou

    2012-06-01

    Both single and joint toxicity of atrazine and butachlor to freshwater green alga Scenedesmus obliquus and cladoceran Daphnia carinata isolated from South China were investigated in the present study. The 96 h-EC(50) values of atrazine and butachlor to S. obliquus were 0.0147 and 2.31 mg L(-1), while the 48 h-LC(50) values to D. carinata were 60.6 and 3.40 mg L(-1), respectively. These results suggest that atrazine could be highly toxic to S. obliquus and slightly toxic to D. carinata, while butachlor exhibits moderate toxicity to both organisms. The additive indexes of atrazine and butachlor mixtures were -2.68 (-3.02 to -2.32) to S. obliquus and 0.054 (-0.025 to 0.238) to D. carinata, respectively. Therefore, the joint action of two herbicides was significant antagonism to S. obliquus, while significant synergism was not shown to D. carinata. Moreover, significant linear correlation between the natural logarithm of herbicide concentrations and growth rates of alga S. obliquus was observed. Taken together, it is the first study reporting the toxicity endpoints for mixture of atrazine and butachlor against S. obliquus and D. carinata isolated from south China. The present results would be helpful to provide data to assess the ecological risk of both herbicides to aquatic organisms.

  12. Toxic effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis, larval growth, survival and metamorphosis of the bivalve Meretrix meretrix.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Baozhong; Wang, Xiaoyu

    2012-08-01

    To assess the potential toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls on the early development of Meretrix meretrix, the effects of benzo[a]pyrene (Bap) and Aroclor1254 on embryogenesis and larval development were investigated using static laboratory toxicity tests at nominal concentrations of 6.25-1,600 μg/L. Even at 1,600 μg/L, Bap and Aroclor1254 only caused minor reductions in embryo development rates. The 96 h LC(50) values for D-shaped larvae were 156 μg/L for Bap and 132 μg/L for Aroclor1254, respectively. The most sensitive toxicity endpoint in this study was metamorphosis, with an EC(50) value of 20 μg/L for Bap and 35 μg/L for Aroclor1254. Aroclor1254 was more toxic than Bap to embryos and larvae. Our results indicate that Bap and Aroclor1254 do not show extreme toxicity to M. meretrix embryos and larvae. These data provide information for evaluating the toxicity of Bap and Aroclor1254 on bivalve embryos, especially over the entire larval stages.

  13. [Acute toxicity of three typical pollutants to aquatic organisms and their water quality criteria].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dong-Sheng; Shi, Xiao-Rong; Cui, Yi-Bin; Li, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Two species of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa, Scenedesmus obliqnus and a red worm Chironomidae larvae were selected as test organisms in determining the acute toxicity effects of Cr (VI), 2,4,6-trichlorophenol and nitrobenzene. The results were able to provide more information on water quality criteria and more data on their toxicity to indigenous aquatic organisms in China. The 96 h-EC50 values of Cr (VI), TCP and nitrobenzene on C. pyrenoidosa were 1.34 mg x L(-1, 4.55 mg x L(-1) and 86.58 mg x L(-1), respectively, while those of S. obliqnus were 19.52 mg x L(-1), 3.71 mg x L(-1) and 74.15 mg x L(-1), respectively. The mortality of C. larvae was 15% when the concentration of Cr(VI) was increased to 1,500 mg x L(-1). The 48 h-LC50 values of TCP and nitrobenzene on C. larvae were 9.29 mg x L(-1) and 98.34 mg x L(-1), respectively. These results indicated that Cr( VI) showed higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa, while only moderate toxicity to S. obliqnus; TCP had higher toxicity to C. pyrenoidosa and S. oblignus; while nitrobenzene was only moderately toxic to both species of microalgae. The toxicity among the three pollutants to C. larvae was in the order of TCP > nitrobenzene > Cr (VI). PMID:24720216

  14. Beyond Values Clarification: Addressing Client Values in Clinical Behavior Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonow, Jordan T.; Follette, William C.

    2009-01-01

    Ethical principles of psychology, as exemplified in the American Psychological Association (APA) Code of Ethics (2002), provide impractical advice for addressing client values during psychotherapy. These principles seem to argue that each client's values should be respected and protected at all times, except in cases in which this would result in…

  15. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies.

  16. Attitudes of Social Studies Teachers toward Value and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celikkaya, Tekin; Filoglu, Simge

    2014-01-01

    This research was conducted to determine how social studies teachers define value and "values education" as well as reveal the problems they encountered during the implementation. The participants in this study consisted of 17 social studies teachers from 12 primary schools (selected out of 39 primary schools in the city of Kirsehir…

  17. What Is the Value of Value-Based Purchasing?

    PubMed

    Tanenbaum, Sandra J

    2016-10-01

    Value-based purchasing (VBP) is a widely favored strategy for improving the US health care system. The meaning of value that predominates in VBP schemes is (1) conformance to selected process and/or outcome metrics, and sometimes (2) such conformance at the lowest possible cost. In other words, VBP schemes choose some number of "quality indicators" and financially incent providers to meet them (and not others). Process measures are usually based on clinical science that cannot determine the effects of a process on individual patients or patients with comorbidities, and do not necessarily measure effects that patients value; additionally, there is no provision for different patients valuing different things. Proximate outcome measures may or may not predict distal ones, and the more distal the outcome, the less reliably it can be attributed to health care. Outcome measures may be quite rudimentary, such as mortality rates, or highly contestable: survival or function after prostate surgery? When cost is an element of value-based purchasing, it is the cost to the value-based payer and not to other payers or patients' families. The greatest value of value-based purchasing may not be to patients or even payers, but to policy makers seeking a morally justifiable alternative to politically contested regulatory policies. PMID:27256808

  18. The Values and Value Systems of Educational Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikula, Andrew F.; Sikula, John P.

    This speech reports on a study of 62 educational administrators that supplies empirical evidence in support of the contention that there are significantly different profiles associated with different occupational-career groups. Utilizing the Rokeach Value Survey Form D, the authors surveyed and compared the value configurations of 12 distinct…

  19. Sublethal mechanisms of Pb and Zn toxicity to the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) during early development.

    PubMed

    Tellis, Margaret S; Lauer, Mariana M; Nadella, Sunita; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand sublethal mechanisms of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) toxicity, developing sea urchins were exposed continuously from 3h post-fertilization (eggs) to 96 h (pluteus larvae) to 55 (±2.4) μgPb/L or 117 (±11)μgZn/L, representing ~ 70% of the EC50 for normal 72 h development. Growth, unidirectional Ca uptake rates, whole body ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg), Ca(2+) ATPase activity, and metal bioaccumulation were monitored every 12h over this period. Pb exhibited marked bioaccumulation whereas Zn was well-regulated, and both metals had little effect on growth, measured as larval dry weight, or on Na, K, or Mg concentrations. Unidirectional Ca uptake rates (measured by (45)Ca incorporation) were severely inhibited by both metals, resulting in lower levels of whole body Ca accumulation. The greatest disruption occurred at gastrulation. Ca(2+) ATPase activity was also significantly inhibited by Zn but not by Pb. Interestingly, embryos exposed to Pb showed some capacity for recovery, as Ca(2+)ATPase activities increased, Ca uptake rates returned to normal intermittently, and whole body Ca levels were restored to control values by 72-96 h of development. This did not occur with Zn exposure. Both Pb and Zn rendered their toxic effects through disruption of Ca homeostasis, though likely through different proximate mechanisms. We recommend studying the toxicity of these contaminants periodically throughout development as an effective way to detect sublethal effects, which may not be displayed at the traditional toxicity test endpoint of 72 h. PMID:24326189

  20. Apple peels as a value-added food ingredient.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Kelly L; Liu, Rui Hai

    2003-03-12

    equivalents/g, similar to fresh Rome Beauty peels on a fresh weight basis (p > 0.05). One gram of powder had an antioxidant activity equivalent to 220 mg of vitamin C. The freeze-dried apple peels also had a strong antiproliferative effect on HepG(2) liver cancer cells with a median effective dose (EC(50)) of 1.88 +/- 0.01 mg/mL. This was lower than the EC(50) exhibited by the fresh apple peels (p < 0.05). Apple peel powder may be used in a various food products to add phytochemicals and promote good health.

  1. Values Education: Texts and Supplements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curriculum Review, 1979

    1979-01-01

    This column describes and evaluates almost 40 texts, instructional kits, and teacher resources on values, interpersonal relations, self-awareness, self-help skills, juvenile psychology, and youth suicide. Eight effective picture books for the primary grades and seven titles in values fiction for teens are also reviewed. (SJL)

  2. Education, Values and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Marlene Herbert

    The paper examines the relationship of values to education and stresses the need to design socially relevant educational systems. Problems which have contributed to the failure of most educational systems to reflect overall cultural values are identified. These include that educators are often oblivious to social needs and are unwilling to suggest…

  3. Be Resolute about Absolute Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret L.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores how conceptualization of absolute value can start long before it is introduced. The manner in which absolute value is introduced to students in middle school has far-reaching consequences for their future mathematical understanding. It begins to lay the foundation for students' understanding of algebra, which can change…

  4. Legal Implications of Values Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Brian C.; Cummings, Daniel L.

    Americans traditionally have looked to the public schools to play a role in transmitting society's values to students, and on various occasions the U.S. Supreme Court has emphasized the role of the nation's schools in inculcating basic values. For many years Maine has had a statute mandating the teaching of virtue and morality and another that…

  5. Age Stratification and Value Orientations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youmans, E. Grant

    Value orientations of members of younger and older age strata in 2 subcultural systems--one urban and one rural--are examined. The author looks at age stratification in a vertical sense (i.e., assessing differences existing between members of younger and older age strata), as well as in a horizontal sense (i.e., comparing the value orientations of…

  6. 77 FR 15250 - Value Engineering

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) in the Federal Register at 76 FR 36410 soliciting public comments on its... Federal Highway Administration 23 CFR Part 627 RIN 2125-AF40 Value Engineering AGENCY: Federal Highway... of value engineering (VE) analysis in the planning and development of highway improvement...

  7. Values Strategies for Classroom Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemin, Marion, Ed.; And Others

    This document is a reference for teachers to use in incorporating values education into all subject areas through the activities listed in the book. The book contains 16 chapters, of which about half provide guidelines, discussion and activities related to values in general, and half suggest activities specific to individual areas of study. In the…

  8. Valuing Confrontations with the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Joseph T.

    1978-01-01

    Suggests teaching methods and materials for use by high school and college social studies teachers as they help students develop valuing skills. Entitled Valuing Confrontation With The Future (VCF), the materials promote consideration of provocative episodes such as electrical stimulation of the human brain and a congressional ban on large pets…

  9. Social Value and Adult Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Penny

    2011-01-01

    An examination of the current government policy discourse on social value and the capturing of social impact leads immediately into the centre of the fast-moving and transforming public-sector reform agenda. The thinking around social value takes an individual to the heart of contracting, localism, the relationship between the public sector and…

  10. Personality, Sex, and Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde; Hartman, Timothy

    1978-01-01

    The Vocational Preference Inventory (VPA) and the Ohio Work Values Inventory (OWVI) were administered to 115 undergraduates. A two-factor MANOVA was performed with personality types (VPI) and sex as independent variables and work values (OWVI) as dependent variables. The F-ratios for main effects were significant. (Author/SJL)

  11. The Values of Australian Activists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellerman, D. A.; Feather, N. T.

    1976-01-01

    Relevant literature on student activism was reviewed so as to discover leads for predictions about differences between activists and non-activists in the way they might be expected to rank the terminal and instrumental values from Rokeach's Value Survey. (Editor)

  12. Cross-Cultural Faculty Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Marybelle C.

    1992-01-01

    Compares the terminal values of 24 visiting scholars from the People's Republic of China based at a midwestern community college with resident faculty values. The Chinese scholars ranked freedom, equality, and self-respect highest, whereas U.S. schools gave highest rankings to salvation, family security, and self-respect. Contrasts findings with a…

  13. The Value of Literacy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esposito, Lucio; Kebede, Bereket; Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of literacy events and practices have received considerable attention in educational research and policy. In comparison, the question of value, that is, "which literacy practices do people most value?" has been neglected. With the current trend of cross-cultural adult literacy assessment, it is increasingly important to…

  14. Absolute reliability of hamstring to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios calculated using peak torque, joint angle-specific torque and joint ROM-specific torque values.

    PubMed

    Ayala, F; De Ste Croix, M; Sainz de Baranda, P; Santonja, F

    2012-11-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine the absolute reliability of conventional (H/Q(CONV)) and functional (H/Q(FUNC)) hamstring to quadriceps strength imbalance ratios calculated using peak torque values, 3 different joint angle-specific torque values (10°, 20° and 30° of knee flexion) and 4 different joint ROM-specific average torque values (0-10°, 11-20°, 21-30° and 0-30° of knee flexion) adopting a prone position in recreational athletes. A total of 50 recreational athletes completed the study. H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) ratios were recorded at 3 different angular velocities (60, 180 and 240°/s) on 3 different occasions with a 72-96 h rest interval between consecutive testing sessions. Absolute reliability was examined through typical percentage error (CVTE), percentage change in the mean (CM) and intraclass correlations (ICC) as well as their respective confidence limits. H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) ratios calculated using peak torque values showed moderate reliability values, with CM scores lower than 2.5%, CV(TE) values ranging from 16 to 20% and ICC values ranging from 0.3 to 0.7. However, poor absolute reliability scores were shown for H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) ratios calculated using joint angle-specific torque values and joint ROM-specific average torque values, especially for H/Q(FUNC) ratios (CM: 1-23%; CV(TE): 22-94%; ICC: 0.1-0.7). Therefore, the present study suggests that the CV(TE) values reported for H/Q(CONV) and H/Q(FUNC) (≈18%) calculated using peak torque values may be sensitive enough to detect large changes usually observed after rehabilitation programmes but not acceptable to examine the effect of preventitive training programmes in healthy individuals. The clinical reliability of hamstring to quadriceps strength ratios calculated using joint angle-specific torque values and joint ROM-specific average torque values are questioned and should be re-evaluated in future research studies.

  15. Motivational beliefs, values, and goals.

    PubMed

    Eccles, Jacquelynne S; Wigfield, Allan

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent research on motivation, beliefs, values, and goals, focusing on developmental and educational psychology. The authors divide the chapter into four major sections: theories focused on expectancies for success (self-efficacy theory and control theory), theories focused on task value (theories focused on intrinsic motivation, self-determination, flow, interest, and goals), theories that integrate expectancies and values (attribution theory, the expectancy-value models of Eccles et al., Feather, and Heckhausen, and self-worth theory), and theories integrating motivation and cognition (social cognitive theories of self-regulation and motivation, the work by Winne & Marx, Borkowski et al., Pintrich et al., and theories of motivation and volition). The authors end the chapter with a discussion of how to integrate theories of self-regulation and expectancy-value models of motivation and suggest new directions for future research.

  16. [Acute Toxic Effects of Bromate on Aquatic Organisms].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi-wei; Liu, Dong-mei; Zhang, Wen-juan; Cui, Fu-yi

    2016-02-15

    Acute toxic effects of potassium bromate, sodium bromate and potassium bromide on luminescent bacteria, water flea, green alga and zebrafish were studied using standard toxic testing methods. The results showed that the pollutants had no effect on the luminous intensity of luminescent bacteria. The 96 h EC5. of potassium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 738.18 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 on Daphnia magna and Moina was 154.01 mg x L(-1) was 161.80 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 198 52 mg x L(-1), 175.68 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 931.4 mg x L(-1). The 96 h EC50 of sodium bromate on Scenedesmus obliquus was 540.26 mg x L(-1), 48 h EC50 Daphnia magna and Moina was 127.90 mg x L(-1), 111.07 mg x L(-1), while 48 h LC50 was 161.80 mg x L(-1), 123.47 mg x L(-1), and 96 h LC50 on zebrafish was 1065.6 mg x L(-1). But the effects of potassium bromide on the above several kinds of aquatic organisms were far smaller than those of potassium bromate and sodium bromate. The toxic effects on test organisms were due to the impacts of bromate after the comparison of different pollutants, and the effects were more obvious with the increase of exposure time. The order of sensitivity to the toxic effects of bromate was Daphnia magna, Moina > Scenedesmus obliquus > zebrafish > Chlorella vulgaris, luminescent bacteria. PMID:27363170

  17. Extraction of squalene as value-added product from the residual biomass of Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6 during biodiesel producing process.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Hien; Ha, Nguyen Cam; Thom, Le Thi; Tam, Luu Thi; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai; Hong, Dang Diem

    2014-12-01

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source of squalene for commercial application. The species Schizochytrium mangrovei, a heterotrophic microalga, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of squalene, polyunsaturated fatty acids and has good profiles for biodiesel production. Our work was aimed at examining the squalene contents in Vietnam's heterotrophic marine microalga S. mangrovei PQ6 biomass and residues of the biodiesel process from this strain. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were successfully applied to the determination of squalene in S. mangrovei PQ6. The squalene content and production of S. mangrovei PQ6 reached 33.00 ± 0.02 and 33.04 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of dry cell weight; and 0.992 g L(-1) and 1.019 g L(-1) in 30 and 150 L bioreactors, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. In addition, squalene was also detected in spent biomass (approximately 80.10 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of spent biomass) from the S. mangrovei PQ6 biodiesel production process. The structure of squalene in residues of the biodiesel process was confirmed from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results obtained from our work suggest that there is tremendous potential in the exploitation of squalene as a value-added by-product besides biodiesel from S. mangrovei PQ6 to reduce biodiesel price.

  18. SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM VALUES FORM IRON VALUES BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION

    DOEpatents

    Kuhlman, C.W. Jr.; Lang, G.P.

    1961-12-19

    A process is given for separating scandium from trivalent iron values. In this process, an aqueous nitric acid solution is contacted with a water- immiscible alkyl phosphate solution, the aqueous solution containing the values to be separated, whereby the scandium is taken up by the alkyl phosphate. The aqueous so1ution is preferably saturated with magnesium nitrate to retain the iron in the aqueous solution. (AEC)

  19. The value of innovation under value-based pricing

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Santiago G.; Ray, Joshua A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The role of cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) in incentivizing innovation is controversial. Critics of CEA argue that its use for pricing purposes disregards the ‘value of innovation’ reflected in new drug development, whereas supporters of CEA highlight that the value of innovation is already accounted for. Our objective in this article is to outline the limitations of the conventional CEA approach, while proposing an alternative method of evaluation that captures the value of innovation more accurately. Method The adoption of a new drug benefits present and future patients (with cost implications) for as long as the drug is part of clinical practice. Incidence patients and off-patent prices are identified as two key missing features preventing the conventional CEA approach from capturing 1) benefit to future patients and 2) future savings from off-patent prices. The proposed CEA approach incorporates these two features to derive the total lifetime value of an innovative drug (i.e., the value of innovation). Results The conventional CEA approach tends to underestimate the value of innovative drugs by disregarding the benefit to future patients and savings from off-patent prices. As a result, innovative drugs are underpriced, only allowing manufacturers to capture approximately 15% of the total value of innovation during the patent protection period. In addition to including the incidence population and off-patent price, the alternative approach proposes pricing new drugs by first negotiating the share of value of innovation to be appropriated by the manufacturer (>15%?) and payer (<85%?), in order to then identify the drug price that satisfies this condition. Conclusion We argue for a modification to the conventional CEA approach that integrates the total lifetime value of innovative drugs into CEA, by taking into account off-patent pricing and future patients. The proposed approach derives a price that allows manufacturers to capture an agreed share

  20. Teaching Values in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baer, Richard A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Summarizes the major criticisms that have appeared in the literature and argues that values clarification should not be used in the public schools or by such quasi-public agencies as Scouts, Planned Parenthood, and 4-H. (JOW)

  1. ISO 14001 EMS VALUE PROPOSITION.

    SciTech Connect

    BRIGGS,S.L.K.

    2001-11-06

    The objective of this report is to identify business opportunities and value for Battelle Organizations to undertake IS0 14001 Environmental Management System Implementation and registration to the international standard as a corporate strategic initiative.

  2. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  3. Values of The Cultural Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, James C. F.

    1977-01-01

    Examines Chinese press editorials and testimonials from members of the People's Liberation Army in an attempt to determine the meaning of Mao Tse Tung's vision of a new socialist man and the societal value transformation process. (MH)

  4. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions. PMID:25092260

  5. Assessing value representation in animals.

    PubMed

    San-Galli, Aurore; Bouret, Sebastien

    2015-01-01

    Among all factors modulating our motivation to perform a given action, the ability to represent its outcome is clearly the most determining. Representation of outcomes, rewards in particular, and how they guide behavior, have sparked much research. Both practically and theoretically, understanding the relationship between the representation of outcome value and the organization of goal directed behavior implies that these two processes can be assessed independently. Most of animal studies essentially used instrumental actions as a proxy for the expected goal-value. The purpose of this article is to consider alternative measures of expected outcome value in animals, which are critical to understand the behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms relating the representation of the expected outcome to the organization of the behavior oriented towards its obtention. This would be critical in the field of decision making or social interactions, where the value of multiple items must often be compared and/or shared among individuals to determine the course of actions.

  6. Diffusion technique stabilizes resistor values

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, R. C.; Giuliano, M. N.

    1966-01-01

    Reduction of the contact resistance stabilizes the values, over a broad temperature range, of resistors used in linear integrated circuits. This reduction is accomplished by p-plus diffusion under the alloyed aluminum contacts.

  7. Values From an Evolutionary Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John B.

    1972-01-01

    Continuation of life and evolution as criteria for development of a value system are analyzed. Discussion is based on an awareness aspect of evolution which promotes a greater harmony of response with existing and emerging environmental conditions. (BL)

  8. Public health and human values

    PubMed Central

    Häyry, M

    2006-01-01

    The ends and means of public health activities are suggested to be at odds with the values held by human individuals and communities. Although promoting longer lives in better health for all seems like an endeavour that is obviously acceptable, it can be challenged by equally self‐evident appeals to autonomy, happiness, integrity and liberty, among other values. The result is that people's actual concerns are not always adequately dealt with by public health measures and assurances. PMID:16943332

  9. A Child's World of Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Mary

    Children need to share their personal lives with other persons in a relationship of mutual respect and responsiveness; i.e., in a relationship of love. Children are an end, not a means, people to be valued for their own sakes. Adults must help children to know who they are and who they can become. Values contribute to the fulfillment of a person's…

  10. Clarifying values: an updated review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Consensus guidelines have recommended that decision aids include a process for helping patients clarify their values. We sought to examine the theoretical and empirical evidence related to the use of values clarification methods in patient decision aids. Methods Building on the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration’s 2005 review of values clarification methods in decision aids, we convened a multi-disciplinary expert group to examine key definitions, decision-making process theories, and empirical evidence about the effects of values clarification methods in decision aids. To summarize the current state of theory and evidence about the role of values clarification methods in decision aids, we undertook a process of evidence review and summary. Results Values clarification methods (VCMs) are best defined as methods to help patients think about the desirability of options or attributes of options within a specific decision context, in order to identify which option he/she prefers. Several decision making process theories were identified that can inform the design of values clarification methods, but no single “best” practice for how such methods should be constructed was determined. Our evidence review found that existing VCMs were used for a variety of different decisions, rarely referenced underlying theory for their design, but generally were well described in regard to their development process. Listing the pros and cons of a decision was the most common method used. The 13 trials that compared decision support with or without VCMs reached mixed results: some found that VCMs improved some decision-making processes, while others found no effect. Conclusions Values clarification methods may improve decision-making processes and potentially more distal outcomes. However, the small number of evaluations of VCMs and, where evaluations exist, the heterogeneity in outcome measures makes it difficult to determine their

  11. Theoretical value of psychological testing.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, David

    2012-01-01

    Apart from their diagnostic value, psychological tests, especially the Rorschach test, have an important theoretical value for understanding psychopathology. They present a picture of a living person, in contrast to a picture of forces and agencies within the person. This rests on 2 advantages of tests over the usual psychiatric and psychoanalytic interviews: Tests are ahistorical and they present information primarily of a formal kind.

  12. Effect of organic acids on shrimp pathogen, Vibrio harveyi.

    PubMed

    Mine, Saori; Boopathy, Raj

    2011-07-01

    Shrimp farming accounts for more than 40% of the world shrimp production. Luminous vibriosis is a shrimp disease that causes major economic losses in the shrimp industry as a result of massive shrimp kills due to infection. Some farms in the South Asia use antibiotics to control Vibrio harveyi, a responsible pathogen for luminous vibriosis. However, the antibiotic-resistant strain was found recently in many shrimp farms, which makes it necessary to develop alternative pathogen control methods. Short-chain fatty acids are metabolic products of organisms, and they have been used as food preservatives for a long time. Organic acids are also commonly added in feeds in animal husbandry, but not in aquaculture. In this study, growth inhibitory effects of short-chain fatty acids, namely formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid, on V. harveyi were investigated. Among four acids, formic acid showed the strongest inhibitory effect followed by acetic acid, propionic acid, and butyric acid. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 0.035% formic acid suppressed growth of V. harveyi. The major inhibitory mechanism seems to be the pH effect of organic acids. The effective concentration 50 (EC50) values at 96 h inoculation for all organic acids were determined to be 0.023, 0.041, 0.03, and 0.066% for formic, acetic, propionic, and butyric acid, respectively. The laboratory study results are encouraging to formulate shrimp feeds with organic acids to control vibrio infection in shrimp aquaculture farms.

  13. Relative sensitivity of five benthic invertebrate species to reference toxicants and resin-acid contaminated sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.W.; Martin, M.L.

    1995-08-01

    Five sediment-dwelling native New Zealand freshwater invertebrate species (amphipod, Chaetocorophium c.f. lucasi; clam, Sphaerium novaezelandiae; oligochaete, Lumbriculus variegatus; tanaid, Tanais standfordi; and the burrowing mayfly, Ichthybotus hudsoni) were assessed for their suitability for sediment toxicity testing by comparison of sensitivity to reference toxicants [phenol and pentachlorophenol (PCP)] and contaminated sediments. The 96-h EC50 values at 20 C showed a greater range in test sensitivity for phenol (30-fold range) from the most sensitive test, amphipod (8.1 mg/L), to the least sensitive one, clam (243 mg/L), compared with PCP (14-fold range), with amphipod the most sensitive test species (0.13 mg/L) and tanaid the least sensitive (1.8 mg/L). Clam reburial was a more sensitive end point than was lethality for phenol (by 20-fold) and PCP (by 2.4-fold). Four of the test species, excluding the tanaid, showed good 10-d survival in reference muds ({ge}87%) but lower survival in sand sediments ({ge}79%). Bleached kraft mill sediment containing high resin-acid concentrations (total 1,900 mg/kg dry weight) showed significant reductions in amphipod survival (15%), clam reburial (30%), and oligochaete survival (17%), and reproduction (49%). Amphipods, clams, and oligochaetes were the most promising species for sublethal test development.

  14. FETAX interlaboratory validation study: Phase 2 testing

    SciTech Connect

    Bantle, J.A. . Dept. of Zoology); Burton, D.T. ); Dawson, D.A. . Dept. of Biology and Toxicology)

    1994-10-01

    The Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay-Xenopus (FETAX) is a 96-h whole embryo developmental toxicity screening assay that can be used in ecotoxicology and in detecting mammalian developmental toxicants when an in vitro metabolic activation system is employed. A standardized American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) guide for the conduct of FETAX has been published along with a companion atlas that helps in embryo staging and identifying malformations. As part of the ASTM process, an interlaboratory validation study was undertaken to evaluate the repeatability and reliability of FETAX. Six different laboratories participated in the study. Each laboratory utilized one technician with the exception of one laboratory, which utilized two independent technicians. In Phase 1, FETAX proved to be more repeatable and reliable than many other bioassays. However, some excessive variation was observed in a few laboratories. Some of this variation may have been due to an initial lack of experience with the assay by some technicians. Phase 2, which is reported here, showed far less intralaboratory and interlaboratory variability than did Phase 1. Nonteratogens such as saccharin and sodium cyclamate showed the most consistent results, whereas more variability was observed for the teratogens caffeine and 5-fluorouracil. Interlaboratory coefficient of variation values for all FETAX end points ranged from 7.3 to 54.7%. The minimum concentration to inhibit growth proved to be the most variable end point for three of the four test chemicals, whereas the LC50 and EC50 (malformation) proved to be less variable.

  15. Inhibitory mechanism of phthalate esters on Karenia brevis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wen, Fuling; Li, Fengmin; Zheng, Xiang; Liang, Zhi; Zheng, Hao

    2016-07-01

    The occurrence of phthalate esters (PAEs), a class of widely used and environmentally prevalent chemicals, raises concern to environmental and human health globally. The PAEs have been demonstrated to inhibit algae growth, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this research, diethyl ortho-phthalate (DEP), diallyl phthalate (DAP), di-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (DBP), di-iso-butyl ortho-phthalate, and benzyl-n-butyl ortho-phthalate (BBP) were screened from 11 species of PAEs to study their inhibitory effects on Karenia brevis and determine their target sites on algae. With increasing the alkyl chains of these five PAEs, the values of EC50,96h decreased. The content of malondialdehyde increased with the continuous accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the algae cells. Moreover, the superoxide dismutase and catalase contents were first activated and then inhibited. The ultrastructures of Karenia brevis cells were detected by transmission electron microscopy, and cells treated with PAEs exhibiting distorted shapes and large vacuoles. Thus, the algae were damaged by ROS accumulation, resulting in lipid oxidation and algal growth inhibition. The inhibitors of the electron transport chain showed that the sites of ROS production and accumulation in K. brevis cells under DEP and BBP were the mitochondria and chloroplast, respectively. Moreover, the target sites of DAP and DBP were both the chloroplast and mitochondria. These results are useful for controlling PAEs contamination in and revealing the fate of PAEs in aquatic ecosystem. PMID:27151426

  16. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Increase Sensitivity in the Next Generation of the Water Flea Daphnia magna

    PubMed Central

    Bundschuh, Mirco; Seitz, Frank; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R.; Schulz, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    The nanoparticle industry is expected to become a trillion dollar business in the near future. Therefore, the unintentional introduction of nanoparticles into the environment is increasingly likely. However, currently applied risk-assessment practices require further adaptation to accommodate the intrinsic nature of engineered nanoparticles. Combining a chronic flow-through exposure system with subsequent acute toxicity tests for the standard test organism Daphnia magna, we found that juvenile offspring of adults that were previously exposed to titanium dioxide nanoparticles exhibit a significantly increased sensitivity to titanium dioxide nanoparticles compared with the offspring of unexposed adults, as displayed by lower 96 h-EC50 values. This observation is particularly remarkable because adults exhibited no differences among treatments in terms of typically assessed endpoints, such as sensitivity, number of offspring, or energy reserves. Hence, the present study suggests that ecotoxicological research requires further development to include the assessment of the environmental risks of nanoparticles for the next and hence not directly exposed generation, which is currently not included in standard test protocols. PMID:23145038

  17. Photosynthetic responses and accumulation of mesotrione in two freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Lai, Jinhu; Wan, Jinbao; Chen, Lianshui

    2014-01-01

    Mesotrione is a herbicide used for killing annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds in maize. A recent investigation has shown that mesotrione has been detected as an organic contaminant in aquatic environments and may have a negative impact on aquatic organisms. To evaluate the eco-toxicity of mesotrione to algae, experiments focusing on photosynthetic responses and mesotrione accumulation in Microcystis sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda were carried out. Both algae treated with mesotrione at 0.05-10 mg L(-1) for 7 days reduced the photosynthetic capacity. The fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the maximal PSII activity (Fv/Fm), and the parameters (Ik, α and ETRmax) of rapid light curves (RLCs) in both algae were decreased under mesotrione exposure. The 96 h EC50 values for mesotrione on S. quadricauda and Microcystis sp. were 4.41 and 6.19 mg L(-1), respectively. The latter shows more tolerance to mesotrione. Mesotrione was shown to be readily accumulated by both species. Such uptake of mesotrione led to the rapid removal of mesotrione from the medium. Overall, this study represents the initial comprehensive analyses of Microcystis sp. and S. quadricauda in adaptation to the mesotrione contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25059419

  18. Effects of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids on Freshwater Primary Producers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulacki, K. J.; Bernot, R. J.; Lamberti, G. A.; Lodge, D. M.

    2005-05-01

    Room-temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are non-volatile chemicals, which are presumed to be environmentally friendly because they pose no significant threat to air quality. However, the potential toxic effects of ILs on aquatic environments have not been studied, despite the likelihood of unintentional releases into streams and lakes during industrial applications. We studied the effects of ILs on the growth rates of the freshwater green algae Scenedesmus quadricauda and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in 96-h bioassays. ILs with increasing alkyl chain lengths (from 1-butyl- to 1-hexyl- to 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide) were increasingly toxic to S. quadricauda (EC-50 values of 0.28 mg*L-1, 0.04 mg*L-1, and <0.005 mg*L-1 respectively). S. quadricauda growth rates decreased with increasing IL concentration across all treatments. Compared to controls, C. reinhardtii growth rates were higher at 200-800 mg*L-1 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bromide (bmimBr) treatments, but declined at 1600 mg*L-1 bmimBr. These results illustrate that different algal taxa can respond quite differently to potential chemical pollutants. Furthermore, by studying the effects of ILs on primary producers in concert with organisms from other trophic levels, we can develop hypotheses about how these effects may be felt throughout aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Enantioselective toxic effects of cyproconazole enantiomers against Chlorella pyrenoidosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjun; Cheng, Cheng; Chen, Li; Di, Shanshan; Liu, Chunxiao; Diao, Jinling; Zhou, Zhiqiang

    2016-09-01

    Enantioselectivity in ecotoxicity, digestion and uptake of chiral pesticide cyproconazole to Chlorella pyrenoidosa was studied. The 96h-EC50 values of rac- and the four enantiomers were 9.005, 6.616, 8.311, 4.290 and 9.410 mg/L, respectively. At the concentrations of 8 mg/L and 14 mg/L, the contents of pigments exposed in rac-, enantiomer-2 and 4 were higher than that exposed in enantiomer-1 and 3. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of algae exposed to enantiomer-1 and 3 was higher than that exposed to the rac-, enantiomer-2 and 4 at three levels. In addition, the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations in algae disposed with enantiomer-1 and 3 were increased remarkably at three levels. For the digestion experiment, the half-lives of four enantiomers in algae suspension were 28.06, 19.10, 21.13, 15.17 days, respectively. During the uptake experiment, the order of the concentrations of cyproconazole in algae cells was enantiomer-4, 2, 3 and 1. Based on these data, we concluded that ecotoxicity, digestion and uptake of chiral pesticide cyproconazole to C. pyrenoidosa were enantioselective, and such enantiomeric differences must be taken into consideration when assessing the risk of cyproconazole to environment. PMID:27268794

  20. From value chain to value constellation: designing interactive strategy.

    PubMed

    Normann, R; Ramírez, R

    1993-01-01

    In today's fast-changing competitive environment, strategy is no longer a matter of positioning a fixed set of activities along that old industrial model, the value chain. Successful companies increasingly do not just add value, they reinvent it. The key strategic task is to reconfigure roles and relationships among a constellation of actors--suppliers, partners, customers--in order to mobilize the creation of value by new combinations of players. What is so different about this new logic of value? It breaks down the distinction between products and services and combines them into activity-based "offerings" from which customers can create value for themselves. But as potential offerings grow more complex, so do the relationships necessary to create them. As a result, a company's strategic task becomes the ongoing reconfiguration and integration of its competencies and customers. The authors provide three illustrations of these new rules of strategy. IKEA has blossomed into the world's largest retailer of home furnishings by redefining the relationships and organizational practices of the furniture business. Danish pharmacies and their national association have used the opportunity of health care reform to reconfigure their relationships with customers, doctors, hospitals, drug manufacturers, and with Danish and international health organizations to enlarge their role, competencies, and profits. French public-service concessionaires have mastered the art of conducting a creative dialogue between their customers--local governments in France and around the world--and a perpetually expanding set of infrastructure competencies. PMID:10127040

  1. The relative value of growth.

    PubMed

    Mass, Nathaniel J

    2005-04-01

    Most executives would say that adding a point of growth and gaining a point of operating-profit margin contribute about equally to shareholder value. Margin improvements hit the bottom line immediately, while growth compounds value over time. But the reality is that the two are rarely equivalent. Growth often is far more valuable than managers think. For some companies, convincing the market that they can grow by just one additional percentage point can be worth six, seven, or even ten points of margin improvement. This article presents a new strategic metric, called the relative value of growth (RVG), which gives managers a clear picture of how growth projects and margin improvement initiatives affect shareholder value. Using basic balance sheet and income sheet data, managers can determine their companies' RVGs, as well as those of their competitors. Calculating RVGs gives managers insights into which corporate strategies are working to deliver value and whether their companies are pulling the most powerful value-creation levers. The author examines a number of well-known companies and explains what their RVG numbers say about their strategies. He reviews the unspoken assumption that growth and profits are incompatible over the long term and shows that a fair number of companies are effective at delivering both. Finally, he explains how managers can use the RVG framework to help them define strategies that balance growth and profitability at both the corporate and business unit levels.

  2. Likely values of the Higgs vacuum expectation value

    SciTech Connect

    Donoghue, John F.; Dutta, Koushik; Ross, Andreas; Tegmark, Max

    2010-04-01

    We make an estimate of the likelihood function for the Higgs vacuum expectation value (vev) by imposing anthropic constraints on the existence of atoms while allowing the other parameters of the standard model to also be variable. We argue that the most important extra ingredients are the Yukawa couplings, and for the intrinsic distribution of Yukawa couplings we use the scale-invariant distribution which is favored phenomenologically. The result is successful phenomenologically, favoring values close to the observed vev. We also discuss modifications that can change these conclusions. Our work supports the hypothesis that the anthropic constraints could be the origin of the small Higgs vev.

  3. Transporting values by technology transfer.

    PubMed

    De Castro, Leonardo D

    1997-01-01

    The introduction of new medical technologies into a developing country is usually greeted with enthusiasm as the possible benefits become an object of great anticipation and provide new hope for therapy or relief. The prompt utilization of new discoveries and inventions by a medical practitioner serves as a positive indicator of high standing in the professional community. But the transfer of medical technology also involves a transfer of concomitant values. There is a danger that, in the process of adopting a particular technology, the user takes for granted the general utility and desirability of the implements and procedures under consideration without recognizing the socio-cultural peculiarities of the adopting country. A sensitivity to the social conditions and cultural traditions is important so that the emergence of new values can be examined critically and the transfer of necessary technology can be effected smoothly. In the Philippines, efforts to boost patronage of transplant technology appear to have overlooked this need for socio-cultural sensitivity. Legislative fiat cannot be used to override deep-seated values. There is a need to be more sensitive to the possible confrontation of values that the transfer of technology brings in order to avoid the erosion of indigenous socio-cultural values and minimize the intrusiveness of beneficial medical technology.

  4. Education for values and bioethics.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Rui; Duarte, Ivone; Santos, Cristina; Rego, Guilhermina

    2015-01-01

    "Education for Values and Bioethics" is a project which aims to help the student to build his/her personal ethics. It was addressed to ninth grade students (mean age 14) who frequented public education in all schools of the City of Porto, Portugal-EU in 2010-2013 (N-1164). This research and action project intended to promote the acquisition of knowledge in the following areas: interpersonal relationships, human rights, responsible sexuality, health, environment and sustainable development, preservation of public property, culture, financial education, social innovation and ethical education for work. The students were asked to answer to a knowledge questionnaire on bioethics. To assess the values it was used Leonard Gordon's Survey of Personal Values and Survey of Interpersonal Values. The results of this study show that the project contributes to an increase of knowledge in the area of bioethics. Also the students enrolled in the program showed a development with regards the acquisition of the basic values of pluralistic societies. It is also suggested that this general knowledge on bioethics could be especially helpful to students that want a career in health sciences. PMID:25694860

  5. Capacity Value of Wind Power

    SciTech Connect

    Keane, Andrew; Milligan, Michael; Dent, Chris; Hasche, Bernhard; DAnnunzio, Claudine; Dragoon, Ken; Holttinen, Hannele; Samaan, Nader A.; Soder, Lennart; O'Malley, Mark J.

    2011-05-04

    Power systems are planned such that they have adequate generation capacity to meet the load, according to a defined reliability target. The increase in the penetration of wind generation in recent years has led to a number of challenges for the planning and operation of power systems. A key metric for system adequacy is the capacity value of generation. The capacity value of a generator is the contribution that a given generator makes to overall system adequacy. The variable and stochastic nature of wind sets it apart from conventional energy sources. As a result, the modeling of wind generation in the same manner as conventional generation for capacity value calculations is inappropriate. In this paper a preferred method for calculation of the capacity value of wind is described and a discussion of the pertinent issues surrounding it is given. Approximate methods for the calculation are also described with their limitations highlighted. The outcome of recent wind capacity value analyses in Europe and North America are highlighted with a description of open research questions also given.

  6. Active inference and epistemic value.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; Rigoli, Francesco; Ognibene, Dimitri; Mathys, Christoph; Fitzgerald, Thomas; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    We offer a formal treatment of choice behavior based on the premise that agents minimize the expected free energy of future outcomes. Crucially, the negative free energy or quality of a policy can be decomposed into extrinsic and epistemic (or intrinsic) value. Minimizing expected free energy is therefore equivalent to maximizing extrinsic value or expected utility (defined in terms of prior preferences or goals), while maximizing information gain or intrinsic value (or reducing uncertainty about the causes of valuable outcomes). The resulting scheme resolves the exploration-exploitation dilemma: Epistemic value is maximized until there is no further information gain, after which exploitation is assured through maximization of extrinsic value. This is formally consistent with the Infomax principle, generalizing formulations of active vision based upon salience (Bayesian surprise) and optimal decisions based on expected utility and risk-sensitive (Kullback-Leibler) control. Furthermore, as with previous active inference formulations of discrete (Markovian) problems, ad hoc softmax parameters become the expected (Bayes-optimal) precision of beliefs about, or confidence in, policies. This article focuses on the basic theory, illustrating the ideas with simulations. A key aspect of these simulations is the similarity between precision updates and dopaminergic discharges observed in conditioning paradigms. PMID:25689102

  7. Applied extreme-value statistics

    SciTech Connect

    Kinnison, R.R.

    1983-05-01

    The statistical theory of extreme values is a well established part of theoretical statistics. Unfortunately, it is seldom part of applied statistics and is infrequently a part of statistical curricula except in advanced studies programs. This has resulted in the impression that it is difficult to understand and not of practical value. In recent environmental and pollution literature, several short articles have appeared with the purpose of documenting all that is necessary for the practical application of extreme value theory to field problems (for example, Roberts, 1979). These articles are so concise that only a statistician can recognise all the subtleties and assumptions necessary for the correct use of the material presented. The intent of this text is to expand upon several recent articles, and to provide the necessary statistical background so that the non-statistician scientist can recognize and extreme value problem when it occurs in his work, be confident in handling simple extreme value problems himself, and know when the problem is statistically beyond his capabilities and requires consultation.

  8. New reference values for calcium.

    PubMed

    2013-01-01

    The nutrition societies of Germany, Austria and Switzerland are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of calcium and published them in June 2013. The reference values for the calcium intake for infants are derived from the calcium content of breast milk. For infants from 4 to <12 months of age, the calcium intake from solid foods is included in addition to the calcium intake from breast milk. Thus, the reference values for infants are estimated values; they are 220 mg/day for infants to <4 months and 330 mg/day for infants from 4 to <12 months of age. As a parameter for determining the calcium requirement in children and adolescents, calcium retention is taken into account. The average requirement is calculated by the factorial method. A balanced calcium metabolism is calculated based upon calcium balance studies and used as a parameter for the determination of the calcium requirement in adults. On the basis of the average requirement, recommended calcium intake levels for children, adolescents and adults are derived. Depending on age, the recommended calcium intake ranges between 600 mg/day for children aged 1 to <4 years and 1,200 mg/day for adolescents aged 13 to <19 years; for adults, it is 1,000 mg/day. PMID:24356454

  9. Being of Value: Intentionally Fostering and Documenting Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dierking, Lynn D.

    2010-01-01

    The discussion of public value is in the air among museums and other cultural institutions as they strive to achieve strategic impact "for and with" their "communities," rather than merely operational impact "for themselves." At the most basic level, it is about ensuring that their work is fully and meaningfully connected to the fabric and true…

  10. Can Value Added Add Value to Teacher Evaluation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling-Hammond, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The five thoughtful papers included in this issue of "Educational Researcher" ("ER") raise new questions about the use of value-added methods (VAMs) to estimate teachers' contributions to students' learning as part of personnel evaluation. The papers address both technical and implementation concerns, considering potential…

  11. What's the Value of VAM (Value-Added Modeling)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    The use of value-added modeling (VAM) in school accountability is expanding, but deciding how to embrace VAM is difficult. Various experts say it's too unreliable, causes more harm than good, and has a big margin for error. Others assert VAM is imperfect but useful, and provides valuable feedback. A closer look at the models, and their use,…

  12. The Value in Value Added Depends on the Ecology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Henry

    2015-01-01

    In this commentary, the author states that, as the contributions of the focal articles make clear, there is much to learn about how value-added models (VAMs) are actually used in a variety of settings. Indeed, it is important to remember that VAM scores are but one component of a complex evaluation system that can play out differently in different…

  13. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told.

  14. Professional values, aesthetic values, and the ends of trade.

    PubMed

    Edgar, Andrew

    2011-05-01

    Professionalism is initially understood as a historical process, through which certain commercial services sought to improve their social status (and economic reward) by separating themselves from mere crafts or trades. This process may be traced clearly with the aspiration of British portrait painters (headed by Sir Joshua Reynolds), in the eighteenth century, to acquire a social status akin to that of already established professionals, such as clerics and doctors. This may be understood, to a significant degree, as a process of gentrification. The values of the professional thereby lie as much in the etiquette and other social skills with which they deal with their clients, than with any distinctive form of skill or value. Professionalisation as gentrification seemingly says little about the nature of modern professionalism. However, if this process is also construed as one in which the goals and achievements of the profession come to be subject to radical reflection, then something significant about professional values emerges. On this account, the profession is distinguished from craft or trade on the grounds that the goals of the profession, and the effectiveness of any attempt to realise them, are not transparent to the client. While a lay person will typically have the competence necessary to judge whether or not a craft worker has achieved their goal, that person will not necessarily be able to recognise the values that determine the success of a medical operation. It will be concluded that the values of a profession are articulated intrinsically to the profession, in terms of the contested understanding that the professionals themselves have of the meaning of the profession and the narratives within which its history is to be told. PMID:21063909

  15. Re-valuing the amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Sara E.; Salzman, C. Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Summary Recent advances indicate that the amygdala represents valence: a general appetitive/aversive affective characteristic that bears similarity to the neuroeconomic concept of value. Neurophysiological studies show that individual amygdala neurons respond differentially to a range of stimuli with positive or negative affective significance. Meanwhile, increasingly specific lesion/inactivation studies reveal that the amygdala is necessary for processes – e.g., fear extinction and reinforcer devaluation – that involve updating representations of value. Furthermore, recent neuroimaging studies suggest that the human amygdala mediates performance on many reward-based decision-making tasks. The encoding of affective significance by the amygdala might be best described as a representation of state value – a representation that is useful for coordinating physiological, behavioral, and cognitive responses in an affective/emotional context. PMID:20299204

  16. The Value Question in Metaphysics.

    PubMed

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-07-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit-how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes.

  17. Interpretative reports and critical values.

    PubMed

    Piva, Elisa; Plebani, Mario

    2009-06-01

    In the clinical laboratory to allow an effective testing process, post-analytical activity can have two goals in trying to improve patient safety: result interpretation and communication of critical values. Both are important issues, and their success requires a cooperative effort. Misinterpretation of laboratory test results or ineffectiveness in their notification can lead to diagnostic errors or errors in identifying patient critical conditions. With the awareness that the incorrect interpretation of tests and the breakdown in the communication of critical values are preventable errors, laboratorians should make every effort to prevent the types of errors that potentially harm patients. In order to improve the reliability of laboratories, we attempt to explain how interpretative reporting and automated notification of critical values can be used to reduce errors. Clinical laboratories can therefore work to improve clinical effectiveness, without forgetting that everything should be designed to provide the best outcomes for patients.

  18. The Value Question in Metaphysics

    PubMed Central

    Kahane, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Much seems to be at stake in metaphysical questions about, for example, God, free will or morality. One thing that could be at stake is the value of the universe we inhabit—how good or bad it is. We can think of competing philosophical positions as describing possibilities, ways the world might turn out to be, and to which value can be assigned. When, for example, people hope that God exists, or fear that we do not possess free will, they express attitudes towards these possibilities, attitudes that presuppose answers to questions about their comparative value. My aim in this paper is to distinguish these evaluative questions from related questions with which they can be confused, to identify structural constraints on their proper pursuit, and to address objections to their very coherence. Answers to such evaluative questions offer one measure of the importance of philosophical disputes. PMID:23024399

  19. Extreme value analysis in biometrics.

    PubMed

    Hüsler, Jürg

    2009-04-01

    We review some approaches of extreme value analysis in the context of biometrical applications. The classical extreme value analysis is based on iid random variables. Two different general methods are applied, which will be discussed together with biometrical examples. Different estimation, testing, goodness-of-fit procedures for applications are discussed. Furthermore, some non-classical situations are considered where the data are possibly dependent, where a non-stationary behavior is observed in the data or where the observations are not univariate. A few open problems are also stated.

  20. Weak value amplification considered harmful

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrie, Christopher; Combes, Joshua

    2014-03-01

    We show using statistically rigorous arguments that the technique of weak value amplification does not perform better than standard statistical techniques for the tasks of parameter estimation and signal detection. We show that using all data and considering the joint distribution of all measurement outcomes yields the optimal estimator. Moreover, we show estimation using the maximum likelihood technique with weak values as small as possible produces better performance for quantum metrology. In doing so, we identify the optimal experimental arrangement to be the one which reveals the maximal eigenvalue of the square of system observables. We also show these conclusions do not change in the presence of technical noise.

  1. Multifractal Value at Risk model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hojin; Song, Jae Wook; Chang, Woojin

    2016-06-01

    In this paper new Value at Risk (VaR) model is proposed and investigated. We consider the multifractal property of financial time series and develop a multifractal Value at Risk (MFVaR). MFVaR introduced in this paper is analytically tractable and not based on simulation. Empirical study showed that MFVaR can provide the more stable and accurate forecasting performance in volatile financial markets where large loss can be incurred. This implies that our multifractal VaR works well for the risk measurement of extreme credit events.

  2. Thoughts on Earned Value Assessments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pido, Kelle

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of Earned Value reporting and Earned Value Metrics (EVM) and the implementation for the Constellation Program. EVM is used to manage both the contract and civil service workforce, and used as a measure of contractor costs and performance. The Program EVM is not as useful for Level of Effort tasking, for either contractor, or civil service employees. Some issues and concerns in reference to EVM and the process for the use of EVM for Mission assurance are reviewed,

  3. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  4. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  5. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value

    PubMed Central

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C.; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I.; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H.

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials—UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r2 = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  6. Cassava Breeding I: The Value of Breeding Value.

    PubMed

    Ceballos, Hernán; Pérez, Juan C; Joaqui Barandica, Orlando; Lenis, Jorge I; Morante, Nelson; Calle, Fernando; Pino, Lizbeth; Hershey, Clair H

    2016-01-01

    Breeding cassava relies on several selection stages (single row trial-SRT; preliminary; advanced; and uniform yield trials-UYT). This study uses data from 14 years of evaluations. From more than 20,000 genotypes initially evaluated only 114 reached the last stage. The objective was to assess how the data at SRT could be used to predict the probabilities of genotypes reaching the UYT. Phenotypic data from each genotype at SRT was integrated into the selection index (SIN) used by the cassava breeding program. Average SIN from all the progenies derived from each progenitor was then obtained. Average SIN is an approximation of the breeding value of each progenitor. Data clearly suggested that some genotypes were better progenitors than others (e.g., high number of their progenies reaching the UYT), suggesting important variation in breeding values of progenitors. However, regression of average SIN of each parental genotype on the number of their respective progenies reaching UYT resulted in a negligible coefficient of determination (r (2) = 0.05). Breeding value (e.g., average SIN) at SRT was not efficient predicting which genotypes were more likely to reach the UYT stage. Number of families and progenies derived from a given progenitor were more efficient predicting the probabilities of the progeny from a given parent reaching the UYT stage. Large within-family genetic variation tends to mask the true breeding value of each progenitor. The use of partially inbred progenitors (e.g., S1 or S2 genotypes) would reduce the within-family genetic variation thus making the assessment of breeding value more accurate. Moreover, partial inbreeding of progenitors can improve the breeding value of the original (S0) parental material and sharply accelerate genetic gains. For instance, homozygous S1 genotypes for the dominant resistance to cassava mosaic disease (CMD) could be generated and selected. All gametes from these selected S1 genotypes would carry the desirable allele and

  7. Graduates: Perceptions of MBA Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Maynard T.; Oatsvall, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    MBA worth--who decides? Much of the current assessment comes from market driven and/or institutional perspectives. This research examines responses from Meredith College MBA graduates to determine their perceptions of the worth and value of their MBA experience.

  8. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  9. The Value of the Arts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    The value of the arts is often measured in terms of human creativity against instrumental rationality, while art for art's sake defends against a utility of art. Such critiques of the technical and formulaic are themselves formulaic, repeating the dualism of the head and the heart. How should we account for this formula? We should do so by…

  10. WORK VALUES OF THE HANDICAPPED.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KINNANE, JOHN F.; SUZIEDELIS, ANTANAS

    TO DETERMINE THE WORK VALUES OF THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED, A WORK MOTIVATION SCHEDULE WAS DEVELOPED AND ADMINISTERED TO 200 NORMAL WHITE MEN AND 200 WOMEN OF REPRESENTATIVE NATIONAL AVERAGE AGE AND EDUCATION AND TO CEREBRAL PALSIED, DEAF, 63 RECENT AMPUTEES FROM THE VIETNAM WAR AND NEURO-PSYCHIATRIC PATIENTS. COMPARISON OF THE TWO GROUPS SHOWED…

  11. Sexual Values of 783 Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richey, Emily; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty

    2009-01-01

    The sexual values of absolutism (abstinence until marriage), relativism (sexual decisions made in reference to the nature of the relationship), and hedonism ("if it feels good, do it") were assessed in a convenience sample of 783 undergraduate students at a large southeastern university. Results revealed that relativism (62.1%) was the predominate…

  12. Children's Judgments of Expected Value.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlottmann, Anne; Anderson, Norman H.

    1994-01-01

    Expected value judgments of 5- through 10-year-olds were studied by having children view roulette-type games and make judgments of how happy a puppet playing the game would be. Even the youngest children showed some understanding of probability dependence, with children under eight using an additive integration rule and children eight and older…

  13. What Works in Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Marvin W.

    2011-01-01

    Values education (alternatively, moral education, character education) is the attempt, within schools, to craft pedagogies and supportive structures to foster the development of positive, ethical, pro-social inclinations and competencies in youth, including around strengthening their academic focus and achievement. Recent research has uncovered…

  14. Unshackled by Visions and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brokenleg, Martin

    1996-01-01

    Uses a case study to demonstrate the effects of cultural conflict, alienation, anomie, and contemporary urban society on the lives of troubled Native American youth. Shows that by teaching traditional Native American values, such as visions of hope and independence, society can help these youth enjoy a promising future. (RJM)

  15. Value-sensitive psychiatric rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, David; Kalian, Moshe; Witztum, Eliezer

    2010-09-01

    Psychiatric rehabilitation contains value-laden concepts that may be unacceptable to certain cultures and many individuals. The concepts of independence and work are examined in a clash between mental health professionals in charge of national policies in psychiatric rehabilitation in Israel and a rehabilitation center for the severely mentally ill within the ultra-orthodox Jewish community. The government professionals considered that having the living quarters and work site in the same building deemed it unsuitable for rehabilitation, and too few progressed to independent living and working. As such, they ordered the center to be closed. Clients' families turned to the Supreme Court and the claims and counter claims reveal value-laden positions. The bases for misunderstanding and lack of cooperation between the government professionals and the rehabilitation center are explained in the context of everyday life and values in the ultra-orthodox Jewish community and attitudes in the general population. Fruitful cooperation is based on appreciating core values, identifying and working with the community's figures of authority, and accepting that the role of the mental health professional is to advise the community, within which the professional has no status.

  16. A Blizzard of a Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bostic, Jonathan D.

    2015-01-01

    "Who has been to Dairy Queen® and purchased a Blizzard?®" Ms. Bosetti asked her students. During the summer, Bosetti had seen many of her former and future students at the local Dairy Queen enjoying Blizzard desserts and wondered, "Which Blizzard size is the best value?" She used this context for a ratios and proportions task…

  17. Values in Persons With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo

    2007-01-01

    This is an explorative study on the values of persons with schizophrenia based on transcripts of individual therapy sessions conducted for 40 persons with chart diagnoses of schizophrenia or schizotypal disorder. Values are action-guiding attitudes that subject human activities to be worthy of praise or blame. The schizophrenic value system conveys an overall crisis of common sense. The outcome of this has been designated as antagonomia and idionomia. Antagonomia reflects the choice to take an eccentric stand in the face of commonly shared assumptions and the here and now “other.” Idionomia reflects the feeling of the radical uniqueness and exceptionality of one's being with respect to common sense and the other human beings. This sentiment of radical exceptionality is felt as a “gift,” often in view of an eschatological mission or a vocation to a superior, novel, metaphysical understanding of the world. The aim of this study is neither establishing new diagnostic criteria nor suggesting that values play an etio-pathogenetical role in the development of schizophrenia but improving our understanding of the “meaning” of schizophrenic experiences and beliefs, and by doing so reducing stigmatization, and enhancing the specificity and validity of “psychotic symptoms” (especially bizarre delusions) and of “social and occupational dysfunction” through a detailed description of the anthropological and existential matrix they arise from. PMID:16940339

  18. Moral Rudders and Superintendent Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidder, Rushworth M.

    2008-01-01

    The core challenge is this--a difficult ethical decision, where values are in play and both sides have powerful moral arguments in their favor. One case presented in this article outlines a dilemma faced by one teacher who became a superintendent herself. The case exploded dramatically in a midsize metropolitan school district, where a principal…

  19. Added Value in Electronic Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bothma, Theo J. D.

    Electronic publications are flooding the market. Some of these publications are created specifically for the electronic environment, but many are conversions of existing material to electronic format. It is not worth the time and effort merely to publish existing material in electronic format if no value is added in the conversion process. The…

  20. Richard Peters and Valuing Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degenhardt, M. A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Richard Peters has been praised for the authenticity of his philosophy, and inquiry into aspects of the development of his philosophy reveals a profound authenticity. Yet authenticity is something he seems not to favour. The apparent paradox is resolved by observing historical changes in the understanding of authenticity as an important value.…

  1. Education's Lasting Influence on Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyman, Herbert H.; Wright, Charles R.

    This book examines the long-term effects of education on the values of adult Americans. To measure education's lasting effects the authors did a "secondary analysis" of national attitude surveys that had been conducted in four time periods from 1950 to 1975. Thirty-eight surveys that included 45,000 white adults from 25 to 72 years of age were…

  2. The value of percutaneous cholangiography

    PubMed Central

    Evison, Gordon; McNulty, Myles; Thomson, Colin

    1973-01-01

    Percutaneous cholangiograms performed on fifty patients in a district general hospital have been reviewed, and the advantages and limitations of the examination are described. The investigation is considered to have sufficient diagnostic value to warrant its inclusion in the diagnostic armamentarium of every general radiological department. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4 PMID:4788917

  3. Forecasting the Value of Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basarab, Dave

    2011-01-01

    The Predictive Evaluation (PE) model is a training and evaluation approach with the element of prediction. PE allows trainers and business leaders to predict the results, value, intention, adoption, and impact of training, allowing them to make smarter, more strategic training and evaluation investments. PE is invaluable for companies that…

  4. Valuing the Environment, K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charlotte-Mecklenburg Public Schools, Charlotte, NC.

    This guide was developed for use in grades K-6 as an enrichment program based on clarifying values. The program, designed by teachers, aims to develop in the student a greater awareness and understanding of the community, themselves, and the earth. The program includes a number of environmental encounters. Topical themes lead teachers and students…

  5. Economic demand and essential value.

    PubMed

    Hursh, Steven R; Silberberg, Alan

    2008-01-01

    The strength of a rat's eating reflex correlates with hunger level when strength is measured by the response frequency that precedes eating (B. F. Skinner, 1932a, 1932b). On the basis of this finding, Skinner argued response frequency could index reflex strength. Subsequent work documented difficulties with this notion because responding was affected not only by the strengthening properties of the reinforcer but also by the rate-shaping effects of the schedule. This article obviates this problem by measuring strength via methods from behavioral economics. This approach uses demand curves to map how reinforcer consumption changes with changes in the "price" different ratio schedules impose. An exponential equation is used to model these demand curves. The value of this exponential's rate constant is used to scale the strength or essential value of a reinforcer, independent of the scalar dimensions of the reinforcer. Essential value determines the consumption level to be expected at particular prices and the response level that will occur to support that consumption. This approach permits comparing reinforcers that differ in kind, contributing toward the goal of scaling reinforcer value.

  6. More Value to Defining Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Kemenade, Everard; Pupius, Mike; Hardjono, Teun W.

    2008-01-01

    There are lots of definitions of quality, and also of quality in education. Garvin (1984) discerns five approaches: the transcendental approach, the product-oriented approach, the customer-oriented approach, the manufacturing-oriented approach and the value-for-money approach. Harvey and Green (1993) give five interrelated concepts of quality as:…

  7. Baseball and American Cultural Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briley, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan exploring social values and historical periods as it is reflected in the sport of baseball. Suggests that teachers start with an overview of the game's history and rules in the nineteenth century. Includes four sets of quotes relating to baseball and race, capitalism, community, and cultural context. (DK)

  8. The Epistemic Value of Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This article briefly considers current positions about whether the inclusion of the perspectives and interests of marginalised groups in the construction of knowledge is of epistemic value. It is then argued that applied social epistemology is the proper epistemic stance to take in evaluating this question. Theorists who have held that diversity…

  9. Rural-Urban Value Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christenson, James A.; Dillman, Don A.

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether ecological or occupational rural-urban differences imply sociocultural differences as measured by public values. Data were gathered during 1970 in a random state-wide survey of Washington residents, N = 3101, response rate = 75%. Two indicators were selected to measure the ecological aspect of…

  10. THE NUTRITIVE VALUE OF FUSARIA.

    PubMed

    Vinson, L J; Cerecedo, L R; Mull, R P; Nord, F F

    1945-04-13

    It has been shown that Fusarium lini B. grown on an artificial stock culture medium when supplemented with thiamin provides adequate amounts of the B-complex vitamins for normal growth, reproduction and lactation in mice, and that it compares very favorably with brewer's yeast in its food value.

  11. Toxicity of the insecticide fipronil and its degradates to benthic macroinvertebrates of urban streams.

    PubMed

    Weston, Donald P; Lydy, Michael J

    2014-01-21

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide with increasing urban use. Sixteen urban waterways and municipal wastewater were sampled for fipronil, its environmental degradates, and pyrethroid insecticides. Because findings could not be interpreted with existing data on fipronil degradate toxicity, EC50s and LC50s for fipronil and its sulfide and sulfone derivatives were determined for 14 macroinvertebrate species. Four species were more sensitive than any previously studied, indicating fipronil's toxicity to aquatic life has long been underestimated. The most sensitive species tested, Chironomus dilutus, had a mean 96-h EC50 of 32.5 ng/L for fipronil and 7-10 ng/L for its degradates. Hyalella azteca, a common testing species, was among the least sensitive. The typical northern California creek receiving urban stormwater runoff contains fipronil and degradate concentrations twice the EC50 of C. dilutus, and approximately one-third the EC50 for a stonefly, a caddisfly, and two mayfly species. The present study substantially increases data available on toxicity of fipronil degradates, and demonstrates that fipronil and degradates are common in urban waterways at concentrations posing a risk to a wide variety of stream invertebrates.

  12. 40 CFR 799.4360 - Tributyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The method is... value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or LC50 is ≤ 100 mg/L and either the rainbow... the following criteria: Any such value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or...

  13. 40 CFR 799.4360 - Tributyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... reference was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR... value is ≤1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or LC50 is ≤100 mg/L and either the rainbow... the following criteria: Any such value is ≤1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or LC50...

  14. 40 CFR 799.4360 - Tributyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The method is... value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or LC50 is ≤ 100 mg/L and either the rainbow... the following criteria: Any such value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or...

  15. 40 CFR 799.4360 - Tributyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... was approved by the Director of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part... value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or LC50 is ≤ 100 mg/L and either the rainbow... the following criteria: Any such value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or...

  16. 40 CFR 799.4360 - Tributyl phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the Federal Register in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 522(a) and 1 CFR part 51. The method is... value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or LC50 is ≤ 100 mg/L and either the rainbow... the following criteria: Any such value is ≤ 1 mg/L; or any fish or aquatic invertebrate EC50 or...

  17. Differences in (-)citronellal binding to various odorant receptors.

    PubMed

    Stary, Anna; Suwattanasophon, Chonticha; Wolschann, Peter; Buchbauer, Gerhard

    2007-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that olfactory receptors (ORs) recognize different molecular features of odor molecules termed "odotypes", we studied receptor-ligand interactions of two human and two mouse ORs, recognizing (-)citronellal. Structurally similar receptors provide identical binding pockets (OLFR43, OR1A1, and OR1A2), and have comparable EC(50) values. Other ORs with lower sequence identity bind (-)citronellal in a different way, leading to different EC(50) values.

  18. Sensitivity of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, Causal Agent of Black Sigatoka of Banana, to Propiconazole.

    PubMed

    Romero, R A; Sutton, T B

    1997-01-01

    ABSTRACT One hundred monoascosporic isolates of Mycosphaerella fijiensis were collected in February and November 1994 from each of two banana (Musa spp.) plantations in Costa Rica. Locations at San Pablo and Coopecariari had been sprayed with propiconazole for the past 7 years to control black Sigatoka. One hundred monoascosporic isolates from a third location, San Carlos, with no history of fungicide use, also were tested for sensitivity to propiconazole. Fifty percent effective concentration (EC(50)) values were calculated for individual isolates by regressing the relative inhibition of colony growth against the natural logarithm of the fungicide concentration. In the February sample, the mean EC(50) values for San Pablo and Coopecariari populations were 0.06 and 0.05 mug a.i. ml(-1), respectively, which were not statistically different (P = 0.05). The mean EC(50) value of the population at San Carlos was 0.008 mug a.i. ml(-1), which was significantly lower (P = 0.001) than the mean EC(50) values obtained at San Pablo and Coopecariari. Frequency distributions of EC(50) values of isolates from the three populations collected in February showed that 80% of isolates from San Pablo and Coopecariari had EC(50) values greater than the highest EC(50) value from San Carlos, indicating a significant shift in reduced sensitivity to propiconazole. Isolates collected in November 1994, after eight treatments of propiconazole at San Pablo and Coopecariari, showed a significant increase in mean EC(50) values compared with the means observed in February. The high proportion of isolates with reduced sensitivity to propiconazole may account for the unsatisfactory control of black Sigatoka between 1992 and 1993 in the two banana plantations at San Pablo and Coopecariari.

  19. Systems of Values and Their Multidimensional Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Russell A.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Values were elicited spontaneously from a sample of undergraduates and adults attending college, and were compared to Rokeach's terminal and instrumental values. Multidimensional scaling revealed a simpler structure among spontaneously mentioned values than Rokeach's values. (JKS)

  20. Effect of age on sensitivity of daphnia magna to cadmium, copper and cyanazine

    SciTech Connect

    Nebeker, A.V.; Cairns, M.A.; Onjukka, S.T.; Titus, R.H.

    1986-01-01

    Daphnia magna were exposed to cadmium, copper, and cyanazine to determine the relative sensitivities of several age groups: less than 4 h, less than 24 h, 1 d, 2 d, 3 d, 4 d, 5 d, and 6 d old. Mean cadmium 48-h EC50 values for each age group ranged from 23 to 164 micrograms/L. Mean copper EC50 values ranged from 6 to 18 micrograms/L. Cyanazine EC50 values ranged from 53 to 106 micrograms/L. The 1-d-old Daphnia mean EC50s were 48 and 49 micrograms/L for cadmium, 10 and 10 micrograms/L for copper and 84 and 86 microgram/L for cyanazine, respectively. These similar sensitivities indicate that older animals can be used in tests equally as well as younger animals, thus simplifying the recovery of daphnids in acute sediment toxicity tests.

  1. Acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, and chlorine to glochidia and juveniles of freshwater mussels (Unionidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, N.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ivey, C.D.; Kunz, J.L.; May, T.W.; Dwyer, F.J.; Roberts, A.D.; Augspurger, T.; Kane, C.M.; Neves, R.J.; Barnhart, M.C.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine acute toxicity of copper, ammonia, or chlorine to larval (glochidia) and juvenile mussels using the recently published American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Standard guide for conducting laboratory toxicity tests with freshwater mussels. Toxicity tests were conducted with glochidia (24- to 48-h exposures) and juveniles (96-h exposures) of up to 11 mussel species in reconstituted ASTM hard water using copper, ammonia, or chlorine as a toxicant. Copper and ammonia tests also were conducted with five commonly tested species, including cladocerans (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia; 48-h exposures), amphipod (Hyalella azteca; 48-h exposures), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; 96-h exposures), and fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas; 96-h exposures). Median effective concentrations (EC50s) for commonly tested species were >58 ??g Cu/L (except 15 ??g Cu/L for C. dubia) and >13 mg total ammonia N/L, whereas the EC50s for mussels in most cases were 40 ??g/L and above the FAV in the WQC for chlorine. The results indicate that the early life stages of mussels generally were more sensitive to copper and ammonia than other organisms and that, including mussel toxicity data in a revision to the WQC, would lower the WQC for copper or ammonia. Furthermore, including additional mussel data in 2007 WQC for copper based on biotic ligand model would further lower the WQC. ?? 2007 SETAC.

  2. Living the Good (Work) Life: Implications of General Values for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlstrom, Aaron H.

    2011-01-01

    Advances in the understanding of general values from personality and social psychology apply to work values. In this paper, I introduce the concepts of values, value priorities, motivational goals, value types, and personal value systems used to clarify work values. I also introduce the terms basic and broad value and work value types. Second, I…

  3. Process for recovering actinide values

    DOEpatents

    Horwitz, E. Philip; Mason, George W.

    1980-01-01

    A process for rendering actinide values recoverable from sodium carbonate scrub waste solutions containing these and other values along with organic compounds resulting from the radiolytic and hydrolytic degradation of neutral organophosphorous extractants such as tri-n butyl phosphate (TBP) and dihexyl-N,N-diethyl carbamylmethylene phosphonate (DHDECAMP) which have been used in the reprocessing of irradiated nuclear reactor fuels. The scrub waste solution is preferably made acidic with mineral acid, to form a feed solution which is then contacted with a water-immiscible, highly polar organic extractant which selectively extracts the degradation products from the feed solution. The feed solution can then be processed to recover the actinides for storage or recycled back into the high-level waste process stream. The extractant is recycled after stripping the degradation products with a neutral sodium carbonate solution.

  4. Neuronal imprinting of human values.

    PubMed

    Delgado, J M

    2000-03-01

    In the 21st century, psychophysiology will face the challenge of establishing ethical principles and practical means for the genetic and social influencing of the development of human beings. Neuronal imprinting of beliefs and morality within infantile minds will be necessary for the peaceful coexistence of races and cultures. This process requires study and consideration, among others, of the following psychophysiological facts: (1) Genes do not transmit moral values. (2) Material support of physiological activities is necessary for the existence and development of mental functions. (3) Imprinting of human values is based on material changes within neuronal structures. (4) Early neuronal imprinting is performed without personal awareness or consent of the individual and depends on sensory inputs, mainly from the social structure of the group. (5) Biological structures lack values. Personal and social antagonisms do not depend on genes, but on cultural indoctrination. (6) Pleasure and punishment (positive and negative reinforcement) are the two main elements, which regulate animal and human behavior. (7) Values must be chosen by adults, who decide the questions 'why'? 'when'? 'which ones'?, 'who should teach'?, 'what?' and 'how'? (8) Many biological imperatives are shared by all animals and by all people. Human beings may be considered the 'crickets of the Universe', unable to understand the mysteries of nature because of our insufficient neuronal capacity. (9) Our emotional life is mainly related to the structure of the limbic system controlled by the neocortex. (10) New theories based on the integration of physics, chemistry, biology and other specific areas of knowledge, as proposed by the General Theory of Systems, will avoid 'opposites', favoring the acceptance of complementary aspects of reality. (11) Early education will promote preferential learning which depends on both genetic endowment and neuronal development influenced by experience. It is the

  5. Enduring values of municipal utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Telly, C.S.; Grove, J.F.

    1981-05-01

    The value of municipal utilities is assessed in terms of their social responsibility, the political responsiveness of the owners, and pricing policy - issues which conflict with the traditional concept of corporate responsibility to the shareholder and which reveal a growing demand for accountability. Although municipal utilities are only a small part of the economic, legal, and political setting, they contribute as a small, locally-controlled natural monopoly to the American goals of democracy and self-determination. (DCK)

  6. Maximising value from PFI contracts.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Karen; Gates, Russell

    2012-05-01

    Against a backdrop where the Coalition Government has said more 'value' needs to be squeezed out of existing healthcare PFI projects, Karen Prosser, head of the health sector team at built asset consultancy, EC Harris, and Russell Gates, one of the company's partners on the same team, set out some of the key elements that NHS Trusts with operational PFI contracts should consider when undertaking a contract savings review.

  7. P value interpretations and considerations

    PubMed Central

    Ronna, Brenden; Ott, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Application and interpretation of statistical evaluation of relationships is a necessary element in biomedical research. Statistical analyses rely on P value to demonstrate relationships. The traditional level of significance, P<0.05, can be negatively impacted by small sample size, bias, and random error, and has evolved to include interpretation of statistical trends, correction factors for multiple analyses, and acceptance of statistical significance for P>0.05 for complex relationships such as effect modification. PMID:27747028

  8. Valuing ecosystem integrity and health

    SciTech Connect

    Rolston, H. III

    1995-12-31

    There is widespread concern for valuing ecosystem integrity and health, in Congressional legislation, in policy for ecosystem management, sustainable development, and environmental quality. Both integrity and health are combined fact-value words that significantly mix science and advocacy. Science orients policy, though policy also orients science. Recent ecological science raises questions about the mix of stability and historical change in ecosystems, about how structure and process combine to form biotic communities, about order and disorder in natural systems, and the scales on which these occur. Concern for sustainable development mixes the concern for a sustainable biosphere. Ecosystem integrity and health require much restoration of degraded environments, but restoration goals also mix science and values. A traditional attitude toward nature as resources to be for several centuries, is being challenged by an attitude toward nature as resources to be managed by sound scientific management, increasingly successful for several centuries, is being challenged by an attitude of responsibility for harmonizing culture with nature. This will require an unprecendented mix of science, ethics, and policy in the century ahead. It would be a tragic failure of human culture, especially of modern scientifically advanced culture, if it were further to degrade the integrity, health, and biodiversity achieved over many millennia, leaving a still more depauperate Earth. Homo sapiens, improverishing people and the planet, would not be the {open_quotes}wise{close_quotes} species at all.

  9. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam

    PubMed Central

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  10. Historical Medical Value of Donguibogam.

    PubMed

    Song, Bong-Keun; Won, Jin-Hee; Kim, Sungchul

    2016-03-01

    Oriental medicine, since its origin in China, has had a long history extending over 2000 years. Today, it comprises several types of medicine predominately practiced in East Asia, including traditional Chinese, traditional Korean, and Kampo medicine. The distinctive medical system of traditional Korean medicine was established shortly after the publication of Donguibogam by Dr. Heo Jun in 1613. Donguibogam is highly acclaimed across East Asia; in 2009, in light of its historical medical value, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization registered the book on its cultural heritage list. Here, we review the historical medical value of Donguibogam. The findings confirm that Donguibogam developed a unique and independent form of traditional Korean medicine and innovatively reformed the disease classification system. Moreover, Donguibogam emphasized the importance of disease prevention and medical pragmatism. This book also accelerated the development of folk medicine. Owing to its historical medical value, Donguibogam is now considered the 'bible' of Oriental medicine. Its wide acceptance has contributed to the expansion of Korean medicine utilization among the general public. Donguibogam has also played an important role in the establishment of traditional Korean medicine as a universally valid and original form of medicine, independent of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:27280045

  11. Harmonization of nutrient intake values.

    PubMed

    King, Janet C; Garza, Cutberto

    2007-03-01

    The conceptual framework for the various NIVs is depicted in figure 1 along with the methodological approaches and applications. The NIVs consist of two values derived from a statistical evaluation of data on nutrient requirements, the average nutrient requirement (ANR), or nutrient toxicities, the upper nutrient level (UNL). The individual nutrient levelx (INLx) is derived from the distribution of average nutrient requirements. The percentile chosen is often 98%, which is equivalent to 2 SD above the mean requirement. Concepts underlying the NIVs include criteria for establishing a nutrient requirement, e.g., ferritin stores, nitrogen balance, or serum vitamin C. Once the requirement for the absorbed nutrient is determined, it may be necessary to adjust the value for food sources, i.e., bioavailability, or host factors, such as the effect of infection on nutrient utilization. Other concepts that committees may want to consider when establishing NIVs include the effects of genetic variation on nutrient requirements and the role of the nutrient in preventing long-term disease. Two fundamental uses of NIVs are for assessing the adequacy of nutrient intakes and for planning diets for individuals and populations. Establishing the NIV using the statistical framework proposed in this report improves the efficacy of the values for identifying risks of nutrient deficiency or excess among individuals and populations. NIVs also are applied to a number of aspects of food and nutrition policy. Some examples include regulatory issues and trade, labeling, planning programs for alleviating public health nutrition problems, food fortification, and dietary guidance.

  12. ADSORPTION METHOD FOR SEPARATING THORIUM VALUES FROM URANIUM VALUES

    DOEpatents

    Boyd, G.E.; Russell, E.R.; Schubert, J.

    1959-08-01

    An improved ion exchange method is described for recovery of uranium and thorium values as separate functions from an aqueous acidic solution containing less than 10/sup -3/ M thorium ions and between 0.1 and 1 M uranyl ions. The solution is passed through a bed of cation exchange resin in the acid form to adsorb all the thorium ions and a portion of the uranyl ions. The uranium is eluted by means of aqueous 0.1 to 0.4 M sulfuric acid. The thorium may then be stripped from the resin by elution with aqueous 0.5 M oxalic acid.

  13. Making equity a value in value-based health care.

    PubMed

    Alberti, Philip M; Bonham, Ann C; Kirch, Darrell G

    2013-11-01

    Equity in health and health care in America continues to be a goal unmet. Certain demographic groups in the United States-including racial and ethnic minorities and individuals with lower socioeconomic status-have poorer health outcomes across a wide array of diseases, and have higher all-cause mortality. Yet despite growing understanding of how social-, structural-, and individual-level factors maintain and create inequities, solutions to reduce or eliminate them have been elusive. In this article, the authors envision how disparities-related provisions in the Affordable Care Act and other recent legislation could be linked with new value-based health care requirements and payment models to create incentives for narrowing health care disparities and move the nation toward equity.Specifically, the authors explore how recent legislative actions regarding payment reform, health information technology, community health needs assessments, and expanding health equity research could be woven together to build an evidence base for solutions to health care inequities. Although policy interventions at the clinical and payer levels alone will not eliminate disparities, given the significant role the social determinants of health play in the etiology and maintenance of inequity, such policies can allow the health care system to better identify and leverage community assets; provide high-quality, more equitable care; and demonstrate that equity is a value in health. PMID:24072123

  14. An evaluation of the influence of substrate on the response of juvenile freshwater mussels (fatmucket, Lampsilis siliquoidea) in acute water exposures to ammonia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miao, J.; Barnhart, M.C.; Brunson, E.L.; Hardesty, D.K.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Wang, N.

    2010-01-01

    Acute 96-h ammonia toxicity to three-month-old juvenile mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea) was evaluated in four treatments (water-only, water-only with feeding, water and soil, and water and sand) using an exposure unit designed to maintain consistent pH and ammonia concentrations in overlying water and in pore water surrounding the substrates. Median effect concentrations (EC50s) for total ammonia nitrogen in the four treatments ranged from 5.6 to 7.7mg/L and median lethal concentrations (LC50s) ranged from 7.0 to 11mg/L at a mean pH of 8.4. Similar EC50s or LC50s with overlapping 95% confidence intervals among treatments indicated no influence of substrate on the response of mussels in acute exposures to ammonia. ?? 2010 SETAC.

  15. Variability in the relationships for alfalfa stem 16- and 96-h in vitro neutral detergent fiber digestibility with composition due to maturity and harvest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lignin concentration is strongly negatively correlated with in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (IVNDFD) when examined across a wide forage maturity range, but this relationship is less clear among forages of similar maturity. We examined the relationships of IVNDFD with lignin and oth...

  16. The effect of tributyltin-oxide on earthworms, springtails, and plants in artificial and natural soils.

    PubMed

    Römbke, J; Jänsch, S; Junker, T; Pohl, B; Scheffczyk, A; Schallnass, H-J

    2007-05-01

    Chemical bioavailability in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) artificial soil can contrast with bioavailability in natural soils and produce ecotoxicologic benchmarks that are not representative of species' exposure conditions in the field. Initially, reproduction and growth of earthworm and Collembolan species, and early seedling growth of a dicotyledonous plant species, in nine natural soils (with a wide range of physicochemical properties) and in OECD soil were evaluated. Soils that supported reproduction and growth of the test species were then used to investigate the toxicity of tributyltin-oxide (TBT-O). Natural soils caused greater toxicity of TBT-O to earthworms (EC(50) values varied from 0.5 to 4.7 mg/kg soil dry weight [dw]) compared with toxicity in OECD soil (EC(50) = 13.4 mg/kg dw). Collembolans were less sensitive to TBT-O than earthworms in natural soils, with EC(50) values ranging from 23.4 to 177.8 mg/kg dw. In contrast, the toxicity of TBT-O to collembolans in OECD soil (EC(50) = 104.0 mg/kg dw) was within the range of EC(50) values in natural soils. Phytotoxicity tests revealed even greater difference between the effects in natural soils (EC(50) values ranged from 10.7 to 189.2 mg/kg dw) and in OECD soil (EC(50) = 535.5 mg/kg dw) compared with results of the earthworm tests. Studies also showed that EC(50) values were a more robust end point compared with EC(10) values based on comparisons of coefficients of variation. These results show that toxicity testing should include studies with natural soils in addition to OECD soil to better reflect exposure conditions in the field.

  17. The effect of tributyltin-oxide on earthworms, springtails, and plants in artificial and natural soils.

    PubMed

    Römbke, J; Jänsch, S; Junker, T; Pohl, B; Scheffczyk, A; Schallnass, H-J

    2007-05-01

    Chemical bioavailability in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) artificial soil can contrast with bioavailability in natural soils and produce ecotoxicologic benchmarks that are not representative of species' exposure conditions in the field. Initially, reproduction and growth of earthworm and Collembolan species, and early seedling growth of a dicotyledonous plant species, in nine natural soils (with a wide range of physicochemical properties) and in OECD soil were evaluated. Soils that supported reproduction and growth of the test species were then used to investigate the toxicity of tributyltin-oxide (TBT-O). Natural soils caused greater toxicity of TBT-O to earthworms (EC(50) values varied from 0.5 to 4.7 mg/kg soil dry weight [dw]) compared with toxicity in OECD soil (EC(50) = 13.4 mg/kg dw). Collembolans were less sensitive to TBT-O than earthworms in natural soils, with EC(50) values ranging from 23.4 to 177.8 mg/kg dw. In contrast, the toxicity of TBT-O to collembolans in OECD soil (EC(50) = 104.0 mg/kg dw) was within the range of EC(50) values in natural soils. Phytotoxicity tests revealed even greater difference between the effects in natural soils (EC(50) values ranged from 10.7 to 189.2 mg/kg dw) and in OECD soil (EC(50) = 535.5 mg/kg dw) compared with results of the earthworm tests. Studies also showed that EC(50) values were a more robust end point compared with EC(10) values based on comparisons of coefficients of variation. These results show that toxicity testing should include studies with natural soils in addition to OECD soil to better reflect exposure conditions in the field. PMID:17380235

  18. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  19. The Predictive Value of Foreshocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, G. A.; Avlonitis, M.; Di Fiore, B.; Minadakis, G.

    2012-04-01

    Foreshock activity was considered as a potential precursor of mainshocks since the 1960's. This is because foreshocks come directly from the source where mainshock is under preparation. However, the precise predictive value of foreshocks remained unrevealed due to the lack of precise earthquake catalogue data. We use recent examples of foreshocks from Japan, Italy, Greece and California and show that significant changes of seismicity in space-time-size domains during precisely located foreshock sequences provide seismicity patterns bearing high probability gain before the mainshock. The power-law increase of the event rate and the move of foreshocks towards mainshock epicenter indicate an accumulated or cascade stress redistribution process and a nucleation process, respectively. On the other hand, the statistically significant drop of b-value during foreshock sequences, from physical point of view provides clues for a softening material process in the seismogenic volume. We show analytically that the microstructural parameter α of the Olami-Feder-Christensen model controls the macroscopically observed b-value. This is further supported by our simulation results. The seismicity changes in the time, space and size domains during foreshocks provide information about the time and space of mainshock preparation as well as about the lower threshold of the mainshock magnitude, M. However, they do not provide an approximation of M. The recent examples used yield evidence that the foreshock area is likely a function of M. We propose that in selected target areas the close seismicity monitoring may provide evidence for foreshock activity beforehand, which may open possibilities for the predictability of mainshocks.

  20. [Nutritional value of sesame seeds].

    PubMed

    Martinchik, A N

    2011-01-01

    Literature data on the nutritional value of sesame seeds (Sesamum indicum L.), their use in feeding the world population and food production are presented. Sesame seeds contain up to 55% oil and 20% protein. Sesame proteins are limited by lysine but rich in tryptophan and methionine. Sesame oil is rich in linoleic and oleic acids, the predominance of gamma-tocopherol over the other isomers of vitamin E and high content of fat-soluble lignans (sesamin and sesamolin). Thanks to recent sesame oil has a phytoestrogen activity; it has a cholesterol-lowering effect.

  1. Value basis for conservation policy

    SciTech Connect

    Leiss, W.

    1981-01-01

    This paper is a case study in attempting to apply a particular value (caring) to the domain of social policy, specifically resource conservation policy. The argument is that our consumer society erodes the social basis for the development by individuals of a sense of well-being and personal identity, and that a conservation ethic based on the concept of caring could provide a foundation in practical morality and public policy for a viable sense of well-being. Conservation, then, goes beyond eliminating wasteful consumption to encompass a public commitment that can further economic and social goals. 11 references.

  2. Medical science and social values.

    PubMed

    Caton, D

    2004-07-01

    Social Values, no less than medical science, have shaped the medical management of the pain of childbirth. Nineteenth century feminists fought for greater use of anesthesia in obstetrics at a time when physicians held back for fear of its effects on labor, hemorrhage, rates of infection and the condition of the child. A century later, after physicians became comfortable with the use of anesthesia, a new generation of feminists challenged the use of such drugs, once again citing social considerations. The personalities of colorful and charismatic obstetricians such as James Young Simpson and Grantley Dick-Read played a strong part in the outcome of each confrontation. PMID:15321396

  3. Valuing vaccines: deficiencies and remedies.

    PubMed

    Bloom, David E

    2015-06-01

    Current evaluation models for the value of vaccines typically account for a small subset of the full social and economic benefits of vaccination. Health investments yield positive economic benefits via several channels at the household, community, and national levels. Underestimating, or worse, not considering these benefits can lead to ill-founded recommendations regarding the introduction of vaccines into immunization programs. The clear and strong links between health and wealth suggest the need to redesign valuation frameworks for vaccination so that the full costs may be properly weighed against the full benefits of vaccines.

  4. The complex structured singular value

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packard, A.; Doyle, J.

    1993-01-01

    A tutorial introduction to the complex structured singular value (mu) is presented, with an emphasis on the mathematical aspects of mu. The mu-based methods discussed here have been useful for analyzing the performance and robustness properties of linear feedback systems. Several tests for robust stability and performance with computable bounds for transfer functions and their state space realizations are compared, and a simple synthesis problem is studied. Uncertain systems are represented using linear fractional transformations which naturally unify the frequency-domain and state space methods.

  5. Valuing and selling a practice.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Walter

    2012-11-01

    Surgeons, as they contemplate retirement, wrongly believe that their practices do not have financial value. In fact, a well-organized efficiently functioning office with an emphasis on excellent service in combination with a constant stream of patients make it financially ideal for the new surgeon. Being able to assume such a practice can be a very smart financial decision. The practice's worth can be determined by a careful analysis of the practice financials and an evaluation of the functioning of the office and employees. Purchasing such a practice can be, economically, a very smart move by a new surgeon. Payments are made over time at a rate that allows the surgeon to make a good living, leaving him with real equity once the payments are complete. The departing surgeon, who had spent years building this successful practice, gets some of this value back in the form of an income stream to supplement his retirement. This process should be considered in virtually every case. Do not just "close the door."

  6. The "trophic" value of foods.

    PubMed

    Williams, R J; Heffley, J D; Yew, M L; Bode, C W

    1973-03-01

    Foods must furnish (i) calories, which can readily be measured, and (ii) raw materials necessary for the building and maintenance of metabolic machinery which makes possible fuel utilization. We have called this "beyond-calorie" quality of food its "trophic" value. This concept has more unity than appears on the surface, and is capable of approximate measurement by biological testing as our experiments show. The trophic value of a food cannot be ascertained from food composition tables because only a smattering of the necessary information is commonly furnished. A food cannot support life if it is missing, or deficient with respect to, any one of the necessary nutrients. A tabulation which includes only a few nutrients-e.g., calcium, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, phosphorus, and iron-can be woefully misleading, especially if these individual nutrients have been added by way of fortification. THE MEASUREMENT WE HAVE APPLIED TO A NUMBER OF FOODS IS POTENTIALLY VALUABLE FOR COMPARING SIMILAR FOOD PRODUCTS: two grains, two breads, two milk products, or for comparison of the same food grown, processed, or preserved in different ways. By using essentially this method we have found that barnyard eggs are somewhat superior to battery eggs, but that whether they are fertile or infertile makes no difference. We are of the opinion that extensive biological testing of many commercial food products is highly desirable to help promote human health and better internal environments for our cells and tissues.

  7. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies.

  8. Total Value of Phosphorus Recovery.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Brooke K; Baker, Lawrence A; Boyer, Treavor H; Drechsel, Pay; Gifford, Mac; Hanjra, Munir A; Parameswaran, Prathap; Stoltzfus, Jared; Westerhoff, Paul; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2016-07-01

    Phosphorus (P) is a critical, geographically concentrated, nonrenewable resource necessary to support global food production. In excess (e.g., due to runoff or wastewater discharges), P is also a primary cause of eutrophication. To reconcile the simultaneous shortage and overabundance of P, lost P flows must be recovered and reused, alongside improvements in P-use efficiency. While this motivation is increasingly being recognized, little P recovery is practiced today, as recovered P generally cannot compete with the relatively low cost of mined P. Therefore, P is often captured to prevent its release into the environment without beneficial recovery and reuse. However, additional incentives for P recovery emerge when accounting for the total value of P recovery. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the range of benefits of recovering P from waste streams, i.e., the total value of recovering P. This approach accounts for P products, as well as other assets that are associated with P and can be recovered in parallel, such as energy, nitrogen, metals and minerals, and water. Additionally, P recovery provides valuable services to society and the environment by protecting and improving environmental quality, enhancing efficiency of waste treatment facilities, and improving food security and social equity. The needs to make P recovery a reality are also discussed, including business models, bottlenecks, and policy and education strategies. PMID:27214029

  9. Human values in medical education.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J R

    1976-11-01

    Attitudes and values in medicine vary with the nature of the individual, his education and training, and the circumstances of his professional life. Comparisons are drawn between medical education in Britain 40 years ago and today. Though education has changed, British students are still mainly motivated by a desire to care for sick people. The impact of personal medicine on a country that has long accepted the need for some kind of national health service is described. It is postulated that as government and public become increasingly involved in health care, it is of paramount importance that medical education should provide a clear understanding of what a profession is and inculcate a determination to maintain true professional status. New responsibilities of the profession, to the public at large and to society, are suggested. The ability of medical education to exert a good influence on concern for human values in medicine depends in the final analysis on the ability to show excellence to medical students.

  10. Manifold-valued Dirichlet Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyunwoo J.; Xu, Jia; Vemuri, Baba C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Statistical models for manifold-valued data permit capturing the intrinsic nature of the curved spaces in which the data lie and have been a topic of research for several decades. Typically, these formulations use geodesic curves and distances defined locally for most cases — this makes it hard to design parametric models globally on smooth manifolds. Thus, most (manifold specific) parametric models available today assume that the data lie in a small neighborhood on the manifold. To address this ‘locality’ problem, we propose a novel nonparametric model which unifies multivariate general linear models (MGLMs) using multiple tangent spaces. Our framework generalizes existing work on (both Euclidean and non-Euclidean) general linear models providing a recipe to globally extend the locally-defined parametric models (using a mixture of local models). By grouping observations into sub-populations at multiple tangent spaces, our method provides insights into the hidden structure (geodesic relationships) in the data. This yields a framework to group observations and discover geodesic relationships between covariates X and manifold-valued responses Y, which we call Dirichlet process mixtures of multivariate general linear models (DP-MGLM) on Riemannian manifolds. Finally, we present proof of concept experiments to validate our model. PMID:26973982

  11. Student Views on the Value of Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marie, Jenny A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the value that a sample of students placed on feedback, what they valued it for and the conditions that affected this value judgement. I show that not all students value feedback particularly highly, especially when considered in relation to other factors in their education and when considered for its intrinsic value as…

  12. Conflicting Values and Their Impact on Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fries, Stefan; Schmid, Sebastian; Dietz, Franziska; Hofer, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Based on Inglehart's (1997) idea that the importance of modern values is challenged by a growing importance of postmodern values in postindustrialised societies, we analyse the consequences of students' attempts to integrate (modern) achievement values and (postmodern) well-being values. Since opportunities for value integration are limited,…

  13. Value Profiles of Male and Female Entrepreneurs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Lloyd W., Jr.; Solomon, George T.

    1987-01-01

    Comparison of the values of 86 male and 74 female entrepreneurs found males' highest terminal values being pleasure and true friendship while females' highest terminal values were health and self-respect. High instrumental values for males were ambition and broadmindedness; while for females high instrumental values were honesty and…

  14. Comparison of Student and Recruiter Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vecchiotti, Dorothea I.; Korn, James H.

    1980-01-01

    Value priorities of campus employment recruiters and liberal arts students were compared using Rokeach's Value Survey. Confirmed: (1) students ranked idealistic values high, while recruiters ranked values applicable to business high; (2) more significant differences were found among instrumental than among terminal values; and (3) recruiters chose…

  15. Shouldering the load, maximising value.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    In mid-November last year Ryhurst signed what it dubbed 'a ground-breaking strategic estates partnership' agreement with the Isle of Wight NHS Trust (HEJ - January 2015). Under the Wight Life Partnership, the two organisations will work in partnership 'to comprehensively review the estate across all the Trust's sites to ensure that buildings and grounds are being fully utilised, and suitable for modern healthcare'. This is Ryhurst's third such 'whole estate' joint-venture agreement with the NHS, and the first with a non-Foundation Trust, harnessing an approach that sees the company shoulder a considerable part of the burden of making optimum use of, and deriving 'maximum value' from, large healthcare estates. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports. PMID:26268015

  16. Shouldering the load, maximising value.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2015-02-01

    In mid-November last year Ryhurst signed what it dubbed 'a ground-breaking strategic estates partnership' agreement with the Isle of Wight NHS Trust (HEJ - January 2015). Under the Wight Life Partnership, the two organisations will work in partnership 'to comprehensively review the estate across all the Trust's sites to ensure that buildings and grounds are being fully utilised, and suitable for modern healthcare'. This is Ryhurst's third such 'whole estate' joint-venture agreement with the NHS, and the first with a non-Foundation Trust, harnessing an approach that sees the company shoulder a considerable part of the burden of making optimum use of, and deriving 'maximum value' from, large healthcare estates. HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports.

  17. Shale Oil Value Enhancement Research

    SciTech Connect

    James W. Bunger

    2006-11-30

    Raw kerogen oil is rich in heteroatom-containing compounds. Heteroatoms, N, S & O, are undesirable as components of a refinery feedstock, but are the basis for product value in agrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, surfactants, solvents, polymers, and a host of industrial materials. An economically viable, technologically feasible process scheme was developed in this research that promises to enhance the economics of oil shale development, both in the US and elsewhere in the world, in particular Estonia. Products will compete in existing markets for products now manufactured by costly synthesis routes. A premium petroleum refinery feedstock is also produced. The technology is now ready for pilot plant engineering studies and is likely to play an important role in developing a US oil shale industry.

  18. Sharing values, sharing a vision

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    Teamwork, partnership and shared values emerged as recurring themes at the Third Technology Transfer/Communications Conference. The program drew about 100 participants who sat through a packed two days to find ways for their laboratories and facilities to better help American business and the economy. Co-hosts were the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, where most meetings took place. The conference followed traditions established at the First Technology Transfer/Communications Conference, conceived of and hosted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory in May 1992 in Richmond, Washington, and the second conference, hosted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in January 1993 in Golden, Colorado. As at the other conferences, participants at the third session represented the fields of technology transfer, public affairs and communications. They came from Department of Energy headquarters and DOE offices, laboratories and production facilities. Continued in this report are keynote address; panel discussion; workshops; and presentations in technology transfer.

  19. The fitness value of information

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson-Matasci, Matina C.; Bergstrom, Carl T.; Lachmann, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Communication and information are central concepts in evolutionary biology. In fact, it is hard to find an area of biology where these concepts are not used. However, quantifying the information transferred in biological interactions has been difficult. How much information is transferred when the first spring rainfall hits a dormant seed, or when a chick begs for food from its parent? One measure that is commonly used in such cases is fitness value: by how much, on average, an individual’s fitness would increase if it behaved optimally with the new information, compared to its average fitness without the information. Another measure, often used to describe neural responses to sensory stimuli, is the mutual information—a measure of reduction in uncertainty, as introduced by Shannon in communication theory. However, mutual information has generally not been considered to be an appropriate measure for describing developmental or behavioral responses at the organismal level, because it is blind to function; it does not distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information. In this paper we show that there is in fact a surprisingly tight connection between these two measures in the important context of evolution in an uncertain environment. In this case, a useful measure of fitness benefit is the increase in the long-term growth rate, or the fold increase in number of surviving lineages. We show that in many cases the fitness value of a developmental cue, when measured this way, is exactly equal to the reduction in uncertainty about the environment, as described by the mutual information. PMID:25843980

  20. The Value of Clean Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    How can society place a value on clean air? I present a multi-impact economic valuation framework called the Social Cost of Atmospheric Release (SCAR) that extends the Social Cost of Carbon (SCC) used previously for carbon dioxide (CO2) to a broader range of pollutants and impacts. Values consistently incorporate health impacts of air quality along with climate damages. The latter include damages associated with aerosol-induced hydrologic cycle changes that lead to net climate benefits when reducing cooling aerosols. Evaluating a 1% reduction in current global emissions, benefits with a high discount rate are greatest for reductions of co-emitted products of incomplete combustion (PIC), followed by sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and then CO2, ammonia and methane. With a low discount rate, benefits are greatest for CO2 reductions, though the sum of SO2, PIC and methane is substantially larger. These results suggest that efforts to mitigate atmosphere-related environmental damages should target a broad set of emissions including CO2, methane and aerosol/ozone precursors. Illustrative calculations indicate environmental damages are 410-1100 billion yr-1 for current US electricity generation ( 19-46¢ per kWh for coal, 4-24¢ for gas) and 3.80 (-1.80/+2.10) per gallon of gasoline ($4.80 (-3.10/+3.50) per gallon for diesel). These results suggest that total atmosphere-related environmental damages plus generation costs are much greater for coal-fired power than other types of electricity generation, and that damages associated with gasoline vehicles substantially exceed those for electric vehicles.

  1. Do We Really Value Learning?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-01-01

    University faculty think of their institutions as places in which learning is valued and pride themselves on the discovery of new knowledge. Indeed universities have been unusually successful in supporting research and developing new knowledge that has been enormously beneficial to society, and university faculty value learning far more than the average. But some kinds of learning are more valued than others-a fact that I believe is detrimental to the long-term welfare of both universities and society. By far the most valued learning is by someone who discovers what nobody else has learned before. We call the process of achieving such learning "research". It is the coin of the academic realm, at least partly because it is easy to evaluate. Those who do it creatively can reap the rewards of respect from their colleagues, better facilities and instrumentation from their institutions, regional and national awards from their disciplinary societies, and increased funding from government and industry for their endeavors. Significantly less valued are activities that help others to learn, especially when the learning involves things already known by many. We call such activities "teaching", although the dictionary definition of "teach" ("to show how to do something; give instructions to; train") is not broad enough to encompass the range of activities currently being used to encourage learning. There is a widespread notion that teaching is easy and requires no real creativity. Nontenured faculty are often warned that time spent on teaching will be thought of as "wasted", and those well established in research have been criticized for spending too much of their time on the "unproductive" activity of teaching. Teaching is held out to students as a fall-back position in case their other career plans do not pan out, and sometimes those who educate teachers are willing to accept less than the highest quality from the students to whom they provide credentials. Those who employ

  2. The Place of Values in Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abroms, Gene M.

    1978-01-01

    Psychotherapy is a value-laden process because the very notions of 'therapeutic,''cure,' and 'health' involve patients and therapists in making value choices. Two hierarchies of health values as they apply to therapy are reviewed. (Author)

  3. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-01

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing.

  4. Valuing vaccines using value of statistical life measures.

    PubMed

    Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T; Krupnick, Alan J; Norheim, Ole F

    2014-09-01

    Vaccines are effective tools to improve human health, but resources to pursue all vaccine-related investments are lacking. Benefit-cost and cost-effectiveness analysis are the two major methodological approaches used to assess the impact, efficiency, and distributional consequences of disease interventions, including those related to vaccinations. Childhood vaccinations can have important non-health consequences for productivity and economic well-being through multiple channels, including school attendance, physical growth, and cognitive ability. Benefit-cost analysis would capture such non-health benefits; cost-effectiveness analysis does not. Standard cost-effectiveness analysis may grossly underestimate the benefits of vaccines. A specific willingness-to-pay measure is based on the notion of the value of a statistical life (VSL), derived from trade-offs people are willing to make between fatality risk and wealth. Such methods have been used widely in the environmental and health literature to capture the broader economic benefits of improving health, but reservations remain about their acceptability. These reservations remain mainly because the methods may reflect ability to pay, and hence be discriminatory against the poor. However, willingness-to-pay methods can be made sensitive to income distribution by using appropriate income-sensitive distributional weights. Here, we describe the pros and cons of these methods and how they compare against standard cost-effectiveness analysis using pure health metrics, such as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), in the context of vaccine priorities. We conclude that if appropriately used, willingness-to-pay methods will not discriminate against the poor, and they can capture important non-health benefits such as financial risk protection, productivity gains, and economic wellbeing. PMID:25045822

  5. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation.

    PubMed

    Phesatcha, K; Wanapat, M

    2016-08-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  6. Improvement of Nutritive Value and In vitro Ruminal Fermentation of Leucaena Silage by Molasses and Urea Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Phesatcha, K.; Wanapat, M.

    2016-01-01

    Leucaena silage was supplemented with different levels of molasses and urea to study its nutritive value and in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. The ensiling study was randomly assigned according to a 3×3 factorial arrangement in which the first factor was molasses (M) supplement at 0%, 1%, and 2% of crop dry matter (DM) and the second was urea (U) supplement as 0%, 0.5%, and 1% of the crop DM, respectively. After 28 days of ensiling, the silage samples were collected and analyzed for chemical composition. All the nine Leucaena silages were kept for study of rumen fermentation efficiency using in vitro gas production techniques. The present result shows that supplementation of U or M did not affect DM, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber content in the silage. However, increasing level of U supplementation increased crude protein content while M level did not show any effect. Moreover, the combination of U and M supplement decreased the content of mimosine concentration especially with M2U1 (molasses 2% and urea 1%) silage. The result of the in vitro study shows that gas production kinetics, cumulation gas at 96 h and in vitro true digestibility increased with the increasing level of U and M supplementation especially in the combination treatments. Supplementation of M and U resulted in increasing propionic acid and total volatile fatty acid whereas, acetic acid, butyric acid concentrations and methane production were not changed. In addition, increasing U level supplementation increased NH3-N concentration. Result from real-time polymerase chain reaction revealed a significant effect on total bacteria, whereas F. succinogenes and R. flavefaciens population while R. albus was not affected by the M and U supplementation. Based on this study, it could be concluded that M and urea U supplementation could improve the nutritive value of Leucaena silage and enhance in vitro rumen fermentation efficiency. This study also suggested that

  7. More Value through Greater Differentiation: Gender Differences in Value Beliefs about Math

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaspard, Hanna; Dicke, Anna-Lena; Flunger, Barbara; Schreier, Brigitte; Häfner, Isabelle; Trautwein, Ulrich; Nagengast, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Expectancy-value theory (Eccles et al., 1983) is a prominent approach to explaining gender differences in math-related academic choices, with value beliefs acting as an important explanatory factor. Expectancy-value theory defines 4 value components: intrinsic value, attainment value, utility value, and cost. The present study followed up on…

  8. Consequentialism, reasons, value and justice.

    PubMed

    Savulescu, Julian

    1998-07-01

    Over the past 10 years, John Harris has made important contributions to thinking about distributive justice in health care. In his latest work, Harris controversially argues that clinicians should stop prioritising patients according to prognosis. He argues that the good or benefit of health care is providing each individual with an opportunity to live the best and longest life possible for him or her. I call this thesis, opportunism. For the purpose of distribution of resources in health care, Harris rejects welfarism (the thesis that the good of health care is well-being) and argues that utilitarianism in general may lead to de facto discrimination against groups of people needing health care. I argue that well-being is a superior theory of the good of health care to Harris' opportunism. Harris' concerns about utilitarianism can be better addressed by: (i) relating justice more closely to reasons for action; (ii) by conceptualising the relationship between reasons for action and the value of the consequences of those actions as a plateau rather than scalar relationship. Justice can be understood as satisfying as many equally rational claims on resources as possible. The rationality of a person's claim on health resources turns on the strength of that person's reasons to promote certain health-related states of affairs. I argue that the strength of that reason does not track the expected value of that state of affairs in a fully scalar fashion. Rather a person can have most reason to promote some state of affairs, even though he or she could promote other more valuable states of affairs. Thus there can be equal reason for a distributor of public resources to save either of two people, even though one will have a better and more valuable life. This approach, while addressing many of Harris' concerns about utilitarianism, does not imply that doctors should give up prioritising patients according to prognosis altogether, but it does allow that patients with lower but

  9. Nutritional values of waterfowl foods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredickson, Leigh H.; Reid, Fredric A.

    1988-01-01

    wetland habitats throughout their annual cycles. Survival, reproduction, and growth are dependent on the availability of foods that meet nutritional requirements for recurring biological events. These requirements occur among a wide variety of environmental conditions that also influence nutritional demands. Recent work on nesting waterfowl has identified the female’s general nutrient needs for egg laying and incubation. Far less is known about nutritional requirements for molt and other portions of the life cycle, particularly those during the nonbreeding season. Although information on specific requirements for amino acids and micronutrients of wild birds is meager, the available information on waterfowl requirements can be used to develop waterfowl management strategies. For example, nutrient content of foods, nutritional requirements of waterfowl, and the cues waterfowl use in locating and selecting foods are all kinds of information that managers need to encourage use of habitats by feeding waterfowl. Waterfowl nutritional needs during the annual cycle and the nutritional values of natural foods and crops will be discussed below.

  10. Is our student portfolio valued?

    PubMed

    Dolan, Gina; Fairbairn, Gavin; Harris, Sue

    2004-01-01

    A student portfolio was introduced for pre-registration nursing students at the University of Glamorgan in October 1997. The impetus for doing so was the recognised need to address:the 'theory-practice' divide;the need to provide nurse students with skills that will enable them to maintain the Professional Profile for registration purposes (). This article reports a research study evaluating the student portfolio. The main objectives of the evaluation were to investigate whether the portfolio addressed the perceived needs and to identify if students were experiencing potential benefits by using the portfolio. Semi-structured interviews and focus groups were conducted with students and staff about their usage and perceptions of the portfolio. These findings were used to inform the design of the questionnaire to investigate students' experiences of using the portfolio, and their views about its usefulness. The questionnaires (n=219) confirmed the impression that students are not making frequent use of the portfolio. Students mainly discussed sections relating to academic aspects of the course. The summative assessment (essays) section was discussed by the greatest proportion of students (51% n=108). More students (74%) felt that too little time was spent on the portfolio than any other aspect of the course. Although many students and staff appreciate the potential value of using the portfolio, it is not a requirement of the course and so tends not to be treated as a high priority. Many of the recommendations from this study focussed on ways of integrating the portfolio into the course in order to increase its use. The results of this study have informed the development of an All Wales Student Portfolio introduced in April 2002 (Welsh Assembly Government, 2002).

  11. [Mathematical model of value of population].

    PubMed

    Sha, J; Wang, S

    1983-09-29

    The authors define the value of population as an economic concept and present mathematical formulas for calculating this value. Included in this theoretical discussion are different kinds of surplus value of population and the social significance of population value. PMID:12279805

  12. Record Values of a Pareto Distribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahsanullah, M.

    The record values of the Pareto distribution, labelled Pareto (II) (alpha, beta, nu), are reviewed. The best linear unbiased estimates of the parameters in terms of the record values are provided. The prediction of the sth record value based on the first m (s>m) record values are obtained. A classical Pareto distribution provides reasonably good…

  13. Values of Estonian Students, Teachers and Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veisson, Marika

    2009-01-01

    R. Inglehart (1990, 2005) considers values to be one's reactions to changes in the environment. According to his approach values develop in the socialisation process. Values can be divided into traditional, modernist and postmodernist. According to Rokeach (1973), values are an element of culture, an image of the desirable that might not be…

  14. Values and Work Environment: Mapping 32 Occupations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knafo, Ariel; Sagiv, Lilach

    2004-01-01

    The study addresses the relationship between values and occupations. Israeli workers (N = 652; mean age = 47; 43% male) in 32 occupations reported their values using the Portrait Value Questionnaire (Schwartz, Melech, Lehmann, Burgess, Harris, & Owens, 2001), and value scores were aggregated within occupations. Occupations were classified…

  15. Values in Prime Time Alcoholic Beverage Commercials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazer, Charles F.

    Content analysis was used to study the values evident in televised beer and wine commercials. Seventy-seven prime time commercials, 7.6% of a week's total, were analyzed along value dimensions adapted from Gallup's measure of popular social values. The intensity of each value was coded on a five-point scale. None of the commercials in the beer and…

  16. Work Ethic and Values in HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on work ethic and values in human resource development (HRD). "Value Priorities of HRD Scholars and Practitioners" (Reid Bates, Hsin Chih Chen, Tim Hatcher) presents the results of a study that identified and analyzed six HRD values reflecting two value facets (locus of HRD influence and HRD…

  17. Value Added and Other Related Matters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitla, Dean K.

    The term "value added" refers to the assessment of the amount of learning that takes place during the college years. Two experiments, Value Added I and Value Added II, attempted to measure college students' attainment of eight liberal education objectives: (1) writing ability; (2) analytical ability; (3) sensitivity to ethics, morals, and values;…

  18. 38 CFR 0.601 - Core Values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Core Values. 0.601... ETHICAL CONDUCT, AND RELATED RESPONSIBILITIES Core Values and Characteristics of the Department § 0.601 Core Values. VA's Core Values define VA employees. They describe the organization's culture...

  19. 38 CFR 0.601 - Core Values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Core Values. 0.601... ETHICAL CONDUCT, AND RELATED RESPONSIBILITIES Core Values and Characteristics of the Department § 0.601 Core Values. VA's Core Values define VA employees. They describe the organization's culture...

  20. Values: Jaundiced Perversions/Lucid Alternatives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nissman, Albert

    The American educational system must emphasize values education and the role of the teacher in instilling proper values. Within the context of this paper, values are the intrinsic regard people have for other people, ideas, attitudes, or modes of behavior. Values rest on a philosophical base and require the intellectual choice of the beholder.…

  1. Value and Performance in the IT Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryson, Jo

    This paper discusses valuing information and its supporting technologies in the global environment. Different value propositions are explored from a financial, social, cultural, political, economic, corporate, and personal values perspective. Various means of measuring the relevancy of these value propositions to the individual, organization or…

  2. 19 CFR 152.106 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computed value. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed value. (a) Elements. The computed value of imported merchandise is the sum of: (1) The cost or value of...

  3. 19 CFR 152.106 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computed value. 152.106 Section 152.106 Customs... (CONTINUED) CLASSIFICATION AND APPRAISEMENT OF MERCHANDISE Valuation of Merchandise § 152.106 Computed value. (a) Elements. The computed value of imported merchandise is the sum of: (1) The cost or value of...

  4. Students' Reasoning about p-Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aquilonius, Birgit C.; Brenner, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Results from a study of 16 community college students are presented. The research question concerned how students reasoned about p-values. Students' approach to p-values in hypothesis testing was procedural. Students viewed p-values as something that one compares to alpha values in order to arrive at an answer and did not attach much meaning to…

  5. Value-based procurement: Canada's healthcare imperative.

    PubMed

    Prada, Gabriela

    2016-07-01

    Value-based healthcare models are being adopted globally to maximize value for patients. Given that procurement is at the heart of purchasing value, value-based procurement goes hand in hand with value-based healthcare. Shifting procurement's traditional focus on short-term cost savings to a more holistic objective that includes health system performance and patient outcomes, giving preference to longer-term cost efficiencies, and working with suppliers to identify opportunities to develop more innovative products and services, is proving successful in leading jurisdictions. This article presents an overview of value within healthcare systems and how healthcare value-based procurement is being implemented across various jurisdictions. PMID:27278137

  6. Adding value to a toxic residue from the biodiesel industry: production of two distinct pool of lipases from Penicillium simplicissimum in castor bean waste.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Mateus G; Gutarra, Melissa L E; Castro, Aline M; Machado, Olga L T; Freire, Denise M G

    2011-08-01

    In countries with a strong agricultural base, such as Brazil, the generation of solid residues is very high. In some cases, these wastes present no utility due to their toxic and allergenic compounds, and so are an environmental concern. The castor bean (Ricinus communis) is a promising candidate for biodiesel production. From the biodiesel production process developed in the Petrobras Research Center using castor bean seeds, a toxic and alkaline waste is produced. The use of agroindustrial wastes in solid-state fermentation (SSF) is a very interesting alternative for obtaining enzymes at low cost. Therefore, in this work, castor bean waste was used, without any treatment, as a culture medium for fungal growth and lipase production. The fungus Penicillium simplicissimum was able to grow and produce an enzyme in this waste. In order to maximize the enzyme production, two sequential designs-Plackett-Burman (variable screening) followed by central composite rotatable design (CCRD)-were carried out, attaining a considerable increase in lipase production, reaching an activity of 155.0 U/g after 96 h of fermentation. The use of experimental design strategy was efficient, leading to an increase of 340% in the lipase production. Zymography showed the presence of different lipases in the crude extract. The partial characterization of such extract showed the occurrence of two lipase pools with distinct characteristics of pH and temperature of action: one group with optimal action at pH 6.5 and 45°C and another one at pH 9.0 and 25°C. These results demonstrate how to add value to a toxic and worthless residue through the production of lipases with distinct characteristics. This pool of enzymes, produced through a low cost methodology, can be applied in different areas of biotechnology.

  7. Social values as arguments: similar is convincing

    PubMed Central

    Maio, Gregory R.; Hahn, Ulrike; Frost, John-Mark; Kuppens, Toon; Rehman, Nadia; Kamble, Shanmukh

    2014-01-01

    Politicians, philosophers, and rhetors engage in co-value argumentation: appealing to one value in order to support another value (e.g., “equality leads to freedom”). Across four experiments in the United Kingdom and India, we found that the psychological relatedness of values affects the persuasiveness of the arguments that bind them. Experiment 1 found that participants were more persuaded by arguments citing values that fulfilled similar motives than by arguments citing opposing values. Experiments 2 and 3 replicated this result using a wider variety of values, while finding that the effect is stronger among people higher in need for cognition and that the effect is mediated by the greater plausibility of co-value arguments that link motivationally compatible values. Experiment 4 extended the effect to real-world arguments taken from political propaganda and replicated the mediating effect of argument plausibility. The findings highlight the importance of value relatedness in argument persuasiveness. PMID:25147529

  8. The value of snow cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokratov, S. A.

    2009-04-01

    only and not even the main outcome from snow cover use. The value of snow cover for agriculture, water resources, industry and transportation is so naturally inside the activities that is not often quantified. However, any considerations of adaptation strategies for climate change with changing snow conditions need such quantification.

  9. Assessing single and joint toxicity of three phenylurea herbicides using Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri bioassays.

    PubMed

    Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Iatrou, Evangelia I

    2015-01-01

    Single and joint toxicity of three substituted urea herbicides, namely monolinuron [3-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea], linuron [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea] and diuron [1-(3,4 dichlorophenyl)-3,3 dimethyl urea], were studied. The duckweed Lemna minor and the luminescent bacterium Vibrio fischeri were used for the toxicity assessment and they were exposed to various concentrations of the herbicides, individually and in binary mixtures. The exposure time was 7d for the duckweed and 30 min for the bacterium. Estimation of EC50 values was performed by frond counting and reduction in light output for Lemna minor and Vibrio fischeri, respectively. Lemna minor was found to be much more sensitive than Vibrio fischeri to target compounds. The toxicity of the three herbicides applied solely was estimated to be in decreasing order: diuron (EC50=28.3 μg L(-1))≈linuron (EC50=30.5 μg L(-1))>monolinuron (EC50=300 μg L(-1)) for the duckweed and linuron (EC50=8.2 mg L(-1))>diuron (EC50=9.2 mg L(-1))>monolinuron (EC50=11.2 mg L(-1)) for the bacterium. Based on the environmental concentrations reported in the literature and EC50 values obtained from Lemna minor experiments, Risk Quotients (RQ) much higher than 1 were calculated for diuron and linuron. In Lemna minor experiments, combination of target compounds resulted to additive effects due to their same mode of phenylurea action on photosynthetic organisms. Regarding Vibrio fischeri, synergistic, additive and antagonistic effects were observed, which varied according to the concentrations of target compounds.

  10. Business marketing: understand what customers value.

    PubMed

    Anderson, J C; Narus, J A

    1998-01-01

    How do you define the value of your market offering? Can you measure it? Few suppliers in business markets are able to answer those questions, and yet the ability to pinpoint the value of a product or service for one's customers has never been more important. By creating and using what the authors call customer value models, suppliers are able to figure out exactly what their offerings are worth to customers. Field value assessments--the most commonly used method for building customer value models--call for suppliers to gather data about their customers firsthand whenever possible. Through these assessments, a supplier can build a value model for an individual customer or for a market segment, drawing on data gathered form several customers in that segment. Suppliers can use customer value models to create competitive advantage in several ways. First, they can capitalize on the inevitable variation in customers' requirements by providing flexible market offerings. Second, they can use value models to demonstrate how a new product or service they are offering will provide greater value. Third, they can use their knowledge of how their market offerings specifically deliver value to craft persuasive value propositions. And fourth, they can use value models to provide evidence to customers of their accomplishments. Doing business based on value delivered gives companies the means to get an equitable return for their efforts. Once suppliers truly understand value, they will be able to realize the benefits of measuring and monitoring it for their customers.

  11. Healthcare practitioners' personal and professional values.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-05-01

    Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC databases for articles on personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners and students. We extracted values from included papers and synthesized them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We summarised the framework within the context of healthcare practice. We identified 128 values from 50 included articles from doctors, nurses and allied health professionals. A new framework for the identified values established the following broad healthcare practitioner values, corresponding to Schwartz values (in parentheses): authority (power); capability (achievement); pleasure (hedonism); intellectual stimulation (stimulation); critical-thinking (self-direction); equality (universalism); altruism (benevolence); morality (tradition); professionalism (conformity); safety (security) and spirituality (spirituality). The most prominent values identified were altruism, equality and capability. This review identified a comprehensive set of personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners. We integrated these into a single framework derived from Schwartz's values model. This framework can be used to assess personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners across professional groups, and can help improve practitioners' awareness of their values so they can negotiate more patient-centred decisions. A common values framework across professional groups can support shared education strategies on values and help improve interprofessional teamwork and decision-making. PMID:26215664

  12. Healthcare practitioners' personal and professional values.

    PubMed

    Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-05-01

    Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We searched Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL and ERIC databases for articles on personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners and students. We extracted values from included papers and synthesized them into a single framework using Schwartz's values model. We summarised the framework within the context of healthcare practice. We identified 128 values from 50 included articles from doctors, nurses and allied health professionals. A new framework for the identified values established the following broad healthcare practitioner values, corresponding to Schwartz values (in parentheses): authority (power); capability (achievement); pleasure (hedonism); intellectual stimulation (stimulation); critical-thinking (self-direction); equality (universalism); altruism (benevolence); morality (tradition); professionalism (conformity); safety (security) and spirituality (spirituality). The most prominent values identified were altruism, equality and capability. This review identified a comprehensive set of personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners. We integrated these into a single framework derived from Schwartz's values model. This framework can be used to assess personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners across professional groups, and can help improve practitioners' awareness of their values so they can negotiate more patient-centred decisions. A common values framework across professional groups can support shared education strategies on values and help improve interprofessional teamwork and decision-making.

  13. Values Education in the Mathematics Classroom: Subject Values, Educational Values and One Teacher's Articulation of Her Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bills, Liz; Husbands, Chris

    2005-01-01

    The issue of values has been a longstanding concern of mathematics education research. Attempts have been made to analyze the specifically mathematical values which characterize the practice of mathematics teachers. In this paper we draw on one teacher's articulation of her practice to explore values issues in the teaching of mathematics, drawing…

  14. Verbal Conditioning of Value-Related Material

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lilliston, Lawrence

    1972-01-01

    The results clearly indicate support for the general hypothesis of differential verbal conditioning effects as a function of the interaction between value related content and the S's personal value orientation. (Author)

  15. The value of nursing: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Horton, Khim; Tschudin, Verena; Forget, Armorel

    2007-11-01

    This article is part of a wider study entitled Value of Nursing, and contains the literature search from electronic databases. Key words for the search included 'values of nursing', 'values in nursing', 'organisational values' and 'professional identity'. Thirty-two primary reports published in English between 2000 and 2006 were identified. The findings highlight the importance of understanding values and their relevance in nursing and how values are constructed. The value of nursing is seen to be influenced by cultural change, globalization, and advancement in technology and medicine. These factors are crucial in providing a more structured and measured view of what nursing is, which will result in greater job satisfaction among nurses, better nurse retention and enhanced patient care within a supportive and harmonious organization. The findings of this review have implications for policy makers in recruitment and retention in determining the global value of nursing. PMID:17901183

  16. Counselor Values and the Pregnant Adolescent Client.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviews options counselors can suggest to pregnant adolescents, including abortion, adoption, marriage, and single parenthood. Discusses the need for counselors to be aware of their own values and help the client explore her values. (JAC)

  17. Energy values of nine Populus clones

    SciTech Connect

    Strong, T.F.

    1980-01-01

    This paper compares calorific values for components of nine Populus clones. The components include stem wood, stem bark, and branches. Also compared are calorific values for clones of balsam poplar and black cottonwood parentages.

  18. Evaluation of the toxicity and teratogenity of six commercial textile dyes using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Birhanli, Ayse; Ozmen, Murat

    2005-01-01

    Potential developmental toxicities of six different textile dyes were evaluated using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). Xenopus laevis embryos were exposed to astrazon red FBL, astrazon blue FGRL, remazol red RR, remazol turquoise blue G-A, cibacron red FN-3G, and cibacron blue FN-R from stage 8 to 11 for a 96-h exposure period in static renewal test conditions. A minimum of 17 concentration-response tests were performed with tested dyes, excluding a control group for each dye. Median lethal concentration (LC50), malformation (EC50), non observed adverse effect concentration (NOAEC), and lowest observed adverse effect concentration (LOAEC) were calculated. Also, teratogenic index (TI), minimum concentration to inhibit growth (MCIG), and MCIG/LC50 values were determined for each of the tested dyes. Characteristic abnormalities induced by a given test material were determined by the relationship between concentration and dye in the study. Results from these studies suggested that each tested dye is teratogenic for X. laevis embryos. The lowest LC50 was determined for astrazon red exposure corresponding to a value of 4.73 mg/L. The LC50 value was similar for this dye and astrazon blue; the highest TI was calculated for astrazon blue exposure. Tests with X. laevis indicated that each of the tested compounds possessed teratogenic potential with varying degrees of potency: astrazon blue FGRL > remazol turquoise blue G-A > astrazon red FBL > cibacron blue FN-R > cibacron red FN-3G > remazol red RR. Different types of malformations occurred in the embryos, depending on concentration and dye. From these results, we can suggest that astrazon blue is the most toxic compound, but that the others are also highly toxic and teratogenic substances for X. laevis embryos. Results of the study confirmed that the FETAX assay can be useful in an integrated biological hazard assesment for the preliminary screening of textile dye stuff.

  19. Potential protective effect of L-cysteine against the toxicity of acrylamide and furan in exposed Xenopus laevis embryos: an interaction study.

    PubMed

    Williams, John Russell; Rayburn, James R; Cline, George R; Sauterer, Roger; Friedman, Mendel

    2014-08-01

    The embryo toxicities of two food-processing-induced toxic compounds, acrylamide and furan, with and without added L-cysteine were examined individually and in mixtures using the frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus (FETAX). The following measures of developmental toxicity were used: (a) 96 h LC50, the median concentration causing 50% embryo lethality; (b) 96 h EC50, the median concentration causing 50% malformations of the surviving embryos; and (c) teratogenic index (96 h LC50/96 h EC50), an estimate of teratogenic risk. Calculations of toxic units (TU) were used to assess possible antagonism, synergism, or response addition of several mixtures. The evaluated compounds demonstrated counterintuitive effects. Furan had lower than expected toxicity in Xenopus embryos and, unlike acrylamide, does not seem to be teratogenic. However, the short duration of the tests may not show the full effects of furan if it is truly primarily genotoxic and carcinogenic. L-Cysteine showed unexpected properties in the delay of hatching of the embryos. The results from the interaction studies between combination of two or three components (acrylamide plus L-cysteine; furan plus L-cysteine; acrylamide plus furan; acrylamide plus furan and L-cysteine) show that furan and acrylamide seem to have less than response addition at 1:1 toxic unit ratio in lethality. Acrylamide and L-cysteine show severe antagonism even at low 19 acrylamide/1 L-cysteine TU ratios. Data from the mixture of acrylamide, furan, and L-cysteine show a slight antagonism, less than would have been expected from binary mixture exposures. Bioalkylation mechanisms and their prevention are discussed. There is a need to study the toxicological properties of mixtures of acrylamide and furan concurrently formed in heat-processed food.

  20. Myths & Facts about Value-Added Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    TNTP, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents myths as well as facts about value-added analysis. These myths include: (1) "Value-added isn't fair to teachers who work in high-need schools, where students tend to lag far behind academically"; (2) "Value-added scores are too volatile from year-to-year to be trusted"; (3) "There's no research behind value-added"; (4) "Using…

  1. Professional Values: Key to Professional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weis, Darlene; Schank, Mary Jane

    2002-01-01

    Affective domain learning, including values formation, is an important part of humanistic nursing education. The American Nurses Association code of ethics articulates professional values. For full embodiment of these values to occur, educators and the profession must work together. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  2. The Advancement Value Chain: An Exploratory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Edward F., III

    2005-01-01

    Since the introduction of the value chain concept in 1985, several varying, yet virtually similar, value chains have been developed for the business enterprise. Shifting to higher education, can a value chain be found that links together the various activities of advancement so that an institution's leaders can actually look at the philanthropic…

  3. 7 CFR 1230.14 - Market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Market value. 1230.14 Section 1230.14 Agriculture... CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.14 Market value. Market value means, with respect to porcine animals which are sold, the price at which they...

  4. Value from Hedonic Experience and Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, E. Tory

    2006-01-01

    Recognizing that value involves experiencing pleasure or pain is critical to understanding the psychology of value. But hedonic experience is not enough. I propose that it is also necessary to recognize that strength of engagement can contribute to experienced value through its contribution to the experience of motivational force--an experience of…

  5. The Poet as Creator of Social Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Sonia

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the development of social values and the birth of the poet; the first poets and the crystallization of poetic symbols, including Black and White symbols; India as a civilization conquered by poetry; African and African-American poetic resistance to imperialist social values; African combat poetry; and the Black value-setting in the…

  6. Toward a Social Theory of Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weigel, Elizabeth

    1975-01-01

    A new social theory of value must be developed because of the possibility of a world-wide emergency in the face of growing famine and pollution and an accompanying decline of moral values. This theory must have the life of all humanity and the life of our own culture as its ultimate values. (Author/RK)

  7. Healthcare Practitioners' Personal and Professional Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyo, Mpatisi; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity A.; Weller, Jennifer; Robb, Gillian; Shulruf, Boaz

    2016-01-01

    Personal and professional values of healthcare practitioners influence their clinical decisions. Understanding these values for individuals and across healthcare professions can help improve patient-centred decision-making by individual practitioners and interprofessional teams, respectively. We aimed to identify these values and integrate them…

  8. Teaching Values through Youth and Adolescent Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2008-01-01

    For decades, sport in the United States has been praised for reflecting the values of society and instilling these values in athletes. Some parents believe that values such as cooperation, fair play, learning how to win and lose, self-discipline, and teamwork are instilled in young people through participation in sports. Many coaches of youth and…

  9. Work Values of Mortuary Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Thomas; Duys, David K.

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a descriptive study in an area significantly lacking validation. The focus of the study was the work values held by mortuary science students from 3 educational programs in the Midwest. The Values Scale (D. Nevill & D. Super, 1989) was used to measure the career-related values of a sample group of 116. According to…

  10. Museums, the Public, and Public Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Though adopting a Public Value orientation to guide museum planning and positioning has advantages, its implementation, particularly with regard to the role of the public, is complex. Here, the terrain of Public Value is emergent, fluid and contested. This paper examines various views of the role of the public in Public Value including that of…

  11. Assessing Children's Values: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doring, Anna K.

    2010-01-01

    Currently, much attention is devoted to children's values and their development in an educational context. Recent research revealed that children hold a solid concept of their values and may provide accurate and unique information by themselves. Schwartz's (1994) theory established a comprehensive framework of universal human values, and…

  12. Value-Free Therapy?: An Empirical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gram, Anita M.

    This paper reviews the literature dealing with therapist neutrality or value-free treatment processes, and proposes that therapist values do play a major role in therapy. Supposed therapist neutrality in psychoanalyses, behavior therapy, and client-centered therapy is explored. The role of therapist values in client selection is discussed, and the…

  13. 25 CFR 700.99 - Salvage value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Salvage value. 700.99 Section 700.99 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.99 Salvage value. Salvage value means the probable sale price of...

  14. 25 CFR 700.99 - Salvage value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Salvage value. 700.99 Section 700.99 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.99 Salvage value. Salvage value means the probable sale price of...

  15. 25 CFR 700.99 - Salvage value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Salvage value. 700.99 Section 700.99 Indians THE OFFICE OF NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION OPERATIONS AND RELOCATION PROCEDURES General Policies and Instructions Definitions § 700.99 Salvage value. Salvage value means the probable sale price of...

  16. Religious Education Forum: Legitimizing Your Value List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, Alfred

    1979-01-01

    Addressing the problem that educators have in compiling a legitimate list of values to teach, the author examines the Bible as a source of value legitimacy and details the values expressed in the Hebrew and Christian covenants, the Ten Commandments, and the six beatitudes. (SJL)

  17. 40 CFR 35.2114 - Value engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Value engineering. 35.2114 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2114 Value engineering. (a) If the project has not received Step 2 grant assistance the applicant shall conduct value...

  18. 40 CFR 35.2114 - Value engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Value engineering. 35.2114 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2114 Value engineering. (a) If the project has not received Step 2 grant assistance the applicant shall conduct value...

  19. Value of Information Evaluation using Field Data

    SciTech Connect

    Trainor-Guitton, W.

    2015-06-15

    Value of information (VOI) provides the ability to identify and prioritize useful information gathering for a geothermal prospect, either hydrothermal or for enhanced geothermal systems. Useful information provides a value greater than the cost of the information; wasteful information costs more than the expected value of the information. In this project we applied and refined VOI methodologies on selected geothermal prospects.

  20. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated.

  1. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs... (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines that information as to computed value is necessary in the appraisement of any class or kind of merchandise,...

  2. Values Education in Nordic Preschools: A Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The six papers in this special issue focus on how values and values education are embedded in the everyday life at Nordic preschools. The studies in this special issue provide stimulating theoretical and methodological knowledge to inform further study of values education internationally. A key contribution of the papers is that there is…

  3. The Value of a Housewife's Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Carmel U.

    1982-01-01

    Estimating the value of a homemaker's time requires an estimate of the market value of the goods and services produced. This means estimating the marginal value of output as a function of hours worked. For purposes of economic analysis, homemakers should be considered self-employed persons producing for their own consumption. (SK)

  4. Human Resource Development and Organizational Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hassan, Arif

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Organizations create mission statements and emphasize core values. Inculcating those values depends on the way employees are treated and nurtured. Therefore, there seems to be a strong relationship between human resource development (HRD) practices and organizational values. The paper aims to empirically examine this relationship.…

  5. Evidence of Construct Validity for Work Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of work values in the process of career adjustment (Dawis, 2002), little empirical research has focused on articulating the domains represented within the construct of work values and the examination of evidence of validity for the construct has been limited. Furthermore, the larger number of work values measures has made it…

  6. The Dental Values Scale: development and validation.

    PubMed

    Langille, Angela D; Catano, Victor M; Boran, Thomas L; Cunningham, Donald P

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to produce a valid scale for use in measuring the values of dental students and practitioners--the lack of which has impeded research on professionalism in dentistry. Following standard scale development procedures, we had focus groups of dental practitioners (N=23) develop a ninety-nine-item pool of value terms related to dentistry. Next, Canadian dentists (N=449) rated the relevance of each item through an online survey. They also rated the values in a generic values measure, Schwartz's Values Scale. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses identified twenty-five items representing five values: Altruism, Personal Satisfaction, Conscientiousness, Quality of Life, and Professional Status. These values correlate with related dimensions from Schwartz's measure; they also correspond to the values in the American Dental Education Association's statement on professionalism. We then administered the new Dental Values Scale to dental students (N=96) to determine the relationship between practitioner and student values. First-year students were higher in Conscientiousness, Altruism, and Personal Satisfaction than practitioners, but these values decreased over time to those held by the dentists. We discuss the implication of these results and the potential value of the new scale for dental education. PMID:21123496

  7. The Adolescent Personality, Formal Reasoning, and Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darmody, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Examined relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from Rokeach Value Survey. Findings from 448 secondary school students revealed that subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on…

  8. Value Orientation - A Strategy for Removing Barriers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Allen Chuck; Brave Eagle, Dorothy

    Designed for use in curriculum development, this value orientation packet addresses the cultural value orientations of American Indians (specifically, the Lakota on the Pine Ridge reservation in South Dakota) and those of mainstream society in an effort to help individuals understand that values differ from culture to culture. Specifically, this…

  9. 40 CFR 35.2114 - Value engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Value engineering. 35.2114 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2114 Value engineering. (a) If the project has not received Step 2 grant assistance the applicant shall conduct value...

  10. 40 CFR 35.2114 - Value engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Value engineering. 35.2114 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2114 Value engineering. (a) If the project has not received Step 2 grant assistance the applicant shall conduct value...

  11. 40 CFR 35.2114 - Value engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Value engineering. 35.2114 Section 35... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Grants for Construction of Treatment Works § 35.2114 Value engineering. (a) If the project has not received Step 2 grant assistance the applicant shall conduct value...

  12. Professors as Value Agents: A Typology of Management Academics' Value Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosmayer, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    The paper addresses the paradox of value-free science and the need for value-oriented management education. Taking the values discussion in the German management community as an example, we identify two stereotypes in management literature: an allegedly value-free scientist who limits responsibility to economic aims and a value-laden academic who…

  13. An Examination of Personal Values and Value Systems of Chinese and U.S. Business Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacomino, Don E.; Li, Xin; Michael D. Akers,

    2013-01-01

    Using the Rokeach Value Survey and the Musser and Orke typology this paper examines the personal values and value systems of business students in China and compares the results with the results of a recent study that used similar methodology to examine the values and value systems of U.S. students. The study also examines the differences in values…

  14. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed... ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. (a) Introduction....

  15. 19 CFR 351.405 - Calculation of normal value based on constructed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calculation of normal value based on constructed... ANTIDUMPING AND COUNTERVAILING DUTIES Calculation of Export Price, Constructed Export Price, Fair Value, and Normal Value § 351.405 Calculation of normal value based on constructed value. (a) Introduction....

  16. Environmental justice, values, and scientific expertise.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel; Whyte, Kyle Powys

    2012-06-01

    This essay compares two philosophical proposals concerning the relation between values and science, both of which reject the value-free ideal but nevertheless place restrictions on how values and science should interact. The first of these proposals relies on a distinction between the direct and indirect roles of values, while the second emphasizes instead a distinction between epistemic and nonepistemic values. We consider these two proposals in connection with a case study of disputed research on the topic of environmental justice and argue that the second proposal has several advantages over the first. PMID:23002582

  17. Extension of vector-valued integral polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carando, Daniel; Lassalle, Silvia

    2005-07-01

    We study the extendibility of integral vector-valued polynomials on Banach spaces. We prove that an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on E extends to an X-valued Pietsch-integral polynomial on any space F containing E, with the same integral norm. This is not the case for Grothendieck-integral polynomials: they do not always extend to X-valued Grothendieck-integral polynomials. However, they are extendible to X-valued polynomials. The Aron-Berner extension of an integral polynomial is also studied. A canonical integral representation is given for domains not containing l1.

  18. Environmental justice, values, and scientific expertise.

    PubMed

    Steel, Daniel; Whyte, Kyle Powys

    2012-06-01

    This essay compares two philosophical proposals concerning the relation between values and science, both of which reject the value-free ideal but nevertheless place restrictions on how values and science should interact. The first of these proposals relies on a distinction between the direct and indirect roles of values, while the second emphasizes instead a distinction between epistemic and nonepistemic values. We consider these two proposals in connection with a case study of disputed research on the topic of environmental justice and argue that the second proposal has several advantages over the first.

  19. Bringing values and deliberation to science communication

    PubMed Central

    Dietz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Decisions always involve both facts and values, whereas most science communication focuses only on facts. If science communication is intended to inform decisions, it must be competent with regard to both facts and values. Public participation inevitably involves both facts and values. Research on public participation suggests that linking scientific analysis to public deliberation in an iterative process can help decision making deal effectively with both facts and values. Thus, linked analysis and deliberation can be an effective tool for science communication. However, challenges remain in conducting such process at the national and global scales, in enhancing trust, and in reconciling diverse values. PMID:23940350

  20. Phytotoxicity studies with Lactuca sativa in soil and nutrient solution

    SciTech Connect

    Hulzebos, E.M.; Dirven-van Breemen, E.M.; Dis, W.A. van; Herbold, H.A.; Hoekstra, J.A.; Baerselman, R.; Gestel, C.A.M van ); Adema, D.M.M.; Henzen, L. )

    1993-06-01

    The toxicity of 76 priority pollutants to lettuce (Lactuca sativa) was determined in soil and in nutrient solution. In the first case a static and in the latter a semistatic exposure was established. Volatile and easily degradable compounds had high EC50 values in soil. In nutrient solution, however, several of these compounds were rather toxic. Quantitative structure activity relationships (QSARs) relating EC50 values to log K[sub ow] could be described for the toxicity in nutrient solution. Generally, the toxicity of the compounds increased with increasing lipophilicity. Deviations were caused by reactivity (N-containing compounds, double bonds in compounds), low lipophilicity, and EC50 values close to solubility. To relate toxicity in soil and nutrient solution, soil EC50 values were recalculated to values in the soil pore water using calculated adsorption coefficients. Estimated pore-water EC50 values showed a good correlation with values determined in nutrient solution but were not equal to these values. The differences can be attributed to differences in exposure.

  1. Values, standpoints, and scientific/intellectual movements.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Feminist standpoint empiricism contributes to the criticism of the value-free ideal by offering a unique analysis of how non-epistemic values can play not only a legitimate but also an epistemically productive role in science. While the inductive risk argument focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the acceptance of hypotheses, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the production of evidence. And while many other analyses of values in science focus on the role of non-epistemic values either in an individual scientist's decision making or in the distribution of research efforts in scientific communities, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the building of scientific/intellectual movements. PMID:27083080

  2. Values, standpoints, and scientific/intellectual movements.

    PubMed

    Rolin, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Feminist standpoint empiricism contributes to the criticism of the value-free ideal by offering a unique analysis of how non-epistemic values can play not only a legitimate but also an epistemically productive role in science. While the inductive risk argument focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the acceptance of hypotheses, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the production of evidence. And while many other analyses of values in science focus on the role of non-epistemic values either in an individual scientist's decision making or in the distribution of research efforts in scientific communities, standpoint empiricism focuses on the role of non-epistemic values in the building of scientific/intellectual movements.

  3. Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; White, Russell; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes. PMID:25434270

  4. Aquatic hazard assessment of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids.

    PubMed

    Swigert, James P; Lee, Carol; Wong, Diana C L; White, Russell; Scarlett, Alan G; West, Charles E; Rowland, Steven J

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents chemical composition and aquatic toxicity characteristics of a commercial sample of naphthenic acids (NAs). Naphthenic acids are derived from the refining of petroleum middle distillates and can contribute to refinery effluent toxicity. NAs are also present in oil sands process-affected water (OSPW), but differences in the NAs compositions from these sources precludes using a common aquatic toxicity dataset to represent the aquatic hazards of NAs from both origins. Our chemical characterization of a commercial sample of NAs showed it to contain in order of abundance, 1-ring>2-ring>acyclic>3-ring acids (∼84%). Also present were monoaromatic acids (7%) and non-acids (9%, polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocyclic compounds). While the acyclic acids were only the third most abundant group, the five most abundant individual compounds were identified as C(10-14) n-acids (n-decanoic acid to n-tetradecanoic acid). Aquatic toxicity testing of fish (Pimephales promelas), invertebrate (Daphnia magna), algae (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), and bacteria (Vibrio fischeri) showed P. promelas to be the most sensitive species with 96-h LL50=9.0 mg L(-1) (LC50=5.6 mg L(-1)). Acute EL50 values for the other species ranged 24-46 mg L(-1) (EC50 values ranged 20-30 mg L(-1)). Biomimetic extraction via solid-phase-microextraction (BE-SPME) suggested a nonpolar narcosis mode of toxic action for D. magna, P. subcapitata, and V. fischeri. The BE analysis under-predicted fish toxicity, which indicates that a specific mode of action, besides narcosis, may be a factor for fishes.

  5. Transfer modelling and toxicity evaluation of the effluent from an installation of cleansing and uranium recovery using a battery of bioassays.

    PubMed

    Gagnaire, Béatrice; Boyer, Patrick; Bonzom, Jean-Marc; Lecomte-Pradines, Catherine; Simon, Olivier; Gilbin, Rodolphe

    2011-01-01

    On July 7, 2008, a leak of effluent from an Installation of Cleansing and Uranium Recovery (Tricastin, France) led to the spillage of uranium in a stream. The acute toxicity of the effluent was evaluated, and compared to the toxicity of uranium nitrate in bioassays using several organisms: Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Daphnia magna, Chironomus riparius and Danio rerio. A sediment bioassay was also performed on C. riparius using water and sediment sampled along the river. Results showed that effluent EC(50) 72 h was 0.65 mg U/l for algae and LC(50) 48 h was 1.67 mg U/l for daphnia, while values obtained for uranium nitrate were higher. The LC(50) 96 h of effluent to C. riparius was 22.7 mg U/l, similar to value for uranium nitrate; the sediment collected was not toxic to C. riparius larvae. The LOEC of effluent and uranium nitrate on HT(50) of D. rerio were similar (0.03 mg U/l), but larvae were more sensitive to uranium nitrate than to effluent. Our results suggest that other substances contained in the effluent could potentially be toxic to wildlife in association with uranium. In parallel, the modelling of the transfers based on uranium measurements in the surface water was used to fill data gaps and assess the impact along the river. These results provided an estimate of exposure conditions that occurred along the river. This approach allowed us to see that the risk to ecosystem during this incident was certainly low and concerned a short period of time, but it could have existed at least for some species.

  6. Non-effect of water hardness on the accumulation and toxicity of copper in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum): how useful are hardness-modified copper guidelines for protecting freshwater biota?

    PubMed

    Markich, Scott J; King, Angus R; Wilson, Scott P

    2006-12-01

    Several nations have adopted hardness-modified copper (Cu) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. However, there is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Cu to freshwater biota, particularly macrophytes. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, added as Ca and Mg chloride in a 1:1 mole ratio) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (96 h growth (biomass and stem length) and photosynthetic pigment inhibition) of Cu in the free-floating submerged macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (16 mg CaCO(3)/l) and pH (7.0). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in the cell surface binding affinity, accumulation or toxicity of Cu in C. demersum with a 10-fold increase in water hardness from 35 to 335 mg CaCO(3)/l. The mean 96 h EC(50) values (and 95% confidence intervals) for biomass, the most sensitive endpoint, were 8.4 (7.6-9.2), 8.9 (8.0-9.8) and 9.9 (9.1-10.7) microg/l Cu for 35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, respectively. Speciation calculations indicated only very small (1-6%) differences in the percentage distribution (i.e. bioavailability) of Cu over the hardness range. These collective results indicate no apparent competition between Cu and Ca/Mg for binding sites on the cell surface. Given that the mechanism of Cu uptake (via Cu-specific and Na-linked transporters) is fundamentally different to that of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn (via Ca transporters), for which other hardness-dependent algorithms have been developed, it is doubtful whether a hardness-modified Cu guideline value will be sufficiently protective of sensitive freshwater biota, such as C. demersum, particularly in medium-hard fresh surface waters with low levels of dissolved organic carbon. The biotic ligand model offers a more flexible and mechanistic

  7. Non-effect of water hardness on the accumulation and toxicity of copper in a freshwater macrophyte (Ceratophyllum demersum): how useful are hardness-modified copper guidelines for protecting freshwater biota?

    PubMed

    Markich, Scott J; King, Angus R; Wilson, Scott P

    2006-12-01

    Several nations have adopted hardness-modified copper (Cu) guidelines for protecting freshwater biota. However, there is a lack of good quality data and mechanistic understanding on the effects of true water hardness (calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg)) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Cu to freshwater biota, particularly macrophytes. This study determined the effect of true water hardness (35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, added as Ca and Mg chloride in a 1:1 mole ratio) on the cell surface binding affinity (log K), accumulation and toxicity (96 h growth (biomass and stem length) and photosynthetic pigment inhibition) of Cu in the free-floating submerged macrophyte, Ceratophyllum demersum, in a synthetic freshwater with constant alkalinity (16 mg CaCO(3)/l) and pH (7.0). There were no significant (P>0.05) differences in the cell surface binding affinity, accumulation or toxicity of Cu in C. demersum with a 10-fold increase in water hardness from 35 to 335 mg CaCO(3)/l. The mean 96 h EC(50) values (and 95% confidence intervals) for biomass, the most sensitive endpoint, were 8.4 (7.6-9.2), 8.9 (8.0-9.8) and 9.9 (9.1-10.7) microg/l Cu for 35, 90 and 335 mg CaCO(3)/l, respectively. Speciation calculations indicated only very small (1-6%) differences in the percentage distribution (i.e. bioavailability) of Cu over the hardness range. These collective results indicate no apparent competition between Cu and Ca/Mg for binding sites on the cell surface. Given that the mechanism of Cu uptake (via Cu-specific and Na-linked transporters) is fundamentally different to that of Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn (via Ca transporters), for which other hardness-dependent algorithms have been developed, it is doubtful whether a hardness-modified Cu guideline value will be sufficiently protective of sensitive freshwater biota, such as C. demersum, particularly in medium-hard fresh surface waters with low levels of dissolved organic carbon. The biotic ligand model offers a more flexible and mechanistic

  8. Applying Causal Reasoning to Analyze Value Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macedo, Patrícia; Camarinha-Matos, Luis M.

    Collaborative networked organizations are composed of heterogeneous and autonomous entities. Thus it is natural that each member has its own set of values and preferences, as a result, conflicts among partners might emerge due to some values misalignment. Therefore, tools to support the analysis of Value Systems in a collaborative context are relevant to improve the network management. Since a Value System reflects the set of values and preferences of an actor, which are cognitive issues, a cognitive approach based on qualitative causal maps is suggested. Qualitative inference methods are presented in order to assess the potential for conflicts among network members and the positive impact between members' Value Systems. The software tool developed, in order to support the proposed framework and the qualitative inference methods, is briefly presented.

  9. The genetics of neuroticism and human values

    PubMed Central

    Lancaster, Thomas M.; Maio, Gregory R.; Linden, David E. J.

    2016-01-01

    Human values and personality have been shown to share genetic variance in twin studies. However, there is a lack of evidence about the genetic components of this association. This study examined the interplay between genes, values and personality in the case of neuroticism, because polygenic scores were available for this personality trait. First, we replicated prior evidence of a positive association between the polygenic neuroticism score (PNS) and neuroticism. Second, we found that the PNS was significantly associated with the whole human value space in a sinusoidal waveform that was consistent with Schwartz's circular model of human values. These results suggest that it is useful to consider human values in the analyses of genetic contributions to personality traits. They also pave the way for an investigation of the biological mechanisms contributing to human value orientations. PMID:26915771

  10. The adolescent personality, formal reasoning, and values.

    PubMed

    Darmody, J P

    1991-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between levels of Piagetian formal reasoning ability and values preferences derived from the Rokeach Value Survey. The subjects were 448 secondary school students (mean age = 16.25 years). The results of the study were consistent with predictions about the likely changes in value rankings as formal reasoning ability develops. Subjects with high scores on formal reasoning ranked terminal values representing abstract notions with long-term implications higher than those focusing on immediate gratification. They also favored the instrumental values of self-reliance, competence, and independence. Low scorers on formal reasoning showed a preference for value groupings which were personal, hedonistic, and involved immediate gratification and social approval. PMID:1962555

  11. The Values System in the Franchising Entrepreneurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantopoulos, Nikolaos; Tomaras, Petros; Zondiros, Dimitrios

    2007-12-01

    This paper examines the values system delimiting the entrepreneurial activity. The total of these entrepreneurial activities is defined within the franchising framework. The reason for choosing to examine these activities is that franchising is considered to be a rather special kind of entrepreneurship. By this way, it can be examined whether specific entrepreneurial values are required in order to turn to franchising, or it concerns a strategic entrepreneurial choice which is independent from the value standards.

  12. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  13. Relieving stress through value-rich work.

    PubMed

    Knoop, R

    1994-12-01

    On the basis of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959) motivator-hygiene theory, it was hypothesized that intrinsic but not extrinsic work values would be inversely related to stress. Also investigated was the question of which work values provide the most relief from stress. Elementary school teachers and administrators (N = 607) from nine school boards in southern Ontario completed a survey that included Pines, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) stress scale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale. Almost all of the 12 intrinsic work values investigated were negatively correlated with stress, but the 4 extrinsic work values studied were not consistently related to stress. Five work values explained 11% of the variance in physical stress, 9 work values explained 22% of the variance in emotional stress, and 6 work values explained 26% of the variance in mental stress. Four work values emerged as meaningful predictors of all three types of stress: being esteemed by others, achieving through work, doing meaningful work, and being able to use one's knowledge and abilities.

  14. A novel complex valued cuckoo search algorithm.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongquan; Zheng, Hongqing

    2013-01-01

    To expand the information of nest individuals, the idea of complex-valued encoding is used in cuckoo search (PCS); the gene of individuals is denoted by plurality, so a diploid swarm is structured by a sequence plurality. The value of independent variables for objective function is determined by modules, and a sign of them is determined by angles. The position of nest is divided into two parts, namely, real part gene and imaginary gene. The updating relation of complex-valued swarm is presented. Six typical functions are tested. The results are compared with cuckoo search based on real-valued encoding; the usefulness of the proposed algorithm is verified.

  15. Population change and socio-cultural values.

    PubMed

    1982-06-01

    The developing countries of the world in general, and those of Asia and the Pacific in particular, recognize that unplanned population growth is a stumbling block to socioeconomic development. Discussion here focuses on population growth and social, economic, and institutional forces, which are referred to as sociocultural values. Generally, sociocultural values change sluggishly over time. The rate at which a country's sociocultural values change depends on several factors such as the stage of economic development and modernization and whether a country has an open or closed door policy. "The Value of Children Study: A Crossnational Study" by Fred Arnold et al. shows that there are positive and negative values attributed to children in the Asian countries. These are: positive general values--emotional benefits, economic benefits and security, self enrichment and development, identification with children, and family cohesiveness and continuity; negative general values--emotional costs, economic costs, restrictions on opportunity costs, physical demands, and family costs; large family values--sibling relationships, sex preferences, child survival; and small family values--maternal health and societal costs. Possibly the most formidable obstacle to the success of antinatalist population policies is that of religious values. It appears that the Muslim world is divided on the issue of fertility control. Conflicting views regarding fertility control is perhaps aggravated by the fact that there is no central international religious official hierarchy that issues out edicts. Despite the presence of a centralized religious hierarchy and a network of churches from the Vatican to the village levels among the Catholics, and a clearer elucidation of the Humanae Vitae, a liberal attitude to population regulation and family planning has emerged, largely because of the declining quality of life of the people resulting from unplanned births. Economic benefits of children include

  16. Relieving stress through value-rich work.

    PubMed

    Knoop, R

    1994-12-01

    On the basis of Herzberg, Mausner, and Snyderman's (1959) motivator-hygiene theory, it was hypothesized that intrinsic but not extrinsic work values would be inversely related to stress. Also investigated was the question of which work values provide the most relief from stress. Elementary school teachers and administrators (N = 607) from nine school boards in southern Ontario completed a survey that included Pines, Aronson, and Kafry's (1981) stress scale and Elizur's (1984) work values scale. Almost all of the 12 intrinsic work values investigated were negatively correlated with stress, but the 4 extrinsic work values studied were not consistently related to stress. Five work values explained 11% of the variance in physical stress, 9 work values explained 22% of the variance in emotional stress, and 6 work values explained 26% of the variance in mental stress. Four work values emerged as meaningful predictors of all three types of stress: being esteemed by others, achieving through work, doing meaningful work, and being able to use one's knowledge and abilities. PMID:7869707

  17. Adjusting benefits transfer values for inflation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiswerth, Mark E.; Douglass Shaw, W.

    This paper analyzes assumptions that are implicitly made in updating estimates of nominal values for environmental goods produced by previous valuation studies, especially adjustments made through use of the consumer price index (CPI). The paper illustrates that the underlying form of preferences for the selected values from a past study may have a significant influence on the updated environmental values. We show why care is necessary in updating past welfare or value estimates in the face of changes in the demand and supply for environmental amenities when using the CPI.

  18. Complex weak values in quantum measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Jozsa, Richard

    2007-10-15

    In the weak value formalism of Aharonov et al., the weak value A{sub w} of any observable A is generally a complex number. We derive a physical interpretation of its value in terms of the shift in the measurement pointer's mean position and mean momentum. In particular, we show that the mean position shift contains a term jointly proportional to the imaginary part of the weak value and the rate at which the pointer is spreading in space as it enters the measurement interaction.

  19. Values Education: Why the Teaching of Values in Schools Is Necessary, but Not Sufficient

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etherington, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a growing demand by educators, governments, and the community for the teaching of values in public schools has led to the implementation of values education. As acknowledged by the 2010 Living Skills Values Education Program, values education is an essential part of schooling. In the public school system, there have been attempts…

  20. An International Perspective on Value Learning in the Kindergarten--Exemplified by the Value Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnestad, Arve; Mørreaunet, Sissel; Onyango, Silas

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights value learning in kindergartens exemplified by the value of forgiveness. Values are basic ideas on human behaviour and they function as a compass that helps children to make choices and priorities in their lives, to choose between good or bad, right or wrong. Value learning is an important part of the educational work in a…

  1. Value Education through Distance Learning: Opinions of Students Who Already Completed Value Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deveci, Handan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in a society should be systematically trained on value education so that they can appreciate values such as love, respect, tolerance, and honesty. Employment of value training approaches within Anadolu University Open and Distance Learning System will make it possible to educate many people on values. The purpose of this research is to…

  2. The Relationship between Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Cultural Values and Their Perceptions of Scientists' Cultural Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buzzelli, Cary A.; Eastwood, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes research that compares preservice early childhood teachers' cultural values and the values they believe are held by scientists. Using the Schwartz Values Inventory (SVI) (Schwartz (1992) "Adv Exp Soc Psychol" 25:331-351) preservice early childhood teachers cultural values were assessed, followed by an assessment of the values…

  3. Building Evidence of Validity: The Relation between Work Values, Interests, Personality, and Personal Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leuty, Melanie E.; Hansen, Jo-Ida C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study used work values components (WVC) to examine the relationship between work values, vocational interests, personality, and personal values. Most intercorrelations between work values and other constructs were in the small effect range. Overall correlations between scale scores provided evidence of convergent and discriminant…

  4. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults.

  5. Attitudes toward older adults: A matter of cultural values or personal values?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Xing, Cai; Guan, Yanjun; Song, Xuan; Melloy, Robert; Wang, Fei; Jin, Xiaoyu

    2016-02-01

    The current research aimed to address the inconsistent findings regarding cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults by differentiating the effects of personal and cultural values. In Study 1, we used data from the sixth wave of the World Values Survey to examine attitudes toward older adults across cultures, and how different personal values (i.e., communal vs. agentic) and cultural values (i.e., individualism) predicted these attitudes. The results of hierarchical linear modeling analyses showed that after controlling for potential covariates, personal communal values positively correlated with positive attitudes toward older adults; however, cultural individualistic values did not. To further examine the causal effects of personal values (vs. cultural values), we conducted an experimental study and confirmed that priming personal values rather than cultural values had significant effects on ageism attitudes. The present studies help to reconcile conflicting results on cultural differences in attitudes toward older adults. PMID:26691301

  6. Comparison with IRI-PLUS and IRI-2012-TEC values of GPS-TEC values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atıcı, Ramazan; Saǧır, Selçuk

    2016-07-01

    This study presents a comparison with IRI-PLUS and IRI-2012 Total Electron Content (TEC) values of Total Electron Content (TEC) values obtained from Ankara station (39,7 N; 32,76 E) of Global Position System (GPS) of Turkey on equinox and solstice days of 2009 year. For all days, it is observed that GPS-TEC values are greater than IRI-2012-TEC values, while IRI-PLUS-TEC values are very close to GPS-TEC values. When GPS-TEC values for both equinoxes are compared, it is seen that TEC values on September equinox are greater than one on March equinox. However, it is observed that GPS-TEC values on June solstice are greater than one on December solstice. Also, the relationship between GPS-TEC values and geomagnetic indexes is investigated.

  7. Investigating Constituent Values and School Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ann; Glassman, Michael; Riegel, Lisa; Dawson, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Using a sociopolitical perspective to understand the alignment of community values and school policies, we conducted focus groups in three geographically close but economically varied neighborhood in one Midwest urban area. The article presents findings related to constituent values, social capital, and school policies, including charter school…

  8. Documenting Public Values for River Ecosystem Services

    EPA Science Inventory

    The value to society of environmental changes is difficult to assess, and thus challenging to include in environmental management decisions. This presentation will first provide an overview of how framing these values in an ecosystem services perspective can facilitate the proces...

  9. Toward Effective Advocacy for Humanistic Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspy, David N.; Aspy, Cheryl B.

    1998-01-01

    There is a vigorous, national values debate in America today because of the general sense that the nation's moral standards are in decline. Historically, humanistically oriented counselors such as Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers have contributed to the values discussions. This article provides a conceptual framework for humanistic counselors of…

  10. Jetfighter: An Experiential Value Chain Exercise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Norman T.; Gamble, Edward N.

    2010-01-01

    Value chain analysis is widely taught in business schools and applied by practitioners to improve business performance. Despite its ubiquity, many students struggle to understand and apply value chain concepts in practice. JetFighter uses a complex manufacturing process (making intricate paper planes) to provide students an opportunity to enhance…

  11. Order and Value: Transitioning to Integers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bofferding, Laura

    2014-01-01

    As students progress from working with whole numbers to working with integers, they must wrestle with the big ideas of number values and order. Using objects to show positive quantities is easy, but no physical negative quantities exist. Therefore, when talking about integers, the author refers to number values instead of number quantities. The…

  12. 25 CFR 700.99 - Salvage value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... components and scrap when there is no reasonable prospect of sale except on that basis. ... and Instructions Definitions § 700.99 Salvage value. Salvage value means the probable sale price of an item, if offered for sale on the condition that it will be removed from the property at the...

  13. Executive Values, Executive Functions, and the Humanities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pichler, Joseph A.

    The benefits of studying the humanities to the business executive are considered. The humanities can help develop both the values and functional skills that are necessary for executive success. Competence in value analysis helps future executives to understand the full implications of the economic system, especially when it is followed by the…

  14. Work Values and College Major Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balsamo, Michela; Lauriola, Marco; Saggino, Aristide

    2013-01-01

    Our study sought to clarify the nature of the known individual differences in work values associated with academic college major choice, specifically the question whether these precede or follow the choice of an academic major. To rule out environmental influences during academic study, group differences in five value orientations were evaluated…

  15. Universalism Values: Blueprint for Environmental Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II

    Empirical research has consistently shown human values to be significantly related to both attitudes and behaviors. This paper unites the value theories of several researchers into an explanation of environmental concern, and provides some preliminary data to support the model. Attitudes toward environmental choices should be determined by…

  16. Near-death experiences and personal values.

    PubMed

    Greyson, B

    1983-05-01

    Near-death experiences reportedly foster value transformations and decrease suicidal ideation. Eighty-nine survivors of near-death experiences judged values related to material and social success as less important than did 175 control subjects. Decathexis of personal failures may account for the reported suicide-inhibiting effect.

  17. Assigned value improves memory of proper names.

    PubMed

    Festini, Sara B; Hartley, Alan A; Tauber, Sarah K; Rhodes, Matthew G

    2013-01-01

    Names are more difficult to remember than other personal information such as occupations. The current research examined the influence of assigned point value on memory and metamemory judgements for names and occupations to determine whether incentive can improve recall of proper names. In Experiment 1 participants studied face-name and face-occupation pairs assigned 1 or 10 points, made judgements of learning, and were given a cued recall test. High-value names were recalled more often than low-value names. However, recall of occupations was not influenced by value. In Experiment 2 meaningless nonwords were used for both names and occupations. The name difficulty disappeared, and value influenced recall of both names and occupations. Thus value similarly influenced names and occupations when meaningfulness was held constant. In Experiment 3 participants were required to use overt rote rehearsal for all items. Value did not boost recall of high-value names, suggesting that differential processing could not be implemented to improve memory. Thus incentives may improve memory for proper names by motivating people to engage in selective rehearsal and effortful elaborative processing.

  18. Birth Planning Values and Decisions: Preliminary Findings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townes, Brenda D.; And Others

    The values and processes which underlie people's birth planning decisions were studied via decision theory. Sixty-three married couples including 23 with no children, 33 with one child, and 27 with two children were presented with a large set of personal values related to birth planning decisions. Individuals rated the importance or utility of…

  19. Valuing the Implementation of Financial Literacy Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Kimberlee; Durband, Dorothy Bagwell

    2008-01-01

    Placing a monetary value on education is a complex task. A more difficult task is to determine at what monetary level individuals will support educational improvements. The contingent valuation method was used to estimate the value of the implementation of financial literacy education in Texas public schools. A Web-based survey was administered to…

  20. Values in Sexuality Education: A Philosophical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giesbrecht, Norman

    1997-01-01

    Provides a brief historical review of sexual education and critiques the assumptions and implications of the current crisis instrumental model and the values-clarification approach. Argues for a meaningful ethic of sexuality and for a dialectic approach that allows existing values to be challenged while still affirming the integrity of the…

  1. Investigating Absolute Value: A Real World Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Margaret; Pagni, David

    2009-01-01

    Making connections between various representations is important in mathematics. In this article, the authors discuss the numeric, algebraic, and graphical representations of sums of absolute values of linear functions. The initial explanations are accessible to all students who have experience graphing and who understand that absolute value simply…

  2. Do Young Children Understand Relative Value Comparisons?

    PubMed Central

    Benenson, Joyce F.; Markovits, Henry; Whitmore, Bjorn; Van, Christophe; Margolius, Sara; Wrangham, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Many forms of judgments, such as those used in economic games or measures of social comparison, require understanding relative value, as well as the more complex ability to make comparisons between relative values. To examine whether young children can accurately compare relative values, we presented children 4 to 7 years with simple judgments of relative value in two scenarios. Children then were asked to compare the relative values in the two scenarios. Results show that even the youngest children downgraded evaluations of a reward when another has a larger amount, indicating the ability to make relative value judgments. When asked to compare relative values however, only the oldest children were able to make these comparisons consistently. We then extended this analysis to economic game performance. Specifically, previous results using economic games suggest that younger children are more generous than older ones. We replicate this result, and then show that a simple change in procedure, based on the initial study, is sufficient to change young children’s choices. Our results strongly suggest that conclusions regarding young children’s pro-social motives based on relative value comparisons should be viewed cautiously. PMID:25875949

  3. 32 CFR 644.45 - Rental value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Government of building space or unimproved land where the net rental value is not in excess of $3,600 per... property, provided that the net annual rental does not exceed $2,000. A sound rental value can ordinarily... importance that the present economic rental be supported by the rental market data. The “bonus value” is...

  4. Achieving Organisational Change through Values Alignment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branson, Christopher M.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to, first, establish the interdependency between the successful achievement of organisational change and the attainment of values alignment within an organisation's culture and then, second, to describe an effective means for attaining such values alignment. Design/methodology/approach: Literature from the…

  5. The Work Values of Japanese Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Empirical studies of Japanese work ethics have tended to focus on male workers while neglecting women. In addition, work values in both Japan and the United States appear to be changing. More information is needed on the work values of American and Japanese female workers. A study was conducted to explore the work ethics of Japanese women and to…

  6. Value Conflicts in Higher Education Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This article explores value conflicts that people experience when teaching in higher education, drawing on in-depth interviews with staff from a research-intensive UK university. The article considers the relationship between values and teaching, illustrating how conflicts can occur between individual and different levels of the higher education…

  7. Value Analysis: A Tool for Community Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Rita A.

    Adoption of a value analysis program is proposed to aid colleges in identifying and implementing educationally sound labor-saving devices and procedures, enabling them to meet more students' needs at less cost with no quality reduction and a minimum of staff resistance. Value analysis is defined as a method for studying how well a product does…

  8. Value-based management of design reuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carballo, Juan Antonio; Cohn, David L.; Belluomini, Wendy; Montoye, Robert K.

    2003-06-01

    Effective design reuse in electronic products has the potential to provide very large cost savings, substantial time-to-market reduction, and extra sources of revenue. Unfortunately, critical reuse opportunities are often missed because, although they provide clear value to the corporation, they may not benefit the business performance of an internal organization. It is therefore crucial to provide tools to help reuse partners participate in a reuse transaction when the transaction provides value to the corporation as a whole. Value-based Reuse Management (VRM) addresses this challenge by (a) ensuring that all parties can quickly assess the business performance impact of a reuse opportunity, and (b) encouraging high-value reuse opportunities by supplying value-based rewards to potential parties. In this paper we introduce the Value-Based Reuse Management approach and we describe key results on electronic designs that demonstrate its advantages. Our results indicate that Value-Based Reuse Management has the potential to significantly increase the success probability of high-value electronic design reuse.

  9. 12 CFR 703.11 - Valuing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Valuing securities. 703.11 Section 703.11 Banks... DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.11 Valuing securities. (a) Before purchasing or selling a security, a Federal credit union must obtain either price quotations on the security from at least two broker-dealers or...

  10. Values and Philosophizing about Music Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Estelle R.

    2014-01-01

    In this essay, a quintet of values in doing philosophy of music education are examined: the need for a broad view, a personal perspective, a constructive vision, a relevant plan, and the courage to speak about important issues in music education. The following questions frame the analysis of each, in turn: What do these values mean? What…

  11. 19 CFR 152.103 - Transaction value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... Same facts as Example 1 above except the U.S. importer furnishes to the foreign assembler a tooling... foreign assembler's plant for the tooling assist equal $100. The transaction value for the assembled unit would be $1.50 per unit plus a pro rata share of the tooling assist valued at $1,100. (4) Rebate....

  12. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES EMERGENCY WETLANDS RESERVE PROGRAM § 623.8 Easement value. NRCS offers...

  13. Global Values in Education and Character Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cafo, Zuhal; Somuncuo, Demet

    This document discusses a survey conducted to determine what students and teachers considered as moral values. The belief that character education should be used to promote and form a common language among people prompted the research. In addition, the question of what moral values education should be was considered. A model of moral and values…

  14. News Values and the Vividness of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennamer, J. David

    Most journalism textbooks begin with lists of what have been called "news values." These are criteria to be used to judge the newsworthiness of issues, events, and persons. The list of news values that most journalists have memorized can be replaced with a single concept--vividness. Vividness is a characteristic of the information produced by…

  15. The Value of Research in Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perkins, Gay Helen; Slowik, Amy J. W.

    2013-01-01

    In the summer of 2010, two researchers interviewed twenty-three library administrators of comparable academic libraries at American universities for their views of the value of research in academic libraries. The interview questions focused on the administrators' perceived value of academic librarians' research, incentives given to academic…

  16. Continuities, Discontinuities, Interactions: Values, Education, and Neuroethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semetsky, Inna

    2009-01-01

    This article begins by revisiting the current model of values education (moral education) which has recently been set up in Australian schools. This article problematizes the pedagogical model of teaching values in the direct transmission mode from the perspective of the continuity of experience as central to the philosophies of John Dewey and…

  17. Nuclear Proliferation as a Global Values Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a classroom activity designed to involve students in critical thinking and values inquiry concerning the horizontal nuclear proliferation. Provides a set of global values, explaining the conflict between them and nuclear proliferation. Uses indicators, hypothesis development, and testing. Provides sources for material evidence to use in…

  18. Values as Predictors of Global Consciousness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayton, Daniel M., II; Lerandeau, Elizabeth A.

    This study assessed the relationships between human values and the psychological construct of world-mindedness. Fifty-one college students and 58 high school students in a town in the Pacific Northwest completed the Values Questionnaire (Schwartz, 1992, 94) and the Cross-cultural World-mindedness Questionnaire (Der-Karabetian, 1992). A stepwise…

  19. Cultural Values and Social Choice of Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Werner

    1981-01-01

    Explores the relationship between cultural values and technology through examination of both values and technology in specific social contexts. Illustrations are based on two case studies--the proliferation of eating and drinking places in the United States and introduction of the gas stove in Senegal. (DB)

  20. Variables of Which Values Are a Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigland, Sam

    2005-01-01

    The ordinary-language concept of values has a complex history in psychology and in science generally. The traditional fact-value distinction commonly found in traditional scientific perspectives has been challenged by the varieties of philosophical pragmatism, which have similarities to Skinner's radical behaviorism. Skinner's challenge to the…

  1. Values, Music and Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Wai-Chung; Law, Wing-Wah

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the complexity of the education of values in the People's Republic of China (PRC) since the beginning of the Cultural Revolution (1966-1976). It attempts to provide an insight into how the central state has managed the values of music education with respect to the dynamic changes to its political ideology across these four…

  2. 7 CFR 623.8 - Easement value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... land covered by the easements. Fair market value will be based on post-flood conditions as if reclaimed... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Easement value. 623.8 Section 623.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT...

  3. 42 CFR 21.45 - Rating values.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rating values. 21.45 Section 21.45 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL COMMISSIONED OFFICERS Appointment § 21.45 Rating values. The examination of every candidate for appointment to any grade in...

  4. Employee Perceptions and Value of Performance Appraisals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnell, Rhea

    2012-01-01

    Performance appraisals traditionally have been studied quantitatively, from the manager's point of view, without considering their value or lack of value to workers. The absence of this information indicates that workers' perceptions and feelings have not always been considered. Therefore, the purpose of this phenomenological study was…

  5. 19 CFR 141.88 - Computed value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Computed value. 141.88 Section 141.88 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) ENTRY OF MERCHANDISE Invoices § 141.88 Computed value. When the port director determines...

  6. Self-Concepts, Sex, and Work Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hales, Loyde W.; Yackee, Keith

    The relationship of self-concept and sex with work values was investigated. A two-factor, multivariate analysis of variance, with self-concept and sex as independent variables and work values as dependent variables, was performed on protocols collected from 99 rural elementary school pupils. No interaction was found. Both main effects were…

  7. Risk and value analysis of SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1986-01-01

    The risks, values, and costs of the SETI project are evaluated and compared with those of the Viking project. Examination of the scientific values, side benefits, and costs of the two projects reveal that both projects provide equal benefits at equal costs. The probability of scientific and technical success is analyzed.

  8. Values Perception and Future Educational Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Robert P.; Norris, Cynthia J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes an effort to incorporate personal values awareness into a university preparation program aimed at future school administrators. This model allows future leaders opportunities to identify the values governing their actions, clarify their philosophical leadership foundations, reflect on current educational practices, and determine…

  9. Baccalaureate Recipients: Developmental Patterns in Personal Values.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Gerald W.; Smart, John C.

    1987-01-01

    Demonstrated differences by sex in personal and career developmental values for graduates from five types of colleges. Made statistical adjustments for socio-economic and high school academic achievement. Indicated that although the changes were not greatly influenced by college type, there were major differences in the entering values of…

  10. Commonalities in Values among Mental Health Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consoli, Andres J.; Williams, Laurie M.

    1999-01-01

    Mental-health counselors (N=161) from Buenos Aires, Argentina, who ascribed to distinct theoretical orientations were surveyed with regard to their personal and mental-health values. This study provides further empirical input on what the values commonalities are even among counselors who profess distinct theoretical orientations and have a…

  11. Commonalities between Adolescents' Work Values and Interests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rottinghaus, Patrick J.; Zytowski, Donald G.

    2006-01-01

    The authors examined the chief work values, assessed by Super's Work Values Inventory--Revised (D. G. Zytowski, 2004b), across interest groups organized by the 6 Holland theme scales of the Kuder Career Search (D. G. Zytowski, 2004a). Results strengthen vocational theory through clarification of gender differences and conceptual commonalities…

  12. Values Gaps among Faculty and Administrators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Jeff; Desiderato, Laurie; Ley, Robert; Meisenheimer, Marilyn

    2003-01-01

    Describes a study that compares the institutional values and priorities of faculty and administrators at Bemidji State University (MN). Finds that both groups identify the same values as being representative of an excellent university, but that some differences emerge as a result of the individuals' roles within the organization. (Contains 14…

  13. Reconfiguring the Higher Education Value Chain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pathak, Virendra; Pathak, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    Forces of demand and supply are changing the dynamics of the higher education market. Transformation of institutions of higher learning into competitive enterprise is underway. Higher education institutions are seemingly under intense pressure to create value and focus their efforts and scarce funds on activities that drive up value for their…

  14. Valuing Diversity: Implementing Our Best Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Stephen R.; Imel, Zac E.

    2009-01-01

    Articles in this issue describe the genesis, development, and implementation of the Counseling Psychology Model Training Values Statement Addressing Diversity. This commentary extends the dialog on issues inherent to the Values Statement and the accompanying articles contained in this issue, with particular attention to the resolution of…

  15. 7 CFR 1230.14 - Market value.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PORK PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Pork Promotion, Research, and Consumer Information Order Definitions § 1230.14 Market value. Market value means, with respect to porcine animals which are sold, the price at which they...

  16. 12 CFR 703.11 - Valuing securities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Valuing securities. 703.11 Section 703.11 Banks... DEPOSIT ACTIVITIES § 703.11 Valuing securities. (a) Before purchasing or selling a security, a Federal credit union must obtain either price quotations on the security from at least two broker-dealers or...

  17. Nuclear waste disposal: potential property value impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hageman, R.K.

    1981-10-01

    Hedonic price theory was employed to show that although negative impacts on property values may occur due to perceived risks of locating proximate to nuclear facilities or waste transport routes, these impacts may be over-shadowed by offsetting effects. The possibility of property value impacts occurring in combination tends to confound results derived from statistical property value studies, and an effort was made in the analysis to collect data on potential property value impacts through interviews based on systematic group judgement. The approach succeeded in identifying instances where property value loss has been claimed, and in some cases the loss was attributed to the fear generated by proximity to potential nuclear hazards. The lack of evidence does not allow for conclusions. (JMT)

  18. Value: a framework for radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A; Steinberg, Michael L

    2014-09-10

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment.

  19. Value: A Framework for Radiation Oncology

    PubMed Central

    Teckie, Sewit; McCloskey, Susan A.; Steinberg, Michael L.

    2014-01-01

    In the current health care system, high costs without proportional improvements in quality or outcome have prompted widespread calls for change in how we deliver and pay for care. Value-based health care delivery models have been proposed. Multiple impediments exist to achieving value, including misaligned patient and provider incentives, information asymmetries, convoluted and opaque cost structures, and cultural attitudes toward cancer treatment. Radiation oncology as a specialty has recently become a focus of the value discussion. Escalating costs secondary to rapidly evolving technologies, safety breaches, and variable, nonstandardized structures and processes of delivering care have garnered attention. In response, we present a framework for the value discussion in radiation oncology and identify approaches for attaining value, including economic and structural models, process improvements, outcome measurement, and cost assessment. PMID:25113759

  20. Values and uncertainties in climate prediction, revisited.

    PubMed

    Parker, Wendy

    2014-06-01

    Philosophers continue to debate both the actual and the ideal roles of values in science. Recently, Eric Winsberg has offered a novel, model-based challenge to those who argue that the internal workings of science can and should be kept free from the influence of social values. He contends that model-based assignments of probability to hypotheses about future climate change are unavoidably influenced by social values. I raise two objections to Winsberg's argument, neither of which can wholly undermine its conclusion but each of which suggests that his argument exaggerates the influence of social values on estimates of uncertainty in climate prediction. I then show how a more traditional challenge to the value-free ideal seems tailor-made for the climate context. PMID:25051868